This paper reports in detail on a project of Integrated Health Care in cardiology at Nuremberg, Germany. Information on the structure of the contract, the participants, the agreed claiming of benefits and provision of services are provided as well as relevant figures and contact data.
Podein, Rian J; Hernke, Michael T
Unsustainable development around the world has contributed to ecological degradation and human suffering while compromising the ability of ecosystems and social institutions to support human life. The United States health care system and its institutions are significant contributors to unsustainable development, but leaders of change are emerging from the health care arena. Health professionals, including primary care providers, are poised to serve as models for sustainability and to facilitate the necessary transformation toward more sustainable practices. Health professionals must, within a practical framework, embrace an objective definition of sustainability and then act to achieve it.
Coddington, D C; Moore, K D; Fischer, E A
Cooperation among the traditionally adversarial factions of physicians and hospitals has arisen in the early 1990s to develop the integrated health care system. Authors Dean C. Coddington, Keith D. Moore and Elizabeth A. Fischer explain how these two groups have been joined in the integration by an unlikely participant: health plans.
Bauer, Amy M.; Collins, Laura; Dugdale, David C.
Abstract Depression is one of the more common diagnoses encountered in primary care, and primary care in turn provides the majority of care for patients with depression. Many approaches have been tried in efforts to improve the outcomes of depression management. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Washington (UW) Neighborhood Clinics and the UW Department of Psychiatry in implementing a collaborative care approach to integrating the management of anxiety and depression in the ambulatory primary care setting. This program was built on the chronic care model, which utilizes a team approach to caring for the patient. In addition to the patient and the primary care provider (PCP), the team included a medical social worker (MSW) as care manager and a psychiatrist as team consultant. The MSW would manage a registry of patients with depression at a clinic with several PCPs, contacting the patients on a regular basis to assess their status, and consulting with the psychiatrist on a weekly basis to discuss patients who were not achieving the goals of care. Any recommendation (eg, a change in medication dose or class) made by the psychiatrist was communicated to the PCP, who in turn would work with the patient on the new recommendation. This collaborative care approach resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients who achieved care plan goals. The authors believe this is an effective method for health systems to integrate mental health services into primary care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:81–87) PMID:26348355
Oral health is often not a priority during cancer treatment; however, patients with cancer are at increased risk for oral complications during and after treatment. This article focuses on the importance of oral health care before, during, and after cancer treatment using the head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach. AT A GLANCE: Oral health is linked to overall health, and healthcare providers must be cognizant of the oral-systemic connection with patients undergoing cancer treatment, which may cause acute and chronic oral health problems. Oral assessment, prevention, early recognition, and treatment of oral problems must be incorporated into cancer care, particularly with the aid of an interprofessional team to meet patients' oral care needs. The head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach integrates oral care into patients' history taking, physical examination, and plan of cancer care. .
Payne, Julianne; Razi, Sima; Emery, Kyle; Quattrone, Westleigh; Tardif-Douglin, Miriam
Health care organizations increasingly employ community health workers (CHWs) to help address growing provider shortages, improve patient outcomes, and increase access to culturally sensitive care among traditionally inaccessible or disenfranchised patient populations. Scholarly interest in CHWs has grown in recent decades, but researchers tend to focus on how CHWs affect patient outcomes rather than whether and how CHWs fit into the existing health care workforce. This paper focuses on the factors that facilitate and impede the integration of the CHWs into health care organizations, and strategies that organizations and their staff develop to overcome barriers to CHW integration. We use qualitative evaluation data from 13 awardees that received Health Care Innovation Awards from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to enhance the quality of health care, improve health outcomes, and reduce the cost of care using programs involving CHWs. We find that organizational capacity, support for CHWs, clarity about health care roles, and clinical workflow drive CHW integration. We conclude with practical recommendations for health care organizations interested in employing CHWs.
Taflinger, Kimberly; West, Elizabeth; Sunderhaus, Janis; Hilton, Irene V
Health centers are unique health care delivery organizations in which multiple disciplines, such as primary care, dental, behavioral health, pharmacy, podiatry, optometry and alternative medicine, are often located at the same site. Because of this characteristic, many health centers have developed systems of integrated care. This paper describes the characteristics of health centers and highlights the integrated health care delivery system of one early adopter health center, Health Partners of Western Ohio.
Coulter, Ian D.; Khorsan, Raheleh; Crawford, Cindy; Hsiao, An-Fu
This article is based on an extensive review of integrative medicine (IM) and integrative health care (IHC). Since there is no general agreement of what constitutes IM/IHC, several major problems were identified that make the review of work in this field problematic. In applying the systematic review methodology, we found that many of those captured articles that used the term integrative medicine were in actuality referring to adjunctive, complementary, or supplemental medicine. The objective of this study was to apply a sensitivity analysis to demonstrate how the results of a systematic review of IM and IHC will differ according to what inclusion criteria is used based on the definition of IM/IHC. By analyzing 4 different scenarios, the authors show that, due to unclear usage of these terms, results vary dramatically, exposing an inconsistent literature base for this field. PMID:23843689
Ell, Kathleen; Oh, Hyunsung; Wu, Shinyi
Objective: Safety net care systems are experiencing unprecedented change from the "Affordable Care Act," Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) uptake, health information technology application, and growing of mental health care integration within primary care. This article provides a review of previous and current efforts in which social…
Davis, Jeffrey R.
Dr. Davis' presentation includes a brief overview of space flight and the lessons learned for health care in microgravity. He will describe the development of policy for health care for international crews. He will conclude his remarks with a discussion of an integrated health care system.
Casey, M M
Minnesota's 1994 health care reform legislation authorized the establishment of community integrated service networks (CISNs) and health care provider cooperatives, which were envisioned as new health care delivery models that could be successfully implemented in rural areas of the state. Four CISNs are licensed, and three organizations are incorporated as health care provider cooperatives. Many of the policy issues Minnesota has faced regarding the development of CISNs and health care provider cooperatives in rural areas are similar to those raised by current Medicare reform proposals.
Laugesen, Miriam J; France, George
Integration in health care is a key goal of health reform in United States and England. Yet past efforts in the 1990s to better integrate the delivery system were of limited success. Building on work by Bevan and Janus on delivery integration, this article explores integration through the lens of economic theories of integration. Firms generally integrate to increase efficiency through economies of scale, to improve their market power, and resolve the transaction costs involved with multiple external suppliers. Using the United States and England as laboratories, we apply concepts of economic integration to understand why integration does or does not occur in health care, and whether expectations of integrating different kinds of providers (hospital, primary care) and health and social services are realistic. Current enthusiasm for a more integrated health care system expands the scope of integration to include social services in England, but retains the focus on health care in the United States. We find mixed applicability of economic theories of integration. Economies of scale have not played a significant role in stimulating integration in both countries. Managerial incentives for monopoly or oligopoly may be more compelling in the United States, since hospitals seek higher prices and more leverage over payers. In both countries the concept of transaction costs could explain the success of new payment and budgeting methods, since health care integration ultimately requires resolving transaction costs across different delivery organizations.
Hine, Jeffrey F; Grennan, Allison Q; Menousek, Kathryn M; Robertson, Gail; Valleley, Rachel J; Evans, Joseph H
As the benefits of integrated behavioral health care services are becoming more widely recognized, this study investigated physician satisfaction with ongoing integrated psychology services in pediatric primary care clinics. Data were collected across 5 urban and 6 rural clinics and demonstrated the specific factors that physicians view as assets to having efficient access to a pediatric behavioral health practitioner. Results indicated significant satisfaction related to quality and continuity of care and improved access to services. Such models of care may increase access to care and reduce other service barriers encountered by individuals and their families with behavioral health concerns (ie, those who otherwise would seek services through referrals to traditional tertiary care facilities).
Providing health care services to Native women has become a challenge owing to the severity of illness--in particular, diabetes, alcoholism, and arthritis--in this group today. If comprehensive health care is to be offered, coordination of services between health and mental health practitioners is needed. Gathering together to support each other has been a traditional custom for Native women. An integrated health care model is discussed that offers Native women an opportunity to deal with the challenge of mental health and health issues through traditional activities, enhancing their physical and spiritual health and receiving education while creating an atmosphere of empowerment and mutual support.
Ratzliff, Anna; Phillips, Kathryn E.; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Unützer, Jürgen; Wagner, Edward H.
Behavioral health problems are common, yet most patients do not receive effective treatment in primary care settings. Despite availability of effective models for integrating behavioral health care in primary care settings, uptake has been slow. The Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide provides practical guidance for adapting and implementing effective integrated behavioral health care into patient-centered medical homes. The authors gathered input from stakeholders involved in behavioral health integration efforts: safety net providers, subject matter experts in primary care and behavioral health, a behavioral health patient and peer specialist, and state and national policy makers. Stakeholder input informed development of the Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide and the GROW Pathway Planning Worksheet. The Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide is model neutral and allows organizations to take meaningful steps toward providing integrated care that achieves access and accountability. PMID:26698163
Joska, J A; Sorsdahl, K R
Mental disorders are highly prevalent across all health settings. Where they are co-morbid with other chronic physical disorders, a complex bidirectional relationship exists between them. While mental disorders may result in an increase in adverse healthrelated outcomes, they are amenable to cost-effective treatments. In resource-limited settings, many barriers to the detection and treatment of mental disorders exist. One approach to the effective targeting of the available resources is to utilize a "risk-flag" approach, wherein individuals at-risk of treatment failure are identified and routed into more intensive mental health screening and intervention. This paper discusses how lessons from HIV services may inform how to improve mental health care and integration in HIV settings, as well as in other chronic diseases.
Farrar, S.; Kates, N.; Crustolo, A. M.; Nikolaou, L.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether health care providers are satisfied with an integrated program of mental health care. DESIGN: Surveys using a mailed questionnaire. Surveys were developed for each of the three disciplines; each survey had 30 questions. SETTING: Thirty-six primary care practices in Hamilton, Ont, participating in the Hamilton-Wentworth Health Service Organization's Mental Health Program. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians, psychiatrists, and mental health counselors providing mental health care in primary care settings. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Satisfaction as shown on 5-point Likert scales. RESULTS: High levels of satisfaction with the model were recorded. Family physicians increased their skills, felt more comfortable with handling mental health problems, and were satisfied with the benefit to their patients. Psychiatrists and counselors were gratified that they were accepted by other members of the primary care team. Areas for improvement included finding space in primary care settings and better scheduling to allow for optimal communication. CONCLUSION: Family physicians, counselors, and psychiatrists expressed great satisfaction with a shared mental health care program based in primary care. PMID:11785279
Sudano, Laura E; Collins, Greg; Miles, Christopher M
Research suggests that National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student-athletes have higher levels of stress and other behavioral health issues, including substance use, than nonathletes. For several reasons, student-athletes may be less likely to admit to behavioral health issues and seek mental health care. Integrated care is a model of care that integrates behavioral health into a medical practice. This article explores the newly released NCAA Best Mental Health Practice guidelines and the application of integrated care to a Division I athletic training room setting using the three-worldview framework for successful integration, incorporating clinical outcomes, operational reliability, and financial stability. (PsycINFO Database Record
Patterson, Chris; Arthur, Heather M.
Over the last few years, there has been increased awareness and use of complementary/alternative therapies (CAM) in many countries without the health care infrastructure to support it. The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine referred to the combining of mainstream medical therapies and CAM as integrative medicine. The creation of integrative health care teams will definitely result in redefining roles, but more importantly in a change in how services are delivered. The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the necessary health care agency resources to support an integrative practice model. A logic model is used to depict the findings of a review of current evidence. Logic models are designed to show relationships between the goals of a program or initiative, the resources to achieve desired outputs and the activities that lead to outcomes. The four major resource categories necessary for implementing integrative care are within the domains of a) professional and research development, b) health human resource planning, c) regulation and legislation and d) practice and management in clinical areas. It was concluded that the system outcomes from activities within these resource categories should lead to freedom of choice in health care; a culturally sensitive health care system and a broader spectrum of services for achieving public health goals. PMID:21614155
Monroe, C Douglas; Chin, Karen Y
The specialty pharmaceuticals market is expanding more rapidly than the traditional pharmaceuticals market. Specialty pharmacy operations have evolved to deliver selected medications and associated clinical services. The growing role of specialty drugs requires new approaches to managing the use of these drugs. The focus, expectations, and emphasis in specialty drug management in an integrated health care delivery system such as Kaiser Permanente (KP) can vary as compared with more conventional health care systems. The KP Specialty Pharmacy (KP-SP) serves KP members across the United States. This descriptive account addresses the impetus for specialty drug management within KP, the use of tools such as an electronic health record (EHR) system and process management software, the KP-SP approach for specialty pharmacy services, and the emphasis on quality measurement of services provided. Kaiser Permanente's integrated system enables KP-SP pharmacists to coordinate the provision of specialty drugs while monitoring laboratory values, physician visits, and most other relevant elements of the patient's therapy. Process management software facilitates the counseling of patients, promotion of adherence, and interventions to resolve clinical, logistic, or pharmacy benefit issues. The integrated EHR affords KP-SP pharmacists advantages for care management that should become available to more health care systems with broadened adoption of EHRs. The KP-SP experience may help to establish models for clinical pharmacy services as health care systems and information systems become more integrated.
Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J
The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles
Scott, Victoria C; Kenworthy, Tara; Godly-Reynolds, Erin; Bastien, Gilberte; Scaccia, Jonathan; McMickens, Courtney; Rachel, Sharon; Cooper, Sayon; Wrenn, Glenda; Wandersman, Abraham
Integration of behavioral health and primary care services is a promising approach for reducing health disparities. The growing national emphasis on care coordination has mobilized efforts to integrate behavioral health and primary care services across the United States. These efforts align with broader health care system goals of improving health care quality, health equity, utilization efficiency, and patient outcomes. Drawing from our work on a multiyear integrated care initiative (Integrated Care Leadership Program; ICLP) and an implementation science heuristic for organizational readiness (Readiness = Motivation x General Capacity and Innovation-Specific Capacity; R = MC2), this article describes the development and implementation of a tool to assess organizational readiness for integrated care, referred to as the Readiness for Integrated Care Questionnaire (RICQ). The tool was piloted with 11 health care practices that serve vulnerable, underprivileged populations. Initial results from the RICQ revealed that participating practices were generally high in motivation, innovation-specific capacities, and general capacities at the start of ICLP. Additionally, analyses indicated that practices particularly needed support with increasing staff capacities (general knowledge and skills), improving access to and use of resources, and simplifying the steps in integrating care so the effort appears less daunting and difficult to health care team members. We discuss insights from the initial use of RICQ and practical implications of the new tool for driving integrated care efforts that can contribute to health equity. (PsycINFO Database Record
Background Finland has since 1972 had a primary health care system based on health centres run and funded by the local public authorities called ‘municipalities’. On the world map of primary health care systems, the Finnish solution claims to be the most health centre oriented and also the widest, both in terms of the numbers of staff and also of different professions employed. Offering integrated care through multi-professional health centres has been overshadowed by exceptional difficulties in guaranteeing a reasonable access to the population at times when they need primary medical or dental services. Solutions to the problems of access have been found, but they do not seem durable. Description of policy practice During the past 10 years, the health centres have become a ground of active development structural change, for which no end is in sight. Broader issues of municipal and public administration structures are being solved through rearranging primary health services. In these rearrangements, integration with specialist services and with social services together with mergers of health centres and municipalities are occurring at an accelerated pace. This leads into fundamental questions of the benefits of integration, especially if extensive integration leads into the threat of the loss of identity for primary health care. Discussion This article ends with some lessons to be learned from the situation in Finland for other countries. PMID:19590612
Plescia, M; Koontz, S; Laurent, S
OBJECTIVES: In this report, the authors present a representative case of the implementation of community assessment and the subsequent application of findings by a large, vertically integrated health care system. METHODS: Geographic information systems technology was used to access and analyze secondary data for a geographically defined community. Primary data included a community survey and asset maps. RESULTS: In this case presentation, information has been collected on demographics, prevalent health problems, access to health care, citizens' perceptions, and community assets. The assessment has been used to plan services for a new health center and to engage community members in health promotion interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Geographically focused assessments help target specific community needs and promote community participation. This project provides a practical application for integrating aspects of medicine and public health. PMID:11344895
Goddard, Maria; Weatherly, Helen; Chalkley, Martin
Objectives Integrated funds for health and social care are one possible way of improving care for people with complex care requirements. If integrated funds facilitate coordinated care, this could support improvements in patient experience, and health and social care outcomes, reduce avoidable hospital admissions and delayed discharges, and so reduce costs. In this article, we examine whether this potential has been realized in practice. Methods We propose a framework based on agency theory for understanding the role that integrated funding can play in promoting coordinated care, and review the evidence to see whether the expected effects are realized in practice. We searched eight electronic databases and relevant websites, and checked reference lists of reviews and empirical studies. We extracted data on the types of funding integration used by schemes, their benefits and costs (including unintended effects), and the barriers to implementation. We interpreted our findings with reference to our framework. Results The review included 38 schemes from eight countries. Most of the randomized evidence came from Australia, with nonrandomized comparative evidence available from Australia, Canada, England, Sweden and the US. None of the comparative evidence isolated the effect of integrated funding; instead, studies assessed the effects of ‘integrated financing plus integrated care’ (i.e. ‘integration’) relative to usual care. Most schemes (24/38) assessed health outcomes, of which over half found no significant impact on health. The impact of integration on secondary care costs or use was assessed in 34 schemes. In 11 schemes, integration had no significant effect on secondary care costs or utilisation. Only three schemes reported significantly lower secondary care use compared with usual care. In the remaining 19 schemes, the evidence was mixed or unclear. Some schemes achieved short-term reductions in delayed discharges, but there was anecdotal evidence of
McNall, Anne; Thompson, Juliana; Hodgson, Philip; Shaw, Lynne; Cowie, Daniel
Abstract Background The increasingly complex nature of care home residents’ health status means that this population requires significant multidisciplinary team input from health services. To address this, a multisector and multiprofessional enhanced healthcare programme was implemented in nursing homes across Gateshead Council in Northern England. Study Aims To explore the views and experiences of practitioners, social care officers, and carers involved in the enhanced health care in care home programme, in order to develop understanding of the service delivery model and associated workforce needs for the provision of health care to older residents. Methods A qualitative constructivist methodology was adopted. The study had two stages. Stage 1 explored the experiences of the programme enhanced healthcare workforce through group, dyad, and individual interviews with 45 participants. Stage 2 involved two workshops with 28 participants to develop Stage 1 findings (data were collected during February–March 2016). Thematic and content analysis were applied. Findings The enhanced healthcare programme provides a whole system approach to the delivery of proactive and responsive care for nursing home residents. The service model enables information exchange across organizational and professional boundaries that support effective decision making and problem solving. Clinical Relevance Understanding of the processes and outcomes of a model of integrated health care between public and independent sector care home services for older people. PMID:28094909
Tucker, Cary; Sloan, Sarah K.; Vance, Mary; Brownson, Chris
This case study describes 1 international student's treatment experience with an integrated health program on a college campus. This program uses a multidisciplinary, mind-body approach, which incorporates individual counseling, primary care, psychiatric consultation, a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy class, and a meditation group.
Fortinsky, R H
Physicians are usually the first contact in the health care system for persons with dementia and their family caregivers. This paper provides a synopsis of research findings and knowledge gaps regarding interactions among these participants in the health care triad--primary care physicians, family caregivers, and persons with dementia. Research traditions that inform knowledge about health care triads and dementia care include: older patient-physician relationships; the stress-coping social-support health model that dominates family caregiver research; the social learning-self-efficacy model; and literature on the quality of medical care. An integrative framework is presented to illustrate how the quality of interaction in dementia care encounters may be influenced by specific characteristics of members of the health care triad. Domains of dementia care interaction include symptom diagnosis, symptom management, medication management, support service linkage, and emotional support. The integrative framework also links the quality of interaction in these domains with health-related outcomes relevant to each of the health care triad members. Most empirical research in this area has found that family caregivers are dissatisfied with many aspects of physicians' dementia care, but measurement techniques vary widely and little is known about how the quality of physician care is associated with health-related outcomes. Physician surveys have shown that they are least certain about the quality of support service linkage advice they provide. Virtually no research has examined how the person with dementia experiences medical care encounters with physicians and their family members. Much remains to be learned about the longitudinal experience of each member of the health care triad, and how the quality of dementia care encounters changes over the course of the disease process. In this era of rapidly expanding educational and support service interventions for persons with
Freeman, Jan Sweet
Integrated primary care in a patient-centered medical home is the best way to invite patients to engage in better self-care, to move from provider-based care to team-based care, and to address whole-person needs. However, primary care-whether rural or urban, public or private-cannot become the default mental health system for North Carolinians with severe mental illness.
Disease Management is a transsectoral, population-based form of health care, which addresses groups of patients with particular clinical entities and risk factors. It refers both to an evidence-based knowledge base and corresponding guidelines, evaluates outcome as a continuous quality improvement process and usually includes active participation of patients. In Germany, the implementation of disease management is associated with financial transactions for risk adjustment between health care assurances [para. 137 f, Book V of Social Code (SGB V)] and represents the second kind of transsectoral care, besides a program designed as integrated health care according to para. 140 a ff f of Book V of Social Code. While in the USA and other countries disease management programs are made available by several institutions involved in health care, in Germany these programs are offered by health care insurers. Assessment of disease management from the hospital perspective will have to consider three questions: How large is the risk to compensate inadequate quality in outpatient care? Are there synergies in internal organisational development? Can the risk of inadequate funding of the global "integrated" budget be tolerated? Transsectoral quality assurance by valid performance indicators and implementation of a quality improvement process are essential. Internal organisational changes can be supported, particularly in the case of DRG introduction. The economic risk and financial output depends on the kind of disease being focussed by the disease management program. In assessing the underlying scientific evidence of their cost effectiveness, societal costs will have to be precisely differentiated from hospital-associated costs.
Conger, Cynthia O'Neill; Baldwin, Joan H.; Abegglen, JoAnn; Callister, Lynn C.
Brigham Young University's nursing curriculum was revised to reflect the community-driven nature of primary health care. Curricular threads of inquiry, practice, stewardship, spirituality, and service are the framework for integrating community health nursing practice. (SK)
Carlin, Caroline S; Dowd, Bryan; Feldman, Roger
Objectives To fill an empirical gap in the literature by examining changes in quality of care measures occurring when multispecialty clinic systems were acquired by hospital-owned, vertically integrated health care delivery systems in the Twin Cities area. Data Sources/Study Setting Administrative data for health plan enrollees attributed to treatment and control clinic systems, merged with U.S. Census data. Study Design We compared changes in quality measures for health plan enrollees in the acquired clinics to enrollees in nine control groups using a differences-in-differences model. Our dataset spans 2 years prior to and 4 years after the acquisitions. We estimated probit models with errors clustered within enrollees. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were assembled by the health plan’s informatics team. Principal Findings Vertical integration is associated with increased rates of colorectal and cervical cancer screening and more appropriate emergency department use. The probability of ambulatory care–sensitive admissions increased when the acquisition caused disruption in admitting patterns. Conclusions Moving a clinic system into a vertically integrated delivery system resulted in limited increases in quality of care indicators. Caution is warranted when the acquisition causes disruption in referral patterns. PMID:25529312
Dohan, Daniel; Garrett, Sarah B; Rendle, Katharine A; Halley, Meghan; Abramson, Corey
When making health care decisions, patients and consumers use data but also gather stories from family and friends. When advising patients, clinicians consult the medical evidence but also use professional judgment. These stories and judgments, as well as other forms of narrative, shape decision making but remain poorly understood. Furthermore, qualitative research methods to examine narrative are rarely included in health science research. We illustrate how narratives shape decision making and explain why it is difficult but necessary to integrate qualitative research on narrative into the health sciences. We draw on social-scientific insights on rigorous qualitative research and our ongoing studies of decision making by patients with cancer, and we describe new tools and approaches that link qualitative research findings with the predominantly quantitative health science scholarship. Finally, we highlight the benefits of more fully integrating qualitative research and narrative analysis into the medical evidence base and into evidence-based medical practice.
Rico, Florentino; Yalcin, Ali; Eikman, Edward A
This study assesses the impact of an automated infusion system (AIS) integration at a positron emission tomography (PET) center based on "lean thinking" principles. The authors propose a systematic measurement system that evaluates improvement in terms of the "8 wastes." This adaptation to the health care context consisted of performance measurement before and after integration of AIS in terms of time, utilization of resources, amount of materials wasted/saved, system variability, distances traveled, and worker strain. The authors' observations indicate that AIS stands to be very effective in a busy PET department, such as the one in Moffitt Cancer Center, owing to its accuracy, pace, and reliability, especially after the necessary adjustments are made to reduce or eliminate the source of errors. This integration must be accompanied by a process reengineering exercise to realize the full potential of AIS in reducing waste and improving patient care and worker satisfaction.
Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Adeniyi, Abiola
The limited access to oral health care in developing countries can be greatly improved by integrating oral health into the Primary Health Care (PHC) system. This study was designed to assess the views of PHC workers on integrating oral health care into the PHC system. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two selected local government areas of Lagos State. The instrument contained three sections assessing sociodemographic features, knowledge of common oral diseases and views on integration of oral health into PHC respectively. The mean knowledge score was 7.75 (SD=±1.81), while 60.4% of the respondents had average knowledge scores. Educational status (P=0.018) and designation (P=0.033) were significantly related to the mean knowledge scores. There was no significant difference in the oral health knowledge of the various cadres (P=0.393). Majority (85.4%) of the respondents were willing to include oral health education in their job schedule and 82% believed they needed more training on oral health. The knowledge of the respondents on the causes of the common oral diseases was deficient. Oral health education should be included in the future curriculum of these personnel. PMID:28299117
Park, Grace; Miller, Diane; Tien, George; Sheppard, Irene; Bernard, Michael
Background A major effort is underway to integrate primary and community care in Canada's western province of British Columbia and in Fraser Health, its largest health authority. Integrated care is a critical component of Fraser Health's planning, to meet the challenges of caring for a growing, elderly population that is presenting more complex and chronic medical conditions. Description of integrated practice An integrated care model partners family physicians with community-based home health case managers to support frail elderly patients who live at home. It is resulting in faster response times to patient needs, more informed assessments of a patient's state of health and pro-active identification of emerging patient issues. Early results The model is intended to improve the quality of patient care and maintain the patients’ health status, to help them live at home confidently and safely, as long as possible. Preliminary pilot data measuring changes in home care services is showing positive trends when it comes to extending the length of a person's survival/tenure in the community (living in their home vs. admitted to residential care or deceased). Conclusion Fraser Health's case manager–general practitioner partnership model is showing promising results including higher quality, appropriate, coordinated and efficient care; improved patient, caregiver and physician interactions with the system; improved health and prevention of acute care visits by senior adult patients. PMID:24648834
Okafor, Martha; Wrenn, Glenda; Ede, Victor; Wilson, Nana; Custer, William; Risby, Emile; Claeys, Michael; Shelp, Frank E; Atallah, Hany; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David
The goal of this study was to better integrate emergency medical and psychiatric care at a large urban public hospital, identify impact on quality improvement metrics, and reduce healthcare cost. A psychiatric fast track service was implemented as a quality improvement initiative. Data on disposition from the emergency department from January 2011 to May 2012 for patients impacted by the pilot were analyzed. 4329 patients from January 2011 to August 2011 (pre-intervention) were compared with 4867 patients from September 2011 to May 2012 (intervention). There was a trend of decline on overall quality metrics of time to triage and time from disposition to discharge. The trend analysis of the psychiatric length of stay and use of restraints showed significant reductions. Integrated emergency care models are evidence-based approach to ensuring that patients with mental health needs receive proper and efficient treatment. Results suggest that this may also improve overall emergency department's throughput.
Cerully, Jennifer L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Wong, Eunice C.; Seelam, Rachana; Roth, Elizabeth; Yu, Jennifer
Abstract Describes the methods and results of a RAND evaluation of the Integrated Behavioral Health Project's efforts to promote the integration of mental and physical health care among various health care stakeholders in California. PMID:28083420
Chang, E-shien; Simon, Melissa; Dong, XinQi
As US populations become increasing diverse, healthcare professionals are facing a heightened challenge to provide cross-cultural care. To date, medical education around the world has developed specific curricula on cultural competence training in acknowledgement of the importance of culturally sensitive and grounded services. This article proposes to move forward by integrating the concept of cultural humility into current trainings, in which we believe, is vital in complementing the current model, and better prepare future professionals to address health challenges with culturally appropriate care. Based on the works of Chinese philosophers, cultural values and the contemporary Chinese immigrants' experience, we hereby present the QIAN (Humbleness) curriculum: the importance of self-Questioning and critique, bi-directional cultural Immersion, mutually Active-listening, and the flexibility of Negotiation. The principles of the QIAN curriculum reside not only between the patient and the healthcare professional dyad, but also elicit the necessary support of family, health care system as well as the community at large. The QIAN curriculum could improve practice and enhance the exploration, comprehension and appreciation of the cultural orientations between healthcare professionals and patients which ultimately could improve patient satisfaction, patient-healthcare professional relationship, medical adherence and the reduction of health disparities. QIAN model is highly adaptable to other cultural and ethnic groups in multicultural societies around the globe. Incorporating its framework into the current medical education may enhance cross-cultural clinical encounters.
This paper comprises criteria for projects of Integrated Health Care in cardiology. With these criteria, projects can be assessed for their congruence with essentials that have been assigned by the German Cardiac Society, the Association of German Hospital Cardiologists and the Association of German Practice Cardiologists. The main purpose is to ensure that evidence-based medicine is the basis for the contracts and that all valid guidelines have been observed when services have been agreed. Possibly this paper may be the basis to award an approval to projects that meet all the criteria. This paper is no model contract.
Sturm, Lynne A.; Perry, Deborah F.
This article describes innovative service delivery models and clinical strategies that support the social-emotional development of young children and their families in the pediatric primary care setting. By understanding the trends affecting well-child care, early childhood providers will be better equipped to partner with their pediatric…
Booth, Mark; Hill, Graham; Moore, Michael J; Dalla, Danielle; Moore, Michael G; Messenger, Anne
On 1 July 2015, the Australian Government established 31 new Primary Health Networks (PHNs), following a review by its former Chief Medical Officer, John Horvath, of 61 Medicare Locals created under the previous Labor administration. The Horvath review recommended, among other things, that new, larger primary health organisations be established to reduce fragmentation of care by integrating and coordinating health services, supporting the role of general practice, and leveraging and administering health program funding. The two main objectives of the new PHNs, as stated on the Department of Health's website, are "increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services for patients, particularly those at risk of poor health outcomes, and improving coordination of care to ensure patients receive the right care in the right place at the right time". Below are three viewpoints, commissioned for this primary health care themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice, from the Australian Government Department of Health, the Public Health Association of Australia and a Sydney-based PHN. We asked the authors to focus particularly on how the newly established networks might help to integrate public health within the primary health care landscape. Our authors have pointed out the huge overlap between public health and primary care and looked at evidence showing the great benefits for health systems of collaboration between the two. Challenges ahead include a possible government focus on delivery of 'frontline' medical services, which may come at the expense of population health, and the complexity of dealing with all primary health care stakeholders, including health professionals, Local Health Districts, nongovernment organisations, research institutions and local communities.
This article presents the findings from a study trip to Kaiser Permanente (KP), a private healthcare provider in the USA. The aim of the trip was to understand how healthcare integration is managed in KP and how this might help patients in the UK with motor neurone disease (MND). This article makes reference to the American and British healthcare systems, identifying the simple differences between health economies, and their impact on health care, with specific reference to MND. The trip was undertaken as part of the author's ongoing work on how patients with MND rate services delivered by the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the UK. The author's community matron role involves caring for patients with long-term conditions (LTCs) including long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs). In executing this role and in service delivery to patients with LTNCs, specifically MND, the author noticed a lack of robust integration, highlighting the need to consider and address the various contributory factors. This article presents a literature review and analyses the role of the MDT including specialist neurological professionals in executing duties and in delivering healthcare services to patients diagnosed with MND. The implications for practice are also presented along with areas for practice development.
Agrawal, Shantanu; Tarzy, Bruce; Hunt, Lauren; Taitsman, Julie; Budetti, Peter
Program integrity (PI) spans the entire spectrum of improper payments from fraud to abuse, errors, and waste in the health care system. Few physicians will perpetrate fraud or abuse during their careers, but nearly all will contribute to the remaining spectrum of improper payments, making preventive education in this area vital. Despite the enormous impact that PI issues have on government-sponsored and private insurance programs, physicians receive little formal education in this area. Physicians' lack of awareness of PI issues not only makes them more likely to submit inappropriate claims, generate orders that other providers and suppliers will use to submit inappropriate claims, and document improperly in the medical record but also more likely to become victims of fraud schemes themselves.In this article, the authors provide an overview of the current state of PI issues in general, and fraud in particular, as well as a description of the state of formal education for practicing physicians, residents, and fellows. Building on the lessons from pilot programs conducted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and partner organizations, the authors then propose a model PI education curriculum to be implemented nationwide for physicians at all levels. They recommend that various stakeholder organizations take part in the development and implementation process to ensure that all perspectives are included. Educating physicians is an essential step in establishing a broader culture of compliance and improved integrity in the health care system, extending beyond Medicare and Medicaid.
Participation in mental health care poses many challenges for mental health service users and service providers. Consideration of these issues for improving the integration of service user participation in mental health care can help to inform integrated care within health care systems, broadly. This paper argues for practicing greater empathy and teaching it, stigma reduction, changing what we measure, valuing the intrinsic aspects of care more, employing more people with lived experience within mental health services, raising the visibility of service users as leaders and our teachers within services and redefining integrated care from the service user perspective.
Schaper, Elizabeth; Padwa, Howard; Urada, Darren; Shoptaw, Steven
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expands health insurance coverage for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, underscoring the value of improving SUD service integration in primarily physical health care settings. It is not yet known to what degree specialized privacy regulations-Code of Federal Regulations Title 42, Part 2 (42 CFR Part 2), in particular-will affect access to or the utilization and delivery of SUD treatment in primary care. In addition to exploring the emerging benefits and barriers that specialized confidentiality regulations pose to treatment in early adopting integrated health care settings, this article introduces and explicates 42 CFR Part 2 to support provider and administrator implementation of SUD privacy regulations in integrated settings. The authors also argue that, although intended to protect patients with SUD, special SUD information protection may inadvertently reinforce stigma against patients by purporting the belief that SUD is different from other health problems and must be kept private. In turn, this stigma may inhibit the delivery of comprehensive integrated care.
Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S
Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care.
Monson, Samantha Pelican; Sheldon, J Christopher; Ivey, Laurie C; Kinman, Carissa R; Beacham, Abbie O
The need, benefit, and desirability of behavioral health integration in primary care is generally accepted and has acquired widespread positive regard. However, in many health care settings the economics, business aspects, and financial sustainability of practice in integrated care settings remains an unsolved puzzle. Organizational administrators may be reluctant to expand behavioral health services without evidence that such programs offer clear financial benefits and financial sustainability. The tendency among mental health professionals is to consider positive clinical outcomes (e.g., reduced depression) as being globally valued indicators of program success. Although such outcomes may be highly valued by primary care providers and patients, administrative decision makers may require demonstration of more tangible financial outcomes. These differing views require program developers and evaluators to consider multiple outcome domains including clinical/psychological symptom reduction, potential cost benefit, and cost offset. The authors describe a process by which a pilot demonstration project is being implemented to demonstrate programmatic outcomes with a focus on the following: 1) clinician efficiency, 2) improved health outcomes, and 3) direct revenue generation associated with the inclusion of integrated primary care in a public health care system. The authors subsequently offer specific future directions and commentary regarding financial evaluation in each of these domains.
Polanco, Nuria Toro; Zabalegui, Iñaki Berraondo; Irazusta, Itziar Pérez; Solinís, Roberto Nuño; Del Río Cámara, Mario
Introduction This paper analyses the implementation of integrated care policies in the Basque Country through the deployment of an Integrated Health Organisation in Bidasoa area during the period 2011–2014. Structural, functional and clinical integration policies have been employed with the aim to deliver integrated and person-centred care for patients, especially for those living with chronic conditions. Methods This organisational case study used multiple data sources and methods in a pragmatic and reflexive manner to build a picture of the organisational development over a 4-year period. In order to measure the progress of integration three concepts have been measured: (i) readiness for chronicity measured with Assessment of Readiness for Chronicity in Healthcare Organisations tool; (ii) collaboration between clinicians from different care levels measured with the D'Amour Questionnaire, and (iii) overall impact of integration through several indicators based on the Triple Aim Framework. Results The measurement of organisational readiness for chronicity showed improvements in five of the six areas under evaluation. Similarly the collaboration between professionals of different care levels showed a steady improvement in each of the 10 items. Furthermore, the Triple Aim-based indicators showed a better experience of care in terms of patients’ perceptions of care coordination; a reduction in hospital utilisation, particularly for patients with complex chronic conditions; and cost-containment in terms of per capita expenditure. Conclusion There is a significant amount of data that shows that Bidasoa Integrated Health Organisation has progressed in terms of delivering integrated care for chronic conditions with a positive impact on several Triple Aim outcomes. PMID:26150764
Hospitals throughout the country are increasingly sharing health services, jointly purchasing supplies, and merging. The Veterans Administration (VA)-Department of Defense (DoD) Health Resources Sharing Law of 1982 (PL 97-174) has encouraged much closer relationships between hospitals of these agencies than had existed previously. All VA hospitals within 50 miles of a military treatment facility now have multiservice agreements. Before passage of the law, only a handful of facilities were involved in limited sharing. Closer relationships have led to expanded care for federal beneficiaries at considerable cost savings. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, for example, the VA Medical Center houses the VA and Air Force hospital operations, obviating the need for a separate freestanding hospital. The lack of VA authority to receive reimbursement from the Civilian Health and Medical Program for the Uniformed Services and a lack of a reimbursement incentive for military hospitals to share are identified as factors preventing greater coordination. Even greater local integration of services is likely to occur in the future.
Davitt, Joan K; Gellis, Zvi D
Despite high rates of mental illness, very few homebound older adults receive treatment. Comorbid mental illness exacerbates physical health conditions, reduces treatment adherence, and increases dependency and medical costs. Although effective treatments exist, many home health agencies lack capacity to effectively detect and treat mental illness. This article critically analyzes barriers within the Medicare home health benefit that impede access to mental health treatment. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are made to integrate mental health parity in home health care. In particular, creative use of medical social work can improve detection and treatment of mental illness for homebound older adults.
Veras, Renato Peixoto; Caldas, Célia Pereira; da Motta, Luciana Branco; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Siqueira, Ricardo Carreño; Rodrigues, Renata Teixeira da Silva Vendas; Santos, Luciana Maria Alves Martins; Guerra, Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti
A detailed review was conducted of the literature on models evaluating the effectiveness of integrated and coordinated care networks for the older population. The search made use of the following bibliographic databases: Pubmed, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO. Twelve articles on five different models were included for discussion. Analysis of the literature showed that the services provided were based on primary care, including services within the home. Service users relied on the integration of primary and hospital care, day centers and in-home and social services. Care plans and case management were key elements in care continuity. This approach was shown to be effective in the studies, reducing the need for hospital care, which resulted in savings for the system. There was reduced prevalence of functional loss and improved satisfaction and quality of life on the part of service users and their families. The analysis reinforced the need for change in the approach to health care for older adults and the integration and coordination of services is an efficient way of initiating this change. PMID:24897058
Veras, Renato Peixoto; Caldas, Célia Pereira; Motta, Luciana Branco da; Lima, Kenio Costa de; Siqueira, Ricardo Carreño; Rodrigues, Renata Teixeira da Silva Vendas; Santos, Luciana Maria Alves Martins; Guerra, Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti
A detailed review was conducted of the literature on models evaluating the effectiveness of integrated and coordinated care networks for the older population. The search made use of the following bibliographic databases: Pubmed, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO. Twelve articles on five different models were included for discussion. Analysis of the literature showed that the services provided were based on primary care, including services within the home. Service users relied on the integration of primary and hospital care, day centers and in-home and social services. Care plans and case management were key elements in care continuity. This approach was shown to be effective in the studies, reducing the need for hospital care, which resulted in savings for the system. There was reduced prevalence of functional loss and improved satisfaction and quality of life on the part of service users and their families. The analysis reinforced the need for change in the approach to health care for older adults and the integration and coordination of services is an efficient way of initiating this change.
Kolko, David J; Perrin, Ellen
Because the integration of mental or behavioral health services in pediatric primary care is a national priority, a description and evaluation of the interventions applied in the healthcare setting is warranted. This article examines several intervention research studies based on alternative models for delivering behavioral health care in conjunction with comprehensive pediatric care. This review describes the diverse methods applied to different clinical problems, such as brief mental health skills, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices, and the empirical outcomes of this research literature. Next, several key treatment considerations are discussed to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these interventions. Some practical suggestions for overcoming key service barriers are provided to enhance the capacity of the practice to deliver behavioral health care. There is moderate empirical support for the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of these interventions for treating internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Practical strategies to extend this work and address methodological limitations are provided that draw upon recent frameworks designed to simplify the treatment enterprise (e.g., common elements). Pediatric primary care has become an important venue for providing mental health services to children and adolescents due, in part, to its many desirable features (e.g., no stigma, local setting, familiar providers). Further adaptation of existing delivery models may promote the delivery of effective integrated interventions with primary care providers as partners designed to address mental health problems in pediatric healthcare.
Kolko, David J.; Perrin, Ellen C.
Objective Because the integration of mental or behavioral health services in pediatric primary care is a national priority, a description and evaluation of the interventions applied in the healthcare setting is warranted. This paper examines several intervention research studies based on alternative models for delivering behavioral health care in conjunction with comprehensive pediatric care. Method This review describes the diverse methods applied to different clinical problems, such as brief mental health skills, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices (EBP), and the empirical outcomes of this research literature. Next, several key treatment considerations are discussed to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these interventions. Some practical suggestions for overcoming key service barriers are provided to enhance the capacity of the practice to deliver behavioral health care. Results There is moderate empirical support for the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of these interventions for treating internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Practical strategies to extend this work and addressing methodological limitations are provided that draw upon recent frameworks designed to simplify the treatment enterprise (e.g., common elements). Discussion Pediatric primary care has become an important venue for providing mental health services to children and adolescents due, in part, to its many desirable features (e.g., no stigma, local setting, familiar providers). Further adaptation of existing delivery models may promote the delivery of effective integrated interventions with primary care providers as partners designed to address mental health problems in pediatric healthcare. PMID:24588366
Post, Edward P; Metzger, Maureen; Dumas, Patricia; Lehmann, Laurent
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been undertaking a major transformational program of integrating collaborative mental health resources into primary care settings. Key components of the program include colocated collaborative care provided by mental health professionals; care management; and blended programs that combine elements of these two components, whose functions are highly complementary to each other. The program has grown since 2007 from an initiative implementing pilot programs at participating facilities, to a routine expectation of primary care within all VHA medical centers and large community-based outpatient clinics. The national program office supports this VHA initiative in multiple ways, including technical assistance to sites, program and policy development, dissemination of informational tools to facilitate continuous quality improvement, education and training, and partnerships with other existing and emerging VHA programs such as postdeployment health clinics and the patient-centered medical home.
Geissler, Kimberley H; Leatherman, Sheila
The simultaneous burdens of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries. The poor are at particular risk, with lower access to health care and higher rates of avoidable mortality. Integrating health-related services with microfinance has been shown to improve health knowledge, behaviors, and access to appropriate health care. However, limited evidence is available on effects of fully integrating clinical health service delivery alongside microfinance services through large scale and sustained long-term programs. Using a conceptual model of health services access, we examine supply- and demand-side factors in a microfinance client population receiving integrated services. We conduct a case study using data from 2010 to 2012 of the design of a universal screening program and primary care services provided in conjunction with microfinance loans by Pro Mujer, a women's development organization in Latin America. The program operates in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. We analyze descriptive reports and administrative data for measures related to improving access to primary health services and management of chronic diseases. We find provision of preventive care is substantial, with an average of 13% of Pro Mujer clients being screened for cervical cancer each year, 21% receiving breast exams, 16% having a blood glucose measurement, 39% receiving a blood pressure measurement, and 46% having their body mass index calculated. This population, with more than half of those screened being overweight or obese and 9% of those screened having elevated glucose measures, has major risk factors for diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease without intervention. The components of the Pro Mujer health program address four dimensions of healthcare access: geographic accessibility, availability, affordability, and acceptability. Significant progress has been made to meet basic
The Health and Wellness Center (HWC), located in Joliet, Illinois, is a nurse-managed universally accessible primary health care center funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration. The goals of the HWC are to improve access to quality primary health care services for all patients, including those who are uninsured and underserved, and to develop and implement a model of nurse-managed primary health care that integrates both physical and mental health assessment and treatment. After 5 years of developing and using this model, it is clear that integration requires strategic supports from the financial, political, and professional sectors to be considered a cost-effective model of health care delivery. Recommendations for policy and practice change are offered based on the author's experiences of providing integrated health care at the HWC and the health care industry's responses to uninsured or underinsured patients' needs.
Greb, Stefan; Focke, Axel; Hessel, Franz; Wasem, Jürgen
As a result of recent health care reforms sickness funds and health care providers in German social health insurance face increased financial incentives for implementing disease management and integrated care. Sickness funds receive higher payments form the risk adjustment system if they set up certified disease management programmes and induce patients to enrol. If health care providers establish integrated care projects they are able to receive extra-budgetary funding. As a consequence, the number of certified disease management programmes and the number of integrated care contracts is increasing rapidly. However, contracts about disease management programmes between sickness funds and health care providers are highly standardized. The overall share of health care expenses spent on integrated care still is very low. Existing integrated care is mostly initiated by hospitals, is based on only one indication and is not fully integrated. However, opportunity to invest in integrated care may open up innovative processes, which generate considerable productivity gains. What is more, integrated care may serve as gateway for the introduction of more widespread selective contracting.
