Science.gov

Sample records for intelligence ci approach

  1. A Computational Intelligence (CI) Approach to the Precision Mars Lander Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birge, Brian; Walberg, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    A Mars precision landing requires a landed footprint of no more than 100 meters. Obstacles to reducing the landed footprint include trajectory dispersions due to initial atmospheric entry conditions such as entry angle, parachute deployment height, environment parameters such as wind, atmospheric density, parachute deployment dynamics, unavoidable injection error or propagated error from launch, etc. Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques such as Artificial Neural Nets and Particle Swarm Optimization have been shown to have great success with other control problems. The research period extended previous work on investigating applicability of the computational intelligent approaches. The focus of this investigation was on Particle Swarm Optimization and basic Neural Net architectures. The research investigating these issues was performed for the grant cycle from 5/15/01 to 5/15/02. Matlab 5.1 and 6.0 along with NASA's POST were the primary computational tools.

  2. Using the Web for Competitive Intelligence (CI) Gathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocker, JoAnne; Roncaglia, George

    2002-01-01

    Businesses use the Internet as a way to communicate company information as a way of engaging their customers. As the use of the Web for business transactions and advertising grows, so too, does the amount of useful information for practitioners of competitive intelligence (CI). CI is the legal and ethical practice of information gathering about competitors and the marketplace. Information sources like company webpages, online newspapers and news organizations, electronic journal articles and reports, and Internet search engines allow CI practitioners analyze company strengths and weaknesses for their customers. More company and marketplace information than ever is available on the Internet and a lot of it is free. Companies should view the Web not only as a business tool but also as a source of competitive intelligence. In a highly competitive marketplace can any organization afford to ignore information about the other players and customers in that same marketplace?

  3. A Multiple Intelligence Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzi, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Describes multiple intelligence instruction (MII), based on the theory that humans possess seven intelligences: visual, musical, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, linguistic, and bodily-kinesthetic. Argues that current methods of assessment are deficit-based and, therefore, not helpful in assessing MII students. Describes an…

  4. Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

    2003-01-01

    This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

  5. An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNab, Brent R.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

  6. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned

  7. Competitive Intelligence for SMEs. From Intellectual Concepts to Actionable CI Rules and Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Henri

    2000-01-01

    Presents several aspects of the development of actionable competitive intelligence into SMEs (small and medium enterprises). Describes types of information used in SMEs, economic intelligence in France, suggestions for information management, and various works undertaken through the European Community. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/LRW)

  8. Computational intelligence approaches for pattern discovery in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Gary B

    2008-07-01

    Biology, chemistry and medicine are faced by tremendous challenges caused by an overwhelming amount of data and the need for rapid interpretation. Computational intelligence (CI) approaches such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems and evolutionary computation are being used with increasing frequency to contend with this problem, in light of noise, non-linearity and temporal dynamics in the data. Such methods can be used to develop robust models of processes either on their own or in combination with standard statistical approaches. This is especially true for database mining, where modeling is a key component of scientific understanding. This review provides an introduction to current CI methods, their application to biological problems, and concludes with a commentary about the anticipated impact of these approaches in bioinformatics.

  9. Intelligent Sensors: An Integrated Systems Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Ajay; Chitikeshi, Sanjeevi; Bandhil, Pavan; Utterbach, Lucas; Figueroa, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The need for intelligent sensors as a critical component for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is fairly well recognized by now. Even the definition of what constitutes an intelligent sensor (or smart sensor) is well documented and stems from an intuitive desire to get the best quality measurement data that forms the basis of any complex health monitoring and/or management system. If the sensors, i.e. the elements closest to the measurand, are unreliable then the whole system works with a tremendous handicap. Hence, there has always been a desire to distribute intelligence down to the sensor level, and give it the ability to assess its own health thereby improving the confidence in the quality of the data at all times. This paper proposes the development of intelligent sensors as an integrated systems approach, i.e. one treats the sensors as a complete system with its own sensing hardware (the traditional sensor), A/D converters, processing and storage capabilities, software drivers, self-assessment algorithms, communication protocols and evolutionary methodologies that allow them to get better with time. Under a project being undertaken at the NASA Stennis Space Center, an integrated framework is being developed for the intelligent monitoring of smart elements. These smart elements can be sensors, actuators or other devices. The immediate application is the monitoring of the rocket test stands, but the technology should be generally applicable to the Intelligent Systems Health Monitoring (ISHM) vision. This paper outlines some fundamental issues in the development of intelligent sensors under the following two categories: Physical Intelligent Sensors (PIS) and Virtual Intelligent Sensors (VIS).

  10. Extraterrestrial intelligence: an observational approach.

    PubMed

    Murray, B; Gulkis, S; Edelson, R E

    1978-02-03

    The microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, a plausible regime for signals from extraterrestrial intelligences, is largely unexplored. With new technology, particularly in data processing and low-noise reception, surveys can be conducted over broad regions of frequency and space with existing antennas at flux densities plausible for interstellar signals. An all-sky, broad-band survey lasting perhaps 5 years can be structured so that even negative results would establish significant boundaries on the regime in which such signals may be found. The technology and techniques developed and much of the data acquired would be applicable to radio astronomy and deep-space communications.

  11. Supplier Selection: An Intelligent Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, A.; Ray, A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a generic model of intelligence and cognitive science-based method that can play an active role in selecting the best supplier in the supply chain management system. In this paper, an intelligent system was conceived for prediction of the best supplier from the set of suppliers in the supply chain management system. Initially, the proposed system incorporates the tangible and intangible data as inputs to the system in the fuzzy environment and acts as the source case. The target case consists of several criteria that influence the supplier selection process. The system calculates the similarities between the source and target cases and decides the best supplier by using fuzzy rule-based system. Finally, the weights of each supplier optimize the order quantities in the unstructured environment. The proposed expert system is superior to the traditional supplier selection and allocation of the ordered quantities and assists inexperienced users in predicting the best supplier within the shortest possible time.

  12. Uniting To Introduce Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    In Seneca, New York, the partnership between Houghton College teachers-in-training and Cuba-Rushford students and faculty has yielded unprecedented benefits. The high school proposed a guideline for integrative projects in humanities and science; the college contributed multiple intelligences teaching approaches (MITA) activities to achieve these…

  13. Creative-Dynamics Approach To Neural Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail A.

    1992-01-01

    Paper discusses approach to mathematical modeling of artificial neural networks exhibiting complicated behaviors reminiscent of creativity and intelligence of biological neural networks. Neural network treated as non-Lipschitzian dynamical system - as described in "Non-Lipschitzian Dynamics For Modeling Neural Networks" (NPO-17814). System serves as tool for modeling of temporal-pattern memories and recognition of complicated spatial patterns.

  14. Extraterrestrial intelligence - An observational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.; Gulkis, S.; Edelson, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The article surveys present and proposed search techniques for extraterrestrial intelligence in terms of technological requirements. It is proposed that computer systems used along with existing antennas may be utilized to search for radio signals over a broad frequency range. A general search within the electromagnetic spectrum would explore frequency, received power flux, spatial locations, and modulation. Previous SETI projects (beginning in 1960) are briefly described. An observation project is proposed in which the earth's rotational motion would scan the antenna beam along one declination circle in 24 hours. The 15 degree beam width would yield a mapping of 75% of the sky in an 8-day period if the beam were shifted 15 degrees per day. With the proposed instrument parameters, a sensitivity of about 10 to the -21 watt/sq m is achieved at a 0 degree declination and 1.5 GHz. In a second phase, a 26 m antenna would yield an HPBW of 0.8 degrees at 1 GHz and 0.03 degrees at 25 GHz. It is noted that the described technology would provide secondary benefits for radio astronomy, radio communications, and other fields.

  15. Intelligent Control Approaches for Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; KrishnaKumar, K.; Soloway, Don; Kaneshige, John; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied under the Intelligent Flight Control (IFC) program at the NASA Ames Research Center. The main objective of the intelligent flight control program is to develop the next generation of flight controllers for the purpose of automatically compensating for a broad spectrum of damaged or malfunctioning aircraft components and to reduce control law development cost and time. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller and (b) an adaptive critic-based dynamic inverse controller. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) Match flying qualities of modern fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) Improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) Achieve consistent handling qualities across the flight envelope and for different aircraft configurations. Results obtained so far demonstrate the potential for improving handling qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  16. Artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannes, James D.; Macdonald, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering are examined. The software development life cycle is a sequence of not so well-defined phases. Improved techniques for developing systems have been formulated over the past 15 years, but pressure continues to attempt to reduce current costs. Software development technology seems to be standing still. The primary objective of the knowledge-based approach to software development presented in this paper is to avoid problem areas that lead to schedule slippages, cost overruns, or software products that fall short of their desired goals. Identifying and resolving software problems early, often in the phase in which they first occur, has been shown to contribute significantly to reducing risks in software development. Software development is not a mechanical process but a basic human activity. It requires clear thinking, work, and rework to be successful. The artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering presented support the software development life cycle through the use of software development techniques and methodologies in terms of changing current practices and methods. These should be replaced by better techniques that that improve the process of of software development and the quality of the resulting products. The software development process can be structured into well-defined steps, of which the interfaces are standardized, supported and checked by automated procedures that provide error detection, production of the documentation and ultimately support the actual design of complex programs.

  17. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  18. Intelligence Fusion Modeling. A Proposed Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-16

    based techniques developed by artificial intelligence researchers. This paper describes the application of these techniques in the modeling of an... intelligence requirements, although the methods presented are applicable . We treat PIR/IR as given. -7- -- -W V"W v* 1.- . :71.,v It k*~ ~-- Movement...items from the PIR/IR/HVT decomposition are received from the CMDS. Formatted tactical intelligence reports are received from sensors of like types

  19. Intelligence and Personality Revisited: An Experimental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, David S. J.; And Others

    The history of attempts by psychologists to determine the contribution of personality to intelligence has not been one of unqualified success. Part of the problem may be in the balance of granularity of analyses on the intelligence side and the personality side. A comprehensive analysis of the contributions of extraversion and neuroticism to…

  20. [Biological versus artificial intelligence: a critical approach].

    PubMed

    Sanvito, W L

    1995-09-01

    After brief considerations about intelligence, a comparative study between biologic and artificial intelligence is made. The specialists in Artificial Intelligence found that intelligence is purely a matter of physical symbol manipulation. The enterprise of Artificial Intelligence aims to understand what we might call Brain Intelligence in terms of concepts and techniques of engineering. However the philosophers believed that computer-machine can have syntax, but can never have semantics. In other words, that they can follow rules, such as those of arithmetic or grammar, but not understand what to us are meanings of symbols, such as words. In the present paper it is stressed that brain/mind complex constitutes a monolithic systemic that functions with emergent properties at several levels of hierarchical organization. These hierarchical levels are non-reducible to one another. They are at least three (neuronal, functional, and semantic), and they function within an interactional plan. The brain/mind complex, which transform informations in meanings, deals with problems by means of both logical and non-logical mechanisms; while logic allows the mind to arrange the elements for reasoning, the non-logical mechanisms (fuzzy logic, heuristics, insights) allows the mind to develop strategies to find solutions. The model for construction of the "intelligent machine" is the operating way of the brain/mind complex, which does not always use logical processes. The role of information science in Artificial Intelligence is to search for knowledge itself (virtual knowledge), rather than to simply attempt a logico-mathematical formalization of knowledge.

  1. Intelligent Sensors: Strategies for an Integrated Systems Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitikeshi, Sanjeevi; Mahajan, Ajay; Bandhil, Pavan; Utterbach, Lucas; Figueroa, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of intelligent sensors as an integrated systems approach, i.e. one treats the sensors as a complete system with its own sensing hardware (the traditional sensor), A/D converters, processing and storage capabilities, software drivers, self-assessment algorithms, communication protocols and evolutionary methodologies that allow them to get better with time. Under a project being undertaken at the Stennis Space Center, an integrated framework is being developed for the intelligent monitoring of smart elements. These smart elements can be sensors, actuators or other devices. The immediate application is the monitoring of the rocket test stands, but the technology should be generally applicable to the Intelligent Systems Health Monitoring (ISHM) vision. This paper outlines progress made in the development of intelligent sensors by describing the work done till date on Physical Intelligent Sensors (PIS) and Virtual Intelligent Sensors (VIS).

  2. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  3. An intelligent robotic system based on a fuzzy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Toshio; Kubota, Naoyuki

    1999-09-01

    This paper deals with a fuzzy-based intelligent robotic system that requires various capabilities normally associated with intelligence. It acquires skills and knowledge through interaction with a dynamic environment. Recently, subsumption architectures, behavior-based artificial intelligence, and behavioral engineering for robotic systems have been discussed as new technologies for intelligent robotic systems. This paper proposes a robotic system with structured intelligence. The authors focus on a mobile robotic system with a fuzzy controller and propose a sensory network that allows the robot to perceive its environment. An evolutionary approach improves the robot's performance. Furthermore, the authors discuss the effectiveness of the proposed method through computer simulations of collision avoidance and path-planning problems.

  4. Approaches to the study of intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    A survey and an evaluation are conducted for the Rosenbloom et al. (1991) 'SOAR' model of intelligence, both as found in humans and in prospective AI systems, which views it as a representational system for goal-oriented symbolic activity based on a physical symbol system. Attention is given to SOAR's implications for semantic and episodic memory, symbol processing, and search within a uniform problem space; also noted are the relationships of SOAR to competing AI schemes, and its potential usefulness as a theoretical tool for cognitive psychology.

  5. Intelligence and embodiment: a statistical mechanics approach.

    PubMed

    Chinea, Alejandro; Korutcheva, Elka

    2013-04-01

    Evolutionary neuroscience has been mainly dominated by the principle of phylogenetic conservation, specifically, by the search for similarities in brain organization. This principle states that closely related species tend to be similar because they have a common ancestor. However, explaining, for instance, behavioral differences between humans and chimpanzees, has been revealed to be notoriously difficult. In this paper, the hypothesis of a common information-processing principle exploited by the brains evolved through natural evolution is explored. A model combining recent advances in cognitive psychology and evolutionary neuroscience is presented. The macroscopic effects associated with the intelligence-like structures postulated by the model are analyzed from a statistical mechanics point of view. As a result of this analysis, some plausible explanations are put forward concerning the disparities and similarities in cognitive capacities which are observed in nature across species. Furthermore, an interpretation on the efficiency of brain's computations is also provided. These theoretical results and their implications against modern theories of intelligence are shown to be consistent with the formulated hypothesis.

  6. Artificial intelligence approaches for rational drug design and discovery.

    PubMed

    Duch, Włodzisław; Swaminathan, Karthikeyan; Meller, Jarosław

    2007-01-01

    Pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence approaches play an increasingly important role in rational drug design, screening and identification of candidate molecules and studies on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In this review, we present an overview of basic concepts and methodology in the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI). An emphasis is put on methods that enable an intuitive interpretation of the results and facilitate gaining an insight into the structure of the problem at hand. We also discuss representative applications of AI methods to docking, screening and QSAR studies. The growing trend to integrate computational and experimental efforts in that regard and some future developments are discussed. In addition, we comment on a broader role of machine learning and artificial intelligence approaches in biomedical research.

  7. Pattern Clustering Using a Swarm Intelligence Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Swagatam; Abraham, Ajith

    Clustering aims at representing large datasets by a fewer number of prototypes or clusters. It brings simplicity in modeling data and thus plays a central role in the process of knowledge discovery and data mining. Data mining tasks, in these days, require fast and accurate partitioning of huge datasets, which may come with a variety of attributes or features. This, in turn, imposes severe computational requirements on the relevant clustering techniques. A family of bio-inspired algorithms, well-known as Swarm Intelligence (SI) has recently emerged that meets these requirements and has successfully been applied to a number of real world clustering problems. This chapter explores the role of SI in clustering different kinds of datasets. It finally describes a new SI technique for partitioning a linearly non-separable dataset into an optimal number of clusters in the kernel- induced feature space. Computer simulations undertaken in this research have also been provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. An Intelligence Process Model Based on a Collaborative Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    including Open Source ( OSINT ), in the production of intelligence. All-source intelligence is both a separate intelligence discipline and the name of the...and signature intelligence (MASINT), Technical intelligence (TECHINT), Open source intelligence ( OSINT ), and Biometric intelligence (BIOINT)) to...characterizing the processes for each discipline (HUMINT, SIGINT, OSINT , IMINT, GEOINT, etc.). Then, we analyzed the All-Source activities and processes

  9. A computational intelligence approach to the Mars Precision Landing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birge, Brian Kent, III

    Various proposed Mars missions, such as the Mars Sample Return Mission (MRSR) and the Mars Smart Lander (MSL), require precise re-entry terminal position and velocity states. This is to achieve mission objectives including rendezvous with a previous landed mission, or reaching a particular geographic landmark. The current state of the art footprint is in the magnitude of kilometers. For this research a Mars Precision Landing is achieved with a landed footprint of no more than 100 meters, for a set of initial entry conditions representing worst guess dispersions. Obstacles to reducing the landed footprint include trajectory dispersions due to initial atmospheric entry conditions (entry angle, parachute deployment height, etc.), environment (wind, atmospheric density, etc.), parachute deployment dynamics, unavoidable injection error (propagated error from launch on), etc. Weather and atmospheric models have been developed. Three descent scenarios have been examined. First, terminal re-entry is achieved via a ballistic parachute with concurrent thrusting events while on the parachute, followed by a gravity turn. Second, terminal re-entry is achieved via a ballistic parachute followed by gravity turn to hover and then thrust vector to desired location. Third, a guided parafoil approach followed by vectored thrusting to reach terminal velocity is examined. The guided parafoil is determined to be the best architecture. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of using a computational intelligence strategy to facilitate precision planetary re-entry, specifically to take an approach that is somewhat more intuitive and less rigid, and see where it leads. The test problems used for all research are variations on proposed Mars landing mission scenarios developed by NASA. A relatively recent method of evolutionary computation is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), which can be considered to be in the same general class as Genetic Algorithms. An improvement over

  10. A data mining approach to intelligence operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Hicks, David L.; Harkiolakis, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we examine the latest thinking, approaches and methodologies in use for finding the nuggets of information and subliminal (and perhaps intentionally hidden) patterns and associations that are critical to identify criminal activity and suspects to private and government security agencies. An emphasis in the paper is placed on Social Network Analysis and Investigative Data Mining, and the use of these technologies in the counterterrorism domain. Tools and techniques from both areas are described, along with the important tasks for which they can be used to assist with the investigation and analysis of terrorist organizations. The process of collecting data about these organizations is also considered along with the inherent difficulties that are involved.

  11. Investigation of mechanical strength of 2D nanoscale structures using a molecular dynamics based computational intelligence approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, A.; Vijayaraghavan, V.; Wong, C. H.; Tai, K.; Singru, Pravin M.; Mahapatra, S. S.; Sangwan, K. S.

    2015-09-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) based computational intelligence (CI) approach is proposed to investigate the Young modulus of two graphene sheets: Armchair and Zigzag. In this approach, the effect of aspect ratio, the temperature, the number of atomic planes and the vacancy defects on the Young modulus of two graphene sheets are first analyzed using the MD simulation. The data obtained using the MD simulation is then fed into the paradigm of a CI cluster comprising of genetic programming, which was specifically designed to formulate the explicit relationship of Young modulus of two graphene structures. We find that the MD-based-CI model is able to model the Young modulus of two graphene structures very well, which compiles in good agreement with that of experimental results obtained from the literature. Additionally, we also conducted sensitivity and parametric analysis and found that the number of defects has the most dominating influence on the Young modulus of two graphene structures.

  12. A vector relational data modeling approach to Insider threat intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Ryan F.; Anderson, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    We address the problem of detecting insider threats before they can do harm. In many cases, co-workers notice indications of suspicious activity prior to insider threat attacks. A partial solution to this problem requires an understanding of how information can better traverse the communication network between human intelligence and insider threat analysts. Our approach employs modern mobile communications technology and scale free network architecture to reduce the network distance between human sensors and analysts. In order to solve this problem, we propose a Vector Relational Data Modeling approach to integrate human "sensors," geo-location, and existing visual analytics tools. This integration problem is known to be difficult due to quadratic increases in cost associated with complex integration solutions. A scale free network integration approach using vector relational data modeling is proposed as a method for reducing network distance without increasing cost.

  13. An intercomparison of artificial intelligence approaches for polar scene identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tovinkere, V. R.; Penaloza, M.; Logar, A.; Lee, J.; Weger, R. C.; Berendes, T. A.; Welch, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The following six different artificial-intelligence (AI) approaches to polar scene identification are examined: (1) a feed forward back propagation neural network, (2) a probabilistic neural network, (3) a hybrid neural network, (4) a 'don't care' feed forward perception model, (5) a 'don't care' feed forward back propagation neural network, and (6) a fuzzy logic based expert system. The ten classes into which six AVHRR local-coverage arctic scenes were classified were: water, solid sea ice, broken sea ice, snow-covered mountains, land, stratus over ice, stratus over water, cirrus over water, cumulus over water, and multilayer cloudiness. It was found that 'don't care' back propagation neural network produced the highest accuracies. This approach has also low CPU requirement.

  14. Adaptive intelligent systems for pHealth - an architectural approach.

    PubMed

    González, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd; López, Diego M

    2012-01-01

    Health systems around the globe, especially in developing countries, are facing the challenge of delivering effective, safe, and high quality public health and individualized health services independent of time and location, and with minimum of allocated resources (pHealth). In this context, health promotion and health education services are very important, especially in primary care settings. The objective of this paper is to describe the architecture of an adaptive intelligent system mainly developed to support education and training of citizens, but also of health professionals. The proposed architecture describes a system consisting of several agents that cooperatively interact to find and process tutoring materials to disseminate them to users (multi-agent system). A prototype is being implemented which includes medical students from the Medical Faculty at University of Cauca (Colombia). In the experimental process, the student´s learning style - detected with the Bayesian Model - is compared against the learning style obtained from a questioner (manual approach).

  15. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  16. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yuehjen E.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone's health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP), the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR), artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and support vector regression (SVR) techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models. PMID:24723804

  17. A Framework for Intelligent Instructional Systems: An Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents and develops a general model of the nature of a learning system and a classification for learning systems. Highlights include the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; computer-based instructional systems; intelligent instructional systems; and the role of the learner's knowledge base in an intelligent…

  18. Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) on pharmaceutical solid dosage forms-comparing common calibration approaches.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Carsten; Skibsted, Erik; Bro, Rasmus

    2008-11-04

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is the fusion of near-infrared spectroscopy and image analysis. It can be used to visualize the spatial distribution of the chemical compounds in a sample (providing a chemical image). Each sample measurement generates a hyperspectral data cube containing thousands of spectra. An important part of a NIR-CI analysis is the data processing of the hyperspectral data cube. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of different commonly used calibration methods to generate accurate chemical images. Three common calibration approaches were compared: (1) using single wavenumber, (2) using classical least squares regression (CLS) and (3) using partial least squares regression (PLS1). Each method was evaluated using two different preprocessing methods. A calibration data set of tablets with five constituents was used for analysis. Chemical images of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the two major excipients cellulose and lactose in the formulation were made. The accuracy of the generated chemical images was evaluated by the concentration prediction ability. The most accurate predictions for all three compounds were generated by PLS1. The drawback of PLS1 is that it requires a calibration data set and CLS, which does not require a calibration data set, therefore proved to be an excellent alternative. CLS also generated accurate predictions and only requires the pure compound spectrum of each constituent in the sample. All three calibration approaches were found applicable for hyperspectral image analysis but their relevance of use depends on the purpose of analysis and type of data set. As expected, the single wavenumber method was primarily found useful for compounds with a distinct spectral band that was not overlapped by bands of other constituents. This paper also provides guidance for hyperspectral image (or NIR-CI) analysis describing each of the typical steps involved.

  19. Knowledge Based Simulation: An Artificial Intelligence Approach to System Modeling and Automating the Simulation Life Cycle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-13

    Simulation: An Artificial Intelligence Approach to System Modeling and Automating the Simulation Life Cycle Mark S. Fox, Nizwer Husain, Malcolm...years of research in the application of Artificial Intelligence to Simulation. Our focus has been in two areas: the use of Al knowledge representation...this problem by using Artificial Intelligence (Al) knowledge representation techniques, such as frames, to represent the objects and their

  20. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  1. Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  2. Memory Span and General Intelligence: A Latent-Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Abad, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Irene; Chun Shih, Pei

    2005-01-01

    There are several studies showing that working memory and intelligence are strongly related. However, working memory tasks require simultaneous processing and storage, so the causes of their relationship with intelligence are currently a matter of discussion. The present study examined the simultaneous relationships among short-term memory (STM),…

  3. An Holistic Approach for Counsellors: Embracing Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Rosslyn; O'Brien, Patrick John

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a range of therapeutic modalities used by counsellors of children and positions those modalities within Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Research by O'Brien ("Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence and its implications for the counselling of children." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of…

  4. Intelligent cognitive radio jamming - a game-theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabcevic, Kresimir; Betancourt, Alejandro; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S.

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) promises to be a solution for the spectrum underutilization problems. However, security issues pertaining to cognitive radio technology are still an understudied topic. One of the prevailing such issues are intelligent radio frequency (RF) jamming attacks, where adversaries are able to exploit on-the-fly reconfigurability potentials and learning mechanisms of cognitive radios in order to devise and deploy advanced jamming tactics. In this paper, we use a game-theoretical approach to analyze jamming/anti-jamming behavior between cognitive radio systems. A non-zero-sum game with incomplete information on an opponent's strategy and payoff is modelled as an extension of Markov decision process (MDP). Learning algorithms based on adaptive payoff play and fictitious play are considered. A combination of frequency hopping and power alteration is deployed as an anti-jamming scheme. A real-life software-defined radio (SDR) platform is used in order to perform measurements useful for quantifying the jamming impacts, as well as to infer relevant hardware-related properties. Results of these measurements are then used as parameters for the modelled jamming/anti-jamming game and are compared to the Nash equilibrium of the game. Simulation results indicate, among other, the benefit provided to the jammer when it is employed with the spectrum sensing algorithm in proactive frequency hopping and power alteration schemes.

  5. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  6. Artificial intelligence approach for spot application project system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, M. J.; Fisse, G.; Martin, E.; de Boissezon, H.; Galaup, M.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past four years, CNES has been engaged in a major programme focusing on the development of SPOT Operational Application Projects. With a total of sixty projects now complete, we can draw a number of meaningful conclusions and identify a number of objectives to be satisfied by advanced remote sensing methodology. One of the main conclusions points to the importance of human vision in studies on natural complex space imagery. This being so, visual recognition must be one of the main phases of the ``Pilot Project for the Application of Remote Sensing to Agricultural Statistics'': only human experts have the ability to make a meaningful analysis of Spot TM imagery. Non-expert operators will not be able to manage the subsequent rational production phase alone. The first part of this paper describes an approach to the formalization and modelling of expert know-how based on the use of artificial intelligence. The second part puts forward a cooperative operator/computer system based on a cognitive structure. Our proposal comprises 1) a specific knowledge base, 2) an ergonomic interface associated with functional software that is based on automatic image enhancement coupled with perception support functions.

  7. Bio-inspired approach for intelligent unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Pichler, Alexander; Perrot, Maxime; Voisin, Philippe; Moeglin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Improving the surveillance capacity over wide zones requires a set of smart battery-powered Unattended Ground Sensors capable of issuing an alarm to a decision-making center. Only high-level information has to be sent when a relevant suspicious situation occurs. In this paper we propose an innovative bio-inspired approach that mimics the human bi-modal vision mechanism and the parallel processing ability of the human brain. The designed prototype exploits two levels of analysis: a low-level panoramic motion analysis, the peripheral vision, and a high-level event-focused analysis, the foveal vision. By tracking moving objects and fusing multiple criteria (size, speed, trajectory, etc.), the peripheral vision module acts as a fast relevant event detector. The foveal vision module focuses on the detected events to extract more detailed features (texture, color, shape, etc.) in order to improve the recognition efficiency. The implemented recognition core is able to acquire human knowledge and to classify in real-time a huge amount of heterogeneous data thanks to its natively parallel hardware structure. This UGS prototype validates our system approach under laboratory tests. The peripheral analysis module demonstrates a low false alarm rate whereas the foveal vision correctly focuses on the detected events. A parallel FPGA implementation of the recognition core succeeds in fulfilling the embedded application requirements. These results are paving the way of future reconfigurable virtual field agents. By locally processing the data and sending only high-level information, their energy requirements and electromagnetic signature are optimized. Moreover, the embedded Artificial Intelligence core enables these bio-inspired systems to recognize and learn new significant events. By duplicating human expertise in potentially hazardous places, our miniature visual event detector will allow early warning and contribute to better human decision making.

  8. Studies in Emotional Intelligence Redefine Our Approach to Leadership Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearborn, Katie

    2002-01-01

    Traditional management training often fails to transfer to work. Returns on training investment may be improved through a self-directed learning model that bolsters and sustains emotional intelligence, resulting in leaders who behave more intuitively and empathically. (SK)

  9. An Artificial Intelligence Approach to Analyzing Student Errors in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebrechts, Marc M.; Schooler, Lael J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of an artificial intelligence system called GIDE that analyzes student errors in statistics problems by inferring the students' intentions. Learning strategies involved in problem solving are discussed and the inclusion of goal structures is explained. (LRW)

  10. The INTELLIGENT RuleTutor: A Structured Approach to Intelligent Tutoring. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Alice B.

    This final report describes a general purpose system for developing intelligent tutors based on the Structural Learning Theory. The report opens with a discussion of the rules and related constructs that underlie cognitive constructs in all structural learning theories. The remainder of the text provides: (1) an introduction to the Structural…

  11. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  12. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  13. Guerrilla Counterintelligence: Insurgent Approaches to Neutralizing Adversary Intelligence Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    forums in several editions. It was assembled primarily by the Earth Liberation Front, but is clearly the work of multiple contributors and drawn from...its growing intelligence and leadership disarray. In substantial ways this was a multiple counterintel- ligence failure for the FARC just as it was...out in a 100-plus page document entitled “The Manual for PDPR-EPR Intelligence” (Curso de inteligencia PDPR-EPR), circa mid-1990s or later. The

  14. An Artificial Intelligence Approach for Gears Diagnostics in AUVs

    PubMed Central

    Marichal, Graciliano Nicolás; Del Castillo, María Lourdes; López, Jesús; Padrón, Isidro; Artés, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent scheme for detecting incipient defects in spur gears is presented. In fact, the study has been undertaken to determine these defects in a single propeller system of a small-sized unmanned helicopter. It is important to remark that although the study focused on this particular system, the obtained results could be extended to other systems known as AUVs (Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles), where the usage of polymer gears in the vehicle transmission is frequent. Few studies have been carried out on these kinds of gears. In this paper, an experimental platform has been adapted for the study and several samples have been prepared. Moreover, several vibration signals have been measured and their time-frequency characteristics have been taken as inputs to the diagnostic system. In fact, a diagnostic system based on an artificial intelligence strategy has been devised. Furthermore, techniques based on several paradigms of the Artificial Intelligence (Neural Networks, Fuzzy systems and Genetic Algorithms) have been applied altogether in order to design an efficient fault diagnostic system. A hybrid Genetic Neuro-Fuzzy system has been developed, where it is possible, at the final stage of the learning process, to express the fault diagnostic system as a set of fuzzy rules. Several trials have been carried out and satisfactory results have been achieved. PMID:27077868

  15. MACH 3: Past and future approaches to intelligent tutoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acchione-Noel, Sylvia; Psotka, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Army Research Institute created an intelligent tutoring system as a proof-of-concept for artificial intelligence applications in Army training. The Maintenance Aid Computer HAWK Intelligent Institutional Instructor (MACH 3) taught student mechanics to maintain and troubleshoot the AN/MPQ-57 High Power Illuminator Radar (HPIR) of the HAWK Air Defense Missile System. In 1989, TRADOC Analysis Command compared the effectiveness of MACH 3 to traditional paper-based troubleshooting drills. For the study, all students received lecture and hands-on training as usual. However, during troubleshooting drills, students traced faults using either MACH 3 or the traditional paper-based method. Class records showed that the MACH 3 group completed significantly more troubleshooting tasks and progressed through tasks of greater difficulty than the paper-based group. Upon completion of training, students took written, practical, and oral essay tests. Mean test scores showed that students performed similarly regardless of the drill method used. However, significantly different standard deviations showed that the MACH 3 group performed more consistently than the paper-based group. Furthermore, significantly different time measures showed that the MACH 3 group reached faster troubleshooting solutions on the actual radar transmitter than the paper-based group. We will present the study results and discuss how updating the design of the MACH 3 can include desktop computing in a virtual environment.

