Science.gov

Sample records for intelligent building envelopes

  1. Intelligent buildings.

    PubMed

    Williams, W E

    1987-01-01

    The maturing of technologies in computer capabilities, particularly direct digital signals, has provided an exciting variety of new communication and facility control opportunities. These include telecommunications, energy management systems, security systems, office automation systems, local area networks, and video conferencing. New applications are developing continuously. The so-called "intelligent" or "smart" building concept evolves from the development of this advanced technology in building environments. Automation has had a dramatic effect on facility planning. For decades, communications were limited to the telephone, the typewritten message, and copy machines. The office itself and its functions had been essentially unchanged for decades. Office automation systems began to surface during the energy crisis and, although their newer technology was timely, they were, for the most part, designed separately from other new building systems. For example, most mainframe computer systems were originally stand-alone, as were word processing installations. In the last five years, the advances in distributive systems, networking, and personal computer capabilities have provided opportunities to make such dramatic improvements in productivity that the Selectric typewriter has gone from being the most advanced piece of office equipment to nearly total obsolescence.

  2. Masonry building envelope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullan, Phillip C.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past five years, infrared thermography has proven an effective tool to assist in required inspections on new masonry construction. However, with more thermographers providing this inspection service, establishing a standard for conducting these inspections is imperative. To attempt to standardize these inspections, it is important to understand the nature of the inspection as well as the context in which the inspection is typically conducted. The inspection focuses on evaluating masonry construction for compliance with the design specifications with regard to structural components and thermal performance of the building envelope. The thermal performance of the building includes both the thermal resistance of the material as well as infiltration/exfiltration characteristics. Given that the inspections occur in the 'field' rather than the controlled environment of a laboratory, there are numerous variables to be considered when undertaking this type of inspection. Both weather and site conditions at the time of the inspection can vary greatly. In this paper we will look at the variables encountered during recent inspections. Additionally, the author will present the standard which was employed in collecting this field data. This method is being incorporated into a new standard to be included in the revised version of 'Guidelines for Specifying and Performing Infrared Inspections' developed by the Infraspection Institute.

  3. Heat recovery in building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-08-01

    Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to contribute to the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Some studies have indicated that application of such a simple formula may produce an unreasonably high contribution because of heat recovery within the building envelope. The major objective of this study was to provide an improved prediction of the energy load due to infiltration by introducing a correction factor that multiplies the expression for the conventional load. This paper discusses simplified analytical modeling and CFD simulations that examine infiltration heat recovery (IHR) in an attempt to quantify the magnitude of this effect for typical building envelopes. For comparison, we will also briefly examine the results of some full-scale field measurements of IHR based on infiltration rates and energy use in real buildings. The results of this work showed that for houses with insulated walls the heat recovery is negligible due to the small fraction of the envelope that participates in heat exchange with the infiltrating air. However; there is the potential for IHR to have a significant effect for higher participation dynamic walls/ceilings or uninsulated walls. This result implies that the existing methods for evaluating infiltration related building loads provide adequate results for typical buildings.

  4. Isolating The Building Thermal Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrje, D. T.; Dutt, G. S.; Gadsby, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of the thermal integrity of building envelopes by infrared scanning tech-niques is often hampered in mild weather because temperature differentials across the envelope are small. Combining the infrared scanning with positive or negative building pressures, induced by a "blower door" or the building ventilation system, considerably extends the periods during which meaningful diagnostics can be conducted. Although missing or poorly installed insulation may lead to a substantial energy penalty, it is the search for air leakage sites that often has the largest potential for energy savings. Infrared inspection of the attic floor with air forced from the occupied space through ceiling by-passes, and inspecting the interior of the building when outside air is being sucked through the envelope reveals unexpected leakage sites. Portability of the diagnostic equipment is essential in these surveys which may include access into some tight spaces. A catalog of bypass heat losses that have been detected in residential housing using the combined infrared pressure differential technique is included to point out the wide variety of leakage sites which may compromise the benefits of thermal insulation and allow excessive air infiltration. Detection and suppression of such leaks should be key items in any building energy audit program. Where a calibrated blower door is used to pressurize or evacuate the house, the leakage rate can be quantified and an excessively tight house recognized. Houses that are too tight may be improved with a minimal energy penalty by forced ventilation,preferably with a heat recuperator and/or by providing combustion air directly to the furnace.

  5. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  6. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  7. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  8. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  9. Integrated envelope and lighting technologies for commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.; Schuman, J.

    1992-07-01

    Fenestration systems are major contributors to peak cooling loads in commercial buildings and thus to HVAC system costs, peak electric demand, and annual energy use. These loads can be reduced significantly through proper fenestration design and the use of daylighting strategies. However, there are very few documented applications of energy-saving daylighted buildings today, which suggests that significant obstacles to efficient fenestration and lighting design and utilization still exist. This paper reports results of the first phase of a utility-sponsored research, development, and demonstration project to more effectively address the interrelated issues of designing and implementing energy-efficient envelope and lighting systems. We hypothesize that daylighting and overall energy efficiency will not be achieved at a large scale until true building integration has been accomplished to some meaningful degree. Moving beyond the vague concept of ``intelligent` buildings long popular in the design sector, we attempt to integrate component technologies into functional systems in order to optimize the relevant building energy performance and occupant comfort parameters. We describe the first set of integrated envelope and lighting concepts we are developing using available component technologies. Emerging and future technologies will be incorporated in later phases. Because new hardware systems alone will not ensure optimal building performance, we also discuss obstacles to innovation within the design community and proposed strategies to overcome these obstacles.

  10. Integrated envelope and lighting technologies for commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.; Schuman, J.

    1992-07-01

    Fenestration systems are major contributors to peak cooling loads in commercial buildings and thus to HVAC system costs, peak electric demand, and annual energy use. These loads can be reduced significantly through proper fenestration design and the use of daylighting strategies. However, there are very few documented applications of energy-saving daylighted buildings today, which suggests that significant obstacles to efficient fenestration and lighting design and utilization still exist. This paper reports results of the first phase of a utility-sponsored research, development, and demonstration project to more effectively address the interrelated issues of designing and implementing energy-efficient envelope and lighting systems. We hypothesize that daylighting and overall energy efficiency will not be achieved at a large scale until true building integration has been accomplished to some meaningful degree. Moving beyond the vague concept of intelligent' buildings long popular in the design sector, we attempt to integrate component technologies into functional systems in order to optimize the relevant building energy performance and occupant comfort parameters. We describe the first set of integrated envelope and lighting concepts we are developing using available component technologies. Emerging and future technologies will be incorporated in later phases. Because new hardware systems alone will not ensure optimal building performance, we also discuss obstacles to innovation within the design community and proposed strategies to overcome these obstacles.

  11. Modeling pollutant penetration across building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, De-Ling; Nazaroff, William W.

    2001-04-01

    As air infiltrates through unintentional openings in building envelopes, pollutants may interact with adjacent surfaces. Such interactions can alter human exposure to air pollutants of outdoor origin. We present modeling explorations of the proportion of particles and reactive gases (e.g., ozone) that penetrate building envelopes as air enters through cracks and wall cavities. Calculations were performed for idealized rectangular cracks, assuming regular geometry, smooth inner crack surface and steady airflow. Particles of 0.1-1.0 {micro}m diameter are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or larger, assuming a pressure difference of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles are significantly removed by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. In addition to crack geometry, ozone penetration depends on its reactivity with crack surfaces, as parameterized by the reaction probability. For reaction probabilities less than {approx}10{sup -5}, penetration is complete for cracks heights greater than 1 mm. However, penetration through mm scale cracks is small if the reaction probability is {approx}10{sup -4} or greater. For wall cavities, fiberglass insulation is an efficient particle filter, but particles would penetrate efficiently through uninsulated wall cavities or through insulated cavities with significant airflow bypass. The ozone reaction probability on fiberglass fibers was measured to be 10{sup -7} for fibers previously exposed to high ozone levels and 6 x 10{sup -6} for unexposed fibers. Over this range, ozone penetration through fiberglass insulation would vary from >90% to {approx}10-40%. Thus, under many conditions penetration is high; however, there are realistic circumstances in which building envelopes can provide substantial pollutant removal. Not enough is yet known about the detailed nature of pollutant penetration

  12. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Building exterior envelope. 434.516 Section 434.516 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.516 Building exterior envelope. 516.1...

  13. Intelligent building system for airport

    SciTech Connect

    Ancevic, M.

    1997-11-01

    The Munich airport uses a state-of-the-art intelligent building management system to control systems such as HVAC, runway lights, baggage handling, etc. Planning the new Munich II international airport provided a unique opportunity to use the latest state-of-the-art technical systems, while integrating their control through a single intelligent building management system. Opened in 1992, the airport is Germany`s second-largest airport after Frankfurt. The airport is staffed by 16,000 employees and can handle 17 million passengers a year. The sprawling site encompasses more than 120 buildings. The airport`s distributed control system is specifically designed to optimize the complex`s unique range of functions, while providing a high degree of comfort, convenience and safety for airport visitors. With the capacity to control 200,000 points, this system controls more than 112,000 points and integrates 13 major subsystems from nine different vendors. It provides convenient, accessible control of everything including the complex`s power plant, HVAC Control, the terminal`s people-moving functions, interior lighting controls, runway lights, baggage forwarding systems, elevators, and boarding bridges. The airport was named 1993 intelligent building of the year by the Intelligent Buildings Institute Foundation. Its building management system is a striking example of the degree to which a building complex`s functions can be integrated for greater operational control and efficiency.

  14. A Systematic Approach to Evaluating the Building Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Jon F.; Stewart, Edward J.; Morand, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process for evaluating a building's envelope (roof, walls, windows, waterproofing, and structure). Steps are grouped into the following categories: building history, field inspection, access methods, identifying defects, testing methods, and engineering analysis. (EV)

  15. Advances in Understanding Durability of the Building Envelope: ORNL Research

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-01-01

    Moisture, and its accompanying outriders things like mold, corrosion, freeze damage, and decay present powerful threats to the durability and long-term performance of a building envelope. Miscalculating the impact of environmental factors like rain, solar radiation, temperature, humidity, and indoor sources of moisture can cause significant damage to many types of building envelope components and materials, and also can lead to unhealthy indoor living environments.

  16. New tools for the analysis and design of building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Buhl, W.F.; Chauvet, H.

    1994-08-01

    We describe the integrated development of PowerDOE, a new version of the DOE-2 building energy analysis program, and the Building Design Advisor (BDA), a multimedia-based design tool that assists building designers with the concurrent consideration of multiple design solutions with respect to multiple design criteria. PowerDOE has a windows-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that makes it easier to use than DOE-2, while retaining DOE-2`s calculation power and accuracy. BDA, with a similar GUI, is designed to link to multiple analytical models and databases. In its first release it is linked to PowerDOE and a Daylighting Analysis Module, as well as to a Case Studies Database and a Schematic Graphic Editor. These allow building designers to set performance goals and address key building envelope parameters from the initial, schematic phases of building design to the detailed specification of building components and systems required by PowerDOE. The consideration of the thermal performance of building envelopes through PowerDOE and BDA is integrated with non-thermal envelope performance aspects, such as daylighting, as well as with the performance of non-envelope building components and systems, such as electric lighting and HVAC. Future versions of BDA will support links to CAD and electronic product catalogs, as well as provide context-dependent design advice to improve performance.

  17. Enhancement of speech intelligibility in reverberant rooms: role of amplitude envelope and temporal fine structure.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Nirmal Kumar; Zahorik, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    The temporal envelope and fine structure of speech make distinct contributions to the perception of speech in normal-hearing listeners, and are differentially affected by room reverberation. Previous work has demonstrated enhanced speech intelligibility in reverberant rooms when prior exposure to the room was provided. Here, the relative contributions of envelope and fine structure cues to this intelligibility enhancement were tested using an open-set speech corpus and virtual auditory space techniques to independently manipulate the speech cues within a simulated room. Intelligibility enhancement was observed only when the envelope was reverberant, indicating that the enhancement is envelope-based.

  18. BUILDING ENVELOPE OPTIMIZATION USING EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy analysis is an integral component of sustainable building practices. Energy analysis coupled with optimization techniques may offer solutions for greater energy efficiency over the lifetime of the building. However, all such computationsemploy the energy used for operation...

  19. BUILDING ENVELOPE OPTIMIZATION USING EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy analysis is an integral component of sustainable building practices. Energy analysis coupled with optimization techniques may offer solutions for greater energy efficiency over the lifetime of the building. However, all such computationsemploy the energy used for operation...

  20. A Phase-Change Composite for Use in Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Ron S.

    1992-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop composite thermal insulations containing phase-change materials for use in the building envelope. The use of a phase-change insulation composite in the building envelope could result in a significant increase in energy efficiency. PhD Research provided candidate phase-change composites, and ORNL performed analytical and experimental evaluations of their thermal performance. The thermal resistance of the prototype panels was somewhat less than that of commercial products, although their thermal capacity was greater. Using these results, PhD Research has been working to modify the design and to produce practical building elements that incorporate phase-change material.

  1. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, R.L.; Berry, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Solar energy utilization in urban areas requires public guarantees that all property owners have direct access to the sun. The study examines the implications of this premise in relation to the need for cities to also encourage or accommodate rebuilding and future development. The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided. The results of development simulation studies on all test sites are tabulated to show building bulk, density, land-coverage and open space characteristics obtainable under the hypothesized envelopes.

  2. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meukam, Pierre; Noumowe, Albert

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of heat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that the durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial areas.

  3. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Huedo, Patricia; Mulet, Elena; López-Mesa, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  4. Influence of Building Envelope Thermal Mass on Heating Design Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaujena, B.; Borodinecs, A.; Zemitis, J.; Prozuments, A.

    2015-11-01

    The stability of indoor air parameters is a very important factor, essential for such institutions as museums, schools and hospitals. Nowadays the use of renewable energy for space heating became one of the top priorities in modern building design. The active and passive solar energy as well as heat pumps are widely used nowadays. However, such technologies have a limitation in cold climates and often are not able to cover maximal heating loads. This paper is devoted to analysis of influence of building envelope's properties and outdoor air parameters on indoor air thermodynamic parameters stability in winter time. It presents analysis of thermal mass impact on building energy performance and indoor air parameter stability in cold climate. The results show that the thermal mass of building envelope is able to cover extreme winter temperatures as well as in case of emergency heat supply break.

  5. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... default assumptions for computing the Design Energy Consumption. The solar absorptivity of opaque elements... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Building exterior envelope. 434.516 Section 434.516 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE...

  6. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... default assumptions for computing the Design Energy Consumption. The solar absorptivity of opaque elements... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Building exterior envelope. 434.516 Section 434.516 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE...

  7. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... default assumptions for computing the Design Energy Consumption. The solar absorptivity of opaque elements... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Building exterior envelope. 434.516 Section 434.516 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE...

  8. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... default assumptions for computing the Design Energy Consumption. The solar absorptivity of opaque elements... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Building exterior envelope. 434.516 Section 434.516 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE...

  9. Hygrothermal Simulation: A Tool for Building Envelope Design Analysis

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to gauge the risk of moisture problems while designing the building envelope? This article provides a brief introduction to computer-based hygrothermal (heat and moisture) simulation, shows how simulation can be useful as a design tool, and points out a number of im-portant considerations regarding model inputs and limita-tions. Hygrothermal simulation...

  10. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of

  11. Spray polyurethane foam in external envelopes of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Bomberg, M.T.; Lstiburek, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    ``Spray Polyurethane Foam in External Envelopes of Buildings'' presents, for the first time, a book focused on both the theoretical and practical design and applications of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) use. To review the moisture performance of SPF, this book focuses on the design of an assembly where moisture is kept from accumulating and causing deterioration (flow through approach). In this approach, ``Spray Polyurethane Foam'' presents two unique parts of theory and practice of various SPF products. Contents include: Part One: Performance Evaluation of System Components: Definition of Spray Polyurethane Foams; Factors Affecting performance of the Foam; Testing Physical Characteristics of Foam; Evaluation of Protective Coverings and Barriers; Quality Management in Construction Process; Technical Support for the SPF Contractor; Implementation of the Performance-Based Quality Management and Part Two: The Systems Approach to Buildings: Principles of Environmental Control in Building Envelopes; Design and Performance of Roofing Systems with SPF; Design and Performance of Walls with SPF; Case Studies--SPF Used for Remedial Measures.

  12. Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-10-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  13. Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) monthly progress report for DOE Office Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-11-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  14. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-12-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  15. The Application of Intelligent Building Technologies to Space Hotels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper reports that over the last few years Intelligent Building technologies have matured and standardised. It compares the functions of command and control systems in future large space facilities such as space hotels to those commonly found in Intelligent Buildings and looks at how Intelligent Building technologies may be applied to space hotels. Many of the functions required in space hotels are the same as those needed in terrestrial buildings. The adaptation of standardised, low cost, Intelligent Building technologies would reduce capital costs and ease development of future space hotels. Other aspects of Intelligent Buildings may also provide useful models for the development and operation of space hotels.

  16. The longwave radiative heat transfer of the building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, H.

    The longwave radiative heat transfer between outside surface of the building envelopes and the thermal environment, is treated in this paper as interesting from the point of view of the studies of the influence of the atmospheric counterradiation on the heat balance of low-sloped roofs and walls. This influence may be taken into account by means of introducing a correction that would lower outside air temperature values. This paper presents the way of calculating this correction (temperature depression) as well as the factors influencing its values. The paper submits also quantitative analysis of the influence of the longwave atmospheric radiation upon the net radiative heat loss of the low-sloped roofs and walls as a function: the thermal resistance of the building partitions, the emissivity of their outside surfaces, wind speed, the sky, the outdoor and the indoor air temperature values.

  17. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Abhari, Ramin

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  18. Technologies used for research in intelligent buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolková, Zuzana; Matušov, Jozef; Mokrý, Marián

    2016-06-01

    The efficient use of primary energy and their impact on the environment is influenced in several ways. The key is implementation of modern low-energy structures and technologies in building construction, the use of high energy sources such fossil fuels and renewable energy, the optimal management, appropriate choice of sources of heat and cold. Optimal control of energy consumption in buildings and premises may be an appropriate choice of sources of heat and cold. Energy sources should be in addition to high efficiency and meet the requirement of minimizing the emission load environment. All this can be achieved by implementing the construction of intelligent buildings. University of Žilina in the project Research Centre of the University of Žilina decided to build such building. Use of this building will be addressing many research activities at the university with links to industry.

  19. Thermal analysis of the building envelope of lightweight temporary housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantozzi, Fabio; Galbiati, Pietro; Leccese, Francesco; Salvadori, Giacomo; Rocca, Michele

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, to meet the need of build efficient homes in a short time and with maximum constructive simplification, lightweight prefabricated building systems have proved to be particularly suitable, especially in geographical areas which must deal with emergency situations (i.e., temporary housing). In this paper the winter and summer thermal performance of a building prototype, realised with modular steel framed elements, have been studied, in both winter and summer conditions. Special attention has been paid to the optimisation of the dynamic thermal performance of the multi-layered envelope structures. The dynamic thermal behaviour of the outer wall, analysed and discussed in details in the paper, shows that it is possible to improve the performance of lightweight walls by using an optimised stratigraphy characterised by an opportune sequence of resistive and capacitive layers. The influence of inner structures (partitions, floor and roof) on the building thermal behaviour has also analyzed trough the introduction of room performance indices appropriately defined. The results of the study have been discussed with special reference to the requirements fixed by the Energy Performance Buildings European Directive (EPBDs) and the resulting implementation in Italian Legislation.

  20. Predicting speech intelligibility based on a correlation metric in the envelope power spectrum domain.

    PubMed

    Relaño-Iborra, Helia; May, Tobias; Zaar, Johannes; Scheidiger, Christoph; Dau, Torsten

    2016-10-01

    A speech intelligibility prediction model is proposed that combines the auditory processing front end of the multi-resolution speech-based envelope power spectrum model [mr-sEPSM; Jørgensen, Ewert, and Dau (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 436-446] with a correlation back end inspired by the short-time objective intelligibility measure [STOI; Taal, Hendriks, Heusdens, and Jensen (2011). IEEE Trans. Audio Speech Lang.

  1. Evaluating the role of spectral and envelope characteristics in the intelligibility advantage of clear speech

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Jean C.; Braida, Louis D.

    2009-01-01

    In adverse listening conditions, talkers can increase their intelligibility by speaking clearly [Picheny, M.A., et al. (1985). J. Speech Hear. Res. 28, 96–103; Payton, K. L., et al. (1994). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1581–1592]. This modified speaking style, known as clear speech, is typically spoken more slowly than conversational speech [Picheny, M. A., et al. (1986). J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 434–446; Uchanski, R. M., et al. (1996). J. Speech Hear. Res. 39, 494–509]. However, talkers can produce clear speech at normal rates (clear∕normal speech) with training [Krause, J. C., and Braida, L. D. (2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2165–2172] suggesting that clear speech has some inherent acoustic properties, independent of rate, that contribute to its improved intelligibility. Identifying these acoustic properties could lead to improved signal processing schemes for hearing aids. Two global-level properties of clear∕normal speech that appear likely to be associated with improved intelligibility are increased energy in the 1000–3000-Hz range of long-term spectra and increased modulation depth of low-frequency modulations of the intensity envelope [Krause, J. C., and Braida, L. D. (2004). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 362–378]. In an attempt to isolate the contributions of these two properties to intelligibility, signal processing transformations were developed to manipulate each of these aspects of conversational speech independently. Results of intelligibility testing with hearing-impaired listeners and normal-hearing listeners in noise suggest that (1) increasing energy between 1000 and 3000 Hz does not fully account for the intelligibility benefit of clear∕normal speech, and (2) simple filtering of the intensity envelope is generally detrimental to intelligibility. While other manipulations of the intensity envelope are required to determine conclusively the role of this factor in intelligibility, it is also likely that additional properties important for

  2. Comparing the information conveyed by envelope modulation for speech intelligibility, speech quality, and music quality

    PubMed Central

    Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses mutual information to quantify the relationship between envelope modulation fidelity and perceptual responses. Data from several previous experiments that measured speech intelligibility, speech quality, and music quality are evaluated for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. A model of the auditory periphery is used to generate envelope signals, and envelope modulation fidelity is calculated using the normalized cross-covariance of the degraded signal envelope with that of a reference signal. Two procedures are used to describe the envelope modulation: (1) modulation within each auditory frequency band and (2) spectro-temporal processing that analyzes the modulation of spectral ripple components fit to successive short-time spectra. The results indicate that low modulation rates provide the highest information for intelligibility, while high modulation rates provide the highest information for speech and music quality. The low-to-mid auditory frequencies are most important for intelligibility, while mid frequencies are most important for speech quality and high frequencies are most important for music quality. Differences between the spectral ripple components used for the spectro-temporal analysis were not significant in five of the six experimental conditions evaluated. The results indicate that different modulation-rate and auditory-frequency weights may be appropriate for indices designed to predict different types of perceptual relationships. PMID:26520329

  3. Comparing the information conveyed by envelope modulation for speech intelligibility, speech quality, and music quality.

    PubMed

    Kates, James M; Arehart, Kathryn H

    2015-10-01

    This paper uses mutual information to quantify the relationship between envelope modulation fidelity and perceptual responses. Data from several previous experiments that measured speech intelligibility, speech quality, and music quality are evaluated for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. A model of the auditory periphery is used to generate envelope signals, and envelope modulation fidelity is calculated using the normalized cross-covariance of the degraded signal envelope with that of a reference signal. Two procedures are used to describe the envelope modulation: (1) modulation within each auditory frequency band and (2) spectro-temporal processing that analyzes the modulation of spectral ripple components fit to successive short-time spectra. The results indicate that low modulation rates provide the highest information for intelligibility, while high modulation rates provide the highest information for speech and music quality. The low-to-mid auditory frequencies are most important for intelligibility, while mid frequencies are most important for speech quality and high frequencies are most important for music quality. Differences between the spectral ripple components used for the spectro-temporal analysis were not significant in five of the six experimental conditions evaluated. The results indicate that different modulation-rate and auditory-frequency weights may be appropriate for indices designed to predict different types of perceptual relationships.

  4. Building the emotional intelligence of groups.

    PubMed

    Druskat, V U; Wolff, S B

    2001-03-01

    The management world knows by now that to be effective in the workplace, an individual needs high emotional intelligence. What isn't so well understood is that teams need it, too. Citing such companies as IDEO, Hewlett-Packard, and the Hay Group, the authors show that high emotional intelligence is at the heart of effective teams. These teams behave in ways that build relationships both inside and outside the team and that strengthen their ability to face challenges. High group emotional intelligence may seem like a simple matter of putting a group of emotionally intelligent individuals together. It's not. For a team to have high EI, it needs to create norms that establish mutual trust among members, a sense of group identity, and a sense of group efficacy. These three conditions are essential to a team's effectiveness because they are the foundation of true cooperation and collaboration. Group EI isn't a question of dealing with a necessary evil--catching emotions as they bubble up and promptly suppressing them. It's about bringing emotions deliberately to the surface and understanding how they affect the team's work. Group emotional intelligence is about exploring, embracing, and ultimately relying on the emotions that are at the core of teams.

  5. Model for Naturally Ventilated Cavities on the Exteriors of Opaque Building Thermal Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes a model for naturally ventilated cavities on the exterior of opaque building thermal envelopes that are formed by the presence of a lightweight baffle. The model can be used for building components that are slightly detached from the main envelope (but do not connect to the interior).

  6. Comparison of computational methods for estimation of energy balance of building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočí, Václav; Černý, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Two calculation methods of annual energy balance of building envelopes are presented in this paper. As reference building envelope, single-layer autoclaved aerated concrete masonry is chosen. The first calculation method is based on simplified standard procedure, the second method on results of more sophisticated hygrothermal simulation under realistic climatic conditions. Both results are compared and analyzed.

  7. A multi-resolution envelope-power based model for speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Søren; Ewert, Stephan D; Dau, Torsten

    2013-07-01

    The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) presented by Jørgensen and Dau [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 1475-1487] estimates the envelope power signal-to-noise ratio (SNRenv) after modulation-frequency selective processing. Changes in this metric were shown to account well for changes of speech intelligibility for normal-hearing listeners in conditions with additive stationary noise, reverberation, and nonlinear processing with spectral subtraction. In the latter condition, the standardized speech transmission index [(2003). IEC 60268-16] fails. However, the sEPSM is limited to conditions with stationary interferers, due to the long-term integration of the envelope power, and cannot account for increased intelligibility typically obtained with fluctuating maskers. Here, a multi-resolution version of the sEPSM is presented where the SNRenv is estimated in temporal segments with a modulation-filter dependent duration. The multi-resolution sEPSM is demonstrated to account for intelligibility obtained in conditions with stationary and fluctuating interferers, and noisy speech distorted by reverberation or spectral subtraction. The results support the hypothesis that the SNRenv is a powerful objective metric for speech intelligibility prediction.