Patel, Vikram; Chatterji, Somnath
Mental disorders such as depression and alcohol use disorders often co-occur with other common noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Furthermore, noncommunicable diseases are frequently encountered in patients with severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia. The pathways underlying the comorbidity of mental disorders and noncommunicable diseases are complex. For example, mental and physical noncommunicable diseases may have common environmental risk factors such as unhealthy lifestyles, and treatments for one condition may have side effects that increase the risk of another condition. Building on the robust evidence base for effective treatments for a range of mental disorders, there is now a growing evidence base for how such treatments can be integrated into the care of people with noncommunicable diseases. The best-established delivery model is a team approach that features a nonspecialist case manager who coordinates care with primary care physicians and specialists. This approach maximizes efficiencies in person-centered care, which are essential for achieving universal health coverage for both noncommunicable diseases and mental disorders. A number of research gaps remain, but there is sufficient evidence for policy makers to immediately implement measures to integrate mental health and noncommunicable disease care in primary care platforms.
Montazeri, Ali; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand; Damari, Behzad
Background: Social issues have prominent effects on the peoples' physical and mental health and on the health risk factors. In Iran, many organizations provide social care services to their target population. This study aimed to explore the roles and functions of Primary Health Care (PHC) system in providing social care services in Iran. Methods: This was a qualitative study, for which data were collected via three sources: A review of the literature, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with experts and stakeholders. The main objective was to find a way to integrate social care into the Iranian PHC system. A conventional content analysis was performed to explore the data. Results: Overall, 20 experts were interviewed and the acquired data were classified into four major categories including priorities, implementation, requirements and stewardship. The main challenges were the existing controversies in the definition of social care, social service unit disintegration, multiple stewards for social care services, weaknesses of rules and regulations and low financing of the public budget. Social care services can be divided into two categories: Basic and advanced. Urban and rural health centers, as the first level of PHC, could potentially provide basic social care services for their defined population and catchment areas such as detecting social harms in high risk individuals and families and providing counseling for people in need. They can also refer the individuals to receive advanced services. Conclusion: Iran has a successful history of establishing the PHC System especially in rural areas. This network has an invaluable capacity to provide social health services. Establishing these services needs some prerequisites such as a reform PHC structure, macro support and technical intersectoral collaboration. They should also be piloted and evaluated before they could be implemented in the whole country. PMID:27683649
Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.
This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to
Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Rosenmoller, Magdalene
Background The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing) and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness). Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach) to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field. Methodology To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has been adopted with the
Poulymenopoulou, Mikaela; Papakonstantinou, Despoina; Malamateniou, Flora; Vassilacopoulos, George
The drive in using health and social care resources more effectively has resulted in undertaking various efforts towards better coordination in order to improve patient-centered and personalized care for the individuals. This requires horizontal integration in terms of processes among health and social care organizations existing information systems (ISs) and personal health records (PHRs) in order to enable integrated patient information sharing among all the health and social care staff and individuals involved. Service-oriented and business process management (BPM) technologies are considered most appropriate for achieving such integration especially when is required to change existing processes and to integrate diverse information systems. On these grounds, a patient-centered approach is proposed for redesigning health and social care processes and for integrating diverse ISs and PHRs with the objective to meet holistic care goals.
Durbin, Anna; Durbin, Janet; Hensel, Jennifer M; Deber, Raisa
Integrating care for physical health and behavioural health (mental health and addictions) has been a longstanding challenge, although research supports the clinical and cost effectiveness of integrated care for many clients. In one such model, primary care (PC) physicians work with specialist physicians and non-physician providers (NPPs) to provide mental health and addictions care in PC settings. This Ontario, Canada-focused policy analysis draws on research evidence to examine potential barriers and enablers to this model of integrated care, focusing on mental health. Funding challenges pertain to incentivizing PC physicians to select patients with mental illness, include NPPs on the treatment team, and collaborate with specialist providers. Legal/regulatory challenges pertain to NPP scopes of practice for prescribing and counselling. Integrated care also requires revising the role of the physician and distribution of functions among the team. Policy support to integrate addictions treatment in PC may face similar challenges but requires further exploration.
Petri, Richard P
Background: The field of integrative health and healing (IH2) is emerging out of the dark recesses of "voodoo" stereotypes and into the light as a new and much needed health care paradigm. It is a philosophy of health and healing that seeks to place patients as the preeminent players in health management, disease prevention, and injury recovery. There is an emphasis of patient responsibility, which includes a holistic approach that merges allopathic with complementary medicine. Objective: The aim of this article is to explore the historical origins of integrative medicine and investigate the future role of the IH2 paradigm. Methods: This article reviews current available data and information regarding complementary and alternative medicine utilized in civilian and military populations as the basis for a new paradigm for a system of care-a system that empowers patients. Conclusions: The current U.S. health care system is reactive and disease-based, with a focus on reductionism. This system is not serving us well. IH2 is a new model of cost-effective patient-centered health care.
Steinfeld, Bradley; Franklin, Allie; Mercer, Brian; Fraynt, Rebecca; Simon, Greg
Progress monitoring implementation in an integrated health care system is a complex process that must address factors such as measurement, technology, delivery system care processes, patient needs and provider requirements. This article will describe how one organization faced these challenges by identifying the key decision points (choice of measure, process for completing rating scale, interface with electronic medical record and clinician engagement) critical to implementation. Qualitative and quantitative data will be presented describing customer and stakeholder satisfaction with the mental health progress monitoring tool (MHPMT) as well as organizational performance with key measurement targets.
Kuipers, Pim; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Brownie, Sharon
This report highlights complexity in health care and the relevance of integrated and interprofessional care and learning. It is proposed that appropriate workforce training in response to complexity should be contextually relevant and workplace integrated, and should focus on building interprofessional capability for reflective practice and critical thinking. This training should be interprofessional and foster systems thinking. It is suggested that the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a useful integrating framework.
Jähn, Karl; Gärtig-Daugs, Anja; Nagel, Eckhard
The planned introduction of an electronic health card is seen as a milestone in the dissemination of extended electronic health records in Germany. This paper deals with the main issues likely to result from the use of the electronic health insurance card. The role of the patient in the health care process and the patients enhanced access to his or her personal medical record are reflected. A high level of acceptance of the electronic health insurance card and extended electronic documentation procedures can be expected if ethical, legal, and technological concerns of the public are addressed and appropriate incentives are established. Finally, the electronic health insurance card can serve as a useful aid to support the ongoing implementation of disease management programs for the most important chronic conditions in Germany.
Kilbourne, Amy M; Greenwald, Devra E; Bauer, Mark S; Charns, Martin P; Yano, Elizabeth M
Integrated care for medical conditions is essential for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). This qualitative study describes mental health provider perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators of integrated care for patients with SMI. We interviewed providers from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration facilities that scored in the top or bottom percentile in medical care quality. Providers from high-performing sites reported substantial in-person contacts with general medical providers, while providers from low-performing sites reported stigma and limited communication with medical providers as major concerns. Interventions to improve mental health and medical provider communication may facilitate integrated care for persons with SMI.
Abstract Background: The field of integrative health and healing (IH2) is emerging out of the dark recesses of “voodoo” stereotypes and into the light as a new and much needed health care paradigm. It is a philosophy of health and healing that seeks to place patients as the preeminent players in health management, disease prevention, and injury recovery. There is an emphasis of patient responsibility, which includes a holistic approach that merges allopathic with complementary medicine. Objective: The aim of this article is to explore the historical origins of integrative medicine and investigate the future role of the IH2 paradigm. Methods: This article reviews current available data and information regarding complementary and alternative medicine utilized in civilian and military populations as the basis for a new paradigm for a system of care—a system that empowers patients. Conclusions: The current U.S. health care system is reactive and disease-based, with a focus on reductionism. This system is not serving us well. IH2 is a new model of cost-effective patient-centered health care. PMID:26543516
Lopez, Molly; Coleman-Beattie, Brenda; Jahnke, Lauren; Sanchez, Katherine
There is a call across the country and in Texas to improve health care systems through integrated care. Integrated health care is the systematic coordination of physical and behavioral health services. The idea is that physical and behavioral health problems often occur at the same time and that integrating services will provide the best results…
Korpman, R A
In today's cost-constrained health care delivery environment, hospitals are recognizing the need to optimize their care operations to improve the efficiency, efficacy, and service quality of primary health care providers, particularly the medical staff and nursing services, which comprise about 50% of the hospital's total personnel. Because health care institutions are in the business of caring for patients (not for accounts or departments), and because health care delivery largely is a personnel-intensive information industry, operations optimization is supported best by information systems that fully integrate all information concerning the patient. The goal of this is to simplify the job duties of direct care providers. The benefits of an integrated, patient-centered approach include demonstrable improvements in over-all patient care quality and staff satisfaction as well as a significant reduction in costs.
Blobel, Bernd G M E; Pharow, Peter; Norgall, Thomas
For improving quality and efficiency of health delivery under the well-known burdens, the health service paradigm has to change from organization-centered over process-controlled to personal health. The growing complexity of highly distributed and fully integrated healthcare settings can only be managed through an advanced architectural approach, which has to include all dimensions of personal health. Here, ICT, medicine, biomedical engineering, bioinformatics and genomics, legal and administrative aspects, terminology and ontology have to be mentioned. The Generic Component Model allows for different domains' concept representation and aggregation. Framework, requirements, methodology and process design possibilities for such a future-proof and meanwhile practically demonstrated approach are discussed in detail. The deployment of the Generic Component Model and the concept representation to biomedical engineering aspects of eHealth are touched upon as essential issues.
Garets, D E
Healthcare providers are increasingly faced with the need to develop comprehensive, clinically-oriented, community-focused information systems in order to remain financially viable and meet the information demands of healthcare consumers. Some providers interface and integrate their disparate information systems on their own. Others form integrated delivery systems that take advantage of economies of scale from an enterprise approach to information technology management. Still others form health information networks that allow them to pool information technology resources while pursuing independent business goals.
Corrigan, Patrick W.; Pickett, Susan; Batia, Karen; Michaels, Patrick J.
People of color with serious mental illnesses experience high rates of morbidity and mortality. Patient navigators, developed for cancer care, may help this group benefit from integrated care. This review examined patient navigators’ key ingredients for cancer care for relevance to patients of color for application of peer services to psychiatric goals. Among cancer patients, navigators lead to greater treatment engagement and improved health outcomes for ethnic minority groups. Research also suggests peers can improve integrated care by providing effective psychiatric services to individuals with mental illness. Ongoing research examines peer navigators’ impact on integrated care for patients of color. PMID:25144699
Thai, Le; Saw, Anne
Health equity for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) requires collaborative partnerships between primary care and behavioral health organizations. This paper presents the experiences and perspectives of a nurse practitioner in a large-scale pilot program to integrate primary care and behavioral health between an FQHC and a community mental health center, both serving predominantly Asian immigrant populations. This paper discusses lessons learned through program implementation and provides insights on developing a truly integrated system involving equal and full cooperation across disciplines to provide quality and holistic care for patients with SMI. Implications for clinical practice and policy are discussed. PMID:26900384
Torrence, Nicole D; Mueller, Anne E; Ilem, Allison A; Renn, Brenna N; DeSantis, Brian; Segal, Daniel L
Integrated behavioral health increases service utilization and treatment success, particularly with high-risk populations. This study assessed medical personnel's attitudes and perceptions of behavioral health clinicians (BHCs) in primary care using a brief self-report measure. A 6-item survey was given to medical providers (n = 45) from a health care system that includes integrated behavioral health services. Survey items assessed providers' attitudes and perceptions about BHCs. Attitudes about behavioral health were largely favorable. For all items, 73.3% to 100% of participants endorsed strongly agree or agree. Chi-square analyses revealed that those who interacted more frequently with BHCs were more comfortable discussing behavioral health issues with their patients, χ²(6, n = 45) = 13.43, p < .05, and that physicians believe that BHCs help patients effectively address their behavioral health problems, χ²(2, n = 45) = 6.36, p < .05. Age, gender, and health center in which the providers worked were not significantly related to any survey items. Medical providers surveyed believe that BHCs are valuable members of integrated health care, improving their abilities to provide care and to address their patients' physical and behavioral health problems. Although these preliminary results are promising, the setting surveyed has well-integrated behavioral health care services and thus might not be representative of other settings without such integration. Future studies should address medical providers' opinions of BHCs in a variety of settings with larger samples.
Fluet, Norman R.; Reis, Michael D.; Stern, Charles H.; Thompson, Alexander W.; Jolly, Gillian A.
The integration of behavioral health services in primary care has been referred to in many ways, but ultimately refers to common structures and processes. Behavioral health is integrated into primary care because it increases the effectiveness and efficiency of providing care and reduces costs in the care of primary care patients. Reimbursement is one factor, if not the main factor, that determines the level of integration that can be achieved. The federal health reform agenda supports changes that will eventually permit behavioral health to be fully integrated and will allow the health of the population to be the primary target of intervention. In an effort to develop more integrated services at Baylor Scott and White Healthcare, models of integration are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each model are discussed. Recommendations to increase integration include adopting a disease management model with care management, planned guideline-based stepped care, follow-up, and treatment monitoring. Population-based interventions can be completed at the pace of the development of alternative reimbursement methods. The program should be based upon patient-centered medical home standards, and research is needed throughout the program development process. PMID:27034543
This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of an Integrated Medical Model (IMM) decision support tool for in-flight crew health care safety. Clinical methods, resources, and case scenarios are also addressed.
Daniel, C; Mora, B
The integrated project using parasite control and nutrition as entry points for family planning practice has shown considerable success in promoting health consciousness among health workers and project beneficiaries. This progress is evident in the Family Planning, Parasite Control and Nutrition (FAPPCAN) areas. The project has also mobilized technical and financial support from the local government as well as from private and civic organizations. The need for integration is underscored by the following considerations: parasite control has proved to be effective for preventive health care; the integrated project uses indigenous community health workers to accomplish its objectives; the primary health care (PHC) movement depends primarily on voluntary community participation and the integrated project has shown that it can elicit this participation. The major health problems in the Philippines are: a prevalence of communicable and other infectious diseases; poor evironmental sanitation; malnutrition; and a rapid population growth rate. The integrated program utilizes the existing village health workers in identifying problems related to family planning, parasite control and nutrition and integrates these activities into the health delivery system; educates family members on how to detect health and health-related problems; works out linkages with government agencies and the local primary health care committee in defining the scope of health-related problems; mobilizes community members to initiate their own projects; gets the commitment of village officials and committe members. The integrated project operates within the PHC. A health van with a built-in video playback system provides educational and logistical support to the village worker. The primary detection and treatment of health problems are part of the village health workers' responsibilities. Research determines the project's capability to reactivate the village primary health care committees and sustain
LaVeist, Thomas A; Pierre, Geraldine
The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce.
Suter, Paula; Hennessey, Beth; Harrison, Gregory; Fagan, Martha; Norman, Barbara; Suter, W Newton
The Chronic Care Model (CCM) developed by is an influential and accepted guide for the care of patients with chronic disease. Wagner acknowledges a current healthcare focus on acute care needs that often circumvents chronic care coordination. He identifies the need for a "division of labor" to assist the primary care physician with this neglected function. This article posits that the role of chronic care coordination assistance and disease management fits within the purview of home healthcare and should be central to home health chronic care delivery. An expanded Home-Based Chronic Care Model (HBCCM) is described that builds on Wagner's model and integrates salient theories from fields beyond medicine. The expanded model maximizes the potential for disease self-management success and is intended to provide a foundation for home health's integral role in chronic disease management.
Vural, Fisun; Yildirim, Filiz; Vural, Birol
OBJECTIVE: Postnatal care is an important issue in maintaining and promoting maternal and neonatal health. However, utilization of postpartum maternal health care services is at a low rate in many countries. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of integrated obstetric and neonatal services on utilization rates of postnatal health care service among mothers. METHODS: This study was performed among a total of 4193 mothers who gave birth at Maternity Unit of Golcuk Necati Celik State Hospital of Kocaeli Province between 2010 and 2013. All mothers were called back to postnatal care clinic (PNC) for newborn hearing test (NHT) screenings, neonatal and maternal care within two weeks after delivery. The deliveries after, (n=3093) and before (n=1100) utilization of integrated services were compared as for postnatal service utilization rates. RESULTS: Utilization rates of neonatal health care, NHT and postpartum maternal health care services significantly increased after implementation of integrated services (p<0.0001). Especially maternal service utilization rates increased from 34% to 99 percent. CONCLUSION: Integration of newborn and maternal health care services as a unit increases the utilization of PNC services. PMID:28058353
Bryan, Craig J.; Corso, Meghan L.; Corso, Kent A.; Morrow, Chad E.; Kanzler, Kathryn E.; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie
Objective: To model typical trajectories for improvement among patients treated in an integrated primary care behavioral health service, multilevel models were used to explore the relationship between baseline mental health impairment level and eventual mental health functioning across follow-up appointments. Method: Data from 495 primary care…
Vogel, Mark E; Kanzler, Kathryn E; Aikens, James E; Goodie, Jeffrey L
Integrated behavioral health in primary care has spread rapidly over the past three decades, although significant questions remain unanswered regarding best practices in clinical, financial and operational worlds. Two key models have emerged over time: care management and Primary Care Behavioral Health. Research to date has been promising; however, there is a significant need for more sophisticated multi-level scientific methodologies to fill in the gaps in current knowledge of integrated primary care. In this paper, we summarize current scientific knowledge about integrated primary care and critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this knowledge base, focusing on clinical, financial and operational factors. Finally, we recommended priorities for future research, dissemination, real-world implementation, and health policy implications.
The movement of complementary therapy training and education into higher education in the United Kingdom (UK) and the interest in alternative therapeutic approaches within the health professions presents an ideal opportunity for multidisciplinary teaching and shared learning. The diversity and similarities of complementary therapies and areas of convergence with conventional healthcare practice can be explored. The recent publication of the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology report on complementary and alternative medicine (HL Paper 123) provides a broader context for discussion and makes specific recommendations about regulation, education and research in the UK. This paper considers the appropriateness of integrating complementary therapies into education for conventional healthcare practitioners, what we should integrate, and when might be the most appropriate time in the education of healthcare practitioners to introduce different therapeutic modalities and their respective philosophical languages. Rather than present a range of solutions, the paper raises some fundamental issues that are central to the integration of complementary therapeutic approaches. If these issues are neglected as we hurry to incorporate different 'techniques' into our conventional practice, we may simply be left with additional tools that we are ill equipped to use.
Gruber, William H.; Pollack, Marc M.; Rosenthal, David S.
One of the most powerful forces affecting the success of health reform in the United States is information technology (IT). The integration of medical technology (such as imaging) with IT (such as the electronic medical record, guidelines, care paths and outcomes research) provides the opportunity to simultaneously improve the quality of health care and control health care cost inflation. The effective integration of medical technology with IT has the potential to achieve clinically appropriate and cost effective medical care in the appropriate location with the support of technologically delivered guidelines and using telemedicine applications such as telediagnosis, teleradiology, and telemonitoring. These savings will provide the investment and research funding to enable the United States to continue as the world's leader in medical technology and telemedicine. This paper validates the potential for these benefits from the effective integration of clinical IT and medical technology with a case study of the progress achieved at Harvard University Health Services.
H., Hildebrandt; C., Hermann; R., Knittel; M., Richter-Reichhelm; A., Siegel; W., Witzenrath
Introduction Integrated care solutions need supportive financial incentives. In this paper, we describe the financial architecture and operative details of the integrated pilot Gesundes Kinzigtal. Description of integrated care case Located in Southwest Germany, Gesundes Kinzigtal is one of the few population-based integrated care approaches in Germany, organising care across all health service sectors and indications. The system serving around half of the population of the region is run by a regional health management company (Gesundes Kinzigtal GmbH) in cooperation with the physicians' network in the region (MQNK), a German health care management company with a background in medical sociology and health economics (OptiMedis AG) and with two statutory health insurers (among them is the biggest health insurer in Southwest Germany: AOK Baden-Württemberg). Discussion and (preliminary) conclusion The shared savings contract between Gesundes Kinzigtal GmbH and the two health insurers, providing financial incentives for managers and health care providers to realize a substantial efficiency gain, could be an appropriate contractual base of Gesundes Kinzigtal's population health gain approach. This approach is based on the assumption that a more effective trans-sector organization of Germany's health care system and increased investments in well-designed preventive programmes will lead to a reduction in morbidity, and in particular to a reduced incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases. This, in turn, is to lead to a comparative reduction in health care cost. Although the comparative cost in the Kinzigtal region has been reduced from the onset of Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care, only future research will have to demonstrate whether—and to what extent—cost reduction may be attributed to a real population health gain. PMID:20689772
The article develops a hypothesis for improving primary care services through health care solutions that can exceed the models in use (essentially hierarchical and based on tasks) in favor of new relational, multi-sectoral and network approaches that could privilege the integration of social and health services at the regional and district level (Community care). A qualitative methodological approach which analyzes the role of social networks in Community care, some national and international experiences of primary care models and the evaluation of the different role given to primary care both in the hierarchical-pyramidal approach and in the horizontal one (network approach). Some Italian regions are experimenting effective organizational models of care such as Primary Care Teams, Primary Care Units, Regional teams, Departments of Primary Care, Houses of Health ... At international level, it should be mentioned the Chronic Care Model (CCM), recently identified by WHO as a reference model, and adopted by the Tuscany Region (Italy). People-centered health care projects need shared interventions by competent and functional multiprofessional teams: the best outcome for the patient depends on the good interaction between individuals. It's necessary that relationships between members of the group are based on interdependence, integration and consistency to avoid risks of group illusion.
Miller, Benjamin F; Ross, Kaile M; Davis, Melinda M; Melek, Stephen P; Kathol, Roger; Gordon, Patrick
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a promising framework for the redesign of primary care and more recently specialty care. As defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the PCMH framework has 5 attributes: comprehensive care, patient-centered care, coordinated care, accessible services, and quality and safety. Evidence increasingly demonstrates that for the PCMH to best achieve the Triple Aim (improved outcomes, decreased cost, and enhanced patient experience), treatment for behavioral health (including mental health, substance use, and life stressors) must be integrated as a central tenet. However, challenges to implementing the PCMH framework are compounded for real-world practitioners because payment reform rarely happens concurrently. Nowhere is this more evident than in attempts to integrate behavioral health clinicians into primary care. As behavioral health clinicians find opportunities to work in integrated settings, a comprehensive understanding of payment models is integral to the dialogue. This article describes alternatives to the traditional fee for service (FFS) model, including modified FFS, pay for performance, bundled payments, and global payments (i.e., capitation). We suggest that global payment structures provide the best fit to enable and sustain integrated behavioral health clinicians in ways that align with the Triple Aim. Finally, we present recommendations that offer specific, actionable steps to achieve payment reform, complement PCMH, and support integration efforts through policy. (PsycINFO Database Record
Osofsky, Howard J; Osofsky, Joy D; Wells, John H; Weems, Carl
This column describes an integrated behavioral health initiative in primary care clinics in Louisiana parishes affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The Louisiana Mental and Behavioral Health Capacity Project is an integral part of the Gulf Region Health Outreach Program and is funded from the Deepwater Horizon Medical Benefits Class Action Settlement. Using a public health approach, the Department of Psychiatry of the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center developed an interprofessional collaboration model of care to provide culturally tailored and time-sensitive on-site and telemedicine services to adults and children affected by the disaster. Results indicate a high level of acceptance of the services and reductions in both mental health symptoms and general medical symptoms. Primary care clinic staff also report increased confidence and resilience to meet future disasters. The approach could be used by communities at risk of disasters and by rural communities with limited mental health resources.
Mahé, Antoine; Faye, Ousmane; N'Diaye, Hawa Thiam; Konaré, Habibatou Diawara; Coulibaly, Ibrahima; Kéita, Somita; Traoré, Abdel Kader; Hay, Roderick J.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in a developing country, the effect of a short training programme for general health care workers on the management of common skin diseases--a neglected component of primary health care in such regions. METHODS: We provided a one-day training programme on the management of the skin diseases to 400 health care workers who worked in primary health care centres in the Bamako area. We evaluated their knowledge and practice before and after training. FINDINGS: Before training, knowledge about skin diseases often was poor and practice inadequate. We found a marked improvement in both parameters after training. We analysed the registers of primary health care centres and found that the proportion of patients who presented with skin diseases who benefited from a clear diagnosis and appropriate treatment increased from 42% before the training to 81% after; this was associated with a 25% reduction in prescription costs. Improved levels of knowledge and practice persisted for up to 18 months after training. CONCLUSIONS: The training programme markedly improved the basic dermatological abilities of the health care workers targeted. Specific training may be a reasonable solution to a neglected component of primary health care in many developing countries. PMID:16462986
Parsell, Cameron; Ten Have, Charlotte; Denton, Michelle; Walter, Zoe
Objectives The aims of the present study were to examine tenants' experiences of a model of integrated health care and supportive housing and to identify whether integrated health care and supportive housing improved self-reported health and healthcare access.Methods The present study used a mixed-method survey design (n=75) and qualitative interviews (n=20) performed between September 2015 and August 2016. Participants were tenants of permanent supportive housing in Brisbane (Qld, Australia). Qualitative data were analysed thematically.Results Integrated health care and supportive housing were resources for tenants to overcome systematic barriers to accessing mainstream health care experienced when homeless. When homeless, people did not have access to resources required to maintain their health. Homelessness meant not having a voice to influence the health care people received; healthcare practitioners treated symptoms of poverty rather than considering how homelessness makes people sick. Integrated healthcare and supportive housing enabled tenants to receive treatment for health problems that were compounded by the barriers to accessing mainstream healthcare that homelessness represented.Conclusions Extending the evidence about housing as a social determinant of health, the present study shows that integrated health care and supportive housing enabled tenants to take control to self-manage their health care. In addition to homelessness directly contributing to ill health, the present study provides evidence of how the experience of homelessness contributes to exclusions from mainstream healthcare.What is known about the topic? People who are homeless experience poor physical and mental health, have unmet health care needs and use disproportionate rates of emergency health services.What does the paper add? The experience of homelessness creates barriers to accessing adequate health care. The provision of onsite multidisciplinary integrated health care in
Montgomery, Ruth; Rider, Mary Ellen
Uses ecological systems theory as a foundation for integrating health care and its public policy issues into family and consumer sciences classrooms. Offers teachers alternative perspectives on consumer behavior changes and needs in heath care systems and policies. Contains 24 references. (JOW)
Glouberman, S; Mintzberg, H
The development of appropriate levels of integration in the system of health care and disease cure will require stronger collective cultures and enhanced communication among the key actors. Part II of this paper uses this line of argument to reframe four major issues in this system: coordination of acute cure and of community care, and collaboration in institutions and in the system at large.
Adams, Carolyn D.; Hinojosa, Sara; Armstrong, Kathleen; Takagishi, Jennifer; Dabrow, Sharon
This article discusses an innovative example of integrated care in which doctoral level school psychology interns and residents worked alongside pediatric residents and pediatricians in the primary care settings to jointly provide services to patients. School psychologists specializing in pediatric health are uniquely trained to recognize and…
Amelung, Volker; Wolf, S; Ozegowski, S; Eble, S; Hildebrandt, H; Knieps, F; Lägel, R; Schlenker, R-U; Sjuts, R
The traditional separation of health care into sectors in Germany causes communication problems that hinder continuous, patient-oriented care. This is most evident in the transition from inpatient to outpatient care. That said, there are also breaks in the flow of information, a lack of supply, or even incorrect information flowing within same-sector care. The transition from a division of functions into sectors to a patient-oriented process represents a change in the paradigm of health care that can only be successfully completed with considerable effort. Germany's statutory health insurance (SHI) funds play a key role here, as they are the contracting parties as well as the financiers of integrated care, and are strategically located at the center of the development process.The objective of this article is to explore how Germany's SHI funds view integrated care, what they regard as being the drivers of and barriers to transitioning to such a system, and what recommendations they can provide with regard to the further development of integrated care. For this purpose semi-structured interviews with board members and those responsible for implementing integrated care into the operations of ten SHI funds representing more than half of Germany's SHI-insured population were conducted. According to the interviewees, a better framework for integrated care urgently needs to be developed and rendered more receptive to innovation.Only in this way will the widespread stagnation of the past several years be overcome. The deregulation of § 140a-d SGB V and the establishment of a uniform basis for new forms of care in terms of a new innovation clause are among the central recommendations of this article. The German federal government's innovation fund was met with great hope, but also implied risks. Nonetheless, the new law designed to strengthen health care overall generated high expectations.
Hansson, Johan; Hasson, Henna; Sachs, Magna Andreen
Introduction: Co-leadership has been identified as one approach to meet the managerial challenges of integrated services, but research on the topic is limited. In the present study, co-leadership, practised by pairs of managers – each manager representing one of the two principal organizations in integrated health and social care services – was explored. Aim: To investigate co-leadership in integrated health and social care, identify essential preconditions in fulfilling the management assignment, its operationalization and impact on provision of sustainable integration of health and social care. Method: Interviews with eight managers exercising co-leadership were analysed using directed content analysis. Respondent validation was conducted through additional interviews with the same managers. Results: Key contextual preconditions were an organization-wide model supporting co-leadership and co-location of services. Perception of the management role as a collective activity, continuous communication and lack of prestige were essential personal and interpersonal preconditions. In daily practice, office sharing, being able to give and take and support each other contributed to provision of sustainable integration of health and social care. Conclusion and discussion: Co-leadership promoted robust management by providing broader competence, continuous learning and joint responsibility for services. Integrated health and social care services should consider employing co-leadership as a managerial solution to achieve sustainability. PMID:27616963
Calciolari, Stefano; Ilinca, Stefania
In recent decades, consensus has grown on the need to organize health systems around the concept of care integration to better confront the challenges associated with demographic trends and financial sustainability. However, care integration remains an imprecise umbrella term in both the academic and policy arenas. In addition, little substantive knowledge exists on the success factors for integration initiatives. We propose a composite measure of care integration and a conceptual framework suggesting its relationships with three types of antecedents: contextual, cultural, and organizational factors. Our framework was tested using data from the Italian National Health System (NHS). We administered an ad-hoc questionnaire to all Italian local health units (LHUs), with a 60.4% response rate, and used structural equation modeling to assess the relationships between the relevant latent constructs. The results validated our measure of care integration and supported the hypothesized relationships. In particular, integration was found to be fostered by results-oriented institutional settings, a professional culture conducive to inclusiveness and shared goals, and organizational arrangements promoting clear expectations among providers. Thus, integration improves care and mediates the effects of specific operating means on care enhancement.
Murphy, Julia; Bindman, Andrew B.
Policymakers have increasingly promoted health services integration to improve quality and efficiency. The US health care safety net, which comprises providers of health care to uninsured, Medicaid, and other vulnerable patients, remains a largely fragmented collection of providers. We interviewed leadership from safety net hospitals and community health centers in 5 US cities (Boston, MA; Denver, CO; Los Angeles, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and San Francisco, CA) throughout 2013 on their experiences with service integration. We identify conflicts in organizational mission, identity, and consumer orientation that have fostered reluctance to enter into collaborative arrangements. We describe how smaller scale initiatives, such as capitated model for targeted populations, health information exchange, and quality improvements led by health plans, can help bridge cultural differences to lay the groundwork for developing integrated care programs. PMID:26509286
Barbosa, Guilherme Correa; Meneguim, Silmara; Lima, Silvana Andréa Molina; Moreno, Vania
The National Policy of Humanization aims at innovations in health production, management and care with emphasis on permanent education for workers in the Unified Public Health System and training of university students in the health care field. This study aimed to know, through an integrative review of the literature, the scientific production about the National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals, from 2002 to 2010. Ten articles were analyzed in thematic strand through three axes: humanization and users caring, humanization and the work process, humanization and training. The articles point to the need to overcome the biological conception, valuing cultural aspects of users. The work process is marked by the devaluation of workers and by users deprived of their rights. The training of health professionals is grounded in health services where the prevailing standards are practices that hinder innovative attitudes.
Detmer, Don; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Raymond, Brian; Tang, Paul
Background Integrated personal health records (PHRs) offer significant potential to stimulate transformational changes in health care delivery and self-care by patients. In 2006, an invitational roundtable sponsored by Kaiser Permanente Institute, the American Medical Informatics Association, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was held to identify the transformative potential of PHRs, as well as barriers to realizing this potential and a framework for action to move them closer to the health care mainstream. This paper highlights and builds on the insights shared during the roundtable. Discussion While there is a spectrum of dominant PHR models, (standalone, tethered, integrated), the authors state that only the integrated model has true transformative potential to strengthen consumers' ability to manage their own health care. Integrated PHRs improve the quality, completeness, depth, and accessibility of health information provided by patients; enable facile communication between patients and providers; provide access to health knowledge for patients; ensure portability of medical records and other personal health information; and incorporate auto-population of content. Numerous factors impede widespread adoption of integrated PHRs: obstacles in the health care system/culture; issues of consumer confidence and trust; lack of technical standards for interoperability; lack of HIT infrastructure; the digital divide; uncertain value realization/ROI; and uncertain market demand. Recent efforts have led to progress on standards for integrated PHRs, and government agencies and private companies are offering different models to consumers, but substantial obstacles remain to be addressed. Immediate steps to advance integrated PHRs should include sharing existing knowledge and expanding knowledge about them, building on existing efforts, and continuing dialogue among public and private sector stakeholders. Summary Integrated PHRs promote active, ongoing
Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth
To assess the effects of an Integrated Care System (ICS) on parent-reported quality of care and satisfaction for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). In 2006 Florida reformed its Medicaid program in Broward and Duval counties. Children's Medical Services Network (CMSN) chose to participate in the reform and developed an ICS for CSHCN. The ICS ushered in several changes such as more prior approval requirements and closing of the provider network. Telephone surveys were conducted with CMSN parents whose children reside in the reform counties and parents whose children reside outside of the reform counties in 2006 and 2007 (n = 1,727). Results from multivariate quasi-experimental models show that one component of parent-report quality of care, customer service, increased. Following implementation of the ICS, customer service increased by 0.22 points. After implementation of the ICS, parent-reported quality and satisfaction were generally unaffected. Although significant increases were not seen in the majority of the quality and satisfaction domains, it is nonetheless encouraging that parents did not report negative experiences with the ICS. It is important to present these interim findings so that progress can be monitored and decision-makers can begin to consider if the program should be expanded statewide.
Islam, Nadia; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Zahn, Deborah; Skillman, Megan; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Context The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act’s (PPACA) emphasis on community-based initiatives affords a unique opportunity to disseminate and scale up evidence-based community health worker (CHW) models that integrate CHWs within health care delivery teams and programs. Community health workers have unique access and local knowledge that can inform program development and evaluation, improve service delivery and care coordination, and expand health care access. As a member of the PPACA-defined health care workforce, CHWs have the potential to positively impact numerous programs and reduce costs. Objective This article discusses different strategies for integrating CHW models within PPACA implementation through facilitated enrollment strategies, patient-centered medical homes, coordination and expansion of health information technology (HIT) efforts, and also discusses payment options for such integration. Results Title V of the PPACA outlines a plan to improve access to and delivery of health care services for all individuals, particularly low-income, underserved, uninsured, minority, health disparity, and rural populations. Community health workers’ role as trusted community leaders can facilitate accurate data collection, program enrollment, and provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate, patient- and family-centered care. Because CHWs already support disease management and care coordination services, they will be critical to delivering and expanding patient-centered medical homes and Health Home services, especially for communities that suffer disproportionately from multiple chronic diseases. Community health workers’ unique expertise in conducting outreach make them well positioned to help enroll people in Medicaid or insurance offered by Health Benefit Exchanges. New payment models provide opportunities to fund and sustain CHWs. Conclusion Community health workers can support the effective implementation of PPACA if the capacity
Horevitz, Elizabeth; Manoleas, Peter
The Affordable Care Act has led to a widespread movement to integrate behavioral health services into primary care settings. Integrated behavioral health (IBH) holds promise for treating mild to moderate psychiatric disorders in a manner that more fully addresses the biopsychosocial spectrum of needs of individuals and families in primary care, and for reducing disparities in accessing behavioral health care. For behavioral health practitioners, IBH requires a shift to a brief, outcome-driven, and team-based model of care. Despite the fact that social workers comprise the majority of behavioral health providers in IBH settings, little research has been done to assess the extent to which social workers are prepared for effective practice in fast-paced primary care. We conducted a survey of social workers (N = 84) in IBH settings to assess the following: (1) Key competency areas for social work practice in IBH settings and (2) Self-rated preparedness for effective practice in IBH settings. Online snowball sampling methods were used over a period of 1 month. Results indicate that social workers feel prepared for general practice in IBH settings, but would benefit from additional training in IBH-specific competency areas identified in the survey. Findings can help guide social work training to improve workforce preparedness for practice in IBH settings in the wake of health care reform.
Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...
Tsan, Jack Y; Zeber, John E; Stock, Eileen M; Sun, Fangfang; Copeland, Laurel A
Despite the high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and medical comorbidity among veterans from Iraq/Afghanistan (OEF/OIF), keeping these patients engaged in health care is challenging. Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI), an initiative in the Veterans Health Administration (VA), sought to improve access to mental health care from within primary care. This study examined the lag between first PC-MHI visit and next mental/medical care visit, if any, and the relationship of PC-MHI with short-term (subsequent year) and long-term (4 years later) use of VA. We identified 2,470 OEF/OIF veterans receiving care during fiscal year 2006 (FY06) in a regional VA health care system. Unconditional survival analysis modeled time to next mental/medical visit and logistic regression modeled short- and long-term care as a function of PC-MHI, demographics, and clinical covariates. Of 181 patients in the PC-MHI program, 60%/18% returned for mental/medical care within 1 month, and 82%/74% within 1 year. Sixty-one percent (1,503) were still using the VA in FY09. Short-term mental care was related to prior-year PC-MHI. Consistent correlates of short- and long-term mental/medical care included physical comorbidity and Priority 1 status. Most patients attended mental health appointments subsequent to PC-MHI, and PC-MHI was correlated with mental health treatment retention in adjusted models for our cohort. Need for treatment, notably VA Priority 1 status and physical comorbidity, were the primary correlates of care-seeking. Developing innovative approaches to engaging new veterans in care remains imperative as multiple options will be necessary to meet the needs of these complex patients.
Well-aware that patients will be much more likely to take advantage of mental health services in a primary care setting, a new model is being tested in Hawaii that seeks to further integrate mental health and traditional care by having physicians work alongside behavioral health specialists in their offices and exam rooms. The model borrows heavily from an earlier study that produced dramatic outcomes in chronically ill individuals who received targeted behavioral health interventions. Revisit the earlier study and see how researchers are now hoping to further push the envelope with a fresh approach.
Emami, Elham; Harnagea, Hermina; Girard, Felix; Charbonneau, Anne; Voyer, René; Bedos, Christophe Pierre; Chartier, Martin; Wootton, John; Couturier, Yves
Introduction Integrated care has been introduced as a means of improving health outcomes and access to care, and reducing the cost of healthcare. Despite its importance, the integration of oral health into primary care is still an emerging healthcare pathway. This scoping review protocol has been developed and funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to provide an evidence-based synthesis on a primary oral healthcare approach and its effectiveness in improving oral health outcomes. Methods and analysis The 6-stage framework developed by Levac et al underpins this scoping review. We will identify relevant existing theories, programmes and original research through a comprehensive and systematic search of electronic databases such as OVID (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases), NCBI (PubMed), EBSCOhost (CINAHL), ProQuest, Databases in Public Health, Databases of the National Institutes of Health (health management and health technology) and relevant organisational websites and other sources of grey literature. All types of studies from 1978 to May 2016 in the French and English languages will be included. Using the Rainbow conceptual model of integrative primary care, a qualitative descriptive approach and thematic analysis will be used to synthesise the literature. Implementing novel healthcare models necessitates identifying barriers, sharing knowledge and delivering information. The integration of oral healthcare into primary care is an approach that promotes breaking the boundaries separating oral healthcare professionals and primary care. It creates opportunities for the dental workforce to become more involved in community-based practice and to assume shared responsibility with healthcare professionals to address the unmet oral health needs of those experiencing vulnerability and marginalisation. Ethics and dissemination The scoping study has received approval from the Université de Montréal's Institutional Review Board (#14–097-CERES-D). The
Sheiman, Igor; Shevski, Vladimir
Fragmentation in organization and discontinuities in the provision of medical care are problems in all health systems, whether it is the mixed public-private one in the USA, national health services in the UK, or insurance based one in Western Europe and Russia. In all of these countries a major challenge is to strengthen integration in order to enhance efficiency and health outcomes. This article assesses issues related to fragmentation and integration in conceptual terms and argues that key attributes of integration are teamwork, coordination and continuity of care. It then presents a summary of service integration problems in Russia and the results of a large survey of physicians concerning the attributes of integration. It is argued that characteristics of the national service delivery model don't ensure integration. The Semashko model is not an equivalent to the integrated model. Big organizational forms of service provision, like polyclinics and integrated hospital-polyclinics, don't have higher scores of integration indicators than smaller ones. Proposals to improve integration in Russia are presented with the focus on the regular evaluation of integration/fragmentation, regulation of integration activities, enhancing the role of PHC providers, economic incentives.
Holden, Kisha; McGregor, Brian; Thandi, Poonam; Fresh, Edith; Sheats, Kameron; Belton, Allyson; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David
Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its co-morbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, that includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which include practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multi-disciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrative healthcare to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. PMID:25383991
Freeman, Rachel; Luyirika, Emmanuel BK; Namisango, Eve; Kiyange, Fatia
The high burden of non-communicable diseases and communicable diseases in Africa characterised by late presentation and diagnosis makes the need for palliative care a priority from the point of diagnosis to death and through bereavement. Palliative care is an intervention that requires a multidisciplinary team to address the multifaceted needs of the patient and family. Thus, its development takes a broad approach that involves engaging all key stakeholders ranging from policy makers, care providers, educators, the public, patients, and families. The main focus of stakeholder engagement should address some core interventions geared towards improving knowledge and awareness, strengthening skills and attitudes about palliative care. These interventions include educating health and allied healthcare professionals on the palliative care-related problems of patients and best practices for care, explaining palliative care as a clinical and holistic discipline and demonstrating its effectiveness, the need to include palliative care into national policies, strategic plans, training curriculums of healthcare professionals and the engagement of patients, families, and communities. Interventions from a five-year programme that was aimed at strengthening the health system of Namibia through the integration of palliative care for people living with HIV and AIDS and cancer in Namibia are shared. This article illustrates how a country can implement the World Health Organisation’s public health strategy for developing palliative care services, which recommends four pillars: government policy, education, drug availability, and implementation. PMID:27563348
Freeman, Rachel; Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Kiyange, Fatia
The high burden of non-communicable diseases and communicable diseases in Africa characterised by late presentation and diagnosis makes the need for palliative care a priority from the point of diagnosis to death and through bereavement. Palliative care is an intervention that requires a multidisciplinary team to address the multifaceted needs of the patient and family. Thus, its development takes a broad approach that involves engaging all key stakeholders ranging from policy makers, care providers, educators, the public, patients, and families. The main focus of stakeholder engagement should address some core interventions geared towards improving knowledge and awareness, strengthening skills and attitudes about palliative care. These interventions include educating health and allied healthcare professionals on the palliative care-related problems of patients and best practices for care, explaining palliative care as a clinical and holistic discipline and demonstrating its effectiveness, the need to include palliative care into national policies, strategic plans, training curriculums of healthcare professionals and the engagement of patients, families, and communities. Interventions from a five-year programme that was aimed at strengthening the health system of Namibia through the integration of palliative care for people living with HIV and AIDS and cancer in Namibia are shared. This article illustrates how a country can implement the World Health Organisation's public health strategy for developing palliative care services, which recommends four pillars: government policy, education, drug availability, and implementation.
Prindaville, G M; Sidwell, L H; Milner, D E
The local delivery of human services is currently receiving national emphasis. The expectation is that community-based services shall be provided with a minimum of duplication and with maximum efficiency, achieved partly by interdisciplinary and interorganizational cooperation. This emphasis was appropriately facilitated in the mid-1970s through the availability of the Mental Health Initiative grants. The grants, initiated by the Bureau of Community Health Services in conjunction with the National Institute of Mental Health, Public Health Service, promoted the increased availability of mental health services through formal linkages between community mental health centers and primary health care programs. One such successful linkage was between a small primary health care center and a nonfederally funded, multicounty, mental health center in northwest Illinois. Initiated in September 1980, the services of the linkage project included direct clinical mental health services delivered at the primary health care center site, consultation and education activities, and the coordination of interagency services. The project patients differed from the general clients of the mental health center in demographic characteristics, source of referral, and diagnoses. The key elements in successful linkages and the achievement of goals are analyzed. The experience of the linkage project is relevant to the 1980s. The project was prematurely ended after 14 months. Reduction in Federal funds severely cut support for the primary health care center, and the depressed local economy could not match the withdrawn Federal funds. PMID:6828640
Ford, James H.; Krahn, Dean; Oliver, Karen Anderson; Kirchner, JoAnn
Objective To explore staff perceptions about sustainability, commitment to change, participation in change process, and information received about the change project within the Veterans Administration Primary Care and Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) initiative and to examine differences from the Veterans Health Administration Mental Health Systems Redesign (MHSR) initiative. Data Sources Surveys of change team members involved in the Veterans Affairs PC-MHI and MHSR initiatives. Study Design One-way analysis of variance examined the relationship between commitment, participation and information, and sustainability. Differences in PC-MHI sustainability were explored by location and job classification. Staff sustainability perceptions were compared with MHSR results. Principal Findings Sustainability differed by staff discipline. Difference between MHSR and PC-MHI existed by job function and perceptions about the change benefits. Participation in the change process and information received about the change process were positively correlated with sustainability. Staff commitment to change was positively associated with staff perceptions about the benefits of change and staff attitudes toward change. Conclusions Sustainability is an important part of organizational change efforts. Change complexity seems to influence perception about sustainability and impacts staff perceptions about the benefits of change. These perceptions seem to be driven by the information received and opportunities to participate in the change process. Further research is needed to understand how information and participation influence sustainability and affect employee commitment to change. PMID:23011071
Chang, E-shien; Simon, Melissa; Dong, XinQi
As US populations become increasing diverse, healthcare professionals are facing a heightened challenge to provide cross-cultural care. To date, medical education around the world has developed specific curricula on cultural competence training in acknowledgement of the importance of culturally sensitive and grounded services. This article…
Pourat, Nadereh; Hadler, Max W; Dixon, Brittany; Brindis, Claire
More than 70 percent of behavioral health conditions are first diagnosed in the primary care setting. Yet physical and behavioral health care are typically provided separately, compelling many vulnerable patients to navigate the complexities of two separate systems of care. This policy brief examines five community health centers (CHCs) in California that have taken preliminary steps toward creating "one-stop shopping" for both physical and behavioral health care. The steps taken to increase integration by the CHCs include employing behavioral health providers, using a single electronic health record that includes both physical and behavioral health data, transforming the physical space, and developing mechanisms for effective transition of patients between providers. The findings emphasize the importance of changes to Medi-Cal reimbursement policies to promote same-day visits, as well as the importance of cultural changes to integrate behavioral health. They also highlight the need for comprehensive tools to assess and promote integration and to identify solutions for the most challenging activities required to achieve full integration.
