Science.gov

Sample records for intellectual property strategy

  1. Intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Brown, W M

    2000-01-01

    "Intellectual property" (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all of which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors of such ideas (1). Intellectual property has many of the characteristics of real property (houses, buildings, and so forth); intellectual property can be bought, sold, assigned, and licensed. Additionally, the owner of IP can prevent "trespass" on his property by others, though in IP this is referred to as infringement. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, that is, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work (e.g., works of art, literature [fiction ornonfiction], music, lyrics, photographs), as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefitting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it; the most famous trade secret of all time is the formula for Coca-Cola, still a closely guarded secret to this day (2,3). Trade secrets have the advantage that they never expire, but special measures are required to ensure the continued secrecy, and should it be violated, there is little legal protection for the owner (2,3). PMID:21337093

  2. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  3. Intellectual property and control.

    PubMed

    Goodman, K

    1993-09-01

    The issue of intellectual property is viewed differently by different groups involved in biomedical research: researchers; academic institutions; corporate, government, and philanthropic sponsors; and society. The members of these groups do not always agree even among themselves; within government and academe, for instance, there are different and competing schools of thought. Many in academe believe that intellectual property rights are limited and that the openness and intellectual interdependence that marked and contributed to the rise of the research university are anathema to notions of intellectual ownership and control. In discussing this view, the author considers the issues of control that are implicit in concepts of ownership and property, concluding that any emphasis on profit and control constitutes a stance at variance with the outlook that has driven much of medicine's success throughout history. In supporting intellectual property claims, some suggest (often by implication) that medical advances would be less frequent or significant if exclusive control and access to profit were eliminated or reduced. The history of research, on the contrary, shows that university research for centuries yielded major results without the incentive of patents and still does. Another major concern is the open flow of information, which could be restricted by intellectual property controls. Sharing information is not merely a good deed, a commendable practice--such sharing tends to produce overwhelmingly good consequences for all those who share and for the society that is ultimately paying for the research enterprise.

  4. The Implications of Incumbent Intellectual Property Strategies for Open Source Software Success and Commercialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    While open source software (OSS) emphasizes open access to the source code and avoids the use of formal appropriability mechanisms, there has been little understanding of how the existence and exercise of formal intellectual property rights (IPR) such as patents influence the direction of OSS innovation. This dissertation seeks to bridge this gap…

  5. Statement on Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  6. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  7. Who Owns Faculty Intellectual Property?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education Report, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines definitions of ownership relevant to faculty's intellectual property. Highlights exclusive rights that copyright owners hold under Section 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act. Notes university initiatives looking into the question of intellectual property. Provides examples of "significant" resources which in the case of public institutions are…

  8. Intellectual Property and Indigenous Peoples' Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorcroft, Heather; Byrne, Alex

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the lack of protection given to the intellectual and cultural property rights of Aboriginal publications and archival materials. Raises issues regarding ownership of materials, cultural documentation, primary property rights for nonphysical materials, and the related legislation. Offers collection development strategies for librarians to…

  9. Know your intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Khan, A

    1999-03-01

    Dismissing intellectual property rights as someone else's responsibility may not be prudent. It can jeopardize a company's future business because any new product could be unprotected, or even worse, belong to someone else. This article explains how a little strategic planning and due diligence can help prevent unnecessary legal costs. Much of a company's value can be tied up in intangible assets such as patents, trademarks and copyright, and an intellectual property audit helps assess its true worth. PMID:10387614

  10. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of Federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of Federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  11. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  12. Getting smart about intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    Intellectual Property, particularly a patent portfolio, is a critical part of many companies' assets. Yet many of these companies act dumb when it comes to Intellectual Property. Blundering forward without a plan or a manager, the company may throw money at a patent attorney pursuing a patent of little value; it may fool itself into thinking it has protection with a "provisional patent" it may fail to act in a timely fashion and lose its rights to a valuable patent. This paper highlights some of the mistakes some companies make so that you can avoid falling into the same pitfalls.

  13. Innovation in Neurosurgery: Intellectual Property Strategy and Academia/Industrial Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi

    2016-09-15

    Neurosurgery has tremendous possibilities for development of innovative medical devices. However, most of the neurosurgical devices used in Japan are imported products. Promotion and development of domestic medical devices is highly encouraged and it is one of the pillars of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's growth strategy of Japanese economy. Innovative "Made in Japan" medical devices can be developed by interdisciplinary collaboration between industries and academic institutions. Proper orientation of medical and engineering education, social and administrative awareness of the need of facilitating the medical devices creative process with corresponding regulatory changes, and appropriate medical and technological infrastructure establishment are needed for stimulating medical device innovation.

  14. Innovation in Neurosurgery: Intellectual Property Strategy and Academia/Industrial Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi

    2016-09-15

    Neurosurgery has tremendous possibilities for development of innovative medical devices. However, most of the neurosurgical devices used in Japan are imported products. Promotion and development of domestic medical devices is highly encouraged and it is one of the pillars of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's growth strategy of Japanese economy. Innovative "Made in Japan" medical devices can be developed by interdisciplinary collaboration between industries and academic institutions. Proper orientation of medical and engineering education, social and administrative awareness of the need of facilitating the medical devices creative process with corresponding regulatory changes, and appropriate medical and technological infrastructure establishment are needed for stimulating medical device innovation. PMID:27298262

  15. Innovation in Neurosurgery: Intellectual Property Strategy and Academia/Industrial Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    MURAYAMA, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Neurosurgery has tremendous possibilities for development of innovative medical devices. However, most of the neurosurgical devices used in Japan are imported products. Promotion and development of domestic medical devices is highly encouraged and it is one of the pillars of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s growth strategy of Japanese economy. Innovative “Made in Japan” medical devices can be developed by interdisciplinary collaboration between industries and academic institutions. Proper orientation of medical and engineering education, social and administrative awareness of the need of facilitating the medical devices creative process with corresponding regulatory changes, and appropriate medical and technological infrastructure establishment are needed for stimulating medical device innovation. PMID:27298262

  16. 39 CFR 501.19 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intellectual property. 501.19 Section 501.19... POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.19 Intellectual property. Providers submitting Postage Evidencing Systems to the Postal Service for approval are responsible for obtaining all intellectual property...

  17. 39 CFR 501.19 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intellectual property. 501.19 Section 501.19... POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.19 Intellectual property. Providers submitting Postage Evidencing Systems to the Postal Service for approval are responsible for obtaining all intellectual property...

  18. 39 CFR 501.19 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intellectual property. 501.19 Section 501.19... POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.19 Intellectual property. Providers submitting Postage Evidencing Systems to the Postal Service for approval are responsible for obtaining all intellectual property...

  19. Intellectual property and information controversy(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.

  20. 2 CFR 200.448 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intellectual property. 200.448 Section 200... Intellectual property. (a) Patent costs. (1) The following costs related to securing patents and copyrights are... as advice on patent and copyright laws, regulations, clauses, and employee intellectual...

  1. 10 CFR 603.1285 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intellectual property. 603.1285 Section 603.1285 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1285 Intellectual property. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, mask works, protected data, and other forms of comparable property protected by Federal law and foreign counterparts....

  2. 10 CFR 603.1285 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intellectual property. 603.1285 Section 603.1285 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1285 Intellectual property. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, mask works, protected data, and other forms of comparable property protected by Federal law and foreign counterparts....

  3. 32 CFR 37.1310 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intellectual property. 37.1310 Section 37.1310 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... property. Inventions, data, works of authorship, and other intangible products of intellectual effort...

  4. Needed: models of biotechnology intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Gold, E Richard; Castle, David; Cloutier, L Martin; Daar, Abdallah S; Smith, Pamela J

    2002-08-01

    Although never uncontroversial, intellectual property rights in biotechnological innovation are once more the focus of intense debate. The debate has yet to reach any result, largely because of several important errors in the way that various disciplines approach it. These errors include making assumptions without empirical basis and conflating various intellectual property regimes. What is needed is a transdisciplinary integrated method to correct these errors. Such a method can be implemented through the construction of alternative models of intellectual property protection designed to balance the various social, ethical and economic constraints that affect biotechnology.

  5. Management of intellectual property rights in India: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, R.; Tiwari, G.; Rai, A. K.; Srivastawa, Birendra

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The present review elaborates all aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in detail, along with their protection criteria. PMID:22470229

  6. Management of intellectual property rights in India: An updated review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, R; Tiwari, G; Rai, A K; Srivastawa, Birendra

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The present review elaborates all aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in detail, along with their protection criteria.

  7. Promoting justice in stem cell intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Regenberg, Alan; Mathews, Debra J H

    2011-11-01

    According to the World Trade Organization, intellectual property rights are "rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time." The rationale behind intellectual property rights is to offer a quid pro quo, between creators and the public, intended to spur innovation. Inventors gain exclusivity (and an opportunity for profits) in exchange for publicly disclosing details about their creations. The public gains free access to information - information that can then be used to support further innovation. Innovation is seen as an inherent good in this context, as it can lead to the development of things people need (e.g., treatments for disease, green energy technologies or a better mousetrap). Exclusive rights to intellectual property are managed via patents and licenses, with patenting being primarily regulated at the national level. Intellectual property rights are the dominant mechanism used in innovation policy, particularly in science. However, myriad modifications and alternatives to intellectual property rights have been proposed and utilized, including patent pooling, intellectual property exchanges and clearing houses, innovation prizes and open-source licenses. The challenges related to competing models of innovation policy present in a fairly consistent manner across most fields of science. However, this paper will focus exclusively on intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy in the context of stem cell science. It is not that the issues themselves are unique in this context, but rather that there are a series of factors that make a discussion of intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy particularly important in the context of stem cell science. PMID:21999266

  8. Promoting justice in stem cell intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Regenberg, Alan; Mathews, Debra J H

    2011-11-01

    According to the World Trade Organization, intellectual property rights are "rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time." The rationale behind intellectual property rights is to offer a quid pro quo, between creators and the public, intended to spur innovation. Inventors gain exclusivity (and an opportunity for profits) in exchange for publicly disclosing details about their creations. The public gains free access to information - information that can then be used to support further innovation. Innovation is seen as an inherent good in this context, as it can lead to the development of things people need (e.g., treatments for disease, green energy technologies or a better mousetrap). Exclusive rights to intellectual property are managed via patents and licenses, with patenting being primarily regulated at the national level. Intellectual property rights are the dominant mechanism used in innovation policy, particularly in science. However, myriad modifications and alternatives to intellectual property rights have been proposed and utilized, including patent pooling, intellectual property exchanges and clearing houses, innovation prizes and open-source licenses. The challenges related to competing models of innovation policy present in a fairly consistent manner across most fields of science. However, this paper will focus exclusively on intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy in the context of stem cell science. It is not that the issues themselves are unique in this context, but rather that there are a series of factors that make a discussion of intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy particularly important in the context of stem cell science.

  9. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  10. Intellectual property, genetically modified crops and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The implementation of a new technology is almost always surrounded by a debate on the moral and social implications that may arise. The debate with regard to genetically modified (GM) crops has been one of the longest and most controversial. However, one area of the debate that receives less attention is the role that intellectual property can play. The introduction of an effective and yet appropriate intellectual property system addressing society's particular needs can eliminate some of these issues. This paper looks at whether the situation in Europe is meeting our current needs and also addresses the role intellectual property can play in the debate over the introduction of GM crops in developing countries.

  11. Intellectual property rights: An overview and implications in pharmaceutical industry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chandra Nath; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPR) have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is a recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. PMID:22171299

  12. 15 CFR 296.11 - Intellectual property rights and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION PROGRAM General § 296.11 Intellectual property rights and procedures. (a) Rights in... any company of intellectual property rights arising from assistance provided under this section....

  13. Managing Intellectual Property for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Managing permissions for hundreds of pieces of intellectual property (IP) can be a daunting task for any course, but it is vital in distance learning courses because of legal implications specific to the online environment. In 1998, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)severely limited the use of copyrighted materials in distance learning.…

  14. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intellectual property. 600.325 Section 600.325 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Administrative... for a particular program under 10 CFR part 784; (ii) The applicant requests and receives an...

  15. Distance Education and Digital Intellectual Property Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRamio, David C.; Kops, Gerald C.

    2004-01-01

    While many colleges and universities enthusiastically push forward to create new online courses, important campus policies regarding copyright and academic intellectual property in the digital age lag behind. Policy questions regarding ownership and control of online courses and how the new TEACH Act affects the concept of fair use of…

  16. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added. PMID:25640303

  17. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added.

  18. What Every School Should Know about Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroder, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    Most institutions aren't aware of their valuable intellectual property, and some believe they have intellectual property when they don't, which can lead to expensive lawsuits or licensing fees. "Intellectual property" generally consists of copyrights, trademarks, and patents. Most familiar is copyright, the statutory protection mechanism for…

  19. Towards Hybrid Therapeutic Strategies in Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondal, Jean-A.; Lang, Sc.

    2009-01-01

    I present and discuss what I see as a decisive convergence between future (no longer science fiction) genetic therapies in human beings with intellectual disabilities and standard (so to speak) neurobehavioral interventions. This crossing will lead to a radical modification in the life prospect of people with intellectual disability from genetic…

  20. Introduction to intellectual property rights for investigators in health research and institutional intellectual property policy.

    PubMed

    Shemdoe, Georges S

    2009-11-01

    The concept of Intellectual Property (IP) in the domain of technology has assumed enhanced importance and the subject matter has attracted more interest with time. As the world moves towards a knowledge-based economy, where wealth creation is no longer based on the capital investment per se, but rather more and more on the brainpower and ability to create, Intellectual Property has become an integral part of world business and a major source for wealth creation and economic growth (ARIPO, 2002). In recognizing the importance of IPR, African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET) has decided to include a module of intellectual property rights in its Health Research Ethics Training Courses for Investigators. This paper is introducing the subject of IP to investigators in health research so that they are able to recognize its importance as IP creators and utilizers of the IP system.

  1. Intellectual Property Rights and The Classroom: What Teachers Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcon, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Intellectual property rights restrict teachers' and students' ability to freely explore the intellectual realms of the classroom. Copyright laws protect the author and their work but disable other intellectuals from investigating probable learning environments. This paper will look at key issues where educational institutions are conflicting with…

  2. Intellectual property analysis of holographic materials business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents an overview of intellectual property in the field of holographic photosensitive materials and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic materials have been uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, and Japanese Patent Office for the time frame of 1971 through November 2005. The patent analysis has unveiled trends in patent temporal distribution, leading IP portfolios, companies competition within the holographic materials market and other interesting insights.

  3. The growing complexity of international policy in intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Gurry, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Intellectual property has historically been a self-contained policy at the international level. With the introduction of the TRIPs Agreement in 1994 and developments since the conclusion of the TRIPs Agreement, the relationship between intellectual property policy and other areas of public policy has become much more complex and interactive. This shift reflects the centrality of intellectual property in the knowledge economy, the rapid development of enabling technologies, notably the Internet and biotechnology, and the advent of the networked society. The consequences of this shift are manifold and herald the increased sophistication and complexity that may be expected of intellectual property regimes in the knowledge economy.

  4. Intellectual Property in "College English"--and English Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoss, Danielle Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I look back to the first issue of College English, and then across the years to trace the ways in which "Intellectual Property" (and this distinction from intellectual property is important) has been addressed by authors in the pages of the journal. I distinguish two periods of time marked by different approaches to IP issues, and…

  5. Intellectual Property in Higher Education: A Legal Compendium. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byman, Abigail, Ed.; Geller, Randolph, Ed.

    This compendium focuses on intellectual property law, which includes copyrights, patents, and trademarks as well as applications of intellectual property in distance learning software, the Internet, and research data. It includes formal journal articles, policies, and outlines from the National Association of College and University Attorneys. Ten…

  6. Intellectual Property: What Do Teachers and Students Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Louise; Corbett, Susan; Bondy, Ann; Davidson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    As society changes from an industrial to a knowledge era increasing importance and value is being placed on intellectual property rights. Technology teachers need to have pedagogical content knowledge of intellectual property if they are to incorporate it into their learning programmes to enable students to consider how to respect others'…

  7. Intellectual Property and Higher Education: Challenges and Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, Virgil

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual property has become a highly coveted asset that can potentially reap a financial windfall for the owner who exploits its utility. Higher education has focused on the discovery of new knowledge, which can translate into intellectual property, but legislation, higher education policy, and/or contractual engagement may dictate ownership…

  8. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptability of intellectual property. 603.550 Section 603.550 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.550 Acceptability of intellectual property....

  9. Essjay's "Ethos": Rethinking Textual Origins and Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of intellectual property are often the focus of rhetoric and composition research, and the question of textual origins grounds these discussions. Through an examination of Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia anyone can edit, this essay addresses disciplinary concerns about textual origins and intellectual property through a discussion…

  10. Intellectual property law: a primer for scientists.

    PubMed

    Brown, William M

    2003-03-01

    Intellectual property (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors and creators of such ideas. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work, as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefiting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it a trade secret. IP impinges on almost everything scientists do. As scientists are paid to come up with ideas and aspire to patent and/or publish their work, the protection of ideas and of written works especially should be of interest and concern to all. PMID:12665692

  11. A Primer on Distance Learning and Intellectual Property Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    Highlights the intellectual-property issues that will confront telecommunications networks, participating universities, and other programming contributors who produce and distribute educational programming via telecommunications. Suggests measures that can help shield these entities from copyright liability. (MLF)

  12. Implementation of Intellectual Property Law on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannix, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the importance of intellectual property rights to the private sector, NASA has developed a reference guide to assist business leaders in understanding how the Intellectual Property Articles of the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station will be implemented. This reference guide discusses the statutory, regulatory and programmatic strictures on the deployment, utilization and ownership of intellectual property within the Space Station program. This guide presents an analysis of the intellectual property law aspects of the international agreements and documents pertaining to the International Space Station, and then relates them to NASA's authorities for entering into research and development agreements with private entities. This paper will discuss the reference guide and should aid potential agreement participants in understanding the legal environment for entering into agreements with NASA to fly research and development payloads on the International Space Station.

  13. Working with the NCL - Intellectual Property - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    To share and safeguard Research Material, intellectual property and proprietary information, the NCL's interaction with extramural researchers and vendors will normally be conducted under a Material Transfer Agreement (MTA).

  14. 75 FR 8137 - Coordination and Strategic Planning of the Federal Effort Against Intellectual Property...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... knowledge and expertise of the agencies charged with enforcing intellectual property rights. By committing to common goals, the Government will more effectively and efficiently combat intellectual...

  15. Distributed web-based simulation for protecting intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckman, Darryl; Martin, Dale E.; Moore, Lantz; Wilsey, Philip A.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes our work to develop the technology necessary for vendors to safely distribute and protect their Intellectual Property (IP) on the web. The basic strategy is to provide non-proprietary interface definitions on the web and to retain detailed product performance data behind protected firewalls. The public interface definitions enable interconnection with other regions of a virtual prototype and distributed analysis capabilities allow an evaluation of the fully operational virtual prototype. Thus distributed simulation across the web becomes feasible, and concerns about the security of proprietary data are addressed. IP is protected behind a firewall and distributed simulation is performed with the IP data wholly contained behind the firewall--only simulation interface data denoting changes to interface data values is exchanged over a potentially public network.

  16. Research on Intellectual Property Conflicts Identification in Knowledge Transferring among EC Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shibin

    As the lacks of existing research about intellectual property conflicts management of EC enterprise, the paper analysis the intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by intellectual property types, then, the paper makes research on intellectual property conflicts identification in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises, and gives relative assumption, meanwhile, the paper makes quantities identification of intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by evidential theory, finally, the paper gives the further research orientations.

  17. Language revitalization in Native North America--issues of intellectual property rights and intellectual sovereignty.

    PubMed

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous populace and by implication, other indigenous peoples in the United States, this essay examines how protection may be afforded under the United Nations definition of 'heritage'. Given that the holding safe of a 'culture' or 'heritage' is inclusive of language, and thus has been determined to be a human right. PMID:15156749

  18. 75 FR 54086 - Global Intellectual Property Academy Program Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Global Intellectual Property Academy Program Survey ACTION: Proposed... Property Academy Program Survey comment'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: 571-273-0112, marked to... Property Academy, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450;...

  19. "The Fruits of Intellectual Labor": International Student Views of Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datig, Ilka; Russell, Beth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results of a study conducted at New York University Abu Dhabi in the fall of 2013. Our goal in the study was to gain a global college student perspective on issues related to intellectual property, including copyright and plagiarism. We found that, contrary to popular opinion, most of our students have a solid…

  20. Education of Intellectual Properties for the Training of Creative Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yoshifumi; Kajiwara, Katuhiko; Oodan, Kyouji

    Kurume National College of Technology has obtained results concerning intellectual property education combined with inventive education. In the education program, students learn about industrial property and practical expertise such as searching the open patents, making up patent-maps, and making patent application papers to the Patent Office under the guidance of a teacher, a patent adviser and attorney. As a result, some of the creative students have already applied for patents. In the future, we are going to prepare a managing system for the intellectual property at our college for the intensification of cooperative application with the local company.

  1. Did You Say "Intellectual Property"? It's a Seductive Mirage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    The term "intellectual property" tends to warp thinking wherever it is used. It carries a bias in favor of dealing with a variety of issues as kinds of "property"; even worse, applying the term to various disparate issues focuses attention erroneously on the little that they have in common. The term should never be used, and we should not let…

  2. Synthetic biology and intellectual property rights: six recommendations.

    PubMed

    Minssen, Timo; Rutz, Berthold; van Zimmeren, Esther

    2015-02-01

    On 26th November 2013, the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation organized an expert meeting on "Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights" in Copenhagen sponsored by the European Research Area Network in Synthetic Biology (ERASynBio). The meeting brought together ten experts from different countries with a variety of professional backgrounds to discuss emerging challenges and opportunities at the interface of synthetic biology and intellectual property rights. The aim of this article is to provide a summary of the major issues and recommendations discussed during the meeting.

  3. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Tom, Ed.

    This sourcebook presents a collection of papers focusing on the intellectual property rights (IPR) of indigenous peoples--their rights to protect and control their cultural knowledge. Subsidiary IPR goals are to manage the degree and process by which cultural knowledge is shared with outsiders and, in some instances, to be justly compensated for…

  4. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen B., Ed.; Stabinsky, Doreen, Ed.

    Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…

  5. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in the Entrepreneurial Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah L.; Katz, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    While universities are intensely protective of revenue streams related to intellectual property interests for the institution and professors, the financial and legal interests of students in the entrepreneurial process have largely been overlooked. This lack of attention, both in universities and in the literature, is intriguing given the…

  6. Innovation and Intellectual Property: The Case of Genomic Patenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Brian A.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to balance static and dynamic efficiency in the production and use of knowledge, societies institute intellectual property policies. In the United States, the patent system is a well-established mechanism to provide inventors with time-limited protection of new technologies in exchange for disclosure of information about their…

  7. Intellectual property issues in holography and high tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya

    2004-06-01

    The author with technical education background (Ph.D. in holography) shares her 3+ years of experience working on intellectual property (IP) issues that includes patents, trademarks, and copyrights. A special attention is paid to the patent issues: the application procedure, the patent requirements, the databases for prior art search, how to make the cost efficient filing.

  8. Integrating Intellectual Property Concepts into MIS Education: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykytyn, Peter P., Jr.; Mykytyn, Kathleen; Harrison, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The evolving legal environment surrounding intellectual property (IP) and its impact on information systems, especially involving electronic commerce, and the type of education and training provided by management information systems (MIS) faculty to MIS students is a relationship that has not been investigated. Although organizations are…

  9. An Overview of Intellectual Property and Intangible Asset Valuation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuura, Jeffrey H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic models most commonly applied to estimate the value of intellectual property and other forms of intangible assets. It highlights the key strengths and weaknesses of these models. One of the apparent weaknesses of the most commonly used valuation models is the failure to incorporate legal rights into their…

  10. 15 CFR 290.9 - Intellectual property rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intellectual property rights. 290.9 Section 290.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL... procedures generally require the Government to grant to Centers selected for funding the right to elect...

  11. Intellectual Property Rights: Governing Cultural and Educational Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitzke, Cushla

    2006-01-01

    This article uses Nikolas Rose's theory of governmentality to examine ways in which intellectual property is imbricated in a broad spectrum of globalised and globalising discourses. Using the 2004 Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement as a case in point, it shows how discourses of culture, trade, foreign policy, and security intersect and…

  12. 77 FR 42765 - Request of the U.S. Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator for Public Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... of the Joint Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement AGENCY: Office of the U.S... process of developing a new Joint Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement. By committing to... Administration's Joint Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement for submission to Congress every...

  13. Poverty, health & intellectual property rights with special reference to India.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K; Srivastava, S

    2007-10-01

    This paper examines the nexus between poverty and global health with specific focus on IPR protection and attempts to highlight the current global endeavours to overcome barriers to access to medicines for diseases of the poor. The number of very poor people in the world has increased by 10.4 per cent between 1987 and 2001 to 2735 million. India is now home to the largest number of millionaires in the developing countries. But over 800 million Indians who still survive on Rs 20.0 (US$0.5) a day, and rural poverty is on the rise. The link between poverty and health is well established with the underprivileged are more vulnerable to major health risks due to poor nutrition, inadequate access to clean drinking water, sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke, etc. all of which contribute to the huge and growing burden of disease in the poor countries. The global disease burden is not just huge but growing: over 10 million children die of preventable conditions including vaccine-preventable diseases, about 14 million are killed by infectious diseases every year, 90-95 per cent in poor countries. An estimated third of global population has limited or no access to essential medicines. While the number of poor and unhealthy is growing, Government expenditure on health is dwindling. Many of the diseases of the poor require new medicines and none are forthcoming as there is little R&D for these infections. There are several barriers to access to existing and the newly discovered drugs. One major reason is the general lack of interest by the pharma industry to discover new medicines for diseases of the poor due to very limited market in developing countries. In addition, global intellectual property rights (IPR) protection regimes like the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are considered a major obstacle for the poor access to medicines. There have been some global initiatives on the need to improve affordability and accessibility of medicines. Some strategies to

  14. Intellectual Property Rights at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Vernon E.

    1994-01-01

    At a fundamental level, intellectual property is the core work product of a technical organization. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), produces a variety of intellectual property including: patents, trademarks, data rights, copyright and rights associated with National Security. For a scientific organization to properly manage its work product it has to manage its intellectual property. This paper endeavors to describe how the intellectual property rights are generated and allocated at NASA. The author then goes on to discuss how the intellectual property might be managed to meet the objectives of program implementation, technology transfer and security.

  15. Managing genetic material to protect intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Jong, S C; Cypess, R H

    1998-02-01

    One of the most important policy instruments for the promotion of further biotechnology development is intellectual property right (IPR) protection. However, one cannot improve upon a biotechnological invention without physical access to the germplasm, making exchanges of genetic material necessary. A formal transfer agreement, which addresses the key issues of ownership, access, use, and equitable benefit-sharing, is a powerful legal instrument for intellectual property. Other restrictions are generally imposed as a result of national and international safety regulations. Forming strategic alliances, such as joint ventures, collaborative research agreements, joint research and development agreements, and manufacturing and distribution alliances to exploit the economic value of genetic material, provides scientists with the mechanisms they need to bring their research material and products to the marketplace. PMID:9611821

  16. Sharing Research Data and Intellectual Property Law: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    Sharing research data by depositing it in connection with a published article or otherwise making data publicly available sometimes raises intellectual property questions in the minds of depositing researchers, their employers, their funders, and other researchers who seek to reuse research data. In this context or in the drafting of data management plans, common questions are (1) what are the legal rights in data; (2) who has these rights; and (3) how does one with these rights use them to share data in a way that permits or encourages productive downstream uses? Leaving to the side privacy and national security laws that regulate sharing certain types of data, this Perspective explains how to work through the general intellectual property and contractual issues for all research data.

  17. Sharing Research Data and Intellectual Property Law: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Sharing research data by depositing it in connection with a published article or otherwise making data publicly available sometimes raises intellectual property questions in the minds of depositing researchers, their employers, their funders, and other researchers who seek to reuse research data. In this context or in the drafting of data management plans, common questions are (1) what are the legal rights in data; (2) who has these rights; and (3) how does one with these rights use them to share data in a way that permits or encourages productive downstream uses? Leaving to the side privacy and national security laws that regulate sharing certain types of data, this Perspective explains how to work through the general intellectual property and contractual issues for all research data. PMID:26313685

  18. Needed: a new system of intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Thurow, L C

    1997-01-01

    The world's current system of intellectual property rights has in recent years become unworkable and ineffective. Designed more than 100 years ago to meet the needs of an industrial era, it is inadequate to handle the ownership and distribution of intellectual property generated by the brainpower industries that have come to dominate the world's economy. The prevailing wisdom is that minor tweaking can remedy the problem. But MIT economist Lester Thurow challenges such thinking and calls instead for a new system--one redesigned from the ground up. In making his case for why the old system doesn't work anymore, Thurow lays out the challenges the new system must meet. It must offer incentives to inventors that are strong enough to offset the decline in publicly funded research. At the same time, it must protect the public interest by keeping some intellectual property--basic scientific knowledge, for example--in the public domain. The new system must be flexible enough to deal with the fact that new technologies have created new potential forms of intellectual property rights (Can pieces of a human being be patented?) and have made old rights unenforceable (When books can be downloaded from an electronic library, what does a copyright mean?). And in an increasingly global economy, a new system must meet the needs of both "catch-up" states and "keep-ahead" states. A system that ignores the lesson of history--that every country that has caught up has done so by copying--will be an unenforceable one.

  19. Institutional Responses on Strengthened Intellectual Property Rights in Agriculture and Needs' Assessment on Intellectual Property Management of Public Research Institutions in Asian Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payumo, Jane; Grimes, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are being introduced or strengthened in developing countries as a result of international agreements such as the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This study conducted a web-based survey to gain perspective on the impact of IPRs to…

  20. Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

  1. [Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways].