  8. Hotbox Test R-value Database and the Building Envelopes Program (BEP)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Building Envelopes Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a program within the Buildings Technology Center (BTC), the premier U.S. research facility devoted to developing technologies that improve the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of residential and commercial buildings. Our program is divided into two parts: building envelope research, which focuses on the structural elements that enclose a building (walls, roofs and foundations), and materials research, which concentrates on the materials within the envelope systems (such as insulation). The building envelope provides the thermal barrier between the indoor and outdoor environment, and its elements are the key determinants of a building's energy requirements that result from the climate where it is located. [copied from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/

  9. The relative importance of temporal envelope information for intelligibility prediction: a study on cochlear-implant vocoded speech.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei

    2011-10-01

    Vocoder simulation has been long applied as an effective tool to assess factors influencing the intelligibility of cochlear implants listeners. Considering that the temporal envelope information contained in contiguous bands of vocoded speech is correlated and redundant, this study examined the hypothesis that the intelligibility measure evaluating the distortions from a small number of selected envelope cues is sufficient to well predict the intelligibility scores. The speech intelligibility data from 80 conditions was collected from vocoder simulation experiments involving 22 normal-hearing listeners. The relative importance of temporal envelope information in cochlear-implant vocoded speech was modeled by correlating its speech-transmission indices (STIs) with the intelligibility scores. The relative importance pattern was subsequently utilized to determine a binary weight vector for STIs of all envelopes to compute the index predicting the speech intelligibility. A high correlation (r=0.95) was obtained when selecting a small number (e.g., 4 out of 20) of temporal envelope cues from disjoint bands to predict the intelligibility of cochlear-implant vocoded speech.

  10. Intelligent buildings. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning concepts, design, and development of intelligent buildings. Citations discuss building management systems, including centralized control systems for air conditioning, space heating, fire prevention, building security, power supply systems, and telecommunication. Knowledge-based systems and expert systems for use in intelligent building design are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... envelope. The position of the vapor retarder shall be determined taking into account local climate and... account local climate and indoor humidity level. The vapor retarder shall have a performance rating of 1...

  12. The design and evaluation of integrated envelope and lighting control strategies for commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1994-06-01

    This study investigates control strategies for coordinating the variable solar-optical properties of a dynamic building envelope system with a daylight controlled electric lighting system to reduce electricity consumption and increase comfort in the perimeter zone of commercial buildings. Control strategy design can be based on either simple, instantaneous measured data, or on complex, predictive algorithms that estimate the energy consumption for a selected operating state of the dynamic envelope and lighting system. The potential benefits of optimizing the operation of a dynamic envelope and lighting system are (1) significant reductions in electrical energy end-uses - lighting, and cooling due to solar and lighting heat gains - over that achieved by conventional static envelope and lighting systems, (2) significant reductions in peak demand, and (3) increased occupant visual and thermal comfort. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model two dynamic envelope and lighting systems, an automated venetian blind and an electrochromic glazing system, and their control strategies under a range of building conditions. The energy performance of simple control strategies are compared to the optimum performance of a theoretical envelope and lighting system to determine the maximum potential benefit of using more complex, predictive control algorithms. Results indicate that (1) predictive control algorithms may significantly increase the energy-efficiency of systems with non-optimal solar-optical properties such as the automated venetian blind, and (2) simpler, non-predictive control strategies may suffice for more advanced envelope systems 1 incorporating spectrally selective, narrow-band electrochromic coatings.

  13. Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druskat, Vanessa Urch; Wolff, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Research has found that individual emotional intelligence has a group analog and it is critical to groups' effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and boost their overall performance. (JOW)

  14. Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druskat, Vanessa Urch; Wolff, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Research has found that individual emotional intelligence has a group analog and it is critical to groups' effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and boost their overall performance. (JOW)

  15. Acoustic predictors of intelligibility for segmentally interrupted speech: temporal envelope, voicing, and duration.

    PubMed

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information-namely, consonants and vowels. Young listeners with normal hearing previously completed word and sentence recognition tasks that required them to repeat word and sentence material that was temporally interrupted. Interruptions were designed to replace various portions of consonants or vowels with low-level noise. Acoustic analysis of preserved consonant and vowel segments was conducted to investigate the role of the preserved temporal envelope, voicing, and speech duration in predicting performance. Results demonstrate that the temporal envelope, predominantly from vowels, is most important for sentence recognition and largely predicts results across consonant and vowel conditions. In contrast, for isolated words the proportion of speech preserved was the best predictor of performance regardless of whether glimpses were from consonants or vowels. These findings suggest consideration of the vowel temporal envelope in speech transmission and amplification technologies for improving the intelligibility of temporally interrupted sentences.

  16. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-07-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Programs is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months..

  17. Measuring Thermal Performance of Building Envelopes: Nine Case Studies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    inch P/B = 11.36, present worth factor for an es- of expanded polystyrene insulation) to the build- calating series for a 15-year period ing exterior...inch of The one MCA building roof we measured was a expanded polystyrene at R-3.6 per inch. Where the cathedral system with a sloped built-up roofing

  18. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  19. Predicting speech intelligibility based on the signal-to-noise envelope power ratio after modulation-frequency selective processing.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-09-01

    A model for predicting the intelligibility of processed noisy speech is proposed. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model has a similar structure as the model of Ewert and Dau [(2000). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1181-1196], developed to account for modulation detection and masking data. The model estimates the speech-to-noise envelope power ratio, SNR(env), at the output of a modulation filterbank and relates this metric to speech intelligibility using the concept of an ideal observer. Predictions were compared to data on the intelligibility of speech presented in stationary speech-shaped noise. The model was further tested in conditions with noisy speech subjected to reverberation and spectral subtraction. Good agreement between predictions and data was found in all cases. For spectral subtraction, an analysis of the model's internal representation of the stimuli revealed that the predicted decrease of intelligibility was caused by the estimated noise envelope power exceeding that of the speech. The classical concept of the speech transmission index fails in this condition. The results strongly suggest that the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of a modulation frequency selective process provides a key measure of speech intelligibility.

  20. Cost Analysis of Simple Phase Change Material-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Southern U.S. Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Shukla, Nitin; Fallahi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Traditional thermal designs of building envelope assemblies are based on static energy flows, yet building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles and their dynamic operation can decrease thermal efficiency. Design work supporting the development of low-energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not always be the most cost effective solution to improvement envelope thermal performance. PCM-enhanced building envelopes that simultaneously reduce the total cooling loads and shift the peak-hour loads are the focus of this report.

  1. Cost Analysis of Simple Phase Change Material-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Southern U.S. Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Shukla, N.; Fallahi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional thermal designs of building envelope assemblies are based on static energy flows, yet building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles and their dynamic operation can decrease thermal efficiency. Design work supporting the development of low-energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not always be the most cost effective solution to improvement envelope thermal performance. PCM-enhanced building envelopes that simultaneously reduce the total cooling loads and shift the peak-hour loads are the focus of this report.

  2. A comprehensive approach to integrated envelope and lighting systems for new commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Klems, J.H.; Beltran, L.O.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    The authors define a comprehensive approach to integrated envelope and lighting systems design as one that balances energy efficiency with an equal regard to the resultant environmental quality. By integrating envelope components (glazing, shading, and daylighting), lighting components (fixtures and controls) and building HVAC/energy management control systems, they create building systems that have the potential to achieve significant decreases in electricity consumption and peak demand while satisfying occupant physiological and psychological concerns. This paper presents results on the development, implementation, and demonstration of two specific integrated envelope and lighting systems: (1) a system emphasizing dynamic envelope components and responsive electric lighting systems, that offer the potential to achieve energy efficiency goals and a near optimum comfort environment throughout the year by adapting to meteorological conditions and occupant preferences in real time, and (2) perimeter daylighting systems that increase the depth of daylight penetration from sidelight windows and improves visual comfort with the use of a small inlet aperture. The energy performance of the systems was estimated using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Field tests with reduced scale models were conducted to determine daylighting and thermal performance in real time under actual weather conditions. Demonstrations of these integrated systems are being planned or are in progress in collaboration with utility programs to resolve real-world implementation issues under complex site, building, and cost constraints. Results indicate that integrated systems offer solutions that not only achieve significant peak demand reductions but also realize consistent energy savings with added occupant comfort and satisfaction.

  3. Integrated envelope and lighting systems for commercial buildings: a retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1998-06-01

    Daylighting systems in use world-wide rarely capture the energy-savings predicted by simulation tools and that we believe are achievable in real buildings. One of the primary reasons for this is that window and lighting systems are not designed and operated as an integrated system. Our efforts over the last five years have been targeted toward (1) development and testing of new prototype systems that involve a higher degree of systems integration than has been typical in the past, and (2) addressing current design and technological barriers that are often missed with component-oriented research. We summarize the results from this body of cross-disciplinary research and discuss its effects on the existing and future practice of daylighting in commercial buildings.

  4. DYNAMIC THERMALLY-DISCONNECTED BUILDING ENVELOPES A NEW PARADIGM FOR WALLS AND ROOFS IN LOW ENERGY BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Kosny, Jan; Zaltash, Abdolreza

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes numerical and experimental analysis of a novel design concept. Traditionally the thermal design of building envelope assemblies is based on a static energy flow. However, building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles used in the design of roofs and walls and their dynamic operation results in relatively low thermal efficiency. Design work in support of the development of zero energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not be the most cost effective energy solution. Testing conducted on several strategies to thermally-disconnect wall and roof components showed 70% to 90% reductions in peak hour loads as compared to conventional building practice.

  5. Eight Principles for Building an Intelligent Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Clearwater Beach, FL) and 1989 (pensacola Beach, FL). Drescher, G. "Made-up Minds: a Constructivist Approach to Artificial Intelligence," unpublished...ponents of high-level vision: a cognitive neuroscience analysis and accounts of neurological syndromes," Cognition 34, 203-277, 1990. Maes, P. "How to

  6. Study of intelligent building system based on the internet of things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Liyong; Xu, Renbo

    2017-03-01

    In accordance with the problem such as isolated subsystems, weak system linkage and expansibility of the bus type buildings management system, this paper based on the modern intelligent buildings has studied some related technologies of the intelligent buildings and internet of things, and designed system architecture of the intelligent buildings based on the Internet of Things. Meanwhile, this paper has also analyzed wireless networking modes, wireless communication protocol and wireless routing protocol of the intelligent buildings based on the Internet of Things.

  7. Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: A Roadmap for Emerging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and performance targets are identified for each key R&D area. The roadmap describes the technical and market challenges to be overcome, R&D activities and milestones, key stakeholders, and potential energy savings that could result if cost and performance targets are met. Methods for improving technology performance and specific strategies for reducing installed costs and mitigating any other market barriers, which would increase the likelihood of mass-market technology adoption, are identified. This roadmap is a useful resource for public and private decision makers evaluating and pursuing high-impact R&D focused on advancing next-generation energy efficient windows and building envelope technologies.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer in Cork Lightweight Concretes Used in Building Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotehi, Nassima; Chaker, Abla

    A numerical study was carried out in order to investigate the behaviour of building envelopes made of lightweight concretes. In this work, we are particularly interested to the building envelopes which are consist of cement paste with incorporation of cork aggregates in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials. The mathematical formulation of coupled heat and mass transfer in wet porous materials has been made using Luikov's model, the system describing temperature and moisture transfer processes within building walls is solved numerically with the finite elements method. The obtained results illustrate the temporal evolutions of the temperature and the moisture content, and the distributions of the temperature and moisture content inside the wall for several periods of time. They allow us to specify the effect of the nature and dosage of fibre on the heat and mass transfer.

  9. Field Testing of Nano-PCM-Enhanced Building Envelope Components in a Warm-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; LuPh.D., Jue; Soroushian, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy-efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy-efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential enduse energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase-change material (PCM) enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative PCM (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility in Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCMenhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheet-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side that served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. This paper presents the measured performance and analysis to evaluate the

  10. Methodology for Building an Intelligent Tutoring System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    ADDRESS January 1982 66 Personnel and Training Research Programs 15. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) Office of Naval Research (Code 458) Arlington, VA...program to teach medical diagnosis. Our research synthesizes and extends results in artificial intelligence (AI), medicine, and cognitive psychology. This...paper describes the progression of the research , and explains how theories from these fields are combined in a computational model. The general problem

  11. Building a Virtual Cultural Intelligence Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    better argument for a virtual cultural intelligence capability. We would also like to thank Professors John Arquilla, Pete Gustaitis, Erik Jansen...the spear. As a case in point, when an interviewer recently asked SOCPAC8 Commander MG John Fridovich (U.S. Army) what assistance he would find useful...crop up 11 William E. Daugherty and Morris Janowitz, A Psychological Warfare Casebook (Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins Press, 1958), 159. 12

  12. Building Efficient and Effective Strategic Intelligence Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    this useful understanding is the Myer’s Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Developed by psychologist Carl Jung, Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook...collaboration across the U.S. interagencies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Human Resources, Myer’s Briggs Type Indicator, National Intelligence Agencies...FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 22 MARCH 2012 WORD COUNT: 5,053 PAGES: 26 KEY TERMS: Human Resources, Myer’s Briggs Type Indicator

  13. Thermal Integrity Assessment of Building Envelopes of Experimental Houses Using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Kosny, Jan; Miller, William A

    2010-01-01

    Zero Energy Building Research Alliance, or ZEBRAlliance, is a joint DOE-ORNL-construction industry initiative to develop and demonstrate new energy efficiency technologies for residential buildings, as well as fine-tune and integrate existing technologies, to lower energy costs. Construction of residential envelopes, the diaphragms that separate the inside from outdoors, can have enormous impact on whole-building energy usage. Consequently, post-construction thermal integrity assessment of the building envelopes in the experimental ZEBRAlliance homes is an integral part of the research and development cycle. Nondestructive infrared (IR) thermography provides a relatively easy and quick means of inspecting the experimental homes for thermal bridging, insulation imperfections, moisture penetration, air leakage, etc. Two experimental homes located in Oak Ridge, TN were inspected using IR thermography. The homes are designed with two different envelope systems: (i) Structural Insulated Panels (SIP home) consisting of an insulating foam core sandwiched between oriented strand boards, and (ii) Optimal Value Framing (OVF home) using innovatively spaced wood studs, which are designed to minimize the amount of wood framing, reduce thermal bridging, and lower material costs. IR thermal imaging was performed from both outside and inside of the homes. In this paper, IR images of roof and wall sections of the homes are presented and discussed with respect to identification of areas of thermal bridging and any insulation deficiencies.

  14. A Synergetic Model for Building an Intelligent Documentation System (IDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emdad, Ali

    1990-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for building an intelligent documentation system (IDS) for computer software by integrating hypermedia and expert systems technologies. The need for online computer documentation for end-users is discussed, and elements of the synergetic model are described, including knowledge representation, the hypermedia…

  15. Simulated Aging and Characterization of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Management of Building Envelopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    cycling at 90 minutes per cycle , over wide temperature ranges to simulate 20 years of use in building envelopes. At 3-4 week time intervals, the...samples were taken from the thermal cycling chamber and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs, Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC...Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Fourier Trans- form Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) data were obtained and compared to baseline (pre- cycling data

  16. Artificial intelligence support for scientific model-building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific model-building can be a time-intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientific development team to understand. We believe that artificial intelligence techniques can facilitate both the model-building and model-sharing process. In this paper, we overview our effort to build a scientific modeling software tool that aids the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high-level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities.

  17. Analysis of Thermal Comfort in an Intelligent Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Telejko, Marek; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of thermal comfort in the ENERGIS Building, an intelligent building in the campus of the Kielce University of Technology, Poland is the focus of this paper. For this purpose, air temperature, air relative humidity, air flow rate and carbon dioxide concentration were measured and the mean radiant temperature was determined. Thermal sensations of the students occupying the rooms of the building were evaluated with the use of a questionnaire. The students used a seven-point scale of thermal comfort. The microclimate measurement results were used to determine the Predicted Mean Vote and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied indices.

  18. Building Intelligent Communication Systems for Handicapped Aphasiacs

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu-Fen; Ho, Cheng-Seen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent system allowing handicapped aphasiacs to perform basic communication tasks. It has the following three key features: (1) A 6-sensor data glove measures the finger gestures of a patient in terms of the bending degrees of his fingers. (2) A finger language recognition subsystem recognizes language components from the finger gestures. It employs multiple regression analysis to automatically extract proper finger features so that the recognition model can be fast and correctly constructed by a radial basis function neural network. (3) A coordinate-indexed virtual keyboard allows the users to directly access the letters on the keyboard at a practical speed. The system serves as a viable tool for natural and affordable communication for handicapped aphasiacs through continuous finger language input. PMID:22315546

  19. Building an Intelligent Hospital to Fight Contagion.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Jérôme; Brouqui, Philippe

    2017-08-15

    The idea of building hospitals to fight contagion was born with the lazarettos. At the time when the microorganisms were not yet known, the mechanisms of transmission of contagion were already well apprehended. Based on the same knowledge but thanks to new technologies, such hospitals have now been built downtown, next to the most highly performing technological plateau. Regrouping patient care, diagnostics, research, and development, the University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection building offers a wonderful tool to contain and understand contagion, in a well-designed setting, creating excellent working conditions that are attractive for interested scientists. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Analysis of Building Envelope Insulation Performance Utilizing Integrated Temperature and Humidity Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hung, San-Shan; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Cheng-Jui; Chen, Shih-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building's envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity) within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics) is limited by problems of wiring requirements, discontinuous monitoring, and high costs. This study uses radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) combined with temperature and humidity sensors (T/H sensors) for the design of a smart temperature and humidity information material (STHIM) that automatically, regularly, and continuously converts temperature and humidity signals within concrete and transmits them by radio frequency (RF) to the Building Physiology Information System (BPIS). This provides a new approach to measurement that incorporates direct measurement, wireless communication, and real-time continuous monitoring to assist building designers and users in making energy management decisions and judgments. PMID:23012529

  1. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  2. Analysis of building envelope insulation performance utilizing integrated temperature and humidity sensors.

    PubMed

    Hung, San-Shan; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Cheng-Jui; Chen, Shih-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building's envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity) within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics) is limited by problems of wiring requirements, discontinuous monitoring, and high costs. This study uses radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) combined with temperature and humidity sensors (T/H sensors) for the design of a smart temperature and humidity information material (STHIM) that automatically, regularly, and continuously converts temperature and humidity signals within concrete and transmits them by radio frequency (RF) to the Building Physiology Information System (BPIS). This provides a new approach to measurement that incorporates direct measurement, wireless communication, and real-time continuous monitoring to assist building designers and users in making energy management decisions and judgments.

  3. Challenges in building intelligent systems for space mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to provide a top-level look at the stewardship functions performed in space operations, and to identify the major issues and challenges that must be addressed to build intelligent systems that can realistically support operations functions. The focus is on decision support activities involving monitoring, state assessment, goal generation, plan generation, and plan execution. The bottom line is that problem solving in the space operations domain is a very complex process. A variety of knowledge constructs, representations, and reasoning processes are necessary to support effective human problem solving. Emulating these kinds of capabilities in intelligent systems offers major technical challenges that the artificial intelligence community is only beginning to address.

  4. Using generic tool kits to build intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems and Robots Center at Sandia National Laboratories is developing technologies for the automation of processes associated with environmental remediation and information-driven manufacturing. These technologies, which focus on automated planning and programming and sensor-based and model-based control, are used to build intelligent systems which are able to generate plans of action, program the necessary devices, and use sensors to react to changes in the environment. By automating tasks through the use of programmable devices tied to computer models which are augmented by sensing, requirements for faster, safer, and cheaper systems are being satisfied. However, because of the need for rapid cost-effect prototyping and multi-laboratory teaming, it is also necessary to define a consistent approach to the construction of controllers for such systems. As a result, the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) concept has been developed. This concept promotes the philosophy of producing generic tool kits which can be used and reused to build intelligent control systems.

  5. Study of an experimental methodology for thermal properties diagnostic of building envelop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingying; Sempy, Alain; Vogt Wu, Tingting; Sommier, Alain; Dumoulin, Jean; Batsale, Jean Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The building envelope plays a critical role in determining levels of comfort and building efficiency. Its real thermal properties characterization is of major interest to be able to diagnose energy efficiency performance of buildings (new construction and retrofitted existing old building). Research and development on a possible methodology for energy diagnostic of the building envelop is a hot topic and necessary trend. Many kinds of sensors and instruments are used for the studies. The application of infrared (IR) thermography in non-destructive evaluation has been widely employed for qualitative evaluations for building diagnostics; meanwhile, the IR thermography technology also has a large potentiality for the evaluation of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope. Some promising recent research studies have been carried out with such contactless measurement technique. Nevertheless, research efforts are still required for in situ measurements under natural environmental conditions. In order to develop new solutions for non-intrusive evaluation of local thermal performance, enabling quantitative assessment of thermal properties of buildings and materials, experiments were carried out on a multi-layer pratical scale wall fixed on a caisson placed in a climatic chamber. Six halogen lamps (1.5 kW for each lamp) placed in front of objective wall were used to emulate sunny conditions. The radiative heat flux emitted was monitored and modulated with time according to typical weather data set encountered in France. Both steady state and transient regime heat transfer were studied during these experiments. Contact sensors (thermocouples, heat flux meters, Peltier sensors) and non-contact sensors (thermal IR camera, pyranometer) were used to measure the temperatures and heat flux density evolution. It has to be noticed that the Peltier sensors have been tuned and used with a specific processing to set them compliant for heat flux density measurements. The

  6. Laboratory testing of a building envelope segment based on cellular concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hygrothermal performance of a building envelope based on cellular concrete blocks is studied in the paper. Simultaneously, the strain fields induced by the heat and moisture changes are monitored. The studied wall is exposed to the climatic load corresponding to the winter climatic conditions of the moderate year for Prague. The winter climatic exposure is chosen in order to simulate the critical conditions of the building structure from the point of view of material performance and temperature and humidity loading. The evaluation of hygrothermal performance of a researched wall is done on the basis of relative humidity and temperature profiles measured along the cross section of the cellular concrete blocks. Strain gauges are fixed on the wall surface in expected orientation of the blocks expansion. The obtained results show a good hygrothermal function of the analyzed cellular concrete wall and its insignificant strain.

  7. Double Wall Framing Technique An Example of High Performance, Sustainable Building Envelope Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Dr. Jan; Asiz, Andi; Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Nitin, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Double wall technologies utilizing wood framing have been well-known and used in North American buildings for decades. Most of double wall designs use only natural materials such as wood products, gypsum, and cellulose fiber insulation, being one of few building envelope technologies achieving high thermal performance without use of plastic foams or fiberglass. Today, after several material and structural design modifications, these technologies are considered as highly thermally efficient, sustainable option for new constructions and sometimes, for retrofit projects. Following earlier analysis performed for U.S. Department of Energy by Fraunhofer CSE, this paper discusses different ways to build double walls and to optimize their thermal performance to minimize the space conditioning energy consumption. Description of structural configuration alternatives and thermal performance analysis are presented as well. Laboratory tests to evaluate thermal properties of used insulation and whole wall system thermal performance are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the thermal loads generated in field conditions by double walls are discussed utilizing results from a joined project performed by Zero Energy Building Research Alliance and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which made possible evaluation of the market viability of low-energy homes built in the Tennessee Valley. Experimental data recorded in two of the test houses built during this field study is presented in this work.

  8. Building intelligent systems - Artificial intelligence research at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter; Lum, Henry

    1987-01-01

    The basic components that make up the goal of building autonomous intelligent systems are discussed, and ongoing work at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. It is noted that a clear progression of systems can be seen through research settings (both within and external to NASA) to Space Station testbeds to systems which actually fly on the Space Station. The starting point for the discussion is a 'truly' autonomous Space Station intelligent system, responsible for a major portion of Space Station control. Attention is given to research in fiscal 1987, including reasoning under uncertainty, machine learning, causal modeling and simulation, knowledge from design through operations, advanced planning work, validation methodologies, and hierarchical control of and distributed cooperation among multiple knowledge-based systems.

  9. Building intelligent systems: Artificial intelligence research at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, P.; Lum, H.

    1987-01-01

    The basic components that make up the goal of building autonomous intelligent systems are discussed, and ongoing work at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. It is noted that a clear progression of systems can be seen through research settings (both within and external to NASA) to Space Station testbeds to systems which actually fly on the Space Station. The starting point for the discussion is a truly autonomous Space Station intelligent system, responsible for a major portion of Space Station control. Attention is given to research in fiscal 1987, including reasoning under uncertainty, machine learning, causal modeling and simulation, knowledge from design through operations, advanced planning work, validation methodologies, and hierarchical control of and distributed cooperation among multiple knowledge-based systems.

  10. Low-cost phase change material as an energy storage medium in building envelopes: Experimental and numerical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Ramin

    2014-10-03

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of a phase change material (PCM) in the building envelope. Numerous studies over the last two decades have reported the energy saving potential of PCMs in building envelopes, but their wide application has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel PCM made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application. The PCM-HDPE pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation and then added to an exterior wall of a test building in a hot and humid climate, and tested over a period of several months, To demonstrate the efficacy of the PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation in reducing the building envelope heat gains and losses, side-by-side comparison was performed with another wall section filled with cellulose-only insulation. Further, numerical modeling of the test wall was performed to determine the actual impact of the PCM-HDPE pellets on wall-generated heating and cooling loads and the associated electricity consumption. The model was first validated using experimental data and then used for annual simulations using typical meteorological year (TMY3) weather data. Furthermore, this article presents the experimental data and numerical analyses showing the energy-saving potential of the new PCM.

  11. Effect of heat and moisture transport and storage properties of building stones on the hygrothermal performance of historical building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KoÅáková, Dana; Kočí, Václav; Žumár, Jaromír; Keppert, Martin; Holčapek, Ondřej; Vejmelková, Eva; Černý, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The heat and moisture transport and storage parameters of three different natural stones used on the Czech territory since medieval times are determined experimentally, together with the basic physical properties and mechanical parameters. The measured data are applied as input parameters in the computational modeling of hygrothermal performance of building envelopes made of the analyzed stones. Test reference year climatic data of three different locations within the Czech Republic are used as boundary conditions on the exterior side. Using the simulated hygric and thermal performance of particular stone walls, their applicability is assessed in a relation to the geographical and climatic conditions. The obtained results indicate that all three investigated stones are highly resistant to weather conditions, freeze/thaw cycles in particular.

  12. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer progress report for DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-08-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  13. Building America Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    'The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deters program participants, and dissuades them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.' This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing, the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities, could easily be six times that and that's only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  14. Low-cost phase change material as an energy storage medium in building envelopes: Experimental and numerical analyses

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Ramin

    2014-10-03

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of a phase change material (PCM) in the building envelope. Numerous studies over the last two decades have reported the energy saving potential of PCMs in building envelopes, but their wide application has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel PCM made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application. The PCM-HDPE pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation and then added to an exterior wall of a test buildingmore » in a hot and humid climate, and tested over a period of several months, To demonstrate the efficacy of the PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation in reducing the building envelope heat gains and losses, side-by-side comparison was performed with another wall section filled with cellulose-only insulation. Further, numerical modeling of the test wall was performed to determine the actual impact of the PCM-HDPE pellets on wall-generated heating and cooling loads and the associated electricity consumption. The model was first validated using experimental data and then used for annual simulations using typical meteorological year (TMY3) weather data. Furthermore, this article presents the experimental data and numerical analyses showing the energy-saving potential of the new PCM.« less

  15. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplanis, S. Kaplani, E.

    2015-12-31

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine.

  16. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine.