  16. An Artificial Intelligence Approach for Gears Diagnostics in AUVs.

    PubMed

    Marichal, Graciliano Nicolás; Del Castillo, María Lourdes; López, Jesús; Padrón, Isidro; Artés, Mariano

    2016-04-12

    In this paper, an intelligent scheme for detecting incipient defects in spur gears is presented. In fact, the study has been undertaken to determine these defects in a single propeller system of a small-sized unmanned helicopter. It is important to remark that although the study focused on this particular system, the obtained results could be extended to other systems known as AUVs (Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles), where the usage of polymer gears in the vehicle transmission is frequent. Few studies have been carried out on these kinds of gears. In this paper, an experimental platform has been adapted for the study and several samples have been prepared. Moreover, several vibration signals have been measured and their time-frequency characteristics have been taken as inputs to the diagnostic system. In fact, a diagnostic system based on an artificial intelligence strategy has been devised. Furthermore, techniques based on several paradigms of the Artificial Intelligence (Neural Networks, Fuzzy systems and Genetic Algorithms) have been applied altogether in order to design an efficient fault diagnostic system. A hybrid Genetic Neuro-Fuzzy system has been developed, where it is possible, at the final stage of the learning process, to express the fault diagnostic system as a set of fuzzy rules. Several trials have been carried out and satisfactory results have been achieved.

  17. Investigating Trait Emotional Intelligence among School Leaders: Demonstrating a Useful Self-Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robert; Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Garratt, Sara

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory study of two grammar schools in the South East of England is used to justify and demonstrate a self-assessed approach that investigates "trait" emotional intelligence (EI) among school leaders. First, the theoretical underpinnings of "ability" and "trait" EI approaches are critically compared based on…

  18. Government Approaches to Foster Competitive Intelligence Practice in SMEs: A Comparative Study of Eight Governments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a study examining approaches developed by seven governments to foster competitive intelligence practice in SMEs (small and medium enterprises) and compares them with the approach taken by the government of Quebec. Suggests a need for a better understanding of information needs and uses in SMEs. (Contains 22 references.)…

  19. Assessing the safety effects of cooperative intelligent transport systems: A bowtie analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Ute Christine; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen; McCormack, Edward; Khan, Faisal; Ehlers, Sören

    2017-02-01

    The safety effects of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are mostly unknown and associated with uncertainties, because these systems represent emerging technology. This study proposes a bowtie analysis as a conceptual framework for evaluating the safety effect of cooperative intelligent transport systems. These seek to prevent road traffic accidents or mitigate their consequences. Under the assumption of the potential occurrence of a particular single vehicle accident, three case studies demonstrate the application of the bowtie analysis approach in road traffic safety. The approach utilizes exemplary expert estimates and knowledge from literature on the probability of the occurrence of accident risk factors and of the success of safety measures. Fuzzy set theory is applied to handle uncertainty in expert knowledge. Based on this approach, a useful tool is developed to estimate the effects of safety-related cooperative intelligent transport systems in terms of the expected change in accident occurrence and consequence probability.

  20. A human performance modelling approach to intelligent decision support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Michael S.; Boys, Randy M.

    1987-01-01

    Manned space operations require that the many automated subsystems of a space platform be controllable by a limited number of personnel. To minimize the interaction required of these operators, artificial intelligence techniques may be applied to embed a human performance model within the automated, or semi-automated, systems, thereby allowing the derivation of operator intent. A similar application has previously been proposed in the domain of fighter piloting, where the demand for pilot intent derivation is primarily a function of limited time and high workload rather than limited operators. The derivation and propagation of pilot intent is presented as it might be applied to some programs.

  1. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg.

  2. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with A Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystem approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and speech intelligibility, were measured in 22 children with CP. These children included 13 with a clinical diagnosis of dysarthria (SMI), and nine judged to be free of dysarthria (NSMI). Data from children with CP were compared to data from age-matched typically developing children (TD). Results Multiple acoustic variables reflecting the articulatory subsystem were different in the SMI group, compared to the NSMI and TD groups. A significant speech intelligibility prediction model was obtained with all variables entered into the model (Adjusted R-squared = .801). The articulatory subsystem showed the most substantial independent contribution (58%) to speech intelligibility. Incremental R-squared analyses revealed that any single variable explained less than 9% of speech intelligibility variability. Conclusions Children in the SMI group have articulatory subsystem problems as indexed by acoustic measures. As in the adult literature, the articulatory subsystem makes the primary contribution to speech intelligibility variance in dysarthria, with minimal or no contribution from other systems. PMID:24824584

  3. Business Sustainability and Collective Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze to which point collective intelligence (CI) concepts and ideas, as applied to organizations, can contribute to enlarge the conceptual basis for business sustainability (BS). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is written from an engineer-minded, systemic and cybernetic perspective. It begins by…

  4. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

  5. Application of Artificial Intelligence to Reservoir Characterization - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    2000-01-12

    The primary goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly computer program to integrate geological and engineering information using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology. The project is restricted to fluvially dominated deltaic environments. The static information used in constructing the reservoir description includes well core and log data. Using the well core and the log data, the program identifies the marker beds, and the type of sand facies, and in turn, develops correlation's between wells. Using the correlation's and sand facies, the program is able to generate multiple realizations of sand facies and petrophysical properties at interwell locations using geostatistical techniques. The generated petrophysical properties are used as input in the next step where the production data are honored. By adjusting the petrophysical properties, the match between the simulated and the observed production rates is obtained.

  6. Efficient approach for the detection and identification of new androgenic metabolites by applying SRM GC-CI-MS/MS: a methandienone case study.

    PubMed

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-07-01

    Identification of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is a vital issue in doping control and toxicology, and searching for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task. Recently, a gas chromatography chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) method was introduced, and CI, in comparison with electron ionization (EI), proved to be capable of increasing the sensitivity significantly. In addition, correlations between AAS structure and fragmentation behavior could be revealed. This enables the search for previously unknown but expected metabolites by selection of their predicted transitions. The combination of both factors allows the setup of an efficient approach to search for new metabolites. The approach uses selected reaction monitoring which is inherently more sensitive than full scan or precursor ion scan. Additionally, structural information obtained from the structure specific CI fragmentation pattern facilitates metabolite identification. The procedure was demonstrated by a methandienone case study. Its metabolites have been studied extensively in the past, and this allowed an adequate evaluation of the efficiency of the approach. Thirty three metabolites were detected, including all relevant previously discovered metabolites. In our study, the previously reported long-term metabolite (18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl,17α-methyl-androst-1,4,13-trien-3-one) could be detected up to 26 days by using GC-CI-MS/MS. The study proves the validity of the approach to search for metabolites of new synthetic AAS and new long-term metabolites of less studied AAS and illustrates the increase in sensitivity by using CI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Learning from Multiple Collaborating Intelligent Tutors: An Agent-based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomos, Konstantinos; Avouris, Nikolaos

    1999-01-01

    Describes an open distributed multi-agent tutoring system (MATS) and discusses issues related to learning in such open environments. Topics include modeling a one student-many teachers approach in a computer-based learning context; distributed artificial intelligence; implementation issues; collaboration; and user interaction. (Author/LRW)

  8. Identification and interpretation of patterns in rocket engine data: Artificial intelligence and neural network approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Whitehead, Bruce; Gupta, Uday K.; Ferber, Harry

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system which is designed to perform automatic data analysis, identify anomalous events and determine the characteristic features of these events. We have employed both artificial intelligence and neural net approaches in the design of this expert system.

  9. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  10. Interindividual Differences in Learning Performance: The Effects of Age, Intelligence, and Strategic Task Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliegel, Matthias; Altgassen, Mareike

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as strategic task approaches as potential sources of age-related differences in adult learning performance. Therefore, 45 young and 45 old adults were asked to learn pictured objects. Overall, young participants outperformed old participants in this learning test. However,…

  11. Improving Students' Creative Thinking and Achievement through the Implementation of Multiple Intelligence Approach with Mind Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widiana, I. Wayan; Jampel, I. Nyoman

    2016-01-01

    This classroom action research aimed to improve the students' creative thinking and achievement in learning science. It conducted through the implementation of multiple intelligences with mind mapping approach and describing the students' responses. The subjects of this research were the fifth grade students of SD 8 Tianyar Barat, Kubu, and…

  12. Typical Intellectual Engagement as a Byproduct of Openness, Learning Approaches, and Self-Assessed Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Ackerman, Phillip; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Students (n = 328) from US and UK universities completed four self-report measures related to intellectual competence: typical intellectual engagement (TIE), openness to experience, self-assessed intelligence (SAI), and learning approaches. Confirmatory data reduction was used to examine the structure of TIE and supported five major factors:…

  13. Recent Advances in the Theory and Measurement of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans

    1984-01-01

    Illustrates kinds of intelligence tests, discussing factors indicating intelligence: genetics, reaction time, latency and amplitude, and variability. Lists the advantages and disadvantages of the intelligence tests mentioned. (CI)

  14. An intercomparison of artificial intelligence approaches for polar scene identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovinkere, V. R.; Penaloza, M.; Logar, A.; Lee, J.; Weger, R. C.; Berendes, T. A.; Welch, R. M.

    1993-03-01

    Six advanced very high resolution radiometer local area coverage arctic scenes are classified into 10 classes. These include water, solid sea ice, broken sea ice, snow-covered mountains, land, stratus over ice, stratus over water, cirrus over ice, cumulus over water, and multilayer cloudiness. Eight spectral and textural features are computed. The textural features are based upon the gray level difference vector method. Six different artificial intelligence classifiers are examined: (1) the feed forward back propagation neural network; (2) the probabilistic neural network; (3) the hybrid back propagation neural network; (4) the "don't care" perceptron network; (5) the "don't care" back propagation neural network; and (6) a fuzzy logic-based expert system. Accuracies in excess of 95% are obtained for all but the hybrid neural network. The "don't care" back propagation neural network produces the highest accuracies and also has low CPU requirements. Thin fog/stratus over ice is the class consistently with the lowest accuracy, often misclassified as broken sea ice. Water, land, cirrus over ice, and snow-covered mountains are all classified with high accuracy (≥98%). The high accuracy achieved in the present study can be traced to (1) accurate classifiers; (2) an excellent choice for the feature vector; and (3) accurate labeling. A sophisticated new interactive visual image classification system is used for the labeling.

  15. An intercomparison of artificial intelligence approaches for polar scene identification

    SciTech Connect

    Tovinkere, V.R.; Penaloza, M.; Logar, A.; Lee, J.; Weger, R.C.; Berendes, T.A.; Welch, R.M. )

    1993-03-20

    Six advanced very high resolution radiometer local area coverage arctic scenes are classified into 10 classes. These include water, solid sea ice, broken sea ice, snow-covered mountains, land, stratus over ice, stratus over water, cirrus over ice, cumulus over water, and multilayer cloudiness. Eight spectral and textural features are computed. The textural features are based upon the gray level difference vector method. Six different artificial intelligence classifiers are examined: (1) the feed forward back propagation neural network; (2) the probabilistic neural network; (3) the hybrid back propagation neural network; (4) the [open quotes]don't care[close quotes] perceptron network; (5) the [open quotes]don't care[close quotes] back propagation neural network; and (6) a fuzzy logic-based expert system. Accuracies in excess of 95% are obtained for all but the hybrid neural network. The [open quotes]don't care[close quotes] back propagation neural network produces the highest accuracies and also has low CPU requirements. Thin fog/stratus over ice is the class consistently with the lowest accuracy, often misclassified as broken sea ice. Water, land, cirrus over ice, and snow-covered mountains are all classified with high accuracy ([ge]98%). The high accuracy achieved in the present study can be traced to (1) accurate classifiers; (2) an excellent choice for the feature vector, and (3) accurate labeling. A sophisticated new interactive visual image classification system is used for the labeling. 33 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Is Debunking Intelligent Design an Effective Approach to Teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrs, Alex; Slater, T. F.; CAPER Team

    2006-12-01

    Good teaching demands that faculty establish students’ prior knowledge and beliefs and use this to guide instruction. One of the most important beliefs many students bring with them into science instruction is religious faith. Over 80% of undergraduates claim some sort of religious affiliation (Lindholm 2004) and a fifth of these rely on a literal interpretation of the Bible. Instructors must acknowledge the deep convictions of many undergraduates, and not dismiss them as “unscientific”. It is our position that teaching a science course while pretending that human affairs and convictions do not impact the scientific enterprise is not only misguided, but ineffective at providing students a liberal undergraduate education. While including “Intelligent Design” (ID) in public school classes has been thoroughly repudiated (e.g Kitzmuller v. Dover) many students equate ID to “God”. Debunking ID thus appears to prove that “God” doesn’t exist. When faced with a choice between beliefs developed over a lifetime and a single science course, the natural position for students will be to discard science when it seems in direct conflict. We propose a short discussion at the start of the first class which elicits and values student perspectives. This can defuse some of the tension experienced by students of faith and allow them to learn more science, developing better attitudes toward science. This is in contrast to simply telling students that “there is no room for faith in the objective pursuit of science.” At minimum we should provide students with references to modern discussions of science and religion issues and examples of scientists of faith who are able to fully resolve seemingly disparate issues between their scientific life and their religious convictions, even when full exploration of these topics is beyond the scope of the course. References: Lindholm, J. (2004): http://www.spirituality.ucla.edu/Publication%20&%20Reports/Lindholm%20USC%20

  17. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  18. Prediction of biochar yield from cattle manure pyrolysis via least squares support vector machine intelligent approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongliang; Xin, Ya; Yuan, Qiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    To predict conveniently the biochar yield from cattle manure pyrolysis, intelligent modeling approach was introduced in this research. A traditional artificial neural networks (ANN) model and a novel least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) model were developed. For the identification and prediction evaluation of the models, a data set with 33 experimental data was used, which were obtained using a laboratory-scale fixed bed reaction system. The results demonstrated that the intelligent modeling approach is greatly convenient and effective for the prediction of the biochar yield. In particular, the novel LS-SVM model has a more satisfying predicting performance and its robustness is better than the traditional ANN model. The introduction and application of the LS-SVM modeling method gives a successful example, which is a good reference for the modeling study of cattle manure pyrolysis process, even other similar processes.

  19. Hybrid swarm intelligence optimization approach for optimal data storage position identification in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mohanasundaram, Ranganathan; Periasamy, Pappampalayam Sanmugam

    2015-01-01

    The current high profile debate with regard to data storage and its growth have become strategic task in the world of networking. It mainly depends on the sensor nodes called producers, base stations, and also the consumers (users and sensor nodes) to retrieve and use the data. The main concern dealt here is to find an optimal data storage position in wireless sensor networks. The works that have been carried out earlier did not utilize swarm intelligence based optimization approaches to find the optimal data storage positions. To achieve this goal, an efficient swam intelligence approach is used to choose suitable positions for a storage node. Thus, hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used to find the suitable positions for storage nodes while the total energy cost of data transmission is minimized. Clustering-based distributed data storage is utilized to solve clustering problem using fuzzy-C-means algorithm. This research work also considers the data rates and locations of multiple producers and consumers to find optimal data storage positions. The algorithm is implemented in a network simulator and the experimental results show that the proposed clustering and swarm intelligence based ODS strategy is more effective than the earlier approaches.

  20. Intelligent Automation Approach for Improving Pilot Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2004-01-01

    Automation in the aviation domain has been increasing for the past two decades. Pilot reaction to automation varies from highly favorable to highly critical depending on both the pilot's background and how effectively the automation is implemented. We describe a user-centered approach for automation that considers the pilot's tasks and his needs related to accomplishing those tasks. Further, we augment rather than replace how the pilot currently fulfills his goals, relying on redundant displays that offer the pilot an opportunity to build trust in the automation. Our prototype system automates the interpretation of hydraulic system faults of the UH-60 helicopter. We describe the problem with the current system and our methodology for resolving it.

  1. Intelligent Vehicle Systems: A 4D/RCS Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, Raj

    2007-04-01

    This book presents new research on autonomous mobility capabilities and shows how technological advances can be anticipated in the coming two decades. An in-depth description is presented on the theoretical foundations and engineering approaches that enable these capabilities. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the 4D/RCS reference model architecture and design methodology that has proven successful in guiding the development of autonomous mobility systems. Chapters 2 through 7 provide more detailed descriptions of research that has been conducted and algorithms that have been developed to implement the various aspects of the 4D/RCS reference model architecture and design methodology. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss applications, performance measures, and standards. Chapter 10 provides a history of Army and DARPA research in autonomous ground mobility. Chapter 11 provides a perspective on the potential future developments in autonomous mobility.

  2. A new combination approach of CI jet and QESD to formulate pH-susceptible amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2014-05-15

    A new combination approach of quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion (QESD) and confined impinging jet (CIJ) technologies was utilized to formulate pH-susceptible amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of a poorly soluble investigational compound (BI906) of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to formulate small-size pH-susceptible ASDs of BI906 to enhance its dissolution and solubility. A design of experiment approach was utilized to study the influence of critical parameters: antisolvent-to-solvent ratio, stabilizer concentration, polymer-to-drug ratio and flow rate of solvent. The critical quality attributes of the pH-susceptible solid dispersions (SDs) were crystallinity, particle size, drug loading and dissolution. The particle size of SDs was dependent on the antisolvent-to-solvent ratio, polymer-to-drug ratio and solvent flow rate. An increase in the solvent flow rate and antisolvent-to-solvent ratio resulted in smaller particle size of SDs. It was observed that the drug crystallinity and drug release were dependent on the polymer-to-drug ratio. The formulations containing a polymer-to-drug ratio of 6:1 were amorphous and showed superior pH dependent in vitro drug release performance. This study demonstrates that this new combination approach is feasible to formulate small-size pH-susceptible ASDs and it can be applied to other poorly soluble drugs to enhance in vitro dissolution and solubility.

  3. Intelligent fuzzy approach for fast fractal image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodehi, Ali; Sulong, Ghazali; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2014-12-01

    Fractal image compression (FIC) is recognized as a NP-hard problem, and it suffers from a high number of mean square error (MSE) computations. In this paper, a two-phase algorithm was proposed to reduce the MSE computation of FIC. In the first phase, based on edge property, range and domains are arranged. In the second one, imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is used according to the classified blocks. For maintaining the quality of the retrieved image and accelerating algorithm operation, we divided the solutions into two groups: developed countries and undeveloped countries. Simulations were carried out to evaluate the performance of the developed approach. Promising results thus achieved exhibit performance better than genetic algorithm (GA)-based and Full-search algorithms in terms of decreasing the number of MSE computations. The number of MSE computations was reduced by the proposed algorithm for 463 times faster compared to the Full-search algorithm, although the retrieved image quality did not have a considerable change.

  4. Intelligent Data Analysis: the Best Approach for Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) Follow Up Management

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza; Baraani, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Intelligent data analysis has ability to prepare and present complex relations between symptoms and diseases, medical and treatment consequences and definitely has significant role in improving follow-up management of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, increasing speed ​​and accuracy in diagnosis and treatments; reducing costs, designing and implementation of clinical guidelines. The aim: The aim of this article is to describe intelligent data analysis methods in order to improve patient monitoring in follow and treatment of chronic heart failure patients as the best approach for CHF follow up management. Methods: Minimum data set (MDS) requirements for monitoring and follow up of CHF patient designed in checklist with six main parts. All CHF patients that discharged in 2013 from Tehran heart center have been selected. The MDS for monitoring CHF patient status were collected during 5 months in three different times of follow up. Gathered data was imported in RAPIDMINER 5 software. Results: Modeling was based on decision trees methods such as C4.5, CHAID, ID3 and k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (K-NN) with k=1. Final analysis was based on voting method. Decision trees and K-NN evaluate according to Cross-Validation. Conclusion: Creating and using standard terminologies and databases consistent with these terminologies help to meet the challenges related to data collection from various places and data application in intelligent data analysis. It should be noted that intelligent analysis of health data and intelligent system can never replace cardiologists. It can only act as a helpful tool for the cardiologist’s decisions making. PMID:25395730

  5. Synergy between Competitive Intelligence (CI), Knowledge Management (KM) and Technological Foresight (TF) as a strategic model of prospecting--the use of biotechnology in the development of drugs against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Canongia, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synergy between Competitive Intelligence, Knowledge Management and Technological Foresight, and to emphasize the proposal of a strategic model of data prospecting as a mechanism to support decision-making in regard to three approaches for sustainable development and innovation: technological, social and economic. The use of biotechnology in the development of drugs against breast cancer is the case study. The article shows the results of data and text mining in specialized medical and patent databases, identifying the most frequently cited drugs, as well as the authors of research, and the inventors of new technology at the beginning of the 21st century. In addition, the study includes reference to Brazilian competence in breast cancer area, the international trends in drugs for treatment of this cancer, leading international institutions and Brazilian competencies. A framework is presented, which could serve as a guide and support for the decision-making process.

  6. Gene selection approach based on improved swarm intelligent optimisation algorithm for tumour classification.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cong; Jin, Shu-Wei

    2016-06-01

    A number of different gene selection approaches based on gene expression profiles (GEP) have been developed for tumour classification. A gene selection approach selects the most informative genes from the whole gene space, which is an important process for tumour classification using GEP. This study presents an improved swarm intelligent optimisation algorithm to select genes for maintaining the diversity of the population. The most essential characteristic of the proposed approach is that it can automatically determine the number of the selected genes. On the basis of the gene selection, the authors construct a variety of the tumour classifiers, including the ensemble classifiers. Four gene datasets are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The experimental results confirm that the proposed classifiers for tumour classification are indeed effective.

  7. Artificial Intelligence and Semantics through the Prism of Structural, Post-Structural and Transcendental Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Diana

    2016-12-01

    There is a problem associated with contemporary studies of philosophy of mind, which focuses on the identification and convergence of human and machine intelligence. This is the problem of machine emulation of sense. In the present study, analysis of this problem is carried out based on concepts from structural and post-structural approaches that have been almost entirely overlooked by contemporary philosophy of mind. If we refer to the basic definitions of "sign" and "meaning" found in structuralism and post-structuralism, we see a fundamental difference between the capabilities of a machine and the human brain engaged in the processing of a sign. This research will exemplify and provide additional evidence to support distinctions between syntactic and semantic aspects of intelligence, an issue widely discussed by adepts of contemporary philosophy of mind. The research will demonstrate that some aspect of a number of ideas proposed in relation to semantics and semiosis in structuralism and post-structuralism are similar to those we find in contemporary analytical studies related to the theory and philosophy of artificial intelligence. The concluding part of the paper offers an interpretation of the problem of formalization of sense, connected to its metaphysical (transcendental) properties.

  8. CI Controls for Energy and Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biondo, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Computational intelligence (CI) is a rapidly evolving field that utilizes life imitating metaphors for guiding model building including, but not limited to neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, artificial life, and hybrid CI paradigms. Although the boundaries between artificial intelligence (AI) and CI are not distinct, their research communities are separate and distinct. CI researchers tend to focus on processing numerical data from sensors, while the AI community generally relies on symbolic computing to capture human knowledge. In both areas, there is a great deal of interest and activity in hybrid systems that can offset the limitations of individual methods, extend their capabilities, and create new capabilities. Examples of the benefits that can accrue from hybrid systems are contained.

  9. Telerobotic Surgery: An Intelligent Systems Approach to Mitigate the Adverse Effects of Communication Delay. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardullo, Frank M.; Lewis, Harold W., III; Panfilov, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    An extremely innovative approach has been presented, which is to have the surgeon operate through a simulator running in real-time enhanced with an intelligent controller component to enhance the safety and efficiency of a remotely conducted operation. The use of a simulator enables the surgeon to operate in a virtual environment free from the impediments of telecommunication delay. The simulator functions as a predictor and periodically the simulator state is corrected with truth data. Three major research areas must be explored in order to ensure achieving the objectives. They are: simulator as predictor, image processing, and intelligent control. Each is equally necessary for success of the project and each of these involves a significant intelligent component in it. These are diverse, interdisciplinary areas of investigation, thereby requiring a highly coordinated effort by all the members of our team, to ensure an integrated system. The following is a brief discussion of those areas. Simulator as a predictor: The delays encountered in remote robotic surgery will be greater than any encountered in human-machine systems analysis, with the possible exception of remote operations in space. Therefore, novel compensation techniques will be developed. Included will be the development of the real-time simulator, which is at the heart of our approach. The simulator will present real-time, stereoscopic images and artificial haptic stimuli to the surgeon. Image processing: Because of the delay and the possibility of insufficient bandwidth a high level of novel image processing is necessary. This image processing will include several innovative aspects, including image interpretation, video to graphical conversion, texture extraction, geometric processing, image compression and image generation at the surgeon station. Intelligent control: Since the approach we propose is in a sense predictor based, albeit a very sophisticated predictor, a controller, which not only

  10. Artificial intelligence approaches in space power systems automation at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Various applications of AI to spacecraft electrical power systems are described. Particular attention is given to NICBES (nickel-cadmium battery expert system which is interfaced with the Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system test bed); the SSES; the three cooperating AI systems in the Space Station module power management and distribution system test bed; and I-DARE, the intelligent data reduction expert. It is found that the utilization of AI approaches permits comprehensive fault management and dynamic rescheduling capabilities for the electrical power system.

  11. Identification and interpretation of patterns in rocket engine data: Artificial intelligence and neural network approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Whitehead, Bruce; Gupta, Uday K.; Ferber, Harry

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system which is designed to perform automatic data analysis, identify anomalous events, and determine the characteristic features of these events. We have employed both artificial intelligence and neural net approaches in the design of this expert system. The artificial intelligence approach is useful because it provides (1) the use of human experts' knowledge of sensor behavior and faulty engine conditions in interpreting data; (2) the use of engine design knowledge and physical sensor locations in establishing relationships among the events of multiple sensors; (3) the use of stored analysis of past data of faulty engine conditions; and (4) the use of knowledge-based reasoning in distinguishing sensor failure from actual faults. The neural network approach appears promising because neural nets (1) can be trained on extremely noisy data and produce classifications which are more robust under noisy conditions than other classification techniques; (2) avoid the necessity of noise removal by digital filtering and therefore avoid the need to make assumptions about frequency bands or other signal characteristics of anomalous behavior; (3) can, in effect, generate their own feature detectors based on the characteristics of the sensor data used in training; and (4) are inherently parallel and therefore are potentially implementable in special-purpose parallel hardware.

  12. Artificial intelligence: a new approach for prescription and monitoring of hemodialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Akl, A I; Sobh, M A; Enab, Y M; Tattersall, J

    2001-12-01

    The effect of dialysis on patients is conventionally predicted using a formal mathematical model. This approach requires many assumptions of the processes involved, and validation of these may be difficult. The validity of dialysis urea modeling using a formal mathematical model has been challenged. Artificial intelligence using neural networks (NNs) has been used to solve complex problems without needing a mathematical model or an understanding of the mechanisms involved. In this study, we applied an NN model to study and predict concentrations of urea during a hemodialysis session. We measured blood concentrations of urea, patient weight, and total urea removal by direct dialysate quantification (DDQ) at 30-minute intervals during the session (in 15 chronic hemodialysis patients). The NN model was trained to recognize the evolution of measured urea concentrations and was subsequently able to predict hemodialysis session time needed to reach a target solute removal index (SRI) in patients not previously studied by the NN model (in another 15 chronic hemodialysis patients). Comparing results of the NN model with the DDQ model, the prediction error was 10.9%, with a not significant difference between predicted total urea nitrogen (UN) removal and measured UN removal by DDQ. NN model predictions of time showed a not significant difference with actual intervals needed to reach the same SRI level at the same patient conditions, except for the prediction of SRI at the first 30-minute interval, which showed a significant difference (P = 0.001). This indicates the sensitivity of the NN model to what is called patient clearance time; the prediction error was 8.3%. From our results, we conclude that artificial intelligence applications in urea kinetics can give an idea of intradialysis profiling according to individual clinical needs. In theory, this approach can be extended easily to other solutes, making the NN model a step forward to achieving artificial-intelligent

  13. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  14. Worldwide Intelligent Systems: Approaches to Telecommunications and Network Management. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebowitz, Jay, Ed.; Prerau, David S., Ed.

    This is an international collection of 12 papers addressing artificial intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology applications in telecommunications and network management. It covers the latest and emerging AI technologies as applied to the telecommunications field. The papers are: "The Potential for Knowledge Technology in…

  15. An Indexing Needle in an Intelligence Haystack: Methodological Approaches in Exploring the Documentation of British Military Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Rodney M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences in researching the documentation of the intelligence (codename Ultra) produced by breaking Enigma at Government Code & Cypher School, Bletchley Park, 1939-45, are described. The major problems are identified and shown to lie in the obscurity of the associated processes, disguised as they were within general bureaucratic…

  16. Comparing Multiple Intelligences Approach with Traditional Teaching on Eight Grade Students' Achievement in and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev; Gokcek, Nur; Kilic, Ziya; Kilic, Esma

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences (MI) teaching approach on 8th Grade students' achievement in and attitudes toward science. This study used a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. While the experimental group (n=30) was taught a unit on acids and bases using MI teaching approach, the…

  17. Implementing a Teaching Approach Based on the Multiple Intelligence Theory in a South African School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienaar, H. C.; Nieman, M. M.; Kamper, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the implementation of a teaching approach based on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI) at a school in the Hammanskraal area in Gauteng, South Africa. The aim was to determine the impact that such an approach would have on teachers, learners and learner performance. This article discusses the implementation…

  18. An endorsement-based approach to student modeling for planner-controlled intelligent tutoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, William R.

    1990-01-01

    An approach is described to student modeling for intelligent tutoring systems based on an explicit representation of the tutor's beliefs about the student and the arguments for and against those beliefs (called endorsements). A lexicographic comparison of arguments, sorted according to evidence reliability, provides a principled means of determining those beliefs that are considered true, false, or uncertain. Each of these beliefs is ultimately justified by underlying assessment data. The endorsement-based approach to student modeling is particularly appropriate for tutors controlled by instructional planners. These tutors place greater demands on a student model than opportunistic tutors. Numerical calculi approaches are less well-suited because it is difficult to correctly assign numbers for evidence reliability and rule plausibility. It may also be difficult to interpret final results and provide suitable combining functions. When numeric measures of uncertainty are used, arbitrary numeric thresholds are often required for planning decisions. Such an approach is inappropriate when robust context-sensitive planning decisions must be made. A TMS-based implementation of the endorsement-based approach to student modeling is presented, this approach is compared to alternatives, and a project history is provided describing the evolution of this approach.

  19. A Distributed, Collaborative Intelligent Agent System Approach for Proactive Postmarketing Drug Safety Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanqing; Ying, Hao; Farber, Margo S.; Yen, John; Dews, Peter; Miller, Richard E.; Massanari, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Discovering unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in postmarketing surveillance as early as possible is of great importance. The current approach to postmarketing surveillance primarily relies on spontaneous reporting. It is a passive surveillance system and limited by gross underreporting (<10% reporting rate), latency, and inconsistent reporting. We propose a novel team-based intelligent agent software system approach for proactively monitoring and detecting potential ADRs of interest using electronic patient records. We designed such a system and named it ADRMonitor. The intelligent agents, operating on computers located in different places, are capable of continuously and autonomously collaborating with each other and assisting the human users (e.g., the food and drug administration (FDA), drug safety professionals, and physicians). The agents should enhance current systems and accelerate early ADR identification. To evaluate the performance of the ADRMonitor with respect to the current spontaneous reporting approach, we conducted simulation experiments on identification of ADR signal pairs (i.e., potential links between drugs and apparent adverse reactions) under various conditions. The experiments involved over 275 000 simulated patients created on the basis of more than 1000 real patients treated by the drug cisapride that was on the market for seven years until its withdrawal by the FDA in 2000 due to serious ADRs. Healthcare professionals utilizing the spontaneous reporting approach and the ADRMonitor were separately simulated by decision-making models derived from a general cognitive decision model called fuzzy recognition-primed decision (RPD) model that we recently developed. The quantitative simulation results show that 1) the number of true ADR signal pairs detected by the ADRMonitor is 6.6 times higher than that by the spontaneous reporting strategy; 2) the ADR detection rate of the ADRMonitor agents with even moderate decision-making skills is five

  20. An intelligent approach to machine component health prognostics by utilizing only truncated histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chen; Tao, Laifa; Fan, Huanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to reduce the production downtime, spare-part inventory, maintenance cost, and safety hazards of machineries and equipment. Prognostics are regarded as a significant and promising tool for achieving these benefits for machine maintenance. However, prognostic models, particularly probabilistic-based methods, require a large number of failure instances. In practice, engineering assets are rarely being permitted to run to failure. Many studies have reported valuable models and methods that engage in maximizing both truncated and failure data. However, limited studies have focused on cases where only truncated data are available, which is common in machine condition monitoring. Therefore, this study develops an intelligent machine component prognostics system by utilizing only truncated histories. First, the truncated Minimum Quantization Error (MQE) histories were obtained by Self-organizing Map network after feature extraction. The chaos-based parallel multilayer perceptron network and polynomial fitting for residual errors were adopted to generate the predicted MQEs and failure times following the truncation times. The feed-forward neural network (FFNN) was trained with inputs both from the truncated MQE histories and from the predicted MQEs. The target vectors of survival probabilities were estimated by intelligent product limit estimator using the truncation times and generated failure times. After validation, the FFNN was applied to predict the machine component health of individual units. To validate the proposed method, two cases were considered by using the degradation data generated by bearing testing rig. Results demonstrate that the proposed method is a promising intelligent prognostics approach for machine component health.