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

  2. Improving Global Access to New Vaccines: Intellectual Property, Technology Transfer, and Regulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers. PMID:25211753

  3. Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers. PMID:25211753

  4. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Westerhaus, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.

  5. Access and control of information and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Gerald S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper introduces the technology of two pioneering patents for the secure distribution of information and intellectual property. The seminal technology has been used in the control of sensitive material such as medical records and imagery in distributed networks. It lends itself to the implementation of an open architecture access control system that provides local or remote user selective access to digital information stored on any computer system or storage medium, down to the data element, pixel, and sub-pixel levels. Use of this technology is especially suited for electronic publishing, health care records, MIS, and auditing.

  6. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    PubMed

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-06-01

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process. PMID:25573772

  7. Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Peer to Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylios, Georgios; Tsolis, Dimitrios

    Peer to Peer Networks are oftenly used by internet users to share and distribute digital content (images, audio and video) which is in most of cases protected by the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) legislation. This fact threatens e-inclusion and Internet democracy as a whole as it forces organizations to block access to valuable content. This paper claims that IPR protection and P2P can be complementary. Specifically, a P2P infrastructure is presented which allows broad digital content exchange while on the same time supports data and copyright protection through watermarking technologies.

  8. A new perspective on patent and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Toshio

    Recently proposed problem of intellectual property including patent, especially concerning high technology such as computer software and gene manipulation, are discussed. The patent application in Japan has amounted to 500 thousand cases a year, which causes a new international friction between Japan and U.S.A.or European countries. What dose such an enormous volume of application mean, or how have their contents changed in recent years? Copyright problems is the field of gene engineering including amino acid sequence are partially common to those of the software. A trend of such gene-related copyright in Japan and other countries is reviewed.

  9. 15 CFR 295.8 - Intellectual property rights; publication of research results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.8 Intellectual property rights; publication...

  10. 15 CFR 295.8 - Intellectual property rights; publication of research results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.8 Intellectual property rights; publication...

  11. 15 CFR 295.8 - Intellectual property rights; publication of research results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.8 Intellectual property rights; publication...

  12. 15 CFR 295.8 - Intellectual property rights; publication of research results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.8 Intellectual property rights; publication...

  13. Intellectual property rights and patents in perspective of Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2012-01-01

    Ayurveda is getting its due recognition as a rationale system of medicine worldwide despite the fact that medical and scientific fraternity of the globe has very strong opposite opinion regarding safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. Meanwhile, provisions of Intellectual Property Rights under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Patents have attracted many individuals and organizations to explore possibilities of commercial benefits with Ayurvedic traditional knowledge. Although rules are not favoring to grant a patent on prior published knowledge, biopiracy managed grant of Patent on knowledge of Ayurvedic medicinal plants which has been successfully checked with references of data base of Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). Current provisions of the Patent law of India are obstructive in nature for getting patent on Ayurvedic medicines. If we have to invite researchers from basic science to ensure quality, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines, there is an urgent need to amend laws of patent with pragmatic promotional policies. This will encourage more patents on numerous pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmaceutical products based on Ayurveda. As every action of today's world is based on economic criteria so why stakeholders of Ayurveda should be deprived of it. New inventions would drive acceptance of Ayurveda as a global system of medicine. PMID:23049179

  14. The right to health and medicines: the case of recent multilateral negotiations on public health, innovation and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, German

    2014-08-01

    The negotiations of the intergovernmental group known as the 'IGWG', undertaken by the Member States of the WHO, were the result of a deadlock in the World Health Assembly held in 2006 where the Member States of the WHO were unable to reach an agreement on what to do with the 60 recommendations in the report on 'Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights submitted to the Assembly in the same year by a group of experts designated by the Director General of the WHO. The result of these negotiations was the 'Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property' which was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2008. The intention of the Global Strategy and Plan of Action (GSPOA) which was produced by the IGWG was to substantially reform the pharmaceuticals' research and development system in view of the findings that this system, whose purpose is to produce medicines for diseases which affect the greater part of the world population which lives in developing countries, had failed. The intellectual property rights imposed by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the recent trade agreements could become one of the main obstacles to access to medicines. The GSPOA makes a critical analysis of this reality, and opens the door to searching for new solutions to this problem.

  15. The right to health and medicines: the case of recent multilateral negotiations on public health, innovation and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, German

    2014-08-01

    The negotiations of the intergovernmental group known as the 'IGWG', undertaken by the Member States of the WHO, were the result of a deadlock in the World Health Assembly held in 2006 where the Member States of the WHO were unable to reach an agreement on what to do with the 60 recommendations in the report on 'Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights submitted to the Assembly in the same year by a group of experts designated by the Director General of the WHO. The result of these negotiations was the 'Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property' which was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2008. The intention of the Global Strategy and Plan of Action (GSPOA) which was produced by the IGWG was to substantially reform the pharmaceuticals' research and development system in view of the findings that this system, whose purpose is to produce medicines for diseases which affect the greater part of the world population which lives in developing countries, had failed. The intellectual property rights imposed by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the recent trade agreements could become one of the main obstacles to access to medicines. The GSPOA makes a critical analysis of this reality, and opens the door to searching for new solutions to this problem. PMID:24813066

  16. Intellectual property and the commercialization of research and development.

    PubMed

    di Norcia, Vincent

    2005-04-01

    Concern about the commercialization of research is rising, notably in testing new drugs. The problem involves oversimplified, polarizing assumptions about research and development (R&D) and intellectual property (IP). To address this problem this paper sets forth a more complex three phase RT&D process, involving Scientific Research (R), Technological Innovation (T), and Commercial Product Development (D) or the RT&D process. Scientific research and innovation testing involve costly intellectual work and do not produce free goods, but rather require IP regulation. RT&D processes involve an unrecognized IP shift from a common IP right in public goods like information and knowledge to private IP in products and other hard assets. The question then is, what kind of IP right: private or common? Since scientific research and innovation testing require openness about adverse findings, and wide, low cost diffusion of results, they require a common, inclusive IP right. Common IP is appropriate to both sharing knowledge goods and recovering the cost of production. Research is furthermore compatible with commercialization and support by other social interests. On the other hand it is incompatible with the exclusionary private IP rights that permit restrictive publication or total suppression of information. Private IP rather than commercialization conflicts with the openness requirements of scientific research and innovation testing. Commercial funding, however, is in principle compatible with research and testing, especially when regulated by a common IP right. This reflects a pragmatic view of the fundamental interconnections of knowledge and other social interests. PMID:15915860

  17. College Writing, Identification, and the Production of Intellectual Property: Voices from the Stanford Study of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Andrea A.; Fishman, Jenn; Liew, Warren M.

    2013-01-01

    When, why, and how do college students come to value their writing as intellectual property? How do their conceptions of intellectual property reflect broader understandings and personal engagements with concepts of authorship, collaboration, identification, and capital? We address these questions based on findings from the Stanford Study of…

  18. 6 CFR 25.10 - Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property. 25.10 Section 25.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.10 Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property....

  19. Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights: Confronting Modern Norms to Promote Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbole-Chaudhuri, Pragati; Srikantaiah, Deepa; van Fleet, Justin

    2008-01-01

    The global proliferation of intellectual property rights (IPRs), most recently through the World Trade Organization's Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, poses a grave threat for Indigenous knowledge systems. There is an increasing amount of "piracy" of Indigenous knowledge, whereby corporations and scientists…

  20. Intellectual Property Issues for Higher Education Unions: A Primer. Item Number 36-0699

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, David

    2002-01-01

    This document is a synopsis of intellectual property issues for higher education unions. American academics, including faculty, professional staff, researchers and graduate student research assistants, have always been leaders in the creation of intellectual property. In many instances, that work product is protected by U.S. copyright and patent…

  1. Coping Strategies of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability for Stressful Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions. We investigated the specific types of "Active and Avoidant" coping strategies reported by 114 adults with mild ID to deal with stressful social interactions. Open-ended responses to a…

  2. Mediating Haptic Exploratory Strategies in Children Who Have Visual Impairment and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of literature pertaining to the development of haptic exploratory strategies in children who have visual impairment and intellectual disabilities. The information received through such strategies assumes particular significance for these children, given the restricted information available through their visual…

  3. [On the necessity of intellectual property rights involving standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion therapies].

    PubMed

    Dong, Guo-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Han, Yan-Jing; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jun-Wen

    2014-08-01

    In the process of working out and implementing standardization of acupuncture-moxibustion (acu-moxi) therapy, the issue of intellectual property rights has been frequently involved. Whether is the standardization inevitably involved in intellectual property rights? A reasonable answer to this question is definitely of important realistic guiding value and significance for acu-moxi standardization work. For this reason, authors of the present paper sum up historical development of correlation between acu-moxi standardization and intellectual property rights, and fully analyze the related causes under the conditions of knowledge economy from 1) increasing protection of acu-moxi intellectual property rights, 2) intrinsic requirements for raising the standardization level of acu-moxi, 3) profits drive of the intellectual property rights owners, and 4) increasing impetuous international economic trade competition.

  4. Changing Drug Markets Under New Intellectual Property Regimes: The View From Central America

    PubMed Central

    Cerón, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The intellectual property rules inscribed in the Central American Free Trade Agreement have generated concern about access to medicines. We examined the implementation of the new intellectual property regime by tracking the policies and practices in place across 4 Central American countries. Although all 4 were responding to the same requirements under the agreement, their implementation of intellectual property rules differed. Not only were institutional practices different, but the lists of drugs to which intellectual property protection was applied varied in both volume and content. We also found that even without the influence of intellectual property, drug pricing in the region was often unpredictable and that lower cost was not the only motivation driving governments' purchasing decisions. PMID:21566033

  5. [The Human Genome Project and the right to intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Cambrón, A

    2000-01-01

    The Human Genome Project was designed to achieve two objectives. The scientific goal was the mapping and sequencing of the human genome and the social objective was to benefit the health and well-being of humanity. Although the first objective is nearing successful conclusion, the same cannot be said for the second, mainly because the benefits will take some time to be applicable and effective, but also due to the very nature of the project. The HGP also had a clear economic dimension, which has had a major bearing on its social side. Operating in the midst of these three dimensions is the right to intellectual property (although not just this right), which has facilitated the granting of patents on human genes. Put another way, the carrying out of the HGP has required the privatisation of knowledge of the human genome, and this can be considered an attack on the genetic heritage of mankind. PMID:11284125

  6. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  7. Genome editing: intellectual property and product development in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Genome editing is a revolutionary technology in molecular biology. While scientists are fascinated with the unlimited possibilities provided by directed and controlled changes in DNA in eukaryotes and have eagerly adopted such tools for their own experiments, an understanding of the intellectual property (IP) implications involved in bringing genome editing-derived products to market is often lacking. Due to the ingenuity of genome editing, the time between new product conception and its actual existence can be relatively short; therefore knowledge about IP of the various genome editing methods is relevant. This point must be regarded in a national framework as patents are instituted nationally. Therefore, when designing scientific work that could lead to a product, it is worthwhile to consider the different methods used for genome editing not only for their scientific merits but also for their compatibility with a speedy and reliable launch into the desired market.

  8. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms. PMID:25221349

  9. Biotechnology-related intellectual property law of iran.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to expound the Iranian law of intellectual property in relation to biotechnology. The most important themes studied are patents, industrial designs and trade marks. The latest relevant piece of legislation concerning the subject matters was passed in March 2008. However, the history of laws and regulations in this field goes back to early twentieth century (i.e. 1925). In this review, on the basis of the latest law passed in 2008, the topics explored are the responsible authority, patentable items and criteria, excluded items, registration procedure, rights conferred and sanctions. At the end, an attempt is made to put forward a few points as an analysis of the above Law from a critical point of view.

  10. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  11. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets*

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms. PMID:25221349

  12. Siblings' Mediated Learning Strategies in Families with and without Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzuriel, David; Hanuka-Levy, Dikla

    2014-01-01

    Dyads of siblings in which the younger sibling had an intellectual disability (ID, n = 25) were videotaped interacting. The ID group was compared with typically developing sibling dyads matched on mental age (n = 25) and chronological age (n = 25). We observed the mediation strategies, activation, and antimediation behaviors of older siblings and…

  13. Effects of the TIP Strategy on Problem Solving Skills of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Lucas, Kristin G.; Therrien, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step cognitive strategy (TIP) using the schema broadening procedures on functional mathematical problem solving skills of young adults with intellectual disability (ID). We randomly assigned 14 learners with ID to the control and experimental group before the…

  14. "A Kid Way": Strategies for Including Classmates with Learning or Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six children between 9 and 12 years of age were invited to share their ideas on how to socially include classmates with learning or intellectual disabilities at school. Participants generated 80 strategies which were categorized into seven major themes. Thematic categories focused on the need for teachers to intervene in academic and social…

  15. Shufflegolf: Teaching Golf Strategies and Etiquette to Young Children and Learners with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a unique curricular idea with physical educators interested about adding golf concepts to their curriculum. The focus is on a modified golf game that helps teach tactics, strategies, rules, and etiquette to young learners and those with intellectual disabilities. The specific content for this unit focuses on…

  16. Effects of the Paraphrasing Strategy on Expository Reading Comprehension of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ford, Jeremy W.; Nobles, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step paraphrasing strategy on expository reading comprehension of young adults with intellectual disability. Ten learners from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disability participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the control and…

  17. Transfer of Teaching Materials between Universities: Where Is the Boundary between Legitimate Transaction and Violation of Moral Intellectual Property Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiwald, Matthias; Harrington, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual property rights have various facets. The best-known one is copyright, enabling the owner to legally utilise intellectual materials. However, there is a separate set of legal entitlements, termed moral intellectual property rights. The purpose of these is to prevent false attribution, damage to an author's reputation and some forms of…

  18. Intellectual property rights, market competition and access to affordable antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased from around half a million in 2003 to almost 10 million in only 10 years, and will continue to increase in the coming years. Over 16 million more are eligible to start ART according to the last World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The demand is also switching from the less expensive antiretrovirals (ARVs) that allowed such scale-up to newer more expensive ones with fewer side effects or those that can be used by people who have developed resistance to first-line treatment. However, patents on these new drugs can delay robust generic competition and, consequently, price reduction made possible by economies of scale. Various ways to address this issue have been envisaged or implemented, including the use of the flexibilities available under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), systematic widespread voluntary licensing, of which the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) is an example, and the application of different prices in different countries, called tiered pricing. This paper helps explain the impact of patents on market competition for ARVs and analyses various approaches available today to minimize this impact.

  19. Intellectual property and networked health information: issues and principles.

    PubMed Central

    Cate, F H

    1996-01-01

    Information networks offer enormous potential for improving the delivery of health care services, facilitating health-related decision-making, and contributing to better health. In addition, advanced information technologies offer important opportunities for new markets, targeted information products and services, greater accessibility, lower costs and prices, and more rapid and efficient distribution. Realizing the full potential of those information resources requires the resolution of significant intellectual property issues, some of which may be affected by special features of health information. For example, the government is a significant funder and originator of health-related information. In addition, much of that information is of great importance to the population and benefits not only individual users, but also employers, insurance companies, the government, and society as a whole. The government must therefore continue to provide particularly important health information to the public, and facilitate that information's accessibility and reliability, while avoiding unnecessary competition with private information providers. Congress and courts must modify or interpret current copyright law as necessary to guarantee that it does not interfere with innovation in tailored health information or exceed its constitutional boundaries and restrict access to information, as opposed to expression. Both producers and users of information must work with the government to educate the public about the availability of health information and the rights of and limitations upon users under copyright law. PMID:8826629

  20. Intellectual property rights, market competition and access to affordable antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased from around half a million in 2003 to almost 10 million in only 10 years, and will continue to increase in the coming years. Over 16 million more are eligible to start ART according to the last World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The demand is also switching from the less expensive antiretrovirals (ARVs) that allowed such scale-up to newer more expensive ones with fewer side effects or those that can be used by people who have developed resistance to first-line treatment. However, patents on these new drugs can delay robust generic competition and, consequently, price reduction made possible by economies of scale. Various ways to address this issue have been envisaged or implemented, including the use of the flexibilities available under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), systematic widespread voluntary licensing, of which the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) is an example, and the application of different prices in different countries, called tiered pricing. This paper helps explain the impact of patents on market competition for ARVs and analyses various approaches available today to minimize this impact. PMID:25309984

  1. NASA Intellectual Property Negotiation Practices and their Relationship to Quantitative Measures of Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Lance B.

    1997-01-01

    In the current political climate NASA must be able to show reliable measures demonstrating successful technology transfer. The currently available quantitative data of intellectual property technology transfer efforts portray a less than successful performance. In this paper, the use of only quantitative values for measurement of technology transfer is shown to undervalue the effort. In addition, NASA's current policy in negotiating intellectual property rights results in undervalued royalty rates. NASA has maintained that it's position of providing public good precludes it from negotiating fair market value for its technology and instead has negotiated for reasonable cost in order to recover processing fees. This measurement issue is examined and recommendations made which include a new policy regarding the intellectual property rights negotiation, and two measures to supplement the intellectual property measures.

  2. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27149291

  3. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Intellectual Property, Ownership and Digital Course Materials: A Study of Intellectual Property Policies at Two and Four Year Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kimberly B.; Bonner, Kimberly; McMichael, James S.; Pomea, Neal

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study of two and four year colleges that determined how copyright ownership rights were distributed between faculty and institutions; whether separate intellectual property policies were used to clarify copyright ownership for digital course materials; whether contracts were used; and which policies were considered exemplary for…

  5. "A kid way": strategies for including classmates with learning or intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    Thirty-six children between 9 and 12 years of age were invited to share their ideas on how to socially include classmates with learning or intellectual disabilities at school. Participants generated 80 strategies which were categorized into seven major themes. Thematic categories focused on the need for teachers to intervene in academic and social situations, child-to-child instructional strategies, being supportive, focusing on similarities between children with and without disabilities, modelling appropriate behaviors and intervening in negative interactions, structured inclusive activities, and noninclusive activities. Participants were aware of the challenges experienced by classmates with disabilities, and recognized the need to work with classmates and teachers towards the social inclusion of children with intellectual and learning disabilities. Educational implications are addressed. PMID:23909587

  6. Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Omar

    2013-01-01

    The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

  7. Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Musungu, Sisule F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:16710545

  8. Information Wants To Be Shared: An Alternative Framework for Approaching Intellectual Property Disputes in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Herman T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the debate over intellectual property rights for digital media. Topics include why intellectual property should be protected; the evolution of copyright law; fair use doctrine; case studies; the philosophical theories of property, including labor theory, utilitarian theory, and personality theory; natural law theory; the social role of…

  9. State health care financing strategies for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Sara S; Comeau, Margaret; Tobias, Carol; Allen, Deborah; Epstein, Susan; Jantz, Kathryn; Honberg, Lynda

    2012-06-01

    We provide the first descriptive summary of selected programs developed to help expand the scope of coverage, mitigate family financial hardship, and provide health and support services that children with intellectual and developmental disabilities need to maximize their functional status and quality of life. State financing initiatives were identified through interviews with family advocacy, Title V, and Medicaid organizational representatives. Results showed that states use myriad strategies to pay for care and maximize supports, including benefits counseling, consumer- and family-directed care, flexible funding, mandated benefits, Medicaid buy-in programs, and Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 funding. Although health reform may reduce variation among states, its impact on families of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities is not yet clear. As health reform is implemented, state strategies to ameliorate financial hardship among families of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities show promise for immediate use. However, further analysis and evaluation are required to understand their impact on family and child well-being. PMID:22731967

  10. The Management Of Intellectual Property In A Romanian State University Where Research Represents A Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tîţu, Aurel Mihail; Oprean, Constantin; Răulea, Andreea Simina

    2015-07-01

    The transition to the knowledge-based economy and society requires adaptation to constant change that implies intellectual property as a multidimensional concept that continually leaves its mark on generations contributing to their well-being in obvious and undeniable ways. The main objective of this article was to assess the present level of the management of intellectual property in a state university in Romania displaying their strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the work is to analyze the state of the art in a Romanian state university in order to find solutions to the current problems that the Romanian scientific environment is facing. The conclusions drawn in the study converge in directions and proposals for improving the way in which the intellectual property is regarded and its management in the state universities of Romania.

  11. Technology transfer -- protecting technologies during the transfer cycle (intellectual property issues)

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.G.

    1993-12-31

    The success of technology transfer agreements depends not just on the technical work, but on how well the arrangements to protect and dispose of the intellectual properties that make up the technologies are handled. Pertinent issues that impact the protection and disposition of intellectual properties during the technology transfer process at Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram laboratory operated for the Department of Energy by the Martin Marietta Corporation, are discussed. Subjects addressed include the contracting mechanisms (including the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement [CRADA] and the Work-for-Others agreement), proprietary information, The Freedom of Information Act, patents and copyrights, the statement of work, Protected CRADA Information, licensing considerations, title to intellectual properties, march-in rights, and nondisclosure agreements.

  12. Intellectual property rights related to the genetically modified glyphosate tolerant soybeans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta L; Lage, Celso L S; Vasconcellos, Alexandre G

    2011-06-01

    The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights. PMID:21670890

  13. 77 FR 38088 - Development of the Joint Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement; Request of the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... BUDGET Development of the Joint Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement; Request of the U.S... Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement. By committing to common goals, the U.S. Government will... IP Act, IPEC is charged with developing the Administration's Joint Strategic Plan on...

  14. Siblings' mediated learning strategies in families with and without children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Tzuriel, David; Hanuka-Levy, Dikla

    2014-11-01

    Dyads of siblings in which the younger sibling had an intellectual disability (ID, n  =  25) were videotaped interacting. The ID group was compared with typically developing sibling dyads matched on mental age (n  =  25) and chronological age (n  =  25). We observed the mediation strategies, activation, and antimediation behaviors of older siblings and younger siblings' responsiveness to mediation. Mediation strategies were analyzed by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. The ID group scored highest on mediation strategies and lowest on activation and antimediation behaviors. Younger siblings' responsiveness to mediation was highest among the ID group. Mediation for Intentionality and Reciprocity and Meaning were positively associated with the verbal responsiveness of the younger siblings. Activation and antimediation behaviors were negatively associated with the verbal responsiveness.

  15. The ethics of intellectual property rights in an era of globalization.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aakash Kaushik; Warsh, Jonathan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, developed countries, led by the United States and the countries of the European Union, have sought to incorporate intellectual property rights provisions into global trade agreements. These countries successfully negotiated the World Trade Organization's 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which required developing countries to adopt intellectual property provisions comparable to developed countries. In this manuscript, we review the policy controversy surrounding TRIPS and examine the two main ethical arguments articulated in its support--a theory of natural rights and a utilitarian argument. We contend that these theories provide insufficient bases for an intellectual property rights regime that compromises access to essential medicines in the developing world. While the policy community has engaged in active debate around the policy effects of TRIPS, scholars have not thoroughly considered the full ethical underpinnings of those policy arguments. We believe that a more robust understanding of the ethical implications of the agreement should inform policy discussions in the future.

  16. Intellectual Property Rights: Guidelines for Fair Use of Electronic Music in Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liske, Kenneth L.

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on intellectual property, copyright, and the issue of fair use. Addresses the guidelines for fair use in the classroom, focusing on fair use guidelines in the context of information technologies, particularly electronic media, and the "Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia." Considers implications for music educators.…

  17. The ethics of intellectual property rights in an era of globalization.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aakash Kaushik; Warsh, Jonathan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, developed countries, led by the United States and the countries of the European Union, have sought to incorporate intellectual property rights provisions into global trade agreements. These countries successfully negotiated the World Trade Organization's 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which required developing countries to adopt intellectual property provisions comparable to developed countries. In this manuscript, we review the policy controversy surrounding TRIPS and examine the two main ethical arguments articulated in its support--a theory of natural rights and a utilitarian argument. We contend that these theories provide insufficient bases for an intellectual property rights regime that compromises access to essential medicines in the developing world. While the policy community has engaged in active debate around the policy effects of TRIPS, scholars have not thoroughly considered the full ethical underpinnings of those policy arguments. We believe that a more robust understanding of the ethical implications of the agreement should inform policy discussions in the future. PMID:24446942

  18. Finding a Balance: Computer Software, Intellectual Property and the Challenge of Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report, prepared by the Office of Technological Assessment (OTA) in response to a request from the House Committee on the Judiciary, examines the rapid and complex technological changes and trends in computer software technologies and their possible effects on the nation's intellectual property system. The three policy issues identified are:…

  19. Whose Idea Is This? Teaching Artists Reflect on Intellectual Property Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Jill

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with four seasoned Teaching Artists: Keith Terry, Kimberly de Caires, Ruth Bossieux, and Jeff Raz. The TAs reflect on the importance and complexity of intellectual property issues. They also shed new light on the views and experiences of TAs around this issue and encourages a broader dialog in the TA community.

  20. Recent Developments in Intellectual Property Law: Avoiding Traps in the Pursuit of University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garabedian, Todd E.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. patent laws have undergone many changes in recent years, both through Congress and the courts. This article summarizes recent developments relating to judicial decisions, legislative initiatives, and patent office policy, and provides some practical advice relating to administration of intellectual property. As illustrated by the latest…

  1. Global Justice and Intellectual Property Rights: Reforming the International IPR Regime for Balanced Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salokannel, Marjut

    2006-01-01

    Today it is widely recognized that a uniform global intellectual property (IP) system requiring a high level of protection is inherently unjust and affects countries differently depending upon their level of technological and economic development. This article analyzes the functioning of the current international treaty framework having…

  2. International Patent Information: The Role of the World Intellectual Property Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sviridov, Felix A.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two facets of the multi-aspect program of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) aimed at international cooperation with a view to standardizing documents and elaborating new patent information retrieval methods, while stressing the role of three international patent information organizations. (CWM)

  3. 6 CFR 25.10 - Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property. 25.10 Section 25.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.10 Confidentiality...

  4. 31 CFR 542.520 - Certain transactions related to patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other intellectual property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., trademark, copyright or other intellectual property protection in the United States or Syria are authorized, including exportation of services to Syria, payment for such services, and payment to persons in Syria... the United States Government or the Government of Syria, or of the reasonable and customary fees...

  5. Library Faculty Publishing and Intellectual Property Issues: A Survey of Attitudes and Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Howard; Snyder, Carolyn A.; Imre, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Researchers from Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) surveyed faculty members from 10 academic research libraries to learn about scholarly publishing activities, attitudes, and policies. Areas of special interest included the effect of publishers' intellectual property policies and institutional promotion and tenure processes on library…

  6. Intellectual Property and Aboriginal People: A Working Paper = Propriete intellectuelle et Autochtones: Document de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brascoupe, Simon; Endemann, Karin

    Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…

  7. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  8. Psychometric Properties of a Sleep Questionnaire for Use in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Braam, Wiebe; Collin, Philippe; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of one part of the Sleep Questionnaire developed by Simonds and Parraga (SQ-SP; 1982), a questionnaire that is frequently used to explore sleep problems and behaviors related to sleep in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SQ-SP was completed for 345 individuals with ID (sleep clinic n = 146;…

  9. Intellectual Property Rights in E-Learning Programmes: Report of the Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report is a good practice guide for higher education institutions on intellectual property rights in e-learning programs. The report includes model clauses that may be included in contracts at higher education institutions and incorporates comments from a previous limited "expert" consultation. It focuses on how to manage intellectual…

  10. 75 FR 60408 - Government Programs To Assist Businesses Protect Their Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ..., October 29, 2010, at 5 p.m. ADDRESSES: Comments must be in English. All comments should be sent... help businesses secure and enforce intellectual property rights at home and abroad. \\1\\ Global... additional resources for businesses such as an online IPR tutorial, which is available in three...

  11. 76 FR 76389 - Extension of Comment Period Regarding Comments on Intellectual Property Enforcement in China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... opportunity to comment further to the original request for public comment (see http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR... USPTO published a Request for Comments on Intellectual Property Enforcement in China. See 76 FR 64075... the period for public comment regarding any challenges that U.S. inventors and companies are...

  12. Curriculum, Intellectual Property Rights and Open Educational Resources in British Universities--and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David; Armellini, Alejandro; Nikoi, Samuel; Rowlett, Tania; Witthaus, Gabi

    2010-01-01

    Is the curriculum in British universities being influenced by decisions about ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR) in "open educational resources" (OERs) that are available online under Creative Commons licenses, free of charge? This paper provides the context for, describes and analyses three significant examples in British higher…

  13. 78 FR 3015 - Privacy Act of 1974; U.S. Customs and Border Protection; DHS/CBP-004-Intellectual Property Rights...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...-Intellectual Property Rights e-Recordation and Search Systems, System of Records AGENCY: Department of Homeland... Property Rights e-Recordation and Search Systems System of Records.'' This system of records allows the...-Intellectual Property Rights e-Recordation and Search Systems System of Records.'' The Intellectual...

  14. [On the interrelationship between standardization and intellectual property rights of acu-moxibustion therapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mai-lan; Chang, Xiao-rong; Yuan, Yi-qin

    2014-10-01

    Under the condition of knowledge economy, the acu-moxibustion standardization definitely involves intellectual property rights. Then, what is the relationship between the standardization and the intellectual property rights of acu-moxibustion? The authors of the present paper hold that it is not only exclusive, but also syncretic. If their relationship cannot be handled properly, their own respective development will be affected adversely. Therefore, a proper handling of the relationship between the two is of great practical significance. The present paper makes a comprehensive analysis about their interaction (mutual promotion and mutual inhibition), similarities (systemic composition, dynamic implementation course, standardization-rated order and ultimate targets) and differences (in properties, working components, secret requirement, effectiveness-time limitation, usage cost, etc).