  17. A multi-criteria model for the comparison of building envelope energy retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnarumma, Giuseppe; Fiore, Pierfrancesco

    2017-02-01

    In light of the current EU guidelines in the energy field, improving building envelope performance cannot be separated from the context of satisfying the environmental sustainability requirements, reducing the costs associated with the life cycle of the building as well as economic and financial feasibility. Therefore, identifying the "optimal" energy retrofit solutions requires the simultaneous assessment of several factors and thus becomes a problem of choice between several possible alternatives. To facilitate the work of the decision-makers, public or private, adequate decision support tools are of great importance. Starting from this need, a model based on the multi-criteria analysis "AHP" technique is proposed, along with the definition of three synthetic indices associated with the three requirements of "Energy Performance", "Sustainability Performance" and "Cost". From the weighted aggregation of the three indices, a global index of preference is obtained that allows to "quantify" the satisfaction level of the i-th alternative from the point of view of a particular group of decision-makers. The model is then applied, by way of example, to the case-study of the energetic redevelopment of a former factory, assuming its functional conversion. Twenty possible alternative interventions on the opaque vertical closures, resulting from the combination of three thermal insulators families (synthetic, natural and mineral) with four energy retrofitting techniques are compared and the results obtained critically discussed by considering the point of view of the three different groups of decision-makers.

  18. Effects of air tightness of the building envelope as witnessed through an energy efficiency retrofit program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzak, Adam

    Air leakage through the building envelope has been identified as a major factor affecting the energy consumption of buildings. This study explored homes located in Central Indiana that were recipients of government-sponsored grants to perform energy efficient upgrades. To combat the issue of air leakage, many homes were retrofitted with air sealing packages. A certified energy auditor performed before and after blower door tests to measure the air leakage of each home. An analysis of the 63 homes measured resulted in the conclusion that the overall improvement in blower door test results was greater than 20%. In addition to blower door tests, the energy auditor inspected each home and generated a list of recommended energy efficient upgrades (within the scope of the grant) as well as their respective installation costs. An analysis was performed investigating the auditor's accuracy at estimating these costs. Based on data from 33 homes, the conclusion was made that the energy auditor was not proficient in the role of a construction estimator. The disparity between estimated and actual costs was not within the 10-15% target range.

  19. Perceptual weighting of individual and concurrent cues for sentence intelligibility: Frequency, envelope, and fine structure

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The speech signal may be divided into frequency bands, each containing temporal properties of the envelope and fine structure. For maximal speech understanding, listeners must allocate their perceptual resources to the most informative acoustic properties. Understanding this perceptual weighting is essential for the design of assistive listening devices that need to preserve these important speech cues. This study measured the perceptual weighting of young normal-hearing listeners for the envelope and fine structure in each of three frequency bands for sentence materials. Perceptual weights were obtained under two listening contexts: (1) when each acoustic property was presented individually and (2) when multiple acoustic properties were available concurrently. The processing method was designed to vary the availability of each acoustic property independently by adding noise at different levels. Perceptual weights were determined by correlating a listener’s performance with the availability of each acoustic property on a trial-by-trial basis. Results demonstrated that weights were (1) equal when acoustic properties were presented individually and (2) biased toward envelope and mid-frequency information when multiple properties were available. Results suggest a complex interaction between the available acoustic properties and the listening context in determining how best to allocate perceptual resources when listening to speech in noise. PMID:21361454

  20. Intelligent demand side management of residential building energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Maruti N.

    Advent of modern sensing technologies, data processing capabilities and rising cost of energy are driving the implementation of intelligent systems in buildings and houses which constitute 41% of total energy consumption. The primary motivation has been to provide a framework for demand-side management and to improve overall reliability. The entire formulation is to be implemented on NILM (Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring System), a smart meter. This is going to play a vital role in the future of demand side management. Utilities have started deploying smart meters throughout the world which will essentially help to establish communication between utility and consumers. This research is focused on investigation of a suitable thermal model of residential house, building up control system and developing diagnostic and energy usage forecast tool. The present work has considered measurement based approach to pursue. Identification of building thermal parameters is the very first step towards developing performance measurement and controls. The proposed identification technique is PEM (Prediction Error Method) based, discrete state-space model. The two different models have been devised. First model is focused toward energy usage forecast and diagnostics. Here one of the novel idea has been investigated which takes integral of thermal capacity to identify thermal model of house. The purpose of second identification is to build up a model for control strategy. The controller should be able to take into account the weather forecast information, deal with the operating point constraints and at the same time minimize the energy consumption. To design an optimal controller, MPC (Model Predictive Control) scheme has been implemented instead of present thermostatic/hysteretic control. This is a receding horizon approach. Capability of the proposed schemes has also been investigated.

  1. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  2. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Mr. Ramin; Shukla, Dr. Nitin; Kosny, Dr. Jan

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  3. Effects of envelope bandwidth on the intelligibility of sine- and noise-vocoded speech

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Pamela; Rosen, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The choice of processing parameters for vocoded signals may have an important effect on the availability of various auditory features. Experiment 1 varied envelope cutoff frequency (30 and 300 Hz), carrier type (sine and noise), and number of bands (2–5) for vocoded speech presented to normal-hearing listeners. Performance was better with a high cutoff for sine-vocoding, with no effect of cutoff for noise-vocoding. With a low cutoff, performance was better for noise-vocoding than for sine-vocoding. With a high cutoff, performance was better for sine-vocoding. Experiment 2 measured perceptibility of cues to voice pitch variations. A noise carrier combined with a high cutoff allowed intonation to be perceived to some degree but performance was best in high-cutoff sine conditions. A low cutoff led to poorest performance, regardless of carrier. Experiment 3 tested the relative contributions of comodulation across bands and spectral density to improved performance with a sine carrier and high cutoff. Comodulation across bands had no effect so it appears that sidebands providing a denser spectrum improved performance. These results indicate that carrier type in combination with envelope cutoff can alter the available cues in vocoded speech, factors which must be considered in interpreting results with vocoded signals. PMID:19640044

  4. Effects of envelope bandwidth on the intelligibility of sine- and noise-vocoded speech.

    PubMed

    Souza, Pamela; Rosen, Stuart

    2009-08-01

    The choice of processing parameters for vocoded signals may have an important effect on the availability of various auditory features. Experiment 1 varied envelope cutoff frequency (30 and 300 Hz), carrier type (sine and noise), and number of bands (2-5) for vocoded speech presented to normal-hearing listeners. Performance was better with a high cutoff for sine-vocoding, with no effect of cutoff for noise-vocoding. With a low cutoff, performance was better for noise-vocoding than for sine-vocoding. With a high cutoff, performance was better for sine-vocoding. Experiment 2 measured perceptibility of cues to voice pitch variations. A noise carrier combined with a high cutoff allowed intonation to be perceived to some degree but performance was best in high-cutoff sine conditions. A low cutoff led to poorest performance, regardless of carrier. Experiment 3 tested the relative contributions of co-modulation across bands and spectral density to improved performance with a sine carrier and high cutoff. Co-modulation across bands had no effect so it appears that sidebands providing a denser spectrum improved performance. These results indicate that carrier type in combination with envelope cutoff can alter the available cues in vocoded speech, factors which must be considered in interpreting results with vocoded signals.

  5. Building intelligence in third-generation training and battle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Dennis; Anderson, Don; von Borries, Vance; Elmaghraby, Adel; Kantardzic, Mehmed; Ragade, Rammohan

    2003-09-01

    Current war games and simulations are primarily attrition based, and are centered on the concept of force on force. They constitute what can be defined as "second generation" war games. So-called "first generation" war games were focused on strategy with the primary concept of mind on mind. We envision "third generation" war games and battle simulations as concentrating on effects with the primary concept being system on system. Thus the third generation systems will incorporate each successive generation and take into account strategy, attrition and effects. This paper will describe the principal advantages and features that need to be implemented to create a true "third generation" battle simulation and the architectural issues faced when designing and building such a system. Areas of primary concern are doctrine, command and control, allied and coalition warfare, and cascading effects. Effectively addressing the interactive effects of these issues is of critical importance. In order to provide an adaptable and modular system that will accept future modifications and additions with relative ease, we are researching the use of a distributed Multi-Agent System (MAS) that incorporates various artificial intelligence methods. The agent architecture can mirror the military command structure from both vertical and horizontal perspectives while providing the ability to make modifications to doctrine, command structures, inter-command communications, as well as model the results of various effects upon one another, and upon the components of the simulation. This is commonly referred to as "cascading effects," in which A affects B, B affects C and so on. Agents can be used to simulate units or parts of units that interact to form the whole. Even individuals can eventually be simulated to take into account the affect to key individuals such as commanders, heroes, and aces. Each agent will have a learning component built in to provide "individual intelligence" based on

  6. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  7. Gas-Filled Panels: An update on applications in the building thermal envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.; Tuerler, D.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses the application of Gas-Filled Panels to the building thermal envelope. Gas-Filled Panels, or GFPs, are thermal insulating devices that retain a high concentration of a low- conductivity gas, at atmospheric pressure, within a multilayer infrared reflective baffle. The thermal performance of the panel depends on the type of gas fill and the baffle configuration. Heat- flow meter apparatus measurements have shown effective apparent thermal conductivities of 0.194 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with air as the gas fill, 0.138 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with argon, and 0.081 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with krypton. Calorimetric measurements have also shown total resistance levels of about R-12.6 h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 1.0-inch thick krypton panel, R-25.7 h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 2.0-inch krypton panel, and R-18.4 f{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 10-inch xenon panel. GFPs are flexible, self-supporting and can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes to thoroughly fill most types of cavities in building walls and roofs, although the modular nature of the panels can lead to complications in installing them, especially for irregularly shaped cavities. We present computer simulation results showing the improvement in thermal resistance resulting from using an argon-GFP in place of glass fiber batt insulation in wood-frame construction. This report also presents estimates of the quantity and cost of material components needed to manufacture GFPs using current prototype designs.

  8. Re-Thinking Intelligence: Schools That Build the Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.; Schantz, Faith

    2015-01-01

    We now understand that human intelligence, once thought to be determined almost solely by heredity, is malleable. In developed countries, average intelligence test scores have increased substantially since the tests began to be administered 100 years ago. In school settings, however, intelligence is often still treated as a fixed attribute that…

  9. Re-Thinking Intelligence: Schools That Build the Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.; Schantz, Faith

    2015-01-01

    We now understand that human intelligence, once thought to be determined almost solely by heredity, is malleable. In developed countries, average intelligence test scores have increased substantially since the tests began to be administered 100 years ago. In school settings, however, intelligence is often still treated as a fixed attribute that…

  10. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators’ complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a “functional MI” theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers’ concerns about teaching and learning. PMID:24391613

  11. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning.

  12. Analyzing the effect of the longwave emissivity and solar reflectance of building envelopes on energy-saving in buildings in various climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhiyang; Zhang, Xiong

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic computer simulation is carried out in the climates of 35 cities distributed around the world. The variation of the annual air-conditioning energy loads due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of the building envelopes is studied to find the most appropriate exterior building finishes in various climates (including a tropical climate, a subtropical climate, a mountain plateau climate, a frigid-temperate climate and a temperate climate). Both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are set from 0.1 to 0.9 with an interval of 0.1 in the simulation. The annual air-conditioning energy loads trends of each city are listed in a chart. The results show that both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of building envelopes play significant roles in energy-saving for buildings. In tropical climates, the optical parameters of the building exterior surface affect the building energy-saving most significantly. In the mountain plateau climates and the subarctic climates, the impacts on energy-saving in buildings due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are still considerable, but in the temperate continental climates and the temperate maritime climates, only limited effects are seen. (author)

  13. To Investigate the Influence of Building Envelope and Natural Ventilation on Thermal Heat Balance in Office Buildings in Warm and Humid Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kini, Pradeep G.; Garg, Naresh Kumar; Kamath, Kiran

    2017-07-01

    India’s commercial building sector is witnessing robust growth. India continues to be a key growth market among global corporates and this is reflective in the steady growth in demand for prime office space. A recent trend that has been noted is the increase in demand for office spaces not just in major cities but also in smaller tier II and Tier III cities. Growth in the commercial building sector projects a rising trend of energy intensive mechanical systems in office buildings in India. The air conditioning market in India is growing at 25% annually. This is due to the ever increasing demand to maintain thermal comfort in tropical regions. Air conditioning is one of the most energy intensive technologies which are used in buildings. As a result India is witnessing significant spike in energy demand and further widening the demand supply gap. Challenge in India is to identify passive measures in building envelope design in office buildings to reduce the cooling loads and conserve energy. This paper investigates the overall heat gain through building envelope components and natural ventilation in warm and humid climate region through experimental and simulation methods towards improved thermal environmental performance.

  14. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  15. Intelligent systems installed in building of research centre for research purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusov, Jozef; Mokry, Marian; Kolkova, Zuzana; Sedivy, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The attractiveness of intelligent buildings is nowadays directly connected with higher level of comfort and also the economic mode of consumption energy for heating, cooling and the total consumption of electricity for electric devices. The technologies of intelligent buildings compared with conventional solutions allow dynamic optimization in real time and make it easy for operational message. The basic division of functionality in horizontal direction is possible divide in to two areas such as Economical sophisticated residential care about the comfort of people in the building and Security features. The paper deals with description of intelligent systems which has a building of Research Centre. The building has installed the latest technology for utilization of renewable energy and also latest systems of controlling and driving all devices which contribute for economy operation by achieving the highest thermal comfort and overall safety.

  16. Leadership Institute: Building Leadership Capacity through Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argabright, Karen J.; King, Jeff; Cochran, Graham R.; Chen, Claire Yueh-Ti

    2013-01-01

    Given the changing dynamics of society and the pressures on Extension organizations to adapt, leadership effectiveness has become a crucial element of success. The program presented here is designed to enhance individual emotional intelligence. Through in-depth engagement of the participants, they learn to apply dynamics of emotional intelligence,…

  17. Creating National Attraction: Military Intelligence Sharing Building Foreign Military Interdependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    America ................................................................................................ 20 Case Study: France ...over time. The final case study focuses on intelligence sharing, or lack thereof, between the United States and France . Even though France was a...western power in the post-WWII era, the United States chose not to share intelligence with France due to a variety of concerns. The primary concerns

  18. TEx-Sys Model for Building Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Slavomir; Rosic, Marko; Zitko, Branko; Grubisic, Ani

    2008-01-01

    Special classes of asynchronous e-learning systems are the intelligent tutoring systems which represent an advanced learning and teaching environment adaptable to individual student's characteristics. Authoring shells have an environment that enables development of the intelligent tutoring systems. In this paper we present, in entirety, for the…

  19. TEx-Sys Model for Building Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Slavomir; Rosic, Marko; Zitko, Branko; Grubisic, Ani

    2008-01-01

    Special classes of asynchronous e-learning systems are the intelligent tutoring systems which represent an advanced learning and teaching environment adaptable to individual student's characteristics. Authoring shells have an environment that enables development of the intelligent tutoring systems. In this paper we present, in entirety, for the…

  20. Leadership Institute: Building Leadership Capacity through Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argabright, Karen J.; King, Jeff; Cochran, Graham R.; Chen, Claire Yueh-Ti

    2013-01-01

    Given the changing dynamics of society and the pressures on Extension organizations to adapt, leadership effectiveness has become a crucial element of success. The program presented here is designed to enhance individual emotional intelligence. Through in-depth engagement of the participants, they learn to apply dynamics of emotional intelligence,…

  1. Building an Information Resource Center for Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, J. Sperling

    1992-01-01

    Outlines considerations in the design of a Competitive Intelligence Information Resource Center (CIIRC), which is needed by business organizations for effective strategic decision making. Discussed are user needs, user participation, information sources, technology and interface design, operational characteristics, and planning for implementation.…

  2. Building an Information Resource Center for Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, J. Sperling

    1992-01-01

    Outlines considerations in the design of a Competitive Intelligence Information Resource Center (CIIRC), which is needed by business organizations for effective strategic decision making. Discussed are user needs, user participation, information sources, technology and interface design, operational characteristics, and planning for implementation.…

  3. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  4. Optical gateway for intelligent buildings: a new open-up window to the optical fibre sensors market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matias, Ignacio R.; Arregui, Francisco J.; Bariain, Candido; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents the first optical fiber sensor gateway for integrating these special measurement devices in Home Automation Systems, concretely in those buildings that use the KNX European Intelligent Buildings Standard.

  5. Energy Impacts of Nonlinear Behavior of PCM When Applied into Building Envelope: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.

    2012-08-01

    Previous research on phase change materials (PCM) for building applications has been done for several decades resulting in plenty of literature on PCM properties, temperature, and peak reduction potential. Thus, PCMs are a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. There are few building energy simulation programs that have PCM modeling features, and even fewer have been validated. Additionally, there is no previous research that indicates the level of accuracy when simulating PCM from a building energy simulation perspective. This study analyzes the effects a nonlinear enthalpy profile has on thermal performance and expected energy benefits for PCM-enhanced insulation.

  6. Engaging the Spiritual Intelligence of Gifted Students to Build Global Awareness in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Spiritual intelligence--using a multisensory approach to access one's inner knowledge to solve global problems--can be an integrating theme to engage gifted students in building global awareness in the classroom. This article introduces individuals providing training in higher consciousness and presents examples of strategies to further develop…

  7. Engaging the Spiritual Intelligence of Gifted Students to Build Global Awareness in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Spiritual intelligence--using a multisensory approach to access one's inner knowledge to solve global problems--can be an integrating theme to engage gifted students in building global awareness in the classroom. This article introduces individuals providing training in higher consciousness and presents examples of strategies to further develop…

  8. Building energy modeling for green architecture and intelligent dashboard applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Justin

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of the carbon emissions in the United States. Energy efficiency in this sector is key to reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions. This work studied the passive technique called the roof solar chimney for reducing the cooling load in homes architecturally. Three models of the chimney were created: a zonal building energy model, computational fluid dynamics model, and numerical analytic model. The study estimated the error introduced to the building energy model (BEM) through key assumptions, and then used a sensitivity analysis to examine the impact on the model outputs. The conclusion was that the error in the building energy model is small enough to use it for building simulation reliably. Further studies simulated the roof solar chimney in a whole building, integrated into one side of the roof. Comparisons were made between high and low efficiency constructions, and three ventilation strategies. The results showed that in four US climates, the roof solar chimney results in significant cooling load energy savings of up to 90%. After developing this new method for the small scale representation of a passive architecture technique in BEM, the study expanded the scope to address a fundamental issue in modeling - the implementation of the uncertainty from and improvement of occupant behavior. This is believed to be one of the weakest links in both accurate modeling and proper, energy efficient building operation. A calibrated model of the Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation's LEED Gold, 3,400 m2 building was created. Then algorithms were developed for integration to the building's dashboard application that show the occupant the energy savings for a variety of behaviors in real time. An approach using neural networks to act on real-time building automation system data was found to be the most accurate and efficient way to predict the current energy savings for each scenario. A stochastic study examined the impact of the

  9. The role of vowel and consonant fundamental frequency, envelope, and temporal fine structure cues to the intelligibility of words and sentencesa)

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E.

    2012-01-01

    The speech signal contains many acoustic properties that may contribute differently to spoken word recognition. Previous studies have demonstrated that the importance of properties present during consonants or vowels is dependent upon the linguistic context (i.e., words versus sentences). The current study investigated three potentially informative acoustic properties that are present during consonants and vowels for monosyllabic words and sentences. Natural variations in fundamental frequency were either flattened or removed. The speech envelope and temporal fine structure were also investigated by limiting the availability of these cues via noisy signal extraction. Thus, this study investigated the contribution of these acoustic properties, present during either consonants or vowels, to overall word and sentence intelligibility. Results demonstrated that all processing conditions displayed better performance for vowel-only sentences. Greater performance with vowel-only sentences remained, despite removing dynamic cues of the fundamental frequency. Word and sentence comparisons suggest that the speech envelope may be at least partially responsible for additional vowel contributions in sentences. Results suggest that speech information transmitted by the envelope is responsible, in part, for greater vowel contributions in sentences, but is not predictive for isolated words. PMID:22352519

  10. The role of vowel and consonant fundamental frequency, envelope, and temporal fine structure cues to the intelligibility of words and sentences.

    PubMed

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E

    2012-02-01

    The speech signal contains many acoustic properties that may contribute differently to spoken word recognition. Previous studies have demonstrated that the importance of properties present during consonants or vowels is dependent upon the linguistic context (i.e., words versus sentences). The current study investigated three potentially informative acoustic properties that are present during consonants and vowels for monosyllabic words and sentences. Natural variations in fundamental frequency were either flattened or removed. The speech envelope and temporal fine structure were also investigated by limiting the availability of these cues via noisy signal extraction. Thus, this study investigated the contribution of these acoustic properties, present during either consonants or vowels, to overall word and sentence intelligibility. Results demonstrated that all processing conditions displayed better performance for vowel-only sentences. Greater performance with vowel-only sentences remained, despite removing dynamic cues of the fundamental frequency. Word and sentence comparisons suggest that the speech envelope may be at least partially responsible for additional vowel contributions in sentences. Results suggest that speech information transmitted by the envelope is responsible, in part, for greater vowel contributions in sentences, but is not predictive for isolated words. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  11. The modifying effect of the building envelope on population exposure to PM2.5 from outdoor sources.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Shrubsole, C; Davies, M; Biddulph, P; Das, P; Hamilton, I; Vardoulakis, S; Mavrogianni, A; Jones, B; Oikonomou, E

    2014-12-01

    practical application of this work is a better understanding of the modifying effect of the building geometry and envelope design on pollution exposure, and how the London building stock may alter exposure. The results will be used to inform population exposure to PM2.5 in future environmental epidemiological studies. © 2014 The Authors. Indoor Air Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Green, Clean, & Mean: Pushing the Energy Envelope in Tech Industry Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan; Granderson, Jessica; Chan, Rengie; Diamond, Richard; Haves, Philip; Nordman, Bruce; Mathew, Paul; Piette, Mary Ann; Robinson, Gerald; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    When it comes to innovation in energy and building performance, one can expect leading-edge activity from the technology sector. As front-line innovators in design, materials science, and information management, developing and operating high-performance buildings is a natural extension of their core business. The energy choices made by technology companies have broad importance given their influence on society at large as well as the extent of their own energy footprint. Microsoft, for example, has approximately 250 facilities around the world (30 million square feet of floor area), with significant aggregate energy use of approximately 4 million kilowatt-hours per day (Figure 1).

  13. A laboratory facility for research on wind-driven rain intrusion in building envelope assemblies

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass

    2010-01-01

    Moisture management is critical for durable, energy-efficient buildings. To address the need for research on wind-driven rain intrusion in wall assemblies, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory is developing a new facility. This paper describes the underlying principle of this facility and its capabilities.

  14. Intention, Principle, Outputs and Aims of the Experimental Pavilion Research of Building Envelopes Including Windows for Wooden Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štaffenová, Daniela; Rybárik, Ján; Jakubčík, Miroslav

    2017-06-01

    The aim of experimental research in the area of exterior walls and windows suitable for wooden buildings was to build special pavilion laboratories. These laboratories are ideally isolated from the surrounding environment, airtight and controlled by the constant internal climate. The principle of experimental research is measuring and recording of required physical parameters (e.g. temperature or relative humidity). This is done in layers of experimental fragment sections in the direction from exterior to interior, as well as in critical places by stable interior and real exterior climatic conditions. The outputs are evaluations of experimental structures behaviour during the specified time period, possibly during the whole year by stable interior and real exterior boundary conditions. The main aim of this experimental research is processing of long-term measurements of experimental structures and the subsequent analysis. The next part of the research consists of collecting measurements obtained with assistance of the experimental detached weather station, analysis, evaluation for later setting up of reference data set for the research locality, from the point of view of its comparison to the data sets from Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) and to localities with similar climate conditions. Later on, the data sets could lead to recommendations for design of wooden buildings.

  15. Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.

    PubMed

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure.

  16. Service Life Assessment of Historical Building Envelopes Constructed Using Different Types of Sandstone: A Computational Analysis Based on Experimental Input Data

    PubMed Central

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

  17. Thermographic NDT of building envelopes utilizing in-door heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Tatsuhito; Nakano, Yonezou; Tanigawa, Yasuo

    2002-03-01

    The deterioration of concrete structures due to drastic changes in environment or due to poor workmanship has become very serious in Japan recently. In particular, since buildings are finished with render or tile on their facades in order to improve durability and appearance in many cases, the number of accidents resulting in injury or death caused by the fall of these finishing materials in increasing continuously. As a method of detecting delaminations of finishing materials, the thermographic survey using thermal imager is widely used because of the advantages of easiness, rate of data sampling and safeness. However, since this method is based on the difference of surface temperature between delaminated areas and sound areas generated by solar radiation, the method cannot be used under cloudy weather. It is a big difference between the construction field and other fields like metals, ceramics and plastics, which can do artificial heating or cooling easily. In order to improve the applicability and limitations of the method, a study was carried out. In ths study, instead of exposing an external wall to the sun, a method of heating the rear side of the wall by using the indoor heating system of the building was discussed and tested. As a result, it was proved that below-surface defects of building facades could be located without solar radiation by controlling the room temperature appropriately. This paper outlines the procedure and results of the study.

  18. AIAA 94-1214: Using generic tool kits to build intelligent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories is developing technologies for the automation of processes associated with environmental remediation and information-driven manufacturing. These technologies, which focus on automated planning and programming and sensor-based and model-based control, are used to build intelligent systems which are able to generate plans of action, program the necessary devices, and use sensors to react to changes in the environment. By automating tasks through the use of programmable devices tied to computer models which are augmented by sensing, requirements for faster, safer, and cheaper systems are being satisfied. However, because of the need for rapid cost-effective prototyping and multi-laboratory teaming, it is also necessary to define a consistent approach to the construction of controllers for such systems. As a result, the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) concept has been developed. This concept promotes the philosophy of producing generic tool kits which can be used and reused to build intelligent control systems.

  19. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  20. Pushing the Envelope: A Case Study of Building the First Manufactured Home Using Structural Insulated Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Hadley, Donald L.; Sparkman, Ronald; Lubliner, Michael

    2002-06-01

    This paper for the ACEEE Summer Study describes construction of the first manufactured home ever produced from structural insulated panels. The home was built in July 2000 by Champion Enterprises at its Silverton, Oregon, plant. The house was completed on the assembly line in 9 days including a 300-mile road test. The paper examines the design and approval process leading to the project, the manufacturing process and its adjustment to SIPs, and the transportation and energy performance of the house after it was built. PNNL coordinated this project and conducted long-term monitoring on the house. The WSU Energy Program conducted building diagnostics testing once the house was occupied. PNNL’s and WSU’s involvement was funded by the U.S. DOE Building America Program. The Oregon Office of Energy conducted blower door and duct blaster tests. The completed home was estimated to reduce energy consumption by 50% and to have twice the structural strength required by HUD code for manufactured homes. The demonstration proved that the manufactured home production line could support SIPs production simultaneously with traditional construction and without major modifications, the line work in parallel with SIPs and traditional materials. The project revealed severl possibilities for further improving cost and time savings with SIPs construction, that might translate into increased capacity.