  1. Semantic querying of relational data for clinical intelligence: a semantic web services-based approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical Intelligence, as a research and engineering discipline, is dedicated to the development of tools for data analysis for the purposes of clinical research, surveillance, and effective health care management. Self-service ad hoc querying of clinical data is one desirable type of functionality. Since most of the data are currently stored in relational or similar form, ad hoc querying is problematic as it requires specialised technical skills and the knowledge of particular data schemas. Results A possible solution is semantic querying where the user formulates queries in terms of domain ontologies that are much easier to navigate and comprehend than data schemas. In this article, we are exploring the possibility of using SADI Semantic Web services for semantic querying of clinical data. We have developed a prototype of a semantic querying infrastructure for the surveillance of, and research on, hospital-acquired infections. Conclusions Our results suggest that SADI can support ad-hoc, self-service, semantic queries of relational data in a Clinical Intelligence context. The use of SADI compares favourably with approaches based on declarative semantic mappings from data schemas to ontologies, such as query rewriting and RDFizing by materialisation, because it can easily cope with situations when (i) some computation is required to turn relational data into RDF or OWL, e.g., to implement temporal reasoning, or (ii) integration with external data sources is necessary. PMID:23497556

  2. SNMP-SI: A Network Management Tool Based on Slow Intelligence System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colace, Francesco; de Santo, Massimo; Ferrandino, Salvatore

    The last decade has witnessed an intense spread of computer networks that has been further accelerated with the introduction of wireless networks. Simultaneously with, this growth has increased significantly the problems of network management. Especially in small companies, where there is no provision of personnel assigned to these tasks, the management of such networks is often complex and malfunctions can have significant impacts on their businesses. A possible solution is the adoption of Simple Network Management Protocol. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a standard protocol used to exchange network management information. It is part of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite. SNMP provides a tool for network administrators to manage network performance, find and solve network problems, and plan for network growth. SNMP has a big disadvantage: its simple design means that the information it deals with is neither detailed nor well organized enough to deal with the expanding modern networking requirements. Over the past years much efforts has been given to improve the lack of Simple Network Management Protocol and new frameworks has been developed: A promising approach involves the use of Ontology. This is the starting point of this paper where a novel approach to the network management based on the use of the Slow Intelligence System methodologies and Ontology based techniques is proposed. Slow Intelligence Systems is a general-purpose systems characterized by being able to improve performance over time through a process involving enumeration, propagation, adaptation, elimination and concentration. Therefore, the proposed approach aims to develop a system able to acquire, according to an SNMP standard, information from the various hosts that are in the managed networks and apply solutions in order to solve problems. To check the feasibility of this model first experimental results in a real scenario are showed.

  3. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  4. A Machine Learning Approach for Business Intelligence Analysis using Commercial Shipping Transaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bramer, Lisa M.; Chatterjee, Samrat; Holmes, Aimee E.; Robinson, Sean M.; Bradley, Steven F.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2015-09-30

    Business intelligence problems are particularly challenging due to the use of large volume and high velocity data in attempts to model and explain complex underlying phenomena. Incremental machine learning based approaches for summarizing trends and identifying anomalous behavior are often desirable in such conditions to assist domain experts in characterizing their data. The overall goal of this research is to develop a machine learning algorithm that enables predictive analysis on streaming data, detects changes and anomalies in the data, and can evolve based on the dynamic behavior of the data. Commercial shipping transaction data for the U.S. is used to develop and test a Naïve Bayes model that classifies several companies into lines of businesses and demonstrates an ability to predict when the behavior of these companies changes by venturing into other lines of businesses.

  5. Implementing Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems in K-12 Settings: A Case Study on Approach and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijekumar, K. K.

    2007-01-01

    Technologies for learning environments are a vital and growing market for software development and utilization. A team of designers and developers created a Web-based intelligent tutoring system to teach a reading comprehension strategy for elementary and middle school students. Our approach to designing ITSS combined the waterfall method of…

  6. Creating Intelligent Computer Workstation of a Freight Officer in a Single Information Space of Railway Transport: Synergetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malybaev, Saken K.; Malaybaev, Nurlan S.; Isina, Botakoz M.; Kenzhekeeva, Akbope R.; Khuangan, Nurbol

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of researches aimed at the creation of automated workplaces for railway transport specialists with the help of intelligent information systems. The analysis of tendencies of information technologies development in the transport network was conducted. It was determined that the most effective approach is to create…

  7. Providing Formative Assessment to Students Solving Multipath Engineering Problems with Complex Arrangements of Interacting Parts: An Intelligent Tutor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steif, Paul S.; Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak

    2016-01-01

    Problems faced by engineering students involve multiple pathways to solution. Students rarely receive effective formative feedback on handwritten homework. This paper examines the potential for computer-based formative assessment of student solutions to multipath engineering problems. In particular, an intelligent tutor approach is adopted and…

  8. Intelligent approach for parallel HEV control strategy based on driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Asadi, M.

    2011-02-01

    This article describes a methodological approach for the intelligent control of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) by the inclusion of the concept of driving cycles. In this approach, a fuzzy logic controller is designed to manage the internal combustion engine to work in the vicinity of its optimal condition instantaneously. In addition, based on the definition of microtrip, several driving patterns are classified that represent the congested to highway traffic conditions. The driving cycle and traffic conditions are then incorporated in an optimisation process to tune the fuzzy membership function parameters. In this study, the optimisation process is formulated to minimise the HEV fuel consumption (FC) and emissions as well as the satisfaction of the driving performance constraints. Finally, optimisation results are provided for three different driving cycles including ECE-EUDC, FTP and TEH-CAR. TEH-CAR is a driving cycle that is developed based on the experimental data collected from the real traffic condition in the city of Tehran. The results from the computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and reduction in FC and emissions while ensuring that the vehicle performance is not sacrificed.

  9. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N

    2015-09-01

    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA.

  10. Identification of time-varying structural dynamic systems - An artificial intelligence approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. J.; Hanagud, S.

    1992-01-01

    An application of the artificial intelligence-derived methodologies of heuristic search and object-oriented programming to the problem of identifying the form of the model and the associated parameters of a time-varying structural dynamic system is presented in this paper. Possible model variations due to changes in boundary conditions or configurations of a structure are organized into a taxonomy of models, and a variant of best-first search is used to identify the model whose simulated response best matches that of the current physical structure. Simulated model responses are verified experimentally. An output-error approach is used in a discontinuous model space, and an equation-error approach is used in the parameter space. The advantages of the AI methods used, compared with conventional programming techniques for implementing knowledge structuring and inheritance, are discussed. Convergence conditions and example problems have been discussed. In the example problem, both the time-varying model and its new parameters have been identified when changes occur.

  11. Intelligent Approach for Analysis of Respiratory Signals and Oxygen Saturation in the Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moret-Bonillo, Vicente; Alvarez-Estévez, Diego; Fernández-Leal, Angel; Hernández-Pereira, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the development of an intelligent approach for clinical decision making in the diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome, SAHS, from the analysis of respiratory signals and oxygen saturation in arterial blood, SaO2. In order to accomplish the task the proposed approach makes use of different artificial intelligence techniques and reasoning processes being able to deal with imprecise data. These reasoning processes are based on fuzzy logic and on temporal analysis of the information. The developed approach also takes into account the possibility of artifacts in the monitored signals. Detection and characterization of signal artifacts allows detection of false positives. Identification of relevant diagnostic patterns and temporal correlation of events is performed through the implementation of temporal constraints. PMID:25035712

  12. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  13. Intelligence and Metacognition as Predictors of Foreign Language Achievement: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadam, Reza; Khajavy, Gholam Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of metacognition and intelligence in foreign language achievement on a sample of 143 Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Participants completed Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices as a measure of intelligence, and Metacognitive Awareness Inventory as a measure of metacognition. Learners' scores at…

  14. The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence from a Gendered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Martos, M. Pilar Berrios

    2012-01-01

    Studies on both transformational leadership and emotional intelligence have analyzed the relationship between emotions and leadership. Yet the relationships among these concepts and gender roles have not been documented. In this study, we investigated the relations among transformational leadership, emotional intelligence, and gender stereotypes.…

  15. The Importance of Why: An Intelligence Approach for a Multi-Polar World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    defines intelligence as the “product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, evaluation, analysis , and interpretation of available...integration, evaluation, analysis , and interpretation of all source data and the preparation of intelligence products in support of known or anticipated...intellectual process of interpreting collected information ( analysis ) and proposing what it means (estimation). Puzzle solving is a deterministic process

  16. An intelligent approach to the discovery of luminescent materials using a combinatorial approach combined with Taguchi methodology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Cheng-I; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Chen, Po-Yuan; Hu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2011-01-01

    A significant advance made in combinatorial approach research was that the emphasis shifted from simple mixing to intelligent screening, so as to improve the efficiency and accuracy of discovering new materials from a larger number of diverse compositions. In this study, the long-lasting luminescence of SrAl(2)O(4), which is co-doped with Eu(2+), Ce(3+), Dy(3+), Li(+) and H(3)BO(3), was investigated based on a combinatorial approach in conjunction with the Taguchi method. The minimal number of 16 samples to be tested (five dopants and four levels of concentration) were designed using the Taguchi method. The samples to be screened were synthesized using a parallel combinatorial strategy based on ink-jetting of precursors into an array of micro-reactor wells. The relative brightness of luminescence of the different phosphors over a particular period was assessed. Ce(3+) was identified as the constituent that detrimentally affected long-lasting luminescence. Its concentration was optimized to zero. Li(+) had a minor effect on long-lasting luminescence but the main factors that contributed to the objective property (long-lasting luminescence) were Eu(2+), Dy(3+) and H(3)BO(3), and the concentrations of these dopants were optimized to 0.020, 0.030 and 0.300, respectively, for co-doping into SrAl(2)O(4). This study demonstrates that the utility of the combinatorial approach for evaluating the effect of components on an objective property (e.g. phosphorescence) and estimating the expected performance under the optimal conditions can be improved by the Taguchi method.

  17. PESEK Lecture: Promising New Approaches in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Frank

    2002-01-01

    New insights into the possible nature of extraterrestrial intelligent transmissions, coupled to increased financial support for such research and new, powerful, and affordable instrumental capabilities, have encouraged several new approaches to SETI. Perhaps most dramatic has been the recognition that detectable optical and infrared signals, long shunned as implausible, are plausible after all. This is the consequence of the development of high power pulsed lasers which, in the right circumstances, can produce signals detectable easily with rather inexpensive equipment. This has led to the rapid development of several optical SETI programs that exploit nanosecond response photodetectors and the statistics of photon arrivals to achieve truly remarkable sensitivities for optical signals of short time duration. The usually vexed choice of specific electromagnetic frequencies to observe is not a problem in these systems. They are inexpensive, and extremely robust, being immune to the problems from, for example, defects in the optics of the telescopes used, partial obscuration due to clouds, and telescope pointing errors. They can utilize crude "light buckets" such as are built to observe cosmic ray Cerenkov radiation. They can be used in a shared mode with conventional astronomical observations. In the radio domain, the most powerful advance has been the availability and funds to build a dedicated telescope for use in SETI, the Allan Array Telescope. This telescope, scheduled to go into operation in 2005, will use a new approach to building large collecting areas, the computer-based interconnection of a large number of small antennas of the order of 6-meters in diameter to achieve a collecting area of one hectare. Not only will this be a very inexpensive telescope of great sensitivity, but also it will allow the formation of a large number of telescope beams simultaneously, greatly speeding up the speed of SETI searches. On a longer time scale, a goal of SETI designers

  18. Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism: A Novel Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Ganeshkumar, P; Gokulakrishnan, P

    2015-01-01

    In Indian four-lane express highway, millions of vehicles are travelling every day. Accidents are unfortunate and frequently occurring in these highways causing deaths, increase in death toll, and damage to infrastructure. A mechanism is required to avoid such road accidents at the maximum to reduce the death toll. An Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism, a novel and proactive approach, is proposed in this paper for achieving the best of Intelligent Transportation System using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. ESPM intends to predict the possibility of occurrence of an accident in an Indian four-lane express highway. In ESPM, the emergency situation prediction is done by the Road Side Unit based on (i) the Status Report sent by the vehicles in the range of RSU and (ii) the road traffic flow analysis done by the RSU. Once the emergency situation or accident is predicted in advance, an Emergency Warning Message is constructed and disseminated to all vehicles in the area of RSU to alert and prevent the vehicles from accidents. ESPM performs well in emergency situation prediction in advance to the occurrence of an accident. ESPM predicts the emergency situation within 0.20 seconds which is comparatively less than the statistical value. The prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is found better in different traffic scenarios.

  19. Artificial Intelligence and the 'Good Society': the US, EU, and UK approach.

    PubMed

    Cath, Corinne; Wachter, Sandra; Mittelstadt, Brent; Taddeo, Mariarosaria; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-03-28

    In October 2016, the White House, the European Parliament, and the UK House of Commons each issued a report outlining their visions on how to prepare society for the widespread use of artificial intelligence (AI). In this article, we provide a comparative assessment of these three reports in order to facilitate the design of policies favourable to the development of a 'good AI society'. To do so, we examine how each report addresses the following three topics: (a) the development of a 'good AI society'; (b) the role and responsibility of the government, the private sector, and the research community (including academia) in pursuing such a development; and (c) where the recommendations to support such a development may be in need of improvement. Our analysis concludes that the reports address adequately various ethical, social, and economic topics, but come short of providing an overarching political vision and long-term strategy for the development of a 'good AI society'. In order to contribute to fill this gap, in the conclusion we suggest a two-pronged approach.

  20. Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism: A Novel Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gokulakrishnan, P.

    2015-01-01

    In Indian four-lane express highway, millions of vehicles are travelling every day. Accidents are unfortunate and frequently occurring in these highways causing deaths, increase in death toll, and damage to infrastructure. A mechanism is required to avoid such road accidents at the maximum to reduce the death toll. An Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism, a novel and proactive approach, is proposed in this paper for achieving the best of Intelligent Transportation System using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. ESPM intends to predict the possibility of occurrence of an accident in an Indian four-lane express highway. In ESPM, the emergency situation prediction is done by the Road Side Unit based on (i) the Status Report sent by the vehicles in the range of RSU and (ii) the road traffic flow analysis done by the RSU. Once the emergency situation or accident is predicted in advance, an Emergency Warning Message is constructed and disseminated to all vehicles in the area of RSU to alert and prevent the vehicles from accidents. ESPM performs well in emergency situation prediction in advance to the occurrence of an accident. ESPM predicts the emergency situation within 0.20 seconds which is comparatively less than the statistical value. The prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is found better in different traffic scenarios. PMID:26065014

  1. The systems approach for applying artificial intelligence to space station automation (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, Vernon L.

    1985-12-01

    The progress of technology is marked by fragmentation -- dividing research and development into ever narrower fields of specialization. Ultimately, specialists know everything about nothing. And hope for integrating those slender slivers of specialty into a whole fades. Without an integrated, all-encompassing perspective, technology becomes applied in a lopsided and often inefficient manner. A decisionary model, developed and applied for NASA's Chief Engineer toward establishment of commercial space operations, can be adapted to the identification, evaluation, and selection of optimum application of artificial intelligence for space station automation -- restoring wholeness to a situation that is otherwise chaotic due to increasing subdivision of effort. Issues such as functional assignments for space station task, domain, and symptom modules can be resolved in a manner understood by all parties rather than just the person with assigned responsibility -- and ranked by overall significance to mission accomplishment. Ranking is based on the three basic parameters of cost, performance, and schedule. This approach has successfully integrated many diverse specialties in situations like worldwide terrorism control, coal mining safety, medical malpractice risk, grain elevator explosion prevention, offshore drilling hazards, and criminal justice resource allocation -- all of which would have otherwise been subject to "squeaky wheel" emphasis and support of decision-makers.

  2. Relationship between acoustic measures and judgments of intelligibility in Parkinson's disease: a within-speaker approach.

    PubMed

    Feenaughty, Lynda; Tjaden, Kris; Sussman, Joan

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the acoustic basis of within-speaker, across-utterance variation in sentence intelligibility for 12 speakers with dysarthria secondary to Parkinson's disease (PD). Acoustic measures were also obtained for 12 healthy controls for comparison to speakers with PD. Speakers read sentences using their typical speech style. Acoustic measures of speech rate, articulatory rate, fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and F2 interquartile range (F2 IQR) were obtained. A group of listeners judged sentence intelligibility using a computerized visual-analog scale. Relationships between judgments of intelligibility and acoustic measures were determined for individual speakers with PD. Relationships among acoustic measures were also quantified. Although considerable variability was noted, articulatory rate, fundamental frequency and F2 IQR were most frequently associated with within-speaker variation in sentence intelligibility. Results suggest that diversity among speakers with PD should be considered when interpreting results from group analyses.

  3. The prediction of breast cancer biopsy outcomes using two CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process

    SciTech Connect

    Elter, M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wittenberg, T.

    2007-11-15

    Mammography is the most effective method for breast cancer screening available today. However, the low positive predictive value of breast biopsy resulting from mammogram interpretation leads to approximately 70% unnecessary biopsies with benign outcomes. To reduce the high number of unnecessary breast biopsies, several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed in the last several years. These systems help physicians in their decision to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram or to perform a short term follow-up examination instead. We present two novel CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process to predict breast biopsy outcomes from BI-RADS findings. An intelligible reasoning process is an important requirement for the acceptance of CAD systems by physicians. The first approach induces a global model based on decison-tree learning. The second approach is based on case-based reasoning and applies an entropic similarity measure. We have evaluated the performance of both CAD approaches on two large publicly available mammography reference databases using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, bootstrap sampling, and the ANOVA statistical significance test. Both approaches outperform the diagnosis decisions of the physicians. Hence, both systems have the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies in clinical practice. A comparison of the performance of the proposed decision tree and CBR approaches with a state of the art approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) shows that the CBR approach performs slightly better than the ANN approach, which in turn results in slightly better performance than the decision-tree approach. The differences are statistically significant (p value <0.001). On 2100 masses extracted from the DDSM database, the CRB approach for example resulted in an area under the ROC curve of A(z)=0.89{+-}0.01, the decision-tree approach in A(z)=0

  4. Functional analysis from visual and compositional data. An artificial intelligence approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló, J. A.; Moitinho de Almeida, V.

    Why archaeological artefacts are the way they are? In this paper we try to solve such a question by investigating the relationship between form and function. We propose new ways of studying the way behaviour in the past can be asserted on the examination of archaeological observables in the present. In any case, we take into account that there are also non-visual features characterizing ancient objects and materials (i.e., compositional information based on mass spectrometry data, chronological information based on radioactive decay measurements, etc.). Information that should make us aware of many functional properties of objects is multidimensional in nature: size, which makes reference to height, length, depth, weight and mass; shape and form, which make reference to the geometry of contours and volumes; texture, which refers to the microtopography (roughness, waviness, and lay) and visual appearance (colour variations, brightness, reflectivity and transparency) of surfaces; and finally material, meaning the combining of distinct compositional elements and properties to form a whole. With the exception of material data, the other relevant aspects for functional reasoning have been traditionally described in rather ambiguous terms, without taking into account the advantages of quantitative measurements of shape/form, and texture. Reasoning about the functionality of archaeological objects recovered at the archaeological site requires a cross-disciplinary investigation, which may also range from recognition techniques used in computer vision and robotics to reasoning, representation, and learning methods in artificial intelligence. The approach we adopt here is to follow current computational theories of object perception to ameliorate the way archaeology can deal with the explanation of human behaviour in the past (function) from the analysis of visual and non-visual data, taking into account that visual appearances and even compositional characteristics only

  5. An intelligent system for mineral identification in thin sections based on a cascade approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadi, Hossein; Sadri, Javad; Bayati, Mahdokht

    2017-02-01

    In this study, an intelligent system for mineral identification in thin sections is proposed based on RGB and HSI color spaces and texture features in plane and cross polarized light. The proposed system has two phases for mineral identification. In phase#1, which is the segmentation phase, 12 color components are extracted for each pixel, and using an incremental clustering algorithm, several mineral clusters including index mineral are produced. Afterwards, in phase#2 which is the identification phase, the produced mineral clusters are identified based on a cascade classification approach. The first level of the cascade includes a set of artificial neural networks (ANNs) corresponding to the number of input minerals which are trained based on color components. In the first level, those minerals exhibiting different colors in plane or cross polarized light are identified. The second level of the cascade includes one ANN which is trained based on texture features in plane and cross polarized light images. In the second level, those minerals which are indistinguishable based on color components in both plane and cross polarized light are identified (are rejected in the first level of the cascade). The final output of the system is the name and number of minerals, boundary and percentage of each mineral in thin section, and eventually the name of probable target rock. The proposed system is able to recognize 23 test igneous minerals with the overall accuracy of 93.81%. The proposed system can be applied in important applications which require a real time segmentation and identification map such as petrography, and NASA Mars Explorations.

  6. Modeling the binding affinity of structurally diverse industrial chemicals to carbon using the artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Rai, Premanjali; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    Binding affinity of chemical to carbon is an important characteristic as it finds vast industrial applications. Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of diverse chemicals onto carbon is both time and resource intensive, and development of computational approaches has widely been advocated. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI)-based ten different qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (MLPN, RBFN, PNN/GRNN, CCN, SVM, GEP, GMDH, SDT, DTF, DTB) were established for the prediction of the adsorption capacity of structurally diverse chemicals to activated carbon following the OECD guidelines. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinear dependence in the data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. The generalization and prediction abilities of the constructed models were established through rigorous internal and external validation procedures performed employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete dataset, the qualitative models rendered classification accuracies between 97.04 and 99.93%, while the quantitative models yielded correlation (R(2)) values of 0.877-0.977 between the measured and the predicted endpoint values. The quantitative prediction accuracies for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds (class 4) were relatively better than those for the low MW compounds. Both in the qualitative and quantitative models, the Polarizability was the most influential descriptor. Structural alerts responsible for the extreme adsorption behavior of the compounds were identified. Higher number of carbon and presence of higher halogens in a molecule rendered higher binding affinity. Proposed QSPR models performed well and outperformed the previous reports. A relatively better performance of the ensemble learning models (DTF, DTB) may be attributed to the strengths of the bagging and boosting algorithms which enhance the predictive accuracies. The

  7. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  8. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  9. A multilevel approach to the relationship between birth order and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wichman, Aaron L; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; MacCallum, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    Many studies show relationships between birth order and intelligence but use cross-sectional designs or manifest other threats to internal validity. Multilevel analyses with a control variable show that when these threats are removed, two major results emerge: (a) birth order has no significant influence on children's intelligence and (b) earlier reported birth order effects on intelligence are attributable to factors that vary between, not within, families. Analyses on 7- to 8 - and 13- to 14-year-old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth support these conclusions. When hierarchical data structures, age variance of children, and within-family versus between-family variance sources are taken into account, previous research is seen in a new light.

  10. Self-Rated Estimates of Multiple Intelligences Based on Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terry

    2008-01-01

    To date questionnaires that measure Multiple Intelligences (MIs) have typically not been systematically developed, have poor psychometric properties, and relatively low reliability. The aim of this research was to define the factor structure, and reliability of nine talents which are the behavioural outcomes of MIs, using items representing…

  11. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  12. Artificial intelligence and tutoring systems: Computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Adopting the perspective of the communication of knowledge, the author addresses practical issues involved in designing instructional systems as well as theoretical questions raised by investigating computational methods of knowledge communication. By weaving together the goals, contributions, and fascinating challenges of intelligent tutoring system development, this book reveals the emergence of an important field.

  13. Modifiability of fluid intelligence in aging: a short-term longitudinal training approach.

    PubMed

    Plemons, J K; Willis, S L; Baltes, P B

    1978-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what degree fluid intelligence can be modified in aged subjects. The effectiveness of a cognitive training program designed to enhance one primary component of fluid intelligence, Figural Relations, was assessed by comparing the posttraining performances of 15 experimental and 15 control subjects (mean age: 69; age range 59-85) using a transfer paradigm and three posttraining assessments conducted approximately 1 week, 1 mo, and 6 mo following training. The post-training performance of the two groups was compared on three near (fluid intelligence) and one far (crystallized intelligence) transfer measures. A hierarchical pattern was predicted with the magnitude of training effects ordering themselves in descending order from near to far transfer measures. The training program was successful in enhancing performance on the fluid-nearest measure on all three posttests and for the next fluid-near measure on the first posttest. In addition, significant retest effects resulted which, however, were neither task-specific nor hierarchically ordered, but general and therefore indicative of ability-extraneous factors, such as test sophistication. The findings contribute to a position implying that intellectual performance in old age is more modifiable through short-term behavioral intervention than traditionally assumed.

  14. Measurement of Intelligence Among Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups: Product Versus Process Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klippel, Magot D.

    1975-01-01

    Compares the performances on psychometric and Piagetian measures of intelligence at school entry of children of different ethnic groups living within a dominant Western-type culture. In general, few significant differences between the ethnic groups are found. (Author/AM)

  15. "The Public Be Damned!" A Thematic and Multiple Intelligences Approach to Teaching the Gilded Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjagkij, Nina; Cantu, D. Antonio

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson on the Gilded Age that focuses on eight themes (urbanization, the rise of Jim Crow, populism, politics, immigration, Westward expansion, industrialization, and imperialism) and also incorporates Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences model in order to provide students with various types of learning activities. Gives a list of…

  16. Mastery-Level Measurement: An Alternative Approach to Norm-Referenced Intelligence Testing Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Pierre, Sharon D.

    The measurement of intelligence (I.Q. testing method) has been based on test item construction methods that set norms for mental levels. Individual performance levels are determined by the distribution of scores based on the total group or mean score. The problem with this method of assessment for research purposes is that idiosyncratic…

  17. An Intelligent Agent Approach for Teaching Neural Networks Using LEGO[R] Handy Board Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imberman, Susan P.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe a project for an undergraduate artificial intelligence class. The project teaches neural networks using LEGO[R] handy board robots. Students construct robots with two motors and two photosensors. Photosensors provide readings that act as inputs for the neural network. Output values power the motors and maintain the…

  18. Spotting Books and Countries: New Approaches to Estimating and Conceptualizing Prior Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kirsten M.; de Wit, Isabella; Deary, Ian J.

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to design alternative estimates of pre-morbid/prior intelligence to the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and the Spot-the-Word (STW) in order to tap non-vocabulary based knowledge stores. The rationale for the development of the new tests was that more cognitively able individuals acquire and retain more "singular facts" from their…

  19. Application of artifical intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Annual report, October 1993--October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-07-01

    This basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs.

  20. Tapping into Active Learning and Multiple Intelligences With Interactive Multimedia: A Low-Threshold Classroom Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Educational technology is seldom used to facilitate more active student learning in the classroom. Instructors who have mastered PowerPoint, however, could just as easily learn to create simple pieces of interactive multimedia that encourage student participation in learning tasks and that appeal to multiple intelligences and learning styles.…

  1. Using a Problem-Based Learning Approach to Teach an Intelligent Systems Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, France

    2008-01-01

    While delivering the Intelligent Systems course, an elective course in the Master of Business Information Technology program at RMIT University, it was felt that there was a learning issue as students' learning seemed to be superficial. This perception was based on the questions students asked in class and the mechanical attitude they adopted…

  2. Multiple Intelligences and the World Wide Web: A New Approach to Teaching about the War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Michelle D.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a series of activities using the Internet as a research source for studying the Spanish-American War. Each activity is designed to work with one of the seven multiple intelligences: intrapersonal, verbal/linguistic, musical/linguistic, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, and mathematical. Includes the lyrics to Bob…

  3. Fluid/Spatial and Crystallized Intelligence in Relation to Domain-Specific Working Memory: A Latent-Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haavisto, Marja-Leena; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2005-01-01

    Fluid/spatial intelligence, crystallized intelligence and their relationships to verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) were studied. A total of 120 Finnish Air Force recruits participated in this study. Fluid/spatial intelligence was assessed using four different tasks, while crystallized intelligence was defined with the help of test scores…

  4. An SII-based approach to predict the speech intelligibility in fluctuating noise for normal-hearing listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S.; Versfeld, Niek J.

    2004-05-01

    The speech intelligibility index (SII) is frequently used to predict the speech intelligibility for speech in a given interfering noise. However, the SII model only has been validated for speech in stationary noise. Since the SII departs from speech and noise spectra, it does not take into account any fluctuations in the masking noise. Hence, the model will yield similar SII values, regardless of the degree of fluctuation. In contrast, from the literature it is clear that normal-hearing listeners can benefit from the fluctuations in the noise. The present paper describes an SII-based approach to model speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for speech in both stationary and fluctuating noise. The basic principle of this approach is that both speech and noise signals are partitioned into small time frames. Within each time frame, the conventional SII is determined, yielding the speech information available to the listener at that time frame. Next, the SII values of these time frames are averaged, resulting in the SII for that particular condition. With the aid of SRT data from the literature, it will be shown that this approach can give a good account for most existing data.

  5. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Automated Object Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddox, Brian G.; Swadley, Casey L.

    2002-01-01

    Attempts at fully automated object recognition systems have met with varying levels of success over the years. However, none of the systems have achieved high enough accuracy rates to be run unattended. One of the reasons for this may be that they are designed from the computer's point of view and rely mainly on image-processing methods. A better solution to this problem may be to make use of modern advances in computational intelligence and distributed processing to try to mimic how the human brain is thought to recognize objects. As humans combine cognitive processes with detection techniques, such a system would combine traditional image-processing techniques with computer-based intelligence to determine the identity of various objects in a scene.

  6. Intelligent Information Fusion in the Aviation Domain: A Semantic-Web based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen; Goforth, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Information fusion from multiple sources is a critical requirement for System Wide Information Management in the National Airspace (NAS). NASA and the FAA envision creating an "integrated pool" of information originally coming from different sources, which users, intelligent agents and NAS decision support tools can tap into. In this paper we present the results of our initial investigations into the requirements and prototype development of such an integrated information pool for the NAS. We have attempted to ascertain key requirements for such an integrated pool based on a survey of DSS tools that will benefit from this integrated pool. We then advocate key technologies from computer science research areas such as the semantic web, information integration, and intelligent agents that we believe are well suited to achieving the envisioned system wide information management capabilities.

  7. A New Approach for Measuring the Operational Value of Intelligence for Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    FMR FLOT Movement Rate FORSCOM Forces Command FSE Fire Support Element XdXi xm Acronyms G2 Intelligence Staff Office G3 Operations Staff Office GBCS...model is used to identify, locate, and track enemy units, according to events and to record the times of those events, with the aid of multilayer ...cohesion DLR (defender loss rate) ER (exchange rate) FMR (FLOT movement rate) [ ED loss rate Fraction taken map Troop tank ED Troop mech ED Troop inf ED

  8. A Non-Cognitive Formal Approach to Knowledge Representation in Artificial Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Language," Information and Control, 54: 25-47 (July/August 1982). Dahl, Veronica . "Logic Programming as a Representation of Knowledge," Computer, 16...34Procedural Control in Production Systems.," % Artificial Intelligence, 18: 175-201 (March 1982). Hayes- Roth , Frederick and others. "Principles of Pattern...Directed Inference Systems," Pattern-Directed Inference Systems, edited by D.A. Waterman and Frederick Hayes- Roth . New York: Academic Press, 1978. Langley

  9. A rapid prototyping/artificial intelligence approach to space station-era information management and access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Corey, Stephen M.; Snow, John B.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with Space Station-era information management systems are described. In particular, the work is centered on issues related to: (1) intelligent man-machine interfaces applied to scientific data user support, and (2) the requirement that intelligent information management systems (IIMS) be able to efficiently process metadata updates concerning types of data handled. The advanced IIMS represents functional capabilities driven almost entirely by the needs of potential users. Space Station-era scientific data projected to be generated is likely to be significantly greater than data currently processed and analyzed. Information about scientific data must be presented clearly, concisely, and with support features to allow users at all levels of expertise efficient and cost-effective data access. Additionally, mechanisms for allowing more efficient IIMS metadata update processes must be addressed. The work reported covers the following IIMS design aspects: IIMS data and metadata modeling, including the automatic updating of IIMS-contained metadata, IIMS user-system interface considerations, including significant problems associated with remote access, user profiles, and on-line tutorial capabilities, and development of an IIMS query and browse facility, including the capability to deal with spatial information. A working prototype has been developed and is being enhanced.

  10. An Exploratory Discuss of New Ways for Competitive Intelligence on WEB2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhonghua; Luo, Ling

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) plays an increasingly important role in the strategic management and decision-making of enterprises. Adequate and timely information is the necessity of CI which makes the gathering information very import activities in CI. Web2.0 introduced many new types of applications for users to express their thoughts easily and quickly. In the view of CI, Web2.0 paved new ways and channels for gathering information. This article surveys the applications of Web2.0 relative to CI, and explores approaches of gathering information for CI through Web2.0. Four of applications of Web2.0 (Blog, Wiki, SNS, and RSS ) are discussed for CI use in detail.