Pinto, Valdester Cavalcante; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P Castello; Cavalcante, Candice Torres de Melo Bezerra; Maia, Isabel Cristina Leite; Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes de; Penaforte, Kiarelle Lourenço; Mejia, Juan Alberto Cosquillo; Carvalho, Waldemiro
The perspective of the integrated health system has a network of care with multiple integration dimensions among subsystems as nuclear representation, relating the clinical aspects and governance to the representations and collective values. The normative integration aims to ensure coherence between the system of representations and values of society simultaneously with the interfaces of clinical and functional integration. It builds a bridge with governance, which allows, through their skills, management of all system components, encouraging cooperation, communication and information, in order to ensure the population under their responsibility to access excellence services, exceeding their expectations. The integration of care consists of a durable coordination of clinical practices for those who suffer from health problems in order to ensure continuity and full range of the required professional services and organizations, coordinated in time and space, in accordance with the available knowledge. It is possible to establish the type of health equipment for each level of care for patients with congenital heart diseases. This strategy intends to offer timely care in appropriate moments and places, efficiently, operating cooperatively an interdependently, with ongoing exchange of its resources. Thus, situational integration establishes the system connection with the assessment environment that proposes to carry out value judgment, guided by an objective worldview, about an intervention or any of its components, in order to objectify the decision making.
Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Candice Torres de Melo Bezerra; Maia, Isabel Cristina Leite; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes; Penaforte, Kiarelle Lourenço; Mejia, Juan Alberto Cosquillo; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro
The perspective of the integrated health system has a network of care with multiple integration dimensions among subsystems as nuclear representation, relating the clinical aspects and governance to the representations and collective values. The normative integration aims to ensure coherence between the system of representations and values of society simultaneously with the interfaces of clinical and functional integration. It builds a bridge with governance, which allows, through their skills, management of all system components, encouraging cooperation, communication and information, in order to ensure the population under their responsibility to access excellence services, exceeding their expectations. The integration of care consists of a durable coordination of clinical practices for those who suffer from health problems in order to ensure continuity and full range of the required professional services and organizations, coordinated in time and space, in accordance with the available knowledge. It is possible to establish the type of health equipment for each level of care for patients with congenital heart diseases. This strategy intends to offer timely care in appropriate moments and places, efficiently, operating cooperatively an interdependently, with ongoing exchange of its resources. Thus, situational integration establishes the system connection with the assessment environment that proposes to carry out value judgment, guided by an objective worldview, about an intervention or any of its components, in order to objectify the decision making. PMID:27737410
Crowley, Ryan A; Kirschner, Neil
Behavioral health care includes care for patients around mental health and substance abuse conditions, health behavior change, life stresses and crises, and stress-related physical symptoms. Mental and substance use disorders alone are estimated to surpass all physical diseases as a major cause of worldwide disability by 2020. The literature recognizes the importance of the health care system effectively addressing behavioral health conditions. Recently, there has been a call for the use of the primary care delivery platform and the related patient-centered medical home model to effectively address these conditions. This position paper focuses on the issue of better integration of behavioral health into the primary care setting. It provides an environmental scan of the current state of conditions included in the concept of behavioral health and examines the arguments for and barriers to increased integration into primary care. It also examines various approaches of integrated care delivery and offers a series of policy recommendations that are based on the reviewed information and evidence to inform the actions of the American College of Physicians and its members regarding advocacy, research, and practice.
Sucholotiuc, M; Stefan, L; Dobre, I; Teseleanu, M
In 1999 in Romania has initiated the reformation of the national health care system based on health insurance. In 1998 we analyzed this system from the point of view of its IT support and we studied methods of optimisation with relational, distributed databases and new technologies such as Our objectives were to make a model of the information and services flow in a modern health insurance system, to study the smart card technology and to demonstrate how smart card can improve health care services. The paper presents only the smart cards implementations.
Bäck, Monica Andersson; Calltorp, Johan
Many countries organise and fund health and social care separately. The Norrtaelje model is a Swedish initiative that transformed the funding and organisation of health and social care in order to better integrate care for older people with complex needs. In Norrtaelje model, this transformation made it possible to bringing the team together, to transfer responsibility to different providers, to use care coordinators, and to develop integrated pathways and plans around transitions in and out of hospital and from nursing homes to hospital. The Norrtaelje model operates in the context of the Swedish commitment to universal coverage and public programmes based on tax-funded resources that are pooled and redistributed to citizens on the basis of need. The experience of Norrtaelje model suggests that one way to promote integration of health and social care is to start with a transformation that aligns these two sectors in terms of high level organisation and funding. This transformation then enables the changes in operations and management that can be translated into changes in care delivery. This "top-down" approach must be in-line with national priorities and policies but ultimately is successful only if the culture, resource allocation and management are changed throughout the local system.
Bates, V. Edward
Based on selected reading of the literature on medical anthropology and the sociology of modern and traditional system integration in other societies (developing and developed), this paper argues that state heteronomy is patently contraindicated, yet inevitable, should the funding and power structure behind Western health care systems be formally…
Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Perkins, David; Luland, Teresa; Brown, Dale; Corvan, Eamonn
Unequal health care outcomes for those with mental illness mean that access to integrated models is critical to supporting good physical and mental health care. This is especially so in rural areas where geographic and structural issues constrain the provision of health services. Guided by a conceptual framework about rural and remote health, this study draws on interviews with health providers and other staff and examines the dynamics of integrated primary and community-based specialist care for people with severe and persistent mental illnesses living in rural Australia. Findings show that the facilitation of sustainable linkages between general practice and community mental health requires the skilful exercise of power, knowledge, and resources by partners in order to address the social and structural factors that influence local health situations. These findings suggest that incremental processes of integration that are responsive to patients' and stakeholders' needs and that build on success and increased trust may be more effective than those imposed from the 'top down' that pay insufficient attention to local contexts.
Ellis, Horace; Alexander, Vinette
There has been renewed, global interest in developing new and transformative models of facilitating access to high-quality, cost-effective, and individually-centered health care for severe mentally-ill (SMI) persons of diverse racial/ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, in our present-day health-service delivery systems, scholars have identified layers of barriers to widespread dispersal of well-needed mental health care both nationally and internationally. It is crucial that contemporary models directed at eradicating barriers to mental health services are interdisciplinary in context, design, scope, sequence, and best-practice standards. Contextually, nurses are well-positioned to influence the incorporation and integration of new concepts into operationally interdisciplinary, evidence-based care models with measurable outcomes. The aim of this concept paper is to use the available evidence to contextually explicate how the blended roles of psychiatric mental health (PMH) nursing can be influential in eradicating barriers to care and services for SMI persons through the integrated principles of collaboration, integration and service expansion across health, socioeconomic, and community systems. A large body of literature proposes that any best-practice standards aimed at eliminating barriers to the health care needs of SMI persons require systematic, well-coordinated interdisciplinary partnerships through evidence-based, high-quality, person-centered, and outcome-driven processes. Transforming the conceptual models of collaboration, integration and service expansion could be revolutionary in how care and services are coordinated and dispersed to populations across disadvantaged communities. Building on their longstanding commitment to individual and community care approaches, and their pivotal roles in research, education, leadership, practice, and legislative processes; PMH nurses are well-positioned to be both influential and instrumental in
Wissow, Lawrence S.; Tegegn, Teketel; Asheber, Kassahun; McNabb, Marion; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Jerene, Degu; Ruff, Andrea
Background Integrating mental health with general medical care can increase access to mental health services, but requires helping generalists acquire a range of unfamiliar knowledge and master potentially complex diagnostic and treatment processes. Method We describe a model for integrating complex specialty care with generalist/primary care, using as an illustration the integration of mental health into hospital-based HIV treatment services in Ethiopia. Generalists and specialists collaboratively developed mental health treatments to fit the knowledge, skills and resources of the generalists. The model recognizes commonalities between mental health and general medical care, focusing on practical interventions acceptable to patients. It was developed through a process of literature review, interviews, observing clinical practice, pilot trainings and expert consultation. Preliminary evaluation results were obtained by debriefing generalist trainees after their return to their clinical sites. Results In planning interviews, generalists reported discomfort making mental health diagnoses but recognition of symptom groups including low mood, anxiety, thought problems, poor child behaviour, seizures and substance use. Diagnostic and treatment algorithms were developed for these groups and tailored to the setting by including possible medical causes and burdens of living with HIV. First-line treatment included modalities familiar to generalists: empathetic patient–provider interactions, psychoeducation, cognitive reframing, referral to community supports and elements of symptom-specific evidence-informed counselling. Training introduced basic skills, with evolving expertise supported by job aides and ongoing support from mental health nurses cross-trained in HIV testing. Feedback from trainees suggested the programme fit well with generalists’ settings and clinical goals. Conclusions An integration model based on collaboratively developing processes that fit the
...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11368] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Care Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) and National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB... 1996. Government agencies that license or certify health care practitioners, providers or...
Fernandes, Roberta Zanelli Sartori; Vilela, Maria Filomena de Gouveia
Mother and infant mortality has been the scope of analysis throughout the history of public health in Brazil and various strategies to tackle the issue have been proposed to date. The Ministry of Health has been working on this and the Rede Cegonha strategy is the most recent policy in this context. Given the principle of comprehensive health care and the structure of the Unified Health System in care networks, it is necessary to ensure the integration of health care practices, among which are the sanitary surveillance actions (SSA). Considering that the integration of health care practices and SSA can contribute to reduce mother and infant mortality rates, this article is a result of qualitative research that analyzed the integration of these actions in four cities in the State of São Paulo/Brazil: Campinas, Indaiatuba, Jaguariúna and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. The research was conducted through interviews with SSA and maternal health managers, and the data were evaluated using thematic analysis. The results converge with other studies, identifying the isolation of health care practices and SSA. The insertion of SSA in collectively-managed areas appears to be a potential strategy for health planning and implementation of actions in the context under scrutiny.
van Palenstein Helderman, W; Mikx, F; Begum, A; Adyatmaka, A; Bajracharya, M; Kikwilu, E; Rugarabamu, P
When primary health care (PHC) was developed and implemented in developing countries, oral health was not included. The present consequences are marked disparities in the distribution of oral health care, since conventional dentistry can only serve relatively few people and at high costs. Oral health care is virtually non-existent in rural areas of most developing countries where more than 80 per cent of the population live. More recently, community based oral health programmes have been initiated in some countries to fill the gap. These programmes give more emphasis on oral health promotion and on the prevention of oral diseases than on treatment of its consequences, since history has shown that the latter is ineffective in preventing oral diseases. Unfortunately, most of these oral health programmes have been implemented next to the existing PHC system and hence they face enormous management, logistic and financial problems, which seriously threaten their sustainability. This paper presents a proposal to counteract the problems that many countries face in developing an adequate primary oral health care (POHC) service.
Evans, R G
Most economic relationships are either arm's-length exchange transactions, each party seeking his or her own interest, or command structures, such as a firm or public agency, integrating joint efforts toward a common goal. The health care industry, however, displays a pattern of incomplete vertical integration--relationships which are neither truly arm's-length nor completely hierarchical. The doctor-patient relationship is archetypical. Physicians appear to sell services in private markets; yet they reach through the exchange process to direct the consumer-patient's utilization decisions, implicity undertaking to act in the patient's interest, and thus integrate forward. But they also integrate backward to control the public regulatory process--self-government--and some forms of insurance. The health care systems of different countries--Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States--can be interpreted as different patterns of incomplete integration among five basic classes of transactors: consumer-patients, first-line providers, second-line providers, insurers, and governments. Each system of linkage has characteristic strengths and weaknesses. Nowhere, however, do we find a predominance of arm's-length market relationships. Where they exist, markets in health care are usually pseudomarkets dominated by one side of the transaction. The rhetoric of market relationships serves principally to obscure political struggles over shifting patterns of integration.
Woiceshyn, Jaana; Blades, Kenneth; Pendharkar, Sachin R.
Background: Increased demand and escalating costs necessitate innovation in health care. The challenge is to implement complex innovations—those that require coordinated use across the adopting organization to have the intended benefits. Purpose: We wanted to understand why and how two of five similar hospitals associated with the same health care authority made more progress with implementing a complex inpatient discharge innovation whereas the other three experienced more difficulties in doing so. Methodology: We conducted a qualitative comparative case study of the implementation process at five comparable urban hospitals adopting the same inpatient discharge innovation mandated by their health care authority. We analyzed documents and conducted 39 interviews of the health care authority and hospital executives and frontline managers across the five sites over a 1-year period while the implementation was ongoing. Findings: In two and a half years, two of the participating hospitals had made significant progress with implementing the innovation and had begun to realize benefits; they exemplified an integrated implementation mode. Three sites had made minimal progress, following a fragmented implementation mode. In the former mode, a semiautonomous health care organization developed a clear overall purpose and chose one umbrella initiative to implement it. The integrative initiative subsumed the rest and guided resource allocation and the practices of hospital executives, frontline managers, and staff who had bought into it. In contrast, in the fragmented implementation mode, the health care authority had several overlapping, competing innovations that overwhelmed the sites and impeded their implementation. Practice Implications: Implementing a complex innovation across hospital sites required (a) early prioritization of one initiative as integrative, (b) the commitment of additional (traded off or new) human resources, (c) deliberate upfront planning and
Kroenke, Kurt; Unutzer, Jurgen
Mental disorders account for 25% of all health-related disability worldwide. More patients receive treatment for mental disorders in the primary care sector than in the mental health specialty setting. However, brief visits, inadequate reimbursement, deficits in primary care provider (PCP) training, and competing demands often limit the capacity of the PCP to produce optimal outcomes in patients with common mental disorders. More than 80 randomized trials have shown the benefits of collaborative care (CC) models for improving outcomes of patients with depression and anxiety. Six key components of CC include a population-based approach, measurement-based care, treatment to target strategy, care management, supervision by a mental health professional (MHP), and brief psychological therapies. Multiple trials have also shown that CC for depression is equally or more cost-effective than many of the current treatments for medical disorders. Factors that may facilitate the implementation of CC include a more favorable alignment of medical and mental health services in accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes; greater use of telecare as well as automated outcome monitoring; identification of patients who might benefit most from CC; and systematic training of both PCPs and MHPs in integrated team-based care.
Background Climacteric stage women experience significant biological, psychological and social changes. With demographic changes being observed in the growing number of climacteric stage women in Mexico, it is important to improve their knowledge about the climacteric stage and its potential associated problems, encourage their participation in screening programs, and promote the acquisition of healthy lifestyles. At Mexican health care institutions the predominant health care model for climacteric stage women has a biomedical perspective. Medical doctors provide mostly curative services and have limited support from other health professionals. This study aims to design an integrative health care model (IHCM: bio-psycho-social, multidisciplinary and women-centered) applicable in primary care services aimed at climacteric stage women. Methods/Design We present the design, inclusion criteria and detailed description of an IHCM. The IHCM consists of collaborative and coordinated provision of services by a health team, which is involves a family doctor, nurse, psychologist, and the woman herself. The health team promotes the empowerment of women through individual and group counseling on the climacteric stage and health related self-care. The intervention lasts three months followed by a three-month follow-up period to evaluate the effectiveness of the model. The effectiveness of the model will be evaluated through the following aspects: health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), empowerment, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding the climacteric stage and health-related self-care activities, use of screening services, and improvement in lifestyles (regular leisure time physical activity and healthy diet). Discussion Participation in preventive activities should be encouraged among women in Mexico. Designing and evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative health care model for women at the climacteric stage, based on the empowerment approach and focus on health
London Journal of Primary Care wishes to develop a network of collaborating sites to better understand how to achieve community-oriented integrated care and health promotion in different contexts. A collaborating site can do more than submit papers. It can develop its own domain on the LJPC website, contribute to the development of LJPC policy, and stimulate discussions with other collaborating sites. At any time a collaborating site can opt out. In addition to securing papers for publication, a site might nurture a network of supporters, teach people to use multiple research and quality improvement methods, develop a system of governance for locally led inquiries, develop case studies of community-oriented integrated care and health promotion and facilitate within-site and between-site learning and change. PMID:28356918
Vienonen, Mikko A.; Vohlonen, Ilkka J.
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to look at what has happened in Russia during the last ten years in the health care sector from the point of view of integrated care. This country, when it still was the leading subject of the Soviet Union, hosted in 1978 the Alma Ata Conference on Primary Health Care, which in many countries gave a strong boost on the development of multidisciplinary, community based care in a gate-keeper position. In Soviet Russia, PHC became marginalised and identical to poor level of care in remote areas of the country where people had very little choice and did not want to use it. Has the situation changed, and is Russia in practice addressing the problems created by the lack of integration, vertical treatment structures and over specialisation? In addition to the data sources that are referred to in the text, this paper is based on “gray literature” available in project reports and governmental documents, and on the personal experiences of the authors, who have worked for long periods of time in the Russian Federation as international experts dealing with health sector reforms and health policy formulation. PMID:16896418
Fernández-Peña, José Ramón
Since 2001, the Welcome Back Initiative (WBI) has implemented a program model in ten US cities to help foreign trained health professionals enter the US healthcare workforce. This paper reviews how the WBI has worked toward achieving this goal through community needs assessment, the development of a comprehensive program model and ongoing program evaluation. Since 2001, the WBI has served over 10,700 immigrant health professionals. Of these participants, 66% were not previously working in the health sector. After participating in the WBI's services, 23% of participants found work in health care for the first time, 21% passed a licensing exam, and 87 physicians were connected to a residency program. As the US is facing a major shortfall of health care providers, the WBI is uniquely positioned to help fill a gap in provider supply with qualified, culturally aware, experienced clinicians that the current medical education infrastructure is unable to meet.
Ovuga, Emilio; Boardman, Jed; Wasserman, Danuta
Uganda has passed through political and bloody civil strife stretching over 40 years. Since 1987 the HIV/AIDS pandemic has compounded the problems of the country. The present paper describes some initiatives to develop mental health services in one district of the country. A bottom-up approach in the district resulted in the formation of a community-led mental health program with strong support from two self-help groups, district political leaders and district representatives in parliament. Primary health care providers at all levels of health care in the district were trained in order to make services accessible to the rural population. Further plans based on initial exploratory discussions aim to involve the education department, the welfare and probation office, prisons and police, the military, church and cultural leaders and traditional healers. These initiatives show that it is possible to empower communities to participate in the development of mental health programs in a low-income country.
Chouvarda, Ioanna G; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Maglaveras, Nicos
The increasingly aging population in Europe and worldwide brings up the need for the restructuring of healthcare. Technological advancements in electronic health can be a driving force for new health management models, especially in chronic care. In a patient-centered e-health management model, communication and coordination between patient, healthcare professionals in primary care and hospitals can be facilitated, and medical decisions can be made timely and easily communicated. Bringing the right information to the right person at the right time is what connected health aims at, and this may set the basis for the investigation and deployment of the integrated care models. In this framework, an overview of the main technological axes and challenges around connected health technologies in chronic disease management are presented and discussed. A central concept is personal health system for the patient/citizen and three main application areas are identified. The connected health ecosystem is making progress, already shows benefits in (a) new biosensors, (b) data management, (c) data analytics, integration and feedback. Examples are illustrated in each case, while open issues and challenges for further research and development are pinpointed.
Lawrence, Justin; Delaney, Conor P
Evaluation of health care outcomes has become increasingly important as we strive to improve quality and efficiency while controlling cost. Many groups feel that analysis of large datasets will be useful in optimizing resource utilization; however, the ideal blend of clinical and administrative data points has not been developed. Hospitals and health care systems have several tools to measure cost and resource utilization, but the data are often housed in disparate systems that are not integrated and do not permit multisystem analysis. Systems Outcomes and Clinical Resources AdministraTive Efficiency Software (SOCRATES) is a novel data merging, warehousing, analysis, and reporting technology, which brings together disparate hospital administrative systems generating automated or customizable risk-adjusted reports. Used in combination with standardized enhanced care pathways, SOCRATES offers a mechanism to improve the quality and efficiency of care, with the ability to measure real-time changes in outcomes.
Lawrence, Justin; Delaney, Conor P.
Evaluation of health care outcomes has become increasingly important as we strive to improve quality and efficiency while controlling cost. Many groups feel that analysis of large datasets will be useful in optimizing resource utilization; however, the ideal blend of clinical and administrative data points has not been developed. Hospitals and health care systems have several tools to measure cost and resource utilization, but the data are often housed in disparate systems that are not integrated and do not permit multisystem analysis. Systems Outcomes and Clinical Resources AdministraTive Efficiency Software (SOCRATES) is a novel data merging, warehousing, analysis, and reporting technology, which brings together disparate hospital administrative systems generating automated or customizable risk-adjusted reports. Used in combination with standardized enhanced care pathways, SOCRATES offers a mechanism to improve the quality and efficiency of care, with the ability to measure real-time changes in outcomes. PMID:24436649
Sekhri, Neelam; Feachem, Richard; Ni, Angela
Around the world, publicly owned and run health services face challenges. In poor countries in particular, health services are characterized by such problems as inadequate infrastructure and equipment, frequent shortages of medicines and supplies, and low quality of care. Increasingly, both developed- and developing-country governments are embracing public-private partnerships to harness private financing and expertise to achieve public policy goals. An innovative form of these partnerships is the public-private integrated partnership, which goes a step further than more common hospital building and maintenance arrangements, by combining infrastructure renewal with delivery of clinical services. We describe the benefits and risks inherent in such integrated partnerships and present three case studies that demonstrate innovative design. We conclude that these partnerships have the potential to improve access, quality, and efficiency in health care. More such partnerships should be launched and rigorously evaluated, and their lessons should be widely shared to guide policy makers in the effective use of this model.
Wu, Shinyi; Duan, Naihua; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Kravitz, Richard L; Owen, Richard R; Sullivan, J Greer; Wu, Albert W; Di Capua, Paul; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton
Integrating two distinct and complementary paradigms, science and engineering, may produce more effective outcomes for the implementation of evidence-based practices in health care settings. Science formalizes and tests innovations, whereas engineering customizes and optimizes how the innovation is applied tailoring to accommodate local conditions. Together they may accelerate the creation of an evidence-based healthcare system that works effectively in specific health care settings. We give examples of applying engineering methods for better quality, more efficient, and safer implementation of clinical practices, medical devices, and health services systems. A specific example was applying systems engineering design that orchestrated people, process, data, decision-making, and communication through a technology application to implement evidence-based depression care among low-income patients with diabetes. We recommend that leading journals recognize the fundamental role of engineering in implementation research, to improve understanding of design elements that create a better fit between program elements and local context.
Buchholz, Melissa; Fischer, Collette; Margolis, Kate L.; Talmi, Ayelet
Primary care settings are optimal environments for providing comprehensive, family-centered care to young children and their families. Primary care clinics with integrated behavioral health clinicians (BHCs) are well-positioned to build trust and create access to care for marginalized and underserved populations. Refugees from around the world are…
Caloyeras, John P; Kanter, Michael; Ives, Nicole; Kim, Chong Y; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Berry, Sandra H; Brook, Robert H
Context: For health care reform to succeed, health care systems need a professionally satisfied primary care workforce. Evidence suggests that primary care physicians are less satisfied than those in other medical specialties. Objective: To assess three domains of physician satisfaction by area of clinical practice among physicians practicing in an established integrated health system. Design: Cross-sectional online survey of all Southern California Permanente Medical Group (SCPMG) partner and associate physicians (N = 1034) who were primarily providing clinic-based care in 1 of 4 geographically and operationally distinct Kaiser Permanente Southern California Medical Centers. Main Outcome Measures: Primary measure was satisfaction with one’s day-to-day professional life as a physician. Secondary measures were satisfaction with quality of care and income. Results: Of the 636 physicians responding to the survey (61.5% response rate), on average, 8 in 10 SCPMG physicians reported satisfaction with their day-to-day professional life as a physician. Primary care physicians were only minimally less likely to report being satisfied (difference of 8.2–9.5 percentage points; p < 0.05) than were other physicians. Nearly all physicians (98.2%) were satisfied with the quality of care they are able to provide. Roughly 8 in 10 physicians reported satisfaction with their income. No differences were found between primary care physicians and those in other clinical practice areas regarding satisfaction with quality of care or income. Conclusion: It is possible to create practice settings, such as SCPMG, in which most physicians, including those in primary care, experience high levels of professional satisfaction. PMID:27057819
Gryschek, Guilherme; Pinto, Adriana Avanzi Marques
Mental health is one of the responsibilities of Brazil's Family Health system. This review of literature sought to understand what position Mental Health occupies in the practice of the Family Health Strategy. A search was made of the scientific literature in the database of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde), for the keywords: 'Mental Health'; 'Family Health'; 'Primary Healthcare'. The criteria for inclusion were: Brazilian studies from 2009 through 2012 that contributed to understanding of the following question: "How to insert Mental health care into the routine of the Family Health Strategy?" A total of 11 articles were found, which identified difficulties and strategies of the professionals in Primary Healthcare in relation to mental health. Referral, and medicalization, were common practices. Matrix Support is the strategy of training and skill acquisition for teams that enables new approaches in mental health in the context of Primary healthcare. It is necessary for Management of the Health System to take an active role in the construction of healthcare networks in mental health.
Kutcher, Stan; Chehil, Sonia; Roberts, Thorne
This paper describes a post-disaster mental health training program developed by the International Section of the Department of Psychiatry at Dalhousie University (Halifax, Canada) and delivered in Grenada after Hurricane Ivan struck the country in September 2004. This train-the-trainer program used an integrated community health model to help local health care providers develop the necessary skills for the identification and evidenced-based treatment of mental disorders occurring after a natural disaster. The approach also provided for ongoing, sustainable mental health care delivered in the community setting, as advocated by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. This approach is in contrast to the largely ineffective and costly vertical whole-population psychosocial counseling activities that have often been used in the Caribbean following natural disasters.
Summit-Portage Area Health Education Network, Akron, OH.
This document is intended to give health care providers interdisciplinary information concerning drugs, nutrition, and exercise to help them enhance health maintenance of the elderly. Prepared as part of Project NNED, (Nursing, Nutrition, Exercise, and Drugs), an integrated curriculum for health care providers of the elderly, the document includes…
O'Dwyer, Gisele; Reis, Daniela Carla de Souza; da Silva, Luciana Leite Gonçalves
The sanitary surveillance (Visa) performs several practices, on different objects and its actions are guided by principles and guidelines of the SUS. It was done a critical reflection on the interaction conditions of practice in Visa, with a constitutional proposition of the SUS: integral care. The analysis was based on the theory of structuration (Giddens) that considers mobilization of structural resources as dimensions of social interaction, which would justify the legitimacy exercised since the standards. Have been analyzed the following categories: Visa and its insertion within the SUS; the integral care and the Visa; and political impediments. The Visa has been organized by National Health Surveillance Agency. Nowadays it has as sanitary responsibilities, communication with society and health promotion. The proposal of the literature concerning integral care is based on the assistance issue. The organization of the services in the different federative entities is the sense of integral care most adopted by Visa. Political impediments focus on the institutional renewal, on the conflicts of interest arena, on the distance between formulated policies and established practices and gaps concerning work management and the insufficiency of financial support.
de Voursney, David; Huang, Larke N
The health home program established under the Affordable Care Act (2010) is derived from the medical home concept originated by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1968 to provide a care delivery model for children with special health care needs. As applied to behavioral health, health homes or medical homes have become increasingly adult-focused models, with a primary goal of coordinating physical and behavioral health care. For children and youth with serious emotional disorders, health homes must go beyond physical and behavioral health care to connect with other child-focused sectors, such as education, child welfare, and juvenile justice. Each of these systems have a significant role in helping children meet health and developmental goals, and should be included in integrated approaches to care for children and youth. Health homes for young people should incorporate a continuum of care from health promotion to the prevention and treatment of disorders. The challenge for child- and youth-focused health homes is to integrate effective services and supports into the settings where young people naturally exist, drawing on the best evidence from mental health, physical medicine, and other fields. What may be needed is not a health home as currently conceptualized for adults, nor a traditional medical home, but a family- and child-centered coordinated care and support delivery system supported by health homes or other arrangements. This article sets out a health home framework for children and youth with serious mental health conditions and their families, examining infrastructure and service delivery issues.
Waibel, Sina; Vargas, Ingrid; Aller, Marta-Beatriz; Gusmão, Renata; Henao, Diana; Vázquez, M. Luisa
Background Integrated health care networks (IHN) are promoted in numerous countries as a response to fragmented care delivery by providing a coordinated continuum of services to a defined population. However, evidence on their effectiveness and outcome is scarce, particularly considering continuity across levels of care; that is the patient's experience of connected and coherent care received from professionals of the different care levels over time. The objective was to analyse the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients’ perceptions of continuity of clinical management and information across care levels and continuity of relation in IHN of the public health care system of Catalonia. Methods A qualitative multiple case study was conducted, where the cases are COPD patients. A theoretical sample was selected in two stages: (1) study contexts: IHN and (2) study cases consisting of COPD patients. Data were collected by means of individual, semi-structured interviews to the patients, their general practitioners and pulmonologists and review of records. A thematic content analysis segmented by IHN and cases with a triangulation of sources and analysists was carried out. Results COPD patients of all networks perceived that continuity of clinical management was existent due to clear distribution of roles for COPD care across levels, rapid access to care during exacerbations and referrals to secondary care when needed; nevertheless, patients of some networks highlighted too long waiting times to non-urgent secondary care. Physicians generally agreed with patients, however, also indicated unclear distribution of roles, some inadequate referrals and long waiting times to primary care in some networks. Concerning continuity of information, patients across networks considered that their clinical information was transferred across levels via computer and that physicians also used informal communication mechanisms (e-mail, telephone); whereas physicians
Background Revitalising primary health care (PHC) and the need to reach MDG targets requires developing countries to adapt current evidence about effective health systems to their local context. Timor-Leste in one of the world’s newest developing nations, with high maternal and child mortality rates, malaria, TB and malnutrition. Mountainous terrain and lack of transport pose serious challenges for accessing health services and implementing preventive health strategies. Methods We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature and identified six components of an effective PHC system. These were mapped onto three countries’ PHC systems and present a case study from Timor-Leste’s Servisu Integrado du Saude Comunidade (SISCa) focussing on MDGs. Some of the challenges of implementing these into practice are shown through locally collected health system data. Results An effective PHC system comprises 1) Strong leadership and government in human rights for health; 2) Prioritisation of cost-effective interventions; 3) Establishing an interactive and integrated culture of community engagement; 4) Providing an integrated continuum of care at the community level; 5) Supporting skilled and equipped health workers at all levels of the health system; 6) Creating a systems cycle of feedback using data to inform health care. The implementation case study from Timor-Leste (population 1 million) shows that in its third year, limited country-wide data had been collected and the SISCa program provided over half a million health interactions at the village level. However, only half of SISCa clinics were functional across the country. Attendances included not only pregnant women and children, but also adults and older community members. Development partners have played a key role in supporting this implementation process. Conclusion The SISCa program is a PHC model implementing current best practice to reach remote communities in a new developing country. Despite limited
Mumghamba, Elifuraha G
This paper is based on a conference presentation made during the inauguration of the Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care (POHC) on November 27-28, 2012. The aim of this paper is to review how the POHC approach has been integrated into the dental curriculum, sharing the Tanzanian experience as a case presentation from a developing country. The burden of oral diseases worldwide is high, and the current oral health workforce is inadequate to meet the challenges. Curative oral health care is very costly and not accessible to the poor and minorities. To tackle the problem, the POHC approach rooted in primary health care that emphasizes equity, community involvement, prevention, appropriate technology and a multi-sectorial approach was developed and has been operating for more than 3 decades now. Execution of a comprehensive POHC requires a trained oral health workforce mix with essential competencies. For this case study, a literature search was done using the search engines subscribed to by the library of Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, including PubMed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect and Scopus, Wiley-Blackwell Interscience, Sage and the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) that gives access to Scirus and Google Scholar. Challenges are discussed with an emphasis more on addressing the common risk factors and determinants of oral health. Integration of the POHC approach in the dental curriculum for training a competent workforce is crucial in attaining better oral health. Resources are still a major challenge, and the impact of the POHC approach in the curriculum is yet to be evaluated.
Moulding, Richard; Grenier, Jean; Blashki, Grant; Ritchie, Pierre; Pirkis, Jane; Chomienne, Marie-Hélène
Canada and Australia share many similarities in terms of demographics and the structure of their health systems; however, there has been a divergence in policy approaches to public funding of psychological care. Recent policy reforms in Australia have substantially increased community access to psychologists for evidence-based treatment for high prevalence disorders. In Canada, access remains limited with the vast majority of consultations occurring in the private sector, which is beyond the reach of many individuals due to cost considerations. With the recent launch of the Mental Health Commission of Canada, it is timely to reflect on the context of the current Canadian and Australian systems of psychological care. We argue that integrating psychologists into the publicly-funded primary care system in Canada would be feasible, beneficial for consumers, and cost-effective.
Abstract Purpose This paper is to distribute first results of the EU Fifth Framework Project ‘Providing integrated health and social care for older persons—issues, problems and solutions’ (PROCARE—http://www.euro.centre.org/procare/). The project's first phase was to identify different approaches to integration as well as structural, organisational, economic and social-cultural factors and actors that constitute integrated and sustainable care systems. It also served to retrieve a number of experiences, model ways of working and demonstration projects in the participating countries which are currently being analysed in order to learn from success—or failure—and to develop policy recommendations for the local, national and European level. Theory The paper draws on existing definitions of integrated care in various countries and by various scholars. Given the context of an international comparative study it tries to avoid providing a single, ready-made definition but underlines the role of social care as part and parcel of this type of integrated care in the participating countries. Methods The paper is based on national reports from researchers representing ten organisations (university institutes, consultancy firms, research institutes, the public and the NGO sector) from 9 European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. Literature reviews made intensive use of grey literature and evaluation studies in the context of at least five model ways of working in each country. Results As a result of the cross-national overview an attempt to classify different approaches and definitions is made and indicators of relative importance of the different instruments used in integrating health and social care services are provided. Conclusions The cross-national overview shows that issues concerning co-ordination and integration of services are high on the agenda in most countries. Depending on the state of
Horsch, Alexander; Khoshsima, Daryoush
In order to estimate the impact of an innovation on a segment of the health care system under certain assumptions such as different possible regulatory or financing schemes (scenarios) prior to its diffusion, one must understand the dynamic behavior of the entire system with its essential control loops. Aim of this feasibility study was to explore the potential of System Dynamics (SD) modeling for this purpose. First, a UML-based modeling of an Innovative Care for Elderly (ICE) system for provision of integrated social and health care services to elderly living at home was done. Then monetary and quality of life aspects of the social and health care system were described by two coarse SD models. On these models the impact of the introduction of the ICE system under certain assumption (scenarios) was studied, based on data from the German Health Expenditure and German Federal Statistics Office. The simulations show plausible behavior, however, are not yet detailed enough for a final conclusion. A major problem is missing data for setting model parameters: estimates had to be made. In conclusion, SD modeling might be a useful method for studying impacts of the diffusion of an innovation in the health for elderly sector, but more research is needed.
Boon, Heather; Gaboury, Isabelle; Balneaves, Lynda G; Tsui, Teresa; Ng, Jeremy Y; Bozinovski, Natalie
The following are abstracts of research presentations given at the 9th INCAM Research Symposium. The theme for this year's conference was "Expanding Person-Centred Care through Integrative Health Research", which was held on November 18 and 19, 2016 at the Toronto Marriott Bloor Yorkville Hotel in Ontario, Canada. The abstracts are grouped under the categories of oral or poster presentation based on their presentation at the Symposium. For more information, please visit: http://www.iscmr.org/content/canadian-chapter---public.
van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; de Bont, Antoinette A; Huijsman, Robbert
We analysed the development of an integrated network from a learning perspective to see how care givers from different organisations were able to cross the professional and organisational boundaries that existed between them to make sure patients receive the right care, at the right moment, in the right place. We show how through a process of collective learning social contacts between health professionals increased and improved. These professionals learned to speak each other's language, learned how other professionals and organisations work and learned to look at the care process from a network perspective instead of only from a professional or organisational perspective. Through this learning process, they also experienced the limitations of standardizing knowledge in criteria, protocols and rules, and the value of direct contact for sharing information and knowledge, to ensure continuity in care.
Dickinson, W Perry
The articles in this supplement contain a wealth of practical information regarding the integration of behavioral health and primary care. This type of integration effort is complex and greatly benefits from support from outside organizations, as well as collaboration with other practices attempting similar work. This editorial extracts from these articles some of the key lessons learned regarding the integration of behavioral health and primary care for practices and for organizations that support practice transformation.
McWilliams, J. Michael; Chernew, Michael E.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Hamed, Pasha; Landon, Bruce E.
Background The Medicare accountable care organization (ACO) programs rely on delivery system integration and provider risk sharing to lower spending while improving quality of care. Methods Using 2009 Medicare claims and linked American Medical Association Group Practice data, we assigned 4.29 million beneficiaries to provider groups based on primary care use. We categorized group size according to eligibility thresholds for the Shared Savings (≥5,000 assigned beneficiaries) and Pioneer (≥15,000) ACO programs and distinguished hospital-based from independent groups. We compared spending and quality of care between larger and smaller provider groups and examined how size-related differences varied by 2 factors considered central to ACO performance: group primary care orientation (measured by the primary care share of large groups’ specialty mix) and provider risk sharing (measured by county health maintenance organization penetration and its relationship to financial risk accepted by different group types for managed care patients). Spending and quality of care measures included total medical spending, spending by type of service, 5 process measures of quality, and 30-day readmissions, all adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results Compared with smaller groups, larger hospital-based groups had higher total per-beneficiary spending in 2009 (mean difference: +$849), higher 30-day readmission rates (+1.3% percentage points), and similar performance on 4 of 5 process measures of quality. In contrast, larger independent physician groups performed better than smaller groups on all process measures and exhibited significantly lower per-beneficiary spending in counties where risk sharing by these groups was more common (−$426). Among all groups sufficiently large to participate in ACO programs, a strong primary care orientation was associated with lower spending, fewer readmissions, and better quality of diabetes care. Conclusions Spending
van Eeghen, Constance; Littenberg, Benjamin; Holman, Melissa D.; Kessler, Rodger
Background Primary care offices are integrating behavioral health (BH) clinicians into their practices. Implementing such a change is complex, difficult, and time consuming. Lean workflow analysis may be an efficient, effective, and acceptable method for integration. Objective Observe BH integration into primary care and measure its impact. Design Prospective, mixed methods case study in a primary care practice. Measurements Change in treatment initiation (referrals generating BH visits within the system). Secondary measures: primary care visits resulting in BH referrals, referrals resulting in scheduled appointments, time from referral to scheduled appointment, and time from referral to first visit. Providers and staff were surveyed on the Lean method. Results Referrals increased from 23 to 37/1000 visits (P<.001). Referrals resulted in more scheduled (60% to 74%, P<.001) and arrived visits (44% to 53%, P=.025). Time from referral to first scheduled visit decreased (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.60; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.37, 1.88; P<0.001) as did time to first arrived visit (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.14, 1.62; P=0.001). Surveys and comments were positive. Conclusions This pilot integration of BH showed significant improvements in treatment initiation and other measures. Strengths of Lean included workflow improvement, system perspective, and project success. Further evaluation is indicated. PMID:27170796
Shidhaye, Rahul; Shrivastava, Sanjay; Murhar, Vaibhav; Samudre, Sandesh; Ahuja, Shalini; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Patel, Vikram
Background The large treatment gap for mental disorders in India underlines the need for integration of mental health in primary care. Aims To operationalise the delivery of the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Plan interventions for priority mental disorders and to design an integrated mental healthcare plan (MHCP) comprising packages of care for primary healthcare in one district. Method Mixed methods were used including theory of change workshops, qualitative research to develop the MHCP and piloting of specific packages of care in a single facility. Results The MHCP comprises three enabling packages: programme management, capacity building and community mobilisation; and four service delivery packages: awareness for mental disorders, identification, treatment and recovery. Challenges were encountered in training primary care workers to improve identification and treatment. Conclusions There are a number of challenges to integrating mental health into primary care, which can be addressed through the injection of new resources and collaborative care models. PMID:26447172
Tresolini, C P; Shugars, D A; Lee, L S
Medical education has excelled in bringing a sound biomedical base to the practice of medicine; however, there is now growing interest in helping students and residents learn an integrated approach to health care that addresses the complex interaction of many factors influencing health and illness. The authors' purpose was to learn about how some medical schools teach students a more integrated approach to health care. They used a qualitative, multiple-case-study design and collected data through document review and interviews with faculty, administrators, students, and residents at five U.S. and Canadian medical schools, chosen for their reputed excellence in addressing an integrated approach to care. Visits to the schools were made in the spring of 1993. Data analysis focussed on the institutional factors associated with teaching such an approach and the ways in which the schools help students and residents learn about this approach. The interviewees described the strong presence of an institutional mission or philosophy that is unique to each school but that generally has a service-oriented, patient-centered perspective. They reported that the primary means for learning about an integrated approach was the attention, woven into the curriculum, to four relationships; physician-patient, physician-community, physician-other practitioners, and faculty-student. A broad-based shared mission or philosophy was important in focusing attention on the integration of biomedical and non-biomedical concerns and promoting a perspective that focuses outward toward the community and its people. The pervasive attention to the four relationships suggests that such attention is intimately related to each school's underlying mission or philosophy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Background Hospital HIV care and public sexual health care (a Sexual Health Care Centre) services were integrated to provide sexual health counselling and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing and treatment (sexual health care) to larger numbers of HIV patients. Services, need and usage were assessed using a patient perspective, which is a key factor for the success of service integration. Methods The study design was a one-group pre-test and post-test comparison of 447 HIV-infected heterosexual individuals and men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a hospital-based HIV centre serving the southern region of the Netherlands. The intervention offered comprehensive sexual health care using an integrated care approach. The main outcomes were intervention uptake, patients’ pre-test care needs (n=254), and quality rating. Results Pre intervention, 43% of the patients wanted to discuss sexual health (51% MSM; 30% heterosexuals). Of these patients, 12% to 35% reported regular coverage, and up to 25% never discussed sexual health topics at their HIV care visits. Of the patients, 24% used our intervention. Usage was higher among patients who previously expressed a need to discuss sexual health. Most patients who used the integrated services were new users of public health services. STIs were detected in 13% of MSM and in none of the heterosexuals. The quality of care was rated good. Conclusions The HIV patients in our study generally considered sexual health important, but the regular counselling and testing at the HIV care visit was insufficient. The integration of public health and hospital services benefited both care sectors and their patients by addressing sexual health questions, detecting STIs, and conducting partner notification. Successful sexual health care uptake requires increased awareness among patients about their care options as well as a cultural shift among care providers. PMID:23270463
Dueñas-Espín, Ivan; Vela, Emili; Pauws, Steffen; Bescos, Cristina; Cano, Isaac; Cleries, Montserrat; Contel, Joan Carles; de Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Kaye, Rachelle; Lahr, Maarten M H; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Moharra, Montserrat; Monterde, David; Mora, Joana; Nalin, Marco; Pavlickova, Andrea; Piera, Jordi; Ponce, Sara; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Schonenberg, Helen; Störk, Stefan; Tegner, Jesper; Velickovski, Filip; Westerteicher, Christoph; Roca, Josep
Objectives Population-based health risk assessment and stratification are considered highly relevant for large-scale implementation of integrated care by facilitating services design and case identification. The principal objective of the study was to analyse five health-risk assessment strategies and health indicators used in the five regions participating in the Advancing Care Coordination and Telehealth Deployment (ACT) programme (http://www.act-programme.eu). The second purpose was to elaborate on strategies toward enhanced health risk predictive modelling in the clinical scenario. Settings The five ACT regions: Scotland (UK), Basque Country (ES), Catalonia (ES), Lombardy (I) and Groningen (NL). Participants Responsible teams for regional data management in the five ACT regions. Primary and secondary outcome measures We characterised and compared risk assessment strategies among ACT regions by analysing operational health risk predictive modelling tools for population-based stratification, as well as available health indicators at regional level. The analysis of the risk assessment tool deployed in Catalonia in 2015 (GMAs, Adjusted Morbidity Groups) was used as a basis to propose how population-based analytics could contribute to clinical risk prediction. Results There was consensus on the need for a population health approach to generate health risk predictive modelling. However, this strategy was fully in place only in two ACT regions: Basque Country and Catalonia. We found marked differences among regions in health risk predictive modelling tools and health indicators, and identified key factors constraining their comparability. The research proposes means to overcome current limitations and the use of population-based health risk prediction for enhanced clinical risk assessment. Conclusions The results indicate the need for further efforts to improve both comparability and flexibility of current population-based health risk predictive modelling approaches
Amaddeo, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencia R.; Salazzari, Damiano; Gonzalez-Caballero, Juan Luis; Montagni, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Federico; Cetrano, Gaia; Chevreul, Karine; Kalseth, Jorid; Hagmair, Gisela; Straßmayr, Christa; Park, A-La; Sfetcu, Raluca; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos
Introduction Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe. Method The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool) combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS) to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a) Population Data; (b) the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES) Index; (c) the Mental Health System Checklist; (d) the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e) Geographical Data. Expected results The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain. Discussion The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care. PMID:27118959
Koskinen, Liisa; Äijö, Marja
VireTori, the interprofessional Empowerment Market, is both an easily accessible health service point for citizens and a provider of placements for students. This study describes undergraduate health care students' experiences of learning at VireTori, and explores how the integrative pedagogy model was executed during student placements. The integrative pedagogy model was developed for the educational framework of the placement. The participants of the study were 42 undergraduate students. The data were collected in 2010 through six focus-group interviews and background questionnaires, and were analysed using inductive content analysis. The results were categorised into personal, collaborative and organisational learning contexts and reported as the experiences of happy and unhappy students. Third-year students with a five-week or longer placement had more positive experiences than the fourth-year students with a one-week placement. There were great differences between the experiences of happy and unhappy students concerning professional roles, work orientations and scopes of action, and these were not entirely connected with the length of placement. Health care students can gain expertise through a practice placement in which the principles of integrative pedagogy have been adopted. Critique concerning the model and VireTori framework will be presented.