  1. Building an Intelligent Water Information System - American River Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    With better management, California's existing water supplies could go further to meeting the needs of the state's urban and agricultural uses. For example, California's water reservoirs are currently controlled and regulated using forecasts based upon more than 75 years of historical data. In the face of global climate change, these forecasts are becoming increasingly inadequate to precisely manage water resources. We propose implementing Leveraging the newest frontiers of information technology, we are developing a basin-scale real-time intelligent water infrastructure system that enables more information-intensive decision support. The complete system is made up of four key components. First, a strategically deployed ground-observation system will complement satellite measurements and provide continuous and accurate estimates of snowpack, soil moisture, vegetation state and energy balance across watersheds. Using our recently developed but mature technologies, we deliver measurements of hydrologic variables over a multi- tiered network of wireless sensor arrays, with a granularity of time and space previously unheard of. Second, satellite and aircraft remote sensing provide the only practical means of spatially continuous basin-wide measurement and monitoring of snow properties, vegetation characteristics and other watershed conditions. The ground-based system is designed to blend with remote sensing data on Sierra Nevada snow properties, and provide value-added products of unprecedented spatial detail and accuracy that are useable on a watershed level. Third, together the satellite and ground-based data make possible the updating of forecast tools, and routine use of physically based hydrologic models. The decision-support framework will provide tools to extract and visualize information of interest from the measured and modeled data, to assess uncertainties, and to optimize operations. Fourth, the advanced cyber infrastructure blends and transforms the numbers

  2. In situ monitoring of internal surface temperature of the historic building envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labovská, Veronika; Katunský, Dušan

    2016-12-01

    This article deals with progressive glass unit in glazing systems of building facades. Main aim of this research is reduction of heat gain in interior achieved by water added into Basic Insulation Glass Unit (hereinafter as IGU) which thereby becomes a transparent collector. Concerning heat gain reduction, this system provides a variety of positive characteristics. In relation to outdoor conditions, however, the system has its limitations, due to which each glass unit needs to be designed with regard to the climate condition it is intended for. These special properties have been described in previous articles. Currently, the model in scale 1:1 is prepared and provided for measurements in test chamber. Observation of liquid-filled window in summer weather simulation has brought valuable results for temperature, radiation and humidity. Temperature has been observed on surfaces, and exterior and interior sides of cavities.

  3. The 20th annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: building a generation of robotists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Kosinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 20 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  4. Automatic Topology Derivation from Ifc Building Model for In-Door Intelligent Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. J.; Zhu, Q.; Wang, W. W.; Zhang, Y. T.

    2015-05-01

    With the goal to achieve an accuracy navigation within the building environment, it is critical to explore a feasible way for building the connectivity relationships among 3D geographical features called in-building topology network. Traditional topology construction approaches for indoor space always based on 2D maps or pure geometry model, which remained information insufficient problem. Especially, an intelligent navigation for different applications depends mainly on the precise geometry and semantics of the navigation network. The trouble caused by existed topology construction approaches can be smoothed by employing IFC building model which contains detailed semantic and geometric information. In this paper, we present a method which combined a straight media axis transformation algorithm (S-MAT) with IFC building model to reconstruct indoor geometric topology network. This derived topology aimed at facilitating the decision making for different in-building navigation. In this work, we describe a multi-step deviation process including semantic cleaning, walkable features extraction, Multi-Storey 2D Mapping and S-MAT implementation to automatically generate topography information from existing indoor building model data given in IFC.

  5. Intelligence in the brain: a theory of how it works and how to build it.

    PubMed

    Werbos, Paul J

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a theory of how general-purpose learning-based intelligence is achieved in the mammal brain, and how we can replicate it. It reviews four generations of ever more powerful general-purpose learning designs in Adaptive, Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP), which includes reinforcement learning as a special case. It reviews empirical results which fit the theory, and suggests important new directions for research, within the scope of NSF's recent initiative on Cognitive Optimization and Prediction. The appendices suggest possible connections to the realms of human subjective experience, comparative cognitive neuroscience, and new challenges in electric power. The major challenge before us today in mathematical neural networks is to replicate the "mouse level", but the paper does contain a few thoughts about building, understanding and nourishing levels of general intelligence beyond the mouse.

  6. Lessons learned from building the iMED intelligent medical search engine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Searching for medical information on the Web has become highly popular, but it remains a challenging task because searchers are often uncertain about their exact medical situations and unfamiliar with medical terminology. To address this challenge, we have built an intelligent medical Web search engine called iMed. iMed introduces and extends expert system technology into the search engine domain. It uses medical knowledge and an interactive questionnaire to help searchers form queries. This paper reports the lessons we learned from building the iMed system. We believe that many of these lessons can be applied to other medical search engines as well. We systematically discuss important issues in the new field consumer-centric intelligent medical search, including input interface, output interface, search system, medical knowledge base, help system, and testing.

  7. The plant nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes our present knowledge about the composition and function of the plant nuclear envelope. Compared with animals or yeast, our molecular understanding of the nuclear envelope in higher plants is in its infancy. However, fundamental differences in the structure and function of the plant and animal nuclear envelope have already been found. Here, we compare and contrast these differences with respect to nuclear pore complexes, targeting of Ran signaling to the nuclear envelope, inner nuclear envelope proteins, and the role and fate of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Further investigation of the emerging fundamental differences as well as the similarities between kingdoms might illuminate why there appears to be more than one blueprint for building a nucleus.

  8. The Use of Multi-Agent Systems to Build Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicari, Rosa M.; Giraffa, Lucia M. M.

    2002-09-01

    The paper presents our experiments and results in order to explore the possibilities of building ITS (Intelligent Tutoring Systems) using a MAS (Multi-Agent Systems) approach. This approach helps us to study the intrinsic complexity of educational environments that consider more than one student working in a co-operative way (designed to be used on the WEB or without it). We present results that arose from previous work on the use of mental and affective states to build student and tutor models. This paper organises the results our group achieved, and tries to present and discuss the problems of having a more complex situation where more than two agents (tutor and student) appear. Overall, the goal of our research group is to have a social environment where several tutors and students interact in teaching and learning situations. We pursue a social model that would represent the society of pedagogical agents existing in an interactive ITS.

  9. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from past experience and, in general, to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Aspects of intelligence are measured by standardized tests of intelligence. Average raw (number-correct) scores on such tests vary across the life span and also across generations, as well as across ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex. Measured values correlate with brain size, at least within humans. The heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between 0.4 and 0.8. But genes always express themselves through environment. Heritability varies as a function of a number of factors, including socioeconomic status and range of environments. Racial-group differences in measured intelligence have been reported, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable. As a result, these differences are difficult to interpret. Different cultures have different conceptions of the nature of intelligence, and also require different skills in order to express intelligence in the environment. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1193 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  11. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  12. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    SciTech Connect

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  13. Kinetic Super-Resolution Long-Wave Infrared (KSR LWIR) Thermography Diagnostic for Building Envelopes: Camp Lejeune, NC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-18

    of Defense (DoD) to achieve cost-effective energy efficiency at much greater scale than other commercially available techniques of measuring energy...effective energy efficiency at much greater scale than other commercially available techniques of measuring energy loss due to envelope inefficien- cies...throughout the base. These features were categorized by type and surface temperature to provide an in-depth look at the energy efficiency of each

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Properties of Lime-Based Plaster-Containing PCM for Enhancing the Heat-Storage Capacity of Building Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Keppert, Martin; Pavlíková, Milena; Žumár, Jaromír; Černý, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Experimental analysis of a wide range of properties of a lightweight plaster which should enhance the heat-storage capacity of building envelopes is presented. The basic physical characteristics, namely, the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, and pore-size distribution are measured at first. Then, the compressive strength is determined for an assessment of mechanical performance of the plaster. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are studied using an impulse technique. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements are performed as well, in order to identify the temperature range and latent heat of the phase change and to determine the specific heat capacity as a function of temperature. Durability properties are assessed using the measurement of the water absorption coefficient and sorption and desorption isotherms. The experimental results indicate a good capability of the designed plaster to moderate effectively the interior climate of buildings.

  15. Integration of a hygrothermal transfer model for envelope in a building energy simulation model: experimental validation of a HAM-BES co-simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferroukhi, M. Y.; Abahri, K.; Belarbi, R.; Limam, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present paper focuses on studying a new methodology to predict the overall behavior of buildings, which combines two simulation tools: COMSOL Multiphysicsand TRNSYS. The first software is used for the modeling of heat, air and moisture transfer in multilayer porous walls (HAM model—Heat, Air and Moisture transfer), and the second is used to simulate the hygrothermal behavior of the building (BES model—Building Energy Simulation). The combined software applications dynamically solve the mass and energy conservation equations of the two physical models. In this context, a coupled heat, air and mass transfer model is proposed. This model incorporates simultaneously the diffusive, convective and conductive effects on the building elements. Heat transfer is considered in the strongly coupled situation where the mass and heat flux are temperature, vapor pressure and total pressure dependents. The model input parameters are evaluated experimentally through the development of various experimental prototypes in the laboratory. Thereafter, an experimental setup has been established in order to evaluate the hygrothermal process of building walls. The experimental procedure consists to follow the temperature and relative humidity evolutions within the envelope thickness, submitted to controlled and fixed boundary conditions. Finally, using the developed experimental device, comparison between experimental data and numerical solution of the HAM-BES co-simulation platform was undertaken. Results showed good agreement with acceptable errors margins.

  16. Integration of a hygrothermal transfer model for envelope in a building energy simulation model: experimental validation of a HAM-BES co-simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferroukhi, M. Y.; Abahri, K.; Belarbi, R.; Limam, K.

    2017-06-01

    The present paper focuses on studying a new methodology to predict the overall behavior of buildings, which combines two simulation tools: COMSOL Multiphysicsand TRNSYS. The first software is used for the modeling of heat, air and moisture transfer in multilayer porous walls (HAM model—Heat, Air and Moisture transfer), and the second is used to simulate the hygrothermal behavior of the building (BES model—Building Energy Simulation). The combined software applications dynamically solve the mass and energy conservation equations of the two physical models. In this context, a coupled heat, air and mass transfer model is proposed. This model incorporates simultaneously the diffusive, convective and conductive effects on the building elements. Heat transfer is considered in the strongly coupled situation where the mass and heat flux are temperature, vapor pressure and total pressure dependents. The model input parameters are evaluated experimentally through the development of various experimental prototypes in the laboratory. Thereafter, an experimental setup has been established in order to evaluate the hygrothermal process of building walls. The experimental procedure consists to follow the temperature and relative humidity evolutions within the envelope thickness, submitted to controlled and fixed boundary conditions. Finally, using the developed experimental device, comparison between experimental data and numerical solution of the HAM-BES co-simulation platform was undertaken. Results showed good agreement with acceptable errors margins.

  17. System design and house dynamic signature identification for intelligent energy management in residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae Hwi

    Increasing energy demand from residential buildings and evolving utility pricing policy to regulate energy use during peak times require a new paradigm for energy management in residential buildings. As a prototype for intelligent energy management systems of residential buildings, DREAM (Demand Responsive Electrical Appliance Manager), based on a wireless sensor network, was developed. This autonomous system consisting of wireless sensors and actuators, a graphical user interface, and a main control reduces peak electrical demand and ultimately optimizes energy management by identifying house dynamic signature as well as occupant thermal preference and patterns. In summer 2007, functionality and overall performance were evaluated with two field tests and showed promise for the DREAM system. Due to significance of the house dynamic signature learning in an intelligent energy management system, three approaches were studied. Despite the simplicity of the model and success in identifying thermal characteristics of a house, the 1st order differential equation method, which considered thermal influences of five heat sources, showed limitations in representing actual temperature behavior delicately. The tabular method was suggested to capture house nonlinear behavior by learning temperature change rate with respect to different events and periods. The prediction using the tabular method followed the actual measured temperature within a tolerable error range, except for a relatively long heater-on event. The last method, the ARX model fitting method, provided the best prediction result, but the performance was considerably influenced by the choice of sample data for parameter learning. The multiple-model switching algorithm was proposed to minimize performance inconsistency in the ARX model fitting method. Instead of sticking to one model, it allows several candidates whose parameters are calculated from seven consecutive days, and selects one (multiple-model hard

  18. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  19. Intelligent Archives in the Context of Knowledge Building Systems: Concepts for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; McConaughy, Gail; Lynnes, G. Chris; Kempler, Steve; McDonald, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The technical objectives are: 1. Formulate concepts and architectures that support data archiving for NASA science research and applications in the 10 to 20 year time frame. 2. Focus on architectural strategies that will support intelligent processes and functions. 3. Identify and characterize science and applications scenarios that drive intelligent archive requirements. 4. Assess technologies and research that will need the development of an intelligent archive. 5. Identify and characterize potential research projects that will be needed to develop and create an intelligent archive.

  20. Building an effective competitive intelligence system for health care service providers.

    PubMed

    Festervand, T A; Lumpkin, J R

    1990-01-01

    With the increasing competitiveness of the health care marketplace, the need for information by service providers has increased concomitantly. In response to this need, strategic and competitive intelligence systems have emerged as a vital source of information. This article establishes a basis for the development and operation of a competitive intelligence system. Initially, strategic and competitive intelligence systems are conceptualized, then followed by a discussion of the areas which are candidates for inclusion in the intelligence system. The remainder of the article focuses on system development and operation. Attention also is directed toward information utilization and integration.

  1. The modifying effect of the building envelope on population exposure to PM2.5 from outdoor sources

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J; Shrubsole, C; Davies, M; Biddulph, P; Das, P; Hamilton, I; Vardoulakis, S; Mavrogianni, A; Jones, B; Oikonomou, E

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have estimated population exposure to PM2.5 by examining modeled or measured outdoor PM2.5 levels. However, few have taken into account the mediating effects of building characteristics on the ingress of PM2.5 from outdoor sources and its impact on population exposure in the indoor domestic environment. This study describes how building simulation can be used to determine the indoor concentration of outdoor-sourced pollution for different housing typologies and how the results can be mapped using building stock models and Geographical Information Systems software to demonstrate the modifying effect of dwellings on occupant exposure to PM2.5 across London. Building archetypes broadly representative of those in the Greater London Authority were simulated for pollution infiltration using EnergyPlus. In addition, the influence of occupant behavior on indoor levels of PM2.5 from outdoor sources was examined using a temperature-dependent window-opening scenario. Results demonstrate a range of I/O ratios of PM2.5, with detached and semi-detached dwellings most vulnerable to high levels of infiltration. When the results are mapped, central London shows lower I/O ratios of PM2.5 compared with outer London, an apparent inversion of exposure most likely caused by the prevalence of flats rather than detached or semi-detached properties. PMID:24713025

  2. How to Build Bridges between Intelligent Tutoring System Subfields of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip, Jr.; Toth, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The plethora of different subfields in intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) are often difficult to integrate theoretically when analyzing how to design an intelligent tutor. Important principles of design are claimed by many subfields, including but not limited to: design, human-computer interaction, perceptual psychology, cognitive psychology,…

  3. Influence of weather-affected material characteristics on appearance of freeze/thaw cycles in building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maděra, Jiří; Kočí, Václav; Doleželová, Magdaléna; Čáchová, Monika; Jerman, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The possible appearance of freeze/thaw cycles in external wall made of selected building material is assessed within this paper. Main objective of the presented research is to investigate the influence of weather-affected material characteristics on that phenomenon. For this sake, the samples were exposed to long-term weathering while the material characteristics were determined in the beginning of the experiment and then after two and three years. The comparative simulations of coupled heat and moisture transport inside the wall when exposed to dynamic climatic conditions were subsequently performed using reference and weather affected data. The results revealed that hygric parameters of the material, in particular, got worse which led also to deterioration of hygrothermal performance of the studied construction. The time of wetness under the external surface was twice as high when weather-affected data had been assumed. The number of possible freeze/thaw cycles was higher as well.

  4. A Testbed Demonstration of an Intelligent Archive in a Knowledge Building System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Isaac, D.; Morse, S.; Yang, W.; Bonnlander, B.; McConaughy, G.; di, L.; Danks, D.

    2005-12-01

    The last decade's influx of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites to NASA data centers has created a data-rich environment for Earth science research and applications. While advances in hardware and information management have made it possible to archive petabytes of data and distribute terabytes of data daily to a broad community of users, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications in order to realize the full potential of these valuable datasets. In examining what is needed to enable this progress in the data provider environment that exists today and is expected to evolve in the next several years, we arrived at the concept of an Intelligent Archive in context of a Knowledge Building System (IA/KBS). Our prior work and associated papers investigated usage scenarios, required capabilities, system architecture, data volume issues, and supporting technologies. We identified six key capabilities of an IA/KBS: Virtual Product Generation, Significant Event Detection, Automated Data Quality Assessment, Large-Scale Data Mining, Dynamic Feedback Loop, and Data Discovery and Efficient Requesting. Among these capabilities, large-scale data mining is perceived by many in the community to be an area of technical risk. One of the main reasons for this is that standard data mining research and algorithms operate on datasets that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the actual sizes of datasets maintained by realistic earth science data archives. Therefore, we defined a test-bed activity to implement a large-scale data mining algorithm in a pseudo-operational scale environment and to examine any issues involved. The application chosen for applying the data mining algorithm is wildfire prediction over the continental U.S. This paper reports a number of observations based on our experience with this test-bed. While

  5. A Testbed Demonstration of an Intelligent Archive in a Knowledge Building System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Isaac, David; Morse, Steve; Yang, Wenli; Bonnlander, Brian; McConaughy, Gail; Di, Liping; Danks, David

    2005-01-01

    The last decade's influx of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites to NASA data centers has created a data-rich environment for Earth science research and applications. While advances in hardware and information management have made it possible to archive petabytes of data and distribute terabytes of data daily to a broad community of users, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications in order to realize the full potential of these valuable datasets. In examining what is needed to enable this progress in the data provider environment that exists today and is expected to evolve in the next several years, we arrived at the concept of an Intelligent Archive in context of a Knowledge Building System (IA/KBS). Our prior work and associated papers investigated usage scenarios, required capabilities, system architecture, data volume issues, and supporting technologies. We identified six key capabilities of an IA/KBS: Virtual Product Generation, Significant Event Detection, Automated Data Quality Assessment, Large-Scale Data Mining, Dynamic Feedback Loop, and Data Discovery and Efficient Requesting. Among these capabilities, large-scale data mining is perceived by many in the community to be an area of technical risk. One of the main reasons for this is that standard data mining research and algorithms operate on datasets that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the actual sizes of datasets maintained by realistic earth science data archives. Therefore, we defined a test-bed activity to implement a large-scale data mining algorithm in a pseudo-operational scale environment and to examine any issues involved. The application chosen for applying the data mining algorithm is wildfire prediction over the continental U.S. This paper reports a number of observations based on our experience with this test-bed. While

  6. A Testbed Demonstration of an Intelligent Archive in a Knowledge Building System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Isaac, David; Morse, Steve; Yang, Wenli; Bonnlander, Brian; McConaughy, Gail; Di, Liping; Danks, David

    2005-01-01

    The last decade's influx of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites to NASA data centers has created a data-rich environment for Earth science research and applications. While advances in hardware and information management have made it possible to archive petabytes of data and distribute terabytes of data daily to a broad community of users, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications in order to realize the full potential of these valuable datasets. In examining what is needed to enable this progress in the data provider environment that exists today and is expected to evolve in the next several years, we arrived at the concept of an Intelligent Archive in context of a Knowledge Building System (IA/KBS). Our prior work and associated papers investigated usage scenarios, required capabilities, system architecture, data volume issues, and supporting technologies. We identified six key capabilities of an IA/KBS: Virtual Product Generation, Significant Event Detection, Automated Data Quality Assessment, Large-Scale Data Mining, Dynamic Feedback Loop, and Data Discovery and Efficient Requesting. Among these capabilities, large-scale data mining is perceived by many in the community to be an area of technical risk. One of the main reasons for this is that standard data mining research and algorithms operate on datasets that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the actual sizes of datasets maintained by realistic earth science data archives. Therefore, we defined a test-bed activity to implement a large-scale data mining algorithm in a pseudo-operational scale environment and to examine any issues involved. The application chosen for applying the data mining algorithm is wildfire prediction over the continental U.S. This paper reports a number of observations based on our experience with this test-bed. While

  7. Perceptual weighting of the envelope and fine structure across frequency bands for sentence intelligibility: Effect of interruption at the syllabic-rate and periodic-rate of speech

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Listeners often only have fragments of speech available to understand the intended message due to competing background noise. In order to maximize successful speech recognition, listeners must allocate their perceptual resources to the most informative acoustic properties. The speech signal contains temporally-varying acoustics in the envelope and fine structure that are present across the frequency spectrum. Understanding how listeners perceptually weigh these acoustic properties in different frequency regions during interrupted speech is essential for the design of assistive listening devices. This study measured the perceptual weighting of young normal-hearing listeners for the envelope and fine structure in each of three frequency bands for interrupted sentence materials. Perceptual weights were obtained during interruption at the syllabic rate (i.e., 4 Hz) and the periodic rate (i.e., 128 Hz) of speech. Potential interruption interactions with fundamental frequency information were investigated by shifting the natural pitch contour higher relative to the interruption rate. The availability of each acoustic property was varied independently by adding noise at different levels. Perceptual weights were determined by correlating a listener’s performance with the availability of each acoustic property on a trial-by-trial basis. Results demonstrated similar relative weights across the interruption conditions, with emphasis on the envelope in high-frequencies. PMID:21786914

  8. Evaluation of the Leadership Institute: A Program to Build Individual and Organizational Capacity through Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Claire Yueh-Ti; King, Jeff; Cochran, Graham R.; Argabright, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the impact of Leadership Institute, a program designed to strengthen leadership capacity through developing individuals' emotional intelligence (EQ). A pre-and posttest approach was used to collect data from two workshops with identical EQ content, program structure, and evaluation.…

  9. Knowledge for Intelligence: Discussing the State and the Role of Building Data in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquinelli, A.; Guzzetti, F.

    2016-09-01

    The availability of integrated information on buildings is the premise for an effective assets management and the provision of innovative services to buildings users: such form of knowledge relies on the efficient exploitation of existing data, providing a complete overview on the state of buildings, and on the acquisition of real-time data flows, coming from sensor and mobile devices, reporting users behaviours. If, on the one hand, technology is progressively enabling the management of new huge streams of data, on the other hand the interconnection among traditional and well rooted datasets, the majority of which in charge of public administrations, is not always guaranteed. While, at European level, interoperability issues among public archives concerning buildings were properly addressed, and the relevance of geo-information is widely recognized, in Italy this process is still taking time to be undertaken. This paper discuss the current state of Building Information in Italy, outlining a possible path for the creation of a georeferenced Building Information System at municipal level, starting from the informative heritage available in existing databases, generated with different purposes and maintained by independent authorities: the idea is to solicit that digitalization process, started a decade ago with the "Digital Administration Code", through the proposition of real use cases that might be implemented once that public data on buildings are profitably combined together.

  10. The living building

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    If one is to increase the energy performance of buildings beyond what is now possible, one can no longer afford to think of a building's systems and components as independent of one another. With emerging trends in building technology, it is becoming possible to design buildings (or groups of buildings) that respond to their environments as naturally as do living organisms. The living building integrates advances in glazing technology, photovoltaics, daylight-integrated lighting controls, HVAC and ecological waste management in conjunction with direct digital controls to respond actively to temperature, humidity, heat gain, cooling, lighting levels, and ventilation. This revolutionary building is the building of the future; it maximizes energy savings due to the inherent efficiency of an intelligent, interconnected system in which the envelope, lighting, and HVAC are always aware of and responding to each other's needs. While some of the technologies for such a system are already in use and resulting energy savings documented, it is not until advances such as electrochromic glazing reach the market that the level of integration necessary to produce the living building will be possible. This paper explores the limits of the living building's capacity to learn from environmental forces and regulate itself; the paper then examines emerging technologies that have demonstrated the potential to make such systemic integration and unprecedented energy savings possible.

  11. Design-Build-Write: Increasing the Impact of English for Specific Purposes Learning and Teaching in Aeronautical Engineering Education through Multiple Intelligences Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzl, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) task developed for teaching aeronautical engineering students. The task Design-Build-Write rests on the assumption that engineering students are skilled at mathematical reasoning, problem solving, drawing and constructing. In Gardner's 1983 Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory, these…

  12. Building emotional intelligence: a strategy for emerging nurse leaders to reduce workplace bullying.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Karen; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is one of the most concerning forms of aggression in health care organizations. Conceptualized as an emotion-based response, bullying is often triggered by today's workplace challenges. Unfortunately, workplace bullying is an escalating problem in nursing. Bullying contributes to unhealthy and toxic environments, which in turn contribute to ineffective patient care, increased stress, and decreased job satisfaction among health care providers. These equate to a poor workforce environment, which in turn increases hospital costs when nurses choose to leave. Nurse managers are in positions of power to recognize and address negative workplace behaviors, such as bullying. However, emerging leaders in particular may not be equipped with the tools to deal with bullying and consequently may choose to overlook it. Substantive evidence from other disciplines supports the contention that individuals with greater emotional intelligence are better equipped to recognize early signs of negative behavior, such as bullying. Therefore, fostering emotional intelligence in emerging nurse leaders may lead to less bullying and more positive workplace environments for nurses in the future.

  13. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  14. Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude

    2015-05-01

    The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders.

  15. Intelligent Fuzzy Optimal Active and Combinatorial Control System of Building Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Akinori; Tanaka, Kenji; Yamabe, Yuichiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    The authors have already proposed an intelligent fuzzy optimal and active control system (IFOACS) and the effectiveness of IFOACS was proved using digital simulations and shaking table tests. However, the results show that the control effect of IFOACS becomes small in case of near-source region earthquakes. To improve control effects in case of near-source region earthquakes, a combinatorial control system (CCS), in which IFOACS is combined with a fuzzy active control system (FACS), is also proposed. In this paper, control rules in CCS are optimized using parameter-free genetic algorithms (PfGAs) considering limitations of an actuator such as maximal strokes and control forces. Effectiveness of proposed combinatorial control system (CCS) is verified and discussed based on results of digital simulations.

  16. A Correlational Study of Building Principal Emotional Intelligence and the Connection to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, James

    2012-01-01

    While student achievement is only one indicator of a building principal's effectiveness, it is widely considered to be one of the most important. This is especially true in regard to the current climate of accountability surrounding education. Multiple studies have yielded results concerning the behaviors and characteristics of building…

  17. A Correlational Study of Building Principal Emotional Intelligence and the Connection to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, James

    2012-01-01

    While student achievement is only one indicator of a building principal's effectiveness, it is widely considered to be one of the most important. This is especially true in regard to the current climate of accountability surrounding education. Multiple studies have yielded results concerning the behaviors and characteristics of building…

  18. Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

  19. Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding Intelligence to Laser and Image Based Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M.; McGovern, E.; Pavia, S.

    2011-09-01

    Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects based on historic data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto a point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engin- eering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured).

  20. An Adaptive Intelligent Integrated Lighting Control Approach for High-Performance Office Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karizi, Nasim

    An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated through experiments in an actual test room. The objective was to regulate daylight on a specified work plane by controlling the blind slat angles. Furthermore, a sensor-based integrated adaptive lighting controller was designed in Simulink which included an innovative sensor optimization approach based on genetic algorithm to minimize the number of sensors and efficiently place them in the office. The controller was designed based on simple integral controllers. The objective of developed control algorithm was to improve the illuminance situation in the office through controlling the daylight and electrical lighting. To evaluate the performance of the system, the controller was applied on experimental office model in Lee et al.'s research study in 1998. The result of the developed control approach indicate a significantly improvement in lighting situation and 1-23% and 50-78% monthly electrical energy savings in the office model, compared to two static strategies when the blinds were left open and closed during the whole year respectively.