  15. The intellectual property cookbook: a guide for the novice health-care telemedicine provider working with industry.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, D; Beauregard, G

    2000-01-01

    Telemedicine is a new field and many health-care providers are developing their own products with the help of industry. Most practitioners are novices in the legal tools necessary to protect their own work with regard to any future commercialization. To summarize these issues for the telemedicine practitioner, a review of intellectual property protection has been performed. Intellectual property can be protected by tools such as copyrights, patents, non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements, integrated circuit topographies and industrial design. Knowledge of the intellectual property background should allow telemedicine providers to protect their own work when working with industry.

  16. [Essential medicines and the TRIPS Agreement: collision between the right to health and intellectual property rights].

    PubMed

    Allard Soto, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    The strengthening of pharmaceutical patent protection globally puts strains on access to essential medicines. According to the present paper, this process has led to the collision of the intellectual property rights adopted in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement and the right to health stated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Several controversies disputed in the WTO illustrate the confrontation between countries with a powerful pharmaceutical industry and the interests of developing countries. It is concluded that the TRIPS-plus rules subscribed to by developing countries in free trade agreements which give the pharmaceutical patent holder more rights than those stipulated in the original TRIPS Agreement are incompatible with the obligations to provide access to essential medicines under the right to health of the ICESCR.

  17. Importance and Satisfaction of Preventive Health Strategies in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Perspective of Institutional Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, J. D.; Yen, C. F.; Wu, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore the perceptions of institutional directors on the preventive health strategies for people with intellectual disabilities in institutions. Methods: A structured questionnaire was conducted by a cross-sectional postal survey in all registered institutions in Taiwan in 2002. A total of 157 questionnaires were mailed, of which 121…

  18. Properties of heuristic search strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbrug, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A directed graph is used to model the search space of a state space representation with single input operators, an AND/OR is used for problem reduction representations, and a theorem proving graph is used for state space representations with multiple input operators. These three graph models and heuristic strategies for searching them are surveyed. The completeness, admissibility, and optimality properties of search strategies which use the evaluation function f = (1 - omega)g = omega(h) are presented and interpreted using a representation of the search process in the plane. The use of multiple output operators to imply dependent successors, and thus obtain a formalism which includes all three types of representations, is discussed.

  19. The role of the University Licensing Office in transferring intellectual property to industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Universities in the US have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This transfer of technology takes various forms, including faculty communications, faculty consulting activities, and the direct transfer of technology through the licensing of patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property to industry. The topics discussed include the following: background of the MIT Technology Licensing Office (TLO), goals of the MIT TLO, MIT's technology transfer philosophy, and important factors for success in new company formation.

  20. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada's overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada's commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada's position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada's Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada's involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada's views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada's 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries.

  1. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada’s overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada’s commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada’s position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada’s Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada’s involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada’s views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada’s 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries. PMID:24007595

  2. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada's overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada's commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada's position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada's Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada's involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada's views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada's 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries. PMID:24007595

  3. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... property (e.g., copyrighted material, including software) as cost sharing because: (1) It is difficult to... the contribution. For example, a for-profit firm may offer the use of commercially available software... the software would not be a reasonable basis for valuing its use....

  4. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... property (e.g., copyrighted material, including software) as cost sharing because: (1) It is difficult to... the contribution. For example, a for-profit firm may offer the use of commercially available software... the software would not be a reasonable basis for valuing its use....

  5. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property (e.g., copyrighted material, including software) as cost sharing because: (1) It is difficult to... the contribution. For example, a for-profit firm may offer the use of commercially available software... the software would not be a reasonable basis for valuing its use....

  6. Transposon tools: worldwide landscape of intellectual property and technological developments.

    PubMed

    Palazzoli, Fabien; Testu, François-Xavier; Merly, Franck; Bigot, Yves

    2010-03-01

    DNA transposons are considered to be good candidates for developing tools for genome engineering, insertional mutagenesis and gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, as illustrated by the recent first clinical trial of a transposon. In this article we set out to highlight the interest of patent information, and to develop a strategy for the technological development of transposon tools, similar to what has been done in many other fields. We propose a patent landscape for transposon tools, including the changes in international patent applications, and review the leading inventors and applicants. We also provide an overview of the potential patent portfolio for the prokaryotic and eukaryotic transposons that are exploited by spin-off companies. Finally, we discuss the difficulties involved in tracing relevant state-of-the-art of articles and patent documents, based on the example of one of the most promising transposon systems, including all the impacts on the technological development of transposon tools.

  7. Beyond the Ingelfinger Rule: the intellectual property ethics after the end of biomedical journals' monopoly.

    PubMed

    Germenis, A E

    1999-01-01

    According to the so-called Ingelfinger Rule (IR), biomedical journals do not accept for publication papers which have already been publicized elsewhere. This rule was subjected to fierce criticism which was mainly based on the fact that authors transfer the intellectual rights of their work to the journals. With the emergence of the Internet, the scientific community has a golden opportunity to re-evaluate the IR concept. Scientists no longer have to depend on the debatable benefits (i.e. publicity and review) stemming from journal publications; rather they can be free to explore novel communication opportunities and, subsequently, to tackle the emerging intellectual property issues. This approach should take into account the tight bond between applied research and the world economy, the need for teamwork instead of individual effort for effective scientific research, and the added value of journal publications. Based on such an analysis, it would appear that the inherent characteristics of the Internet promote a re-assessment of the intellectual property theory on three levels: the cognitive (the way in which knowledge is made up from its building blocks), the morphological (the use of hypertext) and finally the sociological (the formation of virtual scientific communities). It is concluded that publishing on the Internet necessitates a different approach to the question of intellectual property based on the primal values of science. This can be achieved only if the scientific community embraces and nourishes the academic nature of the Internet as well as laying down the rules to control the dissemination of ideas without the intervention of non-scientific third parties.

  8. A typology of intellectual property management for public health innovation and access: design considerations for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of 'exclusive rights', as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to give a

  9. Health promotion and disease prevention strategies in older adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth in the number of individuals living with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) along with their increased longevity present challenges to those concerned about health and well-being of this unique population. While much is known about health promotion and disease prevention in the general geriatric population, far less is known about those in older adults with IDD. Effective and efficient health promotion and disease prevention strategies need to be developed and implemented for improving the health and quality of life of older adults living with IDD. This is considered to be challenging given the continued shrinkage in the overall health care and welfare system services due to the cut in the governmental budget in some of the western countries. The ideal health promotion and disease prevention strategies for older adults with IDD should be tailored to the individuals' health risks, address primary and secondary disease prevention, and prevent avoidable impairments that cause premature institutionalization. Domains of intervention should include cognitive, mental and physical health, accommodations, workplace considerations, assistive technology, recreational activities, and nutrition.

  10. The Effectiveness of the Instructional Programs Based on Self-Management Strategies in Acquisition of Social Skills by the Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avcioglu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management skills training program, based on self-control strategies, on students with intellectual disabilities. A multiple-probe design across subjects single-subject research methodology was used in this study. Nine students with intellectual disabilities, whose ages are between…

  11. Making Work Fit Care: Reconciliation Strategies Used by Working Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…

  12. Intellectual property, commercial needs and humanitarian benefits: must there be a conflict?

    PubMed

    Krattiger, Anatole

    2010-11-30

    'By far the best proof is experience,' wrote Francis Bacon. Given the experience of countries - both developing and developed - that have used intellectual property (IP), IP protection and IP management to stimulate innovation, there is ample proof that good IP management has benefited multitudes of people around the world with new technologies, products and services. Innovations in health and agriculture have greatly enriched lives. But does this experience apply to all countries? If the best proof is experience, then what can be said authoritatively about the effects of using IP systems wisely in developing countries? PMID:20472104

  13. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the U.S. internal experience--Part II.

    PubMed

    Brody, Baruch

    2006-06-01

    Continuing the discussion begun in the March 2006 issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, this paper further documents the failure of the United States to adequately consider possible modifications in the traditional robust system of intellectual property rights as applied to biotechnology. It discusses concrete suggestions for alternative disclosure requirements, for exemptions for research tools, and for improved access to clinical advances. In each of these cases, the modifications might be more responsive to the full set of relevant values. PMID:17036443

  14. Managing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) intellectual property rights: the possible role of patent pooling.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, James H. M.; Claassen, Eric; Correa, Carmen E.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Patent applications that incorporate the genomic sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, have been filed by a number of organizations. This is likely to result in a fragmentation of intellectual property (IP) rights which in turn may adversely affect the development of products, such as vaccines, to combat SARS. Placing these patent rights into a patent pool to be licensed on a non-exclusive basis may circumvent these difficulties and set a key precedent for the use of this form of mechanism in other areas of health care, leading to benefits to public health. PMID:16211163

  15. Intellectual property, commercial needs and humanitarian benefits: must there be a conflict?

    PubMed

    Krattiger, Anatole

    2010-11-30

    'By far the best proof is experience,' wrote Francis Bacon. Given the experience of countries - both developing and developed - that have used intellectual property (IP), IP protection and IP management to stimulate innovation, there is ample proof that good IP management has benefited multitudes of people around the world with new technologies, products and services. Innovations in health and agriculture have greatly enriched lives. But does this experience apply to all countries? If the best proof is experience, then what can be said authoritatively about the effects of using IP systems wisely in developing countries?

  16. [Intellectual property rights in Costa Rica in the light of the Biodiversity Convention].

    PubMed

    Salazar, R; Cabrera, J A

    1996-04-01

    This report analyzes intellectual property rights and acquisition of biological samples in light of the Biological Diversity Convention, with emphasis on Costa Rica. It examines the legal framework which exists for the protection of biological resources in this country, especially evaluating the law regarding protection of biota, which was approved in 1992. This includes information regarding access to genetic resources, and regulation for the aforementioned law. It examines the Biological Diversity Convention which was signed at the Rio Summit in 1992, whose objectives and goals, above all, emphasize the subject of distribution of benefits to be derived from the utilization of biological resources. PMID:9213615

  17. Whose body is it anyway? Human cells and the strange effects of property and intellectual property law.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Robin

    2011-06-01

    Whatever else I might own in this world, it would seem intuitively obvious that I own the cells of my body. Where else could the notion of ownership begin, other than with the components of the tangible corpus that all would recognize as "me"? The law, however, does not view the issue so neatly and clearly, particularly when cells are no longer in my body. As so often happens in law, we have reached this point, not by design, but by the piecemeal development of disparate notions that, when gathered together, form a strange and disconcerting picture. This Article examines both property and intellectual property doctrines in relation to human cells that are no longer within the body. In particular, the Article discusses the Bilski decision, in the context of life science process patents, and the Molecular Pathology case, in the context of gene patents. For patent law, the Article concludes that the problem lies not with the fact that genes constitute patentable subject matter, but rather with the extent of the rights that are granted. For both property and intellectual property law, the Article concludes that a more careful application of basic legal principles would better reflect the interests of society as a whole and the interests of individual human subjects, as well as the interests of those who innovate. PMID:21774193

  18. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries.

  19. Changes to intellectual property policy in South Africa: putting a stop to evergreening?

    PubMed

    Hill, Julia E

    2014-08-01

    South Africa is a middle-income country with the world's largest HIV patient cohort and a growing burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases - a prime location for pharmaceutical companies looking to expand their markets. Yet, 20 years after the country's first democratic elections, poor health indicators and an over-burdened public health system belie persistently stark levels of socioeconomic inequality. As the South African government revises national intellectual property (IP) policies, the pharmaceutical industry and global access to medicines movement are watching, aware of ramifications South Africa's actions will have on patent laws and the availability of generic medicines in other middle-income countries and across Africa. South Africa's draft IP policy is meeting fierce resistance from industry, although proposed reforms are compliant with the Agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property (TRIPS) and in line with on-going policies and actions of both developing and developed countries. Could the establishment of a patent examination system and new patentability criteria rein in evergreening and lead to lower medicine prices? What will be the potential impact of reform on medical innovation? And why is it both necessary and urgent that the South African government seek a fairer balance between private and public interests?

  20. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26077858

  1. FREEDOM TO OPERATE: Intellectual Property Protection in Plant Biology and Its Implications for the Conduct of Research.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, J A

    1999-09-01

    ▪ Abstract  Research endeavors are being affected by issues involving intellectual property (patents, copyrights, and trademarks). The acquisition of rights in intellectual property by universities can result in the transfer of new innovations to the private sector, with the university recouping a share of the profits for support of further scientific research. Intellectual property rights available for new plant cultivars include plant patents, plant variety protection certificates, plant breeder's rights, and utility patents. Under the patent laws, there is no explicit exemption for research use, so researchers are increasingly being required to execute materials transfer agreements to obtain permission to use patented materials, such as techniques, genes, seeds, and cell lines, in laboratory research and in breeding programs. Research scientists must educate themselves on these issues so that they can make informed decisions regarding their research practices and the licensing of their discoveries. PMID:11701816

  2. Data sharing and intellectual property in a genomic epidemiology network: policies for large-scale research collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Dave A.; Parker, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic epidemiology is a field of research that seeks to improve the prevention and management of common diseases through an understanding of their molecular origins. It involves studying thousands of individuals, often from different populations, with exacting techniques. The scale and complexity of such research has required the formation of research consortia. Members of these consortia need to agree on policies for managing shared resources and handling genetic data. Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. We outline specific guidelines governing how samples and data are transferred among its members; how results are released into the public domain; when to seek protection for intellectual property; and how intellectual property should be managed. We outline some pragmatic solutions founded on the basic principles of promoting innovation and access. PMID:16710548

  3. Patenting nature or protecting culture? Ethnopharmacology and indigenous intellectual property rights

    PubMed Central

    McGonigle, Ian Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacologists are scientists and anthropologists that study indigenous medicines and healing practices, and who often develop new therapies and medicines for wider use. Ethnopharmacologists do fieldwork with indigenous peoples in traditional societies, where they encounter a wide range of cultural values and varying ideas about the nature of property relations. This poses difficulties for protecting indigenous intellectual property and for making just trade agreements. This Note reviews the legal issues relevant to the protection of indigenous resources in ethnopharmacology trade agreements, and suggests that recent developments in anthropology and the social study of science could be instructive in furthering the legal discourse and in providing policy directions. Specifically, the Note introduces the concepts of ‘ontological pluralism’ and ‘epistemic subsidiarity’, which could help lawmakers write sui generis trade agreements to better protect indigenous knowledge and resources. PMID:27774245

  4. The effects of business practices, licensing, and intellectual property on development and dissemination of the polymerase chain reaction: case study

    PubMed Central

    Fore, Joe; Wiechers, Ilse R; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a seminal genomic technology discovered, developed, and patented in an industry setting. Since the first of its core patents expired in March, 2005, we are in a position to view the entire lifespan of the patent, examining how the intellectual property rights have impacted its use in the biomedical community. Given its essential role in the world of molecular biology and its commercial success, the technology can serve as a case study for evaluating the effects of patenting biological research tools on biomedical research. Case description Following its discovery, the technique was subjected to two years of in-house development, during which issues of inventorship and publishing/patenting strategies caused friction between members of the development team. Some have feared that this delay impeded subsequent research and may have been due to trade secrecy or the desire for obtaining lucrative intellectual property rights. However, our analysis of the history indicates that the main reasons for the delay were benign and were primarily due to difficulties in perfecting the PCR technique. Following this initial development period, the technology was made widely available, but was subject to strict licensing terms and patent protection, leading to an extensive litigation history. Discussion and evaluation PCR has earned approximately $2 billion in royalties for the various rights-holders while also becoming an essential research tool. However, using citation trend analysis, we are able to see that PCR's patented status did not preclude it from being adopted in a similar manner as other non-patented genomic research tools (specifically, pBR322 cloning vector and Maxam-Gilbert sequencing). Conclusion Despite the heavy patent protection and rigid licensing schemes, PCR seems to have disseminated so widely because of the practices of the corporate entities which have controlled these patents, namely through the use of business

  5. Efficient strategy for the molecular diagnosis of intellectual disability using targeted high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Redin, Claire; Gérard, Bénédicte; Lauer, Julia; Herenger, Yvan; Muller, Jean; Quartier, Angélique; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Willems, Marjolaine; Lesca, Gaétan; El-Chehadeh, Salima; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Vicaire, Serge; Philipps, Muriel; Dumas, Michaël; Geoffroy, Véronique; Feger, Claire; Haumesser, Nicolas; Alembik, Yves; Barth, Magalie; Bonneau, Dominique; Colin, Estelle; Dollfus, Hélène; Doray, Bérénice; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Flori, Elisabeth; Fradin, Mélanie; Francannet, Christine; Goldenberg, Alice; Lumbroso, Serge; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Lacombe, Didier; Morin, Gilles; Polge, Anne; Sukno, Sylvie; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Thevenon, Julien; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Genevieve, David; Sarda, Pierre; Edery, Patrick; Isidor, Bertrand; Jost, Bernard; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Piton, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is characterised by an extreme genetic heterogeneity. Several hundred genes have been associated to monogenic forms of ID, considerably complicating molecular diagnostics. Trio-exome sequencing was recently proposed as a diagnostic approach, yet remains costly for a general implementation. Methods We report the alternative strategy of targeted high-throughput sequencing of 217 genes in which mutations had been reported in patients with ID or autism as the major clinical concern. We analysed 106 patients with ID of unknown aetiology following array-CGH analysis and other genetic investigations. Ninety per cent of these patients were males, and 75% sporadic cases. Results We identified 26 causative mutations: 16 in X-linked genes (ATRX, CUL4B, DMD, FMR1, HCFC1, IL1RAPL1, IQSEC2, KDM5C, MAOA, MECP2, SLC9A6, SLC16A2, PHF8) and 10 de novo in autosomal-dominant genes (DYRK1A, GRIN1, MED13L, TCF4, RAI1, SHANK3, SLC2A1, SYNGAP1). We also detected four possibly causative mutations (eg, in NLGN3) requiring further investigations. We present detailed reasoning for assigning causality for each mutation, and associated patients’ clinical information. Some genes were hit more than once in our cohort, suggesting they correspond to more frequent ID-associated conditions (KDM5C, MECP2, DYRK1A, TCF4). We highlight some unexpected genotype to phenotype correlations, with causative mutations being identified in genes associated to defined syndromes in patients deviating from the classic phenotype (DMD, TCF4, MECP2). We also bring additional supportive (HCFC1, MED13L) or unsupportive (SHROOM4, SRPX2) evidences for the implication of previous candidate genes or mutations in cognitive disorders. Conclusions With a diagnostic yield of 25% targeted sequencing appears relevant as a first intention test for the diagnosis of ID, but importantly will also contribute to a better understanding regarding the specific contribution of the many genes

  6. Social leverage of intellectual property: road to the development of better therapy for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Thangaraj, Harry; Reljic, Rajko

    2009-06-01

    Current TB drug development is beset with many problems. There is a perceived lack of commercial return on investment, as the vast majority of TB patients come from impoverished areas of the world. Clinical trials for new TB drugs are complex, protracted and very expensive. Therefore, the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs requires simultaneous forward planning of the design of the trials that will be required for licensing purposes. In this article we briefly review the current state of new TB drug development and discuss issues related to intellectual property (IP), with a special emphasis on how IP can facilitate rather than hinder the development of better TB drugs. We also list and discuss the major patent applications that underpin TB drugs that have entered prominent clinical trials and additional applications that were filed over the last five years for drugs resulting from basic upstream research.

  7. Let's Get Small: An Introduction to Transitional Issues in Nanotech and Intellectual Property.

    PubMed

    Koepsell, David

    2009-08-01

    Much of the discussion regarding nanotechnology centers around perceived and prosphesied harms and risks. While there are real risks that could emerge from futuristic nanotechnology, there are other current risks involved with its development, not involving physical harms, that could prevent its full promise from being realized. Transitional forms of the technology, involving "microfab," or localized, sometimes desk-top, manufacture, pose a good opportunity for case study. How can we develop legal and regulatory institutions, specifically centered around the problems of intellectual property, that both stimulate innovation, and make the best possible use of what will eventually be a market in "types" rather than "tokens"? This paper argues that this is the most critical, current issues facing nanotechnology, and suggests a manner to approach it. PMID:20234881

  8. Intellectual property protection (IPP) using obfuscation in C, VHDL, and Verilog coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Castillo, Encarni; Botella, Guillermo; Parrilla, L.; García, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    One of the big challenges in the design of embedded systems today is how to combine design reuse and intellectual property protection (IPP). Strong IP schemes such as hardware dongle or layout watermarking usually have a very limited design reuse for different FPGA/ASIC design platforms. Some techniques also do not fit well with protection of software in embedded microprocessors. Another approach to IPP that allows an easy design reuse and has low costs but a somehow reduced security is code "obfuscation." Obfuscation is a method to hide the design concept, or program algorithm included in the C or HDL source by using one or more transformations of the original code. Obfuscation methods include, for instance, renaming identifiers, removing comments or formatting of the code. More sophisticated obfuscation methods include data splitting or merging, and control flow changes. This paper shows strength and weakness of method obfuscating C, VHDL and Verilog code.

  9. Intellectual Property Development and Use for Distance Education Courses: A Review of Law, Organizations, and Resources for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemire, Ruth E.

    2007-01-01

    Advancement of knowledge and progress in technology drives the need for protecting inventions, new ideas, writings, music, and other media. While abundant, intellectual property and copyright issues are not simple, and the United States has adopted multiple rules via treaties worldwide. Academia has been fortunate with regard to the freedom…

  10. Legal Issues of Intellectual Property Rights and Licensing for E-Learning Content in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrpouyan, Azadeh; Razavi, Ghassem Khadem

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the legal rules of intellectual property rights (IPR) in networked e-learning. Its purpose is to act as an awareness-raising device about IPR, especially in the public-sector e-learning community in the UK, by describing the relevant aspects of IPR, providing legal guidance on IPR in e-learning, especially on the use of…

  11. 26 CFR 1.6050L-2 - Information returns by donees relating to qualified intellectual property contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section shall include the following— (1) The name, address, taxable year, and employer identification number of the donee making the information return; (2) The name, address, and taxpayer identification number of the donor; (3) A description of the qualified intellectual property in sufficient detail...

  12. Intellectual Property Rights of Faculty in the Digital Age--Evolution or Dissolution in 21st Century Academia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Lynn S.; Roche, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Unforeseen forces are at work in higher education today. The purpose of this article is to explore the issues involved in the changing landscape. Decisions are and will be made that impact the intellectual property rights of faculty. It is important to be cognizant of the factors involved and alert to possible ramifications. The basics of the…

  13. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  14. A Marxist Analysis of the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikowski, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). There are many WTO Agreements, but TRIPS is likely to have significant implications for areas such as information, education and libraries. The article provides an overview of TRIPS in general. Various intellectual…

  15. Antiepileptic Drugs with Mood Stabilizing Properties and Their Relation with Psychotropic Drug Use in Institutionalized Epilepsy Patients with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leunissen, C. L. F.; de la Parra, N. M.; Tan, I. Y.; Rentmeester, Th. W.; Vader, C. I.; Veendrick-Meekes, M. J. B. M.; Aldenkamp, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability take medication, amongst which antiepileptic and psychotropic drugs, often simultaneously. Certain antiepileptic drugs have mood-stabilizing properties, e.g. carbamazepine, valproic acid and lamotrigine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of these…

  16. The Utility and Psychometric Properties of the Abel-Blasingame Assessment System for "Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasingame, Gerry D.; Abel, Gene G.; Jordan, Alan; Wiegel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and utility of the Abel-Blasingame Assessment System for "individuals with intellectual disabilities" (ABID) for assessment of sexual interest and problematic sexual behaviors. The study examined the preliminary psychometric properties and evaluated the clinical utility of the ABID based on a sample of 495…

  17. Characteristic Interviews, Different Strategies: Methodological Challenges in Qualitative Interviewing among Respondents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2014-01-01

    Conducting qualitative research interviews among individuals with intellectual disabilities, including cognitive limitations and difficulties in communication, presents particular research challenges. One question is whether the difficulties that informants encounter affect interviews to such an extent that the validity of the results is weakened.…

  18. Research-Based Strategies for Teaching Content to Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Adapted Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evmenova, Anna S.; Behrmann, Michael M.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are always seeking any visual and/or auditory supports to facilitate students' comprehension and acquisition of difficult concepts associated with academic content. Such supports are even more important for students with intellectual disabilities who regardless of their abilities and needs are required to have access and active…

  19. Strategies for Engagement: Knowledge Building and Intellectual Engagement in Participatory Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Michele; Lock, Jennifer; Friesen, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual engagement is an absorbing, creatively energized focus resulting in a deep personal commitment to exploration, investigation, problem-solving and inquiry over a sustained period of time. In this article, the authors argue that participatory learning environments with a focus on knowledge building offer clear learning benefits to…

  20. Improving the Oral Health of Residents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Oral Health Strategy and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Catherine J.; Johnson, Knowlton W.; Abadi, Melissa; Thompson, Kirsten; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Young, Linda; Zaksek, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an oral health (OH) strategy and pilot study focusing on individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) living in group homes. The strategy consists of four components: (1) planned action in the form of the behavioral contract and caregiver OH action planning; (2) capacity building through didactic and observation learning training; (3) environmental adaptations consisting of additional oral heath devices and strategies to create a calm atmosphere; and (4) reinforcement by post-training coaching. A pilot study was conducted consisting of pre- and post-assessment data collected one week before and one week after implementing a one-month OH strategy. The study sample comprised 11 group homes with 21 caregivers and 25 residents with IDD from one service organization in a Midwestern city. A process evaluation found high-quality implementation of the OH strategy as measured by dosage, fidelity, and caregiver reactions to implementing the strategy. Using repeated cross-sectional and repeated measures analyses, we found statistically significant positive changes in OH status and oral hygiene practices of residents. Caregiver self-efficacy as a mechanism of change was not adequately evaluated; however, positive change was found in some but not all types of caregiver OH support that were assessed. Lessons learned from implementing the pilot study intervention and evaluation are discussed, as are the next steps in conducting an efficacy study of the OH strategy. PMID:25137553

  1. Improving the oral health of residents with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an oral health strategy and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Catherine J; Johnson, Knowlton W; Abadi, Melissa; Thompson, Kirsten; Shamblen, Stephen R; Young, Linda; Zaksek, Brigit

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an oral health (OH) strategy and pilot study focusing on individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) living in group homes. The strategy consists of four components: (1) planned action in the form of the behavioral contract and caregiver OH action planning; (2) capacity building through didactic and observation learning training; (3) environmental adaptations consisting of additional oral heath devices and strategies to create a calm atmosphere; and (4) reinforcement by post-training coaching. A pilot study was conducted consisting of pre- and post-assessment data collected 1 week before and 1 week after implementing a 1-month OH strategy. The study sample comprised 11 group homes with 21 caregivers and 25 residents with IDD from one service organization in a Midwestern city. A process evaluation found high-quality implementation of the OH strategy as measured by dosage, fidelity, and caregiver reactions to implementing the strategy. Using repeated cross-sectional and repeated measures analyses, we found statistically significant positive changes in OH status and oral hygiene practices of residents. Caregiver self-efficacy as a mechanism of change was not adequately evaluated; however, positive change was found in some but not all types of caregiver OH support that were assessed. Lessons learned from implementing the pilot study intervention and evaluation are discussed, as are the next steps in conducting an efficacy study of the OH strategy. PMID:25137553

  2. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Socioeconomic Data: Sensitivity, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Adamo, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data presents new opportunities for scientific discovery and analysis that can improve understanding of the environmental sustainability issues that society faces today. Such integrated data products and services can be used to study interdisciplinary issues by investigators representing various disciplines. In addition to the scientific benefits that can be attained by integrating remote sensing data with socioeconomic data, the integration of these data also present challenges that reflect the complex issues that arise when sharing and integrating different types of science data. When integrating one or more datasets that contain sensitive information, data producers need to be aware of the limitations that have been placed upon the data to protect private property, species or other inhabitants that reside on the property, or restricted information about a particular location. Similarly, confidentiality and privacy issues are a concern for data that have been collected about individual humans and families who have volunteered to serve as human research subjects or whose personal information may have been collected without their knowledge. In addition, intellectual property rights that are associated with a particular dataset may prevent integration with other data or pose constraints on the use of the resulting data products or services. These challenges will be described along with approaches that can be applied to address them when planning projects that involve the integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data.

  3. Intellectual property protection of IP cores through high-level watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, E.; Meyer-Baese, U.; García, A.; Parrilla, L.; Lloris, A.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper a watermarking technique for Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) of FPGA-based systems is proposed. The aim is to protect the author rights of reusable IP cores by means of a digital signature that uniquely identifies both the original design and the design recipient. The proposed watermarking technique relies on a procedure that spreads the digital signature in cells of memory structures at Hardware Description Language (HDL) design level, not increasing the area of the system. This signature is preserved through synthesis, placement and routing processes. The technique includes a procedure for signature extraction requiring minimal modifications to the system. Thus, it is possible to detect the ownership rights without interfering the normal operation of the system and providing high invulnerability. To illustrate the properties of the proposed watermarking technique, both protected and unprotected design examples are compared in terms of area and performance. The analysis of the results shows that the area increase is very low while throughput penalization is almost negligible.

  4. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?