Evans, Jenna M; Daub, Stacey; Goldhar, Jodeme; Wojtak, Anne; Purbhoo, Dipti
As the research evidence on integrated care has evolved over the past two decades, so too has the critical role leaders have for the implementation, effectiveness and sustainability of integrated care. This paper explores what it means to be an effective leader of integrated care initiatives by drawing from the experiences of a leadership team in implementing an award-winning integrated care program in Toronto, Canada. Lessons learned are described and assessed against existing theory and research to identify which skills and behaviours facilitate effective leadership of integrated care initiatives.
Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.
We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…
Mecaskey, Jeffrey W; Ngirwamungu, Edith; Kilima, Peter M
Tanzania was among the first countries to launch a trachoma control program with support from the International Trachoma Initiative (ITI) using surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement (SAFE) strategy with azithromycin. More than one million children less than 10 years of age in Tanzania have active disease and an estimated 54,000 people have trichiasis. Since 2000, Tanzania has implemented major health sector reform that have been carried out in three phases in 114 districts. A key aspect of the reform process is the policy of developing locally distributed essential health packages that then serve as the basis of the comprehensive council health plan. In 2002, the Tanzania Ministry of Health in collaboration with the ITI, the World Bank, and the office of the President embarked on a program of information for districts where trachoma is endemic but where no control program has been launched. Clear goals for the trachoma control program have been reviewed and discussed by the districts and as a result trachoma control was integrated into the comprehensive council health plans for 2003. This is expected to expand in 2004 and 2005. This work is presented as a model for the support and integration of disease-specific control efforts into the primary health care system.
Gold, Jeffrey A; Tutsch, Alycia S R; Gorsuch, Adriel; Mohan, Vishnu
With the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR), there is a growing appreciation for the central role they play in clinical decision making and team communication, with many studies documenting new safety issues with integration of the EHR into the clinical enterprise. To study these issues, we created a high-fidelity simulation instance of our clinical EHR. In this paper, we describe the impact of integrating the EHR into high-fidelity, interprofessional intensive care unit (ICU) simulations, and the errors induced. We found a number of safety issues directly related to the EHR including alert fatigue, negative impacts on interprofessional communication, and problems with selective data gathering, and these issues were present for all members of the interprofessional team. Through successful integration of the EHR into high-fidelity team-based simulations, we now have an infrastructure to focus educational initiative and deploy informatics solutions to mitigate these safety issues.
Yamamoto, Yuki; Harada, Shingo; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Honda, Wataru; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu
Real-time health care monitoring may enable prediction and prevention of disease or improve treatment by diagnosing illnesses in the early stages. Wearable, comfortable, sensing devices are required to allow continuous monitoring of a person's health; other important considerations for this technology are device flexibility, low-cost components and processing, and multifunctionality. To address these criteria, we present a flexible, multifunctional printed health care sensor equipped with a three-axis acceleration sensor to monitor physical movement and motion. Because the device is designed to be attached directly onto the skin, it has a modular design with two detachable components: One device component is nondisposable, whereas the other one is disposable and designed to be worn in contact with the skin. The design of this disposable sensing sheet takes into account hygiene concerns and low-cost materials and fabrication methods as well as features integrated, printed sensors to monitor for temperature, acceleration, electrocardiograms, and a kirigami structure, which allows for stretching on skin. The reusable component of the device contains more expensive device components, features an ultraviolet light sensor that is controlled by carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, and has a mechanically flexible and stable liquid metal contact for connection to the disposable sensing sheet. After characterizing the electrical properties of the transistors and flexible sensors, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept device that is capable of health care monitoring combined with detection of physical activity, showing that this device provides an excellent platform for the development of commercially viable, wearable health care monitors.
Yamamoto, Yuki; Harada, Shingo; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Honda, Wataru; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu
Real-time health care monitoring may enable prediction and prevention of disease or improve treatment by diagnosing illnesses in the early stages. Wearable, comfortable, sensing devices are required to allow continuous monitoring of a person’s health; other important considerations for this technology are device flexibility, low-cost components and processing, and multifunctionality. To address these criteria, we present a flexible, multifunctional printed health care sensor equipped with a three-axis acceleration sensor to monitor physical movement and motion. Because the device is designed to be attached directly onto the skin, it has a modular design with two detachable components: One device component is nondisposable, whereas the other one is disposable and designed to be worn in contact with the skin. The design of this disposable sensing sheet takes into account hygiene concerns and low-cost materials and fabrication methods as well as features integrated, printed sensors to monitor for temperature, acceleration, electrocardiograms, and a kirigami structure, which allows for stretching on skin. The reusable component of the device contains more expensive device components, features an ultraviolet light sensor that is controlled by carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, and has a mechanically flexible and stable liquid metal contact for connection to the disposable sensing sheet. After characterizing the electrical properties of the transistors and flexible sensors, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept device that is capable of health care monitoring combined with detection of physical activity, showing that this device provides an excellent platform for the development of commercially viable, wearable health care monitors. PMID:28138532
This research focuses on identifying the information needs of health professionals, social workers and staff from voluntary agencies, who work together in the provision of services for people with a mental illness. The aim is to provide a fully integrated library and information service for mental health and social care. A number of recent government reports have prompted this research. These have culminated in the publication of the National Service Framework for Mental Health. It was decided to conduct a qualitative study using 17 semistructured interviews with individuals and multi-professional groups. A thematic analysis highlighted a number of key themes including: information need, information seeking behaviour and information flows. Results have indicated that because of the dispersed nature of mental health services, across primary and secondary care, and from statutory and non-statutory organisations, information technology is viewed as the only realistic vehicle to provide the required information. As specialist mental health trusts are configured, covering wider geographical areas, this can only increase the reliance on information technology, for information access and information sharing.
Pietiläinen, Ville; Salmi, Ilkka
Purpose This study aims to take a discursive view on positive leadership (PL). A positive approach has gained momentum in recent years as appropriate leadership practices are implemented in organizations. Despite the turn toward discursive approaches in organization studies, there is insufficient evidence supporting PL as a socially constructed experience. Design/methodology/approach The present study addresses an integrative discourse perspective for capturing the PL concept as a social process within the public health-care context. Findings Four meanings of PL are highlighted: role-taking, servicing, balancing and deciphering. Research limitations/implications The meanings shift the emphasis of certain PL definitions to a contextual interpretation. For scholars, the perspective demonstrates a multidimensional process approach in the desired organizational context as a counterbalance to one unanimously agreed-upon PL definition. Practical implications For leaders, an integrative discourse perspective offers tools for comprehending PL as a process: how to identify, negotiate and reconcile various PL meanings. Originality/value An integrative discourse perspective provides a novel perspective capturing the PL concept within the public health-care field.
Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Maria Y Y; Lee, Ares C H; Chan, Lawrence W C
With the growing computing capability of mobile phones, a handy mobile controller is developed for accessing the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to enhance image management for clinicians with nearly no restriction in time and location using various wireless communication modes. The PACS is an integrated system for the distribution and archival of medical images that are acquired by different imaging modalities such as CT (computed tomography) scanners, CR (computed radiography) units, DR (digital radiography) units, US (ultrasonography) scanners, and MR (magnetic resonance) scanners. The mobile controller allows image management of the PACS including display, worklisting, query and retrieval of medical images in DICOM format. In this mobile system, a server program is developed in a PACS Web server which serves as an interface for client programs in the mobile phone and the enterprise PACS for image distribution in hospitals. The application processing is performed on the server side to reduce computational loading in the mobile device. The communication method of mobile phones can be adapted to multiple wireless environments in Hong Kong. This allows greater feasibility to accommodate the rapidly changing communication technology. No complicated computer hardware or software is necessary. Using a mobile phone embedded with the mobile controller client program, this system would serve as a tool for heath care and medical professionals to improve the efficiency of the health care services by speedy delivery of image information. This is particularly important in case of urgent consultation, and it allows health care workers better use of the time for patient care.
Welcome, Menizibeya Osain
Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical
Abstract The current Labour Government has embarked on radical public sector reform in England. A so-called ‘Modernisation Agenda’ has been developed that is encapsulated in the NHS Plan—a document that details a long-term vision for health care. This plan involves a five-fold strategy: investment through greater public funding; quality assurance; improving access; service integration and inter-professional working; and providing a public health focus. The principles of Labour's vision have been broadly supported. However, achieving its aims appears reliant on two key factors. First, appropriate resources are required to create capacity, particularly management capacity, to enable new functions to develop. Second, promoting access and service integration requires the development of significant co-ordination, collaboration and networking between agencies and individuals. This is particularly important for health and social care professionals. Their historically separate professions suggest that a significant period of change management is required to allow new roles and partnerships to evolve. In an attempt to secure delivery of its goals, however, the Government has placed the emphasis on further organisational restructuring. In doing so, the Government may have missed the key challenges faced in delivering its NHS Plan. As this paper argues, cultural and behavioural change is probably a far more appropriate and important requirement for success than a centrally directed approach that emphasises the rearrangement of structural furniture. PMID:16896369
Green, Lawrence W; Brancati, Frederick L; Albright, Ann
Type 2 diabetes imposes a large and growing burden on the public’s health. This burden, combined with the growing evidence for primary prevention from randomized controlled trials of structured lifestyle programs leads to recommendations to include caloric reduction, increased physical activity and specific assistance to patients in problem solving to achieve modest weight loss as well as pharmacotherapy. These recommendations demand exploration of new ways to implement such primary prevention strategies through more integrated community organization, medical practice and policy. The US experience with control of tobacco use and high blood pressure offers valuable lessons for policy, such as taxation on products, and for practice in a variety of settings, such as coordination of referrals for lifestyle supports. We acknowledge also some notable exceptions to their generalizability. This paper presents possible actions proposed by an expert panel, summarized in Table 1 as recommendations for immediate action, strategic action and research. The collaboration of primary care and public health systems will be required to make many of these recommendations a reality. This paper also provides information on the progress made in recent years by the Division of Diabetes Translation at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to implement or facilitate such integration of primary care and public health for primary prevention. PMID:22399542
Moultrie, Nicolette M.; Heckman, Barbara; Gansky, Stuart A.; Potter, Michael B.; Walsh, Margaret M.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Applying topical fluoride varnish (FV) to young children’s teeth is an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing early childhood caries (ECC). In 2008, the pediatricians at Contra Costa Regional Medical Center and Health Centers became concerned that our low-income pediatric patients had high rates of ECC and very limited access to dental care. We formed an interdisciplinary safety net-academic partnership with the University of California San Francisco to implement routine FV applications, along with oral health education, screening, and referral during well-child exams for children aged 1 to 5 years. METHODS: Over 3 years, the team developed clinical policies, educational materials, billing, and support systems to facilitate implementation in the primary care setting. A pilot study was performed in 2 health centers; improvements to the implementation plan were made. A team of local providers and academic partners performed system-wide didactic and hands-on trainings and spread this intervention to the remaining 6 health centers. Continued improvement strategies and provider feedback were pursued with each measurement cycle. RESULTS: In August 2012, 95% of all children aged 1 to 5 years who were seen for well-child checkups received a FV application and oral health education during their primary care well visit. Repeat measurement in April 2014 showed a sustained rate of 97% application of FV for children in this age group seen for well-child visits. CONCLUSIONS: With institutional commitment and an academic partnership, a safety net institution can integrate routine FV applications and oral health interventions into well-child visits to reduce ECC. PMID:26647374
Chin, Jean Lau; Yee, Barbara W K; Banks, Martha E
As health care reform promises to change the landscape of health care delivery, its potential impact on women's health looms large. Whereas health and mental health systems have historically been fragmented, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates integrated health care as the strategy for reform. Current systems fragment women's health not only in their primary care, mental health, obstetrical, and gynecological needs, but also in their roles as the primary caregivers for parents, spouses, and children. Changes in reimbursement, and in restructuring financing and care coordination systems through accountable care organizations and medical homes, will potentially improve women's health care.
Paice, Elisabeth; Hasan, Samia
In September 2012 the North West London Integrated Care Plot held a conference for clinical educators. The aim was to reach a consensus about what learning clinical staff needed in order to contribute to an integrated care system. The conference was attended by 81 clinical educators from a range of backgrounds. The participants decided that competence in the following three domains was essential: 1. Patient and user engagement and empowerment. 2. Collaboration with other health and social care professionals. 3. Leading improvement in the system of care. Educational interventions to facilitate learning should wherever possible be interprofessional, team based and experiential. The views of patients, carers and users should inform the education. Assessment should take into account real-life performance through multi-source feedback and observed practice. Evaluation of the educational intervention should take into account any impact on the patient and user experience as well as clinical outcome measures.
Patel, Kavita; Boutwell, Amy; Brockmann, Bradley W; Rich, Josiah D
Under the Affordable Care Act, up to thirteen million adults have the opportunity to obtain health insurance through an expansion of the Medicaid program. A great deal of effort is currently being devoted to eligibility verification, outreach, and enrollment. We look beyond these important first-phase challenges to consider what people who are transitioning back to the community after incarceration need to receive effective care. It will be possible to deliver cost-effective, high-quality care to this population only if assistance is coordinated between the correctional facility and the community, and across diverse treatment and support organizations in the community. This article discusses several examples of successful coordination of care for formerly incarcerated people, such as Project Bridge and the Community Partnerships and Supportive Services for HIV-Infected People Leaving Jail (COMPASS) program in Rhode Island and the Transitions Clinic program that operates in ten US cities. To promote broader adoption of successful models, we offer four policy recommendations for overcoming barriers to integrating individuals into sustained, community-based care following their release from incarceration.
Petersen, Inge; Fairall, Lara; Bhana, Arvin; Kathree, Tasneem; Selohilwe, One; Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Faris, Gill; Breuer, Erica; Sibanyoni, Nomvula; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram
Background In South Africa, the escalating prevalence of chronic illness and its high comorbidity with mental disorders bring to the fore the need for integrating mental health into chronic care at district level. Aims To develop a district mental healthcare plan (MHCP) in South Africa that integrates mental healthcare for depression, alcohol use disorders and schizophrenia into chronic care. Method Mixed methods using a situation analysis, qualitative key informant interviews, theory of change workshops and piloting of the plan in one health facility informed the development of the MHCP. Results Collaborative care packages for the three conditions were developed to enable integration at the organisational, facility and community levels, supported by a human resource mix and implementation tools. Potential barriers to the feasibility of implementation at scale were identified. Conclusions The plan leverages resources and systems availed by the emerging chronic care service delivery platform for the integration of mental health. This strengthens the potential for future scale up. PMID:26447176
Temu, Florence; Leonhardt, Marcus; Carter, Jane; Thiam, Sylla
Sub-Saharan African countries now face the double burden of Non Communicable and Communicable Diseases. This situation represents a major threat to fragile health systems and emphasises the need for innovative integrative approaches to health care delivery. Health services need to be reorganised to address populations’ needs holistically and effectively leverage resources in already resource-limited settings. Access and delivery of quality health care should be reinforced and implemented at primary health care level within the framework of health system strengthening. Competencies need to be developed around services provided rather than specific diseases. New models of integration within the health sector and other sectors should be explored and further evidence generated to inform policy and practice to combat the double burden. PMID:25419329
Rajkumar, Rajasekaran; Sriman Narayana Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula
Objectives The existing processes of health care systems where data collection requires a great deal of labor with high-end tasks to retrieve and analyze information, are usually slow, tedious, and error prone, which restrains their clinical diagnostic and monitoring capabilities. Research is now focused on integrating cloud services with P2P JXTA to identify systematic dynamic process for emergency health care systems. The proposal is based on the concepts of a community cloud for preventative medicine, to help promote a healthy rural community. We investigate the approaches of patient health monitoring, emergency care, and an ambulance alert alarm (AAA) under mobile cloud-based telecare or community cloud controller systems. Methods Considering permanent mobile users, an efficient health promotion method is proposed. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. The performance was evaluated from September 2011 to July 2012. A total of 1,856,454 cases were transported and referred to hospital, identified with health problems, and were monitored. We selected all the peer groups and the control server N0 which controls N1, N2, and N3 proxied peer groups. The hospital cloud controller maintains the database of the patients through a JXTA network. Results Among 1,856,454 transported cases with beneficiaries of 1,712,877 cases there were 1,662,834 lives saved and 8,500 cases transported per day with 104,530 transported cases found to be registered in a JXTA network. Conclusion The registered case histories were referred from the Hospital community cloud (HCC). SMS messages were sent from node N0 to the relay peers which connected to the N1, N2, and N3 nodes, controlled by the cloud controller through a JXTA network. PMID:24298441
Findley, Sally; Matos, Sergio; Hicks, April; Chang, Ji; Reich, Douglas
Community health workers are ideally suited to the care coordination niche within the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) team, but there are few case studies detailing how to accomplish this integration. This qualitative study documents how community health workers (CHWs) were integrated into a PCMH in South Bronx, New York. Results show that integration was linked to clear definition of their care coordination role within the care team, meticulous recruitment, training and supervision by a senior CHW, shared leadership of the care management team, and documented value for money. By helping the team understand patients' backgrounds, constraints, and preferences, they helped everyone genuinely focus on the patient.
Background Prevailing health care structures and cultures restrict intraprofessional communication, inhibiting knowledge dissemination and impacting the translation of research into practice. Virtual communities may facilitate professional networking and knowledge sharing in and between health care disciplines. Objectives This study aimed to review the literature on the use of social media by health care professionals in developing virtual communities that facilitate professional networking, knowledge sharing, and evidence-informed practice. Methods An integrative literature review was conducted to identify research published between 1990 and 2015. Search strategies sourced electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL), snowball references, and tables of contents of 3 journals. Papers that evaluated social media use by health care professionals (unless within an education framework) using any research design (except for research protocols or narrative reviews) were included. Standardized data extraction and quality assessment tools were used. Results Overall, 72 studies were included: 44 qualitative (including 2 ethnographies, 26 qualitative descriptive, and 1 Q-sort) and 20 mixed-methods studies, and 8 literature reviews. The most common methods of data collection were Web-based observation (n=39), surveys (n=23), interviews (n=11), focus groups (n=2), and diaries (n=1). Study quality was mixed. Social media studied included Listservs (n=22), Twitter (n=18), general social media (n=17), discussion forums (n=7), Web 2.0 (n=3), virtual community of practice (n=3), wiki (n=1), and Facebook (n=1). A range of health care professionals were sampled in the studies, including physicians (n=24), nurses (n=15), allied health professionals (n=14), followed by health care professionals in general (n=8), a multidisciplinary clinical specialty area (n=9), and midwives (n=2). Of 36 virtual communities, 31 were monodiscipline for a discrete clinical specialty. Population uptake by the
The paradox of embedded agency addresses the question of how embedded agents are able to conceive of new ideas and practices and then implement them in institutionalized organizations if social structures exert so powerful an influence on behavior, and agents operate within a framework of institutional constraints. This article proposes that dual embedded agency may provide an explanation of the paradox. The article draws from an ethnographic study that examined the ways in which dual-trained physicians, namely medical doctors trained also in some modality of complementary and alternative medicine, integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the biomedical fortress of mainstream health-care organizations. Participant observations were conducted during the years 2006-2011. The observed physicians were found to be embedded in two diverse medical cultures and to have a hybrid professional identity that comprised two sets of health-care values. Seeking to introduce new ideas and practices associated with complementary and alternative medicine to medical institutions, they maneuvered among the constraints of institutional structures while using these very structures, in an isomorphic mode of action, as a platform for launching complementary and alternative medicine practices and values. They drew on the complementary and alternative medicine philosophical principle of interconnectedness and interdependency of seemingly polar opposites or contrary forces and acted to achieve change by means of nonadversarial strategies. By addressing the structure-agency dichotomy, this study contributes to the literature on change in institutionalized health-care organizations. It likewise contributes both theoretically and empirically to the study of integrative medicine and to the further development of this relatively new area of inquiry within the sociology of medicine.
Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida
The aim of this study is to identify ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care and resources for coping based on publications on the subject. An integrative literature review was performed between the months of October and November 2013, using the databases: BDTD, CINAHL, LILACS, MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, RCAAP and SciELO. Articles, dissertations and theses published in Portuguese, English and Spanish were included, totalling 31 studies published from 1992 to 2013. This analysis resulted in four categories: ethical problems in the relationship between team members, ethical problems in the relationship with the user, ethical problems in health services management and resources for coping with ethical problems. Results showed that nurses need to be prepared to face ethical problems, emphasizing the importance of ethics education during the education process before and during professional practice to enhance the development of ethical sensitivity and competence for problem resolution.
Warne, T; McAndrew, S; King, M; Holland, K
The sustained modernisation of the UK primary health care service has resulted in individuals and organisations having to develop more integrated ways of working. This has resulted in changes to the structure and functioning of primary care organisations, changes to the traditional workforce, and an increase in scope of primary care practice. These changes have contributed to what for many staff has become a constantly turbulent organisational and practice environment. Data from a three-year project, commissioned by the North West Development Agency is used to explore how staff involved in these changes dealt with this turbulence. Three hundred and fifty staff working within primary care participated in the study. A multimethods approach was used which facilitated an iterative analysis and data collection process. Thematic analysis revealed a high degree of congruence between the perceptions of all staff groups with evidence of a generally well-articulated, but often rhetorical view of the organisational and professional factors involved in how these changes were experienced. This rhetoric was used by individuals as a way of containing both the good and bad elements of their experience. This paper discusses how these defense mechanisms need to be recognised and understood by managers so that a more supportive organisational culture is developed.
King, Gillian; Thomson, Nicole; Rothstein, Mitchell; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Parker, Kathryn
Purpose One of the major issues faced by academic health science centers (AHSCs) is the need for mechanisms to foster the integration of research, clinical, and educational activities to achieve the vision of evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) and optimal client care. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach This paper synthesizes literature on organizational learning and collaboration, evidence-informed organizational decision making, and learning-based organizations to derive insights concerning the nature of effective workplace learning in AHSCs. Findings An evidence-informed model of collaborative workplace learning is proposed to aid the alignment of research, clinical, and educational functions in AHSCs. The model articulates relationships among AHSC academic functions and sub-functions, cross-functional activities, and collaborative learning processes, emphasizing the importance of cross-functional activities in enhancing collaborative learning processes and optimizing EIDM and client care. Cross-functional activities involving clinicians, researchers, and educators are hypothesized to be a primary vehicle for integration, supported by a learning-oriented workplace culture. These activities are distinct from interprofessional teams, which are clinical in nature. Four collaborative learning processes are specified that are enhanced in cross-functional activities or teamwork: co-constructing meaning, co-learning, co-producing knowledge, and co-using knowledge. Practical implications The model provides an aspirational vision and insight into the importance of cross-functional activities in enhancing workplace learning. The paper discusses the conceptual and empirical basis to the model, its contributions and limitations, and implications for AHSCs. Originality/value The model's potential utility for health care is discussed, with implications for organizational culture and the promotion of cross-functional activities.
Saw, Pui San; Nissen, Lisa M; Freeman, Christopher; Wong, Pei Se; Mak, Vivienne
Background Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs) in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists’ involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers’ views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Methods A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. Results A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1) pharmacists’ role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2) readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3) willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4) concerns about GPs’ resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy information on the use and potential side effects of medications and screening for medication misadventure. The potential increase in costs passed on to consumers and GPs’ reluctance were perceived as barriers to integration. Conclusion This study provides insights into consumers’ perspectives on the roles of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Consumers generally supported pharmacist integration into private primary health care clinics. However, for pharmacists to expand their capacity in
Chung, Vincent C. H.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Hong, Lau Chun; Griffiths, Sian M.
Context Inteprofessional collaboration (IPC) between biomedically trained doctors (BMD) and traditional, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners (TCAMP) is an essential element in the development of successful integrative healthcare (IHC) services. This systematic review aims to identify organizational strategies that would facilitate this process. Methods We searched 4 international databases for qualitative studies on the theme of BMD-TCAMP IPC, supplemented with a purposive search of 31 health services and TCAM journals. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using published checklist. Results of each included study were synthesized using a framework approach, with reference to the Structuration Model of Collaboration. Findings Thirty-seven studies of acceptable quality were included. The main driver for developing integrative healthcare was the demand for holistic care from patients. Integration can best be led by those trained in both paradigms. Bridge-building activities, positive promotion of partnership and co-location of practices are also beneficial for creating bonding between team members. In order to empower the participation of TCAMP, the perceived power differentials need to be reduced. Also, resources should be committed to supporting team building, collaborative initiatives and greater patient access. Leadership and funding from central authorities are needed to promote the use of condition-specific referral protocols and shared electronic health records. More mature IHC programs usually formalize their evaluation process around outcomes that are recognized both by BMD and TCAMP. Conclusions The major themes emerging from our review suggest that successful collaborative relationships between BMD and TCAMP are similar to those between other health professionals, and interventions which improve the effectiveness of joint working in other healthcare teams with may well be transferable to promote better partnership between
Guiscafré, H.; Martínez, H.; Palafox, M.; Villa, S.; Espinosa, P.; Bojalil, R.; Gutiérrez, G.
This study had two aims: to describe the activities of a clinical training unit set up for the integrated management of sick children, and to evaluate the impact of the unit after its first four years of operation. The training unit was set up in the outpatient ward of a government hospital and was staffed by a paediatrician, a family medicine physician, two nurses and a nutritionist. The staff kept a computerized database for all patients seen and they were supervised once a month. During the first three years, the demand for first-time medical consultation increased by 477% for acute respiratory infections (ARI) and 134% for acute diarrhoea (AD), with an average annual increase of demand for medical care of 125%. Eighty-nine per cent of mothers who took their child for consultation and 85% of mothers who lived in the catchment area and had a deceased child received training on how to recognize alarming signs in a sick child. Fifty-eight per cent of these mothers were evaluated as being properly trained. Eighty-five per cent of primary care physicians who worked for government institutions (n = 350) and 45% of private physicians (n = 90) were also trained in the recognition and proper management of AD and ARI. ARI mortality in children under 1 year of age in the catchment area (which included about 25,000 children under 5 years of age) decreased by 43.2% in three years, while mortality in children under 5 years of age decreased by 38.8%. The corresponding figures for AD mortality reduction were 36.3% and 33.6%. In this same period, 11 clinical research protocols were written. In summary, we learned that a clinical training unit for integrated child care management was an excellent way to offer in-service training for primary health care physicians. PMID:11417039
... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Home Health Care Home health care helps older adults live independently for as long ... need for long-term nursing home care. Home health care may include occupational and physical therapy, speech therapy, ...
Øvretveit, John; Hansson, Johan; Brommels, Mats
Research and citizens have noted failures in coordinating health and social services and professionals, and the need to address this issue to realize benefits from increasing specialisation. Different methods have been proposed and one has been structural integration of separate services within one organisation. This paper reports an empirical longitudinal study of the development of an integrated health and social care organisation in Sweden combining service provision, purchasing and political governance for a defined population. The study found a combination of influences contributed to the development of this new organisation. The initial structural macro-integration facilitated, but did not of itself result in better clinical care coordination. Other actions were needed to modify the specialised systems and cultures which the organisation inherited. The study design was not able to establish with any degree of certainty whether better patient and cost outcomes resulted, but it did find structural and process changes which make improved outcomes likely. The study concludes that coordinated actions at different levels and of different types were needed to achieve care coordination for patients and that a phased approach was necessary where management capacity and outside expertise are limited.
Psek, Wayne; Davis, F. Daniel; Gerrity, Gloria; Stametz, Rebecca; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Henninger, Debra; Sellers, Dorothy; Darer, Jonathan
Introduction: Healthcare leaders need operational strategies that support organizational learning for continued improvement and value generation. The learning health system (LHS) model may provide leaders with such strategies; however, little is known about leaders’ perspectives on the value and application of system-wide operationalization of the LHS model. The objective of this project was to solicit and analyze senior health system leaders’ perspectives on the LHS and learning activities in an integrated delivery system. Methods: A series of interviews were conducted with 41 system leaders from a broad range of clinical and administrative areas across an integrated delivery system. Leaders’ responses were categorized into themes. Findings: Ten major themes emerged from our conversations with leaders. While leaders generally expressed support for the concept of the LHS and enhanced system-wide learning, their concerns and suggestions for operationalization where strongly aligned with their functional area and strategic goals. Discussion: Our findings suggests that leaders tend to adopt a very pragmatic approach to learning. Leaders expressed a dichotomy between the operational imperative to execute operational objectives efficiently and the need for rigorous evaluation. Alignment of learning activities with system-wide strategic and operational priorities is important to gain leadership support and resources. Practical approaches to addressing opportunities and challenges identified in the themes are discussed. Conclusion: Continuous learning is an ongoing, multi-disciplinary function of a health care delivery system. Findings from this and other research may be used to inform and prioritize system-wide learning objectives and strategies which support reliable, high value care delivery. PMID:27683668
Richardson, Laura P; McCarty, Carolyn A; Radovic, Ana; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff
Despite the recognition that behavioral and medical health conditions are frequently intertwined, the existing health care system divides management for these issues into separate settings. This separation results in increased barriers to receipt of care and contributes to problems of underdetection, inappropriate diagnosis, and lack of treatment engagement. Adolescents and young adults with mental health conditions have some of the lowest rates of treatment for their conditions of all age groups. Integration of behavioral health into primary care settings has the potential to address these barriers and improve outcomes for adolescents and young adults. In this paper, we review the current research literature for behavioral health integration in the adolescent and young adult population and make recommendations for needed research to move the field forward.
For many years there has been a separation between purchasing and provision of services in the English National Health Service (NHS). Many studies report that this commissioning function has been weak: purchasers have had little impact or power in negotiations with large acute providers, and have had limited strategic control over the delivery of care. Nevertheless, commissioning has become increasingly embedded in the NHS structure since the arrival of Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) in 2012. Recently, some of these CCGs have focused on how they can contract and commission in different ways to stimulate greater collaboration across providers. This paper examines experiences of commissioning and contracting for integrated care in the English NHS, based on a series of national-level interviews and case studies of five health economies that are implementing novel contracting models. The cases illustrated here demonstrate early experiments to drive innovation through contracting in the NHS that have largely relied on the vision of individual teams or leaders, in combination with external legal, procurement and actuarial support. It is unlikely that this approach will be sustainable or replicable across the country or internationally, despite the best intentions of commissioners. Designing and operating novel contractual approaches will require considerable determination, alongside advanced skills in procurement, contract management and commissioning. The cost of developing new contractual approaches is high, and as the process is difficult and resource-intensive, it is likely that dedicated teams or programs will be required to drive significant improvement.
Long, James M., III
The capacity to access, integrate, and analyze demographic, financial, and clinical data within a regional health care system represents an opportunity to ensure and enhance clinical quality and to reduce costs in a carefully planned and controlled manner. Properly used, such capability should improve health care delivery for local populations and provide the institution with a level of integration of services achieved by few health care organizations. The Baptist Health System (BHS), based in Birmingham, Alabama, is currently standardizing operating procedures among its various components and implementing a comprehensive, enterprise-wide information network. Clinical quality improvement and case management are being promulgated throughout the enterprise using a continuum-of-care model developed internally. Having successfully completed a pilot project using teleconferences for core lectures in internal medicine between two large teaching hospitals, BHS is taking advantage of enterprise- wide teleconference capability using a combination of fiberoptic (T3) and standard digital telephone (T1) transmission to speed installation and reduce the cost of implementation into two office buildings and eleven hospitals. The information system will serve to prepare BHS for the advent of managed care and other anticipated changes in health care, while ensuring continued ability to deliver high quality, cost-effective medical and health-related services.
Kornhaber, Rachel; Walsh, Kenneth; Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim
Therapeutic interpersonal relationships are the primary component of all health care interactions that facilitate the development of positive clinician–patient experiences. Therapeutic interpersonal relationships have the capacity to transform and enrich the patients’ experiences. Consequently, with an increasing necessity to focus on patient-centered care, it is imperative for health care professionals to therapeutically engage with patients to improve health-related outcomes. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO databases of peer-reviewed research, limited to the English language with search terms developed to reflect therapeutic interpersonal relationships between health care professionals and patients in the acute care setting. This study found that therapeutic listening, responding to patient emotions and unmet needs, and patient centeredness were key characteristics of strategies for improving therapeutic interpersonal relationships. PMID:27789958
Williams, Paul M
This paper considers integration of health and social care as an exercise in learning and knowledge management (KM). Integration assembles diverse actors and organisations in a collective effort to design and deliver new service models underpinned by multidisciplinary working and generic practice. Learning and KM are integral to this process. A critical review of the literature is undertaken to identify theoretical insights and models in this field, albeit grounded mainly in a private sector context. The findings from a research study involving two integrated services are then used to explore the role of, and approach to, learning and KM. This case study research was qualitative in nature and involved an interrogation of relevant documentary material, together with 25 in-depth interviews with a cross-section of strategic managers and professionals undertaken between March and May 2011. The evidence emerging indicated no planned strategies for learning and KM, but rather, interventions and mechanisms at different levels to support integration processes. These included formal activities, particularly around training and appraisal, but also informal ones within communities of practice and networking. Although structural enablers such as a co-location of facilities and joint appointments were important, the value of trust and inter-personal relationships was highlighted especially for tacit knowledge exchange. The infrastructure for learning and KM was constructed around a collaborative culture characterised by a coherent strategic framework; clarity of purpose based on new models of service; a collaborative leadership approach that was facilitative and distributed; and, a focus on team working to exploit the potential of multidisciplinary practice, generic working and integrated management. The discussion and conclusion use Nonaka's knowledge conversation model to reflect on the research findings, to comment on the absence of an explicit approach to learning and KM
PennState Geisinger Health System, Hershey, Pa., conducted an extensive ad agency search after its inception in 1997. The integrated health care delivery system needed to introduce its brand to an audience that was confused by the wide array of available health care options. BVK/McDonald, Milwaukee, the agency selected, has created a branding campaign that revolves around the tag-line "The power of health." PennState Geisinger will tabulate the results of BVK/McDonald's multi-million dollar campaign in 2000; at that time it will know whether its selection committee chose wisely.
Jewell, Tony; Wilkinson, Jane
Wales is developing a unique integrated system of governance to improve public health, which is diverging from some recent developments in the rest of the UK but shares many common features. There is a focus on strengthening collaborative working and co-ordination between bodies inspecting, regulating and auditing health and social care. Systems are being developed that are proportionate to the level of risk, eliminate unnecessary burdens of external review and support the improvement of services for patients, service users and carers. This is consistent with the Assembly Government's aim to improve the way that public services are delivered in Wales, including strengthening input from the public in the planning, delivery and reporting of regulation and inspection work. The test in the future will be how far we can demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the added value from our uniquely Welsh approach, built as it is on devolution and the aspirations for small-country governance.
Chehade, M J; Gill, T K; Kopansky-Giles, D; Schuwirth, L; Karnon, J; McLiesh, P; Alleyne, J; Woolf, A D
To address the burden of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions, a competent health workforce is required to support the implementation of MSK models of care. Funding is required to create employment positions with resources for service delivery and training a fit-for-purpose workforce. Training should be aligned to define "entrustable professional activities", and include collaborative skills appropriate to integrated and people-centred care and supported by shared education resources. Greater emphasis on educating MSK healthcare workers as effective trainers of peers, students and patients is required. For quality, efficiency and sustainability of service delivery, education and research capabilities must be integrated across disciplines and within the workforce, with funding models developed based on measured performance indicators from all three domains. Greater awareness of the societal and economic burden of MSK conditions is required to ensure that solutions are prioritised and integrated within healthcare policies from local to regional to international levels. These healthcare policies require consumer engagement and alignment to social, economic, educational and infrastructure policies to optimise effectiveness and efficiency of implementation.
Di Pillo, L; Sciommeri, A; Giacco, L; Scatigna, M; Marinucci, M C; Di Orio, F
The present research, as far as its planning and realization is concerned, aims at exploring how ADI (Integrated Home Care) offers its services in two districts of Local Health Unit 04 in L'Aquila; a service that assumes a special relevance in the frame of interventions in favour of the individuals, since it is a valid alternative to hospitalization for disabled citizens or old people having special pathologies. The information collected gives a general outline of the competences involved within ADI, and also of the significance of the results that have been reached out in terms of quality of the assistance, since a subjective measurement, based on indexes of satisfaction, has been used.
Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K; Chung, Yeun-Jun
The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population.
Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K.
The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population. PMID:24465229
Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per
Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses ways through which complementary and alternative medicine can be promoted and sustained as an integrated element of health care in developing countries. We specifically present the exemplary of Amchi traditional doctors of Northern Himalayas.
Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Taggart, Jane; Yu, Hairong
Disease registries derived from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are widely used for chronic disease management. We approached registries from the perspective of integrated care in a health neighbourhood, considering data quality issues such as semantic interoperability (consistency), accuracy, completeness and duplication. Our proposition is that a realist ontological approach is required to accurately identify patients in an EHR or data repository, assess data quality and fitness for use by the multidisciplinary integrated care team. We report on this approach with routinely collected data in a practice based research network in Australia.
Rodríguez, Charo; des Rivières-Pigeon, Catherine
Context The perinatal period is one during which health care services are in high demand. Like other health care sub-sectors, perinatal health care delivery has undergone significant changes in recent years, such as the integrative wave that has swept through the health care industry since the early 1990s. Purpose The present study aims at reviewing scholarly work on integrated perinatal care to provide support for policy decision-making. Results Researchers interested in integrated perinatal care have, by assessing the effectiveness of individual clinical practices and intervention programs, mainly addressed issues of continuity of care and clinical and professional integration. Conclusions Improvements in perinatal health care delivery appear related not to structurally integrated health care delivery systems, but to organizing modalities that aim to support woman-centred care and cooperative clinical practice. PMID:17786177
Whiting, Stephen; Postma, Sjoerd; Jamshaid de Lorenzo, Ayesha; Aumua, Audrey
The Solomon Islands Government is pursuing integrated care with the goal of improving the quality of health service delivery to rural populations. Under the auspices of Universal Health Coverage, integrated service delivery packages were developed which defined the clinical and public health services that should be provided at different levels of the health system. The process of developing integrated service delivery packages helped to identify key policy decisions the government needed to make in order to improve service quality and efficiency. The integrated service delivery packages have instigated the revision of job descriptions and are feeding into the development of a human resource plan for health. They are also being used to guide infrastructure development and health system planning and should lead to better management of resources. The integrated service delivery packages have become a key tool to operationalise the government’s policy to move towards a more efficient, equitable, quality and sustainable health system. PMID:28321177
Clift, Kathryn; Scott, Luther; Johnson, Michael; Gonzalez, Carlos
A handful of the many changes resulting from the Affordable Care Act underscore the need for a geographic understanding of existing and prospective member communities. Health exchanges require that health provider networks are geographically accessible to underserved populations, and nonprofit hospitals nationwide are required to conduct community health needs assessments every three years. Beyond these requirements, health care providers are using maps and spatial analysis to better address health outcomes that are related in complex ways to social and economic factors.Kaiser Permanente is applying geographic information systems, with spatial analytics and map-based visualizations, to data sourced from its electronic medical records and from publicly and commercially available datasets. The results are helping to shape an understanding of the health needs of Kaiser Permanente members in the context of their communities. This understanding is part of a strategy to inform partnerships and interventions in and beyond traditional care delivery settings.
Adapting to change is always difficult; all the more so when changes in the administrative structure of health care are part of a national political transformation toward democracy. As South Africa moves from apartheid to integration in its health services, the Witwatersrand Medical Library (WML) will have to adopt innovative strategies to cope with increasing demands on its resources by sub-Saharan African medical libraries and with expected decreases in state funding for health and education. WML also will have to address the lack of hospital library services in the Johannesburg region by expanding its academic branches at University of the Witwatersrand Medical School's teaching hospitals to serve both hospital and academic health care staff. This article discusses these challenges in the context of rapidly changing academic health care services in Johannesburg.
Adapting to change is always difficult; all the more so when changes in the administrative structure of health care are part of a national political transformation toward democracy. As South Africa moves from apartheid to integration in its health services, the Witwatersrand Medical Library (WML) will have to adopt innovative strategies to cope with increasing demands on its resources by sub-Saharan African medical libraries and with expected decreases in state funding for health and education. WML also will have to address the lack of hospital library services in the Johannesburg region by expanding its academic branches at University of the Witwatersrand Medical School's teaching hospitals to serve both hospital and academic health care staff. This article discusses these challenges in the context of rapidly changing academic health care services in Johannesburg. PMID:7703943
Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire D; Daniels, Clinton J; Napuli, Jason G; Gliedt, Jordan A; Paris, David J
This literature review examined studies that described practice, utilization, and policy of chiropractic services within military and veteran health care environments. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, and Index to Chiropractic Literature was performed from inception through April 2015. Thirty articles met inclusion criteria. Studies reporting utilization and policy show that chiropractic services are successfully implemented in various military and veteran health care settings and that integration varies by facility. Doctors of chiropractic that are integrated within military and veteran health care facilities manage common neurological, musculoskeletal, and other conditions; severe injuries obtained in combat; complex cases; and cases that include psychosocial factors. Chiropractors collaboratively manage patients with other providers and focus on reducing morbidity for veterans and rehabilitating military service members to full duty status. Patient satisfaction with chiropractic services is high. Preliminary findings show that chiropractic management of common conditions shows significant improvement.
The positive outcomes of coordination of healthcare services are to an increasing extent becoming clear. However the complexity of the field is an inhibiting factor for vigorously designed trial studies. Conceptual clarity and a consistent theoretical frame-work are thus needed. While researchers respond to these needs, patients and providers face the multiple challenges of today's healthcare environment. Decision makers, planners and managers need evidence based policy options and information on the scope of the integrated care challenges they are facing. The US managed care organization Kaiser Permanente has been put forward as an example for European healthcare systems to follow, although the evidence base is far from conclusive. The thesis has five objectives: 1) To contribute to the understanding of the concept of integration in healthcare systems and to identify measurement methods to capture the multi-dimensional aspects of integrated healthcare delivery. 2) To assess the level of integration of the Danish healthcare system. 3) To assess the use of joint health plans as a tool for coordination between the regional and local level in the Danish healthcare system. 4) To compare the inputs and performance of the Danish healthcare system and the managed care organization Kaiser Permanente, California, US. 5) To compare primary care clinicians' perception of clinical integration in two healthcare systems: Kaiser Permanente, Northern California and the Danish healthcare system. Further to examine the associations between specific organizational factors and clinical integration within each system. The literature was systematically searched to identify methods for measurement of integrated healthcare delivery. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted among major professional stake-holders at five different levels of the Danish healthcare system. The survey data were used to allow for analysis of the level of integration achieved. Data from the survey were
Pisani, Anthony R; leRoux, Pieter; Siegel, David M
Pediatric residency practices face the challenge of providing both behavioral health (BH) training for pediatricians and psychosocial care for children. The University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry and Rochester General Hospital developed a joint training program and continuity clinic infrastructure in which pediatric residents and postdoctoral psychology fellows train and practice together. The integrated program provides children access to BH care in a primary care setting and gives trainees the opportunity to integrate collaborative BH care into their regular practice routines. During 1998-2008, 48 pediatric residents and 8 psychology fellows trained in this integrated clinical environment. The program's accomplishments include longevity, faculty and fiscal stability, sustained support from pediatric leadership and community payers, the development in residents and faculty of greater comfort in addressing BH problems and collaborating with BH specialists, and replication of the model in two other primary care settings. In addition to quantitative program outcomes data, the authors present a case example that illustrates how the integrated program works and achieves its goals. They propose that educating residents and psychology trainees side by side in collaborative BH care is clinically and educationally valuable and potentially applicable to other settings. A companion report published in this issue provides results from a study comparing the perceptions of pediatric residents whose primary care continuity clinic took place in this integrated setting with those of residents from the same pediatric residency who had their continuity clinic training in a nonintegrated setting.
Sorensen, Herbert J
In response to personal and institutional history and articles published in The Permanente Journal, this article begins a conversation based on the premise that health care will only reach its full potential with the integration of traditional medical care, which relies on the application of pharmacologic and surgical intervention after the development of illness, and lifestyle medicine, the use of optimal nutrition and exercise. PMID:24694319
Porcino, Antony; MacDougall, Colleen
Background: Since the late 1980s, several taxonomies have been developed to help map and describe the interrelationships of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities. In these taxonomies, several issues are often incompletely addressed: A simple categorization process that clearly isolates a modality to a single conceptual categoryClear delineation of verticality—that is, a differentiation of scale being observed from individually applied techniques, through modalities (therapies), to whole medical systemsRecognition of CAM as part of the general field of health care Methods: Development of the Integrated Taxonomy of Health Care (ITHC) involved three stages: Development of a precise, uniform health glossaryAnalysis of the extant taxonomiesUse of an iterative process of classifying modalities and medical systems into categories until a failure to singularly classify a modality occurred, requiring a return to the glossary and adjustment of the classifying protocol Results: A full vertical taxonomy was developed that includes and clearly differentiates between techniques, modalities, domains (clusters of similar modalities), systems of health care (coordinated care system involving multiple modalities), and integrative health care. Domains are the classical primary focus of taxonomies. The ITHC has eleven domains: chemical/substance-based work, device-based work, soft tissue–focused manipulation, skeletal manipulation, fitness/movement instruction, mind–body integration/classical somatics work, mental/emotional–based work, bio-energy work based on physical manipulation, bio-energy modulation, spiritual-based work, unique assessments. Modalities are assigned to the domains based on the primary mode of interaction with the client, according the literature of the practitioners. Conclusions: The ITHC has several strengths: little interpretation is used while successfully assigning modalities to single domains; the issue of taxonomic verticality is
Background New Zealand’s health system has long been seen as providing highly fragmented, poorly co-ordinated services to service users. A continuing policy challenge has been how to reduce such fragmentation and achieve more ‘integrated’ care, that is, ‘co-ordinated’ care that provides a ‘smooth and continuous’ transition between services, and a ‘seamless’ journey as service users receive health, support, and social welfare services from a range of health and other professionals. Description of policy practice The paper takes as its starting point the view that achieving integrated care needs to be supported by a “coherent set of methods and models on the funding, administrative, organisational, service delivery and clinical levels” . The paper considers how fragmentation in financing, planning, funding, and service delivery have contributed to poorly co-ordinated care in New Zealand; discusses how integrated care was to be supported by recent major reforms to the health system and whether such reforms have succeeded or not in achieving more integrated care for service users; and discusses the challenges New Zealand still faces in achieving more integrated care over the next few years. Discussion and conclusion The paper concludes that although key financing, planning, funding and service delivery reforms aimed at delivering more integrated care to service users have succeeded in integrating planning and funding functions, few changes have occurred in the ways in which services are provided to users. It is only now that significant attention is being paid to changing how services are actually delivered in order to achieve more integrated care, but even then, change appears to be slow, and significant challenges to integrating care in New Zealand remain to be resolved. PMID:22128283
Khorsan, Raheleh; Coulter, Ian D.; Crawford, Cindy; Hsiao, An-Fu
A systematic review was conducted to assess the level of evidence for integrative health care research. We searched PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, the entire Cochrane Library, MANTIS, Social SciSearch, SciSearch Cited Ref Sci, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and NCCAM grantee publications listings, from database inception to May 2009, as well as searches of the “gray literature.” Available studies published in English language were included. Three independent reviewers rated each article and assessed the methodological quality of studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN 50). Our search yielded 11,891 total citations but 6 clinical studies, including 4 randomized, met our inclusion criteria. There are no available systematic reviews/meta-analyses published that met our inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed independently using quality checklists of the SIGN 50. Only a small number of RCTs and CCTs with a limited number of patients and lack of adequate control groups assessing integrative health care research are available. These studies provide limited evidence of effective integrative health care on some modalities. However, integrative health care regimen appears to be generally safe. PMID:20953383
Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Ipince, Alessandra; Toyama, Mauricio; Benate-Galvez, Ysabel; Galán-Rodas, Edén; Medina-Verástegui, Julio César; Sánchez-Moreno, David; Araya, Ricardo; Miranda, J Jaime
In this article, the relationship between mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases is discussed as well as the possibility to address them in a comprehensive manner in the Peruvian health system. First, the prevalence estimates and the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and mental disorders worldwide and in Peru are reviewed. Then, the detrimental impact of depression in the early stages as well as the progress of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is described. Additionally, the gap between access to mental health care in Peru is analyzed. Lastly, the alternatives to reduce the gap are explored. Of these alternatives, the integration of mental health into primary care services is emphasized; as a feasible way to meet the care needs of the general population, and people with chronic diseases in particular, in the Peruvian context.