  1. Multi-Stage Feature Selection Based Intelligent Classifier for Classification of Incipient Stage Fire in Building

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Allan Melvin; Zakaria, Ammar; Mad Saad, Shaharil; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an early fire detection algorithm has been proposed based on low cost array sensing system, utilising off- the shelf gas sensors, dust particles and ambient sensors such as temperature and humidity sensor. The odour or “smellprint” emanated from various fire sources and building construction materials at early stage are measured. For this purpose, odour profile data from five common fire sources and three common building construction materials were used to develop the classification model. Normalised feature extractions of the smell print data were performed before subjected to prediction classifier. These features represent the odour signals in the time domain. The obtained features undergo the proposed multi-stage feature selection technique and lastly, further reduced by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a dimension reduction technique. The hybrid PCA-PNN based approach has been applied on different datasets from in-house developed system and the portable electronic nose unit. Experimental classification results show that the dimension reduction process performed by PCA has improved the classification accuracy and provided high reliability, regardless of ambient temperature and humidity variation, baseline sensor drift, the different gas concentration level and exposure towards different heating temperature range. PMID:26797617

  2. Design and performance of an integrated envelope/lighting system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1997-04-01

    Dynamic envelope/lighting systems offer the potential to achieve a near optimum energy-efficient environment meeting occupant needs throughout the year by adapting to dynamic meteorological conditions and changing occupant preferences in real time. With the dramatic increased functionality of the microprocessor, there is an untapped potential to make dynamic envelop/lighting systems easier to use, diagnose, and monitor, and to integrate them as part of a sophisticated building-wide control system. This study addresses the complex relationship between this energy-efficiency technology and many of the non-energy issues related to its potential acceptance by the building industry, architects, owners, and users. The authors demonstrate the concept of integrated dynamic systems with a prototype motorized venetian blind operated in synchronization with electric lighting and daylighting controls via an intelligent control system. Research work conducted with simulation software and reduced-scale and full-scale field tests is summarized. Much of this work is directly relevant to other active shading and daylighting systems on the market today and to state-of-the-art window systems yet to come (i.e., electrochromics).

  3. Dancing with Swarms: Utilizing Swarm Intelligence to Build, Investigate, and Control Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Christian

    We are surrounded by a natural world of massively parallel, decentralized biological "information processing" systems, a world that exhibits fascinating emergent properties in many ways. In fact, our very own bodies are the result of emergent patterns, as the development of any multi-cellular organism is determined by localized interactions among an enormous number of cells, carefully orchestrated by enzymes, signalling proteins and other molecular "agents". What is particularly striking about these highly distributed developmental processes is that a centralized control agency is completely absent. This is also the case for many other biological systems, such as termites which build their nests—without an architect that draws a plan, or brain cells evolving into a complex `mind machine'—without an explicit blueprint of a network layout.

  4. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  5. How to build an information gathering and processing system: lessons from naturally and artificially intelligent systems.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Jackie; Demery, Zoe P; Arriola-Rios, Veronica; Sloman, Aaron

    2012-02-01

    Imagine a situation in which you had to design a physical agent that could collect information from its environment, then store and process that information to help it respond appropriately to novel situations. What kinds of information should it attend to? How should the information be represented so as to allow efficient use and re-use? What kinds of constraints and trade-offs would there be? There are no unique answers. In this paper, we discuss some of the ways in which the need to be able to address problems of varying kinds and complexity can be met by different information processing systems. We also discuss different ways in which relevant information can be obtained, and how different kinds of information can be processed and used, by both biological organisms and artificial agents. We analyse several constraints and design features, and show how they relate both to biological organisms, and to lessons that can be learned from building artificial systems. Our standpoint overlaps with Karmiloff-Smith (1992) in that we assume that a collection of mechanisms geared to learning and developing in biological environments are available in forms that constrain, but do not determine, what can or will be learnt by individuals.

  6. CMOL/CMOS hardware architectures and performance/price for Bayesian memory - The building block of intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Mazad Shaheriar

    implementation. We later use this methodology to investigate the hardware implementations of cortex-scale spiking neural system, which is an approximate neural equivalent of BICM based cortex-scale system. The results of this investigation also suggest that CMOL is a promising candidate to implement such large-scale neuromorphic systems. In general, the assessment of such hypothetical baseline hardware architectures provides the prospects for building large-scale (mammalian cortex-scale) implementations of neuromorphic/Bayesian/intelligent systems using state-of-the-art and beyond state-of-the-art silicon structures.

  7. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, Omari; Griffiths, Dianne

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  8. Intelligent Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Marshall Space Flight Center, Ultrafast, Inc. developed the world's first, high-temperature resistant, "intelligent" fastener. NASA needed a critical-fastening appraisal and validation of spacecraft segments that are coupled together in space. The intelligent-bolt technology deletes the self-defeating procedure of having to untighten the fastener, and thus upset the joint, during inspection and maintenance. The Ultrafast solution yielded an innovation that is likely to revolutionize manufacturing assembly, particularly the automobile industry. Other areas of application range from aircraft, computers and fork-lifts to offshore platforms, buildings, and bridges.

  9. Design of AN Intelligent Individual Evacuation Model for High Rise Building Fires Based on Neural Network Within the Scope of 3d GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atila, U.; Karas, I. R.; Turan, M. K.; Rahman, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most dangerous disaster threatening the high rise and complex buildings of today's world including thousands of occupants inside is fire with no doubt. When we consider high population and the complexity of such buildings it is clear to see that performing a rapid and safe evacuation seems hard and human being does not have good memories in case of such disasters like world trade center 9/11. Therefore, it is very important to design knowledge based realtime interactive evacuation methods instead of classical strategies which lack of flexibility. This paper presents a 3D-GIS implementation which simulates the behaviour of an intelligent indoor pedestrian navigation model proposed for a self -evacuation of a person in case of fire. The model is based on Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) which is one of the most preferred artificial neural network architecture in classification and prediction problems. A sample fire scenario following through predefined instructions has been performed on 3D model of the Corporation Complex in Putrajaya (Malaysia) and the intelligent evacuation process has been realized within a proposed 3D-GIS based simulation.

  10. Combined Heat, Air, Moisture, and Pollutants Transport in Building Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianshun Jensen S.

    Combined heat, air, moisture and pollutants transport (CHAMP) exists across multi-scales of a building environmental system (BES): around the building, through the building shell/envelope, inside a multizone building, and in the micro-environments around occupants. This paper reviews previous work and presents a system model for simulating these transport processes and their impacts on indoor environmental quality. Components of the system model include a multizone network flow model for whole building, a room model for air and pollutant movement in ventilated spaces, a coupled heat, air, moisture, and pollutant transport model for building shell, an HVAC model for describing the dynamics of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and shared databases of weather conditions, transport properties of building materials, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from building materials and furnishings. The interactions among the different components, and challenges in developing the CHAMP system model for intelligent control of BES are also discussed.

  11. Design reference year for development of photovoltaic envelope systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalka, Peter; Matiasovsky, Peter

    2017-07-01

    An application of photovoltaic cells on external surfaces of building envelope represents a development of new construction element. A mutual coupling between thermal behaviour of photovoltaic layer and the other layers of the structure, with special properties, requires a specific selection of the characteristic outdoor thermal boundary conditions, necessary for optimum design of the envelope from the aspect of structure, material composition and geometry. The main design criteria are the effectiveness and elimination of overheating of photovoltaic module and the optimisation of heat distribution in the envelope structure during particular year seasons. The paper contains the results of the analysis of time courses of climatic elements during a real year as the boundary conditions for simulation of photovoltaic integrated building envelope systems, used in simulations of thermal behaviour of photovoltaics integrated with building envelope systems.

  12. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  13. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  14. Intelligent tutoring systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Boyle, C F; Reiser, B J

    1985-04-26

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP.

  15. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  16. Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John R.; Boyle, C. Franklin; Reiser, Brian J.

    1985-04-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP.

  17. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley E.; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea V.; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amandine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  18. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  19. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  20. An Approach to Building a Learning Management System that Emphasizes on Incorporating Individualized Dissemination with Intelligent Tutoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sreya

    2016-06-01

    This article proposes a new six-model architecture for an intelligent tutoring system to be incorporated in a learning management system with domain-independence feature and individualized dissemination. The present six model architecture aims to simulate a human tutor. Some recent extensions of using intelligent tutoring system (ITS) explores learning management systems to behave as a real teacher during a teaching-learning process, by taking care of, mainly, the dynamic response system. However, the present paper argues that to mimic a human teacher it needs not only the dynamic response but also the incorporation of the teacher's dynamic review of students' performance and keeping track of their current level of understanding. Here, the term individualization has been used to refer to tailor making of contents and its dissemination fitting to the individual needs and capabilities of learners who is taking a course online and is subjected to teaching in absentia. This paper describes how the individual models of the proposed architecture achieves the features of ITS.

  1. An Approach to Building a Learning Management System that Emphasizes on Incorporating Individualized Dissemination with Intelligent Tutoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sreya

    2017-02-01

    This article proposes a new six-model architecture for an intelligent tutoring system to be incorporated in a learning management system with domain-independence feature and individualized dissemination. The present six model architecture aims to simulate a human tutor. Some recent extensions of using intelligent tutoring system (ITS) explores learning management systems to behave as a real teacher during a teaching-learning process, by taking care of, mainly, the dynamic response system. However, the present paper argues that to mimic a human teacher it needs not only the dynamic response but also the incorporation of the teacher's dynamic review of students' performance and keeping track of their current level of understanding. Here, the term individualization has been used to refer to tailor making of contents and its dissemination fitting to the individual needs and capabilities of learners who is taking a course online and is subjected to teaching in absentia. This paper describes how the individual models of the proposed architecture achieves the features of ITS.

  2. Detection of cyst using image segmentation and building knowledge-based intelligent decision support system as an aid to telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janet, J.; Natesan, T. R.; Santhosh, Ramamurthy; Ibramsha, Mohideen

    2005-02-01

    An intelligent decision support tool to the Radiologist in telemedicine is described. Medical prescriptions are given based on the images of cyst that has been transmitted over computer networks to the remote medical center. The digital image, acquired by sonography, is converted into an intensity image. This image is then subjected to image preprocessing which involves correction methods to eliminate specific artifacts. The image is resized into a 256 x 256 matrix by using bilinear interpolation method. The background area is detected using distinct block operation. The area of the cyst is calculated by removing the background area from the original image. Boundary enhancement and morphological operations are done to remove unrelated pixels. This gives us the cyst volume. This segmented image of the cyst is sent to the remote medical center for analysis by Knowledge based artificial Intelligent Decision Support System (KIDSS). The type of cyst is detected and reported to the control mechanism of KIDSS. Then the inference engine compares this with the knowledge base and gives appropriate medical prescriptions or treatment recommendations by applying reasoning mechanisms at the remote medical center.

  3. Metal cladding envelope problems, retrofit solutions, and quality control investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    1992-04-01

    This paper deals with a case study of a building envelope retrofit of an insulated sheet steel and corrugated metal clad building. The building in discussion is a satellite testing facility which requires specific clean room conditions with controlled interior temperature (22 degree(s)C +/- 1 degree(s)C) and high relative humidity conditions (45% +/- 3%) to facilitate satellite testing programs. Preliminary mechanical system inspections indicated substantial increase in air intake to make up for air leakage losses. An infrared inspection along with an approximate air leakage test of the building envelope was requested by the client to determine the magnitude of the building envelope problem. This investigation concluded that significant air leakage was present throughout the building envelope and that existing mechanical systems did not have sufficient capacity to pressurize the building and negate wind and stack effect. Exfiltration particularly through openings on the top sections of the building were causing interior moisture to saturate wall insulation and render it ineffective. Concern for rusting of metal components was indicated. The subsequent envelope analysis discovered a number of typical metal building details that led to poor air tightness and wall insulation ineffectiveness. These were correlated to infrared investigation data. The retrofit solutions produced for this building not only apply to this building but to other similar building types. Further investigations indicated that air leakage and mechanical system performance were significant problems with buildings using metal cladding systems comparable to this building. Quality control before, during and after construction was identified as an important function of the architectural commissioning of the retrofit work and infrared investigations were used to verify locations of air leakage and insulation effectiveness.

  4. Opacities for Stellar Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, M. J.; Yan, Y.; Mihalas, D.; Pradhan, A. K.

    1994-02-01

    We define stellar envelopes to be those regions of stellar interiors in which atoms exist and are not markedly perturbed by the plasma environment. Availability of accurate and extensive atomic data is a prime requirement for the calculation of envelope opacities. For envelopes we adopt the criterion of mass density p < 0.01 ρ≥g cm-3. We present radiative Rosseland mean opacities for envelopes obtained using atomic data calculated in an international collaboration referred to as the Opacity Project, or OP. Equations of state are calculated using an occupation-probability formalism. To a good approximation, ionization equilibria and level populations in envelopes depend only on the temperature T and electron density Ne and are insensitive to chemical mixtures. Monochromatic opacities for all abundant chemical elements are therefore calculated on a grid of (T, Ne) values and are archived. Rosseland mean opacities are then readily calculated for any chemical mixture. Tables of Rosseland means, for any required mixtures and as functions of ρ and T, are available on request in computer-readable form. The present, op, results are compared with those from another recent study, referred to as OPAL, by C. A. Iglesias and F. A. Rogers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The agreement between the OP and OPAL calculations is generally good, although there are some differences. Both calculations give results larger than those obtained in earlier work, by factors of up to 3 or more.

  5. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  6. Negotiating Intelligently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenham, John; Simoff, Simeon

    The predominant approaches to automating competitive interaction appeal to the central notion of a utility function that represents an agent's preferences. Agent's are then endowed with machinery that enables them to perform actions that are intended to optimise their expected utility. Despite the extent of this work, the deployment of automatic negotiating agents in real world scenarios is rare. We propose that utility functions, or preference orderings, are often not known with certainty; further, the uncertainty that underpins them is typically in a state of flux. We propose that the key to building intelligent negotiating agents is to take an agent's historic observations as primitive, to model that agent's changing uncertainty in that information, and to use that model as the foundation for the agent's reasoning. We describe an agent architecture, with an attendant theory, that is based on that model. In this approach, the utility of contracts, and the trust and reliability of a trading partner are intermediate concepts that an agent may estimate from its information model. This enables us to describe intelligent agents that are not necessarily utility optimisers, that value information as a commodity, and that build relationships with other agents through the trusted exchange of information as well as contracts.

  7. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    DOEpatents

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  8. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  9. Pushing the endogenous envelope

    PubMed Central

    Henzy, Jamie E.; Johnson, Welkin E.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of retroviral envelope glycoproteins characterized to date are typical of type I viral fusion proteins, having a receptor binding subunit associated with a fusion subunit. The fusion subunits of lentiviruses and alpha-, beta-, delta- and gammaretroviruses have a very conserved domain organization and conserved features of secondary structure, making them suitable for phylogenetic analyses. Such analyses, along with sequence comparisons, reveal evidence of numerous recombination events in which retroviruses have acquired envelope glycoproteins from heterologous sequences. Thus, the envelope gene (env) can have a history separate from that of the polymerase gene (pol), which is the most commonly used gene in phylogenetic analyses of retroviruses. Focusing on the fusion subunits of the genera listed above, we describe three distinct types of retroviral envelope glycoproteins, which we refer to as gamma-type, avian gamma-type and beta-type. By tracing these types within the ‘fossil record’ provided by endogenous retroviruses, we show that they have surprisingly distinct evolutionary histories and dynamics, with important implications for cross-species transmissions and the generation of novel lineages. These findings validate the utility of env sequences in contributing phylogenetic signal that enlarges our understanding of retrovirus evolution. PMID:23938755

  10. Intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.R.; Boyle, C.F.; Reiser, B.J.

    1985-04-26

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP. 19 references, 2 figures.

  11. Maritime Intelligent Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew

    The concept of intelligent transport systems, developed since 1980s, includes all modes of transport. Relevant developments in road transport are the most advanced. Recently water transport, particularly maritime transport, has gained more attention in this respect, in connection with building and further developments of maritime intelligent transport systems. The present state and directions of development of telematic systems in maritime transport will be discussed, with a focus on marine navigation.

  12. Intelligent control in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1988-08-01

    A new paradigm of solving control problems is considered: intelligent control. Conventional control theory does not offer adequate analytical and design tools for a number of systems: robots, automated manufacturing, multidimensional nonlinear and stochastic systems, multisensor systems, systems under human supervision, etc. Issues of dissatisfaction with conventional control theory are discussed. Several major domains of interest are formulated for the theory of intelligent control, as well as several possible avenues of their approaching in a nonconventional way. Nested hierarchical information structures are introduced typical for the problems formulated within the theory of intelligent control such as building multiresolutional multiloop controllers, providing continuity of planning/control processes, etc. 42 references.

  13. Building a New Paradigm: A Staff Development Program That Is Seeking To Reach Each Child's Potential through Knowing and Using the Seven Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Ronald R.; Croskery, Beverly

    Inservice training sessions were provided for teachers from elementary to high school level on the topic of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and its application to instruction and curriculum. In the training, participants experience, plan, and reflect on the intelligences and their uses in their lives and their classrooms. The…

  14. Beyond Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Multicultural Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud F.

    Since intelligence is a highly respected universal value, education must build on sociocultural and educational expectations of diverse learners. Multicultural education is useful in tapping diverse learners' multiple intelligences. The concept of multiple intelligences is linked to multicultural education, with the interface between the two…

  15. Model scattering envelopes of young stellar objects. II - Infalling envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Barbara A.; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We present scattered light images for models of young stellar objects surrounded by dusty envelopes. The envelopes are assumed to have finite angular momentum and are falling in steady flow onto a disk. The model envelopes include holes, such as might be created by energetic bipolar flows. We calculate images using the Monte Carlo method to follow the light scattered in the dusty envelope and circumstellar disk, assuming that the photons originate from the central source. Adopting typical interstellar medium dust opacities and expected mass infall rates for protostars of about 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr, we find that detectable amounts of optical radiation can escape from envelopes falling into a disk as small as about 10-100 AU, depending upon the viewing angle and the size of the bipolar flow cavity. We suggest that the extended optical and near-IR light observed around several young stars is scattered by dusty infalling envelopes rather than disks.

  16. Model scattering envelopes of young stellar objects. II - Infalling envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Barbara A.; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We present scattered light images for models of young stellar objects surrounded by dusty envelopes. The envelopes are assumed to have finite angular momentum and are falling in steady flow onto a disk. The model envelopes include holes, such as might be created by energetic bipolar flows. We calculate images using the Monte Carlo method to follow the light scattered in the dusty envelope and circumstellar disk, assuming that the photons originate from the central source. Adopting typical interstellar medium dust opacities and expected mass infall rates for protostars of about 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr, we find that detectable amounts of optical radiation can escape from envelopes falling into a disk as small as about 10-100 AU, depending upon the viewing angle and the size of the bipolar flow cavity. We suggest that the extended optical and near-IR light observed around several young stars is scattered by dusty infalling envelopes rather than disks.

  17. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  18. Predicted effects of sensorineural hearing loss on across-fiber envelope coding in the auditory nervea

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Heinz, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-channel envelope correlations are hypothesized to influence speech intelligibility, particularly in adverse conditions. Acoustic analyses suggest speech envelope correlations differ for syllabic and phonemic ranges of modulation frequency. The influence of cochlear filtering was examined here by predicting cross-channel envelope correlations in different speech modulation ranges for normal and impaired auditory-nerve (AN) responses. Neural cross-correlation coefficients quantified across-fiber envelope coding in syllabic (0–5 Hz), phonemic (5–64 Hz), and periodicity (64–300 Hz) modulation ranges. Spike trains were generated from a physiologically based AN model. Correlations were also computed using the model with selective hair-cell damage. Neural predictions revealed that envelope cross-correlation decreased with increased characteristic-frequency separation for all modulation ranges (with greater syllabic-envelope correlation than phonemic or periodicity). Syllabic envelope was highly correlated across many spectral channels, whereas phonemic and periodicity envelopes were correlated mainly between adjacent channels. Outer-hair-cell impairment increased the degree of cross-channel correlation for phonemic and periodicity ranges for speech in quiet and in noise, thereby reducing the number of independent neural information channels for envelope coding. In contrast, outer-hair-cell impairment was predicted to decrease cross-channel correlation for syllabic envelopes in noise, which may partially account for the reduced ability of hearing-impaired listeners to segregate speech in complex backgrounds. PMID:21682421

  19. Simulation of random envelope processes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1972-01-01

    Efficient and practical methods of simulating stationary and nonstationary random envelope processes are presented. The stationary envelope processes are simulated by using the fast Fourier transform while the nonstationary envelope processes are simulated as the square root of the sum of a series of cosine functions and a series of sine functions with random phase angles. Typical applications of the envelope simulation are the simulations of peaks and troughs which play an important role in the analyses of the first excursion probability, fatigue and crack propagation. In particular, applications to the crack propagation under random loadings are demonstrated in detail.

  20. Building Pedagogical Intelligence. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    2005-01-01

    It is hard to find a campus today that does not collect student evaluations of teaching. Not everyone, it is true, puts full stock in the results, but it is hard to argue with the idea that students have important perspectives to contribute. The writer advocates that listening to students is a good idea that does not go far enough. Describing…

  1. DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  3. How Building Systems Affect Worker Wellness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    about chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have increased interest in efficient mechanical systems and intelligent building design. Intelligent building design...Lacquers, varnishes, polish removers, adhesives Aldehydes Formaldehyde, nonanal Fungicides, germicides, disinfectants, artficial and permanent-press...Safety Engineers, 1985). 79 DISTRI"UTION Chief of Engineers USA Intelligence and Fort Belvoir, VA 22060 ATTN: CEHBC-IM-LH (2) Security Command ATMN: CECC

  4. Definition and means of maintaining the effluent stack monitors portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.

    1997-01-21

    The Effluent Stack Monitors ensure that the release of alpha emitting radionuclides to the environment via the building exhaust stacks is continuously monitored and alarms are initiated if the release exceeds identified limits. This document defines the safety envelope for the Effluent Stack Monitors and identifies the operability requirements, components, and procedures which ensure this safety envelope is maintained.

  5. Fast Moreau envelope computation I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucet, Yves

    2006-11-01

    The present article summarizes the state of the art algorithms to compute the discrete Moreau envelope, and presents a new linear-time algorithm, named NEP for NonExpansive Proximal mapping. Numerical comparisons between the NEP and two existing algorithms: The Linear-time Legendre Transform (LLT) and the Parabolic Envelope (PE) algorithms are performed. Worst-case time complexity, convergence results, and examples are included. The fast Moreau envelope algorithms first factor the Moreau envelope as several one-dimensional transforms and then reduce the brute force quadratic worst-case time complexity to linear time by using either the equivalence with Fast Legendre Transform algorithms, the computation of a lower envelope of parabolas, or, in the convex case, the non expansiveness of the proximal mapping.

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  7. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  8. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  9. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  11. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  12. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  13. INTERIOR OF TARGET INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF TARGET INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-10-04

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  16. Advanced Interactive Facades - Critical Elements for Future GreenBuildings?

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Aschehoug, Oyvind; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2003-11-01

    Building designers and owners have always been fascinated with the extensive use of glass in building envelopes. Today the highly glazed facade has almost become an iconic element for a 'green building' that provides daylighting and a visual connection with the natural environment. Even before the current interest in green buildings there was no shortage of highly glazed building designs. But many of these buildings either rejected sunlight, and some associated daylight and view with highly reflective glazings or used highly transmissive glass and encountered serious internal comfort problems that could only be overcome with large HVAC systems, resulting in significant energy, cost and environmental penalties. From the 1960's to the 1990's innovation in glazing made heat absorbing glass, reflective glass and double glazing commonplace, with an associated set of aesthetic features. In the last decade there has been a subtle shift from trying to optimize an ideal, static design solution using these glazings to making the facade responsive, interactive and even intelligent. More sophisticated design approaches and technologies have emerged using new high-performance glazing, improved shading and solar control systems, greater use of automated controls, and integration with other building systems. One relatively new architectural development is the double glass facade that offers a cavity that can provide improved acoustics, better solar control and enhanced ventilation. Taken to its ultimate development, an interactive facade should respond intelligently and reliably to the changing outdoor conditions and internal performance needs. It should exploit available natural energies for lighting, heating and ventilation, should be able to provide large energy savings compared to conventional technologies, and at the same time maintain optimal indoor visual and thermal comfort conditions. As photovoltaic costs decrease in the future, these onsite power systems will be

  17. Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

  18. Envelope glycoprotein of arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Burri, Dominique J; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2012-10-17

    Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC) by cellular signal peptidases and the cellular enzyme Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P) yielding a tripartite mature GP complex formed by GP1/GP2 and a stable signal peptide (SSP). GPC cleavage by SKI-1/S1P is crucial for fusion competence and incorporation of mature GP into nascent budding virion particles. In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its molecular interaction with SKI-1/S1P. A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for therapeutic intervention to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  19. Isolation of bacteria envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Quan, Shu; Hiniker, Annie; Collet, Jean-François; Bardwell, James C A

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic analysis on cell envelope proteins from Gram-negative bacteria requires specific isolation techniques. We found that conventional extraction methods such as osmotic shock cause extracts to be heavily contaminated with soluble cytoplasmic proteins. These cytoplasmic protein contaminants constitute the major signal in proteomic analysis and can overwhelm the signals coming from genuine envelope components. After extensive testing of various protocols for the preparation of envelope contents, we found that a modified version of the method of Oliver and Beckwith consistently produces the cleanest extract of periplasmic and outer membrane proteins.We have designated this very simple method TSE extraction because it uses a Tris-sucrose solution supplemented with EDTA.Cytoplasmic and inner membrane protein contaminants are not evident on 1D SDS polyacrylamide gels and contribute to less than 6% of total signal in very sensitive mass spectrometry analysis. This straightforward method is therefore ideal for -analyzing specific proteomic changes in the cell envelope.

  20. The Contribution of Matched Envelope Dynamic Range to the Binaural Benefits in Simulated Bilateral Electric Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Qiu, Jianxin; Liu, Yehai; Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of envelope dynamic-range mismatch on the intelligibility of Mandarin speech in noise by simulated bilateral electric hearing. Method: Noise-vocoded Mandarin speech, corrupted by speech-shaped noise at 5 and 0 dB signal-to-noise ratios, was presented unilaterally or bilaterally to 10 normal-hearing…

  1. The Contribution of Matched Envelope Dynamic Range to the Binaural Benefits in Simulated Bilateral Electric Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Qiu, Jianxin; Liu, Yehai; Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of envelope dynamic-range mismatch on the intelligibility of Mandarin speech in noise by simulated bilateral electric hearing. Method: Noise-vocoded Mandarin speech, corrupted by speech-shaped noise at 5 and 0 dB signal-to-noise ratios, was presented unilaterally or bilaterally to 10 normal-hearing…

  2. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  3. Plant intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  4. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Uribe, Oscar; San Martin, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Alegre, María C.; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-01-01

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction. PMID:26528978

  5. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Oscar Hernández; Martin, Juan Pablo San; Garcia-Alegre, María C; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-10-30

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  6. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, O.; Griffiths, D.