    PubMed

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-31

    Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries' experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP

  5. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Jerome H.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries’ experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP

  6. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  7. The role of intellectual property in creating, sharing and repurposing virtual patients.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gabrielle; Miller, Angela; Balasubramaniam, Chara

    2009-08-01

    Medical schools are integrating more technology into the training of health care practitioners. Electronic Virtual Patients (VPs) provide interactive simulations to facilitate learning. The time, cost and effort required to create robust VPs on an individual school basis are significant; sharing of VPs by medical schools allows for access to a broad range of VPs across a variety of disciplines with lower investment. When this digital content is shared with other schools and distributed widely, digital copyright issues come into play. Unless all intellectual property rights (IPRs) and plans of the authors regarding the VP are confirmed upfront, the ability of the school to share the VP may be inhibited. Schools should also identify under what licensing/sharing model they plan to distribute the VPs - how do you plan to share the VPs and what will allow users to do with the VPs in the context of IPRs? This article highlights the role of IPRs in VPs and discusses a case-study of a European Virtual Patient collaboration to demonstrate how IPRs were managed. PMID:19811206

  8. Intellectual property rights and the Canadian pharmaceutical marketplace: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Patent protection for prescription drugs has a long and contentious history in Canada. Bills C-22 and C-91, passed as part of Canada's commitment to various trade deals, first weakened and then abolished compulsory licensing. In order to decide on a future course of action that Canada should take on intellectual property rights (IPRs), it is useful to review downstream effects that resulted from C-22 and C-91. This article examines changes to employment, Canada's balance of trade in pharmaceuticals, investment in research and development, and drug expenditures. The author then reviews the arguments advanced by the pharmaceutical industry in favor of stronger protection for IPRs, the recent complaints made against Canada at the World Trade Organization regarding pharmaceutical IPRs, and the continuing argument about the "evergreening" of patents. Also discussed are the second-draft text agreement of the Free Trade Area of the Americas, which will, if implemented, have significant repercussions for pharmaceutical IPRs in Canada, and some ways in which patents distort the marketplace for drugs. The article concludes with some alternative recommendations on the future of IPRs.

  9. Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology and mass bioprospecting: issues on intellectual property and benefit-sharing.

    PubMed

    Soejarto, D D; Fong, H H S; Tan, G T; Zhang, H J; Ma, C Y; Franzblau, S G; Gyllenhaal, C; Riley, M C; Kadushin, M R; Pezzuto, J M; Xuan, L T; Hiep, N T; Hung, N V; Vu, B M; Loc, P K; Dac, L X; Binh, L T; Chien, N Q; Hai, N V; Bich, T Q; Cuong, N M; Southavong, B; Sydara, K; Bouamanivong, S; Ly, H M; Thuy, Tran Van; Rose, W C; Dietzman, G R

    2005-08-22

    Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology has contributed to the discovery of many important plant-derived drugs. Field explorations to seek and document indigenous/traditional medical knowledge (IMK/TMK), and/or the biodiversity with which the IMK/TMK is attached, and its conversion into a commercialized product is known as bioprospecting or biodiversity prospecting. When performed in a large-scale operation, the effort is referred to as mass bioprospecting. Experiences from the mass bioprospecting efforts undertaken by the United States National Cancer Institute, the National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups (NCDDG) and the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) programs demonstrate that mass bioprospecting is a complex process, involving expertise from diverse areas of human endeavors, but central to it is the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that recognizes issues on genetic access, prior informed consent, intellectual property and the sharing of benefits that may arise as a result of the effort. Future mass bioprospecting endeavors must take heed of the lessons learned from past and present experiences in the planning for a successful mass bioprospecting venture.

  10. Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Patino, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

  11. Moving Research to Patient Applications through Commercialization: Understanding and Evaluating the Role of Intellectual Property

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

  12. After thalidomide - do we have the right balance between public health and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Feldschreiber, Peter; Breckenridge, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    The current European regulatory and consumer protection legal framework is the legacy of Thalidomide. The disaster led to the introduction of systematic biological and clinical data to endorse the safety and efficacy of new medicines. The European Medicines Directive outlined the pre-clinical, clinical data and product information to evaluate an appropriate benefit. Risk profile of new medicines and also allowed innovative companies to extend patent protection and data/marketing exclusivity periods to compensate for the cost for research and development. However in recent years it has become apparent that the costs and time for research and development are becoming increasingly burdensome, particularly for new drugs with recently discovered mechanisms of action for cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The costs of development and the commercial uncertainty of such products is reducing commercialisation of these medicines. There is now considerable debate in the regulatory community as to how this regulatory burden may be eased by making earlier review of benefit risk and hence earlier access to authorised medicines. The Courts are moving away from the wide definition of medicinal product to a more nuanced view of the biological and clinical therapeutic mechanisms to satisfy the 'functional' limb definition in the Directive. This may be a move away from the rigorous scientific methodology generated after thalidomide. We discuss the ethical and public health implications of this shift in policy and the implications for intellectual property mechanisms currently available to protect the commercial needs of companies.

  13. After thalidomide - do we have the right balance between public health and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Feldschreiber, Peter; Breckenridge, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    The current European regulatory and consumer protection legal framework is the legacy of Thalidomide. The disaster led to the introduction of systematic biological and clinical data to endorse the safety and efficacy of new medicines. The European Medicines Directive outlined the pre-clinical, clinical data and product information to evaluate an appropriate benefit. Risk profile of new medicines and also allowed innovative companies to extend patent protection and data/marketing exclusivity periods to compensate for the cost for research and development. However in recent years it has become apparent that the costs and time for research and development are becoming increasingly burdensome, particularly for new drugs with recently discovered mechanisms of action for cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The costs of development and the commercial uncertainty of such products is reducing commercialisation of these medicines. There is now considerable debate in the regulatory community as to how this regulatory burden may be eased by making earlier review of benefit risk and hence earlier access to authorised medicines. The Courts are moving away from the wide definition of medicinal product to a more nuanced view of the biological and clinical therapeutic mechanisms to satisfy the 'functional' limb definition in the Directive. This may be a move away from the rigorous scientific methodology generated after thalidomide. We discuss the ethical and public health implications of this shift in policy and the implications for intellectual property mechanisms currently available to protect the commercial needs of companies. PMID:25925884

  14. Sponsored research agreements, university and government licensing, and clinical trial agreements: special contractual and intellectual property rights considerations.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey P

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses contractual and intellectual property considerations that frequently arise in the drafting and negotiation of sponsored research agreements ("SRAs"), license agreements with universities (and other non-profit organizations) and the federal government, and clinical trial agreements. Each of these subjects is addressed separately, but most of the article is devoted to sponsored research, which is the driver for much of the innovation in the medical and life sciences industries.

  15. Who shall live when not all can live? Intellectual property in accessing and benefit-sharing influenza viruses through the World Health Organisation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2011-03-01

    This article addresses the development of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) arrangements for accessing viruses and the development of vaccines to respond to potential pandemics (and other lesser outbreaks). It examines the ongoing "conflict" between the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the context of the debates about the paramountcy of intellectual property, and the potential for other (equity and development) imperatives to over-ride respect for intellectual property and TRIPS. The article concludes that the same intellectual property fault lines are evident in the WHO forum as those apparent at the CBD and the WTO fora, and an ongoing failure to properly address questions of equity and development. This poses a challenge for the Australian Government in guaranteeing a satisfactory pandemic influenza preparation and response.

  16. Effects of the CD-Rom Version of the "Self-Advocacy Strategy" on Quality of Contributions in IEP Meetings of High School Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cease-Cook, Jennifer; Test, David W.; Scroggins, La' Shawndra

    2013-01-01

    This study used a multiple-probe across participants design to examine the effects of the CD-Rom version of the "Self-Advocacy Strategy" on quality of contributions in Individual Education Plan (IEP) meetings of five high school students with intellectual disability. Results indicated a functional relationship between using the CD-Rom…

  17. Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Use Counting-on Strategies to Enhance Independent Purchasing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Grim, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The demands of basic math skills often limit the ability of students with autism spectrum disorders to master purchasing skills. This study examined the use of counting-on math skills in conjunction with the next-dollar strategy to enhance independent purchasing skills. Four students with autism and intellectual disabilities successfully acquired…

  18. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  19. An Overview of Behavioral Strategies for Reducing Hand-Related Stereotypies of Persons with Severe to Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: 1995-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of behavioral strategies used for reducing hand-related stereotypies (i.e., hand/finger mouthing, eye poking, self-slapping, and other hand-to-head/body responses) of persons with severe to profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Computerized and manual searches were conducted to identify the studies…

  20. A Comparison of Two Cognitive Reading Strategies on the Comprehension of Functional Expository Text by High School Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation report focuses on the results of an intervention study that examined the effectiveness of two cognitive-based reading strategies ("5 Ws and an H" and paragraph summarization) on the reading comprehension skills of 13 high school students with mild intellectual disabilities as well as the students' abilities to…

  1. A Typology of Intellectual Property Management for Public Health Innovation and Access: Design Considerations for Policymakers§

    PubMed Central

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation – though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of ‘exclusive rights’, as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to

  2. 76 FR 60114 - Section 306 Monitoring of Paraguay: Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual Property Rights...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Section 306 Monitoring of Paraguay: Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual... Paraguay as a Priority Foreign Country in the 1998 Special 301 Report. A Section 301 investigation was initiated in February 1998, and was suspended in November 1998 after the United States and...

  3. Statement of Roger B. Andewelt, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division, before the Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, concerning H.R. 557, Intellectual Property Licensing Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andewelt, Roger B.

    The recent increased awareness of the importance to our economy of innovation and the development of new technologies has been coupled with the crafting of new legislation to increase the level of intellectual property protection available to innovators. Because one of the key methods of encouraging the efficient use of intellectual property is…

  4. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as “market exclusivity” and in Europe as “data exclusivity,” these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers’ undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers’ clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers’ consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the

  5. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as "market exclusivity" and in Europe as "data exclusivity," these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers' undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers' clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers' consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the expense of public

  6. Protecting intellectual property in space; Proceedings of the Aerospace Computer Security Conference, McLean, VA, March 20, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Aerospace Computer Security Conference was to bring together people and organizations which have a common interest in protecting intellectual property generated in space. Operational concerns are discussed, taking into account security implications of the space station information system, Space Shuttle security policies and programs, potential uses of probabilistic risk assessment techniques for space station development, key considerations in contingency planning for secure space flight ground control centers, a systematic method for evaluating security requirements compliance, and security engineering of secure ground stations. Subjects related to security technologies are also explored, giving attention to processing requirements of secure C3/I and battle management systems and the development of the Gemini trusted multiple microcomputer base, the Restricted Access Processor system as a security guard designed to protect classified information, and observations on local area network security.

  7. A macro-economic framework for evaluation of cyber security risks related to protection of intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Andrijcic, Eva; Horowitz, Barry

    2006-08-01

    The article is based on the premise that, from a macro-economic viewpoint, cyber attacks with long-lasting effects are the most economically significant, and as a result require more attention than attacks with short-lasting effects that have historically been more represented in literature. In particular, the article deals with evaluation of cyber security risks related to one type of attack with long-lasting effects, namely, theft of intellectual property (IP) by foreign perpetrators. An International Consequence Analysis Framework is presented to determine (1) the potential macro-economic consequences of cyber attacks that result in stolen IP from companies in the United States, and (2) the likely sources of such attacks. The framework presented focuses on IP theft that enables foreign companies to make economic gains that would have otherwise benefited the U.S. economy. Initial results are presented.

  8. A macro-economic framework for evaluation of cyber security risks related to protection of intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Andrijcic, Eva; Horowitz, Barry

    2006-08-01

    The article is based on the premise that, from a macro-economic viewpoint, cyber attacks with long-lasting effects are the most economically significant, and as a result require more attention than attacks with short-lasting effects that have historically been more represented in literature. In particular, the article deals with evaluation of cyber security risks related to one type of attack with long-lasting effects, namely, theft of intellectual property (IP) by foreign perpetrators. An International Consequence Analysis Framework is presented to determine (1) the potential macro-economic consequences of cyber attacks that result in stolen IP from companies in the United States, and (2) the likely sources of such attacks. The framework presented focuses on IP theft that enables foreign companies to make economic gains that would have otherwise benefited the U.S. economy. Initial results are presented. PMID:16948685

  9. Protecting intellectual property in space; Proceedings of the Aerospace Computer Security Conference, McLean, VA, March 20, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-07-01

    The primary purpose of the Aerospace Computer Security Conference was to bring together people and organizations which have a common interest in protecting intellectual property generated in space. Operational concerns are discussed, taking into account security implications of the space station information system, Space Shuttle security policies and programs, potential uses of probabilistic risk assessment techniques for space station development, key considerations in contingency planning for secure space flight ground control centers, a systematic method for evaluating security requirements compliance, and security engineering of secure ground stations. Subjects related to security technologies are also explored, giving attention to processing requirements of secure C3/I and battle management systems and the development of the Gemini trusted multiple microcomputer base, the Restricted Access Processor system as a security guard designed to protect classified information, and observations on local area network security.

  10. Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property [and] The ERCIM Technical Reference Digital Library [and] International Information Gateway Collaboration [and] The Standards Fora for Online Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladney, Henry M.; Andreoni, Antonella; Baldacci, Maria Bruna; Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Castelli, Donatella; Pagano, Pasquale; Peters, Carol; Pisani, Serena; Dempsey, Lorcan; Gardner, Tracy; Day, Michael; van der Werf, Titia; Bacsich, Paul; Heath, Andy; Lefrere, Paul; Miller, Paul; Riley, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the impact of the emerging digital information infrastructure on intellectual property; the implementation of a digital library for a European consortium of national research institutions; an international information gateway collaboration; and developing standards for the description and sharing of educational…

  11. Intellectual Property Law Confers Rights in Respect of Online Distance Education, yet Most Learning Resources Are Still Free--Truth or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Educational technologists might well describe online distance education as "a series of instructional events over the Internet that find their expression as learning events in a student". As a legal construct however, "online distance education" is simply "the intellectual property of its owner". This description is…

  12. Attachment in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Attachment Scale-Third Party Observational Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penketh, Victoria; Hare, Dougal Julian; Flood, Andrea; Walker, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Manchester Attachment Scale-Third party observational measure (MAST) was developed to assess secure attachment style for adults with intellectual disabilities. The psychometric properties of the MAST were examined. Materials and Methods: Professional carers (N = 40) completed the MAST and measures related to the construct of…

  13. Measurement Properties of the Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC): A Pain Scale for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Scored in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, M.; Moe-Nilssen, R.; Ljunggren, A. E.; Strand, L. I.

    2010-01-01

    The 18 items' Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC) has been developed from the 27 items Non-Communicating Children Pain Checklist to better capture pain behavior of adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD). As part of the NCAPC's measurement properties, internal consistency, reliability and sensitivity to pain have…

  14. Social Goals and Conflict Strategies of Individuals with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities Who Present Problems of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to…

  15. A Pilot Investigation into the Efficacy of a Signing Training Strategy for Staff Working with Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Jolliffe, Jane

    2009-01-01

    To contribute to increasing the quality and quantity of communication between staff and adults with intellectual disabilities, training was undertaken to enhance the awareness and knowledge of signing as a method of communication. Multidisciplinary team members, residential and day centre staff were trained to use 20 core signs. Training methods…

  16. Video Modeling and Prompting: A Comparison of Two Strategies for Teaching Cooking Skills to Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Bouck, Emily C.; Tom, Kinsey; Jasper, Andrea D.; Flanagan, Sara M.; Bassette, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Self-operated video prompting and video modeling was compared when used by three secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities as they completed novel recipes during cooking activities. Alternating between video systems, students completed twelve recipes within their classroom kitchen. An alternating treatment design with a follow-up and…

  17. Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking…

  18. Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... follows: _________________ Definition of “Intellectual Disability” under IDEA Until Rosa’s Law was signed into law by President Obama ... the term “mental retardation” instead of “intellectual disability.” Rosa’s Law changed the term to be used in ...

  19. Intellectual Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  20. Educating for Intellectual Virtues: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehr, Jason

    2013-01-01

    After a brief overview of what intellectual virtues are, I offer three arguments for the claim that education should aim at fostering "intellectual character virtues" like curiosity, open-mindedness, intellectual courage, and intellectual honesty. I then go on to discuss several pedagogical and related strategies for achieving this aim. (Contains…

  1. Intellectual disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infectious diseases. Certain infections can lead to intellectual disability. Preventing these diseases reduces the risk. For example, rubella syndrome can be prevented through vaccination. Avoiding exposure to cat feces that can cause ...

  2. Intellectual property strategies for university spinoffs in the development of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Sekimizu, N; Ogata, Y

    2009-10-01

    We will explain a new business model for university spinoffs involving the development of two types of products. The first are highly innovative, such as new drugs, while the second are typically less difficult to develop, such as functional foods. It is our belief that development of the second type of product can help solve the financial problems and stabilize management of Academic Start-ups. The key to development of several different types of products is accumulation of knowledge consisting not only of technical knowhow, e.g. tips for use in injection, but also ideas obtained by researchers with the potential for future applications. Examination of the features of venture enterprises which have arisen from universities suggests that inventors, who are also professors, should participate in such start-ups. PMID:22495628

  3. Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... known causes of intellectual disability – like Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, fragile X syndrome, genetic conditions, birth defects, and infections – happen before birth. Others happen while a baby is being born or soon after ... fetal, el síndrome X frágil, afecciones genéticas, defectos congénitos ...

  4. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    According to Thomas Stewart's book, intellectual capital comprises three broad categories: human, structural, and customer. Structural, or organizational capital, is knowledge that does not leave at night (with workers, or human capital). Developing a "best practices" database using Lotus Notes software would preserve and access schools'…

  5. Intellectual Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford, J.P.

    In investigations of decline of intellectual status with age, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies give divergent results--the former show almost universal declines in test performances among older groups while the latter often show gains. Although few structure-of-intellect (SI) factors have been explored in relation to adult ages, two kinds…

  6. An Initial Assessment of the Psychometric Properties of the Complicated Grief Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities (CGQ-ID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Suzanne; Dodd, Philip; Tyrell, Janette; McEvoy, John; Buckley, Sarah; Hillery, John

    2009-01-01

    Given the research evidence that people with intellectual disability (ID) do grieve following bereavement, the present study aimed to describe and gather preliminary psychometric data for a version of the Inventory of Complicated Grief [Prigerson, H. G., Maciejewski, P. K., Reynolds, C. F., Bierhals, A. J., Newsom, J. T., Fasiczka, A., et al.…

  7. Has the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America and the Caribbean produced intellectual property legislation that favours public health?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bermudez, Jorge Antonio Zepeda; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Velásquez, Germán

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement establishes minimum standards for intellectual property rights, including patent protection for pharmaceuticals; therefore, it may make it difficult for developing countries to gain access to medicines, especially those countries that are the least developed. This study aims to determine whether implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin American and Caribbean countries has generated patent legislation that is sensitive to public health needs. METHODS: Legislation in 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries was analysed. The variables considered in the analysis were: the term of patents issued, patentable subject matter, transition periods (that is, time until legislation was enacted), reversal of the burden of proof of patent infringement, exhaustion of rights, compulsory licensing and the early working exception (which allows a country to complete all procedures necessary to register a generic product before the original patent expires). FINDINGS: By 2000, all of the countries studied had reformed their legislation to conform to the agreement. Brazil and Argentina used the transition period until 2005 to grant patents in the pharmaceutical industry. All countries, except Panama, made use of the safeguards and flexibilities available through the agreement by including mechanisms for compulsory licensing in their legislation. Argentina; Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (countries that represented the Andean community); the Dominican Republic; and Panama included mechanisms to allow parallel importation. Mexico did not. Brazil only permits parallel importation after a compulsory licence has been issued. The early working exception is included in legislation in Brazil and the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSION: The countries in this study did not incorporate all of the mechanisms allowed for by the Agreement and are not adequately using the

  8. The use of agrobiodiversity for plant improvement and the intellectual property paradigm: institutional fit and legal tools for mass selection, conventional and molecular plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Batur, Fulya; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Focused on the impact of stringent intellectual property mechanisms over the uses of plant agricultural biodiversity in crop improvement, the article delves into a systematic analysis of the relationship between institutional paradigms and their technological contexts of application, identified as mass selection, controlled hybridisation, molecular breeding tools and transgenics. While the strong property paradigm has proven effective in the context of major leaps forward in genetic engineering, it faces a systematic breakdown when extended to mass selection, where innovation often displays a collective nature. However, it also creates partial blockages in those innovation schemes rested between on-farm observation and genetic modification, i.e. conventional plant breeding and upstream molecular biology research tools. Neither overly strong intellectual property rights, nor the absence of well delineated protection have proven an optimal fit for these two intermediary socio-technological systems of cumulative incremental innovation. To address these challenges, the authors look at appropriate institutional alternatives which can create effective incentives for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation and the equitable distribution of technologies in plant improvement, using the flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement, the liability rules set forth in patents or plant variety rights themselves (in the form of farmers', breeders' and research exceptions), and other ad hoc reward regimes.

  9. Modeling the Occupational/Career Decision-Making Processes of Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: A Competing Models Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2014-01-01

    This study developed and empirically tested two related models of the occupational/career decision-making processes of gifted adolescents using a competing models strategy. The two models that guided the study, which acknowledged cultural orientations, social influences from the family, occupational/career values, and characteristics of…

  10. Health Status and Coping Strategies among Older Parent-Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in an Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an…

  11. Impact of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement on India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Babovic, Sonja; Wasan, Kishor M

    2011-03-01

    This is a commentary on how the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement has impacted India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals (ARVs). We provide a systematic review of the issues related to the TRIPS agreement that affects India. This includes discussion around (a) the legal landscape underpinning India as a supplier of generic ARVs; (b) supply of second-line ARVs; and (c) the future of generic drug production in India. The proclamation into force of TRIPS-compliant intellectual property law in India is likely to affect its position as a supplier of affordable ARVs, especially drugs brought to market after 2005. Currently, mechanisms exist for the generic production of almost all ARVs in India, including second-line drugs; however, the manufacture of these drugs by generic pharmaceutical companies may require additional market incentives. Compulsory licensing may emerge as an additional mechanism by which India can provide affordable versions of patented drugs to Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

  12. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" (ADD), the…

  13. Intellectual Property Issues in the Library Network Context. Proceedings of the Library of Congress Network Advisory Committee Meeting (Washington, D.C., March 23-25, 1988). Network Planning Paper Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Network Development and MARC Standards Office.

    The first half of the proceedings consists of three papers presented during the program session of a Library of Congress Network Advisory Committee (NAC) meeting. The first, a background paper by Robert L. Oakley, identifies some of the problems that modern information technology has created for the intellectual property system in the United…

  14. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    MedlinePlus

    ... White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... becoming an independent person. continue What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  15. Teaching Students with Intellectual Disability to Use a Self-Questioning Strategy to Comprehend Social Studies Text for an Inclusive Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Leah; Browder, Diane M.; Flynn, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Using a modified system of least prompts, two classroom teachers taught three participants with moderate intellectual disability to generate questions about United States history. After reading brief portions of the text aloud to the participants, the teachers taught participants to identify if the answer to the question was in the book or not in…

  16. Following through to the End: The Use of Inclusive Strategies to Analyse and Interpret Data in Participatory Action Research with Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Kramer, John C.; Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Hammel, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scholars have called for research approaches that actively include and are driven by people with intellectual disabilities, but the process of inclusive data analysis has been scarcely documented in the literature. This paper demonstrates the process university researchers and a group of self-advocates used to analyse and interpret…

  17. Modifications of the One-More-Than Technique: A Comparison of Two Strategies for Teaching Purchasing Skills to Students with Intellectual Disability in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Guo-Liang; Tang, Jung-Chang; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Li, Yung-Chang; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Li, Yung-Chang; Hung, Jung-Chao; Wei, Chun-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The demands of money-counting skills potentially limit individuals with intellectual disability (ID) to master the one-more-than technique, particularly in Taiwan, which requires high daily minimum living expense for supporting an individual's daily life. Employing a multiple treatment design across price ranges and settings, this study compared…

  18. Personality Dimensions, Religious Tendencies and Coping Strategies as Predictors of General Health in Iranian Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Comparison with Mothers of Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirsaleh, Y. R.; Rezai, H.; Khabaz, M.; Afkhami Ardekani, I.; Abdi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Challenges related to rearing children with intellectual disability (ID) may cause mothers of these children to have mental health status problems. Method: A total of 124 mothers who had a child with ID and 124 mothers of typically developing children were selected using random sampling. Data were collected using General health…

  19. Reduce, Manage or Cope: A Review of Strategies for Training School Staff to Address Challenging Behaviours Displayed by Students with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, Brenda M.; Shooshtari, Shahin; Montgomery, Janine; Martin, Toby; Heinrichs, Dustin J.; Douglas, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Members of a knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) research team assessed the training needs of the teaching staff at a school for individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD). In response to this need, KTE researchers retrieved peer-reviewed articles for training staff working with individuals with IDD who exhibit challenging…

  20. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDDs): Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are a primary focus of the NICHD’s ...

  1. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... Curiae Briefs Legislative Goals Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities National Goals 2015 SIS Product Information Benefits of ... SIS Use Order SIS-A Contact Us Intellectual Disability Historical Context Definition FAQs on Intellectual Disability Diagnostic ...

  2. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for Persons with Intellectual Disability Scale (SE/SS-AID) in a Spanish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Lee, Miyoung; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to develop a Spanish version of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support Scales for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID). Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 117 individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SE/SS-AID scales were translated into Spanish and their…

  3. Measurement properties of the Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC): a pain scale for adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, scored in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Lotan, M; Moe-Nilssen, R; Ljunggren, A E; Strand, L I

    2010-01-01

    The 18 items' Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC) has been developed from the 27 items Non-Communicating Children Pain Checklist to better capture pain behavior of adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD). As part of the NCAPC's measurement properties, internal consistency, reliability and sensitivity to pain have been evaluated and found satisfactory, using scores based on video-uptakes. The aim of the article therefore was to examine the instrument's discriminative ability and sensitivity to pain of adults at different levels of IDD when scored within a clinical situation as well as through video-uptakes. Participants were 59 adults at different levels of IDD who were observed for pain behavior, before and during dental hygiene treatment (scored directly) and influenza injection (scored from video-uptakes), using the NCAPC. The results suggest that the NCAPC differentiated between pain and non-pain situations, as well as between pain reaction during two different medical procedures expected to cause more or less pain, and it was found sensitive to pain at all levels of IDD. We conclude that the present findings add to previous findings of measurement properties of the NCAPC, and support that it can be scored directly in a clinical setting.

  4. The Relations between Number Property Strategies, Working Memory, and Multiplication in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Gao, Bing-Cheng; Zhang, Dake

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relations among property strategies, working memory, and multiplication tasks with 101 Chinese fourth-grade students. Two multiplication property strategies (associative and distributive) were compared with no strategy and demonstrated differentiated effects on students' accuracy and reaction time. Associative…

  5. To be or not IP? Exploring limits within patent law for the constitutionalization of intellectual property rights and the governance of synthetic biology in human health.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The article explores limits within patent law for the constitutionalization of Intellectual Property Rights and the governance of synthetic biology in human health. To this end, it starts by explaining the inherent rationales of two fundamental limits within European patent law, namely (1) the boundary between discovery and invention (Art. 52 EPC); (2) the ordre public and public policy clause (Art. 53 (a) EPC). Both these exclusions from patent eligibility bear a normative function but rely on opposing inherent logics, functions, and regulatory aims. While in the first type of logics, "enabling access for all" is the guiding principle, in the second, converse logics, no one should have access to the technological knowledge in question. The second part contends that decisions on whether and how to grant patents in synthetic biology are not independent from institutional frameworks: The arena in which synthetic biology patenting will be dealt with will be decisive for whether and how boundaries will be deployed. From a political science perspective, the administrative, legislative and judicial arena can be distinguished. If synthetic biology will be negotiated in the legislative arena, in particular in the European Parliament, the probabilities will be higher that either the discovery clause or the ordre public clause will be applied. In contrast, patent offices and courts have, at least in the past decades, employed a narrow interpretation of these absolute exemptions from patentability and hardly ever used them. The third part asserts that metaphoric framing of synthetic biology is another crucial factor for patentability questions. Semantic framing may relate to the articulation and mobilization of consent or dissent, and thus public acceptance of synthetic biology. Whether applications of synthetic biology are conceived as "natural" or "synthetic" DNA may have an influence on whether patenting might become contested as "patenting life" or accepted as novel, and

  6. [Conceptual foundations of creation of branch database of technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical educational institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Horban', A Ie

    2013-09-01

    The question of implementation of the state policy in the field of technology transfer in the medical branch to implement the law of Ukraine of 02.10.2012 No 5407-VI "On Amendments to the law of Ukraine" "On state regulation of activity in the field of technology transfers", namely to ensure the formation of branch database on technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical education institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine and established by budget are considered. Analysis of international and domestic experience in the processing of information about intellectual property rights and systems implementation support transfer of new technologies are made. The main conceptual principles of creation of this branch database of technology transfer and branch technology transfer network are defined.

  7. Molecular isotopic engineering (MIE): industrial manufacture of naproxen of predetermined stable carbon-isotopic compositions for authenticity and security protection and intellectual property considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, J. P.; Farina, P.; Pearson, A.; Mezes, P. S.; Sabatelli, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular Isotopic Engineering (MIE) is the directed stable-isotopic synthesis of chemical products for reasons of product identification and of product security, and also for intellectual property considerations. We report here a generally excellent correspondence between the observed and predicted stable carbon-isotopic (δ13C) results for a successful directed synthesis of racemic mixture from its immediate precursors. The observed results are readily explained by the laws of mass balance and isotope mass balance. Oxygen- and hydrogen isotopic results which require an additional assessment of the effects of O and H exchange, presumably due to interaction with water in the reaction solution, are addressed elsewhere. A previous, cooperative study with the US FDA-DPA showed that individual manufacturers of naproxen could readily be differentiated by their stable-isotopic provenance (δ13C, δ18O, and δD ref. 1). We suggest that MIE can be readily employed in the bio/pharmaceutical industry without alteration of present manufacturing processes other than isotopically selecting and/or monitoring reactants and products.

  8. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices.

  9. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. PMID:26368398

  10. Parental social support, coping strategies, resilience factors, stress, anxiety and depression levels in parents of children with MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) or children with intellectual disabilities (ID).