  11. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  12. Knowledge-Based Aircraft Automation: Managers Guide on the use of Artificial Intelligence for Aircraft Automation and Verification and Validation Approach for a Neural-Based Flight Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, Ron

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this report was to integrate the powerful tools of artificial intelligence into the traditional process of software development. To maintain the US aerospace competitive advantage, traditional aerospace and software engineers need to more easily incorporate the technology of artificial intelligence into the advanced aerospace systems being designed today. The future goal was to transition artificial intelligence from an emerging technology to a standard technology that is considered early in the life cycle process to develop state-of-the-art aircraft automation systems. This report addressed the future goal in two ways. First, it provided a matrix that identified typical aircraft automation applications conducive to various artificial intelligence methods. The purpose of this matrix was to provide top-level guidance to managers contemplating the possible use of artificial intelligence in the development of aircraft automation. Second, the report provided a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the traditional process of software development. The matrix was developed by organizing the discipline of artificial intelligence into the following six methods: logical, object representation-based, distributed, uncertainty management, temporal and neurocomputing. Next, a study of existing aircraft automation applications that have been conducive to artificial intelligence implementation resulted in the following five categories: pilot-vehicle interface, system status and diagnosis, situation assessment, automatic flight planning, and aircraft flight control. The resulting matrix provided management guidance to understand artificial intelligence as it applied to aircraft automation. The approach taken to develop a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the software engineering life cycle was to start with the existing software quality assurance standards and to change these standards to include neural network

  13. Strategic considerations in SETI, and a microwave approach. [Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeger, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Plausible options in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and the need to reserve a suitable portion of the EM (microwave) spectrum for SETI research, are discussed. Reasons for selection of a portion of the spectrum, specifically the 'water hole' near 1.5 GHz in the terrestrial microwave window (1-25 GHz), are presented, and competition with various emitters for that band (existing satellite downlink transmissions) is discussed. SETI search policies and options are summarized in a table. Speculative considerations guiding initial phases of the SETI pursuit are discussed.

  14. Smart-system of distance learning of visually impaired people based on approaches of artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samigulina, Galina A.; Shayakhmetova, Assem S.

    2016-11-01

    Research objective is the creation of intellectual innovative technology and information Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people. The organization of the available environment for receiving quality education for visually impaired people, their social adaptation in society are important and topical issues of modern education.The proposed Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of education of this category of people. The scientific novelty of proposed Smart-system is using intelligent and statistical methods of processing multi-dimensional data, and taking into account psycho-physiological characteristics of perception and awareness learning information by visually impaired people.

  15. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1996-05-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available ``software`` and ``hardware`` data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. In this sense, the proposed research project is truly multidisciplinary. It involves significant amount of information exchange between researchers in geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering. Computer science (and artificial intelligence) provides the means to effectively acquire, integrate and automate the key expertise in the various disciplines in a reservoir characterization expert system. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. Accomplishments to date are discussed.

  16. A systems biology approach to identify intelligence quotient score-related genomic regions, and pathways relevant to potential therapeutic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Kong, Lei; Qu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Although the intelligence quotient (IQ) is the most popular intelligence test in the world, little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the differences in human. To improve our understanding of cognitive processes and identify potential biomarkers, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of 158 IQ-related genes selected from the literature. A genomic distribution analysis demonstrated that IQ-related genes were enriched in seven regions of chromosome 7 and the X chromosome. In addition, these genes were enriched in target lists of seven transcription factors and sixteen microRNAs. Using a network-based approach, we further reconstructed an IQ-related pathway from known human pathway interaction data. Based on this reconstructed pathway, we incorporated enriched drugs and described the importance of dopamine and norepinephrine systems in IQ-related biological process. These findings not only reveal several testable genes and processes related to IQ scores, but also have potential therapeutic implications for IQ-related mental disorders. PMID:24566931

  17. A collaborative approach for incorporating forensic case data into crime investigation using criminal intelligence analysis and visualisation.

    PubMed

    Rossy, Quentin; Ribaux, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the articulation of forensic science and criminal investigation is critical to the resolution of crimes. However, models and methods to support an effective collaboration between the partners are still poorly expressed or even lacking. Three propositions are borrowed from crime intelligence methods in order to bridge this gap: (a) the general intelligence process, (b) the analyses of investigative problems along principal perspectives: entities and their relationships, time and space, quantitative aspects and (c) visualisation methods as a mode of expression of a problem in these dimensions. Indeed, in a collaborative framework, different kinds of visualisations integrating forensic case data can play a central role for supporting decisions. Among them, link-charts are scrutinised for their abilities to structure and ease the analysis of a case by describing how relevant entities are connected. However, designing an informative chart that does not bias the reasoning process is not straightforward. Using visualisation as a catalyser for a collaborative approach integrating forensic data thus calls for better specifications.

  18. The Effect of Group Therapy With Transactional Analysis Approach on Emotional Intelligence, Executive Functions and Drug Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Masoomeh; Ghanbari Hashem Abadi, Bahram Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of group psychotherapy with transactional analysis (TA) approach on emotional intelligence (EI), executive functions and substance dependency among drug-addicts at rehabilitation centers in Mashhad city, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods In this quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest, case- control stages, 30 patients were selected from a rehabilitation center and randomly divided into two groups. The case group received 12 sessions of group psychotherapy with transactional analysis approach. Then the effects of independent variable (group psychotherapy with TA approach) on EI, executive function and drug dependency were assessed. The Bar-on test was used for EI, Stroop test for measuring executive function and morphine test, meth-amphetamines and B2 test for evaluating drug dependency. Data were analyzed using multifactorial covariance analysis, Levenes' analysis, MANCOVA, t-student and Pearson correlation coefficient tests t with SPSS software. Results Our results showed that group psychotherapy with the TA approach was effective in improving EI, executive functions and decreasing drug dependency (P < 0.05). Conclusions The result of this study showed that group psychotherapy with TA approach has significant effects on addicts and prevents addiction recurrence by improving the coping capabilities and some mental functions of the subjects. However, there are some limitations regarding this study including follow-up duration and sample size. PMID:27822269

  19. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based relational matching and multimodal medical image fusion: generalized 3D approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajdic, Stevan M.; Katz, Henry E.; Downing, Andrew R.; Brooks, Michael J.

    1994-09-01

    A 3D relational image matching/fusion algorithm is introduced. It is implemented in the domain of medical imaging and is based on Artificial Intelligence paradigms--in particular, knowledge base representation and tree search. The 2D reference and target images are selected from 3D sets and segmented into non-touching and non-overlapping regions, using iterative thresholding and/or knowledge about the anatomical shapes of human organs. Selected image region attributes are calculated. Region matches are obtained using a tree search, and the error is minimized by evaluating a `goodness' of matching function based on similarities of region attributes. Once the matched regions are found and the spline geometric transform is applied to regional centers of gravity, images are ready for fusion and visualization into a single 3D image of higher clarity.

  20. Knowledge creation using artificial intelligence: a twin approach to improve breast screening attendance.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Vikraman; Bali, Rajeev K; Arochena, Hisbel; Naguib, Rauf N G; Wallis, Matthew; Wheaton, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) is rapidly becoming established as a core organizational element within the healthcare industry to assist in the delivery of better patient care. KM is a cyclical process which typically starts with knowledge creation (KC), progresses to knowledge sharing, knowledge accessibility and eventually results in new KC (in the same or a related domain). KC plays a significant role in KM as it creates the necessary "seeds" for propagating many more knowledge cycles. This paper addresses the potential of KC in the context of the UK's National Health Service (NHS) breast screening service. KC can be automated to a greater extent by embedding processes within an artificial intelligence (AI) based environment. The UK breast screening service is concerned about non-attendance and this paper discusses issues pertaining to increasing attendance.

  1. Resilient control of cyber-physical systems against intelligent attacker: a hierarchal stackelberg game approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Fuchun; Liu, Huaping

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the resilient control under denial-of-service attack launched by the intelligent attacker. The resilient control system is modelled as a multi-stage hierarchical game with a corresponding hierarchy of decisions made at cyber and physical layer, respectively. Specifically, the interaction in the cyber layer between different security agents is modelled as a static infinite Stackelberg game, while in the underlying physical layer the full-information H∞ minimax control with package drops is modelled as a different Stackelberg game. Both games are solved sequentially, which is consistent with the actual situations. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the load frequency control of the power system, which demonstrates its effectiveness.

  2. A multi-agent approach to intelligent monitoring in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, D.; Albusac, J.; Glez-Morcillo, C.; Castro-Schez, J. J.; Jiménez, L.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a scalable multi-agent architecture to give support to smart grids, paying special attention to the intelligent monitoring of distribution substations. The data gathered by multiple sensors are used by software agents that are responsible for monitoring different aspects or events of interest, such as normal voltage values or unbalanced intensity values that can end up blowing fuses and decreasing the quality of service of end consumers. The knowledge bases of these agents have been built by means of a formal model for normality analysis that has been successfully used in other surveillance domains. The architecture facilitates the integration of new agents and can be easily configured and deployed to monitor different environments. The experiments have been conducted over a power distribution network.

  3. Processing and representation of meta-data for sleep apnea diagnosis with an artificial intelligence approach.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, D; Muñiz, J

    2001-09-01

    In this article, we revise and try to resolve some of the problems inherent in questionnaire screening of sleep apnea cases and apnea diagnosis based on attributes which are relevant and reliable. We present a way of learning information about the relevance of the data, comparing this with the definition of the information by the medical expert. We generate a predictive data model using a data aggregation operator which takes relevance and reliability information about the data into account to produce a diagnosis for each case. We also introduce a grade of membership for each question response which allows the patient to indicate a level of confidence or doubt in their own judgement. The method is tested with data collected from patients in a Sleep Clinic using questionnaires specially designed for the study. Other artificial intelligence predictive modeling algorithms are also tested on the same data and their predictive accuracy compared to that of the aggregation operator.

  4. Evaluation of trade influence on economic growth rate by computational intelligence approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov-Mladenović, Svetlana; Milovančević, Milos; Mladenović, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In this study was analyzed the influence of trade parameters on the economic growth forecasting accuracy. Computational intelligence method was used for the analyzing since the method can handle highly nonlinear data. It is known that the economic growth could be modeled based on the different trade parameters. In this study five input parameters were considered. These input parameters were: trade in services, exports of goods and services, imports of goods and services, trade and merchandise trade. All these parameters were calculated as added percentages in gross domestic product (GDP). The main goal was to select which parameters are the most impactful on the economic growth percentage. GDP was used as economic growth indicator. Results show that the imports of goods and services has the highest influence on the economic growth forecasting accuracy.

  5. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  6. A hybrid intelligent diagnosis approach for quick screening of Alzheimer's disease based on multiple neuropsychological rating scales.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ziming; Zhao, Yinhong; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological testing is an effective means for the screening of Alzheimer's disease. Multiple neuropsychological rating scales should be used together to get subjects' comprehensive cognitive state due to the limitation of a single scale, but it is difficult to operate in primary clinical settings because of the inadequacy of time and qualified clinicians. Aiming at identifying AD's stages more accurately and conveniently in screening, we proposed a computer-aided diagnosis approach based on critical items extracted from multiple neuropsychological scales. The proposed hybrid intelligent approach combines the strengths of rough sets, genetic algorithm, and Bayesian network. There are two stages: one is attributes reduction technique based on rough sets and genetic algorithm, which can find out the most discriminative items for AD diagnosis in scales; the other is uncertain reasoning technique based on Bayesian network, which can forecast the probability of suffering from AD. The experimental data set consists of 500 cases collected by a top hospital in China and each case is determined by the expert panel. The results showed that the proposed approach could not only reduce items drastically with the same classification precision, but also perform better on identifying different stages of AD comparing with other existing scales.

  7. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mina; Song, Jae-Jin; Oh, Seo Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI) outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3–14.2) years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5–16) years) who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and performance IQ for “mentally retarded” and “average,” respectively (Spearman's rho = 0.42, P = 0.15). There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman's rho = 0.8977, P = 0.0008). “Picture arrangement” and “picture completion,” reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes. PMID:26236723

  8. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result.

    PubMed

    Park, Mina; Song, Jae-Jin; Oh, Seo Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI) outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3-14.2) years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5-16) years) who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and performance IQ for "mentally retarded" and "average," respectively (Spearman's rho = 0.42, P = 0.15). There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman's rho = 0.8977, P = 0.0008). "Picture arrangement" and "picture completion," reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes.

  9. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Final report, August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1998-03-01

    The primary goal of the project is to develop a user-friendly computer program to integrate geological and engineering information using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology. The project is restricted to fluvially dominated deltaic environments. The static information used in constructing the reservoir description includes well core and log data. Using the well core and the log data, the program identifies the marker beds, and the type of sand facies, and in turn, develops correlations between wells. Using the correlations and sand facies, the program is able to generate multiple realizations of sand facies and petrophysical properties at interwell locations using geostatistical techniques. The generated petrophysical properties are used as input in the next step where the production data are honored. By adjusting the petrophysical properties, the match between the simulated and the observed production rates is obtained. Although all the components within the overall system are functioning, the integration of dynamic data may not be practical due to the single-phase flow limitations and the computationally intensive algorithms. The future work needs to concentrate on making the dynamic data integration computationally efficient.

  10. Sign language recognition and translation: a multidisciplined approach from the field of artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Parton, Becky Sue

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, research has progressed steadily in regard to the use of computers to recognize and render sign language. This paper reviews significant projects in the field beginning with finger-spelling hands such as "Ralph" (robotics), CyberGloves (virtual reality sensors to capture isolated and continuous signs), camera-based projects such as the CopyCat interactive American Sign Language game (computer vision), and sign recognition software (Hidden Markov Modeling and neural network systems). Avatars such as "Tessa" (Text and Sign Support Assistant; three-dimensional imaging) and spoken language to sign language translation systems such as Poland's project entitled "THETOS" (Text into Sign Language Automatic Translator, which operates in Polish; natural language processing) are addressed. The application of this research to education is also explored. The "ICICLE" (Interactive Computer Identification and Correction of Language Errors) project, for example, uses intelligent computer-aided instruction to build a tutorial system for deaf or hard-of-hearing children that analyzes their English writing and makes tailored lessons and recommendations. Finally, the article considers synthesized sign, which is being added to educational material and has the potential to be developed by students themselves.

  11. Predicting adsorptive removal of chlorophenol from aqueous solution using artificial intelligence based modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Ojha, Priyanka; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to develop artificial intelligence (AI)-based model to predict the adsorptive removal of 2-chlorophenol (CP) in aqueous solution by coconut shell carbon (CSC) using four operational variables (pH of solution, adsorbate concentration, temperature, and contact time), and to investigate their effects on the adsorption process. Accordingly, based on a factorial design, 640 batch experiments were conducted. Nonlinearities in experimental data were checked using Brock-Dechert-Scheimkman (BDS) statistics. Five nonlinear models were constructed to predict the adsorptive removal of CP in aqueous solution by CSC using four variables as input. Performances of the constructed models were evaluated and compared using statistical criteria. BDS statistics revealed strong nonlinearity in experimental data. Performance of all the models constructed here was satisfactory. Radial basis function network (RBFN) and multilayer perceptron network (MLPN) models performed better than generalized regression neural network, support vector machines, and gene expression programming models. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the contact time had highest effect on adsorption followed by the solution pH, temperature, and CP concentration. The study concluded that all the models constructed here were capable of capturing the nonlinearity in data. A better generalization and predictive performance of RBFN and MLPN models suggested that these can be used to predict the adsorption of CP in aqueous solution using CSC.

  12. Approaches to optimal aquifer management and intelligent control in a multiresolutional decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Shlomo; Meystel, Alexander M.

    2005-03-01

    Despite remarkable new developments in stochastic hydrology and adaptations of advanced methods from operations research, stochastic control, and artificial intelligence, solutions of complex real-world problems in hydrogeology have been quite limited. The main reason is the ultimate reliance on first-principle models that lead to complex, distributed-parameter partial differential equations (PDE) on a given scale. While the addition of uncertainty, and hence, stochasticity or randomness has increased insight and highlighted important relationships between uncertainty, reliability, risk, and their effect on the cost function, it has also (a) introduced additional complexity that results in prohibitive computer power even for just a single uncertain/random parameter; and (b) led to the recognition in our inability to assess the full uncertainty even when including all uncertain parameters. A paradigm shift is introduced: an adaptation of new methods of intelligent control that will relax the dependency on rigid, computer-intensive, stochastic PDE, and will shift the emphasis to a goal-oriented, flexible, adaptive, multiresolutional decision support system (MRDS) with strong unsupervised learning (oriented towards anticipation rather than prediction) and highly efficient optimization capability, which could provide the needed solutions of real-world aquifer management problems. The article highlights the links between past developments and future optimization/planning/control of hydrogeologic systems. Malgré de remarquables nouveaux développements en hydrologie stochastique ainsi que de remarquables adaptations de méthodes avancées pour les opérations de recherche, le contrôle stochastique, et l'intelligence artificielle, solutions pour les problèmes complexes en hydrogéologie sont restées assez limitées. La principale raison est l'ultime confiance en les modèles qui conduisent à des équations partielles complexes aux paramètres distribués (PDE) à une

  13. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  14. Facilitating Emergent Literacy Skills: A Literature-Based, Multiple Intelligence Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle

    2006-01-01

    Educators have continually sought to achieve a balance between a phonics-based, code-emphasis program and a more holistic, meaning-based approach to emergent literacy instruction. This article describes an integrated phonics and literature-based approach to developing children's emergent literacy skills. These skills included alphabet knowledge,…

  15. Music Learning in the Early Years: Interdisciplinary Approaches Based on Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economidou Stavrou, Natassa; Chrysostomou, Smaragda; Socratous, Harris

    2011-01-01

    The unity of knowledge represents an old idea with new manifestations. During the last decades integrated approaches in teaching and learning have become increasingly popular. Applications of integrative approaches between the arts and other school subjects exist in many countries around the world, offering insights into the problems and…

  16. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.; Thompson, L.; Shenoi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available soft and hard data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, the authors have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty member participants. Graduate students will work in terms with faculty members.

  17. Two hybrid Artificial Intelligence approaches for modeling rainfall-runoff process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourani, Vahid; Kisi, Özgür; Komasi, Mehdi

    2011-05-01

    SummaryThe need for accurate modeling of the rainfall-runoff process has grown rapidly in the past decades. However, considering the high stochastic property of the process, many models are still being developed in order to define such a complex phenomenon. Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques such as the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) have been extensively used by hydrologists for rainfall-runoff modeling as well as for other fields of hydrology. In this paper, two hybrid AI-based models which are reliable in capturing the periodicity features of the process are introduced for watershed rainfall-runoff modeling. In the first model, the SARIMAX (Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average with exogenous input)-ANN model, an ANN is used to find the non-linear relationship among the residuals of the fitted linear SARIMAX model. In the second model, the wavelet-ANFIS model, wavelet transform is linked to the ANFIS concept and the main time series of two variables (rainfall and runoff) are decomposed into some multi-frequency time series by wavelet transform. Afterwards, these time series are imposed as input data to the ANFIS to predict the runoff discharge one time step ahead. The obtained results of the models applications for the rainfall-runoff modeling of two watersheds (located in Azerbaijan, Iran) show that, although the proposed models can predict both short and long terms runoff discharges by considering seasonality effects, the second model is relatively more appropriate because it uses the multi-scale time series of rainfall and runoff data in the ANFIS input layer.

  18. Regulation of Ci-SCFSlimb binding, Ci proteolysis and Hedgehog pathway activity by Ci phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Smelkinson, Margery G.; Zhou, Qianhe; Kalderon, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Hedgehog (Hh) proteins signal by inhibiting the proteolytic processing of Ci/Gli family transcription factors and by increasing Ci/Gli specific activity. In the absence of Hh, phosphorylation of Ci/Gli triggers binding to SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes and consequent proteolysis. Here we define the principal SCFSlimb binding site in Ci as an extended variant of a canonical Slimb/β-TRCP binding motif that can be created by PKA-priming of five successive CK1 sites. GSK3 enhances binding primarily through a nearby region of Ci, which may contact an SCF component other than Slimb. Studies of Ci variants with altered CK1 and GSK3 sites suggest that the large number of phosphorylation sites that direct SCFSlimb binding confers a Hh response that is both sensitive and graded, and that in the Drosophila wing disc, morphogenetic responses involve changes in both the level and specific activity of Ci. We also show that when Ci proteolysis is compromised, its specific activity is limited principally by Su(fu) and not by Cos2 cytoplasmic tethering or PKA phosphorylation. PMID:17925225

  19. Reserve capacity of the elderly in aging sensitive tests of fluid intelligence: a reanalysis via a structural equation modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Raykov, T

    1989-01-01

    In the last decade there has been a growing interest among developmental psychologists to investigate whether the cognitive performance of older adults can be improved by means of training programs. A number of cognitive training studies involving aging sensitive abilities of fluid intelligence have been performed with healthy older adults (Willis et al. 1981; Baltes et al., 1984/1986). In this paper we reanalyse data from Baltes et al. (1986) concerning the ADEPT Induction, ADEPT Figural Relations, Induction Standard and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices Tests. In contrast to the above study, where the data analysis was based on a MANOVA approach, usually carried out when experimental data were gathered, this discussion implements an approach to change measurement for which the structural equation of different aspects of change in means as manifested in the moment matrices. The results here confirm these by Baltes et al. (1986), and suggest conclusions concerning change in means over time in the experimental and control groups, which are not implied by their study.

  20. FIRE_CI1_TOVS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-01-27

    ... FIRE_CI1_TOVS Project Title:  FIRE I CIRRUS Discipline:  Clouds Field Campaigns ... Parameters:  Altitude Barometric Altitude Cloud Amount Cloud Top Pressure Cloud Top Temperature Dew/Frost Point ...

  1. SLA: A Time for New Initiatives-- CI Division Formed, Fundraising Goal Set, Certification Coming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMattia, Susan; Blumenstein, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Several initiatives were announced at the Special Libraries Association (d.b.a. SLA) conference, June 4-9, at the Gaylord Opryland Hotel in Nashville. A petition drive resulted in formation of a Competitive Intelligence (CI) Division from the former CI Section of the Leadership and Management Division. The board encouraged the member-driven…

  2. Competitive Intelligence and the Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. Frances

    1988-01-01

    Examines the competitive intelligence approach to corporate information gathering, and discusses how it differs from the traditional library information center approach. Steps for developing a competitive intelligence system in the library information center are suggested. (33 references) (MES)

  3. Development of an Inquiry-Based Learning Support System Based on an Intelligent Knowledge Exploration Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ji-Wei; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) is an effective approach for promoting active learning. When inquiry-based learning is incorporated into instruction, teachers provide guiding questions for students to actively explore the required knowledge in order to solve the problems. Although the World Wide Web (WWW) is a rich knowledge resource for students to…

  4. Eyes on Target: Intelligence Support to an Effects-based Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    and theoretical support for such techniques is available from the field of neurolinguistic programming ,21 which involves analysis of word choice...Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  5. Fostering Creativity: A Multiple Intelligences Approach to Designing Learning in Undergraduate Fine Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Angela; Cripps, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum and pedagogy in undergraduate fine art can promote an approach to learning creativity that is more about being an artist than knowing about art. Lecturers can provide a road map for developing particular dispositions, in relation to student ideas and perceptions, to foster personalised creativity. This requires that lecturers have an…

  6. Reconstructive Memory: A Non-Traditional Approach to Assessing Young Children's Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.; And Others

    Implications are discussed for new instrument development by way of a methodological study which used a task allowing one to focus upon: (1) a non-verbal approach; (2) memory functions; (3) a variety of mnemonics that children use in information retrieval; and (4) a non-traditional procedure supported by psychological and developmental research. A…

  7. A BDI Approach to Infer Student's Emotions in an Intelligent Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Patricia Augustin; Vicari, Rosa Maria

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe the use of mental states approach, more specifically the belief-desire-intention (BDI) model, to implement the process of affective diagnosis in an educational environment. We use the psychological OCC model, which is based on the cognitive theory of emotions and is possible to be implemented computationally, in order…

  8. Artificial Intelligence and Second Language Learning: An Efficient Approach to Error Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodigovic, Marina

    2007-01-01

    While theoretical approaches to error correction vary in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, most sources agree that such correction is useful and leads to learning. While some point out the relevance of the communicative context in which the correction takes place, others stress the value of consciousness-raising. Trying to…

  9. Teaching about and Understanding Intelligence Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastedt, Glen

    1981-01-01

    Discusses role of intelligence, strategic surprise, and intelligence estimating in foreign policy and international relations courses on the college level. Hypothesis is that the case study approach, generally used to introduce foreign policy classes to intelligence failures, doesn't stress the relationship of policy to intelligence and the need…

  10. An Advanced Orbiting Systems Approach to Quality of Service in Space-Based Intelligent Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riha, Andrew P.

    2005-01-01

    As humans and robotic technologies are deployed in future constellation systems, differing traffic services will arise, e.g., realtime and non-realtime. In order to provide a quality of service framework that would allow humans and robotic technologies to interoperate over a wide and dynamic range of interactions, a method of classifying data as realtime or non-realtime is needed. In our paper, we present an approach that leverages the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) data link protocol. Specifically, we redefine the AOS Transfer Frame Replay Flag in order to provide an automated store-and-forward approach on a per-service basis for use in the next-generation Interplanetary Network. In addition to addressing the problem of intermittent connectivity and associated services, we propose a follow-on methodology for prioritizing data through further modification of the AOS Transfer Frame.

  11. An intelligent approach for variable size segmentation of non-stationary signals

    PubMed Central

    Azami, Hamed; Hassanpour, Hamid; Escudero, Javier; Sanei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    In numerous signal processing applications, non-stationary signals should be segmented to piece-wise stationary epochs before being further analyzed. In this article, an enhanced segmentation method based on fractal dimension (FD) and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for non-stationary signals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetoencephalogram (MEG) and electromyogram (EMG), is proposed. In the proposed approach, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes the signal into orthonormal time series with different frequency bands. Then, the FD of the decomposed signal is calculated within two sliding windows. The accuracy of the segmentation method depends on these parameters of FD. In this study, four EAs are used to increase the accuracy of segmentation method and choose acceptable parameters of the FD. These include particle swarm optimization (PSO), new PSO (NPSO), PSO with mutation, and bee colony optimization (BCO). The suggested methods are compared with other most popular approaches (improved nonlinear energy operator (INLEO), wavelet generalized likelihood ratio (WGLR), and Varri’s method) using synthetic signals, real EEG data, and the difference in the received photons of galactic objects. The results demonstrate the absolute superiority of the suggested approach. PMID:26425359

  12. An intelligent approach for variable size segmentation of non-stationary signals.

    PubMed

    Azami, Hamed; Hassanpour, Hamid; Escudero, Javier; Sanei, Saeid

    2015-09-01

    In numerous signal processing applications, non-stationary signals should be segmented to piece-wise stationary epochs before being further analyzed. In this article, an enhanced segmentation method based on fractal dimension (FD) and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for non-stationary signals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetoencephalogram (MEG) and electromyogram (EMG), is proposed. In the proposed approach, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes the signal into orthonormal time series with different frequency bands. Then, the FD of the decomposed signal is calculated within two sliding windows. The accuracy of the segmentation method depends on these parameters of FD. In this study, four EAs are used to increase the accuracy of segmentation method and choose acceptable parameters of the FD. These include particle swarm optimization (PSO), new PSO (NPSO), PSO with mutation, and bee colony optimization (BCO). The suggested methods are compared with other most popular approaches (improved nonlinear energy operator (INLEO), wavelet generalized likelihood ratio (WGLR), and Varri's method) using synthetic signals, real EEG data, and the difference in the received photons of galactic objects. The results demonstrate the absolute superiority of the suggested approach.

  13. An Adaptive Intelligent Integrated Lighting Control Approach for High-Performance Office Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karizi, Nasim

    An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated through experiments in an actual test room. The objective was to regulate daylight on a specified work plane by controlling the blind slat angles. Furthermore, a sensor-based integrated adaptive lighting controller was designed in Simulink which included an innovative sensor optimization approach based on genetic algorithm to minimize the number of sensors and efficiently place them in the office. The controller was designed based on simple integral controllers. The objective of developed control algorithm was to improve the illuminance situation in the office through controlling the daylight and electrical lighting. To evaluate the performance of the system, the controller was applied on experimental office model in Lee et al.'s research study in 1998. The result of the developed control approach indicate a significantly improvement in lighting situation and 1-23% and 50-78% monthly electrical energy savings in the office model, compared to two static strategies when the blinds were left open and closed during the whole year respectively.

  14. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  15. Neighbor Selection in Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks: A Swarm Intelligence Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Abraham, Ajith; Badr, Youakim

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) topology has a significant influence on the performance, search efficiency and functionality, and scalability of the application. In this chapter, we investigate a multi-swarm approach to the problem of neighbor selection in P2P networks. Particle swarm share some common characteristics with P2P in the dynamic socially environment. Each particle encodes the upper half of the peer-connection matrix through the undirected graph, which reduces the search space dimension. The portion of the adjustment to the velocity influenced by the individual’s cognition, the group cognition from multi-swarms, and the social cognition from the whole swarm, makes an important influence on the particles’ ergodic and synergetic performance. We also attempt to theoretically prove that the multi-swarm optimization algorithm converges with a probability of 1 towards the global optima. The performance of our approach is evaluated and compared with other two different algorithms. The results indicate that it usually required shorter time to obtain better results than the other considered methods, specially for large scale problems.

  16. Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I

    2013-12-01

    Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included.

  17. Quality by design approach: application of artificial intelligence techniques of tablets manufactured by direct compression.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Buket; Paradkar, Anant; de Matas, Marcel; Ozer, Ozgen; Güneri, Tamer; York, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The publication of the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q8, Q9, and Q10 guidelines paved the way for the standardization of quality after the Food and Drug Administration issued current Good Manufacturing Practices guidelines in 2003. "Quality by Design", mentioned in the ICH Q8 guideline, offers a better scientific understanding of critical process and product qualities using knowledge obtained during the life cycle of a product. In this scope, the "knowledge space" is a summary of all process knowledge obtained during product development, and the "design space" is the area in which a product can be manufactured within acceptable limits. To create the spaces, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to emphasize the multidimensional interactions of input variables and to closely bind these variables to a design space. This helps guide the experimental design process to include interactions among the input variables, along with modeling and optimization of pharmaceutical formulations. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated multivariate approach to obtain a quality product based on an understanding of the cause-effect relationships between formulation ingredients and product properties with ANNs and genetic programming on the ramipril tablets prepared by the direct compression method. In this study, the data are generated through the systematic application of the design of experiments (DoE) principles and optimization studies using artificial neural networks and neurofuzzy logic programs.

  18. Context-Aware Intelligent Assistant Approach to Improving Pilot's Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2004-01-01

    Faulty decision making due to inaccurate or incomplete awareness of the situation tends to be the prevailing cause of fatal general aviation accidents. Of these accidents, loss of weather situational awareness accounts for the largest number of fatalities. We describe a method for improving weather situational awareness through the support of a contextaware,domain and task knowledgeable, personalized and adaptive assistant. The assistant automatically monitors weather reports for the pilot's route of flight and warns her of detected anomalies. When and how warnings are issued is determined by phase of flight, the pilot s definition of acceptable weather conditions, and the pilot's preferences for automatic notification. In addition to automatic warnings, the pilot is able to verbally query for weather and airport information. By noting the requests she makes during the approach phase of flight, our system learns to provide the information without explicit requests on subsequent flights with similar conditions. We show that our weather assistant decreases the effort required to maintain situational awareness by more than 5.5 times when compared to the conventional method of in-flight weather briefings.

  19. Contemporary cybernetics and its facets of cognitive informatics and computational intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingxu; Kinsner, Witold; Zhang, Du

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores the architecture, theoretical foundations, and paradigms of contemporary cybernetics from perspectives of cognitive informatics (CI) and computational intelligence. The modern domain and the hierarchical behavioral model of cybernetics are elaborated at the imperative, autonomic, and cognitive layers. The CI facet of cybernetics is presented, which explains how the brain may be mimicked in cybernetics via CI and neural informatics. The computational intelligence facet is described with a generic intelligence model of cybernetics. The compatibility between natural and cybernetic intelligence is analyzed. A coherent framework of contemporary cybernetics is presented toward the development of transdisciplinary theories and applications in cybernetics, CI, and computational intelligence.

  20. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  1. A novel electronic device for high speed WDM optical network operations capable of intelligent routing based on simulated electrical network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Soumya; Chaubey, V. K.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of an electronic circuit that maps the whole optical system into the electronic domain and helps in intelligent routing by using simulated electrical network approach (SENA) method. The losses of a linear optical network due to the losses in propagation over the wavelengths and related optical components are modeled as resistances in order to simulate an equivalent electrical network. The concept used in SENA is that current flows in the path of least resistance, which provides a simulation tool to evaluate the optical path with a minimum loss. The developed model has been used to implement an intelligent routing algorithm to find the optimal path without going for time-consuming recursive algorithms for evaluating all possible path combinations. A novel modeling method incorporating some logic control circuitry and memory has been developed to achieve the best optimized path in WDM network.