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  7. Artificial Intelligence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PATTERN RECOGNITION, * ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , *TEXTBOOKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, ROBOTS, PROBLEM SOLVING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, GAME THEORY, NATURAL LANGUAGE, SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS.

  8. Predicting the intelligibility of vocoded speech

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a number of speech intelligibility indices in terms of predicting the intelligibility of vocoded speech. Design Noise-corrupted sentences were vocoded in a total of 80 conditions, involving three different SNR levels (-5, 0 and 5 dB) and two types of maskers (steady-state noise and two-talker). Tone-vocoder simulations were used as well as simulations of combined electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). The vocoded sentences were presented to normal-hearing listeners for identification, and the resulting intelligibility scores were used to assess the correlation of various speech intelligibility measures. These included measures designed to assess speech intelligibility, including the speech-transmission index (STI) and articulation index (AI) based measures, as well as distortions in hearing aids (e.g., coherence-based measures). These measures employed primarily either the temporal-envelope or the spectral-envelope information in the prediction model. The underlying hypothesis in the present study is that measures that assess temporal envelope distortions, such as those based on the speech-transmission index, should correlate highly with the intelligibility of vocoded speech. This is based on the fact that vocoder simulations preserve primarily envelope information, similar to the processing implemented in current cochlear implant speech processors. Similarly, it is hypothesized that measures such as the coherence-based index that assess the distortions present in the spectral envelope could also be used to model the intelligibility of vocoded speech. Results Of all the intelligibility measures considered, the coherence-based and the STI-based measures performed the best. High correlations (r=0.9-0.96) were maintained with the coherence-based measures in all noisy conditions. The highest correlation obtained with the STI-based measure was 0.92, and that was obtained when high modulation rates (100

  9. Alternative Essences of Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    us to construct systems which do scale autonomously (Ferrell & Kemp 1996). Social Interaction Building social skills into an artificial intelligence...Development of social interaction The social skills required to make use of scaffolding are complex. Infants acquire these social skills through a develop...developmental models of autism1, and on models of the evolutionary development of social skills (Scassellati 1996). The first step in this devel

  10. Intelligent Assistance without Artificial Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Software Objects 4 Ponur 2: Expeftmntal and Pub~c Databases 9 If -𔄁-7~~,- 5 - bnitefignit Assisftanc without Artficial Intel~lgencO ’WIL Kaiseirl...production-qlualty software eng**"eeringevimnmen that provide seemin~gly Intelligent assistance without equirling new breakthoughs In Al research. Themre...8217.cance of SMILF as an example of Intelligent assistance without artificial intelligence . * 2 . ~2 Aichlbtscmr S 1BEi Utended for use by small torns

  11. Modeling study of seated reach envelopes based on spherical harmonics with consideration of the difficulty ratings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhi; Ren, Jindong; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Qun; Liu, Honghao

    2017-04-01

    Reach envelopes are very useful for the design and layout of controls. In building reach envelopes, one of the key problems is to represent the reach limits accurately and conveniently. Spherical harmonics are proved to be accurate and convenient method for fitting of the reach capability envelopes. However, extensive study are required on what components of spherical harmonics are needed in fitting the envelope surfaces. For applications in the vehicle industry, an inevitable issue is to construct reach limit surfaces with consideration of the seating positions of the drivers, and it is desirable to use population envelopes rather than individual envelopes. However, it is relatively inconvenient to acquire reach envelopes via a test considering the seating positions of the drivers. In addition, the acquired envelopes are usually unsuitable for use with other vehicle models because they are dependent on the current cab packaging parameters. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct reach envelopes for real vehicle conditions based on individual capability data considering seating positions. Moreover, traditional reach envelopes provide little information regarding the assessment of reach difficulty. The application of reach envelopes will improve design quality by providing difficulty-rating information about reach operations. In this paper, using the laboratory data of seated reach with consideration of the subjective difficulty ratings, the method of modeling reach envelopes is studied based on spherical harmonics. The surface fitting using spherical harmonics is conducted for circumstances both with and without seat adjustments. For use with adjustable seat, the seating position model is introduced to re-locate the test data. The surface fitting is conducted for both population and individual reach envelopes, as well as for boundary envelopes. Comparison of the envelopes of adjustable seat and the SAE J287 control reach envelope shows that the latter

  12. Illusory Intelligences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2008-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences has had a huge influence on school education. But its credentials lack justification, as the first section of this paper shows via a detailed philosophical analysis of how the intelligences are identified. If we want to make sense of the theory, we need to turn from a philosophical to a historical…

  13. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  14. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A series of articles focuses on artificial intelligence research and development to enhance information systems and services. Topics discussed include knowledge base designs, expert system development tools, natural language processing, expert systems for reference services, and the role that artificial intelligence concepts should have in…

  15. Illusory Intelligences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2008-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences has had a huge influence on school education. But its credentials lack justification, as the first section of this paper shows via a detailed philosophical analysis of how the intelligences are identified. If we want to make sense of the theory, we need to turn from a philosophical to a historical…

  16. A Measure of Real-Time Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavane, Vaibhav

    2013-03-01

    We propose a new measure of intelligence for general reinforcement learning agents, based on the notion that an agent's environment can change at any step of execution of the agent. That is, an agent is considered to be interacting with its environment in real-time. In this sense, the resulting intelligence measure is more general than the universal intelligence measure (Legg and Hutter, 2007) and the anytime universal intelligence test (Hernández-Orallo and Dowe, 2010). A major advantage of the measure is that an agent's computational complexity is factored into the measure in a natural manner. We show that there exist agents with intelligence arbitrarily close to the theoretical maximum, and that the intelligence of agents depends on their parallel processing capability. We thus believe that the measure can provide a better evaluation of agents and guidance for building practical agents with high intelligence.

  17. Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

  18. Envelope Inflation or Stellar Wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, S.; Matzner, C. D.

    We an optically-thick, transonic, steady wind model for a H-free Wolf-Rayet star. A bifurcation is found across a critical mass loss rate Mb. Slower winds M < Mb extend by several hydrostatic stellar radii, reproduce features of envelope in ation from Petrovic et al. (2006) and Gräfener et al. (2012), and are energetically unbound. This work is of particular interest for extended envelopes and winds, radiative hydrodynamic instabilities (eg. wind stagnation, clumping, etc.), and NLTE atmospheric models.

  19. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of nonmetallic or fabric structures for space application is considered. The following structures are suggested: (1) unpressurized space hangars; (2) extendable tunnels for soft docking; and (3) manned habitat for space stations, storage facilities, and work structures. The uses of the tunnel as a passageway: for personnel and equipment, eliminating extravehicular activity, for access to a control cabin on a space crane and between free flyers and the space station are outlined. The personnal occupied woven envelope robot (POWER) device is shown. The woven envelope (tunnel) acts as part of the boom of a crane. Potential applications of POWER are outlined. Several possible deflection mechanisms and design criteria are determined.

  20. Carbon chemistry of circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieging, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical composition of envelopes surrounding cool evolved stars, as determined from microwave spectroscopic observations, is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent observations with the new large mm-wavelength telescopes and interferometer arrays, and on new theoretical work, especially concerning ion-molecule chemistry of carbon-bearing in these envelopes. Thermal (as opposed to maser) emission lines are discussed. Much progress has been made in the past few years in the theoretical understanding of these objects. It is already clear, however, that observations with the new generation of mm-telescopes will require substantial improvements in the theoretical models to achieve a thorough understanding of the data now becoming available.

  1. Bionics: A Step toward Artificial Intelligence Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    Recent developments and future prospects in the borrowing of biological principles to build problem solving relationships between human intelligence and the information storage and manipulation capacities of computers. Twenty-one references. (LY)

  2. Bionics: A Step toward Artificial Intelligence Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    Recent developments and future prospects in the borrowing of biological principles to build problem solving relationships between human intelligence and the information storage and manipulation capacities of computers. Twenty-one references. (LY)

  3. Agile manufacturing in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPadua, Mark; Dalton, George

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the Agile Manufacturing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (AMISR) effort is to research, develop, design and build a prototype multi-intelligence (multi-INT), reconfigurable pod demonstrating benefits of agile manufacturing and a modular open systems approach (MOSA) to make podded intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability more affordable and operationally flexible.

  4. Plant nuclear envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    Compared to research in the animal field, the plant NE has been clearly under-investigated. The available data so far indicate similarities as well as striking differences that raise interesting questions about the function and evolution of the NE in different kingdoms. Despite a seemingly similar structure and organization of the NE, many of the proteins that are integral components of the animal NE appear to lack homologues in plant cells. The sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome has not led to the identification of homologues of animal NE components, but has indicated that the plant NE must have a distinct protein composition different from that found in metazoan cells. Besides providing a selective barrier between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, the plant NE functions as a scaffold for chromatin but the scaffolding components are not identical to those found in animal cells. The NE comprises an MTOC in higher plant cells, a striking difference to the organization of microtubule nucleation in other eukaryotic cells. Nuclear pores are present in the plant NE, but identifiable orthologues of most animal and yeast nucleoporins are presently lacking. The transport pathway through the nuclear pores via the action of karyopherins and the Ran cycle is conserved in plant cells. Interestingly, RanGAP is sequestered to the NE in plant cells and animal cells, yet the targeting domains and mechanisms of attachment are different between the two kingdoms. At present, only a few proteins localized at the plant NE have been identified molecularly. Future research will have to expand the list of known protein components involved in building a functional plant NE.

  5. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  6. Distributed Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLagan, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed intelligence occurs when people in an organization take responsibility for creating innovations, solving problems, and making decisions. Organizations that have it excel in their markets and the global environment. (Author/JOW)

  7. An intelligent assistant for physicians.

    PubMed

    Gavrilis, Dimitris; Georgoulas, George; Vasiloglou, Nikolaos; Nikolakopoulos, George

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a software tool developed for assisting physicians during an examination process. The tool consists of a number of modules with the aim to make the examination process not only quicker but also fault proof moving from a simple electronic medical records management system towards an intelligent assistant for the physician. The intelligent component exploits users' inputs as well as well established standards to line up possible suggestions for filling in the examination report. As the physician continues using it, the tool keeps extracting new knowledge. The architecture of the tool is presented in brief while the intelligent component which builds upon the notion of multilabel learning is presented in more detail. Our preliminary results from a real test case indicate that the performance of the intelligent module can reach quite high performance without a large amount of data.

  8. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  9. Partnerships in Pharma--An Economist Intelligence Unit Seminar--Building Innovation into Alliances and Business Models. 1 October 2010, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Kibble, Alexandra

    2010-12-01

    The Partnerships in Pharma seminar, held in London, included topics related to building innovation into alliances and business models within the pharmaceutical industry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on strategies for successful partnering, partnering alongside an evolving CRO industry, considering the pharma value chain, and partnerships between industry and academia. Approaches used by Ipsen, Merck Serono, Pfizer and ViiV Healthcare are also described.

  10. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  11. Processing Semblances Induced through Inter-Postsynaptic Functional LINKs, Presumed Biological Parallels of K-Lines Proposed for Building Artificial Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Vadakkan, Kunjumon I.

    2011-01-01

    The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of internal sensation – namely, the semblion. In neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization re-activation of functional LINKs is expected to induce semblions, enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI). This paper also explains suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky’s K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system. PMID:21845180

  12. Processing Semblances Induced through Inter-Postsynaptic Functional LINKs, Presumed Biological Parallels of K-Lines Proposed for Building Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Vadakkan, Kunjumon I

    2011-01-01

    The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of internal sensation - namely, the semblion. In neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization re-activation of functional LINKs is expected to induce semblions, enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI). This paper also explains suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky's K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system.

  13. Nano insulating materials and energy retrofit of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The article offers an analysis of the use of nanotechnological insulation materials (NIMs) for energy upgrading of buildings, illustrating the possibility of their integration into the building envelope and the benefits achievable in terms of architectural quality, comfort and energy saving, within the new framework of European legislation aimed at achieving Zero energy buildings. Particular reference is given to Fibre Reinforced Aerogel Blankets for the building envelope, especially interesting for their wide possible applications even combined with phase change materials.

  14. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  15. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Computing the Envelope for Stepwise-Constant Resource Allocations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Computing tight resource-level bounds is a fundamental problem in the construction of flexible plans with resource utilization. In this paper we describe an efficient algorithm that builds a resource envelope, the tightest possible such bound. The algorithm is based on transforming the temporal network of resource consuming and producing events into a flow network with nodes equal to the events and edges equal to the necessary predecessor links between events. A staged maximum flow problem on the network is then used to compute the time of occurrence and the height of each step of the resource envelope profile. Each stage has the same computational complexity of solving a maximum flow problem on the entire flow network. This makes this method computationally feasible and promising for use in the inner loop of flexible-time scheduling algorithms.

  17. Computing the Envelope for Stepwise Constant Resource Allocations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimating tight resource level is a fundamental problem in the construction of flexible plans with resource utilization. In this paper we describe an efficient algorithm that builds a resource envelope, the tightest possible such bound. The algorithm is based on transforming the temporal network of resource consuming and producing events into a flow network with noises equal to the events and edges equal to the necessary predecessor links between events. The incremental solution of a staged maximum flow problem on the network is then used to compute the time of occurrence and the height of each step of the resource envelope profile. The staged algorithm has the same computational complexity of solving a maximum flow problem on the entire flow network. This makes this method computationally feasible for use in the inner loop of search-based scheduling algorithms.

  18. Intelligent Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    Research has shown that differences among ordinary people in intelligence and personality depend equally on individual genetic variability and on differences in the environments that siblings experience within the same family, not differences in the neighborhood, school, and community environments. As of yet, there are no adequate theories to…

  19. Intelligent Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    Research has shown that differences among ordinary people in intelligence and personality depend equally on individual genetic variability and on differences in the environments that siblings experience within the same family, not differences in the neighborhood, school, and community environments. As of yet, there are no adequate theories to…

  20. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  1. Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  2. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  3. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  4. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  5. Cortical processing of dynamic sound envelope transitions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-12-08

    Slow envelope fluctuations in the range of 2-20 Hz provide important segmental cues for processing communication sounds. For a successful segmentation, a neural processor must capture envelope features associated with the rise and fall of signal energy, a process that is often challenged by the interference of background noise. This study investigated the neural representations of slowly varying envelopes in quiet and in background noise in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys. We characterized envelope features based on the local average and rate of change of sound level in envelope waveforms and identified envelope features to which neurons were selective by reverse correlation. Our results showed that envelope feature selectivity of A1 neurons was correlated with the degree of nonmonotonicity in their static rate-level functions. Nonmonotonic neurons exhibited greater feature selectivity than monotonic neurons in quiet and in background noise. The diverse envelope feature selectivity decreased spike-timing correlation among A1 neurons in response to the same envelope waveforms. As a result, the variability, but not the average, of the ensemble responses of A1 neurons represented more faithfully the dynamic transitions in low-frequency sound envelopes both in quiet and in background noise.

  6. Cell entry of enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Cosset, François-Loic; Lavillette, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Enveloped viruses penetrate their cell targets following the merging of their membrane with that of the cell. This fusion process is catalyzed by one or several viral glycoproteins incorporated on the membrane of the virus. These envelope glycoproteins (EnvGP) evolved in order to combine two features. First, they acquired a domain to bind to a specific cellular protein, named "receptor." Second, they developed, with the help of cellular proteins, a function of finely controlled fusion to optimize the replication and preserve the integrity of the cell, specific to the genus of the virus. Following the activation of the EnvGP either by binding to their receptors and/or sometimes the acid pH of the endosomes, many changes of conformation permit ultimately the action of a specific hydrophobic domain, the fusion peptide, which destabilizes the cell membrane and leads to the opening of the lipidic membrane. The comprehension of these mechanisms is essential to develop medicines of the therapeutic class of entry inhibitor like enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this chapter, we will summarize the different envelope glycoprotein structures that viruses develop to achieve membrane fusion and the entry of the virus. We will describe the different entry pathways and cellular proteins that viruses have subverted to allow infection of the cell and the receptors that are used. Finally, we will illustrate more precisely the recent discoveries that have been made within the field of the entry process, with a focus on the use of pseudoparticles. These pseudoparticles are suitable for high-throughput screenings that help in the development of natural or artificial inhibitors as new therapeutics of the class of entry inhibitors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (Inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (Inventor); Lee, Burnett (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  8. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  9. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  10. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  11. Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

    2003-01-01

    This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

  12. Team B Intelligence Coups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  13. Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neisser, Ulric; And Others

    1996-01-01

    As a response to recent public debate about the nature of intelligence, this article reviews the "state of the art" in the study of intelligence, exploring significant conceptualizations of intelligence, the use and interpretation of intelligence tests, racial or ethnic differences in intelligence, and major issues yet to be resolved.…

  14. Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition

  15. Team B Intelligence Coups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  16. The dynamic nature of the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Arnone, James T; Walters, Alison D; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, chromosomes are encased by a dynamic nuclear envelope. In contrast to metazoans, where the nuclear envelope disassembles during mitosis, many fungi including budding yeast undergo “closed mitosis,” where the nuclear envelope remains intact throughout the cell cycle. Consequently, during closed mitosis the nuclear envelope must expand to accommodate chromosome segregation to the two daughter cells. A recent study by Witkin et al. in budding yeast showed that if progression through mitosis is delayed, for example due to checkpoint activation, the nuclear envelope continues to expand despite the block to chromosome segregation. Moreover, this expansion occurs at a specific region of the nuclear envelope- adjacent to the nucleolus- forming an extension referred to as a “flare.” These observations raise questions regarding the regulation of nuclear envelope expansion both in budding yeast and in higher eukaryotes, the mechanisms confining mitotic nuclear envelope expansion to a particular region and the possible consequences of failing to regulate nuclear envelope expansion during the cell cycle. PMID:23873576

  17. Nonstationary envelope process and first excursion probability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of stationary random envelope proposed by Cramer and Leadbetter, is extended to the envelope of nonstationary random process possessing evolutionary power spectral densities. The density function, the joint density function, the moment function, and the crossing rate of a level of the nonstationary envelope process are derived. Based on the envelope statistics, approximate solutions to the first excursion probability of nonstationary random processes are obtained. In particular, applications of the first excursion probability to the earthquake engineering problems are demonstrated in detail.

  18. Testing the Definition of the ESC Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    The previous effort, including a successful Change Control Request, addressed shrinking the size of the Earth Science Constellations' (ESC) Envelope by reducing the Margin. Fundamental to the purpose of the Envelope is the case where the argument of perigee of the secondary object circulates from 90 degrees to 270 degrees. This ("outside of the envelope, always outside the envelope") case was tested both numerically in a spreadsheet and analytically. Results showed how it is important to include the fact that a secondary with a different semi-major axis has a different frozen eccentricity value.

  19. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  20. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  1. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... framing shall be determined from one of three methods: (a) Laboratory or field test measurements based on RS-5, RS-6, RS-7, or RS-8 (incorporated by reference, see § 434.701). (b) The zone method described... information or laboratory or field test measurements using RS-5, RS-6, RS-7, or RS-8 (incorporated...

  2. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... framing shall be determined from one of three methods: (a) Laboratory or field test measurements based on RS-5, RS-6, RS-7, or RS-8 (incorporated by reference, see § 434.701). (b) The zone method described... information or laboratory or field test measurements using RS-5, RS-6, RS-7, or RS-8 (incorporated...

  3. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... framing shall be determined from one of three methods: (a) Laboratory or field test measurements based on RS-5, RS-6, RS-7, or RS-8 (incorporated by reference, see § 434.701). (b) The zone method described... information or laboratory or field test measurements using RS-5, RS-6, RS-7, or RS-8 (incorporated...

  4. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... position of the vapor retarder shall be determined taking into account local climate and indoor humidity... local climate and indoor humidity level. The vapor retarder shall have a performance rating of 1 perm or...

  5. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  6. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  7. Practical Integration Approach and Whole Building Energy Simulation of Three Energy Efficient Building Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. P.; Zhivov, A.; Heron, D.; Deru, M.; Benne, K.

    2010-08-01

    Three technologies that have potential to save energy and improve sustainability of buildings are dedicated outdoor air systems, radiant heating and cooling systems and tighter building envelopes. To investigate the energy savings potential of these three technologies, whole building energy simulations were performed for a barracks facility and an administration facility in 15 U.S. climate zones and 16 international locations.

  8. Modelling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Jørgensen and Dau (J Acoust Soc Am 130:1475-1487, 2011) proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech. Instead of considering the reduction of the temporal modulation energy as the intelligibility metric, as assumed in the STI, the sEPSM applies the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv). This metric was shown to be the key for predicting the intelligibility of reverberant speech as well as noisy speech processed by spectral subtraction. The key role of the SNRenv metric is further supported here by the ability of a short-term version of the sEPSM to predict speech masking release for different speech materials and modulated interferers. However, the sEPSM cannot account for speech subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of the intelligibility of speech signal is strongly affected, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast, the effects of this distortion can be predicted -successfully by the spectro-temporal modulation index (STMI) (Elhilali et al., Speech Commun 41:331-348, 2003), which assumes an explicit analysis of the spectral "ripple" structure of the speech signal. However, since the STMI applies the same decision metric as the STI, it fails to account for spectral subtraction. The results from this study suggest that the SNRenv might reflect a powerful decision metric, while some explicit across-frequency analysis seems crucial in some conditions. How such across-frequency analysis is "realized" in the auditory system remains unresolved.

  9. Intelligent Tutor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  10. Intelligent navigation and multivehicle coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Flann, Nicholas S.

    1999-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University's Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles. This paper discusses the development of a strategy that uses a sophisticated, highly intelligent sensor platform to allow centralized coordination between smaller and inexpensive robots. The three components of the multi-agent cooperative scheme are small-scale robots, large-scale robots, and the central control station running a mission and path- planning software. The smaller robots are used for activities where the probability of loss increases, such as Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or mine detonation. The research is aimed at building simple, inexpensive multi-agent vehicles and an intelligent navigation and multi-vehicle coordination system suitable for UXO, environmental remediation or mine detection. These simplified robots are capable of conducting hunting missions using low-cost positioning sensors and intelligent algorithms. Additionally, a larger sensor-rich intelligent system capable of transporting smaller units to outlying remote sites has been developed. The larger system interfaces to the central control station and provides navigation assistance to multiple low-cost vehicles. Finally, mission and path-planning software serves as the operator control unit, allowing central data collection, map creation and tracking, and an interface to the larger system as well as each smaller unit. The power of this scheme is the ability to scale to the appropriate level for the complexity of the mission.

  11. The Modification of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinillos, Jose Luis

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the arguments supporting and opposing the idea that human intelligence can be improved. Research on the hereditary and environmental determinants of intelligence is examined. Problems in defining and measuring intelligence are discussed. (AM)

  12. An Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Albert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)

  13. An Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Albert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)

  14. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  15. Impact assessment and performance targets for lighting and envelope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-06-01

    Electric lighting loads and cooling from solar heat gains and from lights are the two largest components of peak demand in commercial buildings. The most cost effective demand side management solutions are generally those that directly reduce or eliminate these loads. Existing technologies can provide modest reductions, however they are typically applied an a piecemeal manner that yields less than optimal results. The full potential of existing technologies will be realized when they are commercially available in an integrated package easily specifiable by architects and engineers. Emerging technologies can also be developed to provide even greater savings and extend the savings over a greater portion of the building floor area. This report assesses achievable energy and peak demand performance in California commercial buildings with technologies available today and in the future. We characterize energy performance over a large range of building envelope and lighting conditions, both through computer simulation models and through case study measured data, and subsequently determine reasonable energy targets if building design were further optimized with integrated systems of current or new technologies. Energy targets are derived from the study after consideration of industry priorities, design constraints, market forces, energy code influence, and the state of current building stock.

  16. Plotting max/min data envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furuike, T.; Long, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Study of maximum and minimum load distributions along structural section is aided by visual display of load distribution data. Maximum/minimum envelope plot program plots these envelopes of the stresses and shear loads at selected points in beam modeled by series of finite elements. Digital output for engineers and management is presented for quick analysis and understanding.

  17. Building brains for bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Rodney Allen; Stein, Lynn Andrea

    1994-01-01

    We describe a project to capitalize on newly available levels of computational resources in order to understand human cognition. We will build an integrated physical system including vision, sound input and output, and dextrous manipulation, all controlled by a continuously operating large scale parallel MIMD computer. The resulting system will learn to 'think' by building on its bodily experiences to accomplish progressively more abstract tasks. Past experience suggests that in attempting to build such an integrated system we will have to fundamentally change the way artificial intelligence, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophy think about the organization of intelligence. We expect to be able to better reconcile the theories that will be developed with current work in neuroscience.

  18. Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model

    PubMed Central

    Rallapalli, Varsha H.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV) from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N) is assumed to: (a) reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S) and (b) introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.

  19. When Everything is Intelligence - Nothing is Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Intelligence Analysis : A Discipline for the 21st Century." In it, Professor Wilhelm Agrell of the University of Lund, Sweden reflects on the evolution of...the practice of intelligence analysis into a modern profession. Highlighting what intelligence analysis is and, importantly, is not, he questions the...recent fascination with applying "the concept or perhaps the illusion of intelligence analysis " too broadly, such as to "information processing

  20. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  1. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  2. Capability Challenges in the Human Domain for Intelligence Analysis: Report on Community-Wide Discussions with Canadian Intelligence Professionals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    DRDC Toronto CR 2011-182 CAPABILITY CHALLENGES IN THE HUMAN DOMAIN FOR INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS : REPORT ON COMMUNITY-WIDE DISCUSSIONS WITH...DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capability Challenges in the Human Domain for Intelligence Analysis : Report on...représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011 Humansystems® Human Capability Challenges in Intelligence Analysis Page i Abstract Building on

  3. The theoretical polarization of pure scattering axisymmetric circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Sobolev approach to the scattering of starlight through a pure scattering circumstellar envelope is developed. The theoretical polarization due to electron scattering in Be star envelopes is calculated for two geometries (an equatorially enhanced envelope and a spheroidal envelope). Only the disk-type envelope is found to yield a maximum polarization consistent with the observed range for Be stars. A lower limit, analytical approximation to the theoretical polarization from a pure scattering envelope is obtained.

  4. Emotional Intelligence. Why It Can Matter More than IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goleman, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Because school success is predicted largely by emotional and social measures, teachers and parents cannot start too early in helping children develop their emotional intelligence. The paper describes emotional intelligence, discusses how to teach it, and presents resources for learning how other schools are helping students build emotional…

  5. The Potential Role of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education has traditionally a technology-based focus, looking at the ways in which AI can be used in building intelligent educational software. In addition AI can also provide an excellent methodology for learning and reasoning from the human experiences. This paper presents the potential role of AI in…

  6. Behavior Analysis and the Quest for Machine Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kenneth R.; Hutchison, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses three approaches to building intelligent systems: artificial intelligence, neural networks, and behavior analysis. BANKET, an object-oriented software system, is explained; a commercial application of BANKET is described; and a collaborative effort between the academic and business communities for the use of BANKET is discussed.…

  7. Emotional Intelligence. Why It Can Matter More than IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goleman, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Because school success is predicted largely by emotional and social measures, teachers and parents cannot start too early in helping children develop their emotional intelligence. The paper describes emotional intelligence, discusses how to teach it, and presents resources for learning how other schools are helping students build emotional…

  8. Behavior Analysis and the Quest for Machine Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kenneth R.; Hutchison, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses three approaches to building intelligent systems: artificial intelligence, neural networks, and behavior analysis. BANKET, an object-oriented software system, is explained; a commercial application of BANKET is described; and a collaborative effort between the academic and business communities for the use of BANKET is discussed.…

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Educational Technology: A Natural Synergy. Extended Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalla, Gordon I.