    PubMed

    Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Wraith, James Edmond; Jones, Simon; Mahon, Louise; Lomax, Michelle; Bigger, Brian; Hare, Dougal

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by a deficiency in one of four enzymes involved in the catabolism of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. It is a degenerative disorder, with a progressive decline in children's intellectual and physical functioning. There is currently no cure for the disorder. To date there is a paucity of research on how this disorder impacts parents psychological functioning. Specifically, research in the area has failed to employ adequate control groups to assess if the impact of this disorder on parents psychological functioning differs from parenting a child with intellectual disability (ID). The current study examined child behaviour and parental psychological functioning in 23 parents of children with MPS III and 23 parents of children with ID. Parents completed postal questionnaires about their child's behaviour and abilities and their own psychological functioning. Parents of children with MPS III reported fewer behavioural difficulties as their child aged, more severe level of intellectual disability, and similar levels of perceived social support, coping techniques, stress, anxiety and depression levels as parents of children with ID. Both groups of parents scored above the clinical cut off for anxiety and depression. Parents of children with MPS III rated themselves as significantly less future-orientated and goal directed than parents of children with ID. Services should develop support packages for parents of children with MPS III that incorporate an understanding of the unique stressors and current-difficulty approach of this population. Future research should examine gender differences between parental psychological functioning, using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches, and utilise matched developmental level and typically developing control groups.

  11. Properties of the grasp stiffness matrix and conservative control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, I.; Ngo, C.

    1999-02-01

    In this paper, the authors present fundamental properties of stiffness matrices as applied in analysis of grasping and dexterous manipulation in configuration spaces and linear Euclidean R{sup 3x3} space without rotational components. A conservative-stiffness matrix in such spaces needs to satisfy both symmetric and exact differential criteria. Two types of stiffness matrices are discussed: constant and configuration-dependent matrices are discussed: constant and configuration-dependent matrices. The symmetric part of a constant-stiffness matrix can be derived from a conservative quadratic potential function in the Hermitian form; while the skew-symmetric part is a function of the nonconservative curl vector field of the grasp. A configuration-dependent stiffness matrix needs to be symmetric and must simultaneously satisfy the exact differential condition to be conservative. The theory is most relevant to the Cartesian stiffness control, where the stiffness of the end effector is usually constant, such as that in RCC wrists. Conservative control strategies are proposed for a configuration-dependent stiffness matrix. One of the most important results of this paper is the nonconservative congruence mapping of stiffness between the joint and Cartesian spaces. In general, the congruence transformation (or its inverse transformation), K{sub {theta}} = J{sub {theta}}{sup T}K{sub p}J{sub {theta}}, is a nonconservative mapping over finite paths for a configuration-dependent Jacobian. Thus, to obtain a conservative system with respect to the Cartesian space, one has to either find the corresponding K{sub {theta}} at every configuration due to the constant and symmetric Cartesian stiffness matrix, or determine symmetric yet configuration-varying K{sub {theta}} at every configuration due to the constant and symmetric Cartesian stiffness matrix, or determine the symmetric yet configuration-varying K{sub {theta}} which makes the resulting configuration-dependent K{sub p

  12. Teaching Reading for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature related to instructional strategies to improve reading skills for students with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Studies reviewed were within three categories; early reading approaches, comprehensive approaches, and one method approach. It was concluded that students with intellectual disabilities are…

  13. Industry-university collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA--with emphasis on publication freedom and managing the intellectual property lock-up problem.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  14. Industry-university collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA--with emphasis on publication freedom and managing the intellectual property lock-up problem.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  15. Industry-University Collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA – With Emphasis on Publication Freedom and Managing the Intellectual Property Lock-Up Problem

    PubMed Central

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  16. Scholars, Intellectuals, and Bricoleurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores three orientations to knowledge: the scholar, the intellectual, and the bricoleur. It argues that although the scholar and the intellectual are tied closely to the Liberal Arts and Humanities and dominate academic public relations discourse, both students and faculty increasingly use the practice of bricolage to gather and…

  17. The Male Workforce in Intellectual Disability Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkey, Roy; McAuley, Patricia; Simpson, Leanne; Collins, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Staff shortages are predicted in community social care sector services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). One option is to attract more men to the workforce, which would also counter the present sex-ratio (gender) imbalance among workers. Potential strategies for recruitment could be identified by analyzing the characteristics and…

  18. The Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scales (LANTS): The Development and Psychometric Properties of a Measure of Trauma for People with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, S.; Hatton, C.; Taylor, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities are exposed to a high number of adverse life events, and evidence supports a link between the experience of adverse life events and trauma. Interventions for trauma have been found to be efficacious if case recognition can be facilitated. However to date there are no psychometrically validated measures of…

  19. Cue properties change timing strategies in group movement synchronisation

    PubMed Central

    Honisch, Juliane J.; Elliott, Mark T.; Jacoby, Nori; Wing, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    To maintain synchrony in group activities, each individual within the group must continuously correct their movements to remain in time with the temporal cues available. Cues might originate from one or more members of the group. Current research suggests that when synchronising movements, individuals optimise their performance in terms of minimising variability of timing errors (asynchronies) between external cues and their own movements. However, the cost of this is an increase in the timing variability of their own movements. Here we investigate whether an individual’s timing strategy changes according to the task, in a group scenario. To investigate this, we employed a novel paradigm that positioned six individuals to form two chains with common origin and termination on the circumference of a circle. We found that participants with access to timing cues from only one other member used a strategy to minimise their asynchrony variance. In contrast, the participant at the common termination of the two chains, who was required to integrate timing cues from two members, used a strategy that minimised movement variability. We conclude that humans are able to flexibly switch timekeeping strategies to maintain task demands and thus optimise the temporal performance of their movements. PMID:26781066

  20. Intellectual Property: Access and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, David

    This paper discusses copyright issues, focusing on changes due to digital technology. Highlights include: problems for copyright posed by digital technologies, i.e., the identification of copyright works and owners, and the enforcement of copyright rights; electronic monitoring of copyright uses to provide rights owners with data on usage; the…

  1. Intellectual property in holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of patents and patent applications on holographic interferometry, and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic interferometry were uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, Japanese Patent Office and Korean Patent Office for the time frame from 1971 through May 2006. The patent analysis unveils trends in patent temporal distribution, patent families formation, significant technological coverage within the market of system that employ holographic interferometry and other interesting insights.

  2. Intellectual property. Coauthorship and coinventorship.

    PubMed

    Ducor, P

    2000-08-11

    Although the accepted criteria used for inclusion as author or inventor are similar, the average number of authors in scientific articles is significantly higher than the number of inventors on the corresponding patents. This finding can be attributed to an artificial inflation of coauthors, to the exclusion of coinventors, or--more probably--to a mix of both causes. This article argues that the discrepancy between the numbers of coauthors and inventors can have significant legal consequences, as the exclusion of an inventor can render a U.S. patent invalid or seriously harm its value. A proposal aiming to avoid such consequences and taking into account legal as well as authorship credit considerations is described.

  3. Falls prevention in persons with intellectual disabilities: development, implementation, and process evaluation of a tailored multifactorial fall risk assessment and intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Ellen; Enkelaar, Lotte; Schoon, Yvonne; Geurts, Alexander C; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2013-09-01

    In the general elderly population, multifactorial screening of fall risks has been shown to be effective. Although persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) fall more often, there appears to be no targeted screening for them. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a falls clinic for persons with ID. Based on guidelines, literature, and expert meetings, a falls clinic for persons with ID was developed. In total, 26 persons with ID and a fall history participated in the study. Process evaluation was conducted with evaluation forms and focus groups. Fifty interventions (0-8 per person) were prescribed. The (para)medical experts, clients, and caregivers described the falls clinic as useful. Advice for improvement included minor changes to clinic content. Logistics were the largest challenge for the falls clinic, for example organizing meetings, completing questionnaires prior to meetings, and ensuring that a personal caregiver accompanied the person with ID. Furthermore, the need for a screening tool to determine whether a person would benefit from the falls clinic was reported. In conclusion, the falls clinic for persons with ID was considered feasible and useful. Some minor content changes are necessary and there is a need for a screening tool. However, logistics concerning the falls clinic need improvement. More attention and time for multifactorial and multidisciplinary treatment of persons with ID is necessary. Implementation on a larger scale would also make it possible to investigate the effectiveness of the falls clinic with regard to the prevention of falls in this population.

  4. Influence Of The Laser Cladding Strategies On The Mechanical Properties Of Inconel 718

    SciTech Connect

    Lamikiz, A.; Tabernero, I.; Ukar, E.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.

    2011-01-17

    This work presents different experimental results of the mechanical properties of Inconel registered 718 test parts built-up by laser cladding. Recently, turbine manufacturers for aeronautical sector have presented high interest on laser cladding processes. This process allows building fully functional structures on superalloys, such as Inconel registered 718, with high flexibility on complex shapes. However, there is limited data on mechanical properties of the laser cladding structures. Moreover, the available data do not include the influence of process parameters and laser cladding strategies. Therefore, a complete study of the influence of the laser cladding parameters and mainly, the variation of the tensile strength with the laser cladding strategy is presented. The results show that there is a high directionality of mechanical properties, depending on the strategies of laser cladding process. In other words, the test parts show a fiber -like structure that should be considered on the laser cladding strategy selection.

  5. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  6. Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ling, Julia; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2016-05-06

    Here, in many scientific fields, empirical models are employed to facilitate computational simulations of engineering systems. For example, in fluid mechanics, empirical Reynolds stress closures enable computationally-efficient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Likewise, in solid mechanics, constitutive relations between the stress and strain in a material are required in deformation analysis. Traditional methods for developing and tuning empirical models usually combine physical intuition with simple regression techniques on limited data sets. The rise of high-performance computing has led to a growing availability of high-fidelity simulation data, which open up the possibility of using machine learning algorithms, such as random forests or neuralmore » networks, to develop more accurate and general empirical models. A key question when using data-driven algorithms to develop these models is how domain knowledge should be incorporated into the machine learning process. This paper will specifically address physical systems that possess symmetry or invariance properties. Two different methods for teaching a machine learning model an invariance property are compared. In the first , a basis of invariant inputs is constructed, and the machine learning model is trained upon this basis, thereby embedding the invariance into the model. In the second method, the algorithm is trained on multiple transformations of the raw input data until the model learns invariance to that transformation. Results are discussed for two case studies: one in turbulence modeling and one in crystal elasticity. It is shown that in both cases embedding the invariance property into the input features yields higher performance with significantly reduced computational training costs.« less

  7. Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Julia; Jones, Reese; Templeton, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    In many scientific fields, empirical models are employed to facilitate computational simulations of engineering systems. For example, in fluid mechanics, empirical Reynolds stress closures enable computationally-efficient Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations. Likewise, in solid mechanics, constitutive relations between the stress and strain in a material are required in deformation analysis. Traditional methods for developing and tuning empirical models usually combine physical intuition with simple regression techniques on limited data sets. The rise of high performance computing has led to a growing availability of high fidelity simulation data. These data open up the possibility of using machine learning algorithms, such as random forests or neural networks, to develop more accurate and general empirical models. A key question when using data-driven algorithms to develop these empirical models is how domain knowledge should be incorporated into the machine learning process. This paper will specifically address physical systems that possess symmetry or invariance properties. Two different methods for teaching a machine learning model an invariance property are compared. In the first method, a basis of invariant inputs is constructed, and the machine learning model is trained upon this basis, thereby embedding the invariance into the model. In the second method, the algorithm is trained on multiple transformations of the raw input data until the model learns invariance to that transformation. Results are discussed for two case studies: one in turbulence modeling and one in crystal elasticity. It is shown that in both cases embedding the invariance property into the input features yields higher performance at significantly reduced computational training costs.

  8. How market smarts can protect property rights.

    PubMed

    Anand, Bharat; Galetovic, Alexander

    2004-12-01

    Intellectual property comprises an ever-increasing fraction of corporate wealth, but what's the good of that if an ever-increasing fraction of the property is copied or stolen? Faced with developing countries' limited and inadequately enforced patent and copyright laws, some companies are resorting to market-based strategies to protect their intellectual property. These include preempting or threatening competitors, embedding intellectual property in environments that can be protected, bundling insecure intellectual property with its more secure cousins, and actually entering the businesses that pose a threat. The authors urge companies coping with weak property rights to follow a decision tree when choosing which strategies to use and when: Start by thinking of the strategies that will protect your business's core. If, for example, a first-mover advantage is within reach, making yourself more committed to intellectual property could be the answer. If you and your rivals are equally matched, ask yourself, "Can those that threaten me with copying be copied in turn?" The knowledge that each of you can hurt the other may dampen the competitive intensity or even lead to voluntary sharing of property. If these solutions fail or don't apply, try forging a connection with a product or business closely related to your own. Doing so may prevent a valued asset from falling into a rival's hands or make the asset harder to misappropriate. This approach can even help you expand your piece of the market pie or reduce the cost of making the threatened product, perhaps to the point where you can compete against pirated goods. Finally, if there still doesn't seem to be a way of making money from your threatened product, you may choose to move into the very business that has hurt your own. Such strategies are behind the economics of successful companies like Intel and NBC, say the authors.

  9. Copper Nanoparticles: Synthetic Strategies, Properties and Multifunctional Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilvanan, A.; Balamurugan, K.; Ponappa, K.; Kumar, B. Madhan

    2014-05-01

    Copper nanoparticles received much attention due to its high electrical conductivity, high melting point, low electrochemical migration behavior and low cost. Top down (physical methods) and bottom up (chemical and biological) approaches adopted for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles are reported. The property of copper nanoparticles mainly depends on the synthesis route and their process parameters. The influence of process parameters on the morphology, growth and yield of the nanoparticles by adopting various synthesis methods are discussed in detail. From the earlier reports, it is proved that electrochemical and chemical reduction method have received much higher attention due to their simple operation, low cost, faster reaction rate, high yield, environment friendly and low energy consumption. The characterization techniques, advantages and limitations of each synthesis methods are also discussed. The extensive applications of copper nanoparticles in various fields are also highlighted.

  10. [A cold/heat property classification strategy based on bio-effects of herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Miao; Lv, Ai-Ping

    2014-06-01

    The property theory of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is regarded as the core and basic of Chinese medical theory, however, the underlying mechanism of the properties in CHMs remains unclear, which impedes a barrier for the modernization of Chinese herbal medicine. The properties of CHM are often categorized into cold and heat according to the theory of Chinese medicine, which are essential to guide the clinical application of CHMs. There is an urgent demand to build a cold/heat property classification model to facilitate the property theory of Chinese herbal medicine, as well as to clarify the controversial properties of some herbs. Based on previous studies on the cold/heat properties of CHM, in this paper, we described a novel strategy on building a cold/heat property classification model based on herbal bio-effect. The interdisciplinary cooperation of systems biology, pharmacological network, and pattern recognition technique might lighten the study on cold/heat property theory, provide a scientific model for determination the cold/heat property of herbal medicines, and a new strategy for expanding the Chinese herbal medicine resources as well. PMID:25272861

  11. Particle engineering: a strategy for establishing drug substance physical property specifications during small molecule development.

    PubMed

    Iacocca, Ronald G; Burcham, Christopher L; Hilden, Lori R

    2010-01-01

    A strategy for physical property control of a drug substance has been developed that utilizes a science-based approach to define key drivers for particle control. These drivers are based on in vivo performance (or expected performance), content uniformity of the drug substance in drug product, and manufacturability of drug product. Quality by design principles have been used in developing the strategy. The strategy has been designed to provide expectations in terms of particle control at each state of development, translating to early-phase projects and carrying through until launch and beyond.

  12. Public Intellectual 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drezner, Daniel W.

    2008-01-01

    Disquisitions about public intellectuals usually conclude that they are not what they used to be. The pessimism about public intellectuals is reflected in attitudes about how the rise of the Internet in general, and blogs in particular, affects intellectual output. Critics fail to recognize how the growth of blogs and other forms of online writing…

  13. An Intellectual Freedom Theme Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolner, Myrtle Smith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by an intellectual freedom committee, this issue is intended to aid librarians in thinking about intellectual freedom when confronted with the current creationism controversy. A manual containing documents and resources on intellectual freedom, a bibliography of pro- and anti-creationism materials, and results of a censorship survey are…

  14. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  15. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  16. Adolescence Intellectual Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.

    The purposes of this study were to investigate adolescent intellectual decline, and to attempt to determine some of the sexual differences possibly inherent in the phenomenon. It was hypothesized that (1) girls would decline in greater numbers and to a greater degree than boys; and (2) areas and amounts of sex differences of the decliners would…

  17. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  18. Obesity and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Yamaki, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    While much of the industrialized world struggles for clues to the growing rise in obesity in their respective countries, researchers and service providers involved in understanding the health characteristics and health behaviors of persons with intellectual disability (ID) struggle with their own issues regarding the increased prevalence of…

  19. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  20. Intellectuals in China: Annotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    This annotated bibliography of 72 books, journal articles, government reports, and newspaper feature stories focuses on the changing role of intellectuals in China, primarily since the 1949 Chinese Revolution. Particular attention is given to the Hundred Flowers Movement of 1957 and the Cultural Revolution. Most of the cited works are in English,…

  1. Collegiality and Intellectual Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The author expresses concern that love of knowledge, which he views as the most valuable resource in universities, is not taken seriously by the academic press. This article considers what is to be done about it; and discusses how collegiality, based upon a celebration of intellectual love, might restore, or create, integrity within the academic…

  2. Intellectual Access to Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  3. Carpentry Is Intellectual Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that carpentry is as much an intellectual as a physical activity. Terms are defined, the problem is outlined, examples are given, and some general conclusions are drawn for education. Some sketches are provided for graphic illustration of the examples. The interpretation in effect is pragmatic and cites Dewey on occasion to…

  4. Intellectually Limited Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Ruth K.; Cohen, Herbert J.

    The paper examines whether a relationship exists between intellectual limitation on the mother's part and unfavorable outcomes for her children. The scope of the problem is examined and the difficulties inherent in estimating prevalence are noted. The issue of child neglect, rather than abuse is shown to be a major problem among institutionalized…

  5. Executive functions in individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Rönnberg, Jerker; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate executive functions in adults with intellectual disability, and compare them to a closely matched control group longitudinally for 5 years. In the Betula database, a group of adults with intellectual disability (ID, n=46) was defined from measures of verbal and non-verbal IQ. A control group, with two people for every person with intellectual disability (n=92), was chosen by matching on the following criterion in order of priority: IQ higher than 85, age, sex, sample, level of education, and years of education. Three types of tasks of executive functions were included on two occasions, with 5 years between testing sessions: The Tower of Hanoi, executively loaded dual task versions of word recall, and verbal fluency. Adults with ID showed significant impairments on verbal fluency and on the executively loaded dual task word recall task (at encoding but not at recall). There were no group differences on the Tower of Hanoi. No significant differences between the two test occasions were found. The results are interpreted in terms of individuals with ID having problems with speed of accessing lexical items and difficulties with working memory-related executive control at encoding, which includes shifting between tasks. There are, however, not necessarily problems with inhibition. The dual task results additionally imply that the adults with intellectual disability were more sensitive to strategy interruptions at encoding, but that dividing attention at recall did not have such detrimental effects. PMID:20728303

  6. A Canadian Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Student Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Troy; Cormier, Damien C.; Hetherington, Jay; Mrazik, Martin; Mousavi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Student Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) were examined using a sample of 404 Grade 6 students from an urban Canadian school system. Students completed the SMALSI and school factors included final school grades, attendance records, and language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  7. Translational strategies for the development of a wound healing technology (idea) from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Ghatnekar, Gautam S; Elstrom, Tuan A

    2013-01-01

    This chapter will outline strategies and ideas for the commercialization a promising wound healing technology discovered in an academic setting. This would include, but not limited to addressing topics such as intellectual property protection, funding, technology development, and regulatory aspects (i.e., navigating through the FDA). PMID:24029959

  8. The intellectual crisis of psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the intellectual crisis and the potential sources of reveille in clinical research in psychiatry. Current prevailing conceptual models in psychiatry are critically examined, with particular reference to neurobiology, clinical psychopharmacology, assessment, and the therapeutic process. Biological reductionism, neglect of individual responses to treatment, massive propaganda from the pharmaceutical industry, misleading effects of psychometric theory on clinical assessment, and lack of consideration of multiple therapeutic ingredients and of the role of psychological well-being are identified as major sources of an intellectual crisis in psychiatric research. The conceptual crisis of psychiatry is shared by other areas of clinical medicine and stems from a narrow concept of science that neglects clinical observation, the basic method of medicine. A unified concept of health and disease may yield new clinical insights in psychiatric disorders, and may result in therapeutic efforts of more enduring quality than current strategies.

  9. Mechanical properties of structural amorphous steels: Intrinsic correlations, conflicts, and optimizing strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. Q. Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-12-28

    Amorphous steels have demonstrated superior properties and great potentials for structural applications since their emergence, yet it still remains unclear about how and why their mechanical properties are correlated with other factors and how to achieve intended properties by designing their compositions. Here, the intrinsic interdependences among the mechanical, thermal, and elastic properties of various amorphous steels are systematically elucidated and a general trade-off relation is exposed between the strength and ductility/toughness. Encouragingly, a breakthrough is achievable that the strength and ductility/toughness can be simultaneously improved by tuning the compositions. The composition dependences of the properties and alloying effects are further analyzed thoroughly and interpreted from the fundamental plastic flow and atomic bonding characters. Most importantly, systematic strategies are outlined for optimizing the mechanical properties of the amorphous steels. The study may help establish the intrinsic correlations among the compositions, atomic structures, and properties of the amorphous steels, and provide useful guidance for their alloy design and property optimization. Thus, it is believed to have implications for the development and applications of the structural amorphous steels.

  10. Mechanical properties of structural amorphous steels: Intrinsic correlations, conflicts, and optimizing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-12-01

    Amorphous steels have demonstrated superior properties and great potentials for structural applications since their emergence, yet it still remains unclear about how and why their mechanical properties are correlated with other factors and how to achieve intended properties by designing their compositions. Here, the intrinsic interdependences among the mechanical, thermal, and elastic properties of various amorphous steels are systematically elucidated and a general trade-off relation is exposed between the strength and ductility/toughness. Encouragingly, a breakthrough is achievable that the strength and ductility/toughness can be simultaneously improved by tuning the compositions. The composition dependences of the properties and alloying effects are further analyzed thoroughly and interpreted from the fundamental plastic flow and atomic bonding characters. Most importantly, systematic strategies are outlined for optimizing the mechanical properties of the amorphous steels. The study may help establish the intrinsic correlations among the compositions, atomic structures, and properties of the amorphous steels, and provide useful guidance for their alloy design and property optimization. Thus, it is believed to have implications for the development and applications of the structural amorphous steels.

  11. Vacuum consumable arc remelting electrode gap control strategies based on drop short properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanner, F. J.

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the influence of electrode gap on the properties of drop shorts during vacuum consumable arc remelting. The goal of this work was to yield an electrode gap control strategy based on easily measured electrical parameters. For a particular alloy, at one current level and low pressure (<4 X 10-3 Torr), this goal was achieved, in that drop short period was found to be highly correlated with electrode gap. However, this model was found to be constrained by statistics which require counting 100 drop shorts in order to obtain a valid measurement. Other control strategies involving anode spikes, drop short resistance, and energy/resistance ratios were also evaluated and these properties showed poor correlation with electrode gap.

  12. Practitioners Who Work with Parents with Intellectual Disability: Stress, Coping and Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Olivia; Chester, Andrea; Mildon, Robyn; Matthews, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Challenges for practitioners who work with parents with intellectual disability arise from several sources. The purpose of the current study was to identify the stressors experienced by practitioners who work with parents with intellectual disability in Australia, investigate coping strategies and explore training needs so as to inform…

  13. Intellectual Disability and Spiritual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Linking the concepts of intellectual disability and spiritual development creates a challenging mixture of sociological and theological issues. Formal definitions of the concepts can be less than conclusive but it remains a fundamental issue to consider if there may be some minimal level of intellectual competence below which it is not feasible to…

  14. Anthony Crosland: Intellectual and Politician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Anthony Crosland was the most formative of education ministers in the 1960s whose contribution promoted intellectual activity within the policy discourse. He retains an iconic status for that reason. He provided the intellectual foundations of "revisionism" which emancipated the Labour Party from belief in nationalisation as the way to greater…

  15. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social networks; (2) An…

  16. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  17. Feminine Intellectual Decline During Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate further the relationship between sex and a decline of intellectual abilities during adolescence and to examine some personality differences between young women who declined in intellectual abilities during adolescence and those who did not. Differences examined were: need to be included, need to be…

  18. Global Academe: Engaging Intellectual Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy-Zekmi, Silvia, Ed.; Hollis, Karyn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of the economic, political, cultural and, more importantly, global interrelations between agents involved in the process of intellectual activity is at the core of the inquiry in this volume that scrutinizes a distinct transformation occurring in the modalities of intellectual production also detectable in the changing role of…

  19. Naxi Intellectuals and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haibo, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of Naxi intellectuals in the ethnic identity resurgence of the Naxi since the 1980s in China. The article illustrates 3 aspects of Naxi intellectuals' approach to the identity construction of the Naxi: researching the Naxi, engaging in cultural activities and exhibitions, and teaching the Naxi culture to the younger…

  20. Intellectual Work and Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The university as a site of public intellectuals and intellectual work is facing challenge. Historically this has happened and continues apace through the inter-relationship of a number of trends: first, the entry of disciplines into bureaucratic specialisation, where status is through a named school, disciplinary paradigms and networks, journals…

  1. Next-Generation Sequencing in Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Carvill, Gemma L; Mefford, Heather C

    2015-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized gene discovery in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and led to an unprecedented expansion in the number of genes implicated in this disorder. We discuss the strategies that have been used to identify these novel genes for both syndromic and nonsyndromic ID and highlight the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity that underpin this condition. Finally, we discuss the future of defining the genetic etiology of ID, including the role of whole-genome sequencing, mosaicism, and the importance of diagnostic testing in ID. PMID:27617123

  2. Next-Generation Sequencing in Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized gene discovery in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and led to an unprecedented expansion in the number of genes implicated in this disorder. We discuss the strategies that have been used to identify these novel genes for both syndromic and nonsyndromic ID and highlight the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity that underpin this condition. Finally, we discuss the future of defining the genetic etiology of ID, including the role of whole-genome sequencing, mosaicism, and the importance of diagnostic testing in ID. PMID:27617123

  3. At the Schoolhouse Gate: Lessons in Intellectual Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Gloria; Lent, ReLeah Cossett

    Over the last two decades, the co-authors of this book have worked together to build a tradition of intellectual freedom within public schools. The book describes their struggles as cultural workers, the pedagogical and legal strategies they employed, the resistance they encountered, the lessons they learned, and the impact that they have seen on…

  4. Enabling Integration in Sports for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandisson, Marie; Tetreault, Sylvie; Freeman, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Promoting the health and social participation of adolescents with intellectual disability is important as they are particularly vulnerable to encountering difficulties in those areas. Integration of these individuals in integrated sports is one strategy to address this issue. Methods: The main objective of this study was to gain a…

  5. Short-Term Memory Coding in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and…

  6. Students with Intellectual Disabilities Going to College? Absolutely!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Harold L.; Jones, Melissa M.; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Harp, Beverly; Harrison, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe the new opportunities for postsecondary education available to students with intellectual disabilities (ID) through the Higher Education Opportunities Act of 2008. We also identify the importance of these opportunities for students with ID, and key strategies for ensuring that their college experience is an important…

  7. ACCESS! Teaching Writing Skills to Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Konrad, Moira; Pennington, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide teachers with tools that they can use to teach written expression to school-age students with intellectual disabilities. These tools are presented around the mnemonic ACCESS: accommodations and assistive technologies, concrete topics, critical skills, explicit instruction, strategy instruction, systematic…

  8. Another Look at Student Writing and Stages of Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Anne E.

    1998-01-01

    States that theories of intellectual development offer writing teachers productive ways to analyze student writing; help students develop strategies for improving their writing processes; and consider the implications of writing assignments. Finds that frameworks posited by Jean Piaget and by others contribute useful ways of understanding why…

  9. Enhancing Visual Search Abilities of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Wong, Jackson K. K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cueing in visual search paradigm for people with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). A total of 36 subjects (18 persons with ID and 18 persons with normal intelligence) were recruited using convenient sampling method. A series of experiments were conducted to compare guided cue strategies using…

  10. Psychometric properties of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale, the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis and the Social Performance Survey Schedule in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD), the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS), and the Social Performance Survey Schedule (SPSS). Data were collected in two community-based groups of adults with mild to profound ID (n = 263). Subscale reliability (internal consistency) ranged from fair to excellent for the ABC, the ADAMS, and the SPSS (mean coefficient α across ABC subscales was .87 (ranging from fair to excellent), the ADAMS subscales .83 (ranging from fair to good), and the SPSS subscales .91 (range from good to excellent). The ADD subscales had generally lower reliability scores with a mean of .59 (ranging from unacceptable to good). Convergent and discriminant validity was determined by bivariate Spearman ρ correlations between subscales of one instrument and the subscales of the other three instruments. For the most part, all four instruments showed solid convergent and discriminant validity. To examine the factorial validity, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were attempted with the inter-item covariance matrix of each instrument. Generally, the data did not show good fits with the measurement models for the SPSS, ABC, or the ADAMS (CFA analyses with the ADD would not converge). However, most of the items on these three instruments had significant loadings on their respective factors.

  11. Intellectual property rights: Lecture series held in London, (United Kingdom) on 21-22 October 1991, in Brussels (Belgium) on 24-25 October 1991 and in Arlington, Virginia on 6-7 November 1991 (les droits de propriete intellectuelle)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Intellectual property has become one of the keys to the management of high technology sectors and communication systems. The concept is, however used to describe a variety of different situations influenced by the combined effect of technical and economic change. From this results an intensive legal activity, not only in the passing of new legislation and the creation of jurisprudence, but also in the field of contractual and professional practice, which is becoming more important. Although this process can be observed in a number of countries, it is far from being common to them. The clash of national, and even regional concepts has already begun with the internationalization of technology transfer activity and the dissemination of information products and services. The aim of this Lecture Series is therefore to provide a few markers, to look at the prospects for these trends and to assess the stakes involved, so as to enable better evaluation and control of national and international legal practices. It is thus addressed to decision-makers in both the public and private sessions, as well as to the managers of this strategic potential and those involved in the information market.