Haddad, Marwan S; Zelenev, Alexei; Altice, Frederick L
Buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) expands treatment access for opioid dependence and can be integrated into primary health-care settings. Treating opioid dependence, however, should ideally improve other aspects of overall health, including preventive services. Therefore, we examined how BMT affects preventive health-care outcomes, specifically nine nationally recommended primary care quality health-care indicators (QHIs), within federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) from an observational cohort study of 266 opioid-dependent patients initiating BMT between 07/01/07 and 11/30/08 within Connecticut's largest FQHC network. Nine nationally recommended preventive QHIs were collected longitudinally from electronic health records, including screening for chronic infections, metabolic conditions, and cancer. A composite QHI score (QHI-S), based on the percentage of eligible QHIs achieved, was categorized as QHI-S ≥80% (recommended) and ≥90% (optimal). The proportion of subjects achieving a composite QHI-S ≥80 and ≥90 % was 57.1 and 28.6%, respectively. Screening was highest for hypertension (91.0%), hepatitis C (80.1%), hepatitis B (76.3%), human immunodeficiency virus (71.4%), and hyperlipidemia (72.9%) and lower for syphilis (49.3%) and cervical (58.5%), breast (44.4%), and colorectal (48.7%) cancer. Achieving QHI-S ≥80% was positively and independently associated with ≥3-month BMT retention (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-4.04) and BMT prescription by primary care providers (PCPs) rather than addiction psychiatric specialists (AOR = 3.38; 95% CI = 1.78-6.37), and negatively with being female (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.16-0.55). Within primary health-care settings, achieving greater nationally recommended health-care screenings or QHIs was associated with being able to successfully retain patients on buprenorphine longer (3 months or more) and when buprenorphine was prescribed
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Yoshida, Saran; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Akizuki, Nobuya; Akiyama, Miki; Shirahige, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Eguchi, Kenji
This study primarily aimed to identify future actions required to promote palliative care in Japan. The future actions regarded as effective by the general population were "improve physicians' skill in palliative care" (61%), "create a counseling center for cancer" (61%), and "improve nurses' skill in palliative care" (60%). In contrast, future actions regarded as effective by the health care professionals were "set up a Web site that provides information about cancer" (72%), "promote consultation with specialists in palliative care" (71%), and "open an outpatient department specializing in palliative care" (70%). The results suggest (1) development and maintenance of settings; (2) enhancement of palliative care education and training programs for health care providers; and (3) improvement in distributing information about cancer and regional palliative care resources to the general population.
Zunzunegui Pastor, María Victoria; Lázaro Y de Mercado, Pablo
We examine the opportunities to establish integrated services in Spain. The new law on services for disabled people approved by the Spanish Parliament in December 2006 and the Mental Health Plan of the Spanish Ministry of Health are used to illustrate policies that will require a high degree of integration among organizational, financial and clinical levels. In this context, some of the following questions arise: what do we know about the effectiveness of the integration of health and social services? Who should be the targets of integration and what are the structures needed for patient-centered services? Who should be responsible for and manage these services? An outline of Leutz's five criteria for integration is reviewed and the results from international experiences are discussed. We conclude that Spain is at a crossroads for the integration of services for disabled people and people with mental health problems. We recommend that a system of integrated services be organized for people with moderate or severe disability. This system should be decentralized at the levels of local health and social services, with a single budget estimated on a capitation basis. Clinical and financial responsibility should be shared between the interdisciplinary team and the case manager (nursing or social work professionals).
Dubus, Nicole; Howard, Heather
This article shares findings from an interprofessional symposium that took place in Boston in the spring of 2015. Educators and practitioners from various disciplines shared challenges, successes, and ideas on best interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and curricula development. The findings include the importance of patient-and-family-centered care, which includes the patient and his/her family in the decision-making process; increased education regarding IPC in universities and major hospitals; and educational opportunities within health care systems.
Cameron, Ailsa; Lart, Rachel; Bostock, Lisa; Coomber, Caroline
This article reports the results of a review of the research evidence related to joint working in the field of adult health and social care services in the UK. It explores whether recent reforms to joint working have met the objectives set by policy-makers. The review followed an established methodology: electronic databases were searched using predetermined terms, abstracts were screened against inclusion criteria, studies that met the criteria were read in full and assessed for inclusion and data were extracted systematically. The findings of the review suggest that there is some indication that recent developments, in particular the drive to greater integration of services, may have positive benefits for organisations as well as for users and carers of services. However, the evidence consistently reports a lack of understanding about the aims and objectives of integration, suggesting that more work needs to be done if the full potential of the renewed policy agenda on integration is to be realised. Additionally, while the review acknowledges that greater emphasis has been placed on evaluating the outcome of joint working, studies largely report small-scale evaluations of local initiatives and few are comparative in design and therefore differences between 'usual care' and integrated care are not assessed. This makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of UK-based integrated health and social care services.
Moore, Ainsley; Patterson, Christopher; White, Joy; House, Shelly T.; Riva, John J.; Nair, Kalpana; Brown, Allison; Kadhim-Saleh, Amjed; McCann, David
Abstract Problem addressed Family physicians provide most of the care for the frail elderly population, but many challenges and barriers can lead to difficulties with fragmented, ineffective, and inefficient services. Objective of program To improve the quality, efficiency, and coordination of care for the frail elderly living in the community and to enhance geriatric and interprofessional skills for providers and learners. Program description The Seniors Collaborative Care Program used an interprofessional, shared-care, geriatric model. The feasibility of the program was evaluated through a pilot study conducted between November 2008 and June 2009 at Stonechurch Family Health Centre, part of the McMaster Family Health Team. The core team comprised a nurse practitioner, an FP, and a registered practical nurse. Additional team members included a pharmacist, a dietitian, a social worker, and a visiting geriatrician. Twenty-five seniors were evaluated through the pilot program. Patients were assessed within 5 weeks of initial contact. Patients and practitioners valued timely, accessible, preventive, and multidisciplinary aspects of care. The nurse practitioner’s role was prominent in the program, while the geriatrician’s clinical role was focused efficiently. Conclusion The family health team is ideally positioned to deliver shared care for the frail elderly. Our model allowed for a short referral time and easy access, which might allow seniors to remain in their environment of choice. PMID:22893345
Oliveira, Edson N; Cainelli, Jean; Pinto, Maria Eugênia B; Cazella, Silvio C; Dahmer, Alessandra
Data collected in a consistent manner is the basis for any decision making. This article presents a system that automates data collection by community-based health workers during their visits to the residences of users of the Brazilian Health Care System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) The automated process will reduce the possibility of mistakes in the transcription of visit information and make information readily available to the Ministry of Health. Furthermore, the analysis of the information provided via this system can be useful in the implementation of health campaigns and in the control of outbreaks of epidemiological diseases.
Bell, Iris R; Caspi, Opher; Schwartz, Gary E R; Grant, Kathryn L; Gaudet, Tracy W; Rychener, David; Maizes, Victoria; Weil, Andrew
Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using the term integrative medicine to refer to the merging of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with conventional biomedicine. However, combination medicine (CAM added to conventional) is not integrative. Integrative medicine represents a higher-order system of systems of care that emphasizes wellness and healing of the entire person (bio-psycho-socio-spiritual dimensions) as primary goals, drawing on both conventional and CAM approaches in the context of a supportive and effective physician-patient relationship. Using the context of integrative medicine, this article outlines the relevance of complex systems theory as an approach to health outcomes research. In this view, health is an emergent property of the person as a complex living system. Within this conceptualization, the whole may exhibit properties that its separate parts do not possess. Thus, unlike biomedical research that typically examines parts of health care and parts of the individual, one at a time, but not the complete system, integrative outcomes research advocates the study of the whole. The whole system includes the patient-provider relationship, multiple conventional and CAM treatments, and the philosophical context of care as the intervention. The systemic outcomes encompass the simultaneous, interactive changes within the whole person.
Unger, Jean-Pierre; DePaepe, Pierre; Ghilbert, Patricia; Soors, Werner; Green, Andrew
Abstract Purpose To propose a social-and-democrat health policy alternative to the current neoliberal one. Context of case The general failure of neoliberal health policies in low and middle-income countries justifies the design of an alternative to bring disease control and health care back in step with ethical principles and desired outcomes. Data sources National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments—including those led by the authors—are examined in both scientific and grey literature. Case description We call for the promotion of a publicly-oriented health sector as a cornerstone of such alternative policy. We define ‘publicly-oriented’ as opposed to ‘private-for-profit’ in terms of objectives and commitment, not of ownership. We classify development strategies for such a sector according to an organisation-based typology of health systems defined by Mintzberg. As such, strategies are adapted to three types of health systems: machine bureaucracies, professional bureaucracies and divisionalized forms. We describe avenues for family and community health and for hospital care. We stress social control at the peripheral level to increase accountability and responsiveness. Community-based, national and international sources are required to provide viable financing. Conclusions and discussion Our proposed social-and-democrat health policy calls for networking, lobbying and training as a joint effort in which committed health professionals can lead the way. PMID:17006552
Arnett, M J; Thorpe, R J; Gaskin, D J; Bowie, J V; LaVeist, T A
Compared to White Americans, African-Americans are less likely to use primary care (PC) as their usual source of care. This is generally attributed to race differences in socioeconomic status and in access to primary care services. Little is known about the relationship between race differences in medical mistrust and the usual source of care disparity. Using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities (EHDIC) study, we examined the role of medical mistrust in choosing usual source of care in 1408 black and white adults who were exposed to the same healthcare facilities and low-income racially integrated community. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between race, medical mistrust, and usual source of care. After adjusting for demographic and health-related factors, African-Americans were more likely than whites to use the emergency department (ED) (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.43 (95 % confidence interval (CI) [1.06-1.94])) and hospital outpatient department (RRR1.50 (95 %CI [1.10-2.05])) versus primary care as a usual source of care. When medical mistrust was added to the model, the gap between African-Americans' and whites' risk of using the ED versus primary care as a usual source of care closed (RRR = 1.29; 95 % CI [0.91-1.83]). However, race differences in the use of the hospital outpatient department remained even after accounting for medical mistrust (RRR = 1.67; 95 % CI [1.16-2.40]). Accounting for medical mistrust eliminated the ED-as-usual-source of care disparity. This study highlights the importance of medical mistrust as an intervention point for decreasing ED use as a usual source of care by low-income, urban African-Americans.
Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew
With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation.
Rahman, Rahbel; Pinto, Rogério M.; Wall, Melanie M.
Integration of health education and welfare services in primary care systems is a key strategy to solve the multiple determinants of chronic diseases, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, there is a scarcity of conceptual models from which to build integration strategies. We provide a model based on cross-sectional data from 168 Community Health Agents, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians in two municipalities in Brazil’s Unified Health System (UHS). The outcome, service integration, comprised HIV education, community activities (e.g., health walks and workshops), and documentation services (e.g., obtainment of working papers and birth certificates). Predictors included individual factors (provider confidence, knowledge/skills, perseverance, efficacy); job characteristics (interprofessional collaboration, work-autonomy, decision-making autonomy, skill variety); and organizational factors (work conditions and work resources). Structural equation modeling was used to identify factors associated with service integration. Knowledge and skills, skill variety, confidence, and perseverance predicted greater integration of HIV education alongside community activities and documentation services. Job characteristics and organizational factors did not predict integration. Our study offers an explanatory model that can be adapted to examine other variables that may influence integration of different services in global primary healthcare systems. Findings suggest that practitioner trainings to improve integration should focus on cognitive constructs—confidence, perseverance, knowledge, and skills. PMID:28335444
Oppenheim, Jennifer; Stewart, Whitney; Zoubak, Ekaterina; Donato, Ingrid; Huang, Larke; Hudock, William
In 2008, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) created a national grant program, Project LAUNCH (Linking Actions for Unmet Needs in Children's Health), to improve behavioral health and developmental outcomes for young children through the incorporation of prevention and wellness promotion practices in key early childhood settings. Project LAUNCH supports states, tribal nations, and territories to improve coordination across early childhood systems and implement 5 core strategies of prevention and promotion. This article focuses on the lessons learned from 1 of the 5 core strategies: integration of behavioral health into primary care for young children. This paper analyzes the experiences of a sample of Project LAUNCH grantees, describing 10 common elements of integration approaches and exploring some of the challenges of promoting health and preventing social, emotional, and behavioral problems at a population level. (PsycINFO Database Record
Introduction In 2004, Mozambique, supported by large increases in international disease-specific funding, initiated a national rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and HIV care through a vertical "Day Hospital" approach. Though this model showed substantial increases in people receiving treatment, it diverted scarce resources away from the primary health care (PHC) system. In 2005, the Ministry of Health (MOH) began an effort to use HIV/AIDS treatment and care resources as a means to strengthen their PHC system. The MOH worked closely with a number of NGOs to integrate HIV programs more effectively into existing public-sector PHC services. Case Description In 2005, the Ministry of Health and Health Alliance International initiated an effort in two provinces to integrate ART into the existing primary health care system through health units distributed across 23 districts. Integration included: a) placing ART services in existing units; b) retraining existing workers; c) strengthening laboratories, testing, and referral linkages; e) expanding testing in TB wards; f) integrating HIV and antenatal services; and g) improving district-level management. Discussion: By 2008, treatment was available in nearly 67 health facilities in 23 districts. Nearly 30,000 adults were on ART. Over 80,000 enrolled in the HIV/AIDS program. Loss to follow-up from antenatal and TB testing to ART services has declined from 70% to less than 10% in many integrated sites. Average time from HIV testing to ART initiation is significantly faster and adherence to ART is better in smaller peripheral clinics than in vertical day hospitals. Integration has also improved other non-HIV aspects of primary health care. Conclusion The integration approach enables the public sector PHC system to test more patients for HIV, place more patients on ART more quickly and efficiently, reduce loss-to-follow-up, and achieve greater geographic HIV care coverage compared to the vertical model. Through the
The first part of the paper is concerned with the health care values of various groups; namely, those which are resource oriented, disease oriented, political decision-makers, organized sellers and purchasers of health care and patients. These groups are further divided according to selected political/ideological and socio-economic characteristics, essentially along capitalist and socialist lines. Some of the ways in which the values held by these groups are determined, formulated and, by implication at least, changed and the political, economic and other bases for some of their practical applications are identified. The second part of the paper focuses upon values in public health education and related practice. It is argued that to become more useful to the 'health of the public' the new public health worker will have to become more activist, assuming an adversarial stance toward the market economy in capitalist countries and oppressive governmental structures everywhere. A wider integration of knowledge concerning the effects of health of all types of economic, social and political practices is required; this, in turn, would contribute to the emergence of alternative forms of public health analysis and practice. The recognition of wider forms of public health leadership should follow, coupled with organizational changes directed at the greater participation of popular groupings in all types of public health activities.
Udasin, I G
More people are employed in the health care sector than in any other industry in the United States. Health care workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards, including biological, chemical, physical and psychological stressors. Concerns about exposure to contagious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis have influenced the career choices of many health professionals. Physical hazards, especially ergonomic ones, account for the majority of the disability faced by health care workers. Chemical exposure and psychosocial stresses are also present in health care institutions. The exposure encountered in health care facilities is potentially dangerous to health care workers as well as to their family members and unborn children.
Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Joshua C.
The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 mandates the development and implementation of electronic health record (EHR) systems across the country. While a primary goal is to improve the care of individual patients, EHRs are also key enabling resources for a vision of individualized (or personalized or precision) medicine: the aggregation of multiple EHRs within or across healthcare systems should allow discovery of patient subsets that have unusual and definable clinical trajectories that deviate importantly from the expected response in a “typical” patient. The spectrum of such personalized care can then extend from prevention to choice of medication to intensity or nature of follow up. PMID:26667791
Osofsky, Joy D; Lieberman, Alicia F
A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences for their mental and physical health. Research on normal development and developmental psychopathology has shown that early development unfolds in an ecology of transactional influences among biological, interpersonal, and environmental domains. Psychologists should collaborate with other early intervention disciplines to create systems of care based on an ecological-transactional model of development that includes early mental health principles in order to serve the needs of these young children. Didactic courses, practicums, and internships in infant and early childhood mental health should become integral components of undergraduate and graduate curricula in psychology in order to build capacity to achieve this goal. Recommendations are offered for systemic change by integrating infant and early childhood mental health principles into existing systems of care for young children and their families.
Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea
Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.
Zega, Maurizio; Tontini, Francesco; Lombardi, Mauro; Lucifreddi, Enrico; Stivani, Silvia; Rocco, Gennaro; Borgia, Piero
The continuity care process tip to realize a rationalization of the distance of the patient from the acute phase, to the acute phase subintensive care area and in the territorial care. In this last phase, the project proposed to implement the experimentation through the determining role of the nursing profession and health care professions. These professions will carry out the function hinge between the truth hospital worker and that territorial one. In extreme synthesis continuity manager (the nurses of the continuity care) and the houses manager (nurses/technical of the rehabilitation case manager) will be the guarantors of the continuity care accompanying the patient from the bed of the hospital to the house seat. Such plan, besides to reduce the ungluing between hospital and territory, being realized a sure distance in the phase of rehabilitation of the subject, determines also the reduction of the improper resource to the hospital. In fact, the territorial actors, in time activated will be in a position to answering timely to the eventual emergent necessities or better to prevent them. Moreover, also through the active involvement in the plan of the General Medicine Doctors, they improve the collaboration and integration between the various professionalities been involved through a continuous and structured communication and the sharing of the health care distances.
Cloninger, C. Robert; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Schwartz, Michael A.; Appleyard, James; Goodwin, Nick; Groves, JoAnna; Hermans, Marc H. M.; Mezzich, Juan E.; van Staden, C. W.; Rawaf, Salman
Global inequalities contribute to marked disparities in health and wellness of human populations. Many opportunities now exist to provide health care to all people in a person- and people-centered way that is effective, equitable, and sustainable. We review these opportunities and the scientific, historical, and philosophical considerations that form the basis for the International College of Person-centered Medicine’s 2014 Geneva Declaration on Person- and People-centered Integrated Health Care for All. Using consistent time-series data, we critically examine examples of universal healthcare systems in Chile, Spain, and Cuba. In a person-centered approach to public health, people are recognized to have intrinsic dignity and are treated with respect to encourage their developing health and happiness. A person-centered approach supports the freedom and the responsibility to develop one’s life in ways that are personally meaningful and that are respectful of others and the environment in which we live together. Evidence suggests that health care organizations function well when they operate in a person-and people-centered way because that stimulates better coordination, cooperation, and social trust. Health care coverage must be integrated at several interconnected levels in order to be effective, efficient, and fair. To reduce the burden of disease, integration is needed between the people seeking and delivering care, within the social network of each person, across the trajectory of each person’s life, among primary caregivers and specialists, and across multiple sectors of society. For integration to succeed across all these levels, it must foster common values and a shared vision of the future. PMID:26140190
Manchanda, Rajkumar; Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Sarkar, Debabrata; Mondal, Ramkumar; Thakur, Prosenjit; Biswas, Debjyoti; Rawat, Birendra Singh; Rajachandrasekar, Bhuvaneswari; Mittal, Renu
Indian patients' preference for integrated homoeopathy services remains underresearched. Two earlier surveys revealed favorable attitude toward and satisfaction from integrated services. The objectives of this study were to examine knowledge, attitudes, and practice of homoeopathy and to evaluate preference toward its integration into secondary-level health care. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during May to October 2015 among 659 adult patients visiting randomly selected secondary-level conventional health care setups in Kolkata, Mumbai, Kottayam, and New Delhi (India) using a self-administered 24-item questionnaire in 4 local vernaculars (Bengali, Marathi, Malayalam, and Hindi). Knowledge and practice scores were compromised; attitude scores toward integration and legal regulation were high. Respondents were uncertain regarding side effects of homoeopathy and concurrent use and interactions with conventional medicines. A total of 82.40% (95% confidence interval = 79.23, 85.19) of the participants were in favor of integrating homoeopathy services. Preference was significantly higher in Delhi and lower in Kottayam. Probable strategic measures for further development of integrated models are discussed.
Conscientious objection in health care is a form of compromise whereby health care practitioners can refuse to take part in safe, legal, and beneficial medical procedures to which they have a moral opposition (for instance abortion). Arguments in defense of conscientious objection in medicine are usually based on the value of respect for the moral integrity of practitioners. I will show that philosophical arguments in defense of conscientious objection based on respect for such moral integrity are extremely weak and, if taken seriously, lead to consequences that we would not (and should not) accept. I then propose that the best philosophical argument that defenders of conscientious objection in medicine can consistently deploy is one that appeals to (some form of) either moral relativism or subjectivism. I suggest that, unless either moral relativism or subjectivism is a valid theory--which is exactly what many defenders of conscientious objection (as well as many others) do not think--the role of moral integrity and conscientious objection in health care should be significantly downplayed and left out of the range of ethically relevant considerations.
Curran, Vernon; Heath, Olga; Adey, Tanis; Callahan, Terrance; Craig, David; Hearn, Taryn; White, Hubert; Hollett, Ann
Objective: This article describes an evaluation of a curriculum approach to integrating interprofessional education (IPE) in collaborative mental health practice across the pre- to post-licensure continuum of medical education. Methods: A systematic evaluation of IPE activities was conducted, utilizing a combination of evaluation study designs,…
Trojan, A; Werner, S; Bobzien, M; Nickel, S
The idea of introducing a special label for "self-help-friendly" institutions was first developed for hospitals. A demonstration project (BKK BV, the German Federal Association of Company Health Insurance Funds) was launched and organized by the local contact point for self-help groups in Hamburg. Shortly thereafter, a group of experienced self-help supporters started to implement self-help friendliness in quality management systems for ambulatory care. These endeavours, presented in this article, prove that not only professional but also user-based quality standards are becoming more and more common in quality development processes of health care services. The general legislative and political conditions for these developments have considerably improved over the past few years. This will be the foundation for a new quality of the doctor-patient relationship.
Miller, Franklin G; Kim, Scott Y H
The idea of a "learning health care system"--one that systematically integrates clinical research with medical care--has received considerable attention recently. Some commentators argue that under certain conditions pragmatic comparative effectiveness randomized trials can be conducted ethically within the context of a learning health care system without the informed consent of patients for research participation. In this article, we challenge this perspective and contend that conducting randomized trials of individual treatment options without consent is neither necessary nor desirable to promote and sustain learning health care systems. Our argument draws on the normative conception of personal care developed by Charles Fried in a landmark 1974 book on the ethics of randomized controlled trials.
Powell, Suzanne K
Health care tourism is often a preplanned event carefully laying out all the details. Sometimes, when one least expects it, medical care is needed outside of the mainland. This Editorial speaks to an unplanned experience.
This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001937.htm Vacation health care To use the sharing features on this page, ... and help you avoid problems. Talk to your health care provider or visit a travel clinic 4 to ...
Bulger, R J
As prefigured in the Greek tragedy Antigone, one of the primary conflicts in contemporary health care is that between humane concern for the individual and concern for society at large and administrative rules. The computerization of the health care system and development of large data bases will create new forms of this conflict that will challenge the self-definition of health care and health care professionals.
Bunn, Frances; Goodman, Claire; Manthorpe, Jill; Durand, Marie-Anne; Hodkinson, Isabel; Rait, Greta; Millac, Paul; Davies, Sue L; Russell, Bridget; Wilson, Patricia
Introduction Including the patient or user perspective is a central organising principle of integrated care. Moreover, there is increasing recognition of the importance of strengthening relationships among patients, carers and practitioners, particularly for individuals receiving substantial health and care support, such as those with long-term or multiple conditions. The overall aims of this synthesis are to provide a context-relevant understanding of how models to facilitate shared decision-making (SDM) might work for older people with multiple health and care needs, and how they might be applied to integrated care models. Methods and analysis The synthesis draws on the principles of realist inquiry, to explain how, in what contexts and for whom, interventions that aim to strengthen SDM among older patients, carers and practitioners are effective. We will use an iterative, stakeholder-driven, three-phase approach. Phase 1: development of programme theory/theories that will be tested through a first scoping of the literature and consultation with key stakeholder groups; phase 2: systematic searches of the evidence to test and develop the theories identified in phase 1; phase 3: validation of programme theory/theories with a purposive sample of participants from phase 1. The synthesis will draw on prevailing theories such as candidacy, self-efficacy, personalisation and coproduction. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for the stakeholder interviews was obtained from the University of Hertfordshire ECDA (Ethics Committee with Delegated Authority), reference number HSK/SF/UH/02387. The propositions arising from this review will be used to develop recommendations about how to tailor SDM interventions to older people with complex health and social care needs in an integrated care setting. PMID:28174225
Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodrich, David E.; O’Donnell, Allison N.; Miller, Christopher J.
There is growing realization that persons with bipolar disorder may exclusively be seen in primary (general medical) care settings, notably because of limited access to mental health care and stigma in seeking mental health treatment. At least two clinical practice guidelines for bipolar disorder recommend collaborative chronic care models (CCMs) to help integrate mental health care to better manage this illness. CCMs, which include provider guideline support, self-management support, care management, and measurement-based care, are well-established in primary care settings, and may help primary care practitioners manage bipolar disorder. However, further research is required to adapt CCMs to support complexities in diagnosing persons with bipolar disorder, and integrate decision-making processes regarding medication safety and tolerability in primary care. Additional implementation studies are also needed to adapt CCMs for persons with bipolar disorder in primary care, especially those seen in smaller practices with limited infrastructure and access to mental health care. PMID:23001382
Landman, Natalie; Aannestad, Liv K; Smoldt, Robert K; Cortese, Denis A
It is becoming increasingly clear that maintaining and improving the health of the population, and doing so in a financially sustainable manner, requires the coordination of acute medical care with long-term care, and social support services, that is, team-based care. Despite a growing body of evidence on the benefits of team-based care, the health care ecosystem remains "resistant" to a broader implementation of such care models. This resistance is a function of both system-wide and organizational barriers, which result primarily from fragmentation in reimbursement for health care services, regulatory restrictions, and the siloed nature of health professional education. To promote the broader adoption of team-based care models, the health care system must transition to pay for value reimbursement, as well as break down the educational silos and move toward team-based and value-based education of health professionals.
Lévy-Bruhl, D; Soucat, A; Diallo, S; Lamarque, J P; Ndiaye, J M; Drame, K; Osseni, R; Dieng, B; Gbedonou, P; Cisse, M
Since 1986, two West African countries have been delivering immunizations within the framework of reorganized peripheral health systems. This revitalization is based on strategies which are implemented by an increasing number of African countries under the name "Bamako Initiative". It aims at providing universal access to a minimum package of maternal and child health priority interventions starting with immunizations, pre and perinatal care, oral rehydration for diarrhoea, treatment of malaria and acute lower respiratory infections. Within this package, immunization has been given high priority. Several strategies aimed at improving immunization coverage have been implemented: services have been reorganized so that any child or woman making contact with the health system receives immunization if needed. Health information systems have been revised so as to allow for active individual follow up and better management of health centre resources. Health staff have been given training in management and a biannual monitoring/microplanning process at health centre level has been introduced. The goal of monitoring is to enable health personnel to identify the obstacles to attaining optimum coverages with the priority interventions and to select locally appropriate corrective strategies. Health centres have also been provided with a motorcycle allowing for regular outreach activities. To cover the running costs of the services (mainly restocking of drugs, running and maintenance of the cold chain and the motorbike, and staff incentives), financial contribution from local communities have been sought through a fee-for-treatment system. Prices have been set at an affordable level by limiting the number of drugs to a minimal list purchased under generic names by international tendering procedures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Villalobos, Bianca T; Bridges, Ana J; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Ojeda, Carlos A; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Gomez, Debbie
The discrepancy between the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and the availability of bilingual providers creates a barrier to accessing quality mental health care. Use of interpreters provides one strategy for overcoming this linguistic barrier; however, concerns about whether sessions with interpreters, versus bilingual providers, impede therapeutic alliance remain. The current study explored associations between the use of interpreters and therapeutic alliance in a sample of 458 Spanish-speaking patients seen for integrated behavioral health visits at primary care clinics. Patients completed a brief (4 item) therapeutic alliance scale at their behavioral health appointment. In addition, to supplement the quantitative study data, a pilot study of 30 qualitative interviews was conducted with a new sample of 10 Spanish-speaking patients, 10 behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and 10 trained interpreters. Quantitative results showed that interpreter use did not relate to therapeutic alliance, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. However, qualitative interviews suggested major themes regarding the relative benefits and challenges of using interpreters for patients, interpreters, and BHCs. In interviews, patients expressed a strong preference for bilingual providers. Benefits included greater privacy, sense of trust, and accuracy of communication. However, in their absence, interpreters were seen as increasing access to services and facilitating communication with providers, thereby addressing the behavioral health needs of patients with limited English proficiency. BHCs and interpreters emphasized the importance of interpreter training and a good collaborative relationship with interpreters to minimize negative effects on the quality of care.
Valentijn, Pim P.; Schepman, Sanneke M.; Opheij, Wilfrid; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.
Introduction Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to understand the complexity of integrated care. Methods The search method involved a combination of electronic database searches, hand searches of reference lists (snowball method) and contacting researchers in the field. The process of synthesizing the literature was iterative, to relate the concepts of primary care and integrated care. First, we identified the general principles of primary care and integrated care. Second, we connected the dimensions of integrated care and the principles of primary care. Finally, to improve content validity we held several meetings with researchers in the field to develop and refine our conceptual framework. Results The conceptual framework combines the functions of primary care with the dimensions of integrated care. Person-focused and population-based care serve as guiding principles for achieving integration across the care continuum. Integration plays complementary roles on the micro (clinical integration), meso (professional and organisational integration) and macro (system integration) level. Functional and normative integration ensure connectivity between the levels. Discussion The presented conceptual framework is a first step to achieve a better understanding of the inter-relationships among the dimensions of integrated care from a primary care perspective. PMID:23687482
Miglioretti, Diana L.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Bradford, Susan Carol; Zauber, Ann G.; Kessler, Larry G.; Feuer, Eric J.; Grossman, David C.
Background Screening for fecal occult blood can be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality only if positive tests are appropriately followed up with complete diagnostic evaluation (i.e., colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy with double contrast barium enema) and treatment. Objectives To examine whether rates of complete diagnostic evaluation following a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) have improved over time after the implementation of tracking systems and physician guidelines within a large integrated health care organization. Research Design From 1993 to 2005, 8513 positive FOBTs were identified on 8291 enrollees aged 50–79 of a large health care system. Automated records were used to identify repeat FOBTs, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and double-contrast barium enema within one year after the positive FOBT. National rates of complete diagnostic evaluation were estimated from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Results In this integrated health care organization, the percentage of positive FOBTs followed by complete diagnostic evaluation within one year increased from 57%–64% in 1993–1996 to 82%–86% from 2000–2005. Use of repeat FOBT following a positive FOBT decreased from 28–31% in 1993–1996 to 6–11% in 2000–2005. Based on the National Health Interview Survey, only 52% of positive FOBTs from 2000–2005 were followed by complete diagnostic evaluation nationally. Conclusions Adherence to recommendations for complete diagnostic evaluation following a positive FOBT has greatly improved over time in an integrated group medical practice. Through the use of tracking systems and screening guidelines, it may be possible to reach levels of follow-up that are comparable to those observed in randomized trials. PMID:18725839
Urada, Darren; Schaper, Elizabeth; Alvarez, Lily; Reilly, Christopher; Dawar, Mona; Field, Robyn; Antonini, Valerie; Oeser, Brandy; Crèvecoeur-MacPhail, Desirée; Rawson, Richard A
It is important to understand the perceptions of staff members who will be implementing the expected integration of mental health and substance use services into primary care. Surveys were administered to mental health/substance use disorder (MH/SUD) staff, support staff (SS), and primary care providers (PCPs) from three organizations (seven sites) that were participating in an initiative to promote the integration of MH/SUD services into primary care in Kern County, California. Results suggest that integration and MH/SUD services are highly valued among all staff types, and that staff are uniformly interested in further MH/SUD training. However, there were significant differences in staff perceptions. MH/SUD staff and services were valued by PCPs more than MH/SUD staff perceived being valued by PCPs, and MH/SUD staff were less likely to agree that communication with PCPs was good. Information seemed to flow better from MH/SUD staff to PCPs than in the other direction.
de Andrade, Selma Regina; Boehs, Astrid Eggert; Coelho, Bruna; Schmitt, Isabel Maria; Boehs, Carlos Gabriel Eggert
This study aimed to characterize the stages of the inter-organizational relationships between educational and caring aspects of Nursing, operating in the context of primary health care in a municipality of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The qualitative approach of the case study was used by deliberately selecting the cooperation between two organizations. Eight teaching nurses and eight assistant nurses were interviewed. The data were submitted to content analysis, and the results demonstrated a number of elements in the phases of interaction (negotiation, commitment and execution of activities), as well as the variability of their content over time. It was concluded that the interaction, at an operational level, is characterized by dynamics that happen during relationship cycles, usually spanning through the school-semester, producing new negotiations and commitments for the following semester.
Background Substantial recent research examines the efficacy of many types of complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies. However, outcomes associated with the "real-world" use of CAM has been largely overlooked, despite calls for CAM therapies to be studied in the manner in which they are practiced. Americans seek CAM treatments far more often for chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) than for any other condition. Among CAM treatments for CMP, acupuncture and chiropractic (A/C) care are among those with the highest acceptance by physician groups and the best evidence to support their use. Further, recent alarming increases in delivery of opioid treatment and surgical interventions for chronic pain--despite their high costs, potential adverse effects, and modest efficacy--suggests the need to evaluate real world outcomes associated with promising non-pharmacological/non-surgical CAM treatments for CMP, which are often well accepted by patients and increasingly used in the community. Methods/Design This multi-phase, mixed methods study will: (1) conduct a retrospective study using information from electronic medical records (EMRs) of a large HMO to identify unique clusters of patients with CMP (e.g., those with differing demographics, histories of pain condition, use of allopathic and CAM health services, and comorbidity profiles) that may be associated with different propensities for A/C utilization and/or differential outcomes associated with such care; (2) use qualitative interviews to explore allopathic providers' recommendations for A/C and patients' decisions to pursue and retain CAM care; and (3) prospectively evaluate health services/costs and broader clinical and functional outcomes associated with the receipt of A/C relative to carefully matched comparison participants receiving traditional CMP services. Sensitivity analyses will compare methods relying solely on EMR-derived data versus analyses supplementing EMR data with conventionally collected patient
Bainbridge, Daryl; Brazil, Kevin; Krueger, Paul; Ploeg, Jenny; Taniguchi, Alan; Darnay, Julie
In many countries formal or informal palliative care networks (PCNs) have evolved to better integrate community-based services for individuals with a life-limiting illness. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a customized tool to determine the perceptions of the processes of palliative care delivery reflective of horizontal integration from the perspective of nurses, physicians and allied health professionals working in a PCN, as well as to assess the utility of this tool. The process elements examined were part of a conceptual framework for evaluating integration of a system of care and centred on interprofessional collaboration. We used the Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration (IIC) as a basis of measurement. The 86 respondents (85% response rate) placed high value on working collaboratively and most reported being part of an interprofessional team. The survey tool showed utility in identifying strengths and gaps in integration across the network and in detecting variability in some factors according to respondent agency affiliation and profession. Specifically, support for interprofessional communication and evaluative activities were viewed as insufficient. Impediments to these aspects of horizontal integration may be reflective of workload constraints, differences in agency operations or an absence of key structural features.
van der Aa, Maartje J; van den Broeke, Jennifer R; Stronks, Karien; Busschers, Wim B; Plochg, Thomas
Accumulations of health and social problems challenge current health systems. It is hypothesized that professionals should renew their expertise by adapting generalist, coaching, and population health orientation capacities to address these challenges. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for evaluating this renewal of professional expertise. The (Dutch) Integrated Care Expertise Questionnaire (ICE-Q) was developed and piloted. Psychometric analysis evaluated item, criterion, construct, and content validity. Theory and an iterative process of expert consultation constructed the ICE-Q, which was sent to 616 professionals, of whom 294 participated in the pilot (47.7%). Factor analysis (FA) identified six areas of expertise: holistic attitude towards patients (Cronbach's alpha [CA] = 0.61) and considering their social context (CA = 0.77), both related to generalism; coaching to support patient empowerment (CA = 0.66); preventive action (CA = 0.48); valuing local health knowledge (CA = 0.81); and valuing local facility knowledge (CA = 0.67) point at population health orientation. Inter-scale correlations ranged between 0.01 and 0.34. Item-response theory (IRT) indicated some items were less informative. The resulting 26-item questionnaire is a first tool for measuring integrated care expertise. The study process led to a developed understanding of the concept. Further research is warranted to improve the questionnaire.
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Glaw, Xanthe; Kable, Ashley; Hazelton, Michael; Inder, Kerry
The aim of this integrative literature review was to identify high quality empirical research and theoretical literature on the sources of meaning in life and people's beliefs regarding the meaning of life. This will inform current mental health clinical practice and research by providing a synthesis of empirical and theoretical literature. Failure to address meaninglessness or the existential crisis can lead to psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety, addiction, aggression, hopelessness, apathy, lower levels of well-being, physical illness, and suicide. Integrative literature reviews incorporate empirical research and theoretical literature. The inclusion criteria were primary research and theoretical papers and books by prominent theorists. Thirty-nine items underwent the critical appraisal process. Thirty-two papers or books were included. Overwhelmingly the results revealed that relationships, particularly relationships with family, are cited as the most important source of meaning in people's lives in all cultures and age groups. There was no consensus identified to answer the meaning of life question. These results and future research will allow mental health clinicians to help patients deepen their understanding of themselves, identify where they find meaning and understand their beliefs about meaning of life, contributing to a reduction in symptomatology and meaninglessness, and an increase in happiness, life satisfaction, positive affect, better coping, psychosocial health and well-being, and more meaningfulness in life.
Background The failure to reduce preventable maternal deaths represents a violation of women’s right to life, health, non-discrimination and equality. Maternal deaths result from weaknesses in health systems: inadequate financing of services, poor information systems, inefficient logistics management and most important, the lack of investment in the most valuable resource, the human resource of health workers. Inadequate senior leadership, poor communication and low staff morale are cited repeatedly in explaining low quality of healthcare. Vertical programmes undermine other service areas by creating competition for scarce skilled staff, separate reporting systems and duplication of training and tasks. Discussion Confidential enquiries and other quality-improvement activities have identified underlying causes of maternal deaths, but depend on the health system to respond with remedies. Instead of separate vertical programmes for management of HIV, tuberculosis, and reproductive health, integration of care and joint management of pregnancy and HIV would be more effective. Addressing health system failures that lead to each woman’s death would have a wider impact on improving the quality of care provided in the health service as a whole. More could be achieved if existing resources were used more effectively. The challenge for African countries is how to get into practice interventions known from research to be effective in improving quality of care. Advocacy and commitment to saving women’s lives are crucial elements for campaigns to influence governments and policy -makers to act on the findings of these enquiries. Health professional training curricula should be updated to include perspectives on patients’ rights, communication skills, and integrated approaches, while using adult learning methods and problem-solving techniques. Summary In countries with high rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indirect causes of maternal deaths from HIV
Bronston, Leo J.; Austin-McClellan, Lauren E.; Lisi, Anthony J.; Donovan, Kevin C.; Engle, Walter W.
Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the self-report of experiences, attitudes, and perceived educational needs of American Chiropractic Association members regarding practice in integrated health care settings. Methods This was a descriptive observational study of the American Chiropractic Association members. Participants completed an electronic survey reporting their current participation and interest in chiropractic integrated practice. Results The survey was completed in 2011 by 1142 respondents, for a response rate of 11.8%. The majority of respondents (82.9%) did not currently practice in an integrated setting, whereas 17.1% did. Those practicing in various integrated medical settings reported delivering a range of diagnostic, therapeutic, and case management services. Participation in administrative and scholarly activities was less common. Respondents not practicing in integrated settings reported being interested in delivering a very similar array of clinical services. Doctors of chiropractic practicing in hospital or outpatient medical facilities reported frequent engagement in interprofessional collaboration. Both nonintegrated and integrated respondents reported very similar educational interests on a range of clinical topics. Conclusion The findings of this survey provide insight into the experiences, participation, and interests in integrated clinical practice for members of the American Chiropractic Association. PMID:26793034
Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465
Flys, Tamara; González, Rosalba; Sued, Omar; Suarez Conejero, Juana; Kestler, Edgar; Sosa, Nestor; McKenzie-White, Jane; Monzón, Irma Irene; Torres, Carmen-Rosa; Page, Kathleen
Background Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. Methods The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. Results Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258 = 87.2%) successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200 = 85%) attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001). The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001). A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. Conclusion This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired
Arshat, H; Othman, R; Kuan Lin Chee; Abdullah, M
The NADI program (pulse in Malay) was initially launched as a pilot project in 1980 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It utilized an integrated approach involving both the government and the private sectors. By sharing resources and expertise, and by working together, the government and the people can achieve national development faster and with better results. The agencies work through a multi-level supportive structure, at the head of which is the steering committee. The NADI teams at the field level are the focal points of services from the various agencies. Members of NADI teams also work with urban poor families as well as health groups, parents-teachers associations, and other similar groups. The policy and planning functions are carried out by the steering committee, the 5 area action committees and the community action committees, while the implementation function is carried out by the area program managers and NADI teams. The chairman of each area action committee is the head of the branch office of city hall. Using intestinal parasite control as the entry point, the NADI Integrated Family Development Program has greatly helped in expanding inter-agency cooperation and exchange of experiences by a coordinated, effective and efficient resource-mobilization. The program was later expanded to other parts of the country including the industrial and estate sectors. Services provided by NADI include: comprehensive health services to promote maternal and child health; adequate water supply, proper waste disposal, construction of latrines and providing electricity; and initiating community and family development such as community education, preschool education, vocational training, family counseling and building special facilities for recreational and educational purposes.
Murphy, Fiona; Hugman, Laura; Bowen, Judith; Parsell, Fran; Gabe-Walters, Marie; Newson, Louise; Jordan, Sue
It is thought that integrating health and social care provision can improve services, yet few evaluations of integrated health and social care initiatives have focused on changes in clinical outcomes and used comparator groups. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether attendance at an integrated health and social care day unit (IHSCDU) affected selected outcomes of functional mobility, number of prescribed medications, and physical and psychological well-being. A secondary aim was to examine the utility of the tools to measure these outcomes in this context; the feasibility of the recruitment and retention strategy and the utility of the comparator group. A before-and-after comparison design was used with non-randomised intervention and comparator arms. The intervention arm comprised 30 service users attending the IHSCDU and the comparator arm comprised 33 service users on a community nursing caseload. Measures of functional mobility (Barthel's Index) and physical and psychological well-being (SF-12(®) ) were taken from all participants in both arms at three data collection points: baseline, 4 and 9 months later, between November 2010 and September 2012. Participants and outcomes were identified prospectively and in both arms, the individual was the unit of assignment. No significant changes were noted in functional mobility and psychological well-being and the number of medications prescribed increased in both arms. There was a trend towards a significant difference between study arms in the change in the SF-12(®) physical health outcome measure and this outcome measure could be usefully explored in future studies. The recruitment and retention strategy was feasible although our comparator group had some limitations in not being closely matched in terms of age, functional mobility and mental well-being.
The Conceptualization of Self-Care and Integration of Self-Care Education in the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs Accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling Curriculum: A Multiple Case Study
Bradley, Nicole L.
The purpose of this research was to explore how CACREP accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling programs conceptualize self-care and integrate self-care education into counseling curriculum. Counselor educators in CACREP accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling programs served as representatives to their programs and were invited to share…
Ivbijaro, G; Patel, V; Chisholm, D; Goldberg, D; Khoja, T A M; Edwards, T M; Enum, Y; Kolkiewic, L A
For EMR countries to deliver the expectations of the Global Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 & the ongoing move towards universal health coverage, all health & social care providers need to innovate and transform their services to provide evidence-based health care that is accessible, cost-effective & with the best patient outcomes. For the primary and community workforce, this includes general medical practitioners, practice & community nurses, community social workers, housing officers, lay health workers, nongovernmental organizations & civil society, including community spiritual leaders/healers. This paper brings together the current best evidence to support transformation & discusses key approaches to achieve this, including skill mix and/or task shifting and integrated care. The important factors that need to be in place to support skill mix/task shifting and good integrated care are outlined with reference to EMR countries.