    Educational technology and artificial intelligence (AI) are natural partners in the development of environments to support human learning. Designing systems with the characteristics of a rich learning environment is the long term goal of research in intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). Building these characteristics into a system is extremely…

  10. Grazing envelope evolution towards Type IIb supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2017-09-01

    I propose a scenario where the majority of the progenitors of Type IIb supernovae (SNe IIb) lose most of their hydrogen-rich envelope during a grazing envelope evolution (GEE). In the GEE, the orbital radius of the binary system is about equal to the radius of the giant star, and the more compact companion accretes mass through an accretion disc. The accretion disc is assumed to launch two opposite jets that efficiently remove gas from the envelope along the orbit of the companion. The efficient envelope removal by jets prevents the binary system from entering a common envelope evolution, at least for part of the time. The GEE might be continuous or intermittent. I crudely estimate the total GEE time period to be in the range of about hundreds of years, for a continuous GEE, and up to few tens of thousands of years for intermittent GEE. The key new point is that the removal of envelope gas by jets during the GEE prevents the system from entering a common envelope evolution, and by that substantially increases the volume of the stellar binary parameter space that leads to SNe IIb, both to lower secondary masses and to closer orbital separations.

  11. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. NORTH (SIDE) AND EAST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (SIDE) AND EAST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  16. EAST (FRONT) AND SOUTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND SOUTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  17. Envelope theory in spectral geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Richard L.

    1993-07-01

    It is shown that the discrete spectrum of Schrödinger Hamiltonians of the form H=-Δ+vf may be represented by the semiclassical expression Enl=minr≳0 {K(f)nl(r) + vf(r)}. The K functions are found to be invariant with respect to coupling and shifts: K(Af+B)=K(f). For pure power laws, f(r)=sgn(q)rq, and the log potential, they are also invariant with respect to scale, and have the simple forms (Pnl(q)/r)2 and (Lnl/r)2, respectively. K functions are also derived for sech-squared and Hulthén potentials. If f=g(h), where g is a smooth transformation, then the envelope approximation is expressed in terms of K by the relation K(f)≂K(h). When the transformation g has definite convexity, then the approximation immediately yields eigenvalue bounds for all n and l. The theory is used to prove the log-power theorem Lnl = Pnl(0), which, in turn, generates a simple eigenvalue formula for the log potential.

  18. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters which nuclear facilities may operate within to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a result of the U.S. having no operating nuclear chemical reprocessing plants, there has been a strong interest in obtaining process monitoring data from the ICPP. The ICPP was shut down in 1996 and a recent effort has been made to retrieve the PM data from storage in a data mining effort. In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z- testing7.

  19. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis; Teoh, William; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom (Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a bellow-type access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system is given.

  20. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis; Teoh, William; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom (Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a bellow-type access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system is given.

  1. An Intelligent Weather Station

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M.; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  2. An Intelligent Weather Station.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead.

  3. Intelligent pumping system developed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The oil field's first intelligent rod pumping system designed specifically to reduce the cost of pumping oil wells now is a reality. As a plus benefit, the system (called Liftronic) is compact and quiet. The new system combines an efficient mechanical design with a computer control system to reduce pumping costs. The unit stands less than 8 ft high, or approx. one-fourth the height of a comparable beam unit. It also mounts directly on the wellhead. The entire system can be concealed behind a fence or enclosed within a small building to make it a more attractive neighbor in residential, commercial, or recreational areas. It is useful also for agricultural areas where overhead irrigation systems restrict the use of many oil field pumping systems.

  4. New pharmacological strategies to fight enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Wisskirchen, Karin; Lucifora, Julie; Michler, Thomas; Protzer, Ulrike

    2014-09-01

    Enveloped viruses pose an important health threat because most of the persistent and many emerging viruses are enveloped. In particular, newly emerging viruses create a need to develop broad-spectrum antivirals, which usually are obtained by targeting host cell factors. Persistent viruses have developed efficient strategies to escape host immune control, and treatment options are limited. Targeting host cell factors essential for virus persistence, or immune-based therapies provide alternative approaches. In this review, we therefore focus on recent developments to generate antivirals targeting host cell factors or immune-based therapeutic approaches to fight infections with enveloped viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resource envelope concepts for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, K. Y.; Weiler, J. D.; Tokaz, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Seven proposed methods for creating resource envelopes for Space Station Freedom mission planning are detailed. Four reference science activity models are used to illustrate the effect of adding operational flexibility to mission timelines. For each method, a brief explanation is given along with graphs to illustrate the application of the envelopes to the power and crew resources. The benefits and costs of each method are analyzed in terms of resource utilization. In addition to the effect on individual activities, resource envelopes are analyzed at the experiment level.

  6. Self Estimates of General, Crystallized, and Fluid Intelligences in an Ethnically Diverse Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Self-estimated intelligence is a quick way to assess people's conceptions of their own abilities. Furnham (2001) and colleagues have used this technique to make comparisons across culture and gender and different approaches to intelligence (such as "g" or Multiple Intelligences). This study seeks to build on past work in two ways. First, a large,…

  7. Self Estimates of General, Crystallized, and Fluid Intelligences in an Ethnically Diverse Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Self-estimated intelligence is a quick way to assess people's conceptions of their own abilities. Furnham (2001) and colleagues have used this technique to make comparisons across culture and gender and different approaches to intelligence (such as "g" or Multiple Intelligences). This study seeks to build on past work in two ways. First, a large,…

  8. Residential commissioning to assess envelope and HVAC system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.

    2001-08-31

    Houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. For example, Walker et al. (1998a) found large variations in thermal distribution system efficiency, as much as a factor of two even between side-by-side houses with the same system design and installation crew. This and other studies (e.g., Jump et al. 1996) indicate that duct leakage testing and sealing can readily achieve a 25 to 30% reduction in installed cooling capacity and energy consumption. As another example, consider that the building industry has recognized for at least 20 years the substantial impact that envelope airtightness has on thermal loads, energy use, comfort, and indoor air quality. However, Walker et al. (1998a) found 50% variances in airtightness for houses with the same design and construction crews, within the same subdivision. A substantial reason for these problems is that few houses are now built or retrofitted using formal design procedures, most are field assembled from a large number of components, and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Solving the problems requires field performance evaluations of houses using appropriate and agreed upon procedures. Many procedural elements already exist in a fragmented environment; some are ready now to be integrated into a new process called residential commissioning (Wray et al. 2000). For example, California's Title 24 energy code already provides some commissioning elements for evaluating the energy performance of new houses. A house consists of components and systems that need to be commissioned, such as building envelopes, air distribution systems, cooling equipment, heat pumps, combustion appliances, controls, and other electrical appliances. For simplicity and practicality, these components and systems are usually evaluated individually, but we need to bear in mind that many of them interact. Therefore, commissioning must not only identify the energy and non-energy benefits

  9. Perspectives on Research in Artificial Intelligence and Artificial General Intelligence Relevant to DoD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence (AI) is conventionally, if loosely, defined as intelligence exhibited by machines . Operationally, it can be defined as those areas of R&D...Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KRR). The field of Machine Learning (ML) is a foundational basis for AI. While this is not a complete list, it...researchers or total funding, that seeks to build machines that can successfully perform any task that a human might do. Where AI is oriented around

  10. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-25

    number. 1. REPORT DATE 25 JAN 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intelligence Issues for...of 2006, both by Elizabeth B. Bazan . authorization and defense appropriations acts, they include a substantial portion of the overall intelligence...Domain,” Washington Post, Jan . 23, 2005, p. A1. strategically analyze intelligence, and for failing to share intelligence with other intelligence agencies

  11. Towards building a team of intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, Murali R.; Mehrotra, R.

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: collision-free motion planning of multiple robot arms; two-dimensional object recognition; and pictorial databases (storage and sharing of the representations of three-dimensional objects).

  12. Intelligent Campus Buildings for the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caloz, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Discusses three "information age" trends that have colleges and universities re-examining their campus infrastructure flexibility to support these wireless communication needs. Trends examined are information technology; increased demand for flexible, technology- focused teaching spaces; and increased systems' interconnectivity. (GR)

  13. Radiative accelerations in stellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    In stars which are sufficiently quiescent, changes in the relative abundances of the chemical elements can result from gravitational settling and from levitation produced by radiation pressure forces, usually expressed as radiative accelerations g_rad. Those changes can affect the structure of such stars, due to modifications in opacities, and can lead to marked peculiarities in observed atmospheric abundances. It is necessary to consider diffusive movements both in the atmospheres and in much deeper layers of the stellar envelopes. For the envelopes the equation of radiative transfer can be solved in a diffusion approximation and, for an element k in ionization stage j, one obtains expressions for g_rad(j, k) proportional to the total radiative flux, to the Rosseland-mean opacity kappa_R (which may depend on the abundance of k), and to a dimensionless quantity gamma(j, k) which, due to saturation effects, can be sensitive to the abundance of k. The radiative accelerations are required for each ionization stage, because the diffusion coefficients depend on j. Using atomic data obtained in the course of the work of the Opacity Project (OP), we calculate kappa_R and gamma(j, k) for the chemical elements C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni. We start from standard Solar system abundances, and then vary the abundance of one element at a time (element k) by a factor chi. The following results are obtained and are available at the Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). (1) Files stages.zz (where zz specifies the nuclear charge of the selected element k) containing values of kappa_R and gamma(j, k) on a mesh of values of (T, N_e, chi), where T is temperature, and N_e is electron density. We include derivatives of kappa_R and gamma(j, k) with respect to chi, which are used for making interpolations. (2) A code add.f which reads a file stages.zz and writes a file acc.zz containing values of gamma(k) obtained on summing the gamma(j, k

  14. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Whole-House Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing new envelope technologies. This work is part of a multi-phase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). Phase 3, completed in two stages, continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  15. Transcriptional regulation at the yeast nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Steglich, Babett; Sazer, Shelley; Ekwall, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The spatial organization of the genome inside the nucleus affects many nuclear processes, such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene transcription. In metazoans, the nuclear periphery harbors mainly repressed genes that associate with the nuclear lamina. This review discusses how peripheral positioning is connected to transcriptional regulation in yeasts. Tethering of reporter genes to the nuclear envelope was found to result in transcriptional silencing. Similarly, repression of the silent mating type loci and subtelomeric genes is influenced by their position close to the nuclear envelope. In contrast, active genes are bound by nucleoporins and inducible genes associate with the nuclear pore complex upon activation. Taken together, these results portray the nuclear envelope as a platform for transcriptional regulation, both through activation at nuclear pores and silencing at the nuclear envelope. PMID:24021962

  16. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) concept has evolved over the course of the study. The goal of the project was the development of methods and algorithms for solid modeling for the flexible robot arm.

  17. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  18. Control load envelope shaping by live twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Rotor control systems experience a rapid load growth resulting from retreating blade stall during flight conditions of high blade loading or airspeeds. An investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of changing blade torsional properties over the rotor flight envelope. The results of this study show that reducing the blade stiffness to introduce more blade live twist significantly reduces the large retreating blade control loads, while expanding the flight envelope and reducing retreating blade stall loads.

  19. The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J.

    1998-12-01

    Aliens abound on the movie screens, but in reality we are still trying to find out if we share our universe with other sentient creatures. Intelligence is very difficult to define, and impossible to directly detect over interstellar distances. Therefore, SETI, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, is actually an attempt to detect evidence of another distant technology. If we find such evidence, we will infer the existence of intelligent technologists. For the past 36 years, the SETI community has had a very pragmatic definition of intelligence - the ability to build radio telescopes! Radio signals are not the only possible way to detect a technology across the vast distances that separate the stars, but given our own current technological state, it remains the best way.

  20. Complexity and compositionality in fluid intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, John; Chylinski, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Compositionality, or the ability to build complex cognitive structures from simple parts, is fundamental to the power of the human mind. Here we relate this principle to the psychometric concept of fluid intelligence, traditionally measured with tests of complex reasoning. Following the principle of compositionality, we propose that the critical function in fluid intelligence is splitting a complex whole into simple, separately attended parts. To test this proposal, we modify traditional matrix reasoning problems to minimize requirements on information integration, working memory, and processing speed, creating problems that are trivial once effectively divided into parts. Performance remains poor in participants with low fluid intelligence, but is radically improved by problem layout that aids cognitive segmentation. In line with the principle of compositionality, we suggest that effective cognitive segmentation is important in all organized behavior, explaining the broad role of fluid intelligence in successful cognition. PMID:28461462

  1. Cooling of neutron stars with diffusive envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Fortin, M.; Haensel, P.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    We study the effects of heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars on their cooling. To this aim, we perform cooling simulations using newly constructed models of the envelopes composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) varying the mass of lighter ions (H, He or C) in the envelope. The results are compared with those calculated using the standard models of the envelopes which contain the layers of lighter (accreted) elements (H, He and C) on top of the Fe layer, varying the mass of accreted elements. The main effect is that the chemical composition of the envelopes influences their thermal conductivity and, hence, thermal insulation of the star. For illustration, we apply these results to estimate the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar and to study the cooling of neutron stars of ages of 105-106 yr at the photon cooling stage. The uncertainties of the cooling models associated with our poor knowledge of chemical composition of the heat insulating envelopes strongly complicate theoretical reconstruction of the internal structure of cooling neutron stars from observations of their thermal surface emission.

  2. Genetic diversity of koala retroviral envelopes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2015-03-17

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Koala Retroviral Envelopes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process. PMID:25789509

  4. The joke envelope: a neglected precursor of the psychic envelope concept in Freud's writing.

    PubMed

    Spero, Moshe Halevi

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of the primeval skin ego, psychic envelope, and related pre-ego containing and wrapping functions elaborated respectively by Esther Bick, Didier Anzieu, and Francis Tustin occupy an important position in contemporary psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice. The psychic envelope begins as a virtual mental protostructure ("proto" because it is not yet based on fully symbolized representations) that holds the budding mind together pending further developments. With maturity, the enveloping functions adopt symbolized, metaphoric form (for example, the aesthetic use of cloth, the analytic framework), but can regress to more concrete and pathological forms. The aforementioned authors based their ideas on a cluster of specific allusions to the idea of a psychic covering, barrier, or envelope in Freud's work. Yet they neglected one reference, hidden in Freud's analysis of the structure ofjokes and humor: the 'joke envelope"--die witzige Einkleidung. The present essay explores Freud's use of the term Einkleidung, including his intriguing idea that a joke requires three people whereas a dream does not and the fact that Freud nowhere speaks of a "dream envelope. "I take the "joke envelope" beyond its original context and posit a relationship between laughter and the early, normative traumas of breathing, crying, and loss, and the dawn of rhythmic envelopes that enable mentalization. Jokes and joking symbolically repeat the early rupture and rapture of breathing and self-other differentiation and the internalization of maternal containing and envelopment.

  5. Intelligent Growth Automaton of Virtual Plant Based on Physiological Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qingsheng; Guo, Mingwei; Qu, Hongchun; Deng, Qingqing

    In this paper, a novel intelligent growth automaton of virtual plant is proposed. Initially, this intelligent growth automaton analyzes the branching pattern which is controlled by genes and then builds plant; moreover, it stores the information of plant growth, provides the interface between virtual plant and environment, and controls the growth and development of plant on the basis of environment and the function of plant organs. This intelligent growth automaton can simulate that the plant growth is controlled by genetic information system, and the information of environment and the function of plant organs. The experimental results show that the intelligent growth automaton can simulate the growth of plant conveniently and vividly.

  6. Enhancing the speech envelope of continuous interleaved sampling processors for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Geurts, L; Wouters, J

    1999-04-01

    A new method to code the speech envelope in continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) processors for cochlear implants is proposed. In this enhanced envelope, the rapid adaptation seen in the response of auditory nerves to sound stimuli is incorporated. Two strategies, one using the standard envelope (CIS) and one using the enhanced envelope (EECIS), were tested perceptually with six postlingually deafened users of the LAURA cochlear implant. The tests included identification of stop consonants in three different vowel contexts and monosyllabic consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words. Significant improvements in correct identification scores were observed for stop consonants in intervocalic /a/ context (p = 0.026): average results varied from 46% correct for CIS to 55% for EECIS. This improvement was mainly due to the better transmission of place of articulation. The differences in identification scores for stop consonants in /i/ and /u/ context were not significant. The identification scores for the medial vowels of the CVC words were significantly higher when the EECIS strategy was used: average results increased from 39% correct to 46% correct (p = 0.018). No significant differences were observed between the results for initial and final consonants of the CVC words. The present results demonstrate that the inclusion of the rapid adaptation in the speech processing for cochlear implants can improve speech intelligibility.

  7. The 17th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent robots built by intelligent students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four unmanned systems student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned ground vehicle. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip their system of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 17 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 70 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  8. The 16th annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: intelligent students creating intelligent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 16 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from nearly 70 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  9. The 14 TH Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent teams creating intelligent ground robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Nguyen, Dmitri

    2006-10-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 14 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 50 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the three-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participant feedback is presented.

  10. The 13 th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent ground vehicles created by intelligent teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2005-10-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 13 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 50 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the three-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participant feedback is presented.

  11. The 15 TH annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: intelligent ground robots created by intelligent students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2007-09-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 15 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 50 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  12. Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards for an Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Results of 2 studies involving 503 adults and 229 adolescents show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, a new ability test of emotional intelligence, meets 3 classical criteria of a standard intelligence. (SLD)

  13. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Scientific Inquiry Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey

    Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…

  14. Speech Envelope Normalization, a Method to Improve SNR and Suppress Noise in Present and Future Radio Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    without significantly affecting its constant envelope nature. Voiced or vowel sounds are those most dramatically affected by the EN operation. If it is...vibration. The vowel letters are an example of voiced sounds. Unvoiced syllables or 3 FP 0C 0L SCA- - -0 L). * 󈧰 CA~ coI sounds are formed by forcing...unvoiced sounds are more critical to intelligibility than the voiced (especially vowel ) sounds, yet they are weaker. Since all radio links add

  15. Predicting the intelligibility of reverberant speech for cochlear implant listeners with a non-intrusive intelligibility measure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Hazrati, Oldooz; Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-05-01

    Reverberation is known to reduce the temporal envelope modulations present in the signal and affect the shape of the modulation spectrum. A non-intrusive intelligibility measure for reverberant speech is proposed motivated by the fact that the area of the modulation spectrum decreases with increasing reverberation. The proposed measure is based on the average modulation area computed across four acoustic frequency bands spanning the signal bandwidth. High correlations (r = 0.98) were observed with sentence intelligibility scores obtained by cochlear implant listeners. Proposed measure outperformed other measures including an intrusive speech-transmission index based measure.

  16. Predicting the intelligibility of reverberant speech for cochlear implant listeners with a non-intrusive intelligibility measure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Hazrati, Oldooz; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2012-01-01

    Reverberation is known to reduce the temporal envelope modulations present in the signal and affect the shape of the modulation spectrum. A non-intrusive intelligibility measure for reverberant speech is proposed motivated by the fact that the area of the modulation spectrum decreases with increasing reverberation. The proposed measure is based on the average modulation area computed across four acoustic frequency bands spanning the signal bandwidth. High correlations (r = 0.98) were observed with sentence intelligibility scores obtained by cochlear implant listeners. Proposed measure outperformed other measures including an intrusive speech-transmission index based measure. PMID:23710246

  17. Solitary Alfven wave envelopes and the modulational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, C.F.

    1987-06-01

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the modulational instability of circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave envelopes. It also may be used to determine the properties of finite amplitude localized stationary wave envelopes. Such envelope solitons exist only in conditions of modulational stability. This leaves open the question of whether, and if so, how, the modulational instability produces envelope solitons. 12 refs.

  18. Intelligent Control Approaches for Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; KrishnaKumar, K.; Soloway, Don; Kaneshige, John; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied under the Intelligent Flight Control (IFC) program at the NASA Ames Research Center. The main objective of the intelligent flight control program is to develop the next generation of flight controllers for the purpose of automatically compensating for a broad spectrum of damaged or malfunctioning aircraft components and to reduce control law development cost and time. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller and (b) an adaptive critic-based dynamic inverse controller. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) Match flying qualities of modern fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) Improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) Achieve consistent handling qualities across the flight envelope and for different aircraft configurations. Results obtained so far demonstrate the potential for improving handling qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  19. Inverting the Army Intelligence Pyramid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Counterinsurgency, Company Intelligence Support Team, COIST, HUMINT, SIGINT, MASINT, OSINT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: (U) 17. LIMITATION OF...intelligence ( OSINT ), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and technical intelligence (TECHINT).14 11

  20. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  1. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  2. Integrating Intelligence for Border Security

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N. ); Thompson, Sandra E. ); Wilhelm, Charles E. E.; Wogman, Ned A. )

    2004-02-04

    Effective utilization of all available intelligence, including sensor signatures and situational awareness is a key objective in homeland security. Binding all sources of information into an objective and lucid decision algorithm can provide clarity to identify signatures that are strongly and uniquely indicative of terrorist activities, thus reducing false alarms that conjure images of profiling and concerns regarding our civil rights. The fundamental premise of this paper is that the optimal integration of situational awareness, intelligence and hard sensor signatures should begin at the field level and work backward, that is, begin with the desired outcome and work backward. Construction of in-the-field algorithms with these characteristics will necessarily be dominated by careful mathematical and scientific thought as opposed to purely empirical, unguided data analysis. The research and development (R and D) effort for optimal decision algorithm construction naturally encourages homeland security communication at all operational levels including that between scientists, intelligence analysts, government leadership and the private sector. Why? Because decisions have consequences that impact all stakeholders, and a formal decision framework is capable of quantifying these consequences. A properly constructed framework naturally includes mathematical plug-in points for hard sensor data, intelligence and situational awareness. These plug-in points naturally guide the formulation of information to a common standard, thus facilitating and promoting intelligence sharing. A well established foundation to build these frameworks at the in-the-field and strategic level can be found in a body of theory in mathematical statistics -Bayesian decision sciences. We assert that decision algorithms with these characteristics are necessary for optimal front line operational capabilities in the war on terrorism.

  3. Enveloped and non-enveloped viral-like particles in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Presas, Ana María; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Ingeborg-Becker; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Solano, Sandra; Delgado, Jose; Tato, Patricia; Molinari, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron microscopy is routinely used to identify viral infections in protozoan parasites. These viruses have been described as non-enveloped and icosahedral structures with a diameter of 30-60 nm. Most of them are classified within the non-segmented dsRNA Totiviridae family. We observed virus-like particles (VLPs) through transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes grown in cultures. Clusters of electrodense enveloped VLPs having a diameter of 48 nm were also observed. These clusters appear to have been released from distended Golgi cisternae. Furthermore, a paracrystalline array of electrodense, non-enveloped VLPs (with a diameter of 32 nm) were found in distended Golgi cisternae or as smaller clusters at a distance from the RE or Golgi. We cannot rule out that the 48 nm enveloped VLPs belong to the ssRNA Flaviviridae family because they are within its size range. The localization of enveloped VLPs is consistent with the replication strategy of these viruses that transit through the Golgi to be released at the cell surface. Due to the size and shape of the 32 nm non-enveloped VLPs, we propose that they belong to the dsRNA Totiviridae family. This is the first description of cytoplasmic enveloped and non-enveloped VLPs in T. cruzi epimastigotes. PMID:28793017

  4. Enveloped and non-enveloped viral-like particles in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Presas, Ana María; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Becker, Ingeborg; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Solano, Sandra; Delgado, Jose; Tato, Patricia; Molinari, José Luis

    2017-08-07

    Electron microscopy is routinely used to identify viral infections in protozoan parasites. These viruses have been described as non-enveloped and icosahedral structures with a diameter of 30-60 nm. Most of them are classified within the non-segmented dsRNA Totiviridae family. We observed virus-like particles (VLPs) through transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes grown in cultures. Clusters of electrodense enveloped VLPs having a diameter of 48 nm were also observed. These clusters appear to have been released from distended Golgi cisternae. Furthermore, a paracrystalline array of electrodense, non-enveloped VLPs (with a diameter of 32 nm) were found in distended Golgi cisternae or as smaller clusters at a distance from the RE or Golgi. We cannot rule out that the 48 nm enveloped VLPs belong to the ssRNA Flaviviridae family because they are within its size range. The localization of enveloped VLPs is consistent with the replication strategy of these viruses that transit through the Golgi to be released at the cell surface. Due to the size and shape of the 32 nm non-enveloped VLPs, we propose that they belong to the dsRNA Totiviridae family. This is the first description of cytoplasmic enveloped and non-enveloped VLPs in T. cruzi epimastigotes.

  5. Morphologically complex protostellar envelopes : structure and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.

    I present an in-depth study of protostars and their surrounding envelopes of dense gas and dust, using a multitude of observational methods to reveal new details of the star formation process. I use mid-infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with photometry spanning the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, to construct a model of the L1527 protostellar system. I modeled both the spectral energy distribution and resolved scattered light images to determine physical properties of the protostellar system. The nature of the apparent central point source in the Spitzer images was uncertain until high-resolution L-band imaging from the Gemini observatory resolved the point source into a disk in scattered light, having a radius of 200 AU. Protostellar envelopes are also often found to cast shadows against the 8 micron Galactic background in Spitzer imaging, enabling direct probes of envelope structure. The shadow images show that the dense envelopes around twenty-two Class 0 protostars are generally morphologically complex from 0.1 pc scales down to ˜1000 AU; they are often filamentary, and frequently non-axisymmetric. The observed envelope structure indicates a likely origin in turbulent cloud structure rather than a quasi-static/equilibrium formation. The complex envelope structure also may indicate an increased likelihood of fragmentation during collapse, forming close binaries. To further characterize these envelopes, I have observed them in the dense molecular gas tracers nthp and nht, both of which closely follow the 8 micron extinction morphology. The magnitude of the velocity gradients and envelope complexity on ˜10000 AU scales indicates that the velocity structure may reflect large-scale infall in addition to the often assumed rotation. Comparisons with three-dimensional filamentary and symmetric rotating collapse models reinforce the interpretation of velocities reflecting large-scale infall, showing that the structure of the envelope

  6. COMPLEX STRUCTURE IN CLASS 0 PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Looney, Leslie W.; Chiang, Hsin-Fang

    2010-04-01

    We use archived Infrared Array Camera images from the Spitzer Space Telescope to show that many Class 0 protostars exhibit complex, irregular, and non-axisymmetric structure within their dusty envelopes. Our 8 {mu}m extinction maps probe some of the densest regions in these protostellar envelopes. Many of the systems are observed to have highly irregular and non-axisymmetric morphologies on scales {approx}>1000 AU, with a quarter of the sample exhibiting filamentary or flattened dense structures. Complex envelope structure is observed in regions spatially distinct from outflow cavities, and the densest structures often show no systematic alignment perpendicular to the cavities. These results indicate that mass ejection is not responsible for much of the irregular morphologies we detect; rather, we suggest that the observed envelope complexity is mostly the result of collapse from protostellar cores with initially non-equilibrium structures. The striking non-axisymmetry in many envelopes could provide favorable conditions for the formation of binary systems. We also note that protostars in the sample appear to be formed preferentially near the edges of clouds or bends in filaments, suggesting formation by gravitational focusing.