  12. Changing the intellectual climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castree, Noel; Adams, William M.; Barry, John; Brockington, Daniel; Büscher, Bram; Corbera, Esteve; Demeritt, David; Duffy, Rosaleen; Felt, Ulrike; Neves, Katja; Newell, Peter; Pellizzoni, Luigi; Rigby, Kate; Robbins, Paul; Robin, Libby; Rose, Deborah Bird; Ross, Andrew; Schlosberg, David; Sörlin, Sverker; West, Paige; Whitehead, Mark; Wynne, Brian

    2014-09-01

    Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

  13. Epilepsy and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bowley, C; Kerr, M

    2000-10-01

    A Medline and Psychline literature review of epilepsy in people with intellectual disability was performed. The review has highlighted the importance of the impact of epilepsy on the lives of individuals and their families, affecting physical morbidity, leading to an increased mortality and increasing the care-giving burden. Interventions with a strong evidence base are mainly pharmacological with an increasing body of work on the novel antiepileptic drugs. Surprisingly little research exists into the quality of service provision for this population. The authors suggest three areas for future work: (1) an increasing application of research methodologies such as direct observation and qualitative studies into this field; (2) an exploration of the broad impact of treatment and (3) the possibility that epilepsy is a barrier to care provision. PMID:11079350

  14. Polydopamine and eumelanin: from structure-property relationships to a unified tailoring strategy.

    PubMed

    d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra; Ball, Vincent; Chen, Chun-Teh; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-12-16

    the bottom up, and to design and optimize materials to achieve desired properties is illustrated. The impact of synthetic conditions on melanin structure and physicochemical properties is systematically discussed for the first time. Rational tailoring strategies directed to critical control points of the synthetic pathways, such as dopaquinone, DAquinone, and dopachrome, are then proposed, with a view to translating basic chemical knowledge into practical guidelines for material manipulation and tailoring. This key concept is exemplified by the recent demonstration that varying DA concentration, or using Tris instead of phosphate as the buffer, results in PDA materials with quite different structural properties. Realizing that PDA and synthetic eumelanins belong to the same family of functional materials may foster unprecedented synergisms between research fields that have so far been apart in the pursuit of tailorable and marketable materials for energy, biomedical, and environmental applications. PMID:25340503

  15. Polydopamine and eumelanin: from structure-property relationships to a unified tailoring strategy.

    PubMed

    d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra; Ball, Vincent; Chen, Chun-Teh; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-12-16

    the bottom up, and to design and optimize materials to achieve desired properties is illustrated. The impact of synthetic conditions on melanin structure and physicochemical properties is systematically discussed for the first time. Rational tailoring strategies directed to critical control points of the synthetic pathways, such as dopaquinone, DAquinone, and dopachrome, are then proposed, with a view to translating basic chemical knowledge into practical guidelines for material manipulation and tailoring. This key concept is exemplified by the recent demonstration that varying DA concentration, or using Tris instead of phosphate as the buffer, results in PDA materials with quite different structural properties. Realizing that PDA and synthetic eumelanins belong to the same family of functional materials may foster unprecedented synergisms between research fields that have so far been apart in the pursuit of tailorable and marketable materials for energy, biomedical, and environmental applications.

  16. Children with an Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts For Families Guide Facts For Families Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by ... treatment and management of children with intellectual disabilities. Periodic consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist may ...

  17. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. While Part 1 outlined the study background, context and methodology along with the overarching, multi-dimensional category of 'familiarity/knowing the person', the current article critically discusses the themes and subthemes encapsulated in this category. Each theme is considered in the light of current policies, strategies and philosophies shaping the provision of services to people with an intellectual disability in Ireland. The results suggest that the RNID is ideally located and key to supporting the implementation of these policies and strategies due to their highly developed and proficient skill set as well as experience of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. PMID:22433478

  18. Proposal for a "Harmonized" strategy for the assessment of the HP 14 property.

    PubMed

    Pandard, Pascal; Römbke, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, the decision whether waste is hazardous or not is based on 15 properties, among them the HP 14 property ("ecotoxic": waste that presents or may present immediate or delayed risks for 1 or more sectors of the environment). This document describes a strategy for assessing the HP 14 property, based on a combination of 2 approaches: the summation of classified compounds in the waste carried out according to the regulation on Classification, Labeling and Packaging (CLP) of substances and mixtures and the usage of the results of biotests performed on waste eluates and solid wastes. The proposal is based mainly on recommendations of a European ring test carried out in 2007, the work performed in the CEN/TC 292/WG 7 standardization working group, and the results of various research projects regarding the ecotoxicological characterization of waste carried out mainly in France and Germany. Examples are provided showing that, using this approach, a distinction between hazardous and nonhazardous wastes is possible, independent of which type of threshold values is used (currently, both effect concentrations [EC] or lowest ineffective dilutions [LID] values have been used successfully). Furthermore, a battery of tests (3 using waste eluates and 3 using solid waste samples, plus, under certain conditions, a genotoxicity test) is recommended for the ecotoxicological testing of wastes. We propose to consider this combined approach when defining the legal requirements for the ecotoxicological classification of wastes.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Persian spiritual coping strategies scale in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G; Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Pakpour, Amir H; Baldacchino, Donia R

    2014-08-01

    Spiritual strategies may provide an effective way of coping with disease. This study sought to investigate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the spiritual coping strategies (SCS) scale among Iranian hemodialysis patients. A convenience sample of 204 hemodialysis patients was recruited to participate in the study. A forward-backward translation method was used to produce the Persian version of the scale. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and item-total score correlation. Two-week test-retest reliability was also assessed. The convergent and divergent validity of the scale was evaluated using the Duke University Religion Index and a visual analogue scale for health status. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess the factor structure. Participants consisted of 113 males and 91 females (mean age 57.2 [SD = 9.7]). Cronbach's alpha was acceptable (0.87). We found two underlying factors similar to the original scale. The correlations between the study scales confirmed the convergent and divergent validity of the SCS. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the data (GFI = 0.923, CFI = 0.948 and RMSEA = 0.068). The Persian version of the SCS has sound psychometric properties in Iranian hemodialysis patients. Future research should consider applying the scale to populations with other religious/cultural backgrounds. PMID:23504574

  20. Effects of Texture on Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy Sheets and Texture Optimization Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, Mitsutoshi

    2005-08-05

    It is known that the crystallographic texture affects very much the mechanical properties of sheet metals. In this paper, rolled aluminum alloy sheets are considered as target materials. Typical texture components usually observed in rolled aluminum alloy sheets are the deformation textures of Cu, Brass and S, and the recrystallization textures of Cube and Goss. First, the effects of these components on mechanical properties, such as variations of Lankford's r-value for different tensile directions and forming limit strains, are investigated using full crystal plasticity analyses. In general, the most appropriate volume fractions of the texture components for a user-defined particular requirement, e.g. the smallest possible in-plane anisotropy, or the largest possible formability for a particular strain path, are unknown. Then, a texture optimization strategy is considered, i.e. a genetic algorithm is adopted to solve texture optimization problems. We describe a genetic algorithm with real-valued genes, which is called the real-coded GA. This algorithm is used to search for optimum textures that satisfy the requirements of smallest possible in-plane anisotropy and largest possible formability in biaxial stretch, as examples, to verify the efficiency of the method.

  1. Vadose-zone monitoring strategy to evaluate desalted groundwater effects on hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Abellan, J.; Candela, L.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Desalinated brackish groundwater is becoming a new source of water supply to comply with growing water demands, especially in (semi) arid countries. Irrigation with desalinated or a blend of desalinated and ground/surface water, presents associated impacts on plants, soil and aquifer media. Mixed waters with different salinities can lead to the formation of unexpected chemical precipitates. The use of desalted groundwater for irrigation counts with potential drawbacks, among them: changes of hydraulic properties of soil-aquifer systems (e.g. hydraulic conductivity, porosity) as a consequence of mineral precipitation; root growth blockage and plant uptake of pollutants; as well as leaching of contaminants to groundwater. An experimental plot located at SE Spain, covered by grass and irrigated by sprinklers with a blend of desalted and groundwater from a brackish aquifer, has been monitored in order to characterize at field scale the possible impacts on soil hydraulic properties. The monitoring strategy to control water and heat flux includes traditional and more updated devices. The field instrumentation, vertically installed from the ground surface and spatially distributed, consisted of: ten tensiometers (Soilmoisture Equipment Corp, Goleta, CA, USA) at different depths (two per depth); and, two access tubes (fiber glass, 44mm diameter 2m length) for soil moisture measurements from TRIME-FM TDR probe (Imko GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Automatic logging is carried out from a trench located in the border of the experimental plot and it takes in: a set of five 5TE devices (Decagon Devices Inc, Pullman, WA, USA) vertically installed, which measure volumetric water content, electric conductivity and temperature; and additionally, a suction sensor at 0.6m depth. Finally, a periodic sampling of undisturbed soil cores (2m length) takes place for the purpose of imaging porosity changes from environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). First results about water and heat

  2. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction. PMID:17198112

  3. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  4. A novel strategy to synthesize hierarchical, porous carbohydrate-derived carbon with tunable properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiping; Liu, Ruihan; Han, Chuanlong; Wang, Jing; Li, Mingming; Yao, Jia; Li, Haoran; Wang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of carbohydrate is an interesting candidate for the preparation of carbon materials, as it provides an easy, inexpensive and environmental friendly route. However, it is difficult to prepare porous carbon materials by a straight HTC process. Herein, the solubilising technology of micelles was introduced to direct the HTC of fructose by using an amphiphilic block copolymer, poly-(4-vinylpyridine)-block-poly-(ethylene glycol) (P4VP-PEG), as a structure-directing agent. By this strategy, hierarchical porous carbon materials with tunable properties were prepared. It was found that P4VP-PEG micelles could solubilize fructose and confine the formation of primary carbon domains during a sol-gel process. And the micelle size could be adjusted easily by changing the preparation conditions. Accordingly, the particle size of the obtained carbon materials was effectively tuned from 20 to 100 nm by the direction of the primary micelle size. After calcination, the hierarchical porous carbon materials were evidenced as effective electrode materials for supercapacitor with a capacitance of ~197 F at 1 A g-1, which was almost four times higher than the carbon materials prepared by a straight HTC process.Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of carbohydrate is an interesting candidate for the preparation of carbon materials, as it provides an easy, inexpensive and environmental friendly route. However, it is difficult to prepare porous carbon materials by a straight HTC process. Herein, the solubilising technology of micelles was introduced to direct the HTC of fructose by using an amphiphilic block copolymer, poly-(4-vinylpyridine)-block-poly-(ethylene glycol) (P4VP-PEG), as a structure-directing agent. By this strategy, hierarchical porous carbon materials with tunable properties were prepared. It was found that P4VP-PEG micelles could solubilize fructose and confine the formation of primary carbon domains during a sol-gel process. And the micelle size

  5. Intellectuals and the Persisting Significance of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, William M.; Jewell, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Examines attitudes of 173 black thinkers about racial and ethnic identity and membership in the intellectual subsociety, and establishes an empirical basis for thinking about African American intellectuals. Survey responses and follow-up interviews with 20 subjects indicate the existence of marked differences between black and white intellectuals.…

  6. Cleartalk: Police Responding to Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Brennan, Roslin

    The Cleartalk project was developed in New South Wales (Australia) to help police respond to the communication needs of people with intellectual disabilities. Section 1 presents "The View from the Street: A Working Knowledge of Intellectual Disability," which discusses how individuals with intellectual disabilities are denied their right of access…

  7. Defining Intellectual Safety in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Carolyne M.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated college students' perceptions of intellectual safety by posing research questions designed to elicit a definition of intellectual safety and the elements needed to create an intellectually safe environment. Participants included undergraduate and graduate students drawn from three institutions. All students filled out a…

  8. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  9. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... multiple organizations in a consortium must be negotiated separately and formally documented, preferably in... section, request that NASA invoke exceptional circumstances as necessary pursuant to 37 CFR 401.3(a)(2) if... granted pursuant to 14 CFR 1245.1. The exercise of this exception does not change the flow down of...

  10. Intellectual property, state sovereignty, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Brody, Baruch A

    2010-03-01

    The issue of biopiracy has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a principle of state sovereignty over biological resources and the genetic information contained within those resources to address this issue. It is argued that this principle has not been adequately justified and that there are other solutions to the issue of biopiracy, based on different theories of justice, that deserve greater consideration. These alternatives include the common heritage of mankind principle and the global commons principle. PMID:20506694

  11. Intellectual property protection systems and digital watermarking.

    PubMed

    Lacy, J; Quackenbush, S; Reibman, A; Snyder, J

    1998-12-01

    Adequate protection of digital copies of multimedia content - both audio and video - is a prerequisite to the distribution of this content over networks. Until recently digital audio and video content has been protected by its size: it is difficult to distribute and store without compression. Modern compression algorithms allow substantial bitrate reduction while maintaining high-fidelity reproduction. If distribution of these algorithms is controlled, cleartext uncompressed content is still protected by its size. However, once the compression algorithms are generally available cleartext content becomes extremely vulnerable to piracy. In this paper we explore the implications of this vulnerability and discuss the use of compression and watermarking in the control of piracy. PMID:19384398

  12. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section, request that NASA invoke exceptional circumstances as necessary pursuant to 37 CFR 401.3(a)(2) if... granted pursuant to 14 CFR 1245.1. The exercise of this exception does not change the flow down of the... accordance with 35 U.S.C. 202, 14 CFR part 1245, and E.O. 12591. In the event the recipient decides not...

  13. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  14. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  15. Intellectual property issues of immune checkpoint inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that interfere with tumor escape responses. Some members of this class are already approved, and expected to be blockbusters in the future. Many companies have developed patent activities in this field. This article focuses on the patent landscape, and discusses key players and cases related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26466763

  16. Intellectual property issues of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that interfere with tumor escape responses. Some members of this class are already approved, and expected to be blockbusters in the future. Many companies have developed patent activities in this field. This article focuses on the patent landscape, and discusses key players and cases related to immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  17. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... granted pursuant to 14 CFR 1245.1. The exercise of this exception does not change the flow down of the...” includes any invention, discovery, improvement, or innovation. Title to an invention made under a... section, request that NASA invoke exceptional circumstances as necessary pursuant to 37 CFR 401.3(a)(2)...

  18. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other than a small business concern, as defined in 35 U.S.C. 201(h) and receives an award or a subaward... for a particular program under 10 CFR part 784; (ii) The applicant requests and receives an advance patent waiver under 10 CFR part 784; or (iii) A subaward is covered by a waiver granted under the...

  19. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other than a small business concern, as defined in 35 U.S.C. 201(h) and receives an award or a subaward... for a particular program under 10 CFR part 784; (ii) The applicant requests and receives an advance patent waiver under 10 CFR part 784; or (iii) A subaward is covered by a waiver granted under the...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Inventions; (4) NASA Support Contractor Inventions; and (5) Joint Inventions with Recipient. (d) Recipient... section, request that NASA invoke exceptional circumstances as necessary pursuant to 37 CFR 401.3(a)(2) if... Government purposes. (g) NASA support contractor inventions. It is preferred that NASA support contractors...

  1. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for a particular program under 10 CFR part 784; (ii) The applicant requests and receives an advance patent waiver under 10 CFR part 784; or (iii) A subaward is covered by a waiver granted under the prime... DOE, or if other special circumstances exist, e.g., DOE specifying “open-source” treatment of...

  2. 10 CFR 600.325 - Intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for a particular program under 10 CFR part 784; (ii) The applicant requests and receives an advance patent waiver under 10 CFR part 784; or (iii) A subaward is covered by a waiver granted under the prime... DOE, or if other special circumstances exist, e.g., DOE specifying “open-source” treatment of...

  3. Intellectual property issues of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that interfere with tumor escape responses. Some members of this class are already approved, and expected to be blockbusters in the future. Many companies have developed patent activities in this field. This article focuses on the patent landscape, and discusses key players and cases related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26466763

  4. Large size superelastic SMA bars: heat treatment strategy, mechanical property and seismic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Fang, Cheng; Liu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive study on the mechanical performance of large size superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) bars, with the main focus given to their potential applications for seismic-resistant connections. A series of practical issues, including heat treatment, mechanical property assessment, and connection design/evaluation, were discussed aiming to benefit both material and civil engineering communities. The study commenced with a detailed discussion on the heat treatment strategy for SMA bars and the resulting mechanical properties including strength/stiffness, self-centring ability, energy dissipation, and fractural resistance. It was observed that the mechanical performance of the bars were quite sensitive to both annealing temperature and duration, and size effect was also evident, resulting in different appropriate heat treatment procedures for the bars with varying diameters. The optimally heat-treated SMA bars were machined to the bolt form and were then used for two types of practical self-centring connections, namely, connection with all SMA bars and that with combined angles and SMA bars. Through conducting full-scale tests, both connections were shown to have stable and controllable hysteretic responses till 5% loading drift. Up to 3% drift, the self-centring performance was satisfactory for both connection types, but beyond that the presence of the angles could lead to accumulated residual rotation. Importantly, for both connections, the deformation was accommodated by the SMA bolts or angles, whereas no plastic deformation was observed at any other structural members. This confirmed the feasibility of using such connections for highly resilient structures where minimal repair work is required after earthquakes.

  5. Development of improved space sampling strategies for ocean chemical properties: Total carbon dioxide and dissolved nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Goyet, C.; Peltzer, E.T.; Davis, D.; Brewer, P.G.

    1995-04-15

    Large-scale ocean observing programs such as the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) today, must face the problem of designing an adequate sampling strategy. For ocean chemical variables, the goals and observing technologies are quite different from ocean physical variables (temperature, salinity, pressure). The authors have recently acquired data on the ocean CO{sub 2} properties on WOCE cruises P16c and P17c that are sufficiently dense to test for sampling redundancy. They use linear and quadratic interpolation methods on the sampled field to investigate what is the minimum number of samples required to define the deep ocean total inorganic carbon (TCO{sub 2}) field within the limits of experimental accuracy ({+-}4 {mu}mol/kg). Within the limits of current measurements, these lines were oversampled in the deep ocean. Should the precision of the measurement be improved, then a denser sampling pattern may be desirable in the future. This approach rationalizes the efficient use of resources for field work and for estimating gridded TCO{sub 2} fields needed to constrain geochemical models. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Identification of antimicrobial peptides and immobilization strategy suitable for a covalent surface coating with biocompatible properties.

    PubMed

    Rapsch, Karsten; Bier, Frank F; Tadros, Monier; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus

    2014-02-19

    Bacterial accumulation on solid material displays a major source of biomaterial associated infections, cross contamination, and spreading. To overcome these problems, different investigations on surface modifications for the containment of bacterial adhesion have been done. The aim of this research is the development of a rapid and efficient screening procedure to identify and investigate biologically active peptides in an immobilized state in order to produce an antimicrobial surface coating. We figured out that the antimicrobial mode of action is the most important parameter because only peptides with pronounced membrane disruption abilities displayed meaningful activity in an immobilized state. In addition, we highlighted the influence of the coupling reaction chemistry on the activity and amount of the immobilized peptide. Thereupon we developed an optimized antimicrobial surface coating with unrestricted antimicrobial properties by adjusting the immobilization strategy in combination with lowering the necessary peptide amount. Moreover we demonstrated that this antimicrobial surface coating displayed no cytotoxic activity against a eukaryotic cell line and thereby indicates a promising biocompatibility. Furthermore, different antimicrobial peptides obtained either by chemical peptide synthesis or by recombinant DNA technology were used in this study and their activities as well as their potential applications were discussed. PMID:24372365

  7. Development of improved space sampling strategies for ocean chemical properties: Total carbon dioxide and dissolved nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyet, Catherine; Davis, Daniel; Peltzer, Edward T.; Brewer, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale ocean observing programs such as the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) today, must face the problem of designing an adequate sampling strategy. For ocean chemical variables, the goals and observing technologies are quite different from ocean physical variables (temperature, salinity, pressure). We have recently acquired data on the ocean CO2 properties on WOCE cruises P16c and P17c that are sufficiently dense to test for sampling redundancy. We use linear and quadratic interpolation methods on the sampled field to investigate what is the minimum number of samples required to define the deep ocean total inorganic carbon (TCO2) field within the limits of experimental accuracy (+/- 4 micromol/kg). Within the limits of current measurements, these lines were oversampled in the deep ocean. Should the precision of the measurement be improved, then a denser sampling pattern may be desirable in the future. This approach rationalizes the efficient use of resources for field work and for estimating gridded (TCO2) fields needed to constrain geochemical models.

  8. Remembering PESA: An Intellectual Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    This author's interest in philosophy derived from a passion for mathematics that developed in middle high school, which he attended in Sydney. In this article, he provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life and his involvement with the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA). He states that despite the research demands of his…

  9. Intellectual Disabilities and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herer, Gilbert R.

    2012-01-01

    Undetected/untreated hearing loss imposes significant limitations upon individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). It can interfere with cognitive development, impede communicative and social interactions, and limit vocational aspirations. Over the past decade, the hearing of 9961 people with ID was evaluated at Special Olympics sports…

  10. The Economist as Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, R. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the rising number of outlets for communication through cable networks and electronic broadcasting (not to mention self-promoting Web "blogs") has stimulated the demand for economic commentary. Only the academic economist, as "public intellectual," can provide this commentary in a coherent and rigorous way via the three…

  11. Chinese Converstations: An Intellectual Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A profile of how Chinese urban intellectuals view life in their country is presented. Information was obtained through many conversations with Chinese educators and students during the author's visit to China. Discussed are family, education, the cultural revolution, the Gang of Four, the quest for modernization, and the policy toward…

  12. Identifying Intellectually Superior Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Judith S.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of several methods used to identify intellectually superior black children was evaluated. Findings suggest that less commonly used identification methods, such as parents' opinion and the Leiter International Performance Scale, may point out these children more accurately than do traditional measures. (Author/PP)

  13. Promoting Intellectual Growth in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M; McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2002-01-01

    Article discusses problems associated with promoting intellectual growth in adulthood. Defines characteristics of intelligent behavior as incorporating individual attainment of Resources, Intimacy, Competence, and Health (RICH). Presents the RICH theory as a way to define and address the goals of intelligent enhancement. (JDM)

  14. A New Day for Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbanco, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Soon after election day, the columnist Nicholas D. Kristof wrote in "The New York Times" that the "second most remarkable thing" about the election was that "American voters have just picked a president who is an open, out-of-the-closet, practicing intellectual." Surely, one of the secrets of President Obama's rhetorical power is his ability to…

  15. The Relationship of Self-Injurious Behavior and Other Maladaptive Behaviors among Individuals with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cooper, Christopher; Malone, Carrie J.; Moskow, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    Participants were 101 individuals with self-injurious behavior (SIB) and severe or profound intellectual disability who were matched by gender, age, and level of intellectual disability to controls. Persons with SIB were more likely to exhibit the challenging behaviors of physical aggression, property destruction, sexually inappropriate behaviors…

  16. Cost Estimation of a Health-Check Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Morrison, J.; Melville, C.; Allan, L.; Finlayson, J.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: High rates of health needs among adults with intellectual disabilities flag the need for information about the economic consequences of strategies to identify and address unmet needs. Health-check interventions are one such strategy, and have been demonstrated to effect health gains over the following 12-month period. However, little…

  17. Influence of Nanomaterial Compatibilization Strategies on Polyamide Nanocomposites Properties and Nanomaterial Release during the Use Phase.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rosas, Elisabet; Vilar, Gemma; Janer, Gemma; González-Gálvez, David; Puntes, Victor; Jamier, Vincent; Aubouy, Laurent; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro

    2016-03-01

    The incorporation of small amounts of nanofillers in polymeric matrices has enabled new applications in several industrial sectors. The nanofiller dispersion can be improved by modifying the nanomaterial (NM) surface or predispersing the NMs to enhance compatibility. This study evaluates the effect of these compatibilization strategies on migration/release of the nanofiller and transformation of polyamide-6 (PA6), a thermoplastic polymer widely used in industry during simulated outdoors use. Two nanocomposites (NCs) containing SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with different surface properties and two multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) NCs obtained by different addition methods were produced and characterized, before and after accelerated wet aging conditions. Octyl-modified SiO2 NPs, though initially more aggregated than uncoated SiO2 NPs, reduced PA6 hydrolysis and, consequently, NM release. Although no clear differences in dispersion were observed between the two types of MWCNT NCs (masterbatch vs direct addition) after manufacture, the use of the MWCNT masterbatch reduced PA6 degradation during aging, preventing MWCNT accumulation on the surface and further release or potential exposure by direct contact. The amounts of NM released were lower for MWCNTs (36 and 108 mg/m(2)) than for SiO2 NPs (167 and 730 mg/m(2)), being lower in those samples where the NC was designed to improve the nanofiller-matrix interaction. Hence, this study shows that optimal compatibilization between NM and matrix can improve NC performance, reducing polymer degradation and exposure and/or release of the nanofiller.

  18. Properties of different selection signature statistics and a new strategy for combining them.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Ding, X; Qanbari, S; Weigend, S; Zhang, Q; Simianer, H

    2015-11-01

    Identifying signatures of recent or ongoing selection is of high relevance in livestock population genomics. From a statistical perspective, determining a proper testing procedure and combining various test statistics is challenging. On the basis of extensive simulations in this study, we discuss the statistical properties of eight different established selection signature statistics. In the considered scenario, we show that a reasonable power to detect selection signatures is achieved with high marker density (>1 SNP/kb) as obtained from sequencing, while rather small sample sizes (~15 diploid individuals) appear to be sufficient. Most selection signature statistics such as composite likelihood ratio and cross population extended haplotype homozogysity have the highest power when fixation of the selected allele is reached, while integrated haplotype score has the highest power when selection is ongoing. We suggest a novel strategy, called de-correlated composite of multiple signals (DCMS) to combine different statistics for detecting selection signatures while accounting for the correlation between the different selection signature statistics. When examined with simulated data, DCMS consistently has a higher power than most of the single statistics and shows a reliable positional resolution. We illustrate the new statistic to the established selective sweep around the lactase gene in human HapMap data providing further evidence of the reliability of this new statistic. Then, we apply it to scan selection signatures in two chicken samples with diverse skin color. Our analysis suggests that a set of well-known genes such as BCO2, MC1R, ASIP and TYR were involved in the divergent selection for this trait.

  19. Developmental Defects of Enamel in Children with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Erika, Vesna; Modrić; Karlović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the frequency of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in children with intellectual disability. Subjects and methods Children aged 5–18 years (72 children with intellectual disabilities and 72 controls) were included in the study. All the teeth were screened for developmental defects of enamel using the modified Developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) index. Results Out of the 72 children with intellectual disabilities in this study, 20 (27.78%) presented dental defects of enamel, compared with 8 (11.11%) of those in the control group, which was considered statistically significant (p = 0.021). The majority of children in both groups had white demarcated opacities. Children in both groups were more likely to have maxillary teeth affected than the mandibular teeth and the asymmetrical demarcated enamel defects were more common than the symmetric ones. Majority of opacities in children in both groups were on the maxillary incisors. Conclusions Children with intellectual disabilities have more developmental defects of enamel than children in the control group. Enamel defects increase caries risk and cause reduction in enamel mechanical properties leading to restoration failures.

  20. Developmental Defects of Enamel in Children with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Erika, Vesna; Modrić; Karlović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the frequency of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in children with intellectual disability. Subjects and methods Children aged 5–18 years (72 children with intellectual disabilities and 72 controls) were included in the study. All the teeth were screened for developmental defects of enamel using the modified Developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) index. Results Out of the 72 children with intellectual disabilities in this study, 20 (27.78%) presented dental defects of enamel, compared with 8 (11.11%) of those in the control group, which was considered statistically significant (p = 0.021). The majority of children in both groups had white demarcated opacities. Children in both groups were more likely to have maxillary teeth affected than the mandibular teeth and the asymmetrical demarcated enamel defects were more common than the symmetric ones. Majority of opacities in children in both groups were on the maxillary incisors. Conclusions Children with intellectual disabilities have more developmental defects of enamel than children in the control group. Enamel defects increase caries risk and cause reduction in enamel mechanical properties leading to restoration failures. PMID:27688428

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire for Sultan Qaboos University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Neisler, Otherine; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Clayton, David; Al-Sulaimani, Humaira; Khan, Mohammad; Al-Yahmadi, Hamad; Al-Kalbani, Muna

    2012-01-01

    Research on university student learning has suggested that students' motivational orientations and learning strategies are critical to their academic achievement. In an attempt to assess the levels of motivation and the usage of learning resources and strategies of college students, Pintrich, Smith, Garcia and McKeachie (1993) developed an 81-item…

  2. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory. PMID:19182539

  3. A general synthetic strategy and the anti-proliferation properties on prostate cancer cell lines for natural phenylethanoid glycosides.

    PubMed

    Mulani, Shaheen K; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Mong, Kwok-Kong Tony

    2014-05-14

    A general strategy for the synthesis of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhG) including echinacoside 1, acteoside 2, calceolarioside-A 3 and calceolarioside-B 4 is reported. The strategy features the application of low substrate concentration glycosylation and N-formyl morpholine modulated glycosylation methods for the construction of 1,2-trans β- and α-glycosidic bonds. The reported strategy does not invoke the use of the participatory acyl protecting function, which is incompatible with the ester function present in target PhG compounds. A preliminary study of the anti-proliferation properties of the PhG compounds 1–4 was performed; the acteoside 2 exhibited the best inhibition on the prostatic cancer cell proliferation.