Hölzel, L P; Vollmer, M; Kriston, L; Siegel, A; Härter, M
An integrated health care project called "Gesundes Kinzigtal" was conducted in a rural area in Germany. As part of the project, physicians were trained and other measures were taken to enhance patient involvement in medical decision making. As part of the external evaluation, various effects regarding patient involvement in medical decision making, patient involvement and information preference, decision confidence, patient satisfaction with ambulatory care and patient quality of life were examined. The data were gathered by means of a questionnaire on an annual basis between 2007 and 2009. Effects were compared between patients who were participating in the integrated care project and two control groups. Analyses are based on the data of 1,205 patients. Over time all outcomes decreased slightly, except for information preference and physical quality of life. No statistically significant intervention effects on patient involvement in medical decision making or any other outcome variable could be found. The intensity of the training was presumably too low to establish an enduring change in the physician-patient interaction.
Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena
Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and…
Pang, Zhibo; Zheng, Lirong; Tian, Junzhe; Kao-Walter, Sharon; Dubrova, Elena; Chen, Qiang
In-home health care services based on the Internet-of-Things are promising to resolve the challenges caused by the ageing of population. But the existing research is rather scattered and shows lack of interoperability. In this article, a business-technology co-design methodology is proposed for cross-boundary integration of in-home health care devices and services. In this framework, three key elements of a solution (business model, device and service integration architecture and information system integration architecture) are organically integrated and aligned. In particular, a cooperative Health-IoT ecosystem is formulated, and information systems of all stakeholders are integrated in a cooperative health cloud as well as extended to patients' home through the in-home health care station (IHHS). Design principles of the IHHS includes the reuse of 3C platform, certification of the Health Extension, interoperability and extendibility, convenient and trusted software distribution, standardised and secured electrical health care record handling, effective service composition and efficient data fusion. These principles are applied to the design of an IHHS solution called iMedBox. Detailed device and service integration architecture and hardware and software architecture are presented and verified by an implemented prototype. The quantitative performance analysis and field trials have confirmed the feasibility of the proposed design methodology and solution.
La Rosa-Salas, Virginia; Tricas-Sauras, Sandra
It has long been known that a segment of the population enjoys distinctly better health status and higher quality of health care than others. To solve this problem, prioritization is unavoidable, and the question is how priorities should be set. Rational priority setting would seek equity amongst the whole population, the extent to which people receive equal care for equal needs. Equity in health care is an ethical imperative not only because of the intrinsic worth of good health, or the value that society places on good health, but because, without good health, people would be unable to enjoy life's other sources of happiness. This paper also argues the importance of the health care's efficiency, but at the same time, it highlights how any innovation and rationalization undertaken in the provision of the health system should be achieved from the consideration of human dignity, making the person prevail over economic criteria. Therefore, the underlying principles on which this health care equity paper is based are fundamental human rights. The main aim is to ensure the implementation of these essential rights by those carrying out public duties. Viewed from this angle, equity in health care means equality: equality in access to services and treatment, and equality in the quality of care provided. As a result, this paper attempts to address both human dignity and efficiency through the context of equity to reconcile them in the middle ground.
Tennison, Janet; Rajeev, Deepthi; Woolsey, Sarah; Black, Jeff; Oostema, Steven J.; North, Christie
Purpose: The Utah Improving Care through Connectivity and Collaboration (IC3) Beacon community (2010–2013) was spearheaded by HealthInsight, a nonprofit, community-based organization. One of the main objectives of IC3 was to improve health care provided to patients with diabetes in three Utah counties, collaborating with 21 independent smaller clinics and two large health care enterprises. This paper will focus on the use of health information technology (HIT) and practice facilitation to develop and implement new care processes to improve clinic workflow and ultimately improve patients’ diabetes outcomes at 21 participating smaller, independent clinics. Innovation: Early in the project, we learned that most of the 21 clinics did not have the resources needed to successfully implement quality improvement (QI) initiatives. IC3 helped clinics effectively use data generated from their electronic health records (EHRs) to design and implement interventions to improve patients’ diabetes outcomes. This close coupling of HIT, expert practice facilitation, and Learning Collaboratives was found to be especially valuable in clinics with limited resources. Findings: Through this process we learned that (1) an extensive readiness assessment improved clinic retention, (2) clinic champions were important for a successful collaboration, and (3) current EHR systems have limited functionality to assist in QI initiatives. In general, smaller, independent clinics lack knowledge and experience with QI and have limited HIT experience to improve patient care using electronic clinical data. Additionally, future projects like IC3 Beacon will be instrumental in changing clinic culture so that QI is integrated into routine workflow. Conclusion and Discussion: Our efforts led to significant changes in how practice staff optimized their EHRs to manage and improve diabetes care, while establishing the framework for sustainability. Some of the IC3 Beacon practices are currently smoothly
variety of specialists including chiropractors , optometrists, speech therapists, and mental health specialists (IBISWorld, 2006). Registered nurses... treatment services. These establishments have an organized staff of health care practitioners to provide patient care services and provide other services...Carroll, 2003). Complementary and Alternative Medicine includes a wide variety of treatments and therapies that are generally not supported by scientific
Spiers, Gemma; Aspinal, Fiona; Bernard, Sylvia; Parker, Gillian
Measuring the outcomes that are meaningful to people with long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs) using integrated health and social care services may help to assess the effectiveness of integration. Conventional outcomes tend not to be derived from service user experiences, nor are they able to demonstrate the impact of integrated working. This paper reports findings about outcomes identified as being important to people with LTNCs using integrated services. We undertook qualitative work with five community neuro-rehabilitation teams that were integrated in different ways and to different degrees. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 people with LTNCs using these teams. Data were collected between 2010 and 2011 and analysed using an adapted version of the Framework approach. We identified 20 outcomes across three domains: personal comfort outcomes, social and economic participation outcomes, and autonomy outcomes. Inter-relationships between outcomes, both within and across domains, were evident. The outcomes, and the inter-relationships between them, have implications for how individuals are assessed in practice.
Vhuromu, E N; Davhana-Maselesele, M
Treatment of the under five years is a national priority as an attempt in curbing deaths and deformities affecting children. Primary health care was implemented in the clinics in order to help in the treatment of illnesses affecting the community, including children. As a result of childhood illnesses; the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) came up with Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy to enhance treatment of such illnesses in developing countries. Primary health care nurses (PHCNS) in Limpopo Province were also trained to implement the strategy. This study is intended to explore and describe the experiences of PHCNS in implementing the IMCI strategy at selected clinics in Vhembe District in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with PHCNS who are IMCI trained and have implemented the strategy for a period of not less than two years. Data analysis was done through using Tesch 's method of open coding for qualitative analysis. Findings revealed that PHCNS had difficulty in rendering IMCI services due to lack of resources and poor working conditions. Recommendations address the difficulties experienced by PHCNS when implementing the IMCI strategy.
Background Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. Method A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. Result A total of 737 (42.0%) questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in such research. Half of the
Background Internationally, key health care reform elements rely on improved integration of care between the primary and secondary sectors. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing published literature on elements of current integrated primary/secondary health care. These elements and how they have supported integrated healthcare governance are presented. Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Informit Health Collection, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service, the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, European Foundation for Primary Care, European Forum for Primary Care, and Europa Sinapse was undertaken for the years 2006–2012. Relevant websites were also searched for grey literature. Papers were assessed by two assessors according to agreed inclusion criteria which were published in English, between 2006–2012, studies describing an integrated primary/secondary care model, and had reported outcomes in care quality, efficiency and/or satisfaction. Results Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies evaluated the process of integrated governance and service delivery structures, rather than the effectiveness of services. They included case reports and qualitative data analyses addressing policy change, business issues and issues of clinical integration. A thematic synthesis approach organising data according to themes identified ten elements needed for integrated primary/secondary health care governance across a regional setting including: joint planning; integrated information communication technology; change management; shared clinical priorities; incentives; population focus; measurement – using data as a quality improvement tool; continuing professional development supporting joint working; patient/community engagement; and, innovation. Conclusions All examples of successful primary/secondary care integration reported in
Salem, Johannes; Borgmann, Hendrik; Murphy, Declan G
Social media (SoMe) have become an integral part in many aspects of personal and professional life. With current uptake rates of 50-70% among urologists, SoMe platforms merit huge potential for dissemination of information and professional exchange among stakeholders in urology. Application of SoMe includes conference conversations via tweet chats, health education via YouTube videos, and Twitter online journal clubs. In addition, a number of urology journals have embraced SoMe to allow rapid dissemination of their content and engagement with their readers. Guidance for the appropriate use of SoMe is provided to urologists by several organizations. Besides urology, other disciplines have adopted SoMe for a variety of areas: continuing professional development, awareness of rare diseases, recruitment of study participants, patient education and support, and publicizing research. Openness to new approaches is the basic prerequisite for a transfer of successful concepts embraced by other specialties, to the field of urology.
Choi, Jeungok; Jenkins, Melinda L.; Cimino, James J.; White, Thomas M.; Bakken, Suzanne
Objective: The authors aimed to (1) formally represent OASIS-B1 concepts using the Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC) semantic structure; (2) demonstrate integration of OASIS-B1 concepts into a concept-oriented terminology, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED); (3) examine potential hierarchical structures within LOINC among OASIS-B1 and other nursing terms; and (4) illustrate a Web-based implementation for OASIS-B1 data entry using Dialogix, a software tool with a set of functions that supports complex data entry. Design and Measurements: Two hundred nine OASIS-B1 items were dissected into the six elements of the LOINC semantic structure and then integrated into the MED hierarchy. Each OASIS-B1 term was matched to LOINC-coded nursing terms, Home Health Care Classification, the Omaha System, and the Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons with HIV, and the extent of the match was judged based on a scale of 0 (no match) to 4 (exact match). OASIS-B1 terms were implemented as a Web-based survey using Dialogix. Results: Of 209 terms, 204 were successfully dissected into the elements of the LOINC semantics structure and integrated into the MED with minor revisions of MED semantics. One hundred fifty-one OASIS-B1 terms were mapped to one or more of the LOINC-coded nursing terms. Conclusion: The LOINC semantic structure offers a standard way to add home health care data to a comprehensive patient record to facilitate data sharing for monitoring outcomes across sites and to further terminology management, decision support, and accurate information retrieval for evidence-based practice. The cross-mapping results support the possibility of a hierarchical structure of the OASIS-B1 concepts within nursing terminologies in the LOINC database. PMID:15802480
Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo
Over the past five decades, palliative care has evolved from serving patients at the end of life into a highly specialized discipline focused on delivering supportive care to patients with life-limiting illnesses throughout the disease trajectory. A growing body of evidence is now available to inform the key domains in the practice of palliative care, including symptom management, psychosocial care, communication, decision-making, and end-of-life care. Findings from multiple studies indicate that integrating palliative care early in the disease trajectory can result in improvements in quality of life, symptom control, patient and caregiver satisfaction, quality of end-of-life care, survival, and costs of care. In this narrative Review, we discuss various strategies to integrate oncology and palliative care by optimizing clinical infrastructures, processes, education, and research. The goal of integration is to maximize patient access to palliative care and, ultimately, to improve patient outcomes. We provide a conceptual model for the integration of supportive and/or palliative care with primary and oncological care. We end by discussing how health-care systems and institutions need to tailor integration based on their resources, size, and the level of primary palliative care available. PMID:26598947
Andermo, Susanne; Sundberg, Tobias; Forsberg, Christina; Falkenberg, Torkel
Background Integrative health care (IHC) combines therapies and providers from complementary and conventional health care. Previous studies on IHC have shown power relations between providers but few studies have explored how the interaction develops over time. The objective of this study was to explore the development of IHC collaboration and interaction among participating providers during a series of consensus case conferences for managing patients with back and neck pain. Methods This qualitative study was conducted within a pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial in primary care. Patients' treatment plans were developed based on IHC provider consensus conferences (n = 26) of which 15 (5 of the first, 5 in the middle, and 5 of the last in the clinical trial) were selected for analysis. Findings were derived by means of discourse analysis, focusing on the participants’ use of subject positions during the conferences. Findings The IHC team in this study gradually formed a group identity, moving their subject positions from individual treating subjects to members of a team and were able to make consensus-based decisions about patients’ individual treatment plans. In the discourse, the IHC team identified collaborative shortcomings and problematized the provision of IHC. They were able to capitalize on the synergies in their collaboration and developed a shared vision of IHC provision. Conclusions The process of IHC collaboration involved the gradual formation of an IHC team identity, which facilitated interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical consensus-based decision-making in the team. The discourse further suggests that a reform of some legal and organizational health sector barriers might be needed to realize sustainable implementation of IHC services in Sweden. PMID:25793967
Bowman, Darcia Harris
The Broad Acres clinic is one of 1,500 school-based health centers nationwide that bring a wide range of medical, nutritional, and mental-health care to millions of students and their families. The centers provide an important safety net for children and adolescents--particularly the more than 10 million today who lack health insurance, according…
which provide health care to both VA and DOD beneficiaries. The encounters for the West Campus include care provided at VA’s three offsite community ...29For example, geriatric and mental health clinical areas were initially grouped with other...clinical areas in directorates led by the VA Chief Medical Executive and VA Nurse Executive, respectively. The reorganization grouped geriatric and mental
Chan, Roxane Raffin; Schaffrath, Michelle
Nurses, nursing educators and students support the inclusion of integrative health care (IHC) into nursing core curriculum as a way to create nurses who deliver nursing care to the full extent of their scope of practice and advance evidenced based IHC. Because of the holistic nature of IHC modalities, research to investigate appropriate teaching strategies and potential efficacy of learning IHC in the baccalaureate core curriculum requires a holistic approach. Therefore a phenomenological exploration using participatory action inquiry was conducted at a large Midwestern university. Eighteen first year nursing students were selected as co-researchers. Their experiences in learning and delivering three 15 min IHC interventions (foot reflexology, lavender aromatherapy and mindful breathing) in an acute care setting were captured using reflexive journaling and participation in structured and organic communicative spaces. Of the patients approached, 67% accepted to receive one or more IHC modalities (147/219). Using van Manen's model for holistic data reduction three themes emerged: The experience of presence, competency and unexpected results. Learning IHC modalities is best supported by a self-reflective process that is constructed and modeled by a nurse faculty member with experience in delivering IHC modalities.
Brown, M S
This is the third and last article reporting professional exchange tours between American nurses and nurses of other countries. In this article, the health care system of Kenya is discussed and comparisons made between this system and our own. Out of this comparison come several insights into our own way of doing things and possibilities for improving them. "Health Care in the Soviet Union" appeared in the April 1984 issue of The Nurse Practitioner. "Health Care in China" appeared in the May 1984 issue of the journal.
Wagner, H C; Fleming, D; Mangold, W G; LaForge, R W
Building relationships with patients is critical to the success of many health care organizations. The authors profile the relationship marketing program for a hospital's cardiac center and discuss the key strategic aspects that account for its success: a focus on a specific hospital service, an integrated marketing communication strategy, a specially designed database, and the continuous tracking of results.
Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521
Bruce, Martha L.; Raue, Patrick J.; Reilly, Catherine F.; Greenberg, Rebecca L.; Meyers, Barnett S.; Banerjee, Samprit; Pickett, Yolonda R.; Sheeran, Thomas F.; Ghesquiere, Angela; Zukowski, Diane; Rosas, Vianca H.; McLaughlin, Jeanne; Pledger, Lori; Doyle, Joan; Joachim, Pamela; Leon, Andrew C.
at any follow-up. Among 208 participants with HDRS≥10, CAREPATH demonstrated effectiveness (P=0.02) with lower HDRS at three (14.1 vs 16.1; P=0.04), six (12.0 vs 14.7; P=0.02) and twelve months (11.8 vs 15.7; P=0.005). Exploratory analyses found no differences in number or length of home visits. Conclusion and Relevance Home health nurses can effectively integrate depression care management into routine practice. However, clinical benefit appears limited to only patients with moderate to severe depression. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01979302 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01979302 PMID:25384017
Brockstein, Bruce; Hensing, Thomas; Carro, George W; Obel, Jennifer; Khandekar, Janardan; Kaminer, Lynne; Van De Wege, Christine; de Wilton Marsh, Robert
The electronic health record (EHR) was adopted into the NorthShore University HealthSystem, a four-hospital integrated health system located in suburban Chicago, in 2003. By 2005, all chemotherapy and medicine order entry was conducted through the EHR, completing the incorporation of a fully paperless EHR in our hospital-based oncology practice in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. The use of the EHR has dramatically changed our practice environment by improving efficiency, patient safety, research productivity, and operations, while allowing evaluation of adherence to established quality measures and incorporation of new quality improvement initiatives. The reach of the EHR has been substantial and has influenced every aspect of care at our institution over the short period since its implementation. In this article, we describe subjective and objective measures, outcomes, and achievements of our 5-year EHR experience.
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Binagwaho, Agnes; Ngabo, Fidele; Mugeni, Cathy; Gatera, Maurice; Nutt, Cameron T; Nsanzimana, Sabin
Abstract Problem Although it is highly preventable and treatable, cervical cancer is the most common and most deadly cancer among women in Rwanda. Approach By mobilizing a diverse coalition of partnerships, Rwanda became the first country in Africa to develop and implement a national strategic plan for cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment. Local setting Rwanda – a small, landlocked nation in East Africa with a population of 10.4 million – is well positioned to tackle a number of “high-burden” noncommunicable diseases. The country’s integrated response to infectious diseases has resulted in steep declines in premature mortality over the past decade. Relevant changes In 2011–2012, Rwanda vaccinated 227 246 girls with all three doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Among eligible girls, three-dose coverage rates of 93.2% and 96.6% were achieved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The country has also initiated nationwide screening and treatment programmes that are based on visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid, testing for HPV DNA, cryotherapy, the loop electrosurgical excision procedure and various advanced treatment options. Lessons learnt Low-income countries should begin to address cervical cancer by integrating prevention, screening and treatment into routine women’s health services. This requires political will, cross-sectoral collaboration and planning, innovative partnerships and robust monitoring and evaluation. With external support and adequate planning, high nationwide coverage rates for HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer can be achieved within a few years. PMID:24101786
Koren, Mary Elaine; Purohit, Sonal
The impact of spiritual practices on job satisfaction remains unclear. This integrative literature review assessed the effectiveness of various spiritual interventions and found that mindfulness was the intervention most widely used. The most promising outcome measures were stress, burnout, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Future research recommendation includes longitudinal reinforcement of mindfulness.
Anderson, Norman B; Belar, Cynthia D; Cubic, Barbara A; Garrison, Ellen G; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Kaslow, Nadine J
Comments on the article "Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home" (see record 2014-24217-011), presented by the Working Party Group on Integrated Behavioral Healthcare. The American Psychological Association (APA) shares concerns about the lack of reference to behavioral health care in the original 2007 Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home for which this new document is intended to supplement but not replace. The decision to support the supplemental Joint Principles was not an easy one for APA, as there is one area of significant concern. That concern is related to the use of the term "physician-directed medical practice"
Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio
OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949
At the outset the author stresses the distinction between 'alternative' and traditional medicine, the latter being indigenous to a country. Government recognition of traditional medicine is discussed and its relationship to the law of the land explored. Possible models for the integration of western and traditional medicine are examined, as well as the difficulties likely to arise. The conclusion is that such integration would be unconstitutional.
This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…
The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.
Bhattacharyya, Onil; Schull, Michael; Shojania, Kaveh; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Naglie, Gary; Webster, Fiona; Brandao, Ricardo; Mohammed, Tamara; Christian, Jennifer; Hawker, Gillian; Wilson, Lynn; Levinson, Wendy
Integrating care for people with complex needs is challenging. Indeed, evidence of solutions is mixed, and therefore, well-designed, shared evaluation approaches are needed to create cumulative learning. The Toronto-based Building Bridges to Integrate Care (BRIDGES) collaborative provided resources to refine and test nine new models linking primary, hospital and community care. It used mixed methods, a cross-project meta-evaluation and shared outcome measures. Given the range of skills required to develop effective interventions, a novel incubator was used to test and spread opportunities for system integration that included operational expertise and support for evaluation and process improvement.
Derzon, Robert A.
As the federal government shifted from its traditional roles in health to the payment for personal health care, the relationship between public and private sectors has deteriorated. Today federal and state revenue funds and trusts are the largest purchasers of services from a predominantly private health system. This financing or “gap-filling” role is essential; so too is the purchaser's concern for the costs and prices it must meet. The cost per person for personal health care in 1980 is expected to average $950, triple for the aged. Hospital costs vary considerably and inexplicably among states; California residents, for example, spend 50 percent more per year for hospital care than do state of Washington residents. The failure of each sector to understand the other is potentially damaging to the parties and to patients. First, and most important, differences can and must be moderated through definite changes in the attitudes of the protagonists. PMID:6770551
Mills, Jordan; Van Winkle, Patrick; Shen, Macy; Hong, Christina; Hudson, Sharon
Context Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) decreases risks of cancer and genital warts and the need for gynecologic procedures, yet nationwide vaccination rates are low. Previous surveys exploring this phenomenon have not included input from nurses and medical assistants, who play integral roles in HPV vaccine delivery. Objective To understand perceptions of HPV vaccine delivery among physicians, nurses, and medical assistants in a large integrated health care system in Southern California. Design Online surveys were sent to 13 nurse administrators and 75 physicians. Physicians were instructed to forward the survey to nurses and medical assistants with whom they work. Results A total of 76 surveys were completed, consisting of 52 physicians, 16 clinical nurses and medical assistants, and 8 nurse administrators. Physicians’ perceptions of vaccine safety or strength of recommendation did not differ by specialty department. Physicians reportedly perceived the HPV vaccine as safer than did clinical nurses and medical assistants (p < 0.001), who indicated they wanted more education on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine before being comfortable strongly recommending it. Respondents advised that all clinicians could improve in their roles as HPV vaccine advocates through patient counseling and providing informational literature and that workflow standardization was needed to minimize missed vaccination opportunities. Conclusion Physicians reportedly perceive the HPV vaccine as safer compared with nurses and medical assistants. Both groups think that more education of nonphysician staff is needed. Having proper systems in place is also vital to improving vaccination compliance. PMID:27643974
Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Lewin, Simon; Ploubidis, George B; Fakudze, Phelele; Mayhew, Susannah H
Integrating reproductive health (RH) with HIV care is a policy priority in high HIV prevalence settings, despite doubts surrounding its feasibility and varying evidence of effects on health outcomes. The process and outcomes of integrated RH-HIV care were investigated in Swaziland, through a comparative case study of four service models, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV services, selected purposively within one town. A client exit survey (n=602) measured integrated care received and unmet family planning (FP) needs. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the degree of integration per clinic and client demand for services. Logistic regression modelling was used to test the hypothesis that clients at more integrated sites had lower unmet FP needs than clients in a stand-alone site. Qualitative methods included in-depth interviews with clients and providers to explore contextual factors influencing the feasibility of integrated RH-HIV care delivery; data were analysed thematically, combining deductive and inductive approaches. Results demonstrated that clinic models were not as integrated in practice as had been claimed. Fragmentation of HIV care was common. Services accessed per provider were no higher at the more integrated clinics compared to stand-alone models (p>0.05), despite reported demand. While women at more integrated sites received more FP and pregnancy counselling than stand-alone models, they received condoms (a method of choice) less often, and there was no statistical evidence of difference in unmet FP needs by model of care. Multiple contextual factors influenced integration practices, including provider de-skilling within sub-specialist roles; norms of task-oriented routinised HIV care; perceptions of heavy client loads; imbalanced client-provider interactions hindering articulation of RH needs; and provider motivation challenges. Thus, despite institutional support, factors related to the social context of care inhibited
Mueser, Kim T.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Swain, Karin; Forester, Brent; Cather, Corinne; Feldman, James
Objective: The Helping Older People Experience Success (HOPES) program was developed to improve psychosocial functioning and reduce long-term medical burden in older people with severe mental illness (SMI) living in the community. HOPES includes 1 year of intensive skills training and health management, followed by a 1-year maintenance phase.…
Kema, Koronel Mashalla; Komwihangiro, Joseph; Kimaro, Saltiel
Background Over decades, evidence has accumulated to justify the concern that top-down approaches do not work and may result in lack of program ownership and sustainability. As a result, participatory approaches have increasingly become popular. An example of such an approach is hereby presented. Description Working with AMREF, Mkuranga district significantly gained experience and improved its community participatory approaches in health development. AMREF's model of Community Based Health Care (CBHC) approaches was used to implement integrated Water and Sanitation, Child Survival and Reproductive health programs. Outcomes The project established functioning village health and water committees. A 45% increase in utilization of services was reported. Adequate nutrition status among children rose from 67.9% to 81%. Attendance of antenatal clinics rose from 35% to 70.2%. A total of 117 shallow wells, 21 boreholes and 25 rain water harvesting systems were established. Lessons learnt Based on this experience, we conclude that in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the National Poverty Reduction Strategy (Mkukuta) targets, building partnerships with communities who are the target beneficiaries is a prerequisite and CBHC approach is a fundamental towards attaining those goals. Conclusion The model demonstrates that community participation is key to community empowerment, as well as community ownership and sustainability of health interventions. PMID:23467915
Canally, Culum; Doherty, Sean; Doran, Diane M; Goubran, Rafik A
The growing need to gain efficiencies within a home care setting has prompted home care practitioners to focus on health informatics to address the needs of an aging clientele. The remote and heterogeneous nature of the home care environment necessitates the use of non-intrusive client monitoring and a portable, point-of-care graphical user interface. Using a grounded theory approach, this article examines the simulated use of a graphical user interface by practitioners in a home care setting to explore the salient features of monitoring the activity of home care clients. The results demonstrate the need for simple, interactive displays that can provide large amounts of geographical and temporal data relating to patient activity. Additional emerging themes from interviews indicate that home care professionals would use a graphical user interface of this type for patient education and goal setting as well as to assist in the decision-making process of home care practitioners.
Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Patton, Jason; Sayeed, Zain; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J
Recent trends in clinical research have moved attention toward reporting clinical outcomes and resource consumption associated with various care processes. This change is the result of technological advancement and a national effort to critically assess health care delivery. As orthopedic surgeons traverse an unchartered health care environment, a more complete understanding of how clinical research is conducted using large data sets is necessary. The purpose of this article is to review various advantages and disadvantages of large data sets available for orthopaedic use, examine their ideal use, and report how they are being implemented nationwide.
van der Kluit, Maria Johanna; Goossens, Peter J J
An estimated 40% of patients in general health care settings suffer from a comorbid mental illness. A literature review was conducted to elucidate the factors underlying the different attitudes of nurses in general health care toward the nursing care of these patients. Although lack of knowledge, skills, and additional training with respect to dealing with patients with comorbid mental illness were frequently mentioned as a cause of negative attitudes, their exact relationships remained unclear. A holistic nursing vision, support, and older age were described as having a positive influence on a positive attitude, and workload was described as having a negative influence.
Stöver, Heino; Wolff, Hans
Despite the dissemination of principles of medical ethics in prisons, formulated and advocated by numerous international organizations, health care professionals in prisons all over the world continue to infringe these principles because of perceived or real dual loyalty to patients and prison authorities. Health care professionals and nonmedical prison staff need greater awareness of and training in medical ethics and prisoner human rights. All parties should accept integration of prison health services with public health services. Health care workers in prison should act exclusively as caregivers, and medical tasks required by the prosecution, court, or security system should be carried out by medical professionals not involved in the care of prisoners. PMID:22390510
Pont, Jörg; Stöver, Heino; Wolff, Hans
Despite the dissemination of principles of medical ethics in prisons, formulated and advocated by numerous international organizations, health care professionals in prisons all over the world continue to infringe these principles because of perceived or real dual loyalty to patients and prison authorities. Health care professionals and nonmedical prison staff need greater awareness of and training in medical ethics and prisoner human rights. All parties should accept integration of prison health services with public health services. Health care workers in prison should act exclusively as caregivers, and medical tasks required by the prosecution, court, or security system should be carried out by medical professionals not involved in the care of prisoners.
Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Tzavella, Foteini; Koukia, Evmorfia; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Alikari, Victoria; Stathoulis, John; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Zyga, Sofia
Introduction: Patients who suffer from chronic renal disease face problems in many aspects of their life; problems such as physical and social as well as mental such as stress, anxiety, depression. In addition, they exhibit an amount of spiritual needs, which relate and influence the psychological adaptation to the illness. Aim: The aim of this article is to examine evidence from the international literature regarding the possible relation of spirituality and health outcomes, mostly in the complex codex of a chronic and life treathing disease such as CKD. Results: Spirituality is a very debatable issue and the term has no single and widely agreed definition. The key components of spirituality were ‘meaning’, ‘hope’, ‘relatedness/connectedness’, and ‘beliefs/beliefs systems’. Spirituality has been characterized as the quest for meaning in life, mainly through experiences and expressions of mind, in a unique and dynamic process different for each individual. For many individuals spirituality and religion are important aspects of their existence, constituting a source support contribute to wellbeing and coping with life’s daily difficulties. Conclusion: Considering, assessing and addressing chronic kidney disease patient’s spirituality and spiritual needs is necessary and it can have a positive outcome in health related quality of life, mental health and life expectancy. PMID:26622206
Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina
In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.
Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina
Abstract In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. PMID:27703543
Adler, Kristin; Salanterä, Sanna; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Grädel, Barbara
The purpose of this integrative (including both quantitative and qualitative studies) literature review was to identify knowledge needs of parents of a child with special health care needs and to evaluate instruments to assess these needs. The content analysis of 48 publications revealed a vast amount of knowledge needs that were categorized into…
The notion of patient-centered care has long been linked with nursing practice since Florence Nightingale. The discipline of nursing is focused on the holistic care of individuals, families, and communities in times of sickness and/or health. However, in psychiatric-mental health nursing, the concepts of mental health and psychiatric illness still remain marginalized in our health care delivery systems, as well as in nursing education, knowledge development, and practice. Even with the concept of patient-centered homes, acute and primary care providers are reluctant to embrace care of those with psychiatric illness in their respective settings. Psychiatric illness was and continues to be in the shadows, hidden and often ignored by the larger community as well as by health care providers. This paper describes a Health Resources Services Administration (HRSA) Advanced Nursing Education (ANE) training grant's objective of reintegrating psychiatric-mental health practice into ALL health care delivery systems using the concept of patient-centered nursing care as a foundation for, and promotion of, the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMH-NP) as the "navigator" for not only the patients and their families, but also for their acute and primary care colleagues using an Interprofessional Education Model. The major barriers and lessons learned from this project as well as the need for psychiatric-mental health nurses to reclaim their role as a consultant/liaison in acute, primary, and long-term care settings will be discussed. The PMHNP as a consultant/liaison is being revitalized as an innovative advanced practice nursing health care model in North Carolina.
KHABAZ MAFINEJAD, MAHBOOBEH; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN; SOLTANI ARABSHAHI, SEYYED KAMRAN; BIGDELI, SHOALEH
Introduction The current literature supports the inclusion of inter-professional education in healthcare education. Changes in the structure and nature of the integrated medical education and healthcare system provide some opportunities for interprofessional education among various professions. This study is an attempt to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members about interprofessional education in the context of the medical education and healthcare system. Methods This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using purposeful sampling in 2012. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 faculty members and 7 students at Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Results Data analysis revealed four categories and nine subcategories. The categories emerging from individual interviews were “educational structure”, “mediating factors”, “conceptual understanding”, and “professional identity”. These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. Conclusion Matching the existing educational context and structure with IPE through removing barriers and planning to prepare the required resources and facilities can solve numerous problems associated with implementation and design of inter-professional training programs in Iran. In this way, promoting the development of a cooperative rather than a competitive learning and working atmosphere should be taken into account. The present findings will assist the managers and policy makers to consider IPE as a useful strategy in the integrated medical education and healthcare system. PMID:27382577
Jackson, C N; Manning, M R
This study explores the relationship between burnout and health care utilization of 238 employed adults. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and health care utilization by insurance company records regarding these employees' health care costs and number of times they accessed health care services over a one year period. ANOVAs were conducted using Golembiewski and Munzenrider's approach to define the burnout phase. Significant differences in health care costs were found.
Shelley, Katharine D; Ansbro, Éimhín M; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Gill, Michelle M; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W; Terris-Prestholt, Fern
Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in
Sauser-Zachrison, Kori; Shen, Ernest; Ajani, Zahra; Neil, William P; Sangha, Navdeep; Gould, Michael K; Sharp, Adam L
Context: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is underutilized for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Objective: To determine whether the probability of tPA administration for patients with ischemic stroke in an integrated health care system improved from 2009 to 2013, and to identify predictors of tPA administration. Design: Retrospective analysis of all ischemic stroke presentations to 14 Emergency Departments between 2009 and 2013. A generalized linear mixed-effects model identified patient and hospital predictors of tPA. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was tPA administration; secondary outcomes were door-to-imaging and door-to-needle times and tPA-related bleeding complications. Results: Of the 11,630 patients, 3.9% received tPA. The likelihood of tPA administration increased with presentation in 2012 and 2013 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–2.43; and OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.90–3.51), female sex (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04–1.54), and ambulance arrival (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.76–2.67), and decreased with prior stroke (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.89) and increased age (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97–0.99). Likelihood varied by Medical Center (pseudo-intraclass correlation coefficient 13.5%). Among tPA-treated patients, median door-to-imaging time was 15 minutes (interquartile range, 9–23 minutes), and door-to-needle time was 73 minutes (interquartile range, 55–103 minutes). The rate of intracranial hemorrhage was 4.2% and 0.9% among tPA- and non-tPA treated patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Acute ischemic stroke care improved over time in this integrated health system. Better understanding of differences in hospital performance will have important quality-improvement and policy implications. PMID:27043833
Smith, Stephanie L; Misago, Claire Nancy; Osrow, Robyn A; Franke, Molly F; Iyamuremye, Jean Damascene; Dusabeyezu, Jeanne D'Arc; Mohand, Achour A; Anatole, Manzi; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Raviola, Giuseppe J
Introduction Integrating mental healthcare into primary care can reduce the global burden of mental disorders. Yet data on the effective implementation of real-world task-shared mental health programmes are limited. In 2012, the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the international healthcare organisation Partners in Health collaboratively adapted the Mentoring and Enhanced Supervision at Health Centers (MESH) programme, a successful programme of supported supervision based on task-sharing for HIV/AIDS care, to include care of neuropsychiatric disorders within primary care settings (MESH Mental Health). We propose 1 of the first studies in a rural low-income country to assess the implementation and clinical outcomes of a programme integrating neuropsychiatric care into a public primary care system. Methods and analysis A mixed-methods evaluation will be conducted. First, we will conduct a quantitative outcomes evaluation using a pretest and post-test design at 4 purposively selected MESH MH participating health centres. At least 112 consecutive adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression or epilepsy will be enrolled. Primary outcomes are symptoms and functioning measured at baseline, 8 weeks and 6 months using clinician-administered scales: the General Health Questionnaire and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Scale. We hypothesise that service users will experience at least a 25% improvement in symptoms and functioning from baseline after MESH MH programme participation. To understand any outcome improvements under the intervention, we will evaluate programme processes using (1) quantitative analyses of routine service utilisation data and supervision checklist data and (2) qualitative semistructured interviews with primary care nurses, service users and family members. Ethics and dissemination This evaluation was approved by the Rwanda National Ethics Committee (Protocol #736/RNEC/2016) and deemed exempt by the Harvard University Institutional Review
Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J
Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow.
Craig, Shelley; Frankford, Rachel; Allan, Kate; Williams, Charmaine; Schwartz, Celia; Yaworski, Andrea; Janz, Gwen; Malek-Saniee, Sara
Despite being identified as significant determinants of health, depression and anxiety continue to be underdiagnosed and undertreated in primary care settings. This study examined the psychosocial health needs of patients at four urban interdisciplinary primary health teams. Quantitative analysis revealed that nearly 80% of patients reported anxiety and/or depression. Self-reported anxiety and depression was correlated with poor social relationships, compromised health status and underdeveloped problem-solving skills. These findings suggest that social workers have a vital role to play within interdisciplinary primary health teams in the amelioration of factors associated with anxiety and depression.
Background Pharmacists are viewed as highly trained yet underutilised and there is growing support to extend the role of the pharmacist within the primary health care sector. The integration of a pharmacist into a general practice medical centre is not a new concept however is a novel approach in Australia and evidence supporting this role is currently limited. This study aimed to describe the opinions of local stakeholders in South-East Queensland on the integration of a pharmacist into the Australian general practice environment. Methods A sample of general practitioners, health care consumers, pharmacists and practice managers in South-East Queensland were invited to participate in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. Seeding questions common to all sessions were used to facilitate discussion. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Leximancer software was used to qualitatively analyse responses. Results A total of 58 participants took part in five focus groups and eighteen semi-structured interviews. Concepts relating to six themes based on the seeding questions were identified. These included positively viewed roles such as medication reviews and prescribing, negatively viewed roles such as dispensing and diagnosing, barriers to pharmacist integration such as medical culture and remuneration, facilitators to pharmacist integration such as remuneration and training, benefits of integration such as access to the patient’s medical file, and potential funding models. Conclusions These findings and future research may aid the development of a new model of integrated primary health care services involving pharmacist practitioners. PMID:22852792
Evaluation of an Organisational Intervention to Promote Integrated Working between Health Services and Care Homes in the Delivery of End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia: Understanding the Change Process Using a Social Identity Approach
Amador, Sarah; Mathie, Elspeth; Nicholson, Caroline
In the United Kingdom, approximately a third of people with dementia live in long-term care facilities for adults, the majority of whom are in the last years of life. Working arrangements between health services and care homes in England are largely ad hoc and often inequitable, yet quality end-of-life care for people with dementia in these settings requires a partnership approach to care that builds on existing practice. This paper reports on the qualitative component of a mixed method study aimed at evaluating an organisational intervention shaped by Appreciative Inquiry to promote integrated working between visiting health care practitioners (i.e. General Practitioners and District Nurses) and care home staff. The evaluation uses a social identity approach to elucidate the mechanisms of action that underlie the intervention, and understand how organisational change can be achieved. We uncovered evidence of both (i) identity mobilisation and (ii) context change, defined in theory as mechanisms to overcome divisions in healthcare. Specifically, the intervention supported integrated working across health and social care settings by (i) the development of a common group identity built on shared views and goals, but also recognition of knowledge and expertise specific to each service group which served common goals in the delivery of end-of-life care, and (ii) development of context specific practice innovations and the introduction of existing end-of-life care tools and frameworks, which could consequently be implemented as part of a meaningful bottom-up rather than top-down process. Interventions structured around a Social Identity Approach can be used to gauge the congruence of values and goals between service groups without which efforts to achieve greater integration between different health services may prove ineffectual. The strength of the approach is its ability to accommodate the diversity of service groups involved in a given area of care, by valuing their
Evaluation of an Organisational Intervention to Promote Integrated Working between Health Services and Care Homes in the Delivery of End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia: Understanding the Change Process Using a Social Identity Approach.
Amador, Sarah; Goodman, Claire; Mathie, Elspeth; Nicholson, Caroline
In the United Kingdom, approximately a third of people with dementia live in long-term care facilities for adults, the majority of whom are in the last years of life. Working arrangements between health services and care homes in England are largely ad hoc and often inequitable, yet quality end-of-life care for people with dementia in these settings requires a partnership approach to care that builds on existing practice. This paper reports on the qualitative component of a mixed method study aimed at evaluating an organisational intervention shaped by Appreciative Inquiry to promote integrated working between visiting health care practitioners (i.e. General Practitioners and District Nurses) and care home staff. The evaluation uses a social identity approach to elucidate the mechanisms of action that underlie the intervention, and understand how organisational change can be achieved. We uncovered evidence of both (i) identity mobilisation and (ii) context change, defined in theory as mechanisms to overcome divisions in healthcare. Specifically, the intervention supported integrated working across health and social care settings by (i) the development of a common group identity built on shared views and goals, but also recognition of knowledge and expertise specific to each service group which served common goals in the delivery of end-of-life care, and (ii) development of context specific practice innovations and the introduction of existing end-of-life care tools and frameworks, which could consequently be implemented as part of a meaningful bottom-up rather than top-down process. Interventions structured around a Social Identity Approach can be used to gauge the congruence of values and goals between service groups without which efforts to achieve greater integration between different health services may prove ineffectual. The strength of the approach is its ability to accommodate the diversity of service groups involved in a given area of care, by valuing their
Dobbins, Mary Iftner; Thomas, Sheila A; Melton, Stacy L Stokes; Lee, Stacy
The primary care medical home continues to adapt by applying new research to population health approaches to care. With the discovery that life experiences trigger a chain of biologic events linked to chronic illnesses, the role of patient-centered multidisciplinary care teams becomes of paramount importance. Subsequently, mental health professionals are being incorporated into the primary care setting, using their skills in nontraditional models to customize care for each patient. This "integration" of primary care and unique mental health services engenders opportunity for enhanced clinical care, professional workforce development and support, more effective population health initiatives, and informed health care policy.
Ziebarth, Deborah Jean
While performing a data search to define "wholistic health care", it was evident that a definite gap existed in published literature. In addition, there are different definitions and several similar terms (whole person care, wholistic health, whole person health, wholism, etc.), which may cause confusion. The purpose of this paper was to present the analysis of "wholistic health care" using Rodgers' Evolutionary Method. The method allows for the historical and social nature of "wholistic health care" and how it changes over time. Attributes, antecedents, and consequences of wholistic health care were reduced using a descriptive matrix. In addition, attributes that consistently occurred in wholistic health care were presented as essential attributes. Definitions of Wholistic Health Care Provider(s), Wholistic Health, Wholistic Illness, Wholistic Healing, and Patient were created from the analysis of the literature review of attributes, antecedents, and consequences of wholistic health care. Wholistic Health Care is defined as the assessment, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of wholistic illness in human beings to maintain wholistic health or enhance wholistic healing. Identified wholistic health needs are addressed simultaneously by one or a team of allied health professionals in the provision of primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care. Wholistic health care is patient centered and considers the totality of the person (e.g., human development at a given age, genetic endowments, disease processes, environment, culture, experiences, relationships, communication, assets, attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyle behaviors). Patient centered refers to the patient as active participant in deciding the course of care. Essential attributes of wholistic health care are faith (spiritual) integrating, health promoting, disease managing, coordinating, empowering, and accessing health care. Wholistic health care may occur in collaboration with a faith-based organization to
Pieters, Angèle; Akkermans, Henk; Franx, Arie
This chapter reports on an action research case study of integrated obstetric care in the Netherlands. Efficient and patient-friendly patient flows through integrated care networks are of major societal importance. How to design and develop such interorganizational patient flows is still a nascent research area, especially when dealing with a large number (n>3) of stakeholders. We have shown that a modification of an existing method to support interorganizational collaboration by system dynamics-based group model building (GMB) (the Renga method, Akkermans, 2001) may be effective in achieving such collaboration.
Garmendia, Fausto; Perales, Alberto; Miranda, Eva; Mendoza, Pedro; Calderón, Walter; Miano, Jorge
In the year 2003, in the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, the Permanent Program of Training for the Integral Attention of the Victims of Violence was created, has been training human resources for the comprehensive health care to victims of violence. In this sense, we was considered necessary to develop a methodology for health professionals, identifying their training needs and the conditions under how they work. It is in this context, that the year 2004, a base line study was delineated in the Microrred de Salud Huaycán, in the east of Lima city; that included diverse stages with a multisectorial approach with the aim to identify the training needs of the health professionals, as well as the evaluation of the logistic and administrative support for the development of training activities to diverse levels. In this paper, the procedures and principal results are exposed, in a succinct way. There was demonstrated that the population of Huaycán were affected by the sequels of the political violence; nevertheless, the health services have severe limited resources to give appropriate health care to victims of violence. The health professionals require an intensive training on this issue. An adequate logistic and administrative conditions allowed to carry out an appropriate training program. We suggest that this methodology will facilitate to construct products and instruments for a suitable and specific training for the integral health care to the victims of the violence.
Simpser, Edwin; Hudak, Mark L
Pediatric home health care is an effective and holistic venue of treatment of children with medical complexity or developmental disabilities who otherwise may experience frequent and/or prolonged hospitalizations or who may enter chronic institutional care. Demand for pediatric home health care is increasing while the provider base is eroding, primarily because of inadequate payment or restrictions on benefits. As a result, home care responsibilities assumed by family caregivers have increased and imposed financial, physical, and psychological burdens on the family. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act set forth 10 mandated essential health benefits. Home care should be considered as an integral component of the habilitative and rehabilitative services and devices benefit, even though it is not explicitly recognized as a specific category of service. Pediatric-specific home health care services should be defined clearly as components of pediatric services, the 10th essential benefit, and recognized by all payers. Payments for home health care services should be sufficient to maintain an adequate provider work force with the pediatric-specific expertise and skills to care for children with medical complexity or developmental disability. Furthermore, coordination of care among various providers and the necessary direct patient care from which these care coordination plans are developed should be required and enabled by adequate payment. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates for high-quality care by calling for development of pediatric-specific home health regulations and the licensure and certification of pediatric home health providers.
Kassianos, Angelos P.; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Greenfield, Geva; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Pappas, Yannis
Introduction Multidisciplinary group meetings are one of the key drivers of facilitating integrated care. Health care professionals attending such groups have a key role in the success of these discussions and hence, in the forming of multi-professional integrated care. The study aimed to explore the professionals’ experiences and views of participating and implementing the groups in integrated care context. Methods A qualitative study including 25 semi-structured interviews with professionals participating in the Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Participants mentioned a number of benefits of participating in the meetings, including shared learning and shared decision-making between different services and specialties. Yet, they perceived barriers that diminish the efficiency of the groups, such as time constraints, group dynamics and technicalities. The participants felt that the quality of discussions and facilitation could be improved, as well as technical arrangements that would make them easier to participate. Most of the participants perceived the groups to be beneficial for providers mostly questioning the benefits for patient care. Conclusion Findings provide an insight into how health professionals’ views of their participation to the multidisciplinary group meetings can be more effectively translated into more tangible benefits to the patients. To benefit patient care, the multidisciplinary groups need to be more patient-oriented rather than provider-oriented, while overcoming professional boundaries for participating. PMID:26351410
Howard, Steven W; Bernell, Stephanie L; Yoon, Jangho; Luck, Jeff; Ranit, Claire M
To control Medicaid costs, improve quality, and drive community engagement, the Oregon Health Authority introduced a new system of coordinated care organizations (CCOs). While CCOs resemble traditional Medicaid managed care, they have differences that have been deliberately designed to improve care coordination, increase accountability, and incorporate greater community governance. Reforms include global budgets integrating medical, behavioral, and oral health care and public health functions; risk-adjusted payments rewarding outcomes and evidence-based practice; increased transparency; and greater community engagement. The CCO model faces several implementation challenges. If successful, it will provide improved health care delivery, better health outcomes, and overall savings.