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  3. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  4. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  5. First systematic chemical profiling of cocaine police seizures in Finland in the framework of an intelligence-led approach.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Huhtala, Sami; Esseiva, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    For the first time in Finland, the chemical profiling of cocaine specimens was performed at the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI). The main goals were to determine the chemical composition of cocaine specimens sold in the Finnish market and to study the distribution networks of cocaine in order to provide intelligence related to its trafficking. An analytical methodology enabling through one single GC-MS injection the determination of the added cutting agents (adulterants and diluents), the cocaine purity and the chemical profile (based on the major and minor alkaloids) for each specimen was thus implemented and validated. The methodology was found to be efficient for the discrimination between specimens coming from the same source and specimens coming from different sources. The results highlighted the practical utility of the chemical profiling, especially for supporting the investigation through operational intelligence and improving the knowledge related to the cocaine trafficking through strategic intelligence.

  6. Impact of Learned Resourcefulness and Theories of Intelligence on Academic Achievement of University Students: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennett, Deborah J.; Keefer, Kateryna

    2006-01-01

    This was the first study to integrate Rosenbaum's concept of learned resourcefulness with Dweck's implicit theories of intelligence in predicting university students' academic self-control behaviour and year-end grades. Rosenbaum highlights the prominent role that learned resourcefulness skills play in promoting mastery responses and goal…

  7. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-09-01

    Objective is to apply artificial intelligence and expert systems to capturing, integrating, and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. Goal is to develop a single expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs.

  8. Developmental validation of the ParaDNA(®) Intelligence System-A novel approach to DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Stephen; Dawnay, Nick; Ball, Glyn; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Tribble, Nicholas; Rendell, Paul; Neary, Kelsey; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Wells, Simon

    2015-07-01

    DNA profiling through the analysis of STRs remains one of the most widely used tools in human identification across the world. Current laboratory STR analysis is slow, costly and requires expert users and interpretation which can lead to instances of delayed investigations or non-testing of evidence on budget grounds. The ParaDNA(®) Intelligence System has been designed to provide a simple, fast and robust way to profile DNA samples in a lab or field-deployable manner. The system analyses 5-STRs plus amelogenin to deliver a DNA profile that enables users to gain rapid investigative leads and intelligent prioritisation of samples in human identity testing applications. Utilising an innovative sample collector, minimal training is required to enable both DNA analysts and nonspecialist personnel to analyse biological samples directly, without prior processing, in approximately 75min. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon(®) detection of STR allele lengths to provide a DNA profile. The developmental validation study described here followed the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines and tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Intelligence System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrate that the ParaDNA Intelligence System displays useful DNA profiles when sampling a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva, semen and touch DNA items indicating the potential to benefit a number of applications in fields such as forensic, military and disaster victim identification (DVI).

  9. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  10. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  11. Artificial Intelligence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PATTERN RECOGNITION, * ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , *TEXTBOOKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, ROBOTS, PROBLEM SOLVING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, GAME THEORY, NATURAL LANGUAGE, SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS.

  12. Assessing Intelligibility: Children's Expressive Phonologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Brannan, Mary

    1994-01-01

    The three general approaches for measuring speech intelligibility in young children are open-set word identification, closed-set word identification, and rating scales. Positive and negative aspects of the various procedures for measuring speech intelligibility are discussed. (Author/DB)

  13. Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative variation on a monomorphic design allows us to incorporate heritable individual differences in evolved adaptations. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, which is one consequence of the integration of evolutionary psychology and intelligence research, can potentially explain why less intelligent individuals enjoy TV more, why liberals are more intelligent than conservatives, and why night owls are more intelligent than morning larks, among many other findings. The general approach proposed here will allow us to integrate evolutionary psychology with any other aspect of differential psychology.

  14. An Intelligent Model for Pairs Trading Using Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Feng; Hsu, Chi-Jen; Chen, Chi-Chung; Chang, Bao Rong; Li, Chen-An

    2015-01-01

    Pairs trading is an important and challenging research area in computational finance, in which pairs of stocks are bought and sold in pair combinations for arbitrage opportunities. Traditional methods that solve this set of problems mostly rely on statistical methods such as regression. In contrast to the statistical approaches, recent advances in computational intelligence (CI) are leading to promising opportunities for solving problems in the financial applications more effectively. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for pairs trading using genetic algorithms (GA). Our results showed that the GA-based models are able to significantly outperform the benchmark and our proposed method is capable of generating robust models to tackle the dynamic characteristics in the financial application studied. Based upon the promising results obtained, we expect this GA-based method to advance the research in computational intelligence for finance and provide an effective solution to pairs trading for investment in practice.

  15. An Intelligent Model for Pairs Trading Using Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Feng; Hsu, Chi-Jen; Chen, Chi-Chung; Chang, Bao Rong; Li, Chen-An

    2015-01-01

    Pairs trading is an important and challenging research area in computational finance, in which pairs of stocks are bought and sold in pair combinations for arbitrage opportunities. Traditional methods that solve this set of problems mostly rely on statistical methods such as regression. In contrast to the statistical approaches, recent advances in computational intelligence (CI) are leading to promising opportunities for solving problems in the financial applications more effectively. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for pairs trading using genetic algorithms (GA). Our results showed that the GA-based models are able to significantly outperform the benchmark and our proposed method is capable of generating robust models to tackle the dynamic characteristics in the financial application studied. Based upon the promising results obtained, we expect this GA-based method to advance the research in computational intelligence for finance and provide an effective solution to pairs trading for investment in practice. PMID:26339236

  16. Intelligent Teaching: Using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences in the Inquiry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Barry R.; MacDougall, Gregory D.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to use multiple intelligences in science instruction in inquiry classrooms. Describes using touch and movement, music and rhythm, visualization, interpersonal intelligence, and multiple approaches in science teaching. (YDS)

  17. Brave New World of Intelligence Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Berkeley

    1979-01-01

    New approaches to assessing intelligence are discussed, as well as new intelligence tests. Among the developments are investigating neurometrics, adapting testing to the effects of technology on children, countering cultural bias, assessing social intelligence, focusing on aspects of cognitive styles, measuring learning potential, and using…

  18. Illusory Intelligences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2008-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences has had a huge influence on school education. But its credentials lack justification, as the first section of this paper shows via a detailed philosophical analysis of how the intelligences are identified. If we want to make sense of the theory, we need to turn from a philosophical to a historical…

  19. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  20. Synthetic collective intelligence.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Montañez, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent systems have emerged in our biosphere in different contexts and achieving different levels of complexity. The requirement of communication in a social context has been in all cases a determinant. The human brain, probably co-evolving with language, is an exceedingly successful example. Similarly, social insects complex collective decisions emerge from information exchanges between many agents. The difference is that such processing is obtained out of a limited individual cognitive power. Computational models and embodied versions using non-living systems, particularly involving robot swarms, have been used to explore the potentiality of collective intelligence. Here we suggest a novel approach to the problem grounded in the genetic engineering of unicellular systems, which can be modified in order to interact, store memories or adapt to external stimuli in collective ways. What we label as Synthetic Swarm Intelligence defines a parallel approach to the evolution of computation and swarm intelligence and allows to explore potential embodied scenarios for decision making at the microscale. Here, we consider several relevant examples of collective intelligence and their synthetic organism counterparts.

  1. An Approach to Building a Learning Management System that Emphasizes on Incorporating Individualized Dissemination with Intelligent Tutoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sreya

    2016-06-01

    This article proposes a new six-model architecture for an intelligent tutoring system to be incorporated in a learning management system with domain-independence feature and individualized dissemination. The present six model architecture aims to simulate a human tutor. Some recent extensions of using intelligent tutoring system (ITS) explores learning management systems to behave as a real teacher during a teaching-learning process, by taking care of, mainly, the dynamic response system. However, the present paper argues that to mimic a human teacher it needs not only the dynamic response but also the incorporation of the teacher's dynamic review of students' performance and keeping track of their current level of understanding. Here, the term individualization has been used to refer to tailor making of contents and its dissemination fitting to the individual needs and capabilities of learners who is taking a course online and is subjected to teaching in absentia. This paper describes how the individual models of the proposed architecture achieves the features of ITS.

  2. An Approach to Building a Learning Management System that Emphasizes on Incorporating Individualized Dissemination with Intelligent Tutoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sreya

    2017-02-01

    This article proposes a new six-model architecture for an intelligent tutoring system to be incorporated in a learning management system with domain-independence feature and individualized dissemination. The present six model architecture aims to simulate a human tutor. Some recent extensions of using intelligent tutoring system (ITS) explores learning management systems to behave as a real teacher during a teaching-learning process, by taking care of, mainly, the dynamic response system. However, the present paper argues that to mimic a human teacher it needs not only the dynamic response but also the incorporation of the teacher's dynamic review of students' performance and keeping track of their current level of understanding. Here, the term individualization has been used to refer to tailor making of contents and its dissemination fitting to the individual needs and capabilities of learners who is taking a course online and is subjected to teaching in absentia. This paper describes how the individual models of the proposed architecture achieves the features of ITS.

  3. The Internal Structure of Responses to the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form: An Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Perera, Harsha N

    2015-01-01

    Notwithstanding the wide use of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) as a brief assessment of trait emotional intelligence (TEI), the psychometric properties of this measure have not been systematically examined. This article reports on research conducted to evaluate the latent structure underlying TEIQue-SF item data and test the gender invariance of scores as critical initial steps in determining the psychometric robustness of the inventory. In doing so, the article demonstrates an application of exploratory structural equation modeling as an alternative to the more restrictive independent clusters model of confirmatory factor analysis for examining factorially complex personality data. On the basis of 476 responses to the TEIQue-SF, evidence was obtained for the multidimensionality of the inventory reflected in a retained correlated traits solution. Tests of gender invariance revealed equivalence of item factor loadings, intercepts, uniquenesses, correlated uniquenesses, and the factor variance-covariance matrix, but not latent means. Men were found to be moderately higher on self-control and sociability than women, whereas women scored marginally higher on emotionality than men. No significant gender differences were found on mean levels of well-being. The benefits of the multidimensionality of the TEIQue-SF, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    With the advancement of image acquisition and analysis methods in recent decades, unique opportunities have emerged to study the neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence. Traditional approaches examining global measures have been complemented by insights from more regional analyses based on pre-defined areas. Newer state-of-the-art approaches…

  5. A Speech Intelligibility Index-based approach to predict the speech reception threshold for sentences in fluctuating noise for normal-hearing listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S.; Versfeld, Niek J.

    2005-04-01

    The SII model in its present form (ANSI S3.5-1997, American National Standards Institute, New York) can accurately describe intelligibility for speech in stationary noise but fails to do so for nonstationary noise maskers. Here, an extension to the SII model is proposed with the aim to predict the speech intelligibility in both stationary and fluctuating noise. The basic principle of the present approach is that both speech and noise signal are partitioned into small time frames. Within each time frame the conventional SII is determined, yielding the speech information available to the listener at that time frame. Next, the SII values of these time frames are averaged, resulting in the SII for that particular condition. Using speech reception threshold (SRT) data from the literature, the extension to the present SII model can give a good account for SRTs in stationary noise, fluctuating speech noise, interrupted noise, and multiple-talker noise. The predictions for sinusoidally intensity modulated (SIM) noise and real speech or speech-like maskers are better than with the original SII model, but are still not accurate. For the latter type of maskers, informational masking may play a role. .

  6. A Speech Intelligibility Index-based approach to predict the speech reception threshold for sentences in fluctuating noise for normal-hearing listeners.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S; Versfeld, Niek J

    2005-04-01

    The SII model in its present form (ANSI S3.5-1997, American National Standards Institute, New York) can accurately describe intelligibility for speech in stationary noise but fails to do so for nonstationary noise maskers. Here, an extension to the SII model is proposed with the aim to predict the speech intelligibility in both stationary and fluctuating noise. The basic principle of the present approach is that both speech and noise signal are partitioned into small time frames. Within each time frame the conventional SII is determined, yielding the speech information available to the listener at that time frame. Next, the SII values of these time frames are averaged, resulting in the SII for that particular condition. Using speech reception threshold (SRT) data from the literature, the extension to the present SII model can give a good account for SRTs in stationary noise, fluctuating speech noise, interrupted noise, and multiple-talker noise. The predictions for sinusoidally intensity modulated (SIM) noise and real speech or speech-like maskers are better than with the original SII model, but are still not accurate. For the latter type of maskers, informational masking may play a role.

  7. Multiple Intelligences Go to School: Educational Implications of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Technical Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Howard; Hatch, Thomas

    The background and major claims of a new approach to the conceptualization and assessment of human intelligence are presented. The theory of multiple intelligences (MI), proposed in 1983 by H. Gardner, suggests the existence of several relatively autonomous human intelligences. Intelligence is defined as the capacity to solve problems or to…

  8. Knowledge implementation - structures of intelligent control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saridis, G.N.

    1988-08-01

    Results of research concerning the definitions and structure of intelligent control systems are outlined. Intelligent control systems are founded on the principle of precision with decreasing intelligence. This principle establishes a hierarchy in the distribution of intelligence in an intelligent control system and simply says that where intelligence is high, precision is less required, and vice versa. The resulting multilevel structure and its implementation, based on ideas from knowledge systems, are presented. Probabilistic models to express the uncertainty of reasoning, planning decision making at the organization level, and the control activities at the execution level entropies are used as measures of the execution of various commands by the intelligent machine, and they serve for optimal decision making. This method provides an efficient approach to implement autonomous intelligent control systems suitable for the demanding needs of modern industry, space exploration, nuclear handling, and medicine. 19 references.

  9. Envisioning engineering education and practice in the coming intelligence convergence era — a complex adaptive systems approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the recent attempts for improving and transforming engineering education are reviewed. The attempts aim at providing the entry level engineers with the skills needed to address the challenges of future large-scale complex systems and projects. Some of the frontier sectors and future challenges for engineers are outlined. The major characteristics of the coming intelligence convergence era (the post-information age) are identified. These include the prevalence of smart devices and environments, the widespread applications of anticipatory computing and predictive / prescriptive analytics, as well as a symbiotic relationship between humans and machines. Devices and machines will be able to learn from, and with, humans in a natural collaborative way. The recent game changers in learnscapes (learning paradigms, technologies, platforms, spaces, and environments) that can significantly impact engineering education in the coming era are identified. Among these are open educational resources, knowledge-rich classrooms, immersive interactive 3D learning, augmented reality, reverse instruction / flipped classroom, gamification, robots in the classroom, and adaptive personalized learning. Significant transformative changes in, and mass customization of, learning are envisioned to emerge from the synergistic combination of the game changers and other technologies. The realization of the aforementioned vision requires the development of a new multidisciplinary framework of emergent engineering for relating innovation, complexity and cybernetics, within the future learning environments. The framework can be used to treat engineering education as a complex adaptive system, with dynamically interacting and communicating components (instructors, individual, small, and large groups of learners). The emergent behavior resulting from the interactions can produce progressively better, and continuously improving, learning environment. As a first step towards the realization of

  10. Artificial intelligence based approach to forecast PM2.5 during haze episodes: A case study of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.; Upadhyay, Abhishek

    2015-02-01

    Delhi has been listed as the worst performer across the world with respect to the presence of alarmingly high level of haze episodes, exposing the residents here to a host of diseases including respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and lung cancer. This study aimed to analyze the haze episodes in a year and to develop the forecasting methodologies for it. The air pollutants, e.g., CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 as well as meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction index, relative humidity, visibility, dew point temperature, etc.) have been used in the present study to analyze the haze episodes in Delhi urban area. The nature of these episodes, their possible causes, and their major features are discussed in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and relative humidity. The correlation matrix shows that temperature, pressure, wind speed, O3, and dew point temperature are the dominating variables for PM2.5 concentrations in Delhi. The hour-by-hour analysis of past data pattern at different monitoring stations suggest that the haze hours were occurred approximately 48% of the total observed hours in the year, 2012 over Delhi urban area. The haze hour forecasting models in terms of PM2.5 concentrations (more than 50 μg/m3) and relative humidity (less than 90%) have been developed through artificial intelligence based Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) techniques and compared with the other modeling techniques e.g., multiple linear regression (MLR), and artificial neural network (ANN). The haze hour's data for nine months, i.e. from January to September have been chosen for training and remaining three months, i.e., October to December in the year 2012 are chosen for validation of the developed models. The forecasted results are compared with the observed values with different statistical measures, e.g., correlation coefficients (R), normalized mean square error (NMSE), fractional bias (FB) and index of agreement (IOA). The performed

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  12. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  13. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Quarterly progress report, April 1 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1997-03-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}hard{close_quotes} data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. It involves significant amount of information exchange between researchers in geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering. Computer science (and artificial intelligence) provides the means to effectively acquire, integrate and automate the key expertise in the various disciplines in a reservoir characterization expert system. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an Al-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an Al-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data.

  14. Teaching for Multiple Intelligences in Undergraduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Margaret

    Multiple intelligences theory has only recently entered the teaching and learning dialogue in education and research. It is argued that despite the rhetoric of a student centred approach, nurse education remains wedded to conventional teaching approaches, which fail to engage with the individual and unwittingly silence the student's voice. This study examines the concept of Multiple Intelligences (MI) and outlines Gardner's contention that the brain functions using eight intelligences, which can be employed to improve learning at an individual level.

  15. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  16. An independent confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth Edition (WISC-IV) integrated: what do the process approach subtests measure?

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Bernstein, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    The Wechsler intelligence scale for children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported.

  17. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 53, Number 2, June 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    subscribers. Studies in Intelligence is available on the Internet at: https:// www.cia.gov/ library /center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/ index.html...Theory of CI What are We Talking About When We Talk about Counterintelligence? 5 John Ehrman “Peeling Facts off the Face of the Unknown” Revisiting The...The Literary Spy. He is a member of the Studies in Intelligence Editorial Board. John Ehrman, a frequent contributor, is a CIA officer who

  18. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly report], January 1--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-07-01

    This basis search is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir description begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, we have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. The results of the integration are not merely limited to obtaining better characterizations of individual reservoirs. They have the potential to significantly impact and advance the discipline of reservoir characterization itself.

  19. Computing based on the physics of nano devices—A beyond-CMOS approach to human-like intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Tadashi

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes a new computing architecture to build human-like intelligent systems by best utilizing the physics of nano devices, or more specifically, the exotic current-voltage characteristics of nano-functional devices. The resonance characteristics arising from quantum effects in nano-scale devices are utilized as computing primitives of correlation and employed in building brain-mimicking VLSI systems. A number of subconscious processing taking place in our brains including early visual processing will be implemented in fine-grain parallel processing architectures using nano devices. In order to demonstrate the concept, the resonance characteristics of nano devices have been emulated by simple MOS bump circuitries, and real working proof-of-concept chips have been developed. Image recognition algorithms specifically developed for such brain mimicking systems are described, and the experimental results obtained form the measurement of analog, digital and mixed-signal VLSI chips as well as from computer simulations are presented as illustrative examples. In the last part of this paper, a perspective to the future is presented as a summary.

  20. Modeling of nitrate concentration in groundwater using artificial intelligence approach--a case study of Gaza coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Alagha, Jawad S; Said, Md Azlin Md; Mogheir, Yunes

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in groundwater is influenced by complex and interrelated variables, leading to great difficulty during the modeling process. The objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the performance of two artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, namely artificial neural networks and support vector machine, in modeling groundwater nitrate concentration using scant input data, as well as (2) to assess the effect of data clustering as a pre-modeling technique on the developed models' performance. The AI models were developed using data from 22 municipal wells of the Gaza coastal aquifer in Palestine from 2000 to 2010. Results indicated high simulation performance, with the correlation coefficient and the mean average percentage error of the best model reaching 0.996 and 7 %, respectively. The variables that strongly influenced groundwater nitrate concentration were previous nitrate concentration, groundwater recharge, and on-ground nitrogen load of each land use land cover category in the well's vicinity. The results also demonstrated the merit of performing clustering of input data prior to the application of AI models. With their high performance and simplicity, the developed AI models can be effectively utilized to assess the effects of future management scenarios on groundwater nitrate concentration, leading to more reasonable groundwater resources management and decision-making.

  1. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly progress report], January 1--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1994-06-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an Al-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an Al-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, we have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty member participants. Graduate students will work in teams with faculty members. The results of the integration are not merely limited to obtaining better characterizations of individual reservoirs. They have the potential to significantly impact and advance the discipline of reservoir characterization itself.

  2. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1994-09-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, we have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty and graduate students. The results of the integration are not merely limited to obtaining better characterizations of individual reservoirs. They have the potential to significantly impact and advance the discipline of reservoir characterization itself.

  3. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Lobeck, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Four research activities related to Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) have been performed under this grant. The four activities are: 1) non-deterministic approaches that incorporate technologies such as intelligent software agents, visual simulations and other ISE technologies; 2) virtual labs that leverage modeling, simulation and information technologies to create an immersive, highly interactive virtual environment tailored to the needs of researchers and learners; 3) advanced learning modules that incorporate advanced instructional, user interface and intelligent agent technologies; and 4) assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments.

  4. Leading to Learning and Competitive Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luu, Trong Tuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine whether there is the chain effect from corporate social responsibility (CSR) and emotional intelligence (EI) to organizational learning and competitive intelligence in chemical companies in a Vietnam business setting. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze…

  5. Intelligent Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Marshall Space Flight Center, Ultrafast, Inc. developed the world's first, high-temperature resistant, "intelligent" fastener. NASA needed a critical-fastening appraisal and validation of spacecraft segments that are coupled together in space. The intelligent-bolt technology deletes the self-defeating procedure of having to untighten the fastener, and thus upset the joint, during inspection and maintenance. The Ultrafast solution yielded an innovation that is likely to revolutionize manufacturing assembly, particularly the automobile industry. Other areas of application range from aircraft, computers and fork-lifts to offshore platforms, buildings, and bridges.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly progress report], October 1--December 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1993-12-31

    This basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The first task under each of the concurrent phases of developing large-scale and small-scale reservoir descriptions is to identify the main knowledge sources. This task involves the identification of the critical variables that have an impact on large-scale heterogeneities. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of the project, we have had to develop a common vocabulary among the researchers to accomplish this identification task of Phases I and II. It was necessary for the computer science faculty and students to familiarize themselves with the information processed in geology geostatistics, and petroleum engineering. In addition, the geology and petroleum engineering researchers required instruction in the process of building expert systems. As part of the simulation task of Phase I and II, we have decomposed the design of the expert system into smaller component parts to get a clearer picture of what expert knowledge is needed. This decomposition will facilities that validation and verification of a complex expert system. We will develop concurrently three small prototype systems that will interface with a central repository of reservoir descriptions. The three component systems will be representative of how each of the experts in geology, geostatistics, and engineering characterizes the reservoir. The repository will hold all descriptions that are consistent with the currently known information.

  7. Artificial intelligence and the future.

    PubMed

    Clocksin, William F

    2003-08-15

    We consider some of the ideas influencing current artificial-intelligence research and outline an alternative conceptual framework that gives priority to social relationships as a key component and constructor of intelligent behaviour. The framework starts from Weizenbaum's observation that intelligence manifests itself only relative to specific social and cultural contexts. This is in contrast to a prevailing view, which sees intelligence as an abstract capability of the individual mind based on a mechanism for rational thought. The new approach is not based on the conventional idea that the mind is a rational processor of symbolic information, nor does it require the idea that thought is a kind of abstract problem solving with a semantics that is independent of its embodiment. Instead, priority is given to affective and social responses that serve to engage the whole agent in the life of the communities in which it participates. Intelligence is seen not as the deployment of capabilities for problem solving, but as constructed by the continual, ever-changing and unfinished engagement with the social group within the environment. The construction of the identity of the intelligent agent involves the appropriation or 'taking up' of positions within the conversations and narratives in which it participates. Thus, the new approach argues that the intelligent agent is shaped by the meaning ascribed to experience, by its situation in the social matrix, and by practices of self and of relationship into which intelligent life is recruited. This has implications for the technology of the future, as, for example, classic artificial intelligence models such as goal-directed problem solving are seen as special cases of narrative practices instead of as ontological foundations.

  8. Environment-specific noise suppression for improved speech intelligibility by cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Loizou, Philipos C

    2010-06-01

    Attempts to develop noise-suppression algorithms that can significantly improve speech intelligibility in noise by cochlear implant (CI) users have met with limited success. This is partly because algorithms were sought that would work equally well in all listening situations. Accomplishing this has been quite challenging given the variability in the temporal/spectral characteristics of real-world maskers. A different approach is taken in the present study focused on the development of environment-specific noise suppression algorithms. The proposed algorithm selects a subset of the envelope amplitudes for stimulation based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each channel. Binary classifiers, trained using data collected from a particular noisy environment, are first used to classify the mixture envelopes of each channel as either target-dominated (SNR>or=0 dB) or masker-dominated (SNR<0 dB). Only target-dominated channels are subsequently selected for stimulation. Results with CI listeners indicated substantial improvements (by nearly 44 percentage points at 5 dB SNR) in intelligibility with the proposed algorithm when tested with sentences embedded in three real-world maskers. The present study demonstrated that the environment-specific approach to noise reduction has the potential to restore speech intelligibility in noise to a level near to that attained in quiet.

  9. NASA/ARC proposed training in intelligent control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on NASA Ames Research Center proposed training in intelligent control was presented. Topics covered include: fuzzy logic control; neural networks in control; artificial intelligence in control; hybrid approaches; hands on experience; and fuzzy controllers.

  10. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  11. Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  12. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  13. Intelligent Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    Research has shown that differences among ordinary people in intelligence and personality depend equally on individual genetic variability and on differences in the environments that siblings experience within the same family, not differences in the neighborhood, school, and community environments. As of yet, there are no adequate theories to…

  14. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  15. Engineering robust intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Cao, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenge of engineering robust intelligent robots. Robust intelligent robots may be considered as ones that not only work in one environment but rather in all types of situations and conditions. Our past work has described sensors for intelligent robots that permit adaptation to changes in the environment. We have also described the combination of these sensors with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. However, the emphasis of this paper is on engineering solutions which are designed for robust operations and worst case situations such as day night cameras or rain and snow solutions. This ideal model may be compared to various approaches that have been implemented on "production vehicles and equipment" using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Many prototype intelligent robots have been developed and demonstrated in terms of scientific feasibility but few have reached the stage of a robust engineering solution. Continual innovation and improvement are still required. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications where robust and reliable performance is essential.

  16. Implications of CI therapy for visual deficit training

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W.; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2014-01-01

    We address here the question of whether the techniques of Constraint Induced (CI) therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), multiple sclerosis (MS), other central nervous system (CNS) degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia. The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a “transfer package” to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies. CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the gray matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNCs) in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the DNCs. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the

  17. The evolution of general intelligence.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith M; Schubiger, Michèle N; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-07-28

    The presence of general intelligence poses a major evolutionary puzzle, which has led to increased interest in its presence in nonhuman animals. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate this puzzle, and to explore the implications for current theories about the evolution of cognition. We first review domain-general and domain-specific accounts of human cognition in order to situate attempts to identify general intelligence in nonhuman animals. Recent studies are consistent with the presence of general intelligence in mammals (rodents and primates). However, the interpretation of a psychometric g-factor as general intelligence needs to be validated, in particular in primates, and we propose a range of such tests. We then evaluate the implications of general intelligence in nonhuman animals for current theories about its evolution and find support for the cultural intelligence approach, which stresses the critical importance of social inputs during the ontogenetic construction of survival-relevant skills. The presence of general intelligence in nonhumans implies that modular abilities can arise in two ways, primarily through automatic development with fixed content and secondarily through learning and automatization with more variable content. The currently best-supported model, for humans and nonhuman vertebrates alike, thus construes the mind as a mix of skills based on primary and secondary modules. The relative importance of these two components is expected to vary widely among species, and we formulate tests to quantify their strength.

  18. Competitive Intelligence on the Internet-Going for the Gold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassler, Helene

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of competitive intelligence (CI) focuses on recent Web sties and several search techniques that provide valuable CI information. Highlights include links that display business relationships; information from vendors; general business sites; search engine strategies; local business newspapers; job postings; patent and trademark…

  19. Intelligent Tutoring Systems as Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Albert K. W.; Lee, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes the notion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) as design in order to engage ITS development with more rigor. Topics include engineering design versus ITS design; systems approach; design as problem solving; a hierarchy of paradigms; the emergence of an agent-theoretic approach; and the need for an ITS design notation. (Author/LRW)

  20. CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for describing the nature of reference citations in scientific research articles and other scholarly works, both to other such publications and also to Web information resources, and for publishing these descriptions on the Semantic Web. Citation are described in terms of the factual and rhetorical relationships between citing publication and cited publication, the in-text and global citation frequencies of each cited work, and the nature of the cited work itself, including its publication and peer review status. This paper describes CiTO and illustrates its usefulness both for the annotation of bibliographic reference lists and for the visualization of citation networks. The latest version of CiTO, which this paper describes, is CiTO Version 1.6, published on 19 March 2010. CiTO is written in the Web Ontology Language OWL, uses the namespace http://purl.org/net/cito/, and is available from http://purl.org/net/cito/. This site uses content negotiation to deliver to the user an OWLDoc Web version of the ontology if accessed via a Web browser, or the OWL ontology itself if accessed from an ontology management tool such as Protégé 4 (http://protege.stanford.edu/). Collaborative work is currently under way to harmonize CiTO with other ontologies describing bibliographies and the rhetorical structure of scientific discourse. PMID:20626926

  1. Ideal time-frequency masking algorithms lead to different speech intelligibility and quality in normal-hearing and cochlear implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Koning, Raphael; Madhu, Nilesh; Wouters, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hearing impaired listeners using cochlear implants (CIs) suffer from a decrease in speech intelligibility (SI) in adverse listening conditions. Time-frequency masks are often applied to perform noise suppression in an attempt to increase SI. Two important masks are the so-called ideal binary mask (IBM) with its binary weights and the ideal Wiener filter (IWF) with its continuous weights. It is unclear which of the masks has the highest potential for SI and speech quality enhancement in CI users. In this study, both approaches for SI and quality enhancement were compared. The investigations were conducted in normal-hearing (NH) subjects listening to noise vocoder CI simulations and in CI users. The potential for SI improvement was assessed in a sentence recognition task with ideal mask estimates in multitalker babble and with an interfering talker. The robustness of the approaches was evaluated with simulated estimation errors. CI users assessed the speech quality in a preference rating. The IWF outperformed the IBM in NH listeners. In contrast, no significant difference was obtained in CI users. Estimation errors degraded SI in CI users for both approaches. In terms of quality, the IWF outperformed, slightly, the IBM processed signals. The outcomes of this study suggest that the mask pattern is not that crucial for CIs. Results of speech enhancement algorithms obtained with NH subjects listening to vocoded or normally processed stimuli do not translate to CI users. This outcome means that the effect of new strategies has to be quantified with the user group considered.

  2. Physical Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandhil, Pavan; Chitikeshi, Sanjeevi; Mahajan, Ajay; Figueroa, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of intelligent sensors as part of an integrated systems approach, i.e. one treats the sensors as a complete system with its own sensing hardware (the traditional sensor), A/D converters, processing and storage capabilities, software drivers, self-assessment algorithms, communication protocols and evolutionary methodologies that allow them to get better with time. Under a project being undertaken at the NASA s Stennis Space Center, an integrated framework is being developed for the intelligent monitoring of smart elements. These smart elements can be sensors, actuators or other devices. The immediate application is the monitoring of the rocket test stands, but the technology should be generally applicable to the Integrated Systems Health Monitoring (ISHM) vision. This paper outlines progress made in the development of intelligent sensors by describing the work done till date on Physical Intelligent Sensors (PIS). The PIS discussed here consists of a thermocouple used to read temperature in an analog form which is then converted into digital values. A microprocessor collects the sensor readings and runs numerous embedded event detection routines on the collected data and if any event is detected, it is reported, stored and sent to a remote system through an Ethernet connection. Hence the output of the PIS is data coupled with confidence factor in the reliability of the data which leads to information on the health of the sensor at all times. All protocols are consistent with IEEE 1451.X standards. This work lays the foundation for the next generation of smart devices that have embedded intelligence for distributed decision making capabilities.

  3. A robust hybrid fuzzy-simulated annealing-intelligent water drops approach for tuning a distribution static compensator nonlinear controller in a distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri Tolabi, Hajar; Hosseini, Rahil; Shakarami, Mahmoud Reza

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a novel hybrid optimization approach for a nonlinear controller of a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM). The DSTATCOM is connected to a distribution system with the distributed generation units. The nonlinear control is based on partial feedback linearization. Two proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers regulate the voltage and track the output in this control system. In the conventional scheme, the trial-and-error method is used to determine the PID controller coefficients. This article uses a combination of a fuzzy system, simulated annealing (SA) and intelligent water drops (IWD) algorithms to optimize the parameters of the controllers. The obtained results reveal that the response of the optimized controlled system is effectively improved by finding a high-quality solution. The results confirm that using the tuning method based on the fuzzy-SA-IWD can significantly decrease the settling and rising times, the maximum overshoot and the steady-state error of the voltage step response of the DSTATCOM. The proposed hybrid tuning method for the partial feedback linearizing (PFL) controller achieved better regulation of the direct current voltage for the capacitor within the DSTATCOM. Furthermore, in the event of a fault the proposed controller tuned by the fuzzy-SA-IWD method showed better performance than the conventional controller or the PFL controller without optimization by the fuzzy-SA-IWD method with regard to both fault duration and clearing times.