  4. Assistive technology, telecare and people with intellectual disabilities: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Perry, J; Beyer, S; Holm, S

    2009-02-01

    Increasingly, commissioners and providers of services for people with intellectual disabilities are turning to assistive technology and telecare as a potential solution to the problem of the increased demand for services, brought about by an expanding population of people with intellectual disabilities in the context of relatively static or diminishing resources. While there are numerous potential benefits of assistive technology and telecare, both for service providers and service users, there are also a number of ethical issues. The aim of this paper is to raise these issues and to set them within the ethical framework proposed by Beauchamp and Childress. There is a need for a wider debate as a first step in the development of strategies to address the issues raised in the paper.

  5. Neural Network Models and Mechanisms of Strategy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Norman W.; Reilly, Kevin D.; Villa, Mark F.; Grupe, Lisa A.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on external memory strategies, provides a rationale for using neural network models, and discusses their application to intellectual and developmental differences in the external memory strategies of typical and atypical children, including those with mental retardation. Examines mechanisms of intellectual differences and…

  6. Strategy to document heterogeneity in soil properties and its impact on water transfers from slope to catchment scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohard, J.; Robert, D.; Descloitres, M.; Vandervaere, J.; Braud, I.; Vauclin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneity in soil properties has been identified to impact water transfers at different scales from vertical column, hillslopes to watershed. Thus Distributed physically based hydrological models require distributed hydraulic characteristics to quantify these impacts. To characterize soil properties and their heterogeneity, a multi-scale sampling strategy was proposed based on distributed information including electromagnetic survey maps, topography and land use coverage. Each identified units are characterized by there hydraulic properties including in situ infiltration tests. This strategy was applied over the Ara Catchment (12km2) in northern Benin. It has been instrumented in the framework of the AMMA-Catch experimental network in West Africa, to better determine water resources and to investigate possible hydrological retro-action on monsoon cycle. From hydrological point of view, distributed soil hydraulic properties are supposed to impact water transfers and watershed dynamics all along the monsoon cycle. To document this heterogeneity, an electrical conductivity map and geological survey was used as starting points to identify the ground structures which align with the north-south direction with a dip angle of 20° east. A total of 20 pits have been opened to document the 0-2m horizons, and 2 more for the 0-5m horizons. 3 pits were digged within each geological structure areas at the surface. In each pit, the retention and hydraulic conductivity curves of each pedological horizon were characterized with three replicates. This database is used to document the variability of these properties and to produce soil hydraulic property maps. Using the variability information, we tested their impact with the Parflow-CLM 3D distributed model. It was run in an homogeneous configuration and compared with a data controlled heterogeneous configuration. The latest is prepared using a turning band algorithm to distribute soil hydraulic properties.

  7. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA. PMID:23431847

  8. Validity of the Loewenstein occupational therapy cognitive assessment in people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuh; Chern, Jen-suh; Lin, Keh-chung

    2009-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties (internal consistency, concurrent criterion validity, and known-group validity) of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) in people with intellectual disabilities. A total of 111 people with intellectual disabilities and 19 people with no disabilities were included. We used Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's rho, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and one-way analysis of variance for analysis, where appropriate. Results showed good internal consistency on Orientation, Visual Perception, Spatial Perception, Visuomotor Organization, and Thinking Operations subscales (Cronbach's alphas = .82, .74, .76, .86, and .80, respectively), but not on the Motor Praxis subscale (alpha = .48). We found significant correlations between participants' performance on the Pictorial IQ test and disability level and scores on the LOTCA. The known-group validity of the LOTCA in people with intellectual disabilities was satisfactory. We concluded that the LOTCA is a suitable instrument for measuring cognitive abilities and visual perception in people with intellectual disabilities. PMID:19708470

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    MedlinePlus

    ... linked intellectual disability, Siderius type X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type is a condition characterized by mild ...

  10. Development Strategies for Herbal Products Reducing the Influence of Natural Variance in Dry Mass on Tableting Properties and Tablet Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    One “Quality by Design” approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

  11. X-linked intellectual disability related genes disrupted by balanced X-autosome translocations.

    PubMed

    Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Di Battista, Adriana; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Bragagnolo, Silvia; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Carvalheira, Gianna Maria; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Detailed molecular characterization of chromosomal rearrangements involving X-chromosome has been a key strategy in identifying X-linked intellectual disability-causing genes. We fine-mapped the breakpoints in four women with balanced X-autosome translocations and variable phenotypes, in order to investigate the corresponding genetic contribution to intellectual disability. We addressed the impact of the gene interruptions in transcription and discussed the consequences of their functional impairment in neurodevelopment. Three patients presented with cognitive impairment, reinforcing the association between the disrupted genes (TSPAN7-MRX58, KIAA2022-MRX98, and IL1RAPL1-MRX21/34) and intellectual disability. While gene expression analysis showed absence of TSPAN7 and KIAA2022 expression in the patients, the unexpected expression of IL1RAPL1 suggested a fusion transcript ZNF611-IL1RAPL1 under the control of the ZNF611 promoter, gene disrupted at the autosomal breakpoint. The X-chromosomal breakpoint definition in the fourth patient, a woman with normal intellectual abilities, revealed disruption of the ZDHHC15 gene (MRX91). The expression assays did not detect ZDHHC15 gene expression in the patient, thus questioning its involvement in intellectual disability. Revealing the disruption of an X-linked intellectual disability-related gene in patients with balanced X-autosome translocation is a useful tool for a better characterization of critical genes in neurodevelopment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26290131

  12. Psychometric Comparisons of Three Measures for Assessing Motor Functions in Preschoolers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Y-P.; Su, C-Y.; Huang, M-H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficit in motor performance is common in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). A motor function measure with sound psychometric properties is indispensable for clinical and research use. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of three commonly used clinical measures for assessing motor function in…

  13. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  14. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  15. Poverty and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure…

  16. Intellectualization, Obsessive Ideation, Compulsion: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Obsessive thoughts (intellectualization, obsessive ideation) were studied by S. Freud, as were compulsions. The former are related to isolation, fixed ideas, compartmentalization, and encapsulation but differ from intellectuality. Compulsions are related to obsessive acts, ritualizations, and undoing but differ from habit. Analagously, obsessive…

  17. Intellectual Freedom and the Bible College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    A number of evangelical Christian authors have wrestled with the subject of intellectual freedom--few, though, in the context of Bible college libraries. The secular concept of intellectual freedom is incompatible with Bible colleges in that it is absolutist and shuns any standard of morality. Theological, educational, and pragmatic factors…

  18. Fostering Successful Intellectual Styles for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual styles refer to people's preferred ways of processing information and dealing with tasks. Individuals who have a propensity for using a wide range of styles--always including creativity-generating styles--are said to possess successful intellectual styles. The author argues that teachers should and can encourage creativity among…

  19. Executive Functions in Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Ronnberg, Jerker; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate executive functions in adults with intellectual disability, and compare them to a closely matched control group longitudinally for 5 years. In the Betula database, a group of adults with intellectual disability (ID, n = 46) was defined from measures of verbal and non-verbal IQ. A control group, with…

  20. Intellectuals, Tertiary Education and Questions of Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In contemplating the roles and responsibilities of intellectuals in the 21st century, the notion of "difference" is significant in at least two senses. First, work on the politics of difference allows us to consider the question "For whom does the intellectual speak?" in a fresh light. Second, we can ask: "To what extent, and in what ways, might…

  1. Adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Psychopathological Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele; Marcheschi, Mara; Pfanner, Pietro

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of cognitive and emotional functioning in intellectually borderline adolescents and the consequences for personality and social development. Psychopathological risk is analyzed. Describes conceptualizations that intellectually borderline adolescents have of their own mental functioning. Discusses the implication for…

  2. A straightforward strategy toward large BN-embedded π-systems: synthesis, structure, and optoelectronic properties of extended BN heterosuperbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ye; Zhuang, Fang-Dong; Wang, Rui-Bo; Wang, Xin-Chang; Cao, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2014-03-12

    A straightforward strategy has been used to construct large BN-embedded π-systems simply from azaacenes. BN heterosuperbenzene derivatives, the largest BN heteroaromatics to date, have been synthesized in three steps. The molecules exhibit curved π-surfaces, showing two different conformations which are self-organized into a sandwich structure and further packed into a π-stacking column. The assembled microribbons exhibit good charge transport properties and photoconductivity, representing an important step toward the optoelectronic applications of BN-embedded aromatics.

  3. Substance abuse among individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substance abusers without ID, ID substance abusers are less likely to receive substance abuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID. PMID:22502840

  4. General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness may use general or specialist psychiatric services. This review aims to assess if there is evidence for a difference in outcome between them. A literature review was conducted using a variety of electronic databases and hand-search strategies to identify all studies evaluating the outcome…

  5. The Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, S.; Sohanpal, S. K.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.; Unwin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Psychopharmacological intervention in the management of behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) has become a common treatment strategy. This has become a cause for concern, given that the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain and most drugs are not licensed for this use. Methods: A comprehensive…

  6. Teaching Elementary Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities How To Shop for Groceries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Timothy E.; Schuster, John W.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an instructional strategy in teaching 10 elementary-aged students with moderate intellectual disabilities how to shop for groceries. Following the intervention, which consisted of in vivo training using constant time delay and simulation training using a pictorial storyboard, six students achieved…

  7. End-of-Life Care Policies in Flemish Residential Care Facilities Accommodating Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Haene, I.; Pasman, H. R. W.; Deliens, L.; Bilsen, J.; Mortier, F.; Stichele, R. Vander

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to describe the presence, content and implementation strategies of written policies on end-of-life decisions in Flemish residential care facilities (RCFs) accommodating persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to describe training, education and quality assessments of end-of-life care. Methods: A…

  8. Staff Morale in Day Care Centres for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascha, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    Background: Levels of burnout, job satisfaction and intended turnover of staff working in day care centres for adults with intellectual disabilities are investigated in relation to role clarity, staff support and supervision, and coping strategies used by staff. Materials and methods: Thirty six direct-care staff of four day care centres in the UK…

  9. Assessment of Postural Adjustments in Persons with Intellectual Disability during Balance on the Seesaw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, R. L.; Almeida, G. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic and electromyography strategy used by individuals with intellectual disability to keep equilibrium during anterior-posterior balance on seesaws with different degrees of instability. Method: Six individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and six control group individuals (CG) balanced…

  10. Barriers to Caregiver Compliance with Eating and Drinking Recommendations for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Jolliffe, Jane; Goldbart, Juliet; Burton, Mark H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is scant research on the subject of dysphagia and people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the barriers which caregivers believe make following Speech and Language Therapists' (SLTs) dysphagia management strategies more difficult. Method: Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted with 46 caregivers…

  11. Interventions Provided by Parents for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Gray, Kylie M.; Sofronoff, Kate; Rice, Lauren; Emerson, Eric; Yasamy, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries, there is a lack of well-trained therapists to provide specialist interventions for children with intellectual disabilities and their families. We sought to identify strategies deliverable by families or non-specialist workers. Materials and Methods: After searches of appropriate scientific…

  12. Meeting the Challenge of Limited Literacy Resources for Adolescents and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michelle F.; Moni, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    For adolescents and adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities (or, in the UK, learning disabilities or learning difficulties), the achievement of successful engagement with, and construction of meaning from, texts necessitates the implementation and use of specifically designed and adapted teaching strategies and resources. The…

  13. Intellectual Giftedness and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Rosanna; Hawes, David J.; Abbott, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic search strategy in which intellectual giftedness was operationalized in terms of IQ score, the authors examined evidence from studies reporting on associations between this aspect of giftedness and psychopathology. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria: compared gifted (IQ = 125) and nongifted (IQ = 90-110) peers or…

  14. Caregiving Perceptions of Chinese Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Ho, Gladys S. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In this study, we tested the effects of three different coping strategies (i.e. problem-focused, emotion-focused and relationship-focused coping) on both positive and negative caregiving perceptions. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twelve Chinese mothers of children with intellectual disability from a major non-governmental…

  15. Video Self-Modeling: A Job Skills Intervention with Individuals with Intellectual Disability in Employment Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Ailsa E.; Bambara, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) to teach chained job tasks to individuals with intellectual disability in community-based employment settings. Initial empirical evaluations have demonstrated that VSM when used in combination with other instructional strategies, are effective methods to teach…

  16. Academics and practitioners: nurses as intellectuals.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Colin A

    2002-06-01

    Academics and practitioners: nurses as intellectuals In the author's experience, nurse educators working in universities generally accept that they are 'academics', but dismiss suggestions that they are 'intellectuals' because they see it as a pretentious description referring to a small number of academics and aesthetes who inhabit a conceptual world beyond the imaginative capacity of most other people. This paper suggests that the concept of the 'intellectual', if not the word itself, be admitted into nursing discourse through the adoption of a non-élitist Gramscian understanding, similar to the more recently formulated conception of the reflective practitioner. According to the Italian Marxist scholar Antonio Gramsci, intellectuals are those people who develop ways in which to construct the conditions of their own existence, a possibility he believed was open to all. It is suggested that, from a Gramscian perspective, all nurses are intellectuals to varying degrees, and nurse educators should not only be nurturing their own intellectualism but also the potential for intellectualism as it exists within each individual. The ways in which this project are related to Habermasian critical theory are also briefly outlined. PMID:12071908

  17. Embedding cognizance in intellectual development.

    PubMed

    Spanoudis, George; Demetriou, Andreas; Kazi, Smargada; Giorgala, Katerina; Zenonos, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether cognizance of cognitive processes (i.e., awareness of the perceptual and inferential origins of knowledge) mediates between basic processing efficiency functions (i.e., processing speed, attention control, and working memory) and fluid cognition (e.g., performance on Raven-like matrices) during development. For this aim, children from 4 to 8 years of age were examined by various measures addressed to each of these processes. All processes developed systematically throughout this age period. Structural equation modeling showed that awareness does have this mediating role, that this mediation is phase specific based on perceptual awareness and theory of mind during the 5- and 6-year phase and on inferential awareness during the 7- and 8-year phase, and that it builds up within each developmental cycle. Attention control emerges from, rather than directs, working memory and largely remains beyond awareness through the age span studied. Implications for theory of intellectual development are discussed.

  18. Increasing Social Interaction Skills of Secondary School Students with Autism and/or Intellectual Disability: A Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Kaplan, Lauren; Bernstein, Rebekah; Boykin, Michaela; Reilly, Caitlin; Brigham, Nicolette; Cosgriff, Joseph; Heilingoetter, Jamie; Harvey, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed studies to identify strategies effective at increasing social interaction skills across a range of secondary school students with autism and/or intellectual disability who experienced limited peer interaction. We were particularly interested in identifying strategies that involved peers and were effective at increasing peer interaction…

  19. Intellectual Workers and Their Work in Social Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvillier, Rolande

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of intellectual work and the relationship between intellectual workers and their work, the quality of intellectual work, and worker's rights demonstrates there are far greater differences between intellectual workers and other workers than commonly supposed. Their work must not be dehumanized--a present danger. (AG)

  20. Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. Eleventh Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Bradley, Valerie J.; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Gomez, Sharon C.; Lachapelle, Yves; Luckasson, Ruth; Reeve, Alya; Shogren, Karrie A.; Snell, Martha E.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.; Thompson, James R.; Verdugo-Alonso, Miguel A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Yeager, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    This Manual contains the most current and authoritative information and knowledge on intellectual disability, including best practice guidelines on diagnosing and classifying intellectual disability and developing a system of supports for people living with an intellectual disability. Written by a committee of 18 experts, "Intellectual Disability:…

  1. Is Intellectual Character Growth a Realistic Educational Aim?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehr, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Responsibilist approaches to virtue epistemology examine the epistemic significance of intellectual virtues like curiosity, attentiveness, intellectual humility, open-mindedness, intellectual courage, and intellectual tenacity. On one way of thinking about these traits, they are the deep personal qualities or character traits of a good thinker or…

  2. Optimization strategy for and structural properties of traffic efficiency under bounded information accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghyun, Ahn; Seungwoong, Ha; Kim, Soo Yong

    2016-06-01

    A vital challenge for many socioeconomic systems is determining the optimum use of limited information. Traffic systems, wherein the range of resources is limited, are a particularly good example of this challenge. Based on bounded information accessibility in terms of, for example, high costs or technical limitations, we develop a new optimization strategy to improve the efficiency of a traffic system with signals and intersections. Numerous studies, including the study by Chowdery and Schadschneider (whose method we denote by ChSch), have attempted to achieve the maximum vehicle speed or the minimum wait time for a given traffic condition. In this paper, we introduce a modified version of ChSch with an independently functioning, decentralized control system. With the new model, we determine the optimization strategy under bounded information accessibility, which proves the existence of an optimal point for phase transitions in the system. The paper also provides insight that can be applied by traffic engineers to create more efficient traffic systems by analyzing the area and symmetry of local sites. We support our results with a statistical analysis using empirical traffic data from Seoul, Korea.

  3. Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Roger E.; Holden, Kenton R.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability occurs as an isolated X-linked trait and as a component of recognizable X-linked syndromes in the company of somatic, metabolic, neuromuscular, or behavioral abnormalities. Seizures accompany intellectual disability in almost half of these X-linked disorders. The spectrum of seizures found in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes is broad, varying in time of onset, type of seizure, and response to anticonvulsant therapy. The majority of the genes associated with XLID and seizures have now been identified. PMID:22377486

  4. Rethinking traditional methods for measuring intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Corso, John A

    2007-01-01

    Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct.

  5. Emerging policy challenges in intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fujiura, Glenn T; Parish, Susan L

    2007-01-01

    The forces shaping intellectual disability policy-making are diverse; while many of the policy issues reviewed in this issue are specific to intellectual disabilities, there are others that transcend disability-specific concerns. Our review is organized around six emerging demographic and socio-cultural trends that may directly and profoundly impact the intellectual disability field: aging, changing labor markets, immigration, families, federalism, and culture. Each of these trends is discussed in terms of their relevance and potential impact on disability policy. PMID:17563901

  6. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  7. Rethinking traditional methods for measuring intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Corso, John A

    2007-01-01

    Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct. PMID:17198113

  8. Molecular tandem repeat strategy for elucidating mechanical properties of high-strength proteins.

    PubMed

    Jung, Huihun; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Saadat, Alham; Sebastian, Aswathy; Kim, Dong Hwan; Hamilton, Reginald F; Albert, Istvan; Allen, Benjamin D; Demirel, Melik C

    2016-06-01

    Many globular and structural proteins have repetitions in their sequences or structures. However, a clear relationship between these repeats and their contribution to the mechanical properties remains elusive. We propose a new approach for the design and production of synthetic polypeptides that comprise one or more tandem copies of a single unit with distinct amorphous and ordered regions. Our designed sequences are based on a structural protein produced in squid suction cups that has a segmented copolymer structure with amorphous and crystalline domains. We produced segmented polypeptides with varying repeat number, while keeping the lengths and compositions of the amorphous and crystalline regions fixed. We showed that mechanical properties of these synthetic proteins could be tuned by modulating their molecular weights. Specifically, the toughness and extensibility of synthetic polypeptides increase as a function of the number of tandem repeats. This result suggests that the repetitions in native squid proteins could have a genetic advantage for increased toughness and flexibility. PMID:27222581

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticles as attractive drug vehicles: Composition, properties and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata; Moritz, Michał

    2016-11-01

    This work briefly reviews up-to-date developments in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as effective nanocolloidal system for drug delivery. It summarizes SLNs in terms of their preparation, surface modification and properties. The application of SLNs as a carrier system enables to improve the therapeutic efficacy of drugs from various therapeutic groups. Present uses of SLNs include cancer therapy, dermatology, bacterial infections, brain targeting and eye disorders among others. The usage of SLNs provides enhanced pharmacokinetic properties and modulated release of drugs. SLN ubiquitous application results from their specific features such as possibility of surface modification, increased permeation through biological barriers, resistance to chemical degradation, possibility of co-delivery of various therapeutic agents or stimuli-responsiveness. This paper will be useful to the scientists working in the domain of SLN-based drug delivery systems. PMID:27524099

  10. Dealing with Resistance: Strategies for Effective Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes strategies for dealing effectively with resistance in group therapy. Discusses resistant group members; reasons for resistance; group stages; and strategies for dealing with silence, laughter, excessive talking, monopolizing, and intellectualizing and generalizing. Includes discussion of experimental strategies to overcome group…

  11. Changes in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the solid fraction of cattle slurry during composting using different aeration strategies.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Flotats, Xavier; Marfà, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Replacement of peat as a growing medium by a renewable material, such as an organic waste, is an issue of concern since harvesting of peat has a considerable environmental impact and, actually, it is a non-renewable resource. Cattle manure is a readily available organic waste, which means that once it goes through the composting process, it can be used as an alternative to peat, specifically, the solid fraction obtained from mechanical liquid-solid separation of cattle slurry (SF). Studies have shown it to be suitable for such uses. The purpose of this study was to detect possible changes in the physicochemical and chemical properties of SF when it is composted using different aeration strategies, with an emphasis on the changes that would make it feasible for use as a substrate. With this aim in mind, an experiment was designed with three aeration strategies that would be used during composting. The first consisted of applying air through a static method (forced ventilation). The second involved improving aeration by adding a bulking agent and a dynamic turning method. In the third strategy, aeration was carried out by turning (control). The results show that the different aeration strategies had a clear effect on the evolution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-N, ammonia-N and bicarbonate content. Nitrification was favored under good aeration conditions using the static composting method, probably due to the greater availability of ammonia-N that was transformed into nitrate-N. In general, the low buffering capacity allowed for a reduction of the pH during the curing stage of composting (in conjunction with low temperatures during this period), a characteristic that favors the use of this compost as a growing medium. We also conclude that measuring bicarbonate levels during composting could be used as an indicator of the possible acidification of the material and as a way of evaluating the level of material aeration. PMID:16146687

  12. Changes in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the solid fraction of cattle slurry during composting using different aeration strategies.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Flotats, Xavier; Marfà, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Replacement of peat as a growing medium by a renewable material, such as an organic waste, is an issue of concern since harvesting of peat has a considerable environmental impact and, actually, it is a non-renewable resource. Cattle manure is a readily available organic waste, which means that once it goes through the composting process, it can be used as an alternative to peat, specifically, the solid fraction obtained from mechanical liquid-solid separation of cattle slurry (SF). Studies have shown it to be suitable for such uses. The purpose of this study was to detect possible changes in the physicochemical and chemical properties of SF when it is composted using different aeration strategies, with an emphasis on the changes that would make it feasible for use as a substrate. With this aim in mind, an experiment was designed with three aeration strategies that would be used during composting. The first consisted of applying air through a static method (forced ventilation). The second involved improving aeration by adding a bulking agent and a dynamic turning method. In the third strategy, aeration was carried out by turning (control). The results show that the different aeration strategies had a clear effect on the evolution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-N, ammonia-N and bicarbonate content. Nitrification was favored under good aeration conditions using the static composting method, probably due to the greater availability of ammonia-N that was transformed into nitrate-N. In general, the low buffering capacity allowed for a reduction of the pH during the curing stage of composting (in conjunction with low temperatures during this period), a characteristic that favors the use of this compost as a growing medium. We also conclude that measuring bicarbonate levels during composting could be used as an indicator of the possible acidification of the material and as a way of evaluating the level of material aeration.

  13. [High intellectual capacity: perfectionism and metacognitive regulation].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2012-02-29

    The aim of this study is a better understanding of the high intellectual abilities. From the emergent paradigm, high intellectual abilities are understood as multidimensional and as the result of the life-span development, this is to say, not only the result of their neurobiological bases but of the interrelation among opportunity, personality, psychosocial factors and individual effort. This theoretical study analyses the differences between excellence and perfectionism, their types and incidence on high intellectual ability functioning. We propose a comparative view of the state of the art through recent research and their results referred to different types of perfectionism, their measure and relation with high intellectual abilities, its metacognitive regulation and its goal orientation. Finally, we propose a starting research comparing the relationship between perfectionism as a multidimensional cognitive pattern of functioning (positive or negative) and the measures of metacognitive performance.

  14. The Real Minority: Intellectuals and Democratic Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schier, Richard F.

    1975-01-01

    For a decade, intellectuals have shaped the political dialogue of the country, but their moral absolutism generates a simplistic view of politics that is incompatible with democratic government. (Editor)

  15. Intellectual development of children from interracial matings.

    PubMed

    Willerman, L; Naylor, A F; Myrianthopoulos, N C

    1970-12-18

    Interracial offspring of white mothers obtained significantly higher IQ scores at 4 years of age than interracial offspring of Negro mothers, suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in the lower intellectual performance of Negro children.

  16. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  17. Effect of Noise on Intellectual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Neil D.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of a realistic noise level (typing) on the intellectually challenging task of proofreading was examined. The results indicate noise subjects were poorer at identifying grammatical errors, worked slower and less steadily. (Author/DE)

  18. Evaluation strategies for vertical profiles of physical properties simulated by multilayer snowpack models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Samuel; Hagenmuller, Pascal; Dumont, Marie; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Multilayer snowpack models aim at representing processes responsible for the layering of a one-dimensional snowpack, and its time evolution. Their evaluation should ideally not only rely on observations of vertically integrated properties (depth, albedo, snow water equivalent, surface temperature) but also vertical profiles of properties such as density, liquid water content, specific surface area, penetration resistance etc. However, even at well-documented sites where meteorological conditions are monitored with the highest possible accuracy, the direct comparison of simulated and observed profiles has proven challenging. This is due, not only to intrinsic model errors and snow observation uncertainties, which are classically considered, but also to errors of the meteorological observations used to drive the snowpack models and snowpack heterogeneity. These sources of errors stratigraphic mismatches, i.e. a layer at the same depth in the simulated and observed snowpack may not necessarily correspond to the same stratigraphic horizon. In addition, such errors accumulate during the course of a snow season. Altogether, this makes it particularly difficult to disentangle errors due to the snowpack model itself (which is the primary goal of such comparisons) from other sources of errors. This presentation will review various approaches already developed (e.g. Lehning and Fierz, CRST 2001) and introduce yet-to-implement methods, with the aim to provide a framework allowing improved comparisons between observed and simulated snow profiles, which is a long-lasting need of the snow modelling community.

  19. Auditory attention strategy depends on target linguistic properties and spatial configurationa)

    PubMed Central

    McCloy, Daniel R.; Lee, Adrian K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Whether crossing a busy intersection or attending a large dinner party, listeners sometimes need to attend to multiple spatially distributed sound sources or streams concurrently. How they achieve this is not clear—some studies suggest that listeners cannot truly simultaneously attend to separate streams, but instead combine attention switching with short-term memory to achieve something resembling divided attention. This paper presents two oddball detection experiments designed to investigate whether directing attention to phonetic versus semantic properties of the attended speech impacts listeners' ability to divide their auditory attention across spatial locations. Each experiment uses four spatially distinct streams of monosyllabic words, variation in cue type (providing phonetic or semantic information), and requiring attention to one or two locations. A rapid button-press response paradigm is employed to minimize the role of short-term memory in performing the task. Results show that differences in the spatial configuration of attended and unattended streams interact with linguistic properties of the speech streams to impact performance. Additionally, listeners may leverage phonetic information to make oddball detection judgments even when oddballs are semantically defined. Both of these effects appear to be mediated by the overall complexity of the acoustic scene. PMID:26233011

  20. Cerebral creatine deficiencies: a group of treatable intellectual developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2014-07-01

    Currently there are 91 treatable inborn errors of metabolism that cause intellectual developmental disorders. Cerebral creatine deficiencies (CDD) comprise three of these: arginine: glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT], guanidinoacetate methyltransferase [GAMT], and X-linked creatine transporter deficiency [SLC6A8]. Intellectual developmental disorder and cerebral creatine deficiency are the hallmarks of CDD. Additional clinical features include prominent speech delay, autism, epilepsy, extrapyramidal movement disorders, and signal changes in the globus pallidus. Patients with GAMT deficiency exhibit the most severe clinical spectrum. Myopathy is a distinct feature in AGAT deficiency. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is the immediate product in the creatine biosynthetic pathway. Low GAA concentrations in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid are characteristic diagnostic markers for AGAT deficiency, while high GAA concentrations are characteristic markers for GAMT deficiency. An elevated ratio of urinary creatine /creatinine excretion serves as a diagnostic marker in males with SLC6A8 deficiency. Treatment strategies include oral supplementation of high-dose creatine-monohydrate for all three CDD. Guanidinoacetate-reducing strategies (high-dose ornithine, arginine-restricted diet) are additionally employed in GAMT deficiency. Supplementation of substrates for intracerebral creatine synthesis (arginine, glycine) has been used additionally to treat SLC6A8 deficiency. Early recognition and treatment improves outcomes. Normal outcomes in neonatally ascertained siblings from index families with AGAT and GAMT deficiency suggest a potential benefit of newborn screening for these disorders.