Stein, Flo; Lancaster, Michael; Yaggy, Susan; Dickens, Regina Schaaf
The North Carolina Division of Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities, and Substance Abuse Services works with partners to reduce the impact of behavioral health conditions in communities throughout the state. We review state-funded behavioral health initiatives that provide support to military personnel and their families, with special attention to public services and co-location efforts.
Study protocol for a randomized, controlled, superiority trial comparing the clinical and cost- effectiveness of integrated online mental health assessment-referral-care in pregnancy to usual prenatal care on prenatal and postnatal mental health and infant health and development: the Integrated Maternal Psychosocial Assessment to Care Trial (IMPACT)
Background Stress, depression, and anxiety affect 15 to 25% of pregnant women. However, fewer than 20% of prenatal care providers assess and treat mental health problems and fewer than 20% of pregnant women seek mental healthcare. For those who seek treatment, the lack of health system integration and existing barriers frequently prevent treatment access. Without treatment, poor prenatal mental health can persist for years and impact future maternal, child, and family well-being. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated process of online psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for pregnant women compared to usual prenatal care (no formal screening or specialized care). The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6 to 8 weeks postrandomization. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. Pregnant women are eligible if they: 1) are <28 weeks gestation; 2) speak/read English; 3) are willing to complete email questionnaires; 4) have no, low, or moderate psychosocial risk on screening at recruitment; and 5) are eligible for CBT. A sample of 816 women will be recruited from large, urban primary care clinics and allocation is by computer-generated randomization. Women in the intervention group will complete an online psychosocial assessment, and those with mild or moderate depression, anxiety, or stress symptoms then complete six interactive cognitive behavior therapy modules. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6 to 8 weeks postrandomization and at 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum
Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.
A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…
Keller, Sara R; Hayes, Gillian R; Dorr, David A; Ash, Joan S; Sittig, Dean F
Background Patient-generated health data (PGHD) are health-related data created or recorded by patients to inform their self-care and understanding about their own health. PGHD is different from other patient-reported outcome data because the collection of data is patient-driven, not practice- or research-driven. Technical applications for assisting patients to collect PGHD supports self-management activities such as healthy eating and exercise and can be important for preventing and managing disease. Technological innovations (eg, activity trackers) are making it more common for people to collect PGHD, but little is known about how PGHD might be used in outpatient clinics. Objective The objective of our study was to examine the experiences of health care professionals who use PGHD in outpatient clinics. Methods We conducted an evaluation of Project HealthDesign Round 2 to synthesize findings from 5 studies funded to test tools designed to help patients collect PGHD and share these data with members of their health care team. We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 Project HealthDesign study team members and 12 health care professionals that participated in these studies. We used an immersion-crystallization approach to analyze data. Our findings provide important information related to health care professionals’ attitudes toward and experiences with using PGHD in a clinical setting. Results Health care professionals identified 3 main benefits of PGHD accessibility in clinical settings: (1) deeper insight into a patient’s condition; (2) more accurate patient information, particularly when of clinical relevance; and (3) insight into a patient’s health between clinic visits, enabling revision of care plans for improved health goal achievement, while avoiding unnecessary clinic visits. Study participants also identified 3 areas of consideration when implementing collection and use of PGHD data in clinics: (1) developing practice workflows and protocols
Kunin, Sharon Brown; Kanze, David Mitchell
Pretravel care for the health care provider begins with an inventory, including the destination, length of stay, logistical arrangements, type of lodging, food and water supply, team members, personal medical needs, and the needs of the community to be treated. This inventory should be created and processed well in advance of the planned medical excursion. The key thing to remember in one's planning is to be a health care provider during one's global health care travel and not to become a patient oneself. This article will help demonstrate the medical requirements and recommendations for such planning.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this ... This is the payment you make for certain health care provider visits and prescriptions. It is a set ...
Smith, Michele S
Reviews the book, Integrated Psychological Services in Primary Care edited by William Scott Craig (see record 2016-01850-000). This book opens with an article by the editor, in which he outlines the behavioral health needs of primary care patients and the rationale behind integrating mental health services in primary care settings. Subsequent chapters address basic and practical information for a variety of practice locations, such as Patient Centered Medical Home clinics, the Veteran's Administration medical centers, and primary care settings where the concept of integrated health is new. This is an excellent primer for anyone planning to implement an integrated care program or for those considering moving from an independent practice, agency, or traditional health care/hospital environment into an integrated primary care environment. The authors' writing styles made difficult concepts easy to understand and their knowledge of the utility of integration was evident. (PsycINFO Database Record
Weisner, Constance; Mertens, Jennifer; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Moore, Charles; Lu, Yun
Context The prevalence of medical disorders is high among substance abuse patients, yet medical services are seldom provided in coordination with substance abuse treatment. Objective To examine differences in treatment outcomes and costs between integrated and independent models of medical and substance abuse care as well as the effect of integrated care in a subgroup of patients with substance abuse–related medical conditions (SAMCs). Design Randomized controlled trial conducted between April 1997 and December 1998. Setting and Patients Adult men and women (n=592) who were admitted to a large health maintenance organization chemical dependency program in Sacramento, Calif. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment through an integrated model, in which primary health care was included within the addiction treatment program (n=285), or an independent treatment-as-usual model, in which primary care and substance abuse treatment were provided separately (n=307). Both programs were group based and lasted 8 weeks, with 10 months of aftercare available. Main Outcome Measures Abstinence outcomes, treatment utilization, and costs 6 months after randomization. Results Both groups showed improvement on all drug and alcohol measures. Overall, there were no differences in total abstinence rates between the integrated care and independent care groups (68% vs 63%, P=.18). For patients without SAMCs, there were also no differences in abstinence rates (integrated care, 66% vs independent care, 73%; P=.23) and there was a slight but nonsignificant trend of higher costs for the integrated care group ($367.96 vs $324.09, P=.19). However, patients with SAMCs (n=341) were more likely to be abstinent in the integrated care group than the independent care group (69% vs 55%, P=.006; odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.97). This was true for both those with medical (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.68-6.80) and psychiatric (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1
Fadope, Cece Modupe; And Others
A series of articles that examine environmental health and discuss health care reform; connections between chlorine, chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins and reproductive disorders and cancers; the rise in asthma; connections between poverty and environmental health problems; and organizations for health care professionals who want to address…
Optimizing health care delivery by integrating workplaces, homes, and communities: how occupational and environmental medicine can serve as a vital connecting link between accountable care organizations and the patient-centered medical home.
McLellan, Robert K; Sherman, Bruce; Loeppke, Ronald R; McKenzie, Judith; Mueller, Kathryn L; Yarborough, Charles M; Grundy, Paul; Allen, Harris; Larson, Paul W
In recent years, the health care reform discussion in the United States has focused increasingly on the dual goals of cost-effective delivery and better patient outcomes. A number of new conceptual models for health care have been advanced to achieve these goals, including two that are well along in terms of practical development and implementation-the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and accountable care organizations (ACOs). At the core of these two emerging concepts is a new emphasis on encouraging physicians, hospitals, and other health care stakeholders to work more closely together to better coordinate patient care through integrated goals and data sharing and to create team-based approaches that give a greater role to patients in health care decision-making. This approach aims to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. The PCMH model emphasizes the central role of primary care and facilitation of partnerships between patient, physician, family, and other caregivers, and integrates this care along a spectrum that includes hospitals, specialty care, and nursing homes. Accountable care organizations make physicians and hospitals more accountable in the care system, emphasizing organizational integration and efficiencies coupled with outcome-oriented, performance-based medical strategies to improve the health of populations. The ACO model is meant to improve the value of health care services, controlling costs while improving quality as defined by outcomes, safety, and patient experience. This document urges adoption of the PCMH model and ACOs, but argues that in order for these new paradigms to succeed in the long term, all sectors with a stake in health care will need to become better aligned with them-including the employer community, which remains heavily invested in the health outcomes of millions of Americans. At present, ACOs are largely being developed as a part of the Medicare and Medicaid systems, and the PCMH model is still gathering
Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Oku, Cheryl, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.
This document is comprised of the six 2002 issues of a bimonthly newsletter on children's health for California's child care professionals. The newsletter provides information on current and emerging health and safety issues relevant to child care providers and links the health, safety, and child care communities. Regular features include columns…
As a researcher, I have studied the efforts to increase the integration of health and social services in Quebec, as well as the mergers in the Quebec healthcare system. These mergers have often been presented as a necessary transition to break down the silos that compartmentalize the services dispensed by various organisations. A review of the studies about mergers and integrated care projects in the Quebec healthcare system, since its inception, show that mergers cannot facilitate integrated care unless they are desired and represent for all of the actors involved an appropriate way to deal with service organisation problems. Otherwise, mergers impede integrated care by creating increased bureaucratisation and standardisation and by triggering conflicts and mistrust among the staff of the merged organisations. It is then preferable to let local actors select the most appropriate organisational integration model for their specific context and offer them resources and incentives to cooperate. PMID:23687474
Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M
Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention.
Project Kiddum functions in nine Mother and Child Health Care Centers in culturally deprived areas of Jerusalem. The project integrates a large scale infant intervention program into ongoing primary preventive mother and child health care. (Author/GC)
Stanhope, Victoria; Videka, Lynn; Thorning, Helle; McKay, Mary
With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and ongoing health care reform efforts, this is a critical time for the social work profession. The approaches and values embedded in health care reform are congruent with social work. One strategy is to improve care for people with co-morbid and chronic illnesses by integrating primary care and behavioral health services. This paper defines integrated health and how the PPACA promotes integrated health care through system redesign and payment reform. We consider how social workers can prepare for health care reform and discuss the implications of these changes for the future of the profession.
Background Most western countries are experiencing greater pressure on community care services due to increased life expectancy and changes in policy toward prioritizing independent living. This has led to a demand for change and innovation in caring practices with an expected increased use of technology. Despite numerous attempts, it has proven surprisingly difficult to implement and adopt technological innovations. The main established technological innovation in home care services for older people is the personal emergency response system (PERS), which is widely adopted and used throughout most western countries aiming to support “aging safely in place.” Objective This integrative review examines how research literature describes use of the PERS focusing on the users’ perspective, thus exploring how different actors experience the technology in use and how it affects the complex interactions between multiple actors in caring practices. Methods The review presents an overview of the body of research on this well-established telecare solution, indicating what is important for different actors in regard to accepting and using this technology in community care services. An integrative review, recognized by a systematic search in major databases followed by a review process, was conducted. Results The search resulted in 33 included studies describing different actors’ experiences with the PERS in use. The overall focus was on the end users’ experiences and the consequences of having and using the alarm, and how the technology changes caring practices and interactions between the actors. Conclusions The PERS contributes to safety and independent living for users of the alarm, but there are also unforeseen consequences and possible improvements in the device and the integrated service. This rather simple and well-established telecare technology in use interacts with the actors involved, creating changes in daily living and even affecting their identities
Changes in the scale of values associated with society entering plural democracy caused as regards conceptual problems of health care some ethical doubts and objections. In the author's opinion the most important ones are: problems on the essence of health and mission of health policy, responsibility for health care, nature of health services under conditions of market economy, problems of the interpretation of right to health, health requirements and the importance of equity in advanced cultural societies.
Background Only about one-third of eligible HIV/AIDS patients receive anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Decentralizing treatment is crucial to wider and more equitable access, but key obstacles are a shortage of trained healthcare workers (HCW) and challenges integrating HIV/AIDS care with other primary care. This report describes the development of a guideline and training program (PALM PLUS) designed to integrate HIV/AIDS care with other primary care in Malawi. PALM PLUS was adapted from PALSA PLUS, developed in South Africa, and targets middle-cadre HCWs (clinical officers, nurses, and medical assistants). We adapted it to align with Malawi's national treatment protocols, more varied healthcare workforce, and weaker health system infrastructure. Methods/Design The international research team included the developers of the PALSA PLUS program, key Malawi-based team members and personnel from national and district level Ministry of Health (MoH), professional associations, and an international non-governmental organization. The PALSA PLUS guideline was extensively revised based on Malawi national disease-specific guidelines. Advice and input was sought from local clinical experts, including middle-cadre personnel, as well as Malawi MoH personnel and representatives of Malawian professional associations. Results An integrated guideline adapted to Malawian protocols for adults with respiratory conditions, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and other primary care conditions was developed. The training program was adapted to Malawi's health system and district-level supervision structure. PALM PLUS is currently being piloted in a cluster-randomized trial in health centers in Malawi (ISRCTN47805230). Discussion The PALM PLUS guideline and training intervention targets primary care middle-cadre HCWs with the objective of improving HCW satisfaction and retention, and the quality of patient care. Successful adaptations are feasible, even across health systems as different as those of
Conlon, Craig; Asch, Steven; Hanson, Mark; Avins, Andrew; Levitan, Barbara; Roth, Carol; Robbins, Michael; Dworsky, Michael; Seabury, Seth; Nuckols, Teryl
Context Little is known about quality of care for occupational health disorders, although it may affect worker health and workers’ compensation costs. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-associated condition that causes substantial disability. Objective To describe the design of a study that is assessing quality of care for work-associated CTS and associations with clinical outcomes and costs. Design Prospective observational study of 477 individuals with new workers’ compensation claims for CTS without acute trauma who were treated at 30 occupational health clinics from 2011 to 2013 and followed for 18 months. Main Outcome Measures Timing of key clinical events, adherence to 45 quality measures, changes in scores on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 12-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2), and costs associated with medical care and disability. Results Two hundred sixty-seven subjects (56%) received a diagnosis of CTS and had claims filed around the first visit to occupational health, 104 (22%) received a diagnosis before that visit and claim, and 98 (21%) received a diagnosis or had claims filed after that visit. One hundred seventy-eight (37%) subjects had time off work, which started around the time of surgery in 147 (83%) cases and lasted a median of 41 days (interquartile range = 42 days). Conclusions The timing of diagnosis varied, but time off work was generally short and related to surgery. If associations of quality of care with key medical, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes are identified for work-associated CTS, systematic efforts to evaluate and improve quality of medical care for this condition are warranted. PMID:27723446
Fredericks, Marcel; Kondellas, Bill; Fredericks, Janet; Langer, Michael; Ross, Michael W. V.
The purpose of this paper is to establish the necessity to fully and effectively integrate the sub-disciplines of educational foundations, such as psychology and philosophy, in addition to the natural and social sciences, within medical and health-related educational programs. This is particularly pertinent in Catholic and other religiously…
Schieber, G J; Puollier, J P
Trends in health are reviewed for the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) covering the following: the basic difficulties inherent in international comparative studies; the absolute levels of health expenditures in 1984; the levels and rates of growth of the health share in the gross domestic product (GDP) and the public share of total health expenditures; the elasticities of real health expenditures to real GDP for the 1960-75, 1975-84, and 1960-84 time periods; growth in health expenditures for the largest 7 OECD countries in terms of growth in population, health prices, health care prices in excess of overall prices, and utilization/intensity of services per person. International comparisons are a problem due to differences in defining the boundaries of the health sector, the heterogeneity of data, and methodological problems arising from comparing different economic, demographic, cultural, and institutional structures. The most difficult problem in international comparisons of health expenditures is lack of appropriate measures of health outcome. Exhibit 1 contains per capita health expenditures denominated in US dollars based on GDP purchasing power parities for 21 OECD countries for 1984. Per capita health expenditures ranged from less than $500 in Greece, Portugal, and Spain to over $1400 in Sweden and the US, with an OECD average of $871. After adjusting for price level differences, there still appears to be a greater than 3-fold difference in the "volume" of services consumed across the OECD countries. To determine if per capita health expenditures are related to a country's wealth as measured by its per capita GDP, the relationship between per capita health expenditures and per capita GDP for the 21 countries were examined for 1984. The data points and the "best fitting" trend line indicate a statistically significant relationship in which each $100 difference in per capita GDP is associated with a $10
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Background Despite the existence of ample literature dealing, on the one hand, with the integration of innovations within health systems and team learning, and, on the other hand, with different aspects of the detection and management of intimate partner violence (IPV) within healthcare facilities, research that explores how health innovations that go beyond biomedical issues—such as IPV management—get integrated into health systems, and that focuses on healthcare teams’ learning processes is, to the best of our knowledge, very scarce if not absent. This realist evaluation protocol aims to ascertain: why, how, and under what circumstances primary healthcare teams engage (if at all) in a learning process to integrate IPV management in their practices; and why, how, and under what circumstances team learning processes lead to the development of organizational culture and values regarding IPV management, and the delivery of IPV management services. Methods This study will be conducted in Spain using a multiple-case study design. Data will be collected from selected cases (primary healthcare teams) through different methods: individual and group interviews, routinely collected statistical data, documentary review, and observation. Cases will be purposively selected in order to enable testing the initial middle-range theory (MRT). After in-depth exploration of a limited number of cases, additional cases will be chosen for their ability to contribute to refining the emerging MRT to explain how primary healthcare learn to integrate intimate partner violence management. Discussion Evaluations of health sector responses to IPV are scarce, and even fewer focus on why, how, and when the healthcare services integrate IPV management. There is a consensus that healthcare professionals and healthcare teams play a key role in this integration, and that training is important in order to realize changes. However, little is known about team learning of IPV management, both in
Petrochuk, M A; Javalgi, R G
Health care reform has become the dominant domestic policy issue in the United States. President Clinton, and the Democratic leaders in the House and Senate have all proposed legislation to reform the system. Regardless of the plan which is ultimately enacted, health care delivery will be radically changed. Health care marketers, given their perspective, have a unique opportunity to ensure their own institutions' success. Organizational, managerial, and marketing strategies can be employed to deal with the changes which will occur. Marketers can utilize personal strategies to remain proactive and successful during an era of health care reform. As outlined in this article, responding to the health care reform changes requires strategic urgency and action. However, the strategies proposed are practical regardless of the version of health care reform legislation which is ultimately enacted.
Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara
This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600
Walsh, A M
During the next decade, the population over age 65 is expected to increase by 11% while the population over age 85 is expected to increase by 42%. These projections suggest that many organizations which currently provide services to the aged will be required to design a range of new products and services for this diverse population. Vertically integrated services provide a viable opportunity to competitively position an organization to respond to the diverse needs of an aged market. Since vertical integration will be essential in negotiating capitate contracts for the aged in the future, this study examined the extent of vertical integration in 116 health and social service organizations in an urban market with an expanding geriatric population.
Under background of reductionism in the modern science, physiology and medicine are stepwise refined into system, organ, disease, cell and gene etc. Although clinical medicine, only service in whole human object, obviously brought tremendous progress, it also appeared obvious defects and limits at the same time. Professionalized and specialized medicine not only needs to be integrated from basics to clinical fields, but also from prevention, health management, clinical treatment and functional rehabilitation medicine. People are indivisible organic whole. Professionalization, translation and integration must be combined. In order to provide the best quality and optimized medical service for the Chinese people and to lead in the world, we have to strengthen professional and technical knowledge, and have to establish the holistic integrative medical philosophy for physiology and medicine too.
National Consortium on Health Science and Technology Education, Okemos, MI.
This document presents the National Health Care Skill Standards, which were developed by the National Consortium on Health Science and Technology and West Ed Regional Research Laboratory, in partnership with educators and health care employers. The document begins with an overview of the purpose and benefits of skill standards. Presented next are…
This article presents a structured survey of the German health care and health insurance system, and analyzes major developments of current German health policy. The German statutory health insurance system has been known as a system that provides all citizens with ready access to comprehensive high quality medical care at a cost the country considered socially acceptable. However, an increasing concern for rapidly rising health care expenditure led to a number of cost-containment measures since 1977. The aim was to bring the growth of health care expenditure in line with the growth of wages and salaries of the sickness fund members. The recent health care reforms of 1989 and 1993 yielded only short-term reductions of health care expenditure, with increases in the subsequent years. 'Stability of the contribution rate' is the uppermost political objective of current health care reform initiatives. Options under discussion include reductions in the benefit package and increases of patients' co-payments. The article concludes with the possible consequences of the 1997 health care reform of which the major part became effective 1 July 1997.
Sousa, Islandia Maria Carvalho de; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale
This study aimed to analyze the inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and its integration with primary healthcare (PHC). A qualitative study drew on institutional data, indexed articles, and case studies in selected Brazilian cities: Campinas (São Paulo State), Florianópolis (Santa Catarina State), Recife (Pernambuco State), Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The analysis adopted the perspective of inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the healthcare network and its integration with primary healthcare, based on the following dimensions: presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine on the municipal agenda; position in the services; mode of access to Traditional and Complementary Medicine; Traditional and Complementary Medicine practitioners; types of practices; demand profile; and potential for expansion in the SUS. The authors identified and characterized four types of inclusion and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, whether in association or not: Type 1 - in primary healthcare via professionals from the family health teams - Integrated; Type 2 - in primary healthcare via professionals with full-time employment - Juxtaposed; Type 3 - in primary healthcare via matrix-organized teams - Matrix Organization; Type 4 - in specialized services - Without Integration. The combination of types 1 and 3 was considered a potential guideline for the expansion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS and can orient the growth and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine with primary healthcare. The growing presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS requires conceiving its strategic expansion, while existing experiences should not be wasted.
Brawer, Peter A; Martielli, Richard; Pye, Patrice L; Manwaring, Jamie; Tierney, Anna
The primary care health setting is in crisis. Increasing demand for services, with dwindling numbers of providers, has resulted in decreased access and decreased satisfaction for both patients and providers. Moreover, the overwhelming majority of primary care visits are for behavioral and mental health concerns rather than issues of a purely medical etiology. Integrated-collaborative models of health care delivery offer possible solutions to this crisis. The purpose of this article is to review the existing data available after 2 years of the St. Louis Initiative for Integrated Care Excellence; an example of integrated-collaborative care on a large scale model within a regional Veterans Affairs Health Care System. There is clear evidence that the SLI(2)CE initiative rather dramatically increased access to health care, and modified primary care practitioners' willingness to address mental health issues within the primary care setting. In addition, data suggests strong fidelity to a model of integrated-collaborative care which has been successful in the past. Integrated-collaborative care offers unique advantages to the traditional view and practice of medical care. Through careful implementation and practice, success is possible on a large scale model.
Maizes, Victoria; Rakel, David; Niemiec, Catherine
Integrative medicine has emerged as a potential solution to the American healthcare crisis. It provides care that is patient centered, healing oriented, emphasizes the therapeutic relationship, and uses therapeutic approaches originating from conventional and alternative medicine. Initially driven by consumer demand, the attention integrative medicine places on understanding whole persons and assisting with lifestyle change is now being recognized as a strategy to address the epidemic of chronic diseases bankrupting our economy. This paper defines integrative medicine and its principles, describes the history of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in American healthcare, and discusses the current state and desired future of integrative medical practice. The importance of patient-centered care, patient empowerment, behavior change, continuity of care, outcomes research, and the challenges to successful integration are discussed. The authors suggest a model for an integrative healthcare system grounded in team-based care. A primary health partner who knows the patient well, is able to addresses mind, body, and spiritual needs, and coordinates care with the help of a team of practitioners is at the centerpiece. Collectively, the team can meet all the health needs of the particular patient and forms the patient-centered medical home. The paper culminates with 10 recommendations directed to key actors to facilitate the systemic changes needed for a functional healthcare delivery system. Recommendations include creating financial incentives aligned with health promotion and prevention. Insurers are requested to consider the total costs of care, the potential cost effectiveness of lifestyle approaches and CAM modalities, and the value of longer office visits to develop a therapeutic relationship and stimulate behavioral change. Outcomes research to track the effectiveness of integrative models must be funded, as well as feedback and dissemination strategies
Tuttle, Mark S.
Non-health-care uses of information technology (IT) provide important lessons for health care informatics that are often overlooked because of the focus on the ways in which health care is different from other domains. Eight examples of IT use outside health care provide a context in which to examine the content and potential relevance of these lessons. Drawn from personal experience, five books, and two interviews, the examples deal with the role of leadership, academia, the private sector, the government, and individuals working in large organizations. The interviews focus on the need to manage technologic change. The lessons shed light on how to manage complexity, create and deploy standards, empower individuals, and overcome the occasional “wrongness” of conventional wisdom. One conclusion is that any health care informatics self-examination should be outward-looking and focus on the role of health care IT in the larger context of the evolving uses of IT in all domains. PMID:10495095
Gypsies in the United States are not a healthy group. They have a high incidence of heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. When they seek medical care, Gypsies often come into conflict with medical personnel who find their behavior confusing, demanding, and chaotic. For their part, Gypsies are often suspicious of non-Gypsy people and institutions, viewing them as a source of disease and uncleanliness. Gypsy ideas about health and illness are closely related to notions of good and bad fortune, purity and impurity, and inclusion and exclusion from the group. These basic concepts affect everyday life, including the way Gypsies deal with eating and washing, physicians and hospitals, the diagnosis of illness, shopping around for cures, and coping with birth and death. PMID:1413769
Ede, Victor; Okafor, Martha; Kinuthia, Rosemary; Belay, Zena; Tewolde, Teclemichael; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Satcher, David
Successful integration of behavioral health and primary care services is informed by perceptions of its usefulness to the consumer. An examination of provider, staff and patient perceptions was conducted across five integrated care sites in order to describe and examine perceptions and level of satisfaction with integrated care. A quantitative study was conducted with data collected through surveys administered to 51 patients, 27 support staff, and 11 providers in integrated care settings. Survey responses revealed high levels of satisfaction with integration of primary and behavioral health services. Integrated care can be enhanced by addressing provider competency and confidence concerns through continued education, increased collaboration and utilization of diagnostic tools. This analysis provides evidence to support that successful integration increases access to mental healthcare, which is instrumental in reduction of the mental health treatment gap by scaling up services for mental and substance use disorders among individuals with chronic medical conditions.
Ede, Victor; Okafor, Martha; Kinuthia, Rosemary; Belay, Zena; Tewolde, Teclemichael; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Satcher, David
Successful integration of behavioral health and primary care services is informed by perceptions of its usefulness to the consumer. An examination of provider, staff and patient perceptions was conducted across five integrated care sites in order to describe and examine perceptions and level of satisfaction with integrated care. A quantitative study was conducted with data collected through surveys administered to 51 patients, 27 support staff, and 11 providers in integrated care settings. Survey responses revealed high levels of satisfaction with integration of primary and behavioral health services. Integrated care can be enhanced by addressing provider competency and confidence concerns through continued education, increased collaboration and utilization of diagnostic tools. This analysis provides evidence to support that successful integration increases access to mental healthcare, which is instrumental in reduction of the mental health treatment gap by scaling up services for mental and substance use disorders among individuals with chronic medical conditions. PMID:25663121
Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.
Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the existence of cloud health-care workers. PMID:11294715
staggering cost of hospitalization and health care in general. Vast insurance pools that pay the bills encourage both the provider and consumer to utilize...incentives built into the system for either the consumer or the provider to encourage medical services cost control. 6 Massive, expensive and seemingly...1991.11 Ethical Considerations in Health Care Bioethical questions will prevail during any discussion of how to resolve America’s health care crisis. The
Brown, Judith Belle; French, Reta; McCulloch, Amy; Clendinning, Eric
Abstract Objective To explore the knowledge and perceptions of fourth-year medical students regarding the new models of primary health care (PHC) and to ascertain whether that knowledge influenced their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting The Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario in London. Participants Fourth-year medical students graduating in 2009 who indicated family medicine as a possible career choice on their Canadian Residency Matching Service applications. Methods Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted between January and April of 2009. Data were analyzed using an iterative and interpretive approach. The analysis strategy of immersion and crystallization assisted in synthesizing the data to provide a comprehensive view of key themes and overarching concepts. Main findings Four key themes were identified: the level of students’ knowledge regarding PHC models varied; the knowledge was generally obtained from practical experiences rather than classroom learning; students could identify both advantages and disadvantages of working within the new PHC models; and although students regarded the new PHC models positively, these models did not influence their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Conclusion Knowledge of the new PHC models varies among fourth-year students, indicating a need for improved education strategies in the years before clinical training. Being able to identify advantages and disadvantages of the PHC models was not enough to influence participants’ choice of specialty. Educators and health care policy makers need to determine the best methods to promote and facilitate knowledge transfer about these PHC models. PMID:22518904
Rushmer, R; Davies, H
Learning in health care is essential if healthcare organisations are to tackle a challenging quality of care agenda. Yet while we know a reasonable amount about the nature of learning, how learning occurs, the forms it can take, and the routines that encourage it to happen within organisations, we know very little about the nature and processes of unlearning. We review the literature addressing issues pivotal to unlearning (what it is, why it is important, and why it is often neglected), and go further to explore the conditions under which unlearning is likely to be encouraged. There is a difference between routine unlearning (and subsequent re-learning) and deep unlearning—unlearning that requires a substantive break with previous modes of understanding, doing, and being. We argue that routine unlearning merely requires the establishment of new habits, whereas deep unlearning is a sudden, potentially painful, confrontation of the inadequacy in our substantive view of the world and our capacity to cope with that world competently. PMID:15576685
Edgar, Andrew; Pattison, Stephen
The purpose of this paper is to offer an account of 'flourishing' that is relevant to health care provision, both in terms of the flourishing of the individual patient and carer, and in terms of the flourishing of the caring institution. It is argued that, unlike related concepts such as 'happiness', 'well-being' or 'quality of life', 'flourishing' uniquely has the power to capture the importance of the vulnerability of human being. Drawing on the likes of Heidegger and Nussbaum, it is argued that humans are at once beings who are autonomous and thereby capable of making sense of their lives, but also subject to the contingencies of their bodies and environments. To flourish requires that one engages, imaginatively and creatively, with those contingencies. The experience of illness, highlighting the vulnerability of the human being, thereby becomes an important experience, stimulating reflection in order to make sense of one's life as a narrative. To flourish, it is argued, is to tell a story of one's life, realistically engaging with vulnerability and suffering, and thus creating a framework through which one can meaningful and constructively go on with one's life.
Tracy, Jane; McDonald, Rachael
Background: Despite awareness of the health inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disability, their health status remains poor. Inequalities in health outcomes are manifest in higher morbidity and rates of premature death. Contributing factors include the barriers encountered in accessing and receiving high-quality health care.…
Slater, R G
Improved health care in Nicaragua is a major priority of the Sandinista revolution; it has been pursued by major reforms of the national health care system, something few developing countries have attempted. In addition to its internationally recognized advances in public health, considerable progress has been made in health care delivery by expanding curative medical services through training more personnel and building more facilities to fulfill a commitment to free universal health coverage. The very uneven quality of medical care is the leading problem facing curative medicine now. Underlying factors include the difficulty of adequately training the greatly increased number of new physicians. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement continue to be major problems. The curative medical system is not well coordinated with the preventive sector. Recent innovations include initiation of a "medicina integral" residency, similar to family practice. Despite its inadequacies and the handicaps of war and poverty, the Nicaraguan curative medical system has made important progress. PMID:2705603
Background The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Society initiated a large-scale bridge building and integrative treatment project to take place from 2004–2010 at a specialized Multiple Sclerosis (MS) hospital. In this project, a team of five conventional health care practitioners and five alternative practitioners was set up to work together in developing and offering individualized treatments to 200 people with MS. The purpose of this paper is to present results from the six year treatment collaboration process regarding the development of an integrative treatment model. Discussion The collaborative work towards an integrative treatment model for people with MS, involved six steps: 1) Working with an initial model 2) Unfolding the different treatment philosophies 3) Discussing the elements of the Intervention-Mechanism-Context-Outcome-scheme (the IMCO-scheme) 4) Phrasing the common assumptions for an integrative MS program theory 5) Developing the integrative MS program theory 6) Building the integrative MS treatment model. The model includes important elements of the different treatment philosophies represented in the team and thereby describes a common understanding of the complexity of the courses of treatment. Summary An integrative team of practitioners has developed an integrative model for combined treatments of People with Multiple Sclerosis. The model unites different treatment philosophies and focuses on process-oriented factors and the strengthening of the patients’ resources and competences on a physical, an emotional and a cognitive level. PMID:22524586
Ruggiano, Nicole; Brown, Ellen L; Hristidis, Vagelis; Page, Timothy F
The potential for health information technology to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health care has resulted in several U.S. policy initiatives aimed at integrating health information technology into health care systems. However, home health care agencies have been excluded from incentive programs established through policies, raising concerns on the extent to which health information technology may be used to improve the quality of care for older adults with chronic illness and disabilities. This analysis examines the potential issues stemming from this exclusion and explores potential opportunities of integrating home health care into larger initiatives aimed at establishing health information technology systems for meaningful use.
Gomis, R; Mata Cases, M; Mauricio Puente, D; Artola Menéndez, S; Ena Muñoz, J; Mediavilla Bravo, J J; Miranda Fernández-Santos, C; Orozco Beltrán, D; Rodríguez Mañas, L; Sánchez Villalba, C; Martínez, J A
An Integrated Healthcare Pathway (PAI) is a tool which has as its aim to increase the effectiveness of clinical performance through greater coordination and to ensure continuity of care. PAI places the patient as the central focus of the organisation of health services. It is defined as the set of activities carried out by the health care providers in order to increase the level of health and satisfaction of the population receiving services. The development of a PAI requires the analysis of the flow of activities, the inter-relationships between professionals and care teams, and patient expectations. The methodology for the development of a PAI is presented and discussed in this article, as well as the success factors for its definition and its effective implementation. It also explains, as an example, the recent PAI for Hypoglycaemia in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus developed by a multidisciplinary team and supported by several scientific societies.
Lizarondo, Lucylynn; Turnbull, Catherine; Kroon, Tracey; Grimmer, Karen; Bell, Alison; Kumar, Saravana; McEvoy, Maureen; Milanese, Steve; Russell, Mary; Sheppard, Lorraine; Walters, Julie; Wiles, Louise
Objective South Australia is taking an innovative step in transforming the way its healthcare is organised and delivered to better manage current and future demands on the health system. In an environment of transforming health services, there are clear opportunities for allied health to assist in determining solutions to various healthcare challenges. A recent opinion piece proposed 10 clinician-driven strategies to assist in maximising value and sustainability of healthcare in Australia. The present study aimed to seek the perspectives of allied health clinicians, educators, researchers, policy makers and managers on these strategies and their relevance to allied health. Methods A survey of allied health practitioners was undertaken to capture their perspectives on the 10 clinician-driven strategies for maximising value and sustainability of healthcare in Australia. Survey findings were then layered with evidence from the literature. Results Highly relevant across allied health are the strategies of discontinuation of low value practices, targeting clinical interventions to those getting greatest benefit, active involvement of patients in shared decision making and self-management and advocating for integrated systems of care. Conclusions Allied health professionals have been involved in the South Australian healthcare system for a prolonged period, but their services are poorly recognised, often overlooked and not greatly supported in existing traditional practices. The results of the present study highlight ways in which healthcare services can implement strategies not only to improve the quality of patient outcomes, but also to offer innovative solutions for future, sustainable healthcare. The findings call for concerted efforts to increase the utilisation of allied health services to ensure the 'maximum value for spend' of the increasingly scarce health dollar. What is known about the topic? In medicine, clinician-driven strategies have been proposed to
Jones, W. L.
Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.
Lush, L.; Cleland, J.; Walt, G.; Mayhew, S.
Since 1994, integrating human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) services with primary health care, as part of reproductive health, has been advocated to address two major public health problems: to control the spread of HIV; and to improve women's reproductive health. However, integration is unlikely to succeed because primary health care and the political context within which this approach is taking place are unsuited to the task. In this paper, a historical comparison is made between the health systems of Ghana, Kenya and Zambia and that of South Africa, to examine progress on integration of HIV/STD services since 1994. Our findings indicate that primary health care in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia has been used mainly by women and children and that integration has meant adding new activities to these services. For the vertical programmes which support these services, integration implies enhanced collaboration rather than merged responsibility. This compromise between comprehensive rhetoric and selective reality has resulted in little change to existing structures and processes; problems with integration have been exacerbated by the activities of external donors. By comparison, in South Africa integration has been achieved through political commitment to primary health care rather than expanding vertical programmes (top-down management systems). The rhetoric of integration has been widely used in reproductive health despite lack of evidence for its feasibility, as a result of the convergence of four agendas: improving family planning quality; the need to improve women's health; the rapid spread of HIV; and conceptual shifts in primary health care. International reproductive health actors, however, have taken little account of political, financial and managerial constraints to implementation in low-income countries. PMID:10534902
Bradley, Fay; Elvey, Rebecca; Ashcroft, Darren M; Hassell, Karen; Kendall, Juliette; Sibbald, Bonnie; Noyce, Peter
The aim of this paper is to investigate interprofessional collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists involved in the delivery of enhanced pharmacy services under the local pharmaceutical services (LPS) contract in England. Previous research suggests that a number of interprofessional barriers exist between community pharmacists and GPs which hinders the integration of community pharmacists into the primary health care team (PHCT). One of the aims of the LPS contract, introduced in England in 2002 as an alternative to national contractual arrangements, was to enable pharmacists to work more closely with other health care professionals. A two-stage survey was distributed to all pharmacists involved in the first wave of LPS and in-depth interviews undertaken with pharmacists and GPs at six of the LPS sites. Overall the level to which the LPS pharmacists felt integrated into the PHCT did not substantially increase with the introduction of LPS, although co-location was reported to have facilitated integration. New relationships were formed with GPs and existing ones strengthened. A good existing working relationship with GPs was found to be an important factor in the successful operation of the pilots as many were dependent on GPs for patient referrals. The findings suggest that establishing interprofessional collaboration between GPs and pharmacists is a piecemeal process, with a reliance on goodwill and trust-based relationships.
Romøren, Tor Inge; Torjesen, Dag Olaf; Landmark, Brynjar
Introduction The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors—primary health and long-term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures. Policy practice Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy in the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term “Coordination Reform”. These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented. Discussion The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:22128282
Michel, Sabine; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Joraschky, Peter; Reichmann, Heinz; Koch, Thea; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria
Due to the bio-psycho-social complexity and presence of various health departments, chronic pain requires interdisciplinary cooperation which enables the accurate evaluation of the clinical findings and is a prerequisite for an individual and resource-oriented therapeutic concept focusing on both physical and mental activation. This concept forms the basis of medical care at the University Pain Center, which was founded in April 2004 at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital in Dresden. Since then, day care and inpatient services have been provided in addition to well-established outpatient care. The motive behind the foundation of the Pain Center was to sensitize health insurers to the complex problems of chronic pain and existing regional structural deficits. Following a draft version of a coherent multimodal, interdisciplinary healthcare concept along with full cost accounting after 1 1/2 years, an integrative healthcare contract got signed by two health insurances (AOK-Sachsen and VdAK) in June 2004. After two years of existence, the first experiences, results and especially the Pain Center's treatment spectrum ought to be demonstrated.
This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)
Maronde, Robert F.
Pharmacists' contribution to the health care of the future in the future in the U.S. may have to be in the context of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of health-care delivery. It is from the area of drug therapy, now poorly administered, that the pharmacist will have to justify his role in a cost-effective manner. (Author/LBH)
Financial problems plague both higher education and health care, two sectors that struggle to meet public expectations for quality services at affordable rates. Both higher education and health care also have a complex bottom line, heavy reliance on relatively autonomous professionals, and clients who share personal responsibility for achieving…
... Loan Guaranty Medical Care Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Health Care Benefits: 1-877-222-8387 Additional Numbers and Websites Resource Phone Number Website Bereavement Counseling 1-202-461-6530 Children of Women ... Civilian Health and Medical Program (CHAMPVA) 1-800-733-8387 ...
Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R
When groups of people relocate from their homelands to other nations, especially if the movement is involuntary, minority populations are created in the countries that receive them. The issues related to these diaspora and diasporic communities--any groups that have been dispersed outside their traditional homelands--are financial, social, historical, political, or religious. In health care, issues include heritable diseases, cultural barriers, patients' health care beliefs, and unique disease presentations. In long-term care, many residents and health care providers have relocated to the United States from other countries.
McDavid, Lolita M
Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.
... Program Overview » Outreach Materials » FAQs Women Veterans Health Care Menu Menu Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care ... can I call for more help? What health care services are available to women Veterans? A full ...
Kenagy, J W; Berwick, D M; Shore, M F
Although US health care is described as "the world's largest service industry," the quality of service--that is, the characteristics that shape the experience of care beyond technical competence--is rarely discussed in the medical literature. This article illustrates service quality principles by analyzing a routine encounter in health care from a service quality point of view. This illustration and a review of related literature from both inside and outside health care has led to the following 2 premises: First, if high-quality service had a greater presence in our practices and institutions, it would improve clinical outcomes and patient and physician satisfaction while reducing cost, and it would create competitive advantage for those who are expert in its application. Second, many other industries in the service sector have taken service quality to a high level, their techniques are readily transferable to health care, and physicians caring for patients can learn from them.
Shiffman, Richard N.; Spooner, S. Andrew; Kwiatkowski, Kelly; Brennan, Patricia Flatley
In September 2000, the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research and the American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research sponsored a meeting of experts and knowledgeable stakeholders to identify 1) the special information needs of pediatric care and 2) health service research questions related to the use of information technology in children's health care. Technologies that support the care of children must address issues related to growth and development, children's changing physiology, and the unique diseases of children and interventions of pediatric care. Connectivity and data integration are particular concerns for child health care workers. Consumer health information needs for this population extend beyond the needs of one individual to the needs of the family. Recommendations of the attendees include rapid implementation of features in electronic health information systems that support pediatric care and involvement of child health experts in policy making, standards setting, education, and advocacy. A proposed research agenda should address both effectiveness and costs of information technology, with special consideration for the needs of children, the development and evaluation of clinical decision support in pediatric settings, understanding of the epidemiology of iatrogenic injury in childhood, supplementation of vocabulary standards with pediatrics-specific terminology, and improvement in health care access for children, using telemedicine. PMID:11687562
Halamandaris, V J
In summary, the nation's health care system is in serious need of reform. It is expensive and woefully inefficient. Millions of people are excluded from coverage, while others receive limited or second-class care. For those millions who suffer serious chronic problems that require long-term care, there is virtually no help. There is no help for the family whose loved one suffers from Alzheimer's disease. There is no help for the family whose child is born with cerebral palsy or epilepsy. There is no help for the middle-aged father, disabled in an automobile accident. Providing good care to all Americans is not a matter of money. America currently spends some 13% of its gross national product on health care, and yet the health statistics of Americans are the worst in the industrialized world. What America needs is a comprehensive system of health care that includes both acute and long-term care. Congress must take action to restore health care as a basic constitutional right of all Americans. Coverage for long-term care must be included within the context of any new national health care program. Funding for such a program should come from the most progressive tax that the Congress can fashion, which to this point is the federal income tax. Although there is an appropriate role for private insurance, it should function as a supplement to rather than as a substitute for a new national program. There are several other elements that are key to a national health care program: Home care must be the first line of any national long-term care program.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chang, Jason; McLemore, Elisabeth; Tejirian, Talar
Despite the fact that countless patients suffer from anal problems, there tends to be a lack of understanding of anal health care. Unfortunately, this leads to incorrect diagnoses and treatments. When treating a patient with an anal complaint, the primary goals are to first diagnose the etiology of the symptoms correctly, then to provide an effective and appropriate treatment strategy. The first step in this process is to take an accurate history and physical examination. Specific questions include details about bowel habits, anal hygiene, and fiber supplementation. Specific components of the physical examination include an external anal examination, a digital rectal examination, and anoscopy if appropriate. Common diagnoses include pruritus ani, anal fissures, hemorrhoids, anal abscess or fistula, fecal incontinence, and anal skin tags. However, each problem presents differently and requires a different approach for management. It is of paramount importance that the correct diagnosis is reached. Common errors include an inaccurate diagnosis of hemorrhoids when other pathology is present and subsequent treatment with a steroid product, which is harmful to the anal area. Most of these problems can be avoided by improving bowel habits. Adequate fiber intake with 30 g to 40 g daily is important for many reasons, including improving the quality of stool and preventing colorectal and anal diseases. In this Special Report, we provide an overview of commonly encountered anal problems, their presentation, initial treatment options, and recommendations for referral to specialists. PMID:27723447
Chang, Jason; Mclemore, Elisabeth; Tejirian, Talar
Despite the fact that countless patients suffer from anal problems, there tends to be a lack of understanding of anal health care. Unfortunately, this leads to incorrect diagnoses and treatments. When treating a patient with an anal complaint, the primary goals are to first diagnose the etiology of the symptoms correctly, then to provide an effective and appropriate treatment strategy.The first step in this process is to take an accurate history and physical examination. Specific questions include details about bowel habits, anal hygiene, and fiber supplementation. Specific components of the physical examination include an external anal examination, a digital rectal examination, and anoscopy if appropriate.Common diagnoses include pruritus ani, anal fissures, hemorrhoids, anal abscess or fistula, fecal incontinence, and anal skin tags. However, each problem presents differently and requires a different approach for management. It is of paramount importance that the correct diagnosis is reached. Common errors include an inaccurate diagnosis of hemorrhoids when other pathology is present and subsequent treatment with a steroid product, which is harmful to the anal area.Most of these problems can be avoided by improving bowel habits. Adequate fiber intake with 30 g to 40 g daily is important for many reasons, including improving the quality of stool and preventing colorectal and anal diseases.In this Special Report, we provide an overview of commonly encountered anal problems, their presentation, initial treatment options, and recommendations for referral to specialists.
Merlino, James I; Raman, Ananth
The Cleveland Clinic has long had a reputation for medical excellence. But in 2009 the CEO acknowledged that patients did not think much of their experience there and decided to act. Since then the Clinic has leaped to the top tier of patient-satisfaction surveys, and it now draws hospital executives from around the world who want to study its practices. The Clinic's journey also holds Lessons for organizations outside health care that must suddenly compete by creating a superior customer experience. The authors, one of whom was critical to steering the hospital's transformation, detail the processes that allowed the Clinic to excel at patient satisfaction without jeopardizing its traditional strengths. Hospital leaders: Publicized the problem internally. Seeing the hospital's dismal service scores shocked employees into recognizing that serious flaws existed. Worked to understand patients' needs. Management commissioned studies to get at the root causes of dissatisfaction. Made everyone a caregiver. An enterprisewide program trained everyone, from physicians to janitors, to put the patient first. Increased employee engagement. The Clinic instituted a "caregiver celebration" program and redoubled other motivational efforts. Established new processes. For example, any patient, for any reason, can now make a same-day appointment with a single call. Set patients' expectations. Printed and online materials educate patients about their stays--before they're admitted. Operating a truly patient-centered organization, the authors conclude, isn't a program; it's a way of life.