  4. A quality by design approach using artificial intelligence techniques to control the critical quality attributes of ramipril tablets manufactured by wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Buket; Paradkar, Anant; de Matas, Marcel; Özer, Özgen; Güneri, Tamer; York, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is an essential part of the modern approach to pharmaceutical quality. This study was conducted in the framework of a QbD project involving ramipril tablets. Preliminary work included identification of the critical quality attributes (CQAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs) based on the quality target product profiles (QTPPs) using the historical data and risk assessment method failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). Compendial and in-house specifications were selected as QTPPs for ramipril tablets. CPPs that affected the product and process were used to establish an experimental design. The results thus obtained can be used to facilitate definition of the design space using tools such as design of experiments (DoE), the response surface method (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The project was aimed at discovering hidden knowledge associated with the manufacture of ramipril tablets using a range of artificial intelligence-based software, with the intention of establishing a multi-dimensional design space that ensures consistent product quality. At the end of the study, a design space was developed based on the study data and specifications, and a new formulation was optimized. On the basis of this formulation, a new laboratory batch formulation was prepared and tested. It was confirmed that the explored formulation was within the design space.

  5. Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition

  6. Team B Intelligence Coups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  7. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  8. Intelligence Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    reasoning, rote memory , and the like.” Standardized tests also fall short in terms of assessing other important aspects of intelligence such as creativity...ipEngine made by BrightStar Engineering. Then in 2004 we further evolved to a Compulab 686 CORE with 128 megabytes of memory running at 266 mHz...driver runs in a continuous loop, timing sonar echoes on each pass, storing the resulting range values in memory for on-demand access by other

  9. Intelligent Tutor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  10. Hybrid artificial intelligence approach based on neural fuzzy inference model and metaheuristic optimization for flood susceptibilitgy modeling in a high-frequency tropical cyclone area using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien Bui, Dieu; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nampak, Haleh; Bui, Quang-Thanh; Tran, Quynh-An; Nguyen, Quoc-Phi

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new artificial intelligence approach based on neural fuzzy inference system and metaheuristic optimization for flood susceptibility modeling, namely MONF. In the new approach, the neural fuzzy inference system was used to create an initial flood susceptibility model and then the model was optimized using two metaheuristic algorithms, Evolutionary Genetic and Particle Swarm Optimization. A high-frequency tropical cyclone area of the Tuong Duong district in Central Vietnam was used as a case study. First, a GIS database for the study area was constructed. The database that includes 76 historical flood inundated areas and ten flood influencing factors was used to develop and validate the proposed model. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to assess the model performance and its prediction capability. Experimental results showed that the proposed model has high performance on both the training (RMSE = 0.306, MAE = 0.094, AUC = 0.962) and validation dataset (RMSE = 0.362, MAE = 0.130, AUC = 0.911). The usability of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing with those obtained from state-of-the art benchmark soft computing techniques such as J48 Decision Tree, Random Forest, Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. The results show that the proposed MONF model outperforms the above benchmark models; we conclude that the MONF model is a new alternative tool that should be used in flood susceptibility mapping. The result in this study is useful for planners and decision makers for sustainable management of flood-prone areas.

  11. Artificial intelligence approach with the use of artificial neural networks for the creation of a forecasting model of Plasmopara viticola infection.

    PubMed

    Bugliosi, R; Spera, G; La Torre, A; Campoli, L; Scaglione, M

    2006-01-01

    Most of the forecasting models of Plasmopara viticola infections are based upon empiric correlations between meteorological/environmental data and pathogen outbreak. These models generally overestimate the risk of infections and induce to treat the vineyard even if it should be not necessary. In rare cases they underrate the risk of infection leaving the pathogen to breakout. Starting from these considerations we have decided to approach the problem from another point of view utilizing Artificial Intelligence techniques for data elaboration and analysis. Meanwhile the same data have been studied with a more classic approach with statistical tools to verify the impact of a large data collection on the standard data analysis methods. A network of RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) distributed all over the Italian national territory transmits 12 environmental parameters every 15 minutes via radio or via GPRS to a centralized Data Base. Other pedologic data is collected directly from the field and sent via Internet to the centralized data base utilizing Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) running a specific software. Data is stored after having been preprocessed, to guarantee the quality of the information. The subsequent analysis has been realized mostly with Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Collecting and analizing data in this way will probably bring us to the possibility of preventing Plasmospara viticola infection starting from the environmental conditions in this very complex context. The aim of this work is to forecast the infection avoiding the ineffective use of the plant protection products in agriculture. Applying different analysis models we will try to find the best ANN capable of forecasting with an high level of affordability.

  12. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  13. An Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Albert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)

  14. 125 years of intelligence in the American Journal of Psychology.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    A survey is made of intelligence research in the 125 years of The American Journal of Psychology. There are some major articles of note on intelligence, especially Spearman's (1904a) article that discovered general cognitive ability (g). There are some themes within intelligence on which articles appeared over the years, such as processing speed, age, and group differences. Intelligence has not been a major theme of the journal, nor has a differential approach to psychology more generally. There are periods of time--especially the 1970s--during which almost no articles appeared on intelligence. The key articles and themes on intelligence differences are discussed in detail.

  15. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  16. Knowledge Based Concepts and Artificial Intelligence: Applications to Guidance and Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Princeton, 1976 . 11. Negoita, C.V ., "Expert Systems and Fuzzy, Systems," Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, 1985. 12. Prade, H. "A Computational...Approach to Approximate and Plausible Reasoning with Applications to Expert Systems," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (3...ruslfe, erese At tire pr-en t11Ine, these data Ire entereed cI, the croil le by Lte operitre in replc to ’) -es triso aed by th e s ys tes. They could

  17. Multiple Intelligence and the Child with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Beryl

    1998-01-01

    Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory has exciting implications for planning new curricula, especially for children with dyslexia. These children have been "educated" in a system that has failed them. Gardner's theory allows an open-ended approach to assessing dyslexic children's intelligence. Understanding the eight…

  18. Artificial Intelligence in Education: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    Gives a brief outline of the development of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) which includes psychology, education, cognitive science, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Highlights include learning environments; learner modeling; a situated approach to learning; and current examples of AIED research. (LRW)

  19. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  20. Agile manufacturing in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPadua, Mark; Dalton, George

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the Agile Manufacturing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (AMISR) effort is to research, develop, design and build a prototype multi-intelligence (multi-INT), reconfigurable pod demonstrating benefits of agile manufacturing and a modular open systems approach (MOSA) to make podded intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability more affordable and operationally flexible.

  1. A force vector and surface orientation sensor for intelligent grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcglasson, W. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Duffie, N. A.; Gale, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses a force vector and surface orientation sensor suitable for intelligent grasping. The use of a novel four degree-of-freedom force vector robotic fingertip sensor allows efficient, real time intelligent grasping operations. The basis of sensing for intelligent grasping operations is presented and experimental results demonstrate the accuracy and ease of implementation of this approach.

  2. SMARTDIAB: a communication and information technology approach for the intelligent monitoring, management and follow-up of type 1 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Mougiakakou, Stavroula G; Bartsocas, Christos S; Bozas, Evangelos; Chaniotakis, Nikos; Iliopoulou, Dimitra; Kouris, Ioannis; Pavlopoulos, Sotiris; Prountzou, Aikaterini; Skevofilakas, Marios; Tsoukalis, Alexandre; Varotsis, Kostas; Vazeou, Andrianni; Zarkogianni, Konstantia; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2010-05-01

    SMARTDIAB is a platform designed to support the monitoring, management, and treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), by combining state-of-the-art approaches in the fields of database (DB) technologies, communications, simulation algorithms, and data mining. SMARTDIAB consists mainly of two units: 1) the patient unit (PU); and 2) the patient management unit (PMU), which communicate with each other for data exchange. The PMU can be accessed by the PU through the internet using devices, such as PCs/laptops with direct internet access or mobile phones via a Wi-Fi/General Packet Radio Service access network. The PU consists of an insulin pump for subcutaneous insulin infusion to the patient and a continuous glucose measurement system. The aforementioned devices running a user-friendly application gather patient's related information and transmit it to the PMU. The PMU consists of a diabetes data management system (DDMS), a decision support system (DSS) that provides risk assessment for long-term diabetes complications, and an insulin infusion advisory system (IIAS), which reside on a Web server. The DDMS can be accessed from both medical personnel and patients, with appropriate security access rights and front-end interfaces. The DDMS, apart from being used for data storage/retrieval, provides also advanced tools for the intelligent processing of the patient's data, supporting the physician in decision making, regarding the patient's treatment. The IIAS is used to close the loop between the insulin pump and the continuous glucose monitoring system, by providing the pump with the appropriate insulin infusion rate in order to keep the patient's glucose levels within predefined limits. The pilot version of the SMARTDIAB has already been implemented, while the platform's evaluation in clinical environment is being in progress.

  3. The Application of Artificial Intelligence to Contract Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    INTELLIGENCE 2.1 Definition of Artificial Intelligence. .. .. ... .... 7 2.2 History of Artificial Intelligence. .. .. .. ... .... 8 V2.3 Approaches to...Ig d. not by nuebtb hua aror fot.Itelligence hoeeiOoNoesl eie ineteeeit opeieciei 8 2.2 History of Artificial Intelligence Al is a very young field...down into individual components but must be evaluated as a complete sentence. Some examples of propositions are: the truck has four wheels, the poodle

  4. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Search Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  5. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  6. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  7. [Deliberation on the pronunciation and meaning of Miu Ci].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Hong; Zhang, Chao

    2011-07-01

    As one of the acupuncture approaches mentioned in the Nei Jing, Miu Ci has been widely used in clinical practice, but diverse opinions on Miu's pronunciation and meaning limit its application. Ancient and modern literature has shown that the meanings of 'Miu' include 'difference', 'wrong' and 'cross', and it has mainly two different pronunciations, i.e. 'miü' and 'jiü'. However, 'Miu' always means 'difference' in the Nei Jing, e.g. 'Miu Chu', 'Miu Ci', 'Qi Miu', and in this case, its pronunciation should be 'miü'. Scholars such as YANG Shang-shan, WANG Bing, MA Shi, ZHANG Jie-bin and DANBO YuanJian all held this point of view. We can see that there was no disagreement over Miu's pronunciation and meaning in ancient times. It is a controversy generated in modern times. Therefore, the original written form and pronunciation of 'Miu' should be highly valued.

  8. Estimating premorbid general cognitive functioning for children and adolescents using the American Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition: demographic and current performance approaches.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Saklofske, Donald H

    2007-04-01

    Neuropsychologic evaluation requires current test performance be contrasted against a comparison standard to determine if change has occurred. An estimate of premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) is often used as a comparison standard. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is a commonly used intelligence test. However, there is no method to estimate premorbid IQ for the WISC-IV, limiting the test's utility for neuropsychologic assessment. This study develops algorithms to estimate premorbid Full Scale IQ scores. Participants were the American WISC-IV standardization sample (N = 2172). The sample was randomly divided into 2 groups (development and validation). The development group was used to generate 12 algorithms. These algorithms were accurate predictors of WISC-IV Full Scale IQ scores in healthy children and adolescents. These algorithms hold promise as a method to predict premorbid IQ for patients with known or suspected neurologic dysfunction; however, clinical validation is required.

  9. Intelligent Control Systems Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a three phase research program into intelligent control systems are presented. The first phase looked at implementing the lowest or direct level of a hierarchical control scheme using a reinforcement learning approach assuming no a priori information about the system under control. The second phase involved the design of an adaptive/optimizing level of the hierarchy and its interaction with the direct control level. The third and final phase of the research was aimed at combining the results of the previous phases with some a priori information about the controlled system.

  10. Artificial intelligence and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The research and development of AI are discussed. Papers are presented on an expert system for chemical process control, an ocean surveillance information fusion expert system, a distributed intelligence system and aircraft pilotage, a procedure for speeding innovation by transferring scientific knowledge more quickly, and syntax programming, expert systems, and real-time fault diagnosis. Consideration is given to an expert system for modeling NASA flight control room usage, simulating aphasia, a method for single neuron recognition of letters, numbers, faces, and certain types of concepts, integrating AI and control system approach, testing an expert system for manufacturing, and the human memory.

  11. Engineering for Artificial Intelligence Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    CLIPS User’s Guide. Artificial Intelligence Center, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, .June 1988. Version 4.2 of CLIPS; [12] Allen Ginsberg . A new...Washington, DC, October 1987. IEEE Computer Society. [13] Allen Ginsberg . Knowledge-base reduction: A new approach to check- ing knowledge-bases for

  12. Online Sources of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagers, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Presents an approach to using online sources of information for competitor intelligence (i.e., monitoring industry and tracking activities of competitors); identifies principal sources; and suggests some ways of making use of online databases. Types and sources of information and sources and database charts are appended. Eight references are…

  13. Intelligent Agent Architectures: Reactive Planning Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stanley J.; Kahn, Philip

    1993-01-01

    An Integrated Agent Architecture (IAA) is a framework or paradigm for constructing intelligent agents. Intelligent agents are collections of sensors, computers, and effectors that interact with their environments in real time in goal-directed ways. Because of the complexity involved in designing intelligent agents, it has been found useful to approach the construction of agents with some organizing principle, theory, or paradigm that gives shape to the agent's components and structures their relationships. Given the wide variety of approaches being taken in the field, the question naturally arises: Is there a way to compare and evaluate these approaches? The purpose of the present work is to develop common benchmark tasks and evaluation metrics to which intelligent agents, including complex robotic agents, constructed using various architectural approaches can be subjected.

  14. Content Analysis for Proactive Protective Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to outline a plan for developing and validating a Proactive Protective Intelligence approach that prevents targeted violence through the analysis and assessment of threats overtly or covertly expressed in abnormal communications to USSS protectees.

  15. Model of the Recurrent Nova CI Aql

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederle, C.; Kimeswenger, S.

    CI Aql was observed with the Innsbruck 60cm telescope in VRIC from June to October 2001. To reproduce the resulting light curves, a geometrical model of the double star system was realized in MATLAB-code. Already existing and rather basic routines were used to implement difficult ray-tracing and rendering tasks. For the geometrical model itself an extended rim of the accretion disk and the illumination of the other components by the white dwarf turned out to be very important.

  16. Modal mineralogy of CI and CI-like chondrites by X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Howard, K. T.; Russell, S. S.

    2015-09-01

    The CI chondrites are some of the most hydrated meteorites available to study, making them ideal samples with which to investigate aqueous processes in the early Solar System. Here, we have used position-sensitive-detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) to quantify the abundance of minerals in bulk samples of the CI chondrite falls Alais, Orgueil and Ivuna, and the Antarctic CI-like chondrites Y-82162 and Y-980115. We find that Alais, Orgueil and Ivuna are dominated by a mixed serpentine/saponite phyllosilicate (81-84 vol%), plus minor magnetite (6-10%), sulphides (4-7%) and carbonates (<3%). This reflects an extended period of aqueous alteration and the near-complete transformation of anhydrous phases into a secondary mineral assemblage. The similarity in total abundance of phyllosilicate suggests that the CI chondrites all experienced the same degree of aqueous alteration on the parent body. In contrast, Y-82162 contains a highly disordered serpentine/saponite phyllosilicate (68 vol%), sulphide (19%), olivine (11%) and magnetite (2%). This mineralogy is distinct from that of the CI chondrites, attesting to both a different starting mineralogy and alteration history. The structure and relatively low abundance of the phyllosilicate, and the high abundance of olivine, are consistent with previous observations that Y-82162 represents CI-like material that following aqueous alteration suffered thermal metamorphism at temperatures >500 °C. Similarly, Y-980115 contains disordered serpentine/saponite (71 vol%), sulphide (19%), olivine (8%) and magnetite (2%), confirming that it too is a thermally metamorphosed CI-like chondrite. We suggest that the CI-like chondrites are derived from a different parent body than the CI chondrites, which underwent short-lived thermal metamorphism due to impacts and/or solar radiation.

  17. Synthetic-Creative Intelligence and Psychometric Intelligence: Analysis of the Threshold Theory and Creative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Mercedes; Soto, Gloria; Prieto, Lola; Sáinz, Marta; Ferrándiz, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing body of research to uncover the relationship between creativity and intelligence. This relationship usually has been examined using traditional measures of intelligence and seldom using new approaches (i.e. Ferrando et al. 2005). In this work, creativity is measured by tools developed based on Sternberg's successful…

  18. Intelligent Tutoring Systems by and for the Developing World: A Review of Trends and Approaches for Educational Technology in a Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    As information and communication technology access expands in the developing world, learning technologies have the opportunity to play a growing role to enhance and supplement strained educational systems. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) offer strong learning gains, but are a class of technology traditionally designed for most-developed…

  19. Elucidating the functional relationship between working memory capacity and psychometric intelligence: a fixed-links modeling approach for experimental repeated-measures designs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philipp; Rammsayer, Thomas; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies reported a strong link between working memory capacity (WMC) and fluid intelligence (Gf), although views differ in respect to how close these two constructs are related to each other. In the present study, we used a WMC task with five levels of task demands to assess the relationship between WMC and Gf by means of a new methodological approach referred to as fixed-links modeling. Fixed-links models belong to the family of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and are of particular interest for experimental, repeated-measures designs. With this technique, processes systematically varying across task conditions can be disentangled from processes unaffected by the experimental manipulation. Proceeding from the assumption that experimental manipulation in a WMC task leads to increasing demands on WMC, the processes systematically varying across task conditions can be assumed to be WMC-specific. Processes not varying across task conditions, on the other hand, are probably independent of WMC. Fixed-links models allow for representing these two kinds of processes by two independent latent variables. In contrast to traditional CFA where a common latent variable is derived from the different task conditions, fixed-links models facilitate a more precise or purified representation of the WMC-related processes of interest. By using fixed-links modeling to analyze data of 200 participants, we identified a non-experimental latent variable, representing processes that remained constant irrespective of the WMC task conditions, and an experimental latent variable which reflected processes that varied as a function of experimental manipulation. This latter variable represents the increasing demands on WMC and, hence, was considered a purified measure of WMC controlled for the constant processes. Fixed-links modeling showed that both the purified measure of WMC (β = .48) as well as the constant processes involved in the task (β = .45) were related to Gf. Taken

  20. Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards for an Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Results of 2 studies involving 503 adults and 229 adolescents show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, a new ability test of emotional intelligence, meets 3 classical criteria of a standard intelligence. (SLD)

  1. Microfossils in CI and CO Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Jerman, Gregory; Costen, James

    2003-01-01

    Secondary and backscatter electron images and x-ray spectral data of selected CI (Alais, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and CO3 (Rainbow and Dar a1 Gani 749) carbonaceous meteorites have recently been obtained using Field Emission and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopes These studies indicate the presence of a large assemblage of biomarkers and complex lithified and carbonized remains of bodies that we interpret as indigenous microfossils. We discuss the meteorites, provide images of many of the biogenic forms found embedded in the freshly fractured meteorite surfaces.

  2. Intelligent buildings.

    PubMed

    Williams, W E

    1987-01-01

    The maturing of technologies in computer capabilities, particularly direct digital signals, has provided an exciting variety of new communication and facility control opportunities. These include telecommunications, energy management systems, security systems, office automation systems, local area networks, and video conferencing. New applications are developing continuously. The so-called "intelligent" or "smart" building concept evolves from the development of this advanced technology in building environments. Automation has had a dramatic effect on facility planning. For decades, communications were limited to the telephone, the typewritten message, and copy machines. The office itself and its functions had been essentially unchanged for decades. Office automation systems began to surface during the energy crisis and, although their newer technology was timely, they were, for the most part, designed separately from other new building systems. For example, most mainframe computer systems were originally stand-alone, as were word processing installations. In the last five years, the advances in distributive systems, networking, and personal computer capabilities have provided opportunities to make such dramatic improvements in productivity that the Selectric typewriter has gone from being the most advanced piece of office equipment to nearly total obsolescence.

  3. Inverting the Army Intelligence Pyramid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Counterinsurgency, Company Intelligence Support Team, COIST, HUMINT, SIGINT, MASINT, OSINT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: (U) 17. LIMITATION OF...intelligence ( OSINT ), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and technical intelligence (TECHINT).14 11

  4. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  5. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Use of Competitive Intelligence Tools in a Multinational Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breese-Vitelli, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of the global economy, organizations large and small are increasingly recognizing that competitive intelligence (CI) is essential to compete in industry. Competitive intelligence is used to gain an advantage in commerce and is useful for analyzing a company's strategic industry position. To remain current and profitable,…

  7. Intelligence: Genetic and Environmental Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancro, Robert, Ed.

    This book on the genetic and environmental influences on intelligence is comprised of the following papers: "The Structure of Intelligence in Relation to the Nature-Nurture Controversy," R. B. Cattell; "Theory of Intelligence," L. G. Humphreys; "Using Measured Intelligence Intelligently," P. R. Merrifield; "Intelligence: Definition, Theory, and…

  8. Intelligent Extruder

    SciTech Connect

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  9. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  10. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  11. CI Cygni since the 1980 eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Kafatos, M.

    1982-01-01

    During the 1980 eclipse of the 855 day period symbiotic binary CI Cyg, a data set showing high excitation resonance lines which were largely uneclipsed but brightening on an orbital timescale, and intercombination lines exhibiting pronounced but nontotal eclipses and which were fading on an orbital timescale were obtained. A model invoking a low density dissipating nebula surrounding the hot companion to explain the intercombination lines, and a shock between stellar winds to interpret the resonance lines, is described. Subsequent synoptic observations revealed continuing changes in the UV emission line fluxes consistent with those described above, except for the brightening of Mg II and the emergence of strong, not previously seen Mg V emission. Post-outburst and phase dependent changes must be included in any interpretation of this system as the archetypal symbiotic binary. Observations to be made during the 1982 October eclipse are summarized.

  12. Challenging Aerospace Problems for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kanashige, John; Satyadas, A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we highlight four problem domains that are well suited and challenging for intelligent system technologies. The problems are defined and an outline of a probable approach is presented. No attempt is made to define the problems as test cases. In other words, no data or set of equations that a user can code and get results are provided. The main idea behind this paper is to motivate intelligent system researchers to examine problems that will elevate intelligent system technologies and applications to a higher level.

  13. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Intelligence for making the work of Richards J. Heuer, Jr. on the psychology of intelligence analysis available to a new generation of intelligence... Psychological research into how people go about generating hypoth- eses shows that people are actually rather poor at thinking of all the pos- sibilities.86... generalize from these experiments to conclude that the same biases are prevalent in the Intelligence Community. When psychological experiments

  14. Intelligent Classification in Huge Heterogeneous Data Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    signals and through data dimension reduction, and to develop and tailor algorithms for the extraction of intelligence from several huge heterogeneous...dimension reduction and feature extraction . These techniques are employed when no training set is available, and therefore also no target output...algorithms for application to huge, heterogeneous data sets enabling the extraction of intelligence from information. The approach uses two-scale supervised

  15. Fighting for Intelligence: The Design of Intelligence-Led Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    systems thinking necessary to cope with modern, complex rivals and operating environments requires a reciprocal and carefully designed relationship between operations and intelligence. A paradigm shift in the joint force approach to understanding modern adversaries is long overdue. Learning and understanding the ever-changing structure and relationships of rival systems requires active interaction rather than...design of a campaign. By applying the heuristics of systems thinking and operational design to this problem, an intellectual foundation for

  16. An Intelligent Weather Station.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead.

  17. Cooperating intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Some of the issues connected to the development of a bureaucratic system are discussed. Emphasis is on a layer multiagent approach to distributed artificial intelligence (DAI). The division of labor in a bureaucracy is considered. The bureaucratic model seems to be a fertile model for further examination since it allows for the growth and change of system components and system protocols and rules. The first part of implementing the system would be the construction of a frame based reasoner and the appropriate B-agents and E-agents. The agents themselves should act as objects and the E-objects in particular should have the capability of taking on a different role. No effort was made to address the problems of automated failure recovery, problem decomposition, or implementation. Instead what has been achieved is a framework that can be developed in several distinct ways, and which provides a core set of metaphors and issues for further research.

  18. An Intelligent Weather Station

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M.; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  19. Five Strategies for Detecting Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tough, Allen

    If highly intelligent life has evolved elsewhere in our galaxy, how might scientists detect it? This paper compares eleven search strategies on three dimensions. Which strategies are most likely to detect extraterrestrial intelligence or technology? Which strategies, if successful, will likely contribute a wealth of knowledge? What is the current status of actual projects? In order to detect evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence or technology many light-years from Earth, astronomers can search for (1) radio signals, using various approaches, (2) laser or other optical signals, (3) other incoming signals, or (4) signs of an astroengineering project or Dyson sphere. Scientists could also (5) broadcast a radio message asking distant civilizations to respond. Additional strategies arise because any civilizations in our galaxy are probably much older than us and will therefore have technology far beyond ours. A technologically sophisticated civilization could likely send a small but super-smart probe to explore our solar system. An alien probe in our solar system, beyond the Moon, might be detected (6) by ongoing astronomy and space exploration, or (7) by a dedicated search for evidence of a probe or its byproducts. If a super-smart probe has reached Earth, it might be detected (8) by routine military and intelligence monitoring, (9) by an invitation to ETI on the World Wide Web, (10) by achieving peace or some other threshold that the probe requires before contact, or (11) by developing rigorous new research designs to study anomalous phenomena.

  20. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  1. Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

    2013-05-01

    Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

  2. Intelligently interactive combat simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation between myopia and intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katie M.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Mahroo, Omar A.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Myopia, or near-sightedness, is our most common eye condition and the prevalence is increasing globally. Visual impairment will occur if uncorrected, whilst high myopia causes sight-threatening complications. Myopia is associated with higher intelligence. As both are heritable, we set out to examine whether there is a genetic correlation between myopia and intelligence in over 1,500 subjects (aged 14–18 years) from a twin birth cohort. The phenotypic correlation between refractive error and intelligence was −0.116 (p < 0.01) - the inverse correlation due to the fact that myopia is a negative refractive error. Bivariate twin modeling confirmed both traits were heritable (refractive error 85%, intelligence 47%) and the genetic correlation was −0.143 (95% CI −0.013 to −0.273). Of the small phenotypic correlation the majority (78%) was explained by genetic factors. Polygenic risk scores were constructed based on common genetic variants identified in previous genome-wide association studies of refractive error and intelligence. Genetic variants for intelligence and refractive error explain some of the reciprocal variance, suggesting genetic pleiotropy; in the best-fit model the polygenic score for intelligence explained 0.99% (p = 0.008) of refractive error variance. These novel findings indicate shared genetic factors contribute significantly to the covariance between myopia and intelligence. PMID:28383074

  4. Speech Intelligibility of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients With 7 Years of Device Experience

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Speech intelligibility of 24 prelingually deaf pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients with 84 months of device experience was investigated. Each CI participant's speech samples were judged by a panel of 3 listeners. Intelligibility scores were calculated as the average of the 3 listeners' responses. The average write-down intelligibility score was 71.54% (SD = 29.89), and the average rating-scale intelligibility score was 3.03 points (SD = 1.01). Write-down and rating-scale intelligibility scores were highly correlated (r = .91, p < .001). Linear regression analyses revealed that both age at implantation and different speech-coding strategies contribute to the variability of CI participants' speech intelligibility. Implantation at a younger age and the use of the spectral-peak speech-coding strategy yielded higher intelligibility scores than implantation at an older age and the use of the multipeak speech-coding strategy. These results serve as indices for clinical applications when long-term advancements in spoken-language development are considered for pediatric CI recipients. PMID:15842006

  5. Intelligent resources for satellite ground control operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a cooperative approach to the design of intelligent automation and describes the Mission Operations Cooperative Assistant for NASA Goddard flight operations. The cooperative problem solving approach is being explored currently in the context of providing support for human operator teams and also in the definition of future advanced automation in ground control systems.

  6. Evaluation Methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Jim; Mark, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The 1993 paper in "IJAIED" on evaluation methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) still holds up well today. Basic evaluation techniques described in that paper remain in use. Approaches such as kappa scores, simulated learners and learning curves are refinements on past evaluation techniques. New approaches have also arisen, in…

  7. Vision Guided Intelligent Robot Design And Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutzky, G. D.; Hall, E. L.

    1988-02-01

    The concept of an intelligent robot is an important topic combining sensors, manipulators, and artificial intelligence to design a useful machine. Vision systems, tactile sensors, proximity switches and other sensors provide the elements necessary for simple game playing as well as industrial applications. These sensors permit adaption to a changing environment. The AI techniques permit advanced forms of decision making, adaptive responses, and learning while the manipulator provides the ability to perform various tasks. Computer languages such as LISP and OPS5, have been utilized to achieve expert systems approaches in solving real world problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe several examples of visually guided intelligent robots including both stationary and mobile robots. Demonstrations will be presented of a system for constructing and solving a popular peg game, a robot lawn mower, and a box stacking robot. The experience gained from these and other systems provide insight into what may be realistically expected from the next generation of intelligent machines.

  8. Epistasis analysis using artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jason H; Hill, Doug P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce artificial intelligence (AI) methodology for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. The ultimate goal of our AI strategy is to analyze genome-wide genetics data as a human would using sources of expert knowledge as a guide. The methodology presented here is based on computational evolution, which is a type of genetic programming. The ability to generate interesting solutions while at the same time learning how to solve the problem at hand distinguishes computational evolution from other genetic programming approaches. We provide a general overview of this approach and then present a few examples of its application to real data.

  9. Foraging search: Prototypical intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2000-05-01

    We think because we eat. Or as Descartes might have said, on a little more reflection, "I need to eat, therefore I think." Animals that forage for a living repeatedly face the problem of searching for a sparsely distributed resource in a vast space. Furthermore, the resource may occur sporadically and episodically under conditions of true uncertainty (nonstationary, complex and non-linear dynamics). I assert that this problem is the canonical problem solved by intelligence. It's solution is the basis for the evolution of more advanced intelligence in which the space of search includes that of concepts (objects and relations) encoded in cortical structures. In humans the conscious experience of searching through concept space we call thinking. The foraging search model is based upon a higher-order autopoeitic system (the forager) employing anticipatory processing to enhance its success at finding food while avoiding becoming food or having accidents in a hostile world. I present a semi-formal description of the general foraging search problem and an approach to its solution. The latter is a brain-like structure employing dynamically adaptive neurons. A physical robot, MAVRIC, embodies some principles of foraging. It learns cues that lead to improvements in finding targets in a dynamic and nonstationary environment. This capability is based on a unique learning mechanism that encodes causal relations in the neural-like processing element. An argument is advanced that searching for resources in the physical world, as per the foraging model, is a prototype for generalized search for conceptual resources as when we think. A problem represents a conceptual disturbance in a homeostatic sense. The finding of a solution restores the homeostatic balance. The establishment of links between conceptual cues and solutions (resources) and the later use of those cues to think through to solutions of quasi-isomorphic problems is, essentially, foraging for ideas. It is a quite

  10. Knowledge Intelligence: A New Field in Business Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Guangli; Li, Xiuting; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Yuejin; Shi, Yong

    This paper discussed the development of business intelligence considering the development of data mining. Business intelligence plays an important role in producing up-to-data information for operative and strategic decision-making. We proposed a new kind of knowledge named intelligent knowledge gotten from data. We illustrated a way to combine the business intelligence and intelligent knowledge and proposed a way of the management of intelligent knowledge which is more structural than the traditional knowledge.

  11. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  13. Intelligence Essentials for Everyone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Larry Kahaner, Competitive Intelligence : From Black Ops to Boardrooms — How Businesses Gather, Analyze and Use Infor- mation to Succeed in the Global...32744.fm Page 2 Tuesday, June 22, 1999 9:42 AMauthorities. The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals...SCIP, Competitive Intelligence Review, 8, No. 3 (Fall 1997), unnumbered 8th page. 5 SCIP, 1995 SCIP Membership Directory (Alexandria, VA: SCIP, 1995

  14. Innovative applications of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, H.; Rappaport, A.

    1989-01-01

    Papers concerning applications of artificial intelligence are presented, covering applications in aerospace technology, banking and finance, biotechnology, emergency services, law, media planning, music, the military, operations management, personnel management, retail packaging, and manufacturing assembly and design. Specific topics include Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, an intelligent training system for Space Shuttle flight controllers, an expert system for the diagnostics of manufacturing equipment, a logistics management system, a cooling systems design assistant, and a knowledge-based integrated circuit design critic. Additional topics include a hydraulic circuit design assistant, the use of a connector assembly specification expert system to harness detailed assembly process knowledge, a mixed initiative approach to airlift planning, naval battle management decision aids, an inventory simulation tool, a peptide synthesis expert system, and a system for planning the discharging and loading of container ships.