  1. Cooperative learning and social acceptance of children with mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Jacques, N; Wilton, K; Townsend, M

    1998-02-01

    The effects of the participation of non-disabled children in a cooperative learning programme on their social acceptance of classmates with mild intellectual disability was examined. A sample of 24 children with mild intellectual disability in the 9-11-year-old age-range was identified from educational psychologists' case records. All of the children were receiving mainstreaming special education programmes at the time of the study. Twelve of the children had previously attended special education classes, while the remainder had always attended regular classes. Half of the children's regular classes were randomly assigned to either receive an experimental cooperative learning programme or to serve as control classrooms. The non-disabled children in the experimental classes showed significant increases in their social acceptance (sociometric ratings) of the children with mild intellectual disability, both immediately following the programme and 5 weeks later, but no such increases were evident in the children in the control classrooms. This pattern held for both the former special class pupils and the children with mild intellectual disability who had never attended special classes. The results confirm the usefulness of cooperative learning strategies for enhancing the social acceptance of children with mild intellectual disability in mainstreaming special educational programmes, regardless of the nature of their previous special educational provisions. PMID:9534112

  2. Reifications of the intellectual: representations, organization and agency in revolutionary China.

    PubMed

    U, Eddy

    2013-12-01

    How did 'intellectuals' evolve from a class of subjects in Marxian thoughts to highly visible populations under communism? Such 'reifications of the intellectual' have deeply affected subjectivity, conflict and organization, but received little attention in the political sociology of communism. This essay draws on research on classifications and social boundaries to address the objective and subjective foundations of the reifications and their impact on communist rule. The intellectual is viewed as an identification formed and performed around multiple social axes (most notably family background, educational achievement, occupational history, institutional affiliation and revolutionary rank) that reflected broader patterns of communist political domination. I use the Chinese Communist movement to demonstrate that (1) interaction of political contests, ruling strategies and institutional developments turned a diversity of persons into 'intellectuals' who were allegedly imbued with reprehensible interests and habits linked to privileged economic classes; (2) constant competitions for power and organizational changes led to classificatory ambiguities and, in turn, allowed individuals some control over their identifications; and (3) the developments profoundly influenced identity, state and class formation. Focusing on the dynamics that produced a highly visible but fluid population of 'intellectuals' opens new pathways for comparative research on communism.

  3. Reifications of the intellectual: representations, organization and agency in revolutionary China.

    PubMed

    U, Eddy

    2013-12-01

    How did 'intellectuals' evolve from a class of subjects in Marxian thoughts to highly visible populations under communism? Such 'reifications of the intellectual' have deeply affected subjectivity, conflict and organization, but received little attention in the political sociology of communism. This essay draws on research on classifications and social boundaries to address the objective and subjective foundations of the reifications and their impact on communist rule. The intellectual is viewed as an identification formed and performed around multiple social axes (most notably family background, educational achievement, occupational history, institutional affiliation and revolutionary rank) that reflected broader patterns of communist political domination. I use the Chinese Communist movement to demonstrate that (1) interaction of political contests, ruling strategies and institutional developments turned a diversity of persons into 'intellectuals' who were allegedly imbued with reprehensible interests and habits linked to privileged economic classes; (2) constant competitions for power and organizational changes led to classificatory ambiguities and, in turn, allowed individuals some control over their identifications; and (3) the developments profoundly influenced identity, state and class formation. Focusing on the dynamics that produced a highly visible but fluid population of 'intellectuals' opens new pathways for comparative research on communism. PMID:24320069

  4. Cellulose reinforced nylon-6 nanofibrous membrane: Fabrication strategies, physicochemical characterizations, wicking properties and biomimetic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Maharjan, Bikendra; Won, Ko Sung; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-08-20

    The aim of the present study is to develop a facile, efficient approach to reinforce nylon 6 (N6) nanofibers with cellulose chains as well as to study the effect that cellulose regeneration has on the physicochemical properties of the composite fibers. Here, a cellulose acetate (CA) solution (17wt%) was prepared in formic acid and was blended with N6 solution (20%, prepared in formic acid and acetic acid) in various proportions, and the blended solutions were then electrospun to produce hybrid N6/CA nanofibers. Cellulose was regenerated in-situ in the fiber via alkaline saponification of the CA content of the hybrid fiber, leading to cellulose-reinforced N6 (N6/CL) nanofibers. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the fiber diameter and hence pore size gradually decreases as the mass composition of CA increases in the electrospinning solution. Cellulose regeneration showed noticeable change in the polymorphic behavior of N6, as observed in the XRD and IR spectra. The strong interaction of the hydroxyl group of cellulose with amide group of N6, mainly via hydrogen bonding, has a pronounced effect on the polymorphic behavior of N6. The γ-phase was dominant in pristine N6 and N6/CA fibers while α- phase was dominant in the N6/CL fibers. The surface wettability, wicking properties, and the tensile stress were greatly improved for N6/CL fibers compared to the corresponding N6/CA hybrid fibers. Results of DSC/TGA revealed that N6/CL fibers were more thermally stable than pristine N6 and N6/CA nanofibers. Furthermore, regeneration of cellulose chain improved the ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals in a simulated body fluid solution. PMID:27178914

  5. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  6. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  7. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  8. Improved Pharmacological and Structural Properties of HIV Fusion Inhibitor AP3 over Enfuvirtide: Highlighting Advantages of Artificial Peptide Strategy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Yun; Ye, Sheng; Wang, Qian; Xu, Wei; Su, Shan; Sun, Zhiwu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Chao; et al

    2015-08-19

    Enfuvirtide (T20), is the first HIV fusion inhibitor approved for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to the current antiretroviral drugs. However, its clinical application is limited because of short half-life, drug resistance and cross-reactivity with the preexisting antibodies in HIV-infected patients. Using an artificial peptide strategy, we designed a peptide with non-native protein sequence, AP3, which exhibited potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains, including those resistant to T20, and had remarkably longer in vivo half-life than T20. While the preexisting antibodies in HIV-infected patients significantly suppressed T20’s antiviral activity, these antibodies neither recognizedmore » AP3, nor attenuated its anti-HIV-1 activity. Structurally different from T20, AP3 could fold into single-helix and interact with gp41 NHR. The two residues, Met and Thr, at the N-terminus of AP3 form a hook-like structure to stabilize interaction between AP3 and NHR helices. Therefore, AP3 has potential for further development as a new HIV fusion inhibitor with improved antiviral efficacy, resistance profile and pharmacological properties over enfuvirtide. Meanwhile, this study highlighted the advantages of artificially designed peptides, and confirmed that this strategy could be used in developing artificial peptide-based viral fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses.« less

  9. Study on the microstructure, mechanical property and residual stress of SLM Inconel-718 alloy manufactured by differing island scanning strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Chuanguang; Junjie, Lin; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-12-01

    Inconel-718 has received an extensive using in mold industry. The selective laser melting (SLM) is providing an ideal means for manufacturing mold insert with complex geometrical features and internal architecture. During the manufacturing of high quality mold inserts with conformal cooling channel, the parameters play a vital role in the SLM process. In the study, the Inconel-718 alloys were manufactured by SLM with 2×2 mm2, 3×3 mm2, 5×5 mm2, and 7×7 mm2 island scanning strategies. The microstructure, mechanical property, and residual stress were investigated by optical microscope, tensile test and Vickers micro-indentation, respectively. It can be found that the relative density increased with enlarging the island size; the results on the microstructure indicated that the cracks and more pores were detected in the 22-specimen; whilst the microstructures of all specimens were composed of fine dendritic grains, cellular, and columnar structures; the tensile testing suggested that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of all samples was similar; while the outcome of the residual stress showed that the value of residual stress was ranked in the following sequence: 22-specimen<55-specimen<77-specimen<33-specimen. Although the 22-specimen had lower residual stress compared with the other groups, the occurrence of cracks limited its processing application in SLM. Through integrated into account, the 55-scanning strategy is a promising candidate for manufacturing of mold inserts.

  10. Behavior Problems: Differences among Intellectually Disabled Adults with Co-Morbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…

  11. Rasch Analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) ages 4-12 years using the dichotomous Rasch model. The VMI was administered individually to 454 children with ID. Rasch analysis was applied to investigate…

  12. 76 FR 55744 - Currently Approved Information Collection: Comment Request for Application for Intellectual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... United States Mint Currently Approved Information Collection: Comment Request for Application for Intellectual Property Use Forms AGENCY: United States Mint. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the United States Mint,...

  13. Checklists for General Practitioner Diagnosis of Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torr, J.; Iacono, T.; Graham, M. J.; Galea, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In Australia, diagnosis and management of depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID) often occurs within the primary care setting. Few tools are available to assist general practitioners (GPs) in the diagnostic process. The study aim was to assess properties of carer and GP checklists developed to address this problem.…

  14. Instruments Assessing Anxiety in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Heidi; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the last decades several instruments measuring anxiety in adults with intellectual disabilities have been developed. Aim: To give an overview of the characteristics and psychometric properties of self-report and informant-report instruments measuring anxiety in this group. Method: Systematic review of the literature. Results:…

  15. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  16. Pre-Trial Reported Defendants in the Netherlands with Intellectual Disability, Borderline and Normal Intellectual Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinkers, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intellectually disabled offenders may have different characteristics than offenders with average intellectual functioning. We therefore compared pre-trial reported defendants with an IQ score =70, 71-84 and =85 points. Methods: Nationwide database of pre-trial psychiatric reports requested by Dutch courts between 2000 and 2006 with a…

  17. Debunking Anti-Intellectualism: An Examination of African American College Students' Intellectual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Darnell

    2011-01-01

    Framed within the debate on African American "anti-intellectualism," this study examined a longitudinal sample of 460 African American students' intellectual self-concept and college grades (GPA) through regression analyses resulting from their college experiences. The findings showed that the college environment had a modest influence on African…

  18. The Anti-intellectualism of the Intellectuals: Perspectives from Liberal Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James M.

    An analysis of John Dewey's writing for liberal journals reveals Dewey's early and forceful efforts to refute anti-intellectual perversions of his theories. During the 1920's, the child-centered branch of the progressive education movement included some schools and individuals that expressed anti-intellectual positions. Richard Hofstadter in his…

  19. Physicochemical properties, form, and formulation selection strategy for a biopharmaceutical classification system class II preclinical drug candidate.

    PubMed

    Lohani, Sachin; Cooper, Harriet; Jin, Xiaoling; Nissley, Becky P; Manser, Kimberly; Rakes, Linda Huong; Cummings, John J; Fauty, Scott E; Bak, Annette

    2014-10-01

    This work summarizes the pharmaceutical evaluation of a preclinical drug candidate with poor physicochemical properties. Compound 1 is a weakly basic, GPR-119 agonist designated to Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class II because of good permeability in a Caco-2 cell line model and poor solubility. Compound 1 showed good oral bioavailability from a solution formulation at low doses and oral exposure sufficient for toxicological evaluation at high doses from a nanosuspension of Form A-the only known polymorph of 1 during drug discovery. The identification of the thermodynamically stable polymorph, Form B, during early development adversely affected the bioperformance of the nanosuspension. The poor solubility of Form B resulted in a significant reduction in the oral exposure from a nanosuspension to a level that was insufficient for toxicological evaluation of compound 1. Subsequent to the discovery of Form B, multiple form and formulation engineering strategies were evaluated for their ability to enhance the oral exposure of 1. Formulations based on cocrystals and amorphous solid dispersions showed a statistically significant increase in exposure, sixfold and sevenfold, respectively, over the benchmark formulation, a suspension of Form B. The physicochemical characterization of 1, and the solid form and formulation engineering approaches explored to address the insufficient oral exposure of Form B are discussed along with insights on improving the physicochemical properties of the follow-on drug candidates in discovery.

  20. Investigation of Forming Strategies to Set up Mechanical Properties of Parts Made by Incremental Sheet Bulk Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plugge, B.; Schunck, S.; Kwiatkowski, L.; Brosius, A.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2011-05-01

    Load-adapted parts with an increasing number of functions become more and more interesting in order to reduce the weight of all kinds of mechanical constructions. Such parts require varying mechanical properties and towards they are cost-expensive. One approach to reduce the costs is the application of cheap semi-finished parts. To process such parts, especially in thickness direction, bulk-forming operations are requested. This leads to high forming forces. A feasible approach to reduce the forces is the application of incremental forming techniques. In this paper an incremental rolling process is presented. The sequential order of forming operations during incremental rolling allows an individual adjustment of mechanical and the geometrical properties. In the presented study a sheet with a thickness of 2 mm made of mild steel is formed using a roller ball with a diameter of 13 mm. Main objective of the investigation is to manufacture parts with equal values for thickness but different values of the local surface hardness. The investigation is supported by Finite-Element-Analysis (FEA) to determine the distribution of the strains over the part's thickness. The results show that it is possible to manufacture parts with the same thickness and different surface hardness by applying different forming strategies. Keeping the entire process parameters constant but rolling the part alternating at both surfaces will result in a higher hardness on the surface in comparison to a one-sided rolling.

  1. Hinge-like structure induced unusual properties of black phosphorus and new strategies to improve the thermoelectric performance

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Guangzhao; Yan, Qing-Bo; Qin, Zhenzhen; Yue, Sheng-Ying; Cui, Hui-Juan; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang

    2014-01-01

    We systematically investigated the geometric, electronic and thermoelectric (TE) properties of bulk black phosphorus (BP) under strain. The hinge-like structure of BP brings unusual mechanical responses such as anisotropic Young's modulus and negative Poisson's ratio. A sensitive electronic structure of BP makes it transform among metal, direct and indirect semiconductors under strain. The maximal figure of merit ZT of BP is found to be 0.72 at 800 K that could be enhanced to 0.87 by exerting an appropriate strain, revealing BP could be a potential medium-high temperature TE material. Such strain-induced enhancements of TE performance are often observed to occur at the boundary of the direct-indirect band gap transition, which can be attributed to the increase of degeneracy of energy valleys at the transition point. By comparing the structure of BP with SnSe, a family of potential TE materials with hinge-like structure are suggested. This study not only exposes various novel properties of BP under strain, but also proposes effective strategies to seek for better TE materials. PMID:25374306

  2. Immunomodulatory properties of silver nanoparticles contribute to anticancer strategy for murine fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Biswajit; Pal, Ramkrishna; Ali, Mohammed; Singh, Leichombam Mohindro; Shahidur Rahman, Dewan; Kumar Ghosh, Sujit; Sengupta, Mahuya

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in nanoparticle-based cancer therapeutics is gaining impetus due to the unique biophysical properties of nanoparticles at the quantum level. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported as one type of potent therapeutic nanoparticles. The present study is aimed to determine the effect of AgNPs in arresting the growth of a murine fibrosarcoma by a reductive mechanism. Initially, a bioavailability study showed that mouse serum albumin (MSA)-coated AgNPs have enhanced uptake; therefore, toxicity studies of AgNP-MSA at 10 different doses (1–10 mg/kg b.w.) were performed in LACA mice by measuring the complete blood count, lipid profile and histological parameters. The complete blood count, lipid profile and histological parameter results showed that the doses from 2 to 8 mg (IC50: 6.15 mg/kg b.w.) sequentially increased the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes, whereas the 9- and 10-mg doses showed conclusive toxicity. In an antitumor study, the incidence and size of fibrosarcoma were reduced or delayed when murine fibrosarcoma groups were treated by AgNP-MSA. Transmission electron micrographs showed that considerable uptake of AgNP-MSA by the sentinel immune cells associated with tumor tissue and a morphologically buckled structure of the immune cells containing AgNP-MSA. Because the toxicity studies revealed a relationship between AgNPs and immune function, the protumorigenic cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were also assayed in AgNP-MSA-treated and non-treated fibrosarcoma groups, and these cytokines were found to be downregulated after treatment with AgNP-MSA. PMID:25938978

  3. Relationships between Depression and High Intellectual Potential

    PubMed Central

    Weismann-Arcache, Catherine; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyse the relationships between depression and high intellectual potential through a multidisciplinary and original approach. Based on their respective experience in psychology and child psychiatry, the authors will focus their analysis on creative potential. First, relationships between creativity (literary, artistic, or scientific creativity) and melancholy (“melancholy” comes from the Greek words for “black” (“melas”) and “bile” (“khole”)) will be examined from antiquity to modern times. Aristotle introduced a quantitative factor, asserting that levels of melancholy and black bile are positively correlated; however, under a given threshold of black bile, it can give rise to an exceptional being. Second, the case study of Blaise Pascal (scientific and philosophical creativity associated with major depressive episodes from childhood) will be presented and discussed. This case study sheds light on the paradoxical role of depression in the overinvestment in intellectual and creative spheres as well as on the impact of traumatic events on high intellectual potential. Third, observations will be reported based on a study conducted on 100 children with high intellectual potential (6–12 years old). Finally, based on these different levels of analysis, it appears that heterogeneity of mental functioning in children with high intellectual potential is at the center of the creative process and it has related psychological vulnerability. PMID:22645671

  4. Relationships between Depression and High Intellectual Potential.

    PubMed

    Weismann-Arcache, Catherine; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyse the relationships between depression and high intellectual potential through a multidisciplinary and original approach. Based on their respective experience in psychology and child psychiatry, the authors will focus their analysis on creative potential. First, relationships between creativity (literary, artistic, or scientific creativity) and melancholy ("melancholy" comes from the Greek words for "black" ("melas") and "bile" ("khole")) will be examined from antiquity to modern times. Aristotle introduced a quantitative factor, asserting that levels of melancholy and black bile are positively correlated; however, under a given threshold of black bile, it can give rise to an exceptional being. Second, the case study of Blaise Pascal (scientific and philosophical creativity associated with major depressive episodes from childhood) will be presented and discussed. This case study sheds light on the paradoxical role of depression in the overinvestment in intellectual and creative spheres as well as on the impact of traumatic events on high intellectual potential. Third, observations will be reported based on a study conducted on 100 children with high intellectual potential (6-12 years old). Finally, based on these different levels of analysis, it appears that heterogeneity of mental functioning in children with high intellectual potential is at the center of the creative process and it has related psychological vulnerability.

  5. The Properties of Locke's Common-Wealth of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinksy, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reads the educational implications of "intellectual property" that are found in the double meaning of "property", as the word refers to an economic right and a quality of being. It briefly visits the seventeenth-century origins of this double concept of intellectual property (IP), with particular attention paid to John Locke (who…

  6. Intellectual and emotional sequelae of Reye's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, P Y; Levinsohn, M; Drotar, D; Hanson, E E

    1982-09-01

    Previous reports on survivors of Reye's syndrome have indicated a high proportion of significant neurological and intellectual sequelae. However, increasingly sophisticated monitoring and therapeutic techniques have diminished both the mortality and morbidity of this disease. Our present study documented the relatively good intellectual and neurological prognosis for recent survivors of Reye's at our institution and explored the emotional impact of this illness on survivor's families. The significant emotional problems of the children and their families were in striking contrast to the relatively good intellectual and academic recovery. Nine of the 16 survivors showed emotional disruption (primarily somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression). Fourteen of 16 mothers interviewed continued to suffer from anxiety, depression, and overprotective behavior as long as 5 years after their child's illness. In many respects, the parents endured more prolonged and profound suffering than did the children. These findings have implications for the delivery of follow-up care to families of survivors. PMID:7105767

  7. Genetics Home Reference: SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... of SYNGAP1 -related intellectual disability include recurrent seizures (epilepsy), hyperactivity, and autism spectrum disorders, which are conditions ... almost everyone with SYNGAP1 -related intellectual disability develops epilepsy, and about half have an autism spectrum disorder. ...

  8. What Are Treatments for Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities (IDDs)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Research A-Z Topics Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDDs) Overview Condition Information What are common signs? ... Share this: Page Content Many intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) have no cure, but there are often ...

  9. Genetic Approach to Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ratna Dua; Tuteja, Moni; Verma, I C

    2016-10-01

    Intellectual disability is a non-specific phenotype present in a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. It is characterized by deficits in intellectual and adaptive functioning, presenting before 18 y of age. Identifying the cause of ID is important to provide treatment where available, genetic counseling, recurrence risks and reproductive options for subsequent pregnancies. Advances in technology, especially next generation sequencing and microarrays, have greatly increased the diagnostic yield of evaluation in cases of ID. This paper describes the points in history taking and examination in the evaluation of a proband, and discusses the proper use of newer diagnostic technologies. PMID:27619815

  10. Intellectual disability nursing assessment: student reflections.

    PubMed

    Doody, Owen; McInerney, Paula; Linnane, Lynda

    Nursing students, Paula and Lynda, reflect on their first academic assessment of their 4-year intellectual disability nursing course. The reflection is conducted by the second and third authors of this article, and is guided by Gibbs' (1998) cycle, highlighting the positive and negative aspects of their 'workbook' assignment during their first academic semester. Overall, the use of the workbook as an assessment method enabled the students to discover the importance of time management, attendance at lectures, database searching, referencing and academic writing. The assignment enabled the students to be more prepared for clinical practice placement, and develop a basis for future learning and knowledge of intellectual disability.

  11. Solid phase metallurgy strategy to sub-5 nm Au-Pd and Ni-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled redox properties.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Xu, Shaodan; Dai, Yihu; Yan, Xiaoqing; Li, Renhong; Xiao, Liping; Fan, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase metallurgy strategy is applied to synthesize Au-Pd and Ni-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs) with a tight sub-5 nm particle size distribution. The near-surface elemental composition and redox properties of Au-Pd BMNPs can be well tailored, which leads to an optimized catalytic performance in n-hexane combustion.

  12. Biochemical evaluation of a 108-member deglycobleomycin library: viability of a selection strategy for identifying bleomycin analogues with altered properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Xu, Zhidong; Schroeder, Benjamin R; Sun, Wenyue; Wei, Fang; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Konishi, Kazuhide; Leitheiser, Christopher J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2007-10-17

    The bleomycins (BLMs) are clinically used glycopeptide antitumor antibiotics that have been shown to mediate the sequence-selective oxidative damage of both DNA and RNA. Previously, we described the solid-phase synthesis of a library of 108 unique analogues of deglycoBLM A6, a congener that cleaves DNA analogously to BLM itself. Each member of the library was assayed for its ability to effect single- and double-strand nicking of duplex DNA, sequence-selective DNA cleavage, and RNA cleavage in the presence and absence of a metal ion cofactor. All of the analogues tested were found to mediate concentration-dependent plasmid DNA relaxation to some extent, and a number exhibited double-strand cleavage with an efficiency comparable to or greater than deglycoBLM A6. Further, some analogues having altered linker and metal-binding domains mediated altered sequence-selective cleavage, and a few were found to cleave a tRNA3Lys transcript both in the presence and in the absence of a metal cofactor. The results provide insights into structural elements within BLM that control DNA and RNA cleavage. The present study also permits inferences to be drawn regarding the practicality of a selection strategy for the solid-phase construction and evaluation of large libraries of BLM analogues having altered properties.

  13. Intellectual Entrepreneurship: An Authentic Foundation for Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Gary D.; Cherwitz, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Our position in this article is that "intellectual entrepreneurship" provides an intellectually authentic philosophical foundation that can sustain cross-campus and interdisciplinary entrepreneurship education. Drawing upon initiatives begun at The University of Texas at Austin, we document how intellectual entrepreneurship educates…

  14. Measurement and Application of Intellectual Capital in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozbura, F. Tunc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the elements of intellectual capital of firms in Turkey and to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and market value of firms in Istanbul Stock Exchange. To create a suitable intellectual capital measurement model for this study, a wide literature research was made. In almost…

  15. Intellectual Capital Import for the Benefit of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenca, Airita; Gravite, Aija

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the role of intellectual capital in the development of higher education system. The description of economic and marketing values of intellectual capital demonstrates its importance for an institution's establishing in education market. Import and export of intellectual capital is a reality of globalisation processes, and it is…

  16. Laterality and Intellectual Ability: A Just Not Noticeable Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardyck, C.

    1977-01-01

    Research on laterality and intellectual abilities suggests that left-handed persons may be divided into two categories: one not discriminably different from those who are right-handed, and one deficient in intellectual and cognitive abilities. 7688 children were tested on handedness, intellectual performance, and scholastic aptitude in order to…

  17. Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Residing in a Facility for the People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Timell, A. M.; Elolia, R.; Thatcher, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are known to have a high prevalence of both low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures with significant attendant morbidity. Effective strategies aimed at reducing fractures will be facilitated by the identification of predisposing risk factors. Methods: Bone mineral density was measured…

  18. A Multimethod Assessment of Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Mulder, Emile; Walsh, Caitlin E.; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Carr, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased risk for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is a lack of research on the assessment and treatment of anxiety in this population, particularly for those with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study evaluated a multimethod strategy for the assessment of anxiety and problem…

  19. Do We Need Both Cognitive and Behavioural Components in Interventions for Depressed Mood in People with Mild Intellectual Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, J. A.; Kershaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A growing literature suggests that people with mild intellectual disability (ID) who have depressed mood may benefit from cognitive--behavioural interventions. There has been some speculation regarding the relative merit of the components of this approach. The aim of this study was to compare (i) cognitive strategies; (ii) behavioural…

  20. Supporting People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities to Participate in Their Communities through Support Staff Pilot Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrajsek, Andrea Gossett; Hammel, Joy; Scazzero, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasingly, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are supported to participate in least-restricted settings in the community. However, little is known about desired community participation choice and control of people with I/DD, nor effective strategies to support full participation. Furthermore, service…

  1. Training Support Staff to Modify Fluids to Appropriate Safe Consistencies for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Dysphagia: An Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, D. D.; Stubbs, J.; Fovargue, S.; Anderson, D.; Stacey, G.; Tye, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Modifying the consistency of food and drink is a strategy commonly used in the management of dysphagia for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). People with ID often depend on others for the preparation of food and drink and therefore depend on those caregivers achieving the correct consistency to keep them safe and avoid…

  2. Using Individualised Communication for Interviewing People with Intellectual Disability: A Case Study of User-Centered Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge, Paul; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    This case study used individualized communication for interviewing people with intellectual disability in outcome and quality of life research. Researchers developed a flexible communication strategy for involving service users, drawing on core, local and individual vocabularies and using signs, graphic symbols and photographs to supplement spoken…

  3. Preliminary Findings of Health Promotion Plans among Institutions Caring for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chwo, Miao-Ju; Wu, Jia-Ling; Li, Chi-Wei; Lin, Ya-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Background: In encouraging good health for people with intellectual disabilities, health promotion serves as an effective intervention. However, little is known about health promotion strategies for this sector of the population. The objectives of this study were to describe the current profile of health promotion planning among institutions…

  4. Revisiting Intellectual Traditions: Derrick P. Alridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the accomplishments of Derrick P. Alridge, Professor, Social Foundations of Education, University of Georgia-Athens. His research centers on the history and the study of the social and educational ideas of African American intellectuals, educators and social activists such as Du Bois, Woodson, Anna Julia Cooper and Nannie…

  5. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  6. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Frank

    Intended to act as a general introduction for high school and college students, this book presents an annotated bibliography of books, periodical articles, legal materials, and other documents dealing with the subject of intellectual freedom and censorship. The book is divided into five parts: (1) "The Theoretical Foundations of Censorship and…

  7. Collaboratively Teaching Intellectual Freedom to Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Nadean; Bradley, Darcy

    2013-01-01

    Together an education librarian and education professor developed a series of exercises for education students about intellectual freedom and book challenges. The resources are primarily online and they progressively work from book censorship cases and concerns to handling book challenges proactively through discussions, activities, and role…

  8. Intellectually gifted elementary students' perceptions of leadership.

    PubMed

    Riley, T L; Karnes, F A

    1994-08-01

    To study the self-perceptions of leadership held by intellectually gifted elementary students in Grades 4 through 6 the Leadership Strengths Indicator was administered to 21 girls and 13 boys. Significant differences favoring the girls were found on two of the cluster scales (V, Sympathetic and VII, Conscientious) and the total score. PMID:7991331

  9. Literacy without Schooling: Testing for Intellectual Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Sylvia; Cole, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Examines relationship between literacy and intellectual development and the belief that literacy leads to higher forms of thought. Describes research findings among the Vai of Liberia, a people who invented a syllabic writing system to represent their own language. Investigates effects of becoming literate separately from effects of attending…

  10. Perspectives on Pain and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, F. J.; Shinde, S. K.; Gilles, E.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have been excluded from pain research and assumed to be insensitive or indifferent to pain. The weight of the evidence suggests that individuals with ID have been subject to practices and procedures with little regard for their ability to experience or express pain. A number of issues…

  11. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  12. Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse: Third Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Library, Salem. Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse.

    The Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse received reports of formal challenges to 25 books and 1 recording during the time period between July 1, 1989, and June 30, 1990. It is noted that 17 of the challenged items were held by public libraries and 9 by school library media centers, with 21 items designated as children's and young adult…

  13. College Should Be an Intellectual Workout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malesic, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The physical fitness required to perform complex athletic feats has a parallel in the intellectual fitness it takes to perform complex mental tasks. At the heart of liberal education sits the idea that moderate training in several disciplines is better than intensive training in just one. Through exercising students' abilities in interpreting…

  14. Students and Intellectual Life: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstreet, Robert

    When colleges were first organized in what would later become the United States, they were far different from those in existence today. Students matriculated, enrolled, and graduated in lock step through a prescribed 4-year curriculum. Colleges functioned not so much to encourage intellectual development as to foster moral piety. Topics and sides…

  15. Contraception and Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contraception is widely prescribed to women with intellectual disabilities, yet little is known about what the women think and feel about this. One of the aims of the study was to explore what women understood and to what extent they were able to exercise choice and control. Method: Twenty-three women with mild and moderate…

  16. Wh- Questions and Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…

  17. Intellectual Realism in Children's Drawings of Cubes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Children aged 6 through 9 made drawings of cubes and simple abstract designs, with or without looking at their hand. Copying errors and differences between the age groups were discussed in terms of visual realism (perspective drawing) compared with intellectual realism (structural essentials copied without a unified perspective view). (CTM)

  18. Language Learning--An Intellectual Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis E.

    1985-01-01

    Looks at the debate over whether foreign language study is intellectually challenging. Examines four points in the debate: the contrast between content and skill; the nature of the learning and teaching material; the nature of classroom interaction; and the idea of osmosis. (SED)

  19. Outlook for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... is not known, having no specific identifiable source. Education By middle childhood most youngsters with an intellectual ...

  20. Intellectual Capital in Egyptian Software Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seleim, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Bontis, Nick

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of knowledge around the world varies significantly with developed countries possessing most of the world's current intellectual capital (IC) compared to developing countries. Most IC research has been conducted in a variety of international settings such as the UK, Scandinavia, Australia, Canada, Austria, Malaysia, the USA, and…