Miles, Stephen H.; And Others
A discussion of the role of academic health centers in health care reform efforts looks at the following issues: balancing academic objectivity and social advocacy; managing sometimes divergent interests of centers, faculty, and society; and the challenge to develop infrastructure support for reform. Academic health centers' participation in…
Beatty, Rebecca M.
Survey responses from 71 health professionals, benchmarking data from 8 hospitals, continuing education program evaluations, and focus groups with nursing, allied health, and primary care providers indicated a need for professional continuing education on women's health issues. Primary topic needs were identified. The data formed the basis for…
Leanza, Francesco; Hauser, Diane
Teens are avid users of new technologies and social media. Nearly 95% of US adolescents are online at least occasionally. Health care professionals and organizations that work with teens should identify online health information that is both accurate and teen friendly. Early studies indicate that some of the new health technology tools are acceptable to teens, particularly texting, computer-based psychosocial screening, and online interventions. Technology is being used to provide sexual health education, medication reminders for contraception, and information on locally available health care services. This article reviews early and emerging studies of technology use to promote teen health.
Daaleman, Timothy P.
, such as nurses, than those who did not; no differences were observed based on the presence of other sources of support. Conclusions A health services framework provides a holistic view of spiritual care, one that is consistent with integrated nursing models. Implications for Nursing Management By focusing on the structure, process, and outcome elements of spiritual care within organizational settings, nursing management can develop feasible approaches to implement, improve, and evaluate the delivery of this unique type of care. PMID:23151104
Farrar, C. R.
Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective structural health monitoring solution by integrating and extending technologies from various engineering and information technology disciplines. It is the authors opinion that all structural health monitoring systems must be application specific. Therefore, a specific application, monitoring welded moment resisting steel frame connections in structures subjected to seismic excitation, is described along with the motivation for choosing this application. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. The proposed system is based on an assessment of the deficiencies associated with many current structural health monitoring technologies including past efforts by the authors. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.
Farrar, Charles R.; Sohn, Hoon; Fugate, Michael L.; Czarnecki, Jerry J.
Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective structural health monitoring solution by integrating and extending technologies from various engineering and information technology disciplines. It is the author's opinion that all structural health monitoring systems must be application specific. Therefore, a specific application, monitoring welded moment resisting steel frame connections in structures subjected to seismic excitation, is described along with the motivation for choosing this application. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. The proposed system is based on an assessment of the deficiencies associated with many current structural health monitoring technologies including past efforts by the authors. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.
Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P
Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064
The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens. PMID:27366358
Stempsey, William E
Virtually all activities of health care are motivated at some level by hope. Patients hope for a cure; for relief from pain; for a return home. Physicians hope to prevent illness in their patients; to make the correct diagnosis when illness presents itself; that their prescribed treatments will be effective. Researchers hope to learn more about the causes of illness; to discover new and more effective treatments; to understand how treatments work. Ultimately, all who work in health care hope to offer their patients hope. In this paper, I offer a brief analysis of hope, considering the definitions of Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Thomas Aquinas. I then differentiate shallow and deep hope and show how hope in health care can remain shallow. Next, I explore what a philosophy of deep hope in health care might look like, drawing important points from Ernst Bloch and Gabriel Marcel. Finally, I suggest some implications of this philosophy of hope for patients, physicians, and researchers.
... m-health (mobile health), includes a variety of health care services, including but not limited to: Online support ... self-management tools Email and online communication with health care providers Electronic health records Remote monitoring of vital ...
If you have been diagnosed with cancer, finding a doctor and treatment facility for your cancer care is an important step to getting the best treatment possible. Learn tips for choosing a doctor and treatment facility to manage your cancer care.
Blanchard, Anita K; Goodall, Perpetua
Specialists in general obstetrics and gynecology are key providers of primary care in women. They diagnose and provide the initial management of many medical conditions unrelated to reproductive health. Most importantly they can impact the overall health of patients through incorporating preventive approaches in the annual well-woman visit. This article defines preventive care and identifies leading causes of mortality in women. A framework for identifying key elements of the well-woman examination is summarized. Examples of prevention are provided, which focus on major health care issues that affect adult women.
Katzan, Irene L; Fan, Youran; Speck, Micheal; Morton, Johanna; Fromwiller, Lauren; Urchek, John; Uchino, Ken; Griffith, Sandra D; Modic, Michael
We describe the development, implementation, and outcomes of the first 2 years of the Electronic Stroke CarePath, an initiative developed for management of ischemic stroke patients in an effort to improve efficiency and quality of care for patients. The CarePath consists of care pathways for ischemic stroke that are integrated within the electronic health record. Patient-reported outcomes are collected using an external software platform. Documentation tools, order sets, and clinical decision support were designed to improve efficiency, optimize process measure adherence, and produce clinical data as a byproduct of care that are available for future analyses. Inpatient mortality and length of stay were compared before and after CarePath implementation in ischemic stroke patients after adjustment for case-mix. Postdischarge functional outcomes of patients with ischemic stroke were compared between the first 3 months of rollout and remainder of the study period. From January 2011 to December 2012, there were 1106 patients with ischemic stroke on the CarePath. There was a decline in inpatient mortality in patients with ischemic stroke, but not in control patients with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Completion rate of patient-reported questionnaires at postdischarge stroke follow-up was 72.9%. There was a trend toward improved functional outcomes at follow-up with CarePath implementation. Implementation of the Electronic Stroke CarePath is feasible and may be associated with a benefit in multiple different outcomes after ischemic stroke. This approach may be an important strategy for optimizing stroke care in the future.
Scheffler, Richard M
Will accountable care organizations (ACOs) deliver high-quality care at lower costs? Or will their potential market power lead to higher prices and lower quality? ACOs appear in various forms and structures with financial and clinical integration at their core; however, the tools to assess their quality and the incentive structures that will determine their success are still evolving. Both market forces and regulatory structures will determine how these outcomes emerge. This introduction reviews the evidence presented in this special issue to tackle this thorny trade-off. In general the evidence is promising, but the full potential of ACOs to improve the health care delivery system is still uncertain. This introductory review concludes that the current consensus is to let ACOs grow, anticipating that they will make a contribution to improve our poor-quality and high-cost delivery system.
Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Strombom, Indiana
If nurses, physicians, and health care planners knew more about patients' health-related preferences, care would most likely be cheaper, more effective, and closer to the individuals' desires. In order for patient preferences to be effectively used in the delivery of health care, it is important that patients be able to formulate and express preferences, that these judgments be made known to the clinician at the time of care, and that these statements meaningfully inform care activities. Decision theory and health informatics offer promising strategies for eliciting subjective values and making them accessible in a clinical encounter in a manner that drives health choices. Computer-based elicitation and reporting tools are proving acceptable to patients and clinicians alike. It is time for the informatics community to turn their attention toward building computer-based applications that support clinicians in the complex cognitive process of integrating patient preferences with scientific knowledge, clinical practice guidelines, and the realities of contemporary health care. PMID:9609495
Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R
Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative.
Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R
Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative.
... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Paying for health care More information on paying for health care Better ... Coping without insurance More information on paying for health care Explore other publications and websites Age Page: Choosing ...
Sousa, Josueida de Carvalho; Mallmann, Danielli Gavibo; Galindo Neto, Nelson Miguel; de Freitas, Natália Oliveira; de Vasconcelos, Eliane Maria Ribeiro; de Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante
The aim of this study was to analyze national and international scientific literature on nursing care for lesbian women. An integrative approach was adopted to review studies from MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF and SCOPUS databases and SciELO and Cochrane libraries using the keywords: female homosexuality, nursing care, health promotion and women's health. Studies published between 1990 and 2013 in English, Portuguese or Spanish were considered for analysis. After analyzing data, four international studies were selected, being that three were from the United States and one was from Canada. This study revealed a scarcity of Brazilian and international studies and the importance of increasing scientific literature on this topic. Descriptors: Homosexuality, female. Nursing care. Health promotion. Women's health.
Schrader, Thomas; Kldiashvili, Ekaterina
Application of telemedicine systems to cover distant geographical areas has increased recently. However, the potential usefulness of similar systems for creation of national networks does not seem to be widely appreciated. The article describes the "Virtual Health Care Knowledge Center in Georgia" project. Its aim was the set up of an online integrated web-based platform to provide remote medical consultations and eLearning cycles. The project "Virtual Health Care Knowledge Center in Georgia" was the NATO Networking Infrastructure Grant dedicated for development of telemedicine in non-NATO countries. The project implemented a pilot to organize the creation of national eHealth network in Georgia and to promote the use of innovative telemedicine and eLearning services in the Georgian healthcare system. In June 2007 it was continued under the NATO Networking Infrastructure Grant "ePathology--Virtual Pathology Center in Georgia as the Continuation of Virtual Health Care Center".
Stange, Kurt C; Etz, Rebecca S; Gullett, Heidi; Sweeney, Sarah A; Miller, William L; Jaén, Carlos Roberto; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Glasgow, Russell E
Metrics focus attention on what is important. Balanced metrics of primary health care inform purpose and aspiration as well as performance. Purpose in primary health care is about improving the health of people and populations in their community contexts. It is informed by metrics that include long-term, meaning- and relationship-focused perspectives. Aspirational uses of metrics inspire evolving insights and iterative improvement, using a collaborative, developmental perspective. Performance metrics assess the complex interactions among primary care tenets of accessibility, a whole-person focus, integration and coordination of care, and ongoing relationships with individuals, families, and communities; primary health care principles of inclusion and equity, a focus on people's needs, multilevel integration of health, collaborative policy dialogue, and stakeholder participation; basic and goal-directed health care, prioritization, development, and multilevel health outcomes. Environments that support reflection, development, and collaborative action are necessary for metrics to advance health and minimize unintended consequences.
Big employers like Boeing and Intel are directly contracting with hospitals in an effort to control health care prices. Some hospital CEOs see direct contracting as the future, while others wonder how they can participate.
Somme, Dominique; de Stampa, Matthieu
Background This paper analyzes progress made toward the integration of the French health care system for the older and chronically ill population. Policies Over the last 10 years, the French health care system has been principally influenced by two competing linkage models that failed to integrate social and health care services: local information and coordination centers, governed by the social field, and the gerontological health networks governed by the health field. In response to this fragmentation, Homes for the Integration and Autonomy for Alzheimer patients (MAIAs) is currently being implemented at experimental sites in the French national Alzheimer plan, using an evidence-based model of integrated care. In addition, the state’s reforms recently created regional health agencies (ARSs) by merging seven strategic institutions to manage the overall delivery of care. Conclusion The French health care system is moving from a linkage-based model to a more integrated care system. We draw some early lessons from these changes, including the importance of national leadership and governance and a change management strategy that uses both top-down and bottom-up approaches to implement these reforms. PMID:22375101
Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana
Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.
Aronson, Susan; Smith, Herberta
Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, the model health policies presented in this report are intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the report presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following…
Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.
Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)
Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...
Siegel, Achim; Stössel, Ulrich; Schubert, Ingrid; Erler, Antje
"Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care" (GKIC) is one of the few population-based integrated care systems in Germany. The external evaluation of GKIC has a modular design and is coordinated by the Department of Medical Sociology of Freiburg University. In this article we will outline the different evaluation modules and address typical problems arising in the evaluation of regional integrated health care systems. One of these problems is the small size of the intervention population in a recently established pilot care system which makes the use of epidemiologic measures (such as incidence figures) difficult. Total population surveys could alleviate this problem, but when the same intervention population is questioned repeatedly for different evaluation modules, the danger of 'over-surveying' arises. This may lead to decreasing participation in further studies. These problems may be managed by using short survey instruments, by conducting surveys successively (not simultaneously) using time shifts, and by analysing claims data from health insurers. Another problem in the evaluation of comparably small systems of care is how to attribute outcomes (effects) to certain health promotion or disease management programmes: Since participants usually take part in more than one programme, the intervention effect is contaminated by multiple programme effects. These will have to be adjusted for in the final evaluation of the data. Finally, randomised controlled study (RCT) designs frequently cannot be used in the evaluation of a region-wide pilot intervention, so the evidence generated by such a (non-randomised) study is weaker than the evidence generated by an RCT.
Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk
These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…
... preferred... Read More Executive Director | Dogwood Village of Orange County US - VA - Orange, Executive Director Dogwood Village of Orange County Health and Rehabilitation and Senior Living, a ...
Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget
Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects.
Buchanan, Larry M.
It is widely recognized throughout the health care industry that the United States leads the world in health care spending per capita. However, the chilling dose of reality for American health care consumers is that for all of their spending, the World Health Organization ranks the country's health care system 37th in overall performance--right…
... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Managing Home Health Care KidsHealth > For Parents > Managing Home Health Care A ... español La atención médica en el hogar Intensive Health Care at Home Kids can need intensive health care ...
Polly, David W; Ackerman, Stacey J; Schneider, Karen; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A
Purpose Traditional growing rod (TGR) for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is effective but requires repeated invasive surgical lengthenings under general anesthesia. Magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) is lengthened noninvasively using a hand-held magnetic external remote controller in a physician office; however, the MCGR implant is expensive, and the cumulative cost savings have not been well studied. We compared direct medical costs of MCGR and TGR for EOS from the US integrated health care delivery system perspective. We hypothesized that over time, the MCGR implant cost will be offset by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. Methods For both TGR and MCGR, the economic model estimated the cumulative costs for initial implantation, lengthenings, revisions due to device failure, surgical-site infections, device exchanges (at 3.8 years), and final fusion, over a 6-year episode of care. Model parameters were estimated from published literature, a multicenter EOS database of US institutions, and interviews. Costs were discounted at 3.0% annually and represent 2015 US dollars. Results Of 1,000 simulated patients over 6 years, MCGR was associated with an estimated 270 fewer deep surgical-site infections and 197 fewer revisions due to device failure compared with TGR. MCGR was projected to cost an additional $61 per patient over the 6-year episode of care compared with TGR. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were sensitive to changes in the percentage of MCGR dual rod use, months between TGR lengthenings, percentage of hospital inpatient (vs outpatient) TGR lengthenings, and MCGR implant cost. Conclusion Cost neutrality of MCGR to TGR was achieved over the 6-year episode of care by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis comparing MCGR to TGR – from the US provider perspective – which demonstrates the efficient provision of care with MCGR. PMID:27695352
Jawa, Ali; Assir, Muhammad Zaman Khan; Riaz, Syed Hunain; Chaudhary, Rashin; Awan, Farooq; Akram, Javed
Objective: To find out prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in general population of three districts in Pakistan. Methods: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in three large districts of Pakistan namely Rawalpindi in Punjab, Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Hyderabad in Sindh between January 2013 and August 2015. Lady Health Workers identified individuals at high risk for diabetes based on pre-defined criteria. High risk population was tested for dysglycemia. Fundoscopic evaluation for evidence of DR was performed in all individuals with a random blood glucose >190mg/dl. Individuals with the evidence of DR were referred to affiliated tertiary care ophthalmology departments. Results: A total of 42,629 individuals reported at the project sites and 63% (n=26,859) were female. Fifty one percent (n=21,989) individuals met high risk criteria. Out of these 21,989 individuals, dysglycemia was found in 3,869 (17.6%). Fundoscopy showed evidence of DR in 1,042 (27%) individuals. Amongst high risk population, dysglycemia was significantly more common in females as compared to males. The frequency of DR in dysglycemic patients was comparable across both gender groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of DR in Pakistani population is alarmingly high. This preventable cause of blindness is largely undiagnosed in our population and a simple integrated model based on primary health care facilities can help identify and treat a large population of DR patients. PMID:27882002
Rastegar, Darius A.
The delivery of health care is in the process of “industrialization” in that it is undergoing changes in the organization of work which mirror those that began in other industries a century ago. This process is characterized by an increasing division of labor, standardization of roles and tasks, the rise of a managerial superstructure, and the degradation (or de-skilling) of work. The consolidation of the health care industry, the fragmentation of physician roles, and the increasing numbers of nonphysician clinicians will likely accelerate this process. Although these changes hold the promise of more efficient and effective health care, physicians should be concerned about the resultant loss of autonomy, disruption of continuity of care, and the potential erosion of professional values. PMID:15053287
Solovy, A; Serb, C
They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key."
A booklet on health care for limited English speakers provides information on choosing the right doctor, buying medicine, paying the bill, and the individual's role in maintaining his or her health. Cartoons, questions and puzzles concerning the message in cartoons and narrative passages, checklists about an individual's personal habits related to…
h t, a rt icle p rot videe a brief h i ctory’ ol the field of ers,’onomfnicc and explorete the interrelationship beta ee health (tare andi ergjonomic...prq/fric ionsi. Health tare Practitioners contri bute a unique Perspective to an ergonomic reiearch and intervention team. ’lhiý %ingular perspective...is based on lnozvlcdge of health issues, disease and injury etwiol(gy and prognosi s, and the psychosocial inpuct of illneAs. Topic.$ for c
Trimmer, Kenneth J; Pumphrey, Lela D; Wiggins, Carla
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems provide organizations with the opportunity to integrate individual, functionally-oriented information systems. Although much of the focus in the popular press has been placed on ERP systems in large for-profit organizations, small hospitals and clinics are candidates for ERP systems. Focusing information systems on critical success factors (CSFs) allows the organization to address a limited number of areas associated with performance. This limited number of factors can provide management with an insight into dimensions of information that must be addressed by a system. Focuses on CSFs for small health-care organizations. In addition, also considers factors critical to the implementation of health-care information systems. Presents two cases. The results indicate support for the continuing use of CSFs to help focus on the benefits of ERPs. Focusing on groups of tangible and intangible benefits can also assist the rural health-care organization in the use of ERPs.
Kalb, P E
In recent years, health care fraud and abuse have become major issues, in part because of the rising cost of health care, industry consolidation, the emergence of private "whistle-blowers," and a change in the concept of fraud to include an emerging concern about quality of care. The 3 types of conduct that are generally prohibited by health care fraud laws are false claims, kickbacks, and self-referrals. False claims are subject to several criminal, civil, and administrative prohibitions, notably the federal civil False Claims Act. Kickbacks, or inducements with the intent to influence the purchase or sale of health care-related goods or services, are prohibited under the federal Anti-Kickback statute as well as by state laws. Finally, self-referrals-the referral of patients to an entity with which the referring physician has a financial relationship-are outlawed by the Ethics in Patient Referral Act as well as numerous state statutes. Consequences of violations of these laws can include, in addition to imprisonment and fines, civil monetary penalties, loss of licensure, loss of staff privileges, and exclusion from participation in federal health care programs. Federal criminal and civil statutes are enforced by the US Department of Justice; administrative actions are pursued by the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Inspector General; and all state actions are pursued by the individual states. In addition, private whistle-blowers may, acting in the name of the United States, file suit against an entity under the False Claims Act. Enforcement of health care fraud and abuse laws has become increasingly commonplace and now affects many mainstream providers. This trend is likely to continue.
Kim, Jim Yong; Farmer, Paul; Porter, Michael E
Initiatives to address the unmet needs of those facing both poverty and serious illness have expanded significantly over the past decade. But many of them are designed in an ad-hoc manner to address one health problem among many; they are too rarely assessed; best practices spread slowly. When assessments of delivery do occur, they are often narrow studies of the cost-effectiveness of a single intervention rather than the complex set of them required to deliver value to patients and their families. We propose a framework for global health-care delivery and evaluation by considering efforts to introduce HIV/AIDS care to resource-poor settings. The framework introduces the notion of care delivery value chains that apply a systems-level analysis to the complex processes and interventions that must occur, across a health-care system and over time, to deliver high-value care for patients with HIV/AIDS and cooccurring conditions, from tuberculosis to malnutrition. To deliver value, vertical or stand-alone projects must be integrated into shared delivery infrastructure so that personnel and facilities are used wisely and economies of scale reaped. Two other integrative processes are necessary for delivering and assessing value in global health: one is the alignment of delivery with local context by incorporating knowledge of both barriers to good outcomes (from poor nutrition to a lack of water and sanitation) and broader social and economic determinants of health and wellbeing (jobs, housing, physical infrastructure). The second is the use of effective investments in care delivery to promote equitable economic development, especially for those struggling against poverty and high burdens of disease. We close by reporting our own shared experience of seeking to move towards a science of delivery by harnessing research and training to understand and improve care delivery.
Saw, Anne; Kim, Jin; Lim, Joyce; Powell, Catherine; Tong, Elisa K
Engagement in modifiable risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, substantially contributes to early mortality rates in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). There is an alarmingly high prevalence of tobacco use among subgroups of Asian Americans, such as immigrants and individuals with SMI, yet there are no empirically supported effective smoking cessation interventions that have been tailored to meet the unique cultural, cognitive, and psychological needs of Asian immigrants with SMI. In this article, we share the experiences of clinicians in the delivery of smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrants with SMI, in the context of an Asian-focused integrated primary care and behavioral health setting. Through a qualitative analysis of clinician perspectives organized with the RE-AIM framework, we outline challenges, lessons learned, and promising directions for delivering smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrant clients with SMI.
Johnson, Jennifer E; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Peabody, Marlanea E; Shefner, Ruth T; Fernandes, Karen M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Zlotnick, Caron
Incarcerated women with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (COD) face complex psychosocial challenges at community reentry. This study used qualitative methods to evaluate the perspectives of 14 prison and aftercare providers about service delivery challenges and treatment needs of reentering women with COD. Providers viewed the needs of women prisoners with COD as distinct from those of women with substance use alone and from men with COD. Providers described optimal aftercare for women with COD as including contact with the same provider before and after release, access to services within 24-72 hours after release, assistance with managing multiple social service agencies, assistance with relationship issues, and long-term follow-up. Providers also described larger service system and societal issues, including systems integration and ways in which a lack of prison and community aftercare resources impacted quality of care and reentry outcomes. Practice and policy implications are provided.
Johnson, Jennifer E.; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Peabody, Marlanea E.; Shefner, Ruth T.; Fernandes, Karen M.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Zlotnick, Caron
Incarcerated women with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (COD) face complex psychosocial challenges at community reentry. This study used qualitative methods to evaluate the perspectives of 14 prison and aftercare providers about service delivery challenges and treatment needs of reentering women with COD. Providers viewed the needs of women prisoners with COD as distinct from those of women with substance use alone and from men with COD. Providers described optimal aftercare for women with COD as including contact with the same provider before and after release, access to services within 24–72 hours after release, assistance with managing multiple social service agencies, assistance with relationship issues, and long-term follow-up. Providers also described larger service system and societal issues, including systems integration and ways in which a lack of prison and community aftercare resources impacted quality of care and reentry outcomes. Practice and policy implications are provided. PMID:24595815
National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, 2012
This document lays out the strategy for achieving the goals and objectives of NEETF's "Health Care Provider Initiative." The goal of NEETF's "Health Care Provider Initiative" is to incorporate environmental health into health professionals' education and practice in order to improve health care and public health, with a special emphasis on…
Halfon, Neal; And Others
Outlines access to health care for children in out-of-home care under current law, reviews how health care access for these children would be affected by President Clinton's health care reform initiative, and proposes additional measures that could be considered to improve access and service coordination for children in the child welfare system.…
Forgionne, G A; Gangopadhyay, A; Klein, J A; Eckhardt, R
Mounting costs have escalated the pressure on health care providers and payers to improve decision making and control expenses. Transactions to form the needed decision data will routinely flow, often electronically, between the affected parties. Conventional health care information systems facilitate flow, process transactions, and generate useful decision information. Typically, such support is offered through a series of stand-alone systems that lose much useful decision knowledge and wisdom during health care electronic commerce (e-commerce). Integrating the stand-alone functions can enhance the quality and efficiency of the segmented support, create synergistic effects, and augment decision-making performance and value for both providers and payers. This article presents an information system that can provide complete and integrated support for e-commerce-based health care decision making. The article describes health care e-commerce, presents the system, examines the system's potential use and benefits, and draws implications for health care management and practice.
The health promotion discourse is comprised of assumptions about health and health care that are compatible with primary health care. An examination of the health promotion discourse illustrates how assumptions of health can help to inform primary health care. Despite health promotion being a good fit for primary health care, this analysis demonstrates that the scope in which it is being implemented in primary health care settings is limited. The health promotion discourse appears largely compatible with primary health care-in theory and in the health care practices that follow. The aim of this article is to contribute to the advancement of theoretical understanding of the health promotion discourse, and the relevance of health promotion to primary health care.
Wu, Meng-Ping; Lin, Pay-Fan; Lin, Kuan-Jia; Sun, Rui-Sheng; Yu, Wen-Rui; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung
The demands of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) residents are complex which usually require a range of professionals and caregivers to provide treatment and care. To reduce this fragmentation of care, integrated care models are developed in modern health care system, and a gradual change from traditional LTCF care to integrated care has occurred in many countries. Although integrated care is assumed to improve the quality of care, evidences supporting these effects are insufficient. We recruited 7 private LTCF (74 residents) in northern Taipei and randomized them into integrated care model (N=42, mean age=82.8+/-8.0 years, 54.8% males) and traditional model (N=32, 81.7+/-8.8 years, 43.8% males). Integrated care model group was provided an actively working interdisciplinary team in addition to traditional nursing and personal care in traditional model group. Physical function, nutritional status and several quality indicators (unplanned feeding tube replacement, unplanned urinary catheter replacement, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and so on) were compared with both groups. Overall, LTCF residents in the integrated care model group showed significant improvement in serum levels of albumin (3.78+/-0.32 vs. 3.60+/-0.45, p=0.004) and hemoglobin (12.62+/-1.58 vs. 12.03+/-1.24, p=0.004) during the study period. Among selected quality indicators, subjects in integrated care model group were similar to traditional model group except that integrated care model group had a significantly reduced unplanned feeding tube replacement rate. In conclusion, the clinical effectiveness of integrated care model among severly disabled LTCF residents is minimal and a further cost-effectiveness study is needed to promote optimal quality of care in this setting.
What does it mean to say that there is a right to health care? Health care is part of a cooperative project that organizes finite resources. How are these resources to be distributed? This essay discusses three rival theories. The first two, a utilitarian theory and an interst theory, are both instrumental, in that they collapse rights to good states of affairs. A third theory, offered by Thomas Pogge, locates the question within an institutional legal context and distinguishes between a right to health care that results in claimable duties and other dimensions of health policy that do not. Pogge's argument relies on a list of "basic needs," which itself, however, relies on some kind of instrumental reasoning. The essay offers a reconstruction of Pogge's argument to bring it in line with a political conception of a right to health care. Health is a matter of equal liberty and equal citizenship, given our common human vulnerability. If we are to live as equal members in a political community, then our institutions need to create processes by which we are protected from the kinds of suffering that would make it impossible for us to live as equal members.
Robinson, J C
As health policy emphasizes the use of private sector mechanisms to pursue public sector goals, health services research needs to develop stronger conceptual frameworks for the interpretation of empirical studies of health care markets and organizations. Organizational relationships should not be interpreted exclusively in terms of competition among providers of similar services but also in terms of relationships among providers of substitute and complementary services and in terms of upstream suppliers and downstream distributors. This article illustrates the potential applicability of transactions cost economics, agency theory, and organizational economics more broadly to horizontal and vertical markets in health care. Examples are derived from organizational integration between physicians and hospitals and organizational conversions from nonprofit to for-profit ownership. PMID:11327173
Connors, H R
Telehealth has many applications, including the education and training of health professionals. This article describes the use of advanced telecommunications technology to educate family nurse practitioners in rural areas of Kansas. Four Kansas universities use compressed video technology (an interactive audio and video system) to offer five common core courses in primary care to students enrolled in FNP programs at the respective institutions. Using technology to educate FNPs in rural communities has resulted in a greater percentage of graduates (approximately 67% of 258 graduates) going to work in rural underserved communities. In addition to learning the course content, students learn to use technology as a tool to access telehealth information and services Knowing how to use these technologies provides greater opportunities to rural health care providers, as well as the recipients of health care.
London Journal of Primary Care is supporting a collaborative network of multidisciplinary colleagues with an interest in community-oriented health care and health promotion (COIC). Case study methodology is well suited to generating knowledge from the frontline of health and social care service delivery and is a much under-developed resource. It is most effective when dealing with wicked problems, namely, the sort of complex, entangled and multi-faceted problems that successful COIC programmes must overcome. Used collaboratively, it supports effective networking across professional and community boundaries. PMID:28356919
London Journal of Primary Care is supporting a collaborative network of multidisciplinary colleagues with an interest in community-oriented health care and health promotion (COIC). Case study methodology is well suited to generating knowledge from the frontline of health and social care service delivery and is a much under-developed resource. It is most effective when dealing with wicked problems, namely, the sort of complex, entangled and multi-faceted problems that successful COIC programmes must overcome. Used collaboratively, it supports effective networking across professional and community boundaries.
Mechanic, David; Olfson, Mark
Provisions of the Affordable Care Act provide unprecedented opportunities for expanded access to behavioral health care and for redesigning the provision of services. Key to these reforms is establishing mental and substance abuse care as essential coverage, extending Medicaid eligibility and insurance parity, and protecting insurance coverage for persons with preexisting conditions and disabilities. Many provisions, including Accountable Care Organizations, health homes, and other structures, provide incentives for integrating primary care and behavioral health services and coordinating the range of services often required by persons with severe and persistent mental health conditions. Careful research and experience are required to establish the services most appropriate for primary care and effective linkage to specialty mental health services. Research providing guidance on present evidence and uncertainties is reviewed. Success in redesign will follow progress building on collaborative care and other evidence-based practices, reshaping professional incentives and practices, and reinvigorating the behavioral health workforce.
Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Simons, Tony; Savage, Grant T; McCaughey, Deirdre; Leon, Matthew R
While previous research has identified that leaders' safety expectations and safety actions are important in fostering occupational safety, research has yet to demonstrate the importance of leader alignment between safety expectations and actions for improving occupational safety. We build on safety climate literature and theory on behavioral integrity to better understand the relationship between the leader's behavioral integrity regarding safety and work-related injuries. In a time-lagged study of 658 nurses, we find that behavioral integrity for high safety values is positively associated with greater reporting of fewer and less severe occupational injuries. The effects of behavioral integrity regarding safety can be better understood through the mediating mechanisms of safety compliance and psychological safety toward one's supervisor. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research on safety climate.
Goodman, Melody S.; Gonzalez, Maria; Gil, Sandra; Si, Xuemei; Pashoukos, Judith L.; Stafford, Jewel D.; Ford, Elsa; Pashoukos, Dennis A.
Background The Community Alliance for Research Empowering Social Change (CARES) is an academic–community research partnership designed to train community members on research methods and develop the infrastructure for community-based participatory research (CBPR) to examine and address racial/ethnic health disparities. The Brentwood Community Health Assessment (BCHA) was developed through a CBPR pilot project grant from CARES. Objectives The purpose of the BCHA is to assess health care utilization and identify existing barriers to health care access among a multi-ethnic community in the Hamlet of Brentwood, New York. Methods Using CBPR approaches, the community–academic research partnership develop the study design and survey instrument. Trained Bilingual (English/Spanish) data collectors verbally administered surveys door-to-door to residents of Brentwood from October 2010 to May 2011. Inclusion criteria required participants to be at least 18 years of age and speak either English or Spanish. Results Overall, 232 residents completed the BCHA; 49% were male, 66% Hispanic, 13% non-Hispanic White, 13% non-Hispanic Black, 29% had less than a high school education, and 33% were born in United States. The assessment results revealed that most residents are able to access health care when needed and the most significant barriers to health care access are insurance and cost. Conclusions We describe the community–academic partnered process used to develop and implement the BCHA and report assessment findings; the community-partnered approach improved data collection and allowed access into one of Suffolk County’s most vulnerable communities. PMID:24859100
Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care.
Khorsan,1, 2 Ian D. Coulter,3, 4, 5 Cindy Crawford,6 and An-Fu Hsiao7, 8 1Military Medical Research and Integrative Medicine, Samueli Institute, 2101...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Samueli Institute,Military Medical Research and Integrative Medicine,2101 East Coast Hwy,Corona Del...study. This paper is supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Award no. W81XWH-07-2-0076 through the Samueli Institute
Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Avant, Mary Jane Thompson
Teachers need to maintain a safe, healthy environment for all their students in order to promote learning. However, there are additional considerations when students require health care procedures, such as tube feeding or clean intermittent catheterization. Teachers must effectively monitor their students and understand their roles and…
Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R
As reimbursement transitions from a volume-based to a value-based system, innovation in health care delivery will be needed. The process of innovation begins with framing the problem that needs to be solved along with the strategic vision that has to be achieved. Similar to scientific testing, a hypothesis is generated for a new solution to a problem. Innovation requires conducting a disciplined form of experimentation and then learning from the process. This manuscript will discuss the different types of innovation, and the key steps necessary for successful innovation in the health care field.
Addresses the crisis in health care, considering costs, lack of access, and system ineffectiveness. Reviews "Setting Relationships Right," the Catholic Health Association's proposal for health care reform. Advocates educators' awareness of children's health needs and health care reform issues and support for the Every Fifth Child Act of…
Mantell, J E; Cooper, D; Exner, T M; Moodley, J; Hoffman, S; Myer, L; Leu, C-S; Bai, D; Kelvin, E A; Jennings, K; Stein, Z A; Constant, D; Zweigenthal, V; Cishe, N; Nywagi, N
Integration of sexual and reproductive health within HIV care services is a promising strategy for increasing access to family planning and STI services and reducing unwanted pregnancies, perinatal HIV transmission and maternal and infant mortality among people living with HIV and their partners. We conducted a Phase II randomized futility trial of a multi-level intervention to increase adherence to safer sex guidelines among those wishing to avoid pregnancy and adherence to safer conception guidelines among those seeking conception in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive persons in four public-sector HIV clinics in Cape Town. Clinics were pair-matched and the two clinics within each pair were randomized to either a three-session provider-delivered enhanced intervention (EI) (onsite contraceptive services and brief milieu intervention for staff) or standard-of-care (SOC) provider-delivered intervention. The futility analysis showed that we cannot rule out the possibility that the EI intervention has a 10 % point or greater success rate in improving adherence to safer sex/safer conception guidelines than does SOC (p = 0.573), indicating that the intervention holds merit, and a larger-scale confirmatory study showing whether the EI is superior to SOC has merit.
Weng, Chunhua; Li, Yu; Berhe, Solomon; Boland, Mary Regina; Gao, Junfeng; Hruby, Gregory W.; Steinman, Richard C.; Lopez-Jimenez, Carlos; Busacca, Linda; Hripcsak, George; Bakken, Suzanne; Bigger, J Thomas
We describe a clinical research visit scheduling system that can potentially coordinate clinical research visits with patient care visits and increase efficiency at clinical sites where clinical and research activities occur simultaneously. Participatory Design methods were applied to support requirements engineering and to create this software called Integrated Model for Patient Care and Clinical Trials (IMPACT). Using a multi-user constraint satisfaction and resource optimization algorithm, IMPACT automatically synthesizes temporal availability of various research resources and recommends the optimal dates and times for pending research visits. We conducted scenario-based evaluations with 10 clinical research coordinators (CRCs) from diverse clinical research settings to assess the usefulness, feasibility, and user acceptance of IMPACT. We obtained qualitative feedback using semi-structured interviews with the CRCs. Most CRCs acknowledged the usefulness of IMPACT features. Support for collaboration within research teams and interoperability with electronic health records and clinical trial management systems were highly requested features. Overall, IMPACT received satisfactory user acceptance and proves to be potentially useful for a variety of clinical research settings. Our future work includes comparing the effectiveness of IMPACT with that of existing scheduling solutions on the market and conducting field tests to formally assess user adoption. PMID:23684593
Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann
In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field.
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Lewis, John; Dempsey, Joanne R.
An article on American health care which focuses on health care costs and benefits is combined with a lesson plan on health care issues to enable students to consider both issues of cost effectiveness and morality in decisions about the allocation of health care. The article covers the history of interest in health care, the reasons for the…
'Selective primary health care' and other recent vertical health strategies have been justified on the grounds that the broad primary health care (PHC) approach cannot be afforded by developing countries in the present constrained economic circumstances. This judgement is too sweeping. A simulated case example is presented, starting with baseline health expenditure data that are representative of the situation in many developing countries. It is assumed that real economic growth occurs and that government funding of health care is allowed to grow in parallel. Two annual growth rates are considered: 2 and 5 per cent. Two restrictive conditions are applied: none of the main health services is subjected to absolute cuts; and, additional funds from existing or new sources of finance are not considered. It is shown that, even with slow growth rates, substantial increases in the funding of priority (rural and PHC) services can be achieved if the growth in expenditures of lower-priority services is curtailed. Also, savings from improved health service efficiency can be channelled to priority services. The message is that the PHC approach is viable even with slow economic growth. What is required is the technical capacity to identify and plan resource flows in the health sector, and the political will to effect resource allocations according to PHC priorities. A strategic policy like PHC should not be 'adjusted' out of effective existence because of reversible economic problems. Rather, actions should be taken to reverse the adverse economic environment. International health-related agencies should continue to support countries to develop national health systems based on PHC, and should campaign for reforms in the world economy to create at least the minimum economic conditions necessary for PHC implementation.
Cubic, Barbara; Mance, Janette; Turgesen, Jeri N; Lamanna, Jennifer D
Rapidly occurring changes in the healthcare arena mean time is of the essence for psychology to formalize a strategic plan for training in primary care settings. The current article articulates factors affecting models of integrated care in Academic Health Centers (AHCs) and describes ways to identify and utilize resources at AHCs to develop interprofessional educational and clinical integrated care opportunities. The paper asserts that interprofessional educational experiences between psychology and other healthcare providers are vital to insure professionals value one another's disciplines in health care reform endeavors, most notably the patient-centered initiatives. The paper highlights ways to create shared values and common goals between primary care providers and psychologists, which are needed for trainee internalization of integrated care precepts. A developmental perspective to training from pre-doctoral, internship and postdoctoral levels for psychologists in integrated care is described. Lastly, a call to action is given for the field to develop more opportunities for psychology trainees to receive education and training within practica, internships and postdoctoral fellowships in primary care settings to address the reality that most patients seek their mental health treatment in primary care settings.
This dissertation studies two specific topics on information technologies in health care industry. (1) The status and change of integrated health care delivery system level IT spending and hospital level IT adoption between 1999 and 2006. (2) The potential link between hospital level IT adoptions and quality as quantified by procedural performance…
Cheung, Amy; Cleverley, Kristin; Chaim, Gloria; Moretti, Myla E; de Oliveira, Claire; Hawke, Lisa D; Willan, Andrew R; O'Brien, David; Heffernan, Olivia; Herzog, Tyson; Courey, Lynn; McDonald, Heather; Grant, Enid; Szatmari, Peter
Introduction Among youth, the prevalence of mental health and addiction (MHA) disorders is roughly 20%, yet youth are challenged to access evidence-based services in a timely fashion. To address MHA system gaps, this study tests the benefits of an Integrated Collaborative Care Team (ICCT) model for youth with MHA challenges. A rapid, stepped-care approach geared to need in a youth-friendly environment is expected to result in better youth MHA outcomes. Moreover, the ICCT approach is expected to decrease service wait-times, be more youth-friendly and family-friendly, and be more cost-effective, providing substantial public health benefits. Methods and analysis In partnership with four community agencies, four adolescent psychiatry hospital departments, youth and family members with lived experience of MHA service use, and other stakeholders, we have developed an innovative model of collaborative, community-based service provision involving rapid access to needs-based MHA services. A total of 500 youth presenting for hospital-based, outpatient psychiatric service will be randomised to ICCT services or hospital-based treatment as usual, following a pragmatic randomised controlled trial design. The primary outcome variable will be the youth's functioning, assessed at intake, 6 months and 12 months. Secondary outcomes will include clinical change, youth/family satisfaction and perception of care, empowerment, engagement and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Intent-to-treat analyses will be used on repeated-measures data, along with cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, to determine intervention effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination Research Ethics Board approval has been received from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, as well as institutional ethical approval from participating community sites. This study will be conducted according to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. Participants will provide informed consent prior to study
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ali, Samana; Cousens, Simon; Ali, Talaha M; Haider, Batool Azra; Rizvi, Arjumand; Okong, Pius; Bhutta, Shereen Z; Black, Robert E
Several recent reviews of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and mortality have emphasised that a large range of interventions are available with the potential to reduce deaths and disability. The emphasis within MNCH varies, with skilled care at facility levels recommended for saving maternal lives and scale-up of community and household care for improving newborn and child survival. Systematic review of new evidence on potentially useful interventions and delivery strategies identifies 37 key promotional, preventive, and treatment interventions and strategies for delivery in primary health care. Some are especially suitable for delivery through community support groups and health workers, whereas others can only be delivered by linking community-based strategies with functional first-level referral facilities. Case studies of MNCH indicators in Pakistan and Uganda show how primary health-care interventions can be used effectively. Inclusion of evidence-based interventions in MNCH programmes in primary health care at pragmatic coverage in these two countries could prevent 20-30% of all maternal deaths (up to 32% with capability for caesarean section at first-level facilities), 20-21% of newborn deaths, and 29-40% of all postneonatal deaths in children aged less than 5 years. Strengthening MNCH at the primary health-care level should be a priority for countries to reach their Millennium Development Goal targets for reducing maternal and child mortality.
DiStasio, Susan A
Although yoga has been practiced in Eastern culture for thousands of years as part of life philosophy, classes in the United States only recently have been offered to people with cancer. The word yoga is derived from the Sanskrit root yuj, meaning to bind, join, and yoke. This reflection of the union of the body, mind, and spirit is what differentiates yoga from general exercise programs. Yoga classes in the United States generally consist of asanas (postures), which are designed to exercise every muscle, nerve, and gland in the body. The postures are combined with pranayama, or rhythmic control of the breath. As a complementary therapy, yoga integrates awareness of breath, relaxation, exercise, and social support--elements that are key to enhancing quality of life in patients with cancer. Yoga practice may assist cancer survivors in managing symptoms such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, pain, and fatigue. As with all exercise programs, participants need to be aware of potential risks and their own limitations. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with yoga as a complementary therapy, including current research findings, types of yoga, potential benefits, safety concerns, teacher training, and ways to integrate yoga into cancer care.
Hayes, J A
Medical care futures contracts offer new hedging opportunities to increase protection against unexpected price changes. Commodity futures contracts can be designed explicitly to hedge volatile group health insurance premiums and capitated hospital and physician prices. This article describes one way to design and use these hedging instruments.
Arnould, R J; Finifter, D H; Schifrin, L G
This serves as an introduction to this special issue devoted to a selection of papers chosen and revised from a conference on public policy entitled "Health Care Policy: Where Is the Revolution Headed?" sponsored by the Thomas Jefferson Program in Public Policy at the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, November 12-14, 1987.
Waldman, J Deane; Yourstone, Steven A; Smith, Howard L
This article explores the uses of learning curve theory in medicine. Though effective application of learning curve theory in health care can result in higher quality and lower cost, it is seldom methodically applied in clinical practice. Fundamental changes are necessary in the corporate culture of medicine in order to capitalize maximally on the benefits of learning.
The Oral Health Programme (ORH) is a health promotion and disease prevention initiative. ORH should be integrated into primary health care programmes by building policies suited to each country and based on the common risk factor approach. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are highly prevalent in recommended. Although cost-effective, water and salt fluoridation are often unavailable and topical fluorides are recommended. Governments and industry must ensure availability of affordable fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride toothpaste should also be used to control periodontal diseases. The atraumatic restorative treatment approach should be used to treat dental caries. The Basic Package of Oral Care (BPOC) for deprived communities outlines this approach in detail. Continuous training and research are recommended for personnel to keep pace with changes in methods of prevention and treatment procedures.
Robinson, James C
The future of market-oriented health policy and practice lies in "managed consumerism," a blend of the patient-centric focus of consumer-driven health care and the provider-centric focus of managed competition. The optimal locus of incentives will vary among health services according to the nature of the illness, the clinical technology, and the extent of discretion in utilization. A competitive market will manifest a variety of comprehensive and limited benefit designs, broad and narrow contractual networks, and single-and multispecialty provider organizations.
Smith, Marie; Bates, David W; Bodenheimer, Thomas S
Effective health care workforce development requires the adoption of team-based care delivery models, in which participating professionals practice at the full extent of their training in pursuit of care quality and cost goals. The proliferation of such new models as medical homes, accountable care organizations, and community-based care teams is creating new opportunities for pharmacists to assume roles and responsibilities commensurate with their capabilities. Some challenges to including pharmacists in team-based care delivery models, including the lack of payment mechanisms that explicitly provide for pharmacist services, have yet to be fully addressed by policy makers and others. Nevertheless, evolving models and strategies reveal a variety of ways to draw on pharmacists' expertise in such critical areas as medication management for high-risk patients. As Affordable Care Act provisions are implemented, health care workforce projections need to consider the growing number of pharmacists expected to play an increasing role in delivering primary care services.
This integrated review of national trends affecting the health care system is primarily intended to facilitate the planning efforts of health care providers and consumers, Government agencies, medical school administrators, health insurers, and companies in the medical market. It may also be useful to educators as a textbook to give their students…
Health care reengineering is a powerful methodology that helps organizations reorder priorities, provide more cost-effective care, and increase value to customers. It should be driven by what the customer wants and what the market needs. Systemwide reengineering integrates three levels of activity: managing community and health plan partnerships; consolidating overlapping delivery system functions among participating providers and vendors; and redesigning administrative functions, clinical services, and caregiving programs to improve health status. Reengineering is not a panacea; it is a critical core competency and requisite skill for health care organizations if they are to succeed under managed care in the future.
Guo, Kristina L
This research develops an integrated systems model of entrepreneurship management as a method for achieving health care organizational survival and growth. Specifically, it analyzes current health care environment challenges, identifies roles of managers and discusses organizational theories that are relevant to the health care environment, outlines the role of entrepreneurship in health care, and describes the entrepreneurial manager in the entrepreneurial management process to produce desirable organizational outcomes. The study concludes that as current health care environment continues to show intense competition, entrepreneurial managers are responsible for creating innovations, managing change, investing in resources, and recognizing opportunities in the environment to increa