  15. Innovative applications of artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorr, Herbert; Rappaport, Alain

    Papers concerning applications of artificial intelligence are presented, covering applications in aerospace technology, banking and finance, biotechnology, emergency services, law, media planning, music, the military, operations management, personnel management, retail packaging, and manufacturing assembly and design. Specific topics include Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, an intelligent training system for Space Shuttle flight controllers, an expert system for the diagnostics of manufacturing equipment, a logistics management system, a cooling systems design assistant, and a knowledge-based integrated circuit design critic. Additional topics include a hydraulic circuit design assistant, the use of a connector assembly specification expert system to harness detailed assembly process knowledge, a mixed initiative approach to airlift planning, naval battle management decision aids, an inventory simulation tool, a peptide synthesis expert system, and a system for planning the discharging and loading of container ships.

  16. The search for intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, E. J.

    1980-12-01

    Implications of current understandings of the nature of human intelligence for the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence are discussed. The perceptual theory of intelligence as the manipulation of perceptual images rather than language is introduced, and conditions leading to the ascendancy of man over other hominids with similar conceptual abilities are discussed, including the liberation of the hands from a locomotive function and the evolution of neoteny. It is argued that the specificity of the environmental, behavioral and physiological conditions which lead to the emergence of technologically oriented, and communicative intelligent creatures suggests that any SETI would most likely be fruitless.

  17. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  18. Intelligence and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations.

  19. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  20. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  1. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board...

  2. Intelligent Systems: Shaping the Future of Aeronautics and Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Lohn, Jason; Kaneshige, John

    2004-01-01

    Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become important for NASA's future roles in Aeronautics and Space Exploration. Intelligent systems will enable safe, cost and mission-effective approaches to air& control, system design, spacecraft autonomy, robotic space exploration and human exploration of Moon, Mars, and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss intelligent system technologies and expand on the role of intelligent systems in NASA's missions. We will also present several examples of which some are highlighted m this extended abstract.

  3. The Intelligent Career Framework as a Basis for Interdisciplinary Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Polly; Khapova, Svetlana N.; Arthur, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how separate behavioral science disciplines can be brought together to more fully understand the dynamics of contemporary careers. We adopt one interdisciplinary framework--that of the "intelligent career"--and use it to examine how separate disciplinary approaches relate to one another. The intelligent career framework…

  4. The Application of Intelligent Agents in Libraries: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Guoying

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review on the utilisation of intelligent agent technology in the library environment. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers since 1990 on the use of various intelligent agent technologies in libraries are divided into two main application areas: digital library…

  5. Behavior Analysis and the Quest for Machine Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kenneth R.; Hutchison, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses three approaches to building intelligent systems: artificial intelligence, neural networks, and behavior analysis. BANKET, an object-oriented software system, is explained; a commercial application of BANKET is described; and a collaborative effort between the academic and business communities for the use of BANKET is discussed.…

  6. Integrating Human and Computer Intelligence. Technical Report No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Roy D.

    This paper explores the thesis that advances in computer applications and artificial intelligence have important implications for the study of development and learning in psychology. Current approaches to the use of computers as devices for problem solving, reasoning, and thinking--i.e., expert systems and intelligent tutoring systems--are…

  7. ABITS: Learning More about Students through Intelligent Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowlds, Frances; Roche, Bernard-Joseph; Mangina, Eleni

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: One of the greatest challenges facing any intelligent tutoring system is being able to adapt its behaviour based on the student's current knowledge level, ability, needs and wishes within a course. This paper aims to present a framework of BDI agents within an agent-based intelligent tutoring system (ABITS). Design/methodology/approach: A…

  8. Pros and cons in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1996-03-01

    I propose a new term, 'galactic organism with distinct intelligence', for the extraterrestrial forms, with which humans can make contact. This is because, among the three existing terms: (a) 'the search for extraterrestrial intelligence' 'excludes biology and is inelegant'; (b) 'extraterrestrial' does not distinguish between the micro-organisms and highly-evolved intelligent life-forms; and (c) 'unidentified flying object' projects a sense of mysticism. On the presence of galactic organisms with distinct intelligence, scientists belong to three camps. Astronomers, physicists and some biochemists belong to the believers group. Evolutionists are in the doubters category. The third camp is represented by the 'uncommitted'. Approaches for contacting galactic organisms with distinct intelligence would take three steps. These are: (a) radioastronomical observations in the galaxy and interstellar space for the presence of organic matter; (b) initiating radio contact and listening to any transmitted message, as set out by the search for extraterrestrial intelligence program, and (c) landing instruments and humans in the galaxy.

  9. The Science of Intelligence Testing: Commentary on the Evolving Nature of Interpretations of the Wechsler Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Intelligence has been defined in multiple ways throughout history. In the last 100 years a psychometric approach to define the concept of intelligence has come to dominate the concept. This Commentary provides a brief overview of the history and concepts of intelligence with an emphasis on intellectual assessment. Particular focus is placed on the…

  10. Self Estimates of General, Crystallized, and Fluid Intelligences in an Ethnically Diverse Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Self-estimated intelligence is a quick way to assess people's conceptions of their own abilities. Furnham (2001) and colleagues have used this technique to make comparisons across culture and gender and different approaches to intelligence (such as "g" or Multiple Intelligences). This study seeks to build on past work in two ways. First, a large,…

  11. A Pilot Study of Urinary Peptides as Biomarkers for Intelligence in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Lorna M.; Mullen, William; Zurbig, Petra; Harris, Sarah E.; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David J.; Mischak, Harald; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence is an important indicator of physical, mental and social well-being. In old age, intelligence is also associated with a higher quality of life and better health. Heritability studies have shown that there are strong genetic influences, yet unknown, on intelligence, including in old age. Other approaches may be useful to investigate…

  12. Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part I: Forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Roux, Claude; Delémont, Olivier; Lock, Eric; Zingg, Christian; Margot, Pierre

    2010-02-25

    Forensic science is generally defined as the application of science to address questions related to the law. Too often, this view restricts the contribution of science to one single process which eventually aims at bringing individuals to court while minimising risk of miscarriage of justice. In order to go beyond this paradigm, we propose to refocus the attention towards traces themselves, as remnants of a criminal activity, and their information content. We postulate that traces contribute effectively to a wide variety of other informational processes that support decision making in many situations. In particular, they inform actors of new policing strategies who place the treatment of information and intelligence at the centre of their systems. This contribution of forensic science to these security oriented models is still not well identified and captured. In order to create the best condition for the development of forensic intelligence, we suggest a framework that connects forensic science to intelligence-led policing (part I). Crime scene attendance and processing can be envisaged within this view. This approach gives indications about how to structure knowledge used by crime scene examiners in their effective practice (part II).

  13. Intelligence, creativity, and cognitive control: The common and differential involvement of executive functions in intelligence and creativity.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Sommer, Markus; Arendasy, Martin; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2014-09-01

    Intelligence and creativity are known to be correlated constructs suggesting that they share a common cognitive basis. The present study assessed three specific executive abilities - updating, shifting, and inhibition - and examined their common and differential relations to fluid intelligence and creativity (i.e., divergent thinking ability) within a latent variable model approach. Additionally, it was tested whether the correlation of fluid intelligence and creativity can be explained by a common executive involvement. As expected, fluid intelligence was strongly predicted by updating, but not by shifting or inhibition. Creativity was predicted by updating and inhibition, but not by shifting. Moreover, updating (and the personality factor openness) was found to explain a relevant part of the shared variance between intelligence and creativity. The findings provide direct support for the executive involvement in creative thought and shed further light on the functional relationship between intelligence and creativity.

  14. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  15. Ironising with Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Peter; Beach, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a project that seeks in part to explore how students understand and use the concept of intelligence. It is based on an ethnographically contextualized study of linguistic events and was conducted in an inner-city upper secondary school in Sweden. The article shows that the concept of intelligence is not spontaneously used…

  16. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  17. Emotional Intelligence and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Perkins, Donna M.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Emotional intelligence and social behavior were explored in a study with 11 adolescents. Results found that those with higher emotional intelligence were better able to identify their own and others' emotions in situations, use that information to guide their actions, and resist peer pressure than others. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  18. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  19. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  20. Intelligent Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabezhailo, M. I.; Finn, V. K.

    1996-01-01

    An Intelligent Information System (IIS) uses data warehouse technology to facilitate the cycle of data and knowledge processing, including input, standardization, storage, representation, retrieval, calculation, and delivery. This article provides an overview of IIS products and artificial intelligence systems, illustrates examples of IIS…

  1. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  2. Intelligence Analysis: Once Again

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    literature written specifically about intelligence analysis, including general definitions, themes, divergent views, and observations on gaps in...about intelligence analysis, including general definitions, themes, divergent views, and observations on gaps in literature coverage. A comprehensive...many different types of questions, which are categorized in variety of ways. A general classification of the questions, sometimes described as

  3. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  4. International Intelligence Forum 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    FORUM 39 Peavie, Barrett K . Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia. Fort Leavenworth, KS : U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced...Investigative Service, 2000. Jenssen, Lars Christian and Olav Riste. Intelligence in the Cold War: Organiza- tion, Role, International Cooperation. Oslo

  5. The Physics of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escultura, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the physics of intelligence and provides an overview of what happens in the brain when a person is engaged in mental activity that we classify under thought or intelligence. It traces the formation of a concept starting with reception of visible or detectable signals from the real world by and external to the sense organs,…

  6. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  7. Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, J D; Salovey, P; Caruso, D R; Sitarenios, G

    2001-09-01

    The authors have claimed that emotional intelligence (EI) meets traditional standards for an intelligence (J. D. Mayer, D. R. Caruso, & P. Salovey, 1999). R. D. Roberts, M. Zeidner, and G. Matthews (2001) questioned whether that claim was warranted. The central issue raised by Roberts et al. concerning Mayer et al. (1999) is whether there are correct answers to questions on tests purporting to measure EI as a set of abilities. To address this issue (and others), the present authors briefly restate their view of intelligence, emotion, and EI. They then present arguments for the reasonableness of measuring EI as an ability, indicate that correct answers exist, and summarize recent data suggesting that such measures are, indeed, reliable.

  8. Intelligence and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The origin of preferences and values is an unresolved theoretical problem in behavioural sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals are more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel preferences and values than less intelligent individuals, but general intelligence has no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar preferences and values. Ethnographies of traditional societies suggest that exclusively homosexual behaviour was probably rare in the ancestral environment, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to identify themselves as homosexual and engage in homosexual behaviour. Analyses of three large, nationally representative samples (two of which are prospectively longitudinal) from two different nations confirm the prediction.

  9. Creative learning for intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a methodology for creative learning that applies to man and machines. Creative learning is a general approach used to solve optimal control problems. The creative controller for intelligent machines integrates a dynamic database and a task control center into the adaptive critic learning model. The task control center can function as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and criteria functions, while the dynamic database can act as an information system. To illustrate the theory of creative control, several experimental simulations for robot arm manipulators and mobile wheeled vehicles were included. The simulation results showed that the best performance was obtained by using adaptive critic controller among all other controllers. By changing the paths of the robot arm manipulator in the simulation, it was demonstrated that the learning component of the creative controller was adapted to a new set of criteria. The Bearcat Cub robot was another experimental example used for testing the creative control learning. The significance of this research is to generalize the adaptive control theory in a direction toward highest level of human learning - imagination. In doing this it is hoped to better understand the adaptive learning theory and move forward to develop more human-intelligence-like components and capabilities into the intelligent robot. It is also hoped that a greater understanding of machine learning will motivate similar studies to improve human learning.

  10. Electron Attachment to Halomethanes at High Temperature: CH2CI2, CF2CI2, CH3CI, and CF3CI Attachment Rate Constants up to 1100 K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    49 meV for hydrogen- containing molecules. Thus, on the basis of G3 calculations, Eq. (2) cannot be said to be definitely exothermic . However, the...reaction is exothermic . Fabrikant and Hotop gave an analysis of Arrhenius plots for dissociative electron attachment. For our sole endothermic case...CH2CI2, CF3CI, and CF2C12. Two of these cases, as with CH,CI, are exothermic toward electron attachment. e" + CF3CI-+CF3 + CP - 143 meV. (4) e

  11. A survey on evolutionary algorithm based hybrid intelligence in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Kang, Liying; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid advance in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other types of omics technologies during the past decades, a tremendous amount of data related to molecular biology has been produced. It is becoming a big challenge for the bioinformatists to analyze and interpret these data with conventional intelligent techniques, for example, support vector machines. Recently, the hybrid intelligent methods, which integrate several standard intelligent approaches, are becoming more and more popular due to their robustness and efficiency. Specifically, the hybrid intelligent approaches based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are widely used in various fields due to the efficiency and robustness of EAs. In this review, we give an introduction about the applications of hybrid intelligent methods, in particular those based on evolutionary algorithm, in bioinformatics. In particular, we focus on their applications to three common problems that arise in bioinformatics, that is, feature selection, parameter estimation, and reconstruction of biological networks.

  12. A Survey on Evolutionary Algorithm Based Hybrid Intelligence in Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid advance in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other types of omics technologies during the past decades, a tremendous amount of data related to molecular biology has been produced. It is becoming a big challenge for the bioinformatists to analyze and interpret these data with conventional intelligent techniques, for example, support vector machines. Recently, the hybrid intelligent methods, which integrate several standard intelligent approaches, are becoming more and more popular due to their robustness and efficiency. Specifically, the hybrid intelligent approaches based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are widely used in various fields due to the efficiency and robustness of EAs. In this review, we give an introduction about the applications of hybrid intelligent methods, in particular those based on evolutionary algorithm, in bioinformatics. In particular, we focus on their applications to three common problems that arise in bioinformatics, that is, feature selection, parameter estimation, and reconstruction of biological networks. PMID:24729969

  13. Project X: competitive intelligence data mining and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) is a systematic and ethical program for gathering and analyzing information about your competitors' activities and general business trends to further your own company's goals. CI allows companies to gather extensive information on their competitors and to analyze what the competition is doing in order to maintain or gain a competitive edge. In commercial business this potentially translates into millions of dollars in annual savings or losses. The Internet provides an overwhelming portal of information for CI analysis. The problem is how a company can automate the translation of voluminous information into valuable and actionable knowledge. This paper describes Project X, an agent-based data mining system specifically developed for extracting and analyzing competitive information from the Internet. Project X gathers CI information from a variety of sources including online newspapers, corporate websites, industry sector reporting sites, speech archiving sites, video news casts, stock news sites, weather sites, and rumor sites. It uses individual industry specific (e.g., pharmaceutical, financial, aerospace, etc.) commercial sector ontologies to form the knowledge filtering and discovery structures/content required to filter and identify valuable competitive knowledge. Project X is described in detail and an example competitive intelligence case is shown demonstrating the system's performance and utility for business intelligence.

  14. Determining Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) System Effectiveness, and Integration as Part of Force Protection and System Survivability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    NIIA NATO Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance Intelligence Architecture NOLH Nearly Orthogonal Latin Hypercube OMOE Overall Measures Of...Of Effectiveness ( OMOE ) assessments, concluded that a materiel approach with improved detection systems (equipped with STARlite or GEN III FLIR

  15. Transition from intelligence cycle to intelligence process: the network-centric intelligence in narrow seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büker, Engin

    2015-05-01

    The defence technologies which have been developing and changing rapidly, today make it difficult to be able to foresee the next environment and spectrum of warfare. When said change and development is looked in specific to the naval operations, it can be said that the possible battlefield and scenarios to be developed in the near and middle terms (5-20 years) are more clarified with compare to other force components. Network Centric Naval Warfare Concept that was developed for the floating, diving and flying fleet platforms which serves away from its own mainland for miles, will keep its significance in the future. Accordingly, Network Centric Intelligence structure completely integrating with the command and control systems will have relatively more importance. This study will firstly try to figure out the transition from the traditional intelligence cycle that is still used in conventional war to Network Centric Intelligence Production Process. In the last part, the use of this new approach on the base of UAV that is alternative to satellite based command control and data transfer systems in the joint operations in narrow seas will be examined, a model suggestion for the use of operative and strategic UAVs which are assured within the scope of the NATO AGS2 for this aim will be brought.

  16. Folklore and the Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehnecke, Dianne Swenson

    1995-01-01

    Explores using Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences for folklore analysis. States that when listening to folktales, linguistic intelligence was used, as opposed to drawing pictures of the stories, which used spatial intelligence. Provides some ideas on how to bring folklore studies and the use of multiple intelligences into the classroom. (PA)

  17. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  18. Components of Swarm Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    David Bruemmer; Donald Dudenhoeffer; Matthew Anderson; Mark McKay

    2004-03-01

    This paper discusses the successes and failures over the past three years as efforts at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed and evaluated robot behaviors that promote the emergence of swarm intelligence. Using a team of 12 small robots with the ability to respond to light and sound, the INEEL has investigated the fundamental advantages of swarm behavior as well as the limitations of this approach. The paper discusses the ways in which biology has inspired this work and the ways in which adherence to the biological model has proven to be both a benefit and hindrance to developing a fieldable system. The paper outlines how a hierarchical command and control structure can be imposed in order to permit human control at a level of group abstraction and discusses experimental results that show how group performance scales as different numbers of robots are utilized. Lastly, the paper outlines the applications for which the resulting capabilities have been applied and demonstrated.

  19. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  20. Cognitive ornithology: the evolution of avian intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Nathan J

    2005-01-01

    Comparative psychologists interested in the evolution of intelligence have focused their attention on social primates, whereas birds tend to be used as models of associative learning. However, corvids and parrots, which have forebrains relatively the same size as apes, live in complex social groups and have a long developmental period before becoming independent, have demonstrated ape-like intelligence. Although, ornithologists have documented thousands of hours observing birds in their natural habitat, they have focused their attention on avian behaviour and ecology, rather than intelligence. This review discusses recent studies of avian cognition contrasting two different approaches; the anthropocentric approach and the adaptive specialization approach. It is argued that the most productive method is to combine the two approaches. This is discussed with respects to recent investigations of two supposedly unique aspects of human cognition; episodic memory and theory of mind. In reviewing the evidence for avian intelligence, corvids and parrots appear to be cognitively superior to other birds and in many cases even apes. This suggests that complex cognition has evolved in species with very different brains through a process of convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry, although the notion that birds and mammals may share common neural connectivity patterns is discussed. PMID:16553307

  1. Intelligent Instruction by Computer: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Marshall J., Ed.; Psotka, Joseph, Ed.

    The essays collected in this volume are concerned with the field of computer-based intelligent instruction. The papers are organized into four groups that address the following topics: particular theoretical approaches (3 titles); the development and improvement of tools and environments (3 titles); the power of well-engineered implementations and…

  2. Cognitive ornithology: the evolution of avian intelligence.

    PubMed

    Emery, Nathan J

    2006-01-29

    Comparative psychologists interested in the evolution of intelligence have focused their attention on social primates, whereas birds tend to be used as models of associative learning. However, corvids and parrots, which have forebrains relatively the same size as apes, live in complex social groups and have a long developmental period before becoming independent, have demonstrated ape-like intelligence. Although, ornithologists have documented thousands of hours observing birds in their natural habitat, they have focused their attention on avian behaviour and ecology, rather than intelligence. This review discusses recent studies of avian cognition contrasting two different approaches; the anthropocentric approach and the adaptive specialization approach. It is argued that the most productive method is to combine the two approaches. This is discussed with respects to recent investigations of two supposedly unique aspects of human cognition; episodic memory and theory of mind. In reviewing the evidence for avian intelligence, corvids and parrots appear to be cognitively superior to other birds and in many cases even apes. This suggests that complex cognition has evolved in species with very different brains through a process of convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry, although the notion that birds and mammals may share common neural connectivity patterns is discussed.

  3. Creating Business Intelligence from Course Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dyk, Liezl; Conradie, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to address the interface between individual learning facilitators that use course management systems (CMS) data to support decision-making and course design and institutional infrastructure providers that are responsible for institutional business intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: The design of a data warehouse…

  4. Emotional Intelligence and Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the potential role of emotional intelligence (EI) abilities within learning in teams. The research focuses on examining how EI abilities are enacted within team contexts and how these are associated with critical reflection and team processes associated with learning. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  5. Adaptive routing in wireless communication networks using swarm intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabshahi, P.; Gray, A.; Kassabalidis, I.; Das, A.; Narayanan, S.; Sharkawi, M. El; Marks, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the network routing problem, and survey swarm intelligent approaches for its efficient solution, after a brief overview of power-aware routing schemes, which are important in the network examples outlined above.

  6. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  7. Implications of State Dental Board Disciplinary Actions for Teaching Dental Students About Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Munk, Lyle Kris

    2016-01-01

    The primary emphasis in dental education is on developing students' cognitive intelligence (thinking) and technical intelligence (doing), while emotional intelligence (being) receives less emphasis. The aim of this study was to explore a potential consequence of the paucity of emotional intelligence education by determining the level of emotional intelligence-related (EI-R) infractions in state dental board disciplinary actions and characterizing the types of those infractions. For this study, 1,100 disciplinary action reports from 21 state dental boards were reviewed, and disciplinary infractions were classified as cognitive intelligence-related (CI-R) infractions, technical intelligence-related (TI-R) infractions, and EI-R infractions. EI-R infractions were then subcategorized into emotional intelligence clusters and competencies using the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). The results showed that 56.6% of the infractions were EI-R. When the EI-R infractions were subcategorized, the four competencies most frequently violated involved transparency, teamwork and collaboration, organizational awareness, and accurate self-assessment. Understanding the frequency and nature of EI-R infractions may promote awareness of the need for increased attention to principles of emotional intelligence in dental education and may encourage integration of those principles across dental curricula to help students understand the impact of emotional intelligence on their future well-being and livelihood.

  8. Extraterrestrial intelligence? Not likely.

    PubMed

    DeVore, I

    2001-12-01

    The possibility that there exist extraterrestrial creatures with advanced intelligence is considered by examining major events in mammalian, primate, and human evolution on earth. The overwhelming evidence is that the evolution of intelligence in creatures elsewhere who have the capability to communicate with us is vanishingly small. The history of the evolution of advanced forms of life on this planet is so beset by adventitious, unpredictable events and multiple contingencies that the evolution of human-level intelligence is highly unlikely on any planet, including earth.

  9. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  10. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-20

    8217’AD-A122 414 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (.) ARMY SCIENCE 1/j 13OARD WA SH INGTON Od I C PEDEN ET AL. 20 SEP 82 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 15/3 NL LEE...AND ACQUISITION WASHINGTON, D. C. 20310 A RMY CIENCE BOARD AD HOC SUBGROUP REPORT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS SEPTEMBER 1982 DTIC DEC 1 5...TITLE (aid Subtitle) S TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Army Science Board AHSG Report Final Artificial Intelligence and Robotics S. PERFORMING ORG

  11. B[e] Star CI Cam: Eighteen Years of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goranskij, V. P.; Barsukova, E. A.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Burenkov, A. N.; Klochkova, V. G.; Manset, N.; Metlova, N. V.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Panchuk, V. E.; Yushkin, M. V.; Zharikov, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of extensive spectroscopic and photometric observations of CI Cam performed after its outburst in April 1998. The outburst was interpreted as a thermonuclear runaway of hydrogen on the surface of a white dwarf (WD). We detected variations of both the brightness and the He II 4686 Å line radial velocity with a period of 19d.400±0d.015 due to orbital motion of the WD. The rapid brightness variations on a timescale of hours is explained by pulsations of a B4 III-V[e] star. In 2012, the system entered an active state with the stronger He II line and with the brightness increased by 0.4 mag. We observed a slow low-amplitude drift in the velocity of Fe II and [N II] emission lines which we explained by the orbital motion of the B[e] star + WD system along with all its gaseous environment around a third companion invisible in the spectra. The active phase of the B[e] star might have been initiated by a close approach of the binary and the third companion in 2007.

  12. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  13. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    PubMed

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  14. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  15. Full CI benchmark calculations for several states of the same symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    Full CI (FCI) wave functions are used to compute energies for several electronic states of the same symmetry for SiH2, CH2, and CH2(+). It is found that CASSCF/multireference CI wave functions yield results very similar to FCI, irrespective of whether the CASSCF MOs are optimized independently for each state or using an average of the CASSCF energies for all desired states. The ionization potentials and excitation energies obtained from the FCI calculations should help calibrate methods (such as Green's function approaches, equations of motion and propagator methods, and cluster expansions) in which energy differences are computed directly.

  16. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  17. CVSD intelligibility testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmer, J. M.

    Tests of the voice intelligibility of a 16-kilobit per second Continuously Variabale Slope Delta (CVSD) modulation for JTIDS applications are described. A Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT), a standard subjective intelligibility measure, was used to provide a reliable quantitative basis for judgement/comparisons of the CVSD performance under variouus test conditions (single-speaker mode, double speaker-mode, and masking channel mode). The DRT intelligibility score at each test condition characterizes the ability of the channel to provide the various psychoacoustic cues needed to distinguish words in a message. The physical hardware used in DRT evaluations is described in detail. The procedures used to collect and reduce the data to a meaningful form are outlined, and some mathematical models for characterizing DRT intelligibility are developed.

  18. Genes, evolution and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties-intelligence-is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

  19. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  20. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  1. Modelling intelligent behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. S.; Triffet, T.

    1993-01-01

    An introductory discussion of the related concepts of intelligence and consciousness suggests criteria to be met in the modeling of intelligence and the development of intelligent materials. Methods for the modeling of actual structure and activity of the animal cortex have been found, based on present knowledge of the ionic and cellular constitution of the nervous system. These have led to the development of a realistic neural network model, which has been used to study the formation of memory and the process of learning. An account is given of experiments with simple materials which exhibit almost all properties of biological synapses and suggest the possibility of a new type of computer architecture to implement an advanced type of artificial intelligence.

  2. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  3. Creativity, Personality and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; Goad, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Creativity is discussed in terms of H. Eysenck's personality theory. Creative persons are characterized by introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and moderate to high intelligence. The literature is reviewed on similarities and differences between creativity and pathology. (Author/DB)

  4. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  5. Introducing artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the field of artificial intelligence. The volume sets Al in a broad context of historical attitudes, imaginative insights, and ideas about intelligence in general. The author offers a wide-ranging survey of Al concerns, including cognition, knowledge engineering, problem inference, speech understanding, and perception. He also discusses expert systems, LISP, smart robots, and other Al products, and provides a listing of all major Al systems.

  6. The Convergence of Intelligences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Joachim

    Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.

  7. Intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.R.; Boyle, C.F.; Reiser, B.J.

    1985-04-26

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP. 19 references, 2 figures.

  8. Dimensions of Intelligent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    strategies - the intelligent parts of a cognitive model. This was necessary to achieve effective time performance - conventional AI techniques were too slow...Dimensions of Intelligent Systems Dr. Gary Berg-Cross Knowledge Strategies Division, SLAG, Inc. Potomac, Maryland 20854, USA 1. Abstract As...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SLAG, Inc,Knowledge Strategies Division,Potomac,MD,20854 8

  9. Technology, Intelligence, and TRUST

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    single email or message. The collections team does not have to make an either/or decision about whom to send its intercept or interrogation report...International security studies at the George C. Marshall Center for european security studies in Garmisch- Partenkirchen, Germany. he is a career ... career as an intelligence officer, I was told on numerous occasions, “Trust us, when the balloon goes up, you’ll get all the intelligence you need

  10. Applications of artificial intelligence to scientific research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a growing field which is just beginning to make an impact on disciplines other than computer science. While a number of military and commercial applications were undertaken in recent years, few attempts were made to apply AI techniques to basic scientific research. There is no inherent reason for the discrepancy. The characteristics of the problem, rather than its domain, determines whether or not it is suitable for an AI approach. Expert system, intelligent tutoring systems, and learning programs are examples of theoretical topics which can be applied to certain areas of scientific research. Further research and experimentation should eventurally make it possible for computers to act as intelligent assistants to scientists.

  11. 78 FR 32241 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency... given that a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been...

  12. 78 FR 90 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been scheduled...

  13. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  14. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  15. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

  16. Speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiu-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Chi, Lin-Yang; Weismer, Gary; Wang, Yu-Tsai

    2012-04-01

    The effects of the use of cochlear implant (CI) on speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics and the relationships between speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics for children are clinically important. The purposes of this study were to report on the comparisons for speaking rate and vowel space area, and their relationship with speech intelligibility, between 24 Mandarin-speaking children with CI and 24 age-sex-education level matched normal hearing (NH) controls. Participants were audio recorded as they read a designed Mandarin intelligibility test, repeated prolongation of each of the three point vowels /i/, /a/, and /u/ five times, and repeated each of three sentences carrying one point vowel five times. Compared to the NH group, the CI group exhibited: (1) mild-to-moderate speech intelligibility impairment; (2) significantly reduced speaking rate mainly due to significantly longer inter-word pauses and larger pause proportion; and (3) significantly less vowel reduction in the horizontal dimension in sustained vowel phonation. The limitations of speech intelligibility development in children after cochlear implantation were related to atypical patterns and to a smaller degree in vowel reduction and slower speaking rate resulting from less efficient articulatory movement transition.

  17. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  18. Testing the applicability of artificial intelligence techniques to the subject of erythemal ultraviolet solar radiation part one: the applicability of a fuzzy rule based approach.

    PubMed

    Riad, A M; Elminir, Hamdy K; Own, Hala S; Azzam, Yosry A

    2008-02-27

    This work presents the applicability of applying a fuzzy logic approach to the calculation of noontime erythemal UV irradiance for the plain areas of Egypt. When different combinations of data sets were examined from the test performance point of view, it was found that 91% of the whole series was estimated within a deviation of less than +/-10 mW/m(2), and 9% of these deviations lay within the range of +/-15 mW/m(2) to +/-25 mW/m(2).

  19. Workshop on Current Issues in Predictive Approaches to Intelligence and Security Analytics: Fostering the Creation of Decision Advantage through Model Integration and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2010-05-23

    The increasing asymmetric nature of threats to the security, health and sustainable growth of our society requires that anticipatory reasoning become an everyday activity. Currently, the use of anticipatory reasoning is hindered by the lack of systematic methods for combining knowledge- and evidence-based models, integrating modeling algorithms, and assessing model validity, accuracy and utility. The workshop addresses these gaps with the intent of fostering the creation of a community of interest on model integration and evaluation that may serve as an aggregation point for existing efforts and a launch pad for new approaches.

  20. The Role of Nurse Informaticists in the Emerging Field of Clinical Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Clinical intelligence (CI) is an emerging field in health care arising from the proliferation of electronic data being generated through the increasing use of healthcare information technology (HIT). It is defined as the electronic aggregation of accurate, relevant and timely data into meaningful information and actionable knowledge in order to achieve optimal healthcare structures, processes and outcomes. Clinical intelligence will dramatically change the discipline of nursing informatics in the future. This presentation describes the role of nurse informaticists (NI) today in building clinical intelligence, including communicating the vision, designing systems, educating clinicians, preparing themselves, and supporting research. PMID:24199076

  1. Intelligent life in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  2. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  3. Intelligent Potroom Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Jan Berkow; Larry Banta

    2003-07-29

    The Intelligent Potroom Operation project focuses on maximizing the performance of an aluminum smelter by innovating components for an intelligent manufacturing system. The Intelligent Potroom Advisor (IPA) monitors process data to identify reduction cells exhibiting behaviors that require immediate attention. It then advises operational personnel on those heuristic-based actions to bring the cell back to an optimal operating state in order to reduce the duration and frequency of substandard reduction cell performance referred to as ''Off-Peak Modes'' (OPMs). Techniques developed to identify cells exhibiting OPMs include the use of a finite element model-based cell state estimator for defining the cell's current operating state via advanced cell noise analyses. In addition, rule induction was also employed to identify statistically significant complex behaviors that occur prior to OPMs. The intelligent manufacturing system design, concepts and formalisms developed in this project w ere used as a basis for an intelligent manufacturing system design. Future research will incorporate an adaptive component to automate continuous process improvement, a technology platform with the potential to improve process performance in many of the other Industries of the Future applications as well.

  4. Democratization of Intelligence: Melding Strategic Intelligence and National Discourse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    democratization of intelligence, arises from autobiographical material related to intelligence. Th is literature also forges a connection between the...intelligence in popular cul- ture, in the chords of memory that bind the citizens of this country, has been transformed strictly from its association with

  5. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report 1986. Volume 4. Part A. Hierarchical Region-Based Approach to Automatic Photointerpretation. Part B. Application of AI Techniques to Image Segmentation and Region Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    MONITORING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial (If applicaole)nelincCostum(AcRome Air Development Center (COCU) Inteligence Consortium (NAIC)I 6c. ADDRESS...f, Offell RADC-TR-88-1 1, Vol IV (of eight) Interim Technical ReportS June 1988 NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONSORTIUM ANNUAL REPORT 1986...13441-5700 EMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO62702F 5 8 71 " " over) I 58 27 13 " ൓ TITLE (Include Security Classification) NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  6. The Problem of Defining Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubar, David

    1981-01-01

    The major philosophical issues surrounding the concept of intelligence are reviewed with respect to the problems surrounding the process of defining and developing artificial intelligence (AI) in computers. Various current definitions and problems with these definitions are presented. (MP)

  7. Intelligent spacecraft module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  8. Non-Newtonian Aspects of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Michail

    2016-05-01

    The challenge of this work is to connect physics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e., in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self-supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of the information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. As a follow-up of the proposed concept, the following question is addressed: can artificial intelligence (AI) system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that there exists such a quantum neural net that performs simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability is illustrated by examples. In conclusion, a mathematical machinery of the perception that is the fundamental part of a cognition process as well as intelligence is introduced and discussed.

  9. Connecting Multiple Intelligences through Open and Distance Learning: Going towards a Collective Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros Vieira, Leandro Mauricio; Ferasso, Marcos; Schröeder, Christine da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical essay is a learning approach reflexion on Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the possibilities provided by the education model known as open and distance learning. Open and distance learning can revolutionize traditional pedagogical practice, meeting the needs of those who have different forms of cognitive…

  10. Assessing the impact of modeling limits on intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, William B.; Hammer, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The knowledge bases underlying intelligent systems are validated. A general conceptual framework is provided for considering the roles in intelligent systems of models of physical, behavioral, and operational phenomena. A methodology is described for identifying limits in particular intelligent systems, and the use of the methodology is illustrated via an experimental evaluation of the pilot-vehicle interface within the Pilot's Associate. The requirements and functionality are outlined for a computer based knowledge engineering environment which would embody the approach advocated and illustrated in earlier discussions. Issues considered include the specific benefits of this functionality, the potential breadth of applicability, and technical feasibility.

  11. Full CI benchmark calculations on N2, NO, and O2 - A comparison of methods for describing multiple bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Full configuration interaction (CI) calculations on the ground states of N2, NO, and O2 using a DZP Gaussian basis are compared with single-reference SDCI and coupled pair approaches (CPF), as well as with CASSCF multireference CI approaches. The CASSCF/MRCI technique is found to describe multiple bonds as well as single bonds. Although the coupled pair functional approach gave chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol) for bonds involving hydrogen, larger errors occur in the CPF approach for the multiple bonded systems considered here. CI studies on the 1Sigma(g +) state of N2, including all single, double, triple, and quadruple excitations show that triple excitations are very important for the multiple bond case, and accounts for most of the deficiency in the coupled pair functional methods.

  12. Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    appears. And the test in which it appears is one of "intelligence": the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test ( Terman & Merrill, 1937). The same fluidity of...intelligence, 1938, individual form. London: Lewis , 1938. Raven, J. C. Guide to the standard progressive matrices. London: Lewis , 1960. Ray,. W. S. Complex...New York: Academic Press, 1978. Terman , L. M. Contribution to "Intelligence and its measurement: A symposium." Journal of Educational Psychology, 1921

  13. Emotions, Intelligence, and Performance. Symposium 45. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Doug

    This paper, titled "The Components of Emotional Intelligence and the Relationship to Sales Performance," presents two general approaches to studying emotional intelligence. The first is a broad model approach that considers abilities as well as a series of personality traits. The second is based on ability models. The possible correlation between…

  14. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  15. EEG Alpha Power and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppelmayr, M.; Klimesch, W.; Stadler, W.; Pollhuber, D.; Heine, C.

    2002-01-01

    Tested whether alpha power in different sub-bands is selectively related to intelligence. For 74 Austrian subjects, the EEG was recorded during a resting session and 2 different intelligence tests were performed. Findings show a strong positive correlation between intelligence and alpha power. (SLD)

  16. A Plenipotentiary for Human Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    1981-01-01

    Describes a Venezualan effort to develop intelligence, lead by Luis Alberto Machado, Minister of State for the Development of Intelligence. Explains intelligence-enhancing programs emphasizing good prenatal care and infant nutrition and fostering intellectual development in elementary and secondary school classes. (DS)

  17. Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil…

  18. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  19. What Is Artificial Intelligence Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzweil, Raymond

    1985-01-01

    Examines the past, present, and future status of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Acknowledges the limitations of AI but proposes possible areas of application and further development. Urges a concentration on the unique strengths of machine intelligence rather than a copying of human intelligence. (ML)

  20. Reforming Intelligence: Democracy and Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    14 Newer democracies typically have yet to come to terms with competitive intelligence and tend to provide the executive with finished products from...the competitive - intelligence pro- Focusing on improving coordination, profes- sionalism, transparency, and trust—all of which are crucial norms for...Australia and Canada, use competitive - intelligence methods to provide alternative analyses. 15. Although the sociological literature on professions

  1. Introducing artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes the background to AI, explores some characteristic objectives and methods, and indicates some of the practical ramifications for expert, robotic and other types of systems. Following a brief discussion of the nature of intelligence, the recent history of AI is outlined. Characteristic activities of AI systems are explored in Part II. Here it is emphasized that AI systems are not only concerned with ''thought'' but with ''action''-it is an obvious requirement of intelligent commercial and other systems that they behave with competence in a real-world environment. Finally some of the current and future uses of AI systems are explored.

  2. The Ciona intestinalis immune-related galectin genes (CiLgals-a and CiLgals-b) are expressed by the gastric epithelium.

    PubMed

    Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Vizzini, Aiti; Testasecca, Lelia; Parrinello, Nicolò; Cammarata, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The transcription of two Ciona intestinalis galectin genes (CiLgals-a and CiLgals-b) is uparegulated by LPS in the pharynxis (hemocytes, vessel epithelium, endostilar zones) which is retained the main organ of the immunity. In this ascidian, for the first time we show, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods, that these two immune-related genes are expressed in the gastric epithelium of naïve ascidians, whereas the galectins appear to be only contained in the intestine columnar epithelium. In addition, according to previous results on the pharynx, the genes are also expressed and galectins produced by hemocytes scattered in the connective tissue surrounding the gut. The genes expression and galectin localization in several tissues, including the previous findings on the transcription upregulation, the constitutive expression of these genes by endostylar zones and by the gastric epithelium suggest a potential multifunctional role of these galectins. In this respect, it is of interest to define where the CiLgals are normally found as related to the tissue functions. Such an approach should be a starting point for further investigations.

  3. A comparison of various artificial intelligence approaches performance for estimating suspended sediment load of river systems: a case study in United States.

    PubMed

    Olyaie, Ehsan; Banejad, Hossein; Chau, Kwok-Wing; Melesse, Assefa M

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and reliable suspended sediment load (SSL) prediction models are necessary for planning and management of water resource structures. More recently, soft computing techniques have been used in hydrological and environmental modeling. The present paper compared the accuracy of three different soft computing methods, namely, artificial neural networks (ANNs), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), coupled wavelet and neural network (WANN), and conventional sediment rating curve (SRC) approaches for estimating the daily SSL in two gauging stations in the USA. The performances of these models were measured by the coefficient of correlation (R), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (CE), root-mean-square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) to choose the best fit model. Obtained results demonstrated that applied soft computing models were in good agreement with the observed SSL values, while they depicted better results than the conventional SRC method. The comparison of estimation accuracies of various models illustrated that the WANN was the most accurate model in SSL estimation in comparison to other models. For example, in Flathead River station, the determination coefficient was 0.91 for the best WANN model, while it was 0.65, 0.75, and 0.481 for the best ANN, ANFIS, and SRC models, and also in the Santa Clara River, amounts of this statistical criteria was 0.92 for the best WANN model, while it was 0.76, 0.78, and 0.39 for the best ANN, ANFIS, and SRC models, respectively. Also, the values of cumulative suspended sediment load computed by the best WANN model were closer to the observed data than the other models. In general, results indicated that the WANN model could satisfactorily mimic phenomenon, acceptably estimate cumulative SSL, and reasonably predict peak SSL values.

  4. The Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence: Posturing Authorities to Complement Intelligence Community Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Approach to Intelligence,‖ by former DCI John Deutch , offered a much harsher take on the creation of the USD(I). Deutch directly criticized the creation...National Security Act, which established the CIA.‖ Deutch argued that the creation of the USD(I) had the potential to weaken support to the military and...the DCI‘s ability to lead the IC. Deutch also argued that in order to be effective, intelligence activities must be integrated with command

  5. A new look at emotional intelligence: a dual-process framework.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Marina

    2009-02-01

    In this article, the author provides a framework to guide research in emotional intelligence. Studies conducted up to the present bear on a conception of emotional intelligence as pertaining to the domain of consciousness and investigate the construct with a correlational approach. As an alternative, the author explores processes underlying emotional intelligence, introducing the distinction between conscious and automatic processing as a potential source of variability in emotionally intelligent behavior. Empirical literature is reviewed to support the central hypothesis that individual differences in emotional intelligence may be best understood by considering the way individuals automatically process emotional stimuli. Providing directions for research, the author encourages the integration of experimental investigation of processes underlying emotional intelligence with correlational analysis of individual differences and fosters the exploration of the automaticity component of emotional intelligence.

  6. Facts and fiction of learning systems. [decision making intelligent control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, G. N.

    1975-01-01

    The methodology that will provide the updated precision for the hardware control and the advanced decision making and planning in the software control is called learning systems and intelligent control. It was developed theoretically as an alternative for the nonsystematic heuristic approaches of artificial intelligence experiments and the inflexible formulation of modern optimal control methods. Its basic concepts are discussed and some feasibility studies of some practical applications are presented.

  7. Teaching the Perpendicular Bisector: A Kinesthetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touval, Ayana

    2011-01-01

    Kinesthetic intelligence is one of the seven kinds of intelligence identified by Gardner's multiple intelligence theory (1983). The kinesthetic approach to teaching has numerous pedagogical advantages and can be adapted to the teaching of mathematics. This article describes a series of kinesthetic activities designed to explore the properties of…

  8. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  9. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part A: The core ingredients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. The goal of Artificial Intelligence is focused on developing computational approaches to intelligent behavior. This goal is so broad - covering virtually all aspects of human cognitive activity - that substantial confusion has arisen as to the actual nature of AI, its current status and its future capability. This volume, the first in a series of NBS/NASA reports on the subject, attempts to address these concerns. Thus, this report endeavors to clarify what AI is, the foundations on which it rests, the techniques utilized, applications, the participants and, finally, AI's state-of-the-art and future trends. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to government and private engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  10. A rational reduction of CI expansions: combining localized molecular orbitals and selected charge excitations.

    PubMed

    Krah, Tim; Ben Amor, Nadia; Maynau, Daniel; Berger, J A; Robert, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Based on localized molecular orbitals, the proposed method reduces large configuration interaction (CI) spaces while maintaining agreement with reference values. Our strategy concentrates the numerical effort on physically pertinent CI-contributions and is to be considered as a tool to tackle large systems including numerous open-shells. To show the efficiency of our method we consider two 4-electron parent systems. First, we illustrate our approach by describing the van der Waals interactions in the (H2)2 system. By systematically including local correlation, dispersion and charge transfer mechanisms, we show that 90% of the reference full CI dissociation energy of the H2 dimer is reproduced using only 3% of the full CI space. Second, the conformational cis/trans rotation barrier of the butadiene molecule is remarkably reproduced (97% of the reference value) with less than 1% of the reference space. This work paves the way to numerical strategies which afford the electronic structure determination of large open-shell systems avoiding the exponential limitation. At the same time, a physical analysis of the contents of the wave function is offered.

  11. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  12. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the…

  13. Evolution & Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Advocates of Intelligent Design (ID) theory argue that evolution is a theory in crisis, ID is a legitimate scientific theory, and biology teachers should teach the controversy. Supporters of evolutionary theory testify that ID is a religious, not scientific, concept, and evolution is in no danger of bankruptcy, having survived 140 years of…

  14. Artificial intelligence and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, I.C.; Braddock, J.V.; Brown, W.; Langendorf, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recommendations related to research and development personnel, and recommendations regarding the Army's involvement in the automated plant.

  15. Awaiting the intelligent computer

    SciTech Connect

    Mckibbin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Experimental and operational expert artificial intelligence systems exist in at least a dozen domains: engineering, computer systems configuration and diagnosis, finance, education, medicine, bioengineering, manufacturing, law and management science. This article examines the state-of-the-art in expert systems.

  16. Artificial intelligence. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of the field of artificial intelligence. It contains material covering the latest advances in control, representation, language, vision, and problem solving. Problem solving in design and analysis systems is addressed. Mitcell's version-space learning procedure, Morevec's reduced-images stereo procedure, and the Strips problem solver are covered.

  17. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  18. Intelligent test integration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  19. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  20. Johannes Kepler's Intelligent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul M.

    2006-12-01

    In the last decade, the theory labeled "Intelligent Design" has exacerbated long-standing conflicts between religion and science. This issue will be addressed from the perspective of the philosophy and science of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), whose unconventional belief in design lived in harmony with his revolutionary physical astronomy.

  1. Intelligent inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Jeniece; Dale, Ken; Holloway, Mike; Gaby, Willard

    1997-01-01

    The intelligent inspection system is an advanced controller and analysis system for dimensional measuring machines dedicated to measuring surface of revolution mechanical parts. IIS was developed by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Oak Ridge Y-12 plant because no commercial product was available to replace the obsolete computing systems on these important machines.

  2. Attention and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    The authors discuss methodological and theoretical issues in psychological investigations of infant attention, fixation times, habituation, and intelligence. A consensus on how to measure individual differences in habituation has not been reached. The relation between IQ and attention is discussed. (RD)

  3. Artificial Intelligence Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Computer Science, New Delhi, India , December 1986. (Also University of Texas, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AITR-41, August 1987). Kumar, V. and...the Tenth ICAI ) A187-55 Expert Systems for Monitoring and Control, D. Dvorak, May 1987. Many large-scale industrial processes and services are

  4. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  5. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  6. Assessing Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William C.

    This paper explains Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) and discusses questions raised about MI theory in regard to validity, assessment, and implications for instructional activities. MI theory asserts that human cognitive competence is best described in terms of a set of abilities, talents, and mental skills that each child…

  7. Wisdom, Intelligence & Creativity Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    How is it that smart administrators who want to do a good job often find themselves in situations that degenerate into confrontation and, ultimately, termination? In this article, the author discusses why in terms of a model of leadership--which he refers to it as WICS, an acronym for wisdom, intelligence and creativity synthesized. He describes…

  8. Emotional Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Ruiz, Desiree

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged in the past twenty five years as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, life success, and interpersonal relationships in different contexts of everyday life. This article provides a critical review of the research field of EI in the school context and analyzes its present…

  9. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  10. Inheritance, Intelligence, and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues considered in the book "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life" (Richard Herrnstein, Charles Murray), which stresses the importance of genetic differences between individuals and groups. The concept of a cognitive elite, cognitive classes and social behavior, ethnic differences in cognitive…

  11. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  12. Projective simulation for artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Briegel, Hans J; De las Cuevas, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of a learning agent whose interaction with the environment is governed by a simulation-based projection, which allows the agent to project itself into future situations before it takes real action. Projective simulation is based on a random walk through a network of clips, which are elementary patches of episodic memory. The network of clips changes dynamically, both due to new perceptual input and due to certain compositional principles of the simulation process. During simulation, the clips are screened for specific features which trigger factual action of the agent. The scheme is different from other, computational, notions of simulation, and it provides a new element in an embodied cognitive science approach to intelligent action and learning. Our model provides a natural route for generalization to quantum-mechanical operation and connects the fields of reinforcement learning and quantum computation.

  13. Projective simulation for artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briegel, Hans J.; de Las Cuevas, Gemma

    2012-05-01

    We propose a model of a learning agent whose interaction with the environment is governed by a simulation-based projection, which allows the agent to project itself into future situations before it takes real action. Projective simulation is based on a random walk through a network of clips, which are elementary patches of episodic memory. The network of clips changes dynamically, both due to new perceptual input and due to certain compositional principles of the simulation process. During simulation, the clips are screened for specific features which trigger factual action of the agent. The scheme is different from other, computational, notions of simulation, and it provides a new element in an embodied cognitive science approach to intelligent action and learning. Our model provides a natural route for generalization to quantum-mechanical operation and connects the fields of reinforcement learning and quantum computation.

  14. Intelligent Control of Modular Robotic Welding Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, Herschel Bernard; Kenney, Kevin Louis; Tolle, Charles Robert

    2002-04-01

    Although robotic machines are routinely used for welding, such machines do not normally incorporate intelligent capabilities. We are studying the general problem of formulating usable levels of intelligence into welding machines. From our perspective, an intelligent machine should: incorporate knowledge of the welding process, know if the process is operating correctly, know if the weld it is making is good or bad, have the ability to learn from its experience to perform welds, and be able to optimize its own performance. To this end, we are researching machine architecture, methods of knowledge representation, decision making and conflict resolution algorithms, methods of learning and optimization, human/machine interfaces, and various sensors. This paper presents work on the machine architecture and the human/machine interface specifically for a robotic, gas metal arc welding cell. Although the machine control problem is normally approached from the perspective of having a central body of control in the machine, we present a design using distributed agents. A prime goal of this work is to develop an architecture for an intelligent machine that will support a modular, plug and play standard. A secondary goal of this work is to formulate a human/machine interface that treats the human as an active agent in the modular structure.

  15. The crustal dynamics intelligent user interface anthology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nicholas M., Jr.; Campbell, William J.; Roelofs, Larry H.; Wattawa, Scott L.

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) has initiated an Intelligent Data Management (IDM) research effort which has, as one of its components, the development of an Intelligent User Interface (IUI). The intent of the IUI is to develop a friendly and intelligent user interface service based on expert systems and natural language processing technologies. The purpose of such a service is to support the large number of potential scientific and engineering users that have need of space and land-related research and technical data, but have little or no experience in query languages or understanding of the information content or architecture of the databases of interest. This document presents the design concepts, development approach and evaluation of the performance of a prototype IUI system for the Crustal Dynamics Project Database, which was developed using a microcomputer-based expert system tool (M. 1), the natural language query processor THEMIS, and the graphics software system GSS. The IUI design is based on a multiple view representation of a database from both the user and database perspective, with intelligent processes to translate between the views.

  16. Personalized healthcare through intelligent gadgets.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyeju; Kim, Sanghyun; Bae, Changseok

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent gadget is a wearable platform which is reconfigurable, scalable, and component-based and which can be equipped, carried as a personal accessory, or in a certain case, implanted internally into a body. Various kinds of personal information can be gathered with intelligent gadgets, and that information is used to provide specially personalized services to people in the ubiquitous computing environment. In this paper, we show a personalized healthcare service through intelligent gadgets. A service based on intelligent gadgets can be built intuitively and easily with a context representation language, called the intelligent gadget markup language (IGML) based on the event-condition-action (ECA) rule. The inherent nature of extensibility, not only environmental information but also physiological information can be specified as a context in IGML and can be dealt with an intelligent gadget with ease. It enables intelligent gadgets to be adopted to many different kinds of personalized healthcare services.

  17. Bioinformatic analysis of the distribution of inorganic carbon transporters and prospective targets for bioengineering to increase Ci uptake by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gaudana, Sandeep B; Zarzycki, Jan; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) which has enabled them to inhabit diverse environments encompassing a range of inorganic carbon (Ci: [Formula: see text] and CO2) concentrations. Several uptake systems facilitate inorganic carbon accumulation in the cell, which can in turn be fixed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Here we survey the distribution of genes encoding known Ci uptake systems in cyanobacterial genomes and, using a pfam- and gene context-based approach, identify in the marine (alpha) cyanobacteria a heretofore unrecognized number of putative counterparts to the well-known Ci transporters of beta cyanobacteria. In addition, our analysis shows that there is a huge repertoire of transport systems in cyanobacteria of unknown function, many with homology to characterized Ci transporters. These can be viewed as prospective targets for conversion into ancillary Ci transporters through bioengineering. Increasing intracellular Ci concentration coupled with efforts to increase carbon fixation will be beneficial for the downstream conversion of fixed carbon into value-added products including biofuels. In addition to CCM transporter homologs, we also survey the occurrence of rhodopsin homologs in cyanobacteria, including bacteriorhodopsin, a class of retinal-binding, light-activated proton pumps. Because they are light driven and because of the apparent ease of altering their ion selectivity, we use this as an example of re-purposing an endogenous transporter for the augmentation of Ci uptake by cyanobacteria and potentially chloroplasts.

  18. Realisation of voicing by French-speaking CI children after long-term implant use: An acoustic study.

    PubMed

    Grandon, Bénédicte; Vilain, Anne; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Schmerber, Sébastien; Truy, Eric

    2017-03-31

    Studies of speech production in French-speaking cochlear-implanted (CI) children are very scarce. Yet, difficulties in speech production have been shown to impact the intelligibility of these children. The goal of this study is to understand the effect of long-term use of cochlear implant on speech production, and more precisely on the coordination of laryngeal-oral gestures in stop production. The participants were all monolingual French children: 13 6;6- to 10;7-year-old CI children and 20 age-matched normally hearing (NH) children. We compared /p/, /t/, /k/, /b/, /d/ and /g/ in word-initial consonant-vowel sequences, produced in isolation in two different tasks, and we studied the effects of CI use, vowel context, task and age factors (i.e. chronological age, age at implantation and duration of implant use). Statistical analyses show a difference in voicing production between groups for voiceless consonants (shorter Voice Onset Times for CI children), with significance reached only for /k/, but no difference for voiced consonants. Our study indicates that in the long run, use of CI seems to have limited effects on the acquisition of oro-laryngeal coordination needed to produce voicing, except for specific difficulties located on velars. In a follow-up study, further acoustic analyses on vowel and fricative production by the same children reveal more difficulties, which suggest that cochlear implantation impacts frequency-based features (second formant of vowels and spectral moments of fricatives) more than durational cues (voicing).

  19. C.I. Disperse Blue; Testing Consent Order

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice announces that EPA has signed an enforceable Testing Consent Order with eight companies who have agreed to perform certain health and environmental effects tests with C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1(1)8-79:1)(CAS No. 3618-72-2.

  20. Exploring Market and Competitive Intelligence Research as a Source for Enhancing Innovation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of Competitive and Market Intelligence (CI/MI) Research as a potential source for improving the innovation capability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) leading to successful new product/services/processes/capabilities development (Cooper & Edgett, 2002). This report highlights the…

  1. Getting Competitive: Competitive Intelligence Is a Smart next Step for Information Pros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Cynthia Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) has become an attractive concept for Library and Information Science professionals, as information and research functions have become commoditized by end users, and financial, competitive, and performance pressures increase the need to demonstrate value. In the current competitive and cost-cutting environment,…

  2. Improving Strategic Planning and Implementation in Universities through Competitive Intelligence Tools: A Means to Gaining Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephanie; White, Rebecca J.

    2005-01-01

    Institutions of higher education can use competitive intelligence (CI) techniques to become more relevant to their communities. In Stepping Forward as Stewards of Place the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) provides a model for public engagement that emphasizes internal strategic planning, implementation, and…

  3. Surviving High-temperature Components in CI Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M.; Frank, D.

    2014-01-01

    The CI1 chondrites, while having the most solar-like compo-sition of any astromaterial available for laboratory analysis, have also been considerably altered by asteroidal processes including aqueous alteration. It is of fundamental importance to determine their pre-alteration mineralogy, so that the state of matter in the early Solar System can be better determined. In the course of a re-examination of the compositional range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in CI chondrites Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais [1] we found the first reported complete CAI, as already reported [2], with at-tached rock consisting mainly of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene. The range of residual olivine major element compositions we have determined in the CIs (Fig. 1) may now be directly com-pared with those of other astromaterials, including Wild 2 grains. The abundance of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in CIs is higher than is generally appreciated, and in fact much higher than for some CMs [1]. We also noted numerous rounded objects varying in shape from spheres to oblate spheroids, and ranging up to 100µm in size (Fig. 2), which have been previously noted [3] but have not been well documented or appreciated. We characterized the mineralogy by transmission electron microscopy and found that they consist mainly of rather fine-grained, flaky single phase to intergrown serpentine and saponite. These two materials in fact dominate the bulk of the host CI1 chondrites. With the exception of sparse spinels, the rounded phyllosilicate objects are remarka-bly free of other minerals, suggesting that the precursor from which the phyllosilicates were derived was a homogeneous mate-rial. We suggest that these round phyllosilicates aggregates in CI1 chondrites were cryptocrystalline to glassy microchondrules. If so then CI chondrites cannot be considered chondrule-free. Small though they are, the abundance of these putative microchondrules is the same as that of chondrules in the Tagish Lake meteorite.

  4. Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Cooper, Cyrus; Batty, G David

    2012-12-01

    Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend <0.0001). In sex-adjusted analyses, for an SD lower intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain.

  5. Machine learning: An artificial intelligence approach

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, R.S.; Carbonell, J.G.; Mitchell, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book contains tutorial overviews and research papers on contemporary trends in the area of machine learning viewed from an AI perspective. Research directions covered include: learning from examples, modeling human learning strategies, knowledge acquisition for expert systems, learning heuristics, discovery systems, and conceptual data analysis.

  6. Approaching Career Criminals With An Intelligence Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Organizations,” 234. 40 Thomas Green, ed. Folklore, An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music , Art (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1997), 800... electronically or personally), processing of the information (interpretation of data generated by collection activities and systems), analysis of the...Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music , Art. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1997. Greenwood, Peter. “Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile

  7. Structured Approach to the Intelligent System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    For Edmund Husserl (German philosopher) intentionality is “one essential feature of any consciousness”. For Jean - Paul Sartre (French...Existentialist Theory Of Consciousness by Jean - Paul Sartre . Hill and Wang-New York, 1997. [32] The Oxford Companion to MIND, edited by Richard L

  8. The ADEPT Framework for Intelligent Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricard, Michael; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of Draper Laboratory's All-Domain Execution and Planning Technology (ADEPT) architecture for intelligent autonomy. Intelligent autonomy is the ability to plan and execute complex activities in a manner that provides rapid, effective response to stochastic and dynamic mission events. Thus, intelligent autonomy enables the high-level reasoning and adaptive behavior for an unmanned vehicle that is provided by an operator in man-in-the-loop systems. Draper s intelligent autonomy has architecture evolved over a decade and a half beginning in the mid 1980's culminating in an operational experiment funded under DARPA's Autonomous Minehunting and Mapping Technologies (AMMT) unmanned undersea vehicle program. ADEPT continues to be refined through its application to current programs that involve air vehicles, satellites and higher-level planning used to direct multiple vehicles. The objective of ADEPT is to solidify a proven, dependable software approach that can be quickly applied to new vehicles and domains. The architecture can be viewed as a hierarchical extension of the sense-think-act paradigm of intelligence and has strong parallels with the military's Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) loop. The key elements of the architecture are planning and decision-making nodes comprising modules for situation assessment, plan generation, plan implementation and coordination. A reusable, object-oriented software framework has been developed that implements these functions. As the architecture is applied to new areas, only the application specific software needs to be developed. This paper describes the core architecture in detail and discusses how this has been applied in the undersea, air, ground and space domains.

  9. Intelligence in the Now: Robust Intelligence in Complex Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-26

    controlling the behavior of an autonomous mobile-manipulation robot. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Artificial Intelligence , Automated Reasoning...Domains September 26, 2015 Leslie Pack Kaelbling lpk@csail.mit.edu MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 32 Vassar Street...Cambridge, MA 02139 Voice: 617-253-9695 Fax: 617-452-5034 Tomas Lozano-Perez tlp@csail.mit.edu MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 32

  10. Intelligent Sensors Security

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. PMID:22315571

  11. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  12. Computationally intelligent pulsed photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukić, Mladena; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Rabasović, Mihailo D.; Markushev, Dragan D.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the application of computational intelligence in pulsed photoacoustics is discussed. Feedforward multilayer perception networks are applied for real-time simultaneous determination of the laser beam spatial profile and vibrational-to-translational relaxation time of the polyatomic molecules in gases. Networks are trained and tested with theoretical data adjusted for a given experimental set-up. Genetic optimization has been used for calculation of the same parameters, fitting the photoacoustic signals with a different number of generations. Observed benefits from the application of computational intelligence in pulsed photoacoustics and advantages over previously developed methods are discussed, such as real-time operation, high precision and the possibility of finding solutions in a wide range of parameters, similar to in experimental conditions. In addition, the applicability for practical uses, such as the real-time in situ measurements of atmospheric pollutants, along with possible further developments of obtained results, is argued.

  13. Introduction to Physical Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    A slight deviation from Newtonian dynamics can lead to new effects associated with the concept of physical intelligence. Non-Newtonian effects such as deviation from classical thermodynamic as well as quantum-like properties have been analyzed. A self-supervised (intelligent) particle that can escape from Brownian motion autonomously is introduced. Such a capability is due to a coupling of the particle governing equation with its own Liouville equation via an appropriate feedback. As a result, the governing equation is self-stabilized, and random oscillations are suppressed, while the Liouville equation takes the form of the Fokker-Planck equation with negative diffusion. Non- Newtonian properties of such a dynamical system as well as thermodynamical implications have been evaluated.

  14. Intelligent tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, T. J.; Abruzzo, J.; Zagardo, V.; Shipley, J.; Kossa, L.

    1980-10-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report under a contract to investigate the design, test, and implementation of a set of algorithms to perform intelligent tracking and intelligent homing on FLIR and TV imagery. The system concept was described. The problem of target aspect determination in support of aimpoint selection was analyzed. Sequences of 875 line FLIR data were extracted from the data base and an example of aspect determination for a maneuvering target in the presence of obscurations was presented. An example was also presented for close in homing (less than 500 meters) and the emergence of interior features, target movement, and scale changes. Hardware implementation in terms of VLSI/VHSIC chips was analyzed.

  15. Geospatial intelligence workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    A report on the future U.S. workforce for geospatial intelligence, requested by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), found that the agency—which hires about 300 scientists and analysts annually—is probably finding sufficient experts to fill the needs in all of its core areas, with the possible exception of geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. The report by the U.S. National Research Council, released on 25 January, noted that competition for GIS applications analysts is strong. While there appear to be enough cartographers, photogrammetrists, and geodesists to meet NGA's current needs in those core areas, the report cautioned that future shortages in these areas seem likely because of a relatively small number of graduates.

  16. The combined effects of reverberation and noise on speech intelligibility by cochlear implant listeners

    PubMed Central

    Hazrati, Oldooz; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the individual effect of reverberation and noise, as well as their combined effect, on speech intelligibility by cochlear implant (CI) users. Design Sentence stimuli corrupted by reverberation, noise, and reverberation + noise are presented to 11 CI listeners for word identification. They are tested in two reverberation conditions (T60 = 0.6 s, 0.8 s), two noise conditions (SNR = 5 dB, 10 dB), and four reverberation + noise conditions. Study sample Eleven CI users participated. Results Results indicated that reverberation degrades speech intelligibility to a greater extent than additive noise (speech-shaped noise), at least for the SNR levels tested. The combined effects were greater than those introduced by either reverberation or noise alone. Conclusions The effect of reverberation on speech intelligibility by CI users was found to be larger than that by noise. The results from the present study highlight the importance of testing CI users in reverberant conditions, since testing in noise-alone conditions might underestimate the difficulties they experience in their daily lives where reverberation and noise often coexist. PMID:22356300

  17. Transient Noise Reduction in Cochlear Implant Users: a Multi-Band Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dyballa, Karl-Heinz; Hehrmann, Phillipp; Hamacher, Volkmar; Lenarz, Thomas; Buechner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A previously-tested transient noise reduction (TNR) algorithm for cochlear implant (CI) users was modified to detect and attenuate transients independently across multiple frequency-bands. Since speech and transient noise are often spectrally distinct, we hypothesized that benefits in speech intelligibility can be achieved over the earlier single-band design. Fifteen experienced CI users (49 to 72 years) were tested unilaterally using pre-processed stimuli delivered directly to a speech processor. Speech intelligibility in transient and soft stationary noise, subjective sound quality and the recognition of warning signals was investigated in three processing conditions: no TNR (TNRoff), single-band TNR (TNRsgl) and multi-band TNR (TNRmult). Notably, TNRmult improved speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in cafeteria noise and office noise by up to 3 dB over both TNRoff and TNRsgl, and yielded higher comfort and clarity ratings in cafeteria noise. Our results indicate that multi-band transient noise reduction may be advantageous compared to a single-band approach, and reveal a substantial overall potential for TNR to improve speech perception and listening comfort in CI users. PMID:27942372

  18. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026

  19. Intelligent Agent Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    and Manipulation Language (KQML) specification under the DARPA-sponsored Knowledge Sharing Initiative and the developing of a scaleable and an... Shared Communication Ontology ’$" 10.3 IMPLEMENTATION 151 10.3.1 Intelligent Resource Agent Architecture ^ 10.3.2 Application to K-12 Education 153...DARPA-sponsored Knowledge Sharing Initiative, the developing a scaleable and an efficient implementation of information system components for

  20. The Nature of Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    to he a plausible, although Partial, onc.. In the Cattell -Horn terminology. crystallized ability includes the know]Oedte and skills measured by tests ...34Motivational Aspects of Changes in IQ Test Performance of Culturally Deprived Nursery School Children," Child De- velopment 39 (1968): 1-14. 16. Robert J...l.AFICATtOt4 or TIAIS PAGE (When f’iat& EmotIed) .:ponents and microcomponents of intelligence are, and examines the extent to which IQ tests measure these