  7. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  8. The cell envelope proteome of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Smith, K P; Fields, J G; Voogt, R D; Deng, B; Lam, Y-W; Mintz, K P

    2015-04-01

    The cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria serves a critical role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis, resistance to external stress, and host-pathogen interactions. Envelope protein composition is influenced by the physiological and environmental demands placed on the bacterium. In this study, we report a comprehensive compilation of cell envelope proteins from the periodontal and systemic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans VT1169, an afimbriated serotype b strain. The urea-extracted membrane proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics. The membrane proteome, isolated from actively growing bacteria under normal laboratory conditions, included 648 proteins representing 27% of the predicted open reading frames in the genome. Bioinformatic analyses were used to annotate and predict the cellular location and function of the proteins. Surface adhesins, porins, lipoproteins, numerous influx and efflux pumps, multiple sugar, amino acid and iron transporters, and components of the type I, II and V secretion systems were identified. Periplasmic space and cytoplasmic proteins with chaperone function were also identified. A total of 107 proteins with unknown function were associated with the cell envelope. Orthologs of a subset of these uncharacterized proteins are present in other bacterial genomes, whereas others are found exclusively in A. actinomycetemcomitans. This knowledge will contribute to elucidating the role of cell envelope proteins in bacterial growth and survival in the oral cavity.

  9. Adaptive Spectral Envelope Estimation for Doppler Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Aditi; Karabiyik, Yucel; Eik-Nes, Sturla; Tegnander, Eva; Ekroll, Ingvild; Kiss, Gabriel; Torp, Hans

    2016-07-07

    Estimation of accurate maximum velocities and spectral envelope in ultrasound Doppler blood flow spectrograms are both essential for clinical diagnostic purposes. However, obtaining accurate maximum velocity is not straightforward due to intrinsic spectral broadening and variance in the power spectrum estimate. The method proposed in this work for maximum velocity point detection has been developed by modifying an existing method - Signal Noise Slope Intersection (SNSI), incorporating in it steps from an altered version of another method called Geometric Method (GM). Adaptive noise estimation from the spectrogram ensures that a smooth spectral envelope is obtained post detection of these maximum velocity points. The method has been tested on simulated Doppler signal with scatterers possessing a parabolic flow velocity profile constant in time, steady and pulsatile string phantom recordings as well as in vivo recordings from uterine, umbilical, carotid and subclavian arteries. Results from simulation experiments indicate a bias of less than 2.5% in maximum velocities when estimated for a range of peak velocities, Doppler angles and SNR levels. Standard deviation in the envelope is low - less than 2% in case of experiments done by varying the peak velocity and Doppler angle for steady phantom and simulated flow; and also less than 2% in case of experiments done by varying SNR but keeping constant flow conditions for in vivo and simulated flow. Low variability in the envelope makes the prospect of using the envelope for automated blood flow measurements possible and is illustrated for the case of Pulsatility Index estimation in uterine and umbilical arteries.

  10. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  11. Motion of contrast envelopes: peace and noise.

    PubMed

    Cropper, S J; Johnston, A

    2001-09-01

    We examined the effect of changing the composition of the carrier on the perception of motion in a drifting contrast envelope. Human observers were required to discriminate the direction of motion of contrast modulations of an underlying carrier as a function of temporal frequency and scaled (carrier) contrast. The carriers were modulations of both color and luminance, defined within a cardinal color space. Random-noise carriers had either binary luminance profiles or flat (gray-scale-white) or 1/f (pink) spectral power functions. Independent variables investigated were the envelope spatial frequency and temporal-drift frequency and the fundamental spatial frequency, color, and temporal-update frequency of the carrier. The results show that observers were able to discriminate correctly the direction of envelope motion for binary-noise carriers at both high (16 Hz) and low (2 Hz) temporal-drift frequencies. Changing the carrier format from binary noise to a flat (gray-scale) or 1/f amplitude profile reduced discrimination performance slightly but only in the high-temporal-frequency condition. Manipulation of the fundamental frequency of the carrier elicited no change in performance at the low temporal frequencies but produced ambiguous or reversed motion at the higher temporal frequencies as soon as the fundamental frequency was higher than the envelope modulation frequency. We found that envelope motion detection was sensitive to the structure of the carrier.

  12. Intelligence: Genetic and Environmental Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancro, Robert, Ed.

    This book on the genetic and environmental influences on intelligence is comprised of the following papers: "The Structure of Intelligence in Relation to the Nature-Nurture Controversy," R. B. Cattell; "Theory of Intelligence," L. G. Humphreys; "Using Measured Intelligence Intelligently," P. R. Merrifield; "Intelligence: Definition, Theory, and…

  13. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  14. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  15. Intelligent Extruder

    SciTech Connect

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  16. The Role of Slow Speech Amplitude Envelope for Speech Processing and Reading Development

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-López, Paula; Molnar, Monika T.; Lizarazu, Mikel; Lallier, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the putative link between the entrainment to the slow rhythmic structure of speech, speech intelligibility and reading by means of a behavioral paradigm. Two groups of 20 children (Grades 2 and 5) were asked to recall a pseudoword embedded in sentences presented either in quiet or noisy listening conditions. Half of the sentences were primed with their syllabic and prosodic amplitude envelope to determine whether a boost in auditory entrainment to these speech features enhanced pseudoword intelligibility. Priming improved pseudoword recall performance only for the older children both in a quiet and a noisy listening environment, and such benefit from the prime correlated with reading skills and pseudoword recall. Our results support the role of syllabic and prosodic tracking of speech in reading development. PMID:28912746

  17. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  18. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  19. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  20. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains. PMID:26859299

  1. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  2. Intelligent Systems Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies -- George Mason University Intelligent Systems Design James Albus Senior NIST Fellow – Retired Intelligent ...REPORT DATE DEC 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intelligent Systems Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ADDRESS(ES) Intelligent Systems Division National Institute of Standards and Technology 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  3. Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.

  4. Drug design from the cryptic inhibitor envelope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Jin; Liang, Xiaofei; Wu, Qinglin; Najeeb, Javaria; Zhao, Jinshi; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Titecat, Marie; Sebbane, Florent; Lemaitre, Nadine; Toone, Eric J; Zhou, Pei

    2016-02-25

    Conformational dynamics plays an important role in enzyme catalysis, allosteric regulation of protein functions and assembly of macromolecular complexes. Despite these well-established roles, such information has yet to be exploited for drug design. Here we show by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that inhibitors of LpxC--an essential enzyme of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria and a validated novel antibiotic target--access alternative, minor population states in solution in addition to the ligand conformation observed in crystal structures. These conformations collectively delineate an inhibitor envelope that is invisible to crystallography, but is dynamically accessible by small molecules in solution. Drug design exploiting such a hidden inhibitor envelope has led to the development of potent antibiotics with inhibition constants in the single-digit picomolar range. The principle of the cryptic inhibitor envelope approach may be broadly applicable to other lead optimization campaigns to yield improved therapeutics.

  5. Drug design from the cryptic inhibitor envelope

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-Jin; Liang, Xiaofei; Wu, Qinglin; Najeeb, Javaria; Zhao, Jinshi; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Titecat, Marie; Sebbane, Florent; Lemaitre, Nadine; Toone, Eric J.; Zhou, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Conformational dynamics plays an important role in enzyme catalysis, allosteric regulation of protein functions and assembly of macromolecular complexes. Despite these well-established roles, such information has yet to be exploited for drug design. Here we show by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that inhibitors of LpxC—an essential enzyme of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria and a validated novel antibiotic target—access alternative, minor population states in solution in addition to the ligand conformation observed in crystal structures. These conformations collectively delineate an inhibitor envelope that is invisible to crystallography, but is dynamically accessible by small molecules in solution. Drug design exploiting such a hidden inhibitor envelope has led to the development of potent antibiotics with inhibition constants in the single-digit picomolar range. The principle of the cryptic inhibitor envelope approach may be broadly applicable to other lead optimization campaigns to yield improved therapeutics. PMID:26912110

  6. Ultradonut topology of the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Torbati, Mehdi; Lele, Tanmay P.; Agrawal, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a unique topological structure formed by lipid membranes in eukaryotic cells. Unlike other membrane structures, the nuclear envelope comprises two concentric membrane shells fused at numerous sites with toroid-shaped pores that impart a “geometric” genus on the order of thousands. Despite the intriguing architecture and vital biological functions of the nuclear membranes, how they achieve and maintain such a unique arrangement remains unknown. Here, we used the theory of elasticity and differential geometry to analyze the equilibrium shape and stability of this structure. Our results show that modest in- and out-of-plane stresses present in the membranes not only can define the pore geometry, but also provide a mechanism for destabilizing membranes beyond a critical size and set the stage for the formation of new pores. Our results suggest a mechanism wherein nanoscale buckling instabilities can define the global topology of a nuclear envelope-like structure. PMID:27647910

  7. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  8. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  9. Jensen and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Nathan

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of Arthur Jensen to the study of intelligence and considers his writings on the topic of racial differences in scores on tests of intelligence. Concludes with a discussion of his work on the correlates of the "g" vector (general intelligence factor). (Author/SLD)

  10. Calendrical Calculation and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Neil; Cowan, Richard; Samella, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    Studied the ability to name the days of the week for dates in the past and future (calendrical calculation) of 10 calendrical savants with Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale scores from 50 to 97. Results suggest that although low intelligence does not prevent the development of this skill, the talent depends on general intelligence. (SLD)

  11. Intelligence and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, M.; Prieto, M. D.; Ferrandiz, C.; Sanchez, C.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous authors have investigated the relationship which exists between creativity and intelligence, and diverse results were found. Thus, Guilford (1950) includes creativity within the intelligence construct, Sternberg (1988) alludes to creativity as encompassing the intelligence construct; Gardner (1995) indicates a close…

  12. Intelligence and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, M.; Prieto, M. D.; Ferrandiz, C.; Sanchez, C.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous authors have investigated the relationship which exists between creativity and intelligence, and diverse results were found. Thus, Guilford (1950) includes creativity within the intelligence construct, Sternberg (1988) alludes to creativity as encompassing the intelligence construct; Gardner (1995) indicates a close…

  13. Diversity in Our Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Jesus I.

    2002-01-01

    Babies and young children learn through extensive experimenting and by being encouraged, unknowingly, by parents to use their multiple intelligences. Later, children are forced to conform to the narrow intelligence valued by the formal education system; those who can not adapt drop out. By using multiple intelligences, we access a greater portion…

  14. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  15. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  16. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  17. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  19. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  20. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  1. Case study of the Mastin double-envelope house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. F.; Dennehy, G.; Ghaffari, H. T.; Munson, G. E.

    1981-05-01

    An evaluation is made of a double-envelope house of Ekose, a design built by Robert Mastin in Middletown, Rhode Island. The home has two shells with an airspace between through which air can circulate. Performance monitoring of the house in the heating season showed that the requirements for auxiliary heat are very low, about 2.1 Btu per square foot of floor space per degree-day. Design changes are identified which could reduce the heating requirement even further. This ranks the house among the most energy-efficient building designs available today. It is concluded that the low heating needs of the house are due primarily to the excellent insulative value of the double shell.

  2. Thermal-envelop stone house, solar. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, S.C.

    1982-05-19

    The purpose of this project is to create a comfortable, low-cost heating system for a single-family house, without dependence on non-renewable energy sources. I have attempted to combine a simple solar air-heating collector with the thermal envelop concept (for thermal air circulation) and massive interior stone walls for heat storage. All building materials, with the exception of the solar glazing material and certain other solar components, are inexpensive and locally produced. Examples are: rough-cut hardwood lumber, sandstone (free for the gathering), galvanized roofing for absorberplate, concrete, concrete block, and cellulose insulation. The collector has operated with a relatively high degree of efficiency, though three 0.6 amp duct fans had to be installed in order to increase air circulation. The interior stonework has provided more than adequate heat storage, along with even heat radiation throughout cloudy periods. My main problem has been heat loss around the foundation.

  3. Channel selection in the modulation domain for improved speech intelligibility in noise

    PubMed Central

    Wójcicki, Kamil K.; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2012-01-01

    Background noise reduces the depth of the low-frequency envelope modulations known to be important for speech intelligibility. The relative strength of the target and masker envelope modulations can be quantified using a modulation signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)mod, measure. Such a measure can be used in noise-suppression algorithms to extract target-relevant modulations from the corrupted (target + masker) envelopes for potential improvement in speech intelligibility. In the present study, envelopes are decomposed in the modulation spectral domain into a number of channels spanning the range of 0–30 Hz. Target-dominant modulations are identified and retained in each channel based on the (S/N)mod selection criterion, while modulations which potentially interfere with perception of the target (i.e., those dominated by the masker) are discarded. The impact of modulation-selective processing on the speech-reception threshold for sentences in noise is assessed with normal-hearing listeners. Results indicate that the intelligibility of noise-masked speech can be improved by as much as 13 dB when preserving target-dominant modulations, present up to a modulation frequency of 18 Hz, while discarding masker-dominant modulations from the mixture envelopes. PMID:22501068

  4. The photodissociation of CO in circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, G. A.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The CO photodissociation rate for the unshielded ISM is calculated using recent laboratory results which confirm that photodissociation occurs by way of line absorption. A value of 2.0 x 10 to the -10th/s, an order of magnitude higher than the rate used in the past, is obtained. The new rate and a treatment of the radiative transfer and shielding are used to develop a theory for the CO abundance in the circumstellar envelopes of cool, evolved stars, and results are presented on the spatial variation of CO, C, and C(+). It is shown that these distributions play important roles in determining the observational properties of circumstellar envelopes.

  5. Consumer access to utility billing envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Anglin, M.K.

    1984-09-13

    Billing envelope inserts are a medium of advertising used by utilities for a variety of purposes, from encouraging conservation to expressing political opinions. Recently, consumer groups have begun to assert a right of access to the same medium. A constitutional right of reply has been advocated. Commissions have found regulatory authority to direct companies to provide access on the basis of several different theories. At least two states have passed legislation permitting consumer groups to use bill inserts to solicit members and contributions. When examined, these developments reveal a trend of granting organizations access to utility billing envelopes.

  6. [NESPRINS--nuclear envelope proteins ensuring integrity].

    PubMed

    Pershina, E G; Morozova, K N; Kiseleva, E V

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the nesprins (nuclear envelope spectrin-repeat proteins), which are recently discovered family of nuclear envelope proteins. These proteins play an important role in maintaining the cellular architecture and establish the link between the nucleus and other sub-cellular compartments. Many tissue-specific diseases including lipodystrophies, hearing loss, cardiac and skeletal myopathies are associated with nesprins mutations. These proteins comprise of multiple tissue specific isoforms which contain spectrin repeats providing interaction of nesprins with other nuclear membrane proteins, cytoskeleton and intranuclear matrix. We summarize recent findings and suggestions about nesprins structural organization and function inside the cell. Human diseases caused by abnormal nesprins expression are also described.

  7. Perception and coding of envelopes in weakly electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Sarah A; Fortune, Eric S; Chacron, Maurice J

    2013-07-01

    Natural sensory stimuli have a rich spatiotemporal structure and can often be characterized as a high frequency signal that is independently modulated at lower frequencies. This lower frequency modulation is known as the envelope. Envelopes are commonly found in a variety of sensory signals, such as contrast modulations of visual stimuli and amplitude modulations of auditory stimuli. While psychophysical studies have shown that envelopes can carry information that is essential for perception, how envelope information is processed in the brain is poorly understood. Here we review the behavioral salience and neural mechanisms for the processing of envelopes in the electrosensory system of wave-type gymnotiform weakly electric fishes. These fish can generate envelope signals through movement, interactions of their electric fields in social groups or communication signals. The envelopes that result from the first two behavioral contexts differ in their frequency content, with movement envelopes typically being of lower frequency. Recent behavioral evidence has shown that weakly electric fish respond in robust and stereotypical ways to social envelopes to increase the envelope frequency. Finally, neurophysiological results show how envelopes are processed by peripheral and central electrosensory neurons. Peripheral electrosensory neurons respond to both stimulus and envelope signals. Neurons in the primary hindbrain recipient of these afferents, the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), exhibit heterogeneities in their responses to stimulus and envelope signals. Complete segregation of stimulus and envelope information is achieved in neurons in the target of ELL efferents, the midbrain torus semicircularis (Ts).

  8. Building a Shared Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanat, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of information needs in a business environment focuses on how to build a shared information network. Highlights include the evolution of corporate intelligence systems; results of a survey that examined the information networking needs of large corporations; and a case study of the development of an information network at Citibank N.A.…

  9. Infiltration, natural ventilation, and HVAC performance in the intelligent workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, A.; Ries, R.J.; Cho, D.

    2000-07-01

    This paper provides some preliminary results toward establishing the initial infiltration and ventilation performance signature for the Intelligent Workplace (IW), a research laboratory on a university campus. The preliminary empirical studies of the Intelligent Workplace involve continuous and/or periodic monitoring of a set of building performance indicators that, in toto, establish the initial building performance signature of the facility. In this paper the authors specifically report on systematic measurements of (a) building infiltration and natural ventilation, including both window and stack ventilation, and (b) HVAC systems performance, particularly user-based task-conditioning systems.

  10. The Effect of Automatic Gain Control Structure and Release Time on Cochlear Implant Speech Intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Khing, Phyu P.; Swanson, Brett A.; Ambikairajah, Eliathamby

    2013-01-01

    Nucleus cochlear implant systems incorporate a fast-acting front-end automatic gain control (AGC), sometimes called a compression limiter. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of replacing the front-end compression limiter with a newly proposed envelope profile limiter. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of AGC speed on cochlear implant speech intelligibility. The envelope profile limiter was located after the filter bank and reduced the gain when the largest of the filter bank envelopes exceeded the compression threshold. The compression threshold was set equal to the saturation level of the loudness growth function (i.e. the envelope level that mapped to the maximum comfortable current level), ensuring that no envelope clipping occurred. To preserve the spectral profile, the same gain was applied to all channels. Experiment 1 compared sentence recognition with the front-end limiter and with the envelope profile limiter, each with two release times (75 and 625 ms). Six implant recipients were tested in quiet and in four-talker babble noise, at a high presentation level of 89 dB SPL. Overall, release time had a larger effect than the AGC type. With both AGC types, speech intelligibility was lower for the 75 ms release time than for the 625 ms release time. With the shorter release time, the envelope profile limiter provided higher group mean scores than the front-end limiter in quiet, but there was no significant difference in noise. Experiment 2 measured sentence recognition in noise as a function of presentation level, from 55 to 89 dB SPL. The envelope profile limiter with 625 ms release time yielded better scores than the front-end limiter with 75 ms release time. A take-home study showed no clear pattern of preferences. It is concluded that the envelope profile limiter is a feasible alternative to a front-end compression limiter. PMID:24312408

  11. Business Intelligence in Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopčeková, Alena; Kopček, Michal; Tanuška, Pavol

    2013-12-01

    The Business Intelligence technology, which represents a strong tool not only for decision making support, but also has a big potential in other fields of application, is discussed in this paper. Necessary fundamental definitions are offered and explained to better understand the basic principles and the role of this technology for company management. Article is logically divided into five main parts. In the first part, there is the definition of the technology and the list of main advantages. In the second part, an overview of the system architecture with the brief description of separate building blocks is presented. Also, the hierarchical nature of the system architecture is shown. The technology life cycle consisting of four steps, which are mutually interconnected into a ring, is described in the third part. In the fourth part, analytical methods incorporated in the online analytical processing and data mining used within the business intelligence as well as the related data mining methodologies are summarised. Also, some typical applications of the above-mentioned particular methods are introduced. In the final part, a proposal of the knowledge discovery system for hierarchical process control is outlined. The focus of this paper is to provide a comprehensive view and to familiarize the reader with the Business Intelligence technology and its utilisation.

  12. The dynamics of Machiavellian intelligence.

    PubMed

    Gavrilets, Sergey; Vose, Aaron

    2006-11-07

    The "Machiavellian intelligence" hypothesis (or the "social brain" hypothesis) posits that large brains and distinctive cognitive abilities of humans have evolved via intense social competition in which social competitors developed increasingly sophisticated "Machiavellian" strategies as a means to achieve higher social and reproductive success. Here we build a mathematical model aiming to explore this hypothesis. In the model, genes control brains which invent and learn strategies (memes) which are used by males to gain advantage in competition for mates. We show that the dynamics of intelligence has three distinct phases. During the dormant phase only newly invented memes are present in the population. During the cognitive explosion phase the population's meme count and the learning ability, cerebral capacity (controlling the number of different memes that the brain can learn and use), and Machiavellian fitness of individuals increase in a runaway fashion. During the saturation phase natural selection resulting from the costs of having large brains checks further increases in cognitive abilities. Overall, our results suggest that the mechanisms underlying the "Machiavellian intelligence" hypothesis can indeed result in the evolution of significant cognitive abilities on the time scale of 10 to 20 thousand generations. We show that cerebral capacity evolves faster and to a larger degree than learning ability. Our model suggests that there may be a tendency toward a reduction in cognitive abilities (driven by the costs of having a large brain) as the reproductive advantage of having a large brain decreases and the exposure to memes increases in modern societies.

  13. Identification of building applications for a variable-conductance insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, T F; Tuluca, A

    1992-07-01

    Recent experiments have confirmed the feasibility of controllable, reversible disabling of a vacuum insulation panel, which may result in the development of energy-efficient building envelope components. These components could extend the managed energy exchange through the building envelope from about 30% (typical with fenestration systems in commercial buildings), to as much as 90% of the gross wall and roof areas. Further investigation will be required to optimized the thermal response and the magnitude of the R-value swing (from a difference between insulating and conducting insulating values of 4 to as high as a factor of 100). The potential for energy reduction by using the variable-conductance insulation in the building envelope is discussed, and other potential building applications are mentioned.

  14. The Viner-Wong Envelope Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Eugene

    1999-01-01

    Observes that the envelope theorem, a fundamental tool in duality analysis, is still a puzzle to many people. Argues that the essence of a solution proposed by Paul Samuelson (1947) is also unclear to many people, but can be communicated with a simple cost diagram. Presents and explains the proposed diagram. (DSK)

  15. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... any combination of airspeed and load factor on and within the boundaries of a flight envelope (similar... altitudes between sea level and 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from 50 f.p.s. at 20... considered at altitudes between sea level and 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from...

  16. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any combination of airspeed and load factor on and within the boundaries of a flight envelope (similar... altitudes between sea level and 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from 50 f.p.s. at 20... considered at altitudes between sea level and 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from...

  17. The Methodology of Data Envelopment Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The methodology of data envelopment analysis, (DEA) a linear programming-based method, is described. Other procedures often used for measuring relative productive efficiency are discussed in relation to DEA, including ratio analysis and multiple regression analysis. The DEA technique is graphically illustrated for only two inputs and one output.…

  18. Ultraviolet Opacity and Fluorescence in Supernova Envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hongwei; McCray, Richard

    1996-01-01

    By the time the expanding envelope of a Type 2 supernova becomes transparent in the optical continuum, most of the gamma-ray luminosity produced by radioactive Fe/Co/Ni clumps propagates into the hydrogen/helium envelope and is deposited there, if at all. The resulting fast electrons excite He 1 and H 1, the two- photon continua of which are the dominant internal sources of ultraviolet radiation. The UV radiation is blocked by scattering in thousands of resonance lines of metals and converted by fluorescence into optical and infrared emission lines that escape freely. We describe results of Monte Carlo calculations that simulate non-LTE scattering and fluorescence in more than five million allowed lines of Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. For a model approximating conditions in the envelope of SN 1987A, the calculated emergent spectrum resembles the observed one. For the first 2 yr after explosion, the ultraviolet radiation (lambda less than or approximately equals 3000) is largely blocked and converted into a quasi continuum of many thousands of weak optical and infrared emission lines and some prominent emission features, such as the Ca 2 lambdalambda8600 triplet. Later, as the envelope cools and expands, it becomes more transparent, and an increasing fraction of the luminosity emerges in the UV band.

  19. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  20. The Methodology of Data Envelopment Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The methodology of data envelopment analysis, (DEA) a linear programming-based method, is described. Other procedures often used for measuring relative productive efficiency are discussed in relation to DEA, including ratio analysis and multiple regression analysis. The DEA technique is graphically illustrated for only two inputs and one output.…

  1. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  2. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Danielle J.; Crump, Colin M.; Graham, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called “tegument” that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment) during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei. PMID:26393641

  3. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill; William Charlton; Robert Bean

    2008-07-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of “non-traditional” operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes.

  4. Right to Light: Ralph Knowles's Solar Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, David

    1979-01-01

    At the University of Southern California solar-access design research project, Barry Knowles and students have devised a solar envelope: the largest volumetric container over a land parcel that allows solar access to all adjacent neighbors within useful time constraints. (Author/MLF)

  5. Data Envelopment Analysis: Critique and Extensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Thomas R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Recent methodological advances are described that enable the analyst to extract additional information from the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology, including goal programming to develop cross-efficiencies, cluster analysis, analysis of variance, and pooled cross section time-series analysis. Some shortcomings of DEA are discussed. (LMO)

  6. Effective Planning for Better School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James M.

    Citizens, students, and teachers, as well as architects and administrators, should be actively involved in planning for school buildings. This involvement is essential in order that school plants serve their purpose -- facilitating learning. Participation in planning helps to insure financial support and intelligent use of buildings when they are…

  7. Adaptive envelope protection methods for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, Suraj

    Carefree handling refers to the ability of a pilot to operate an aircraft without the need to continuously monitor aircraft operating limits. At the heart of all carefree handling or maneuvering systems, also referred to as envelope protection systems, are algorithms and methods for predicting future limit violations. Recently, envelope protection methods that have gained more acceptance, translate limit proximity information to its equivalent in the control channel. Envelope protection algorithms either use very small prediction horizon or are static methods with no capability to adapt to changes in system configurations. Adaptive approaches maximizing prediction horizon such as dynamic trim, are only applicable to steady-state-response critical limit parameters. In this thesis, a new adaptive envelope protection method is developed that is applicable to steady-state and transient response critical limit parameters. The approach is based upon devising the most aggressive optimal control profile to the limit boundary and using it to compute control limits. Pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of the proposed approach are conducted at the Georgia Tech Carefree Maneuver lab for transient longitudinal hub moment limit protection. Carefree maneuvering is the dual of carefree handling in the realm of autonomous Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Designing a flight control system to fully and effectively utilize the operational flight envelope is very difficult. With the increasing role and demands for extreme maneuverability there is a need for developing envelope protection methods for autonomous UAVs. In this thesis, a full-authority automatic envelope protection method is proposed for limit protection in UAVs. The approach uses adaptive estimate of limit parameter dynamics and finite-time horizon predictions to detect impending limit boundary violations. Limit violations are prevented by treating the limit boundary as an obstacle and by correcting nominal control

  8. Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-05-01

    Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

  9. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Whole-House Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. This work is part of a multiphase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). This report describes Phase 3, which was completed in two stages and continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  10. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  11. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.F.

    1997-04-21

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the PFP Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  12. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  13. Indexical properties influence time-varying amplitude and fundamental frequency contributions of vowels to sentence intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how non-linguistic, indexical information about talker identity interacts with contributions to sentence intelligibility by the time-varying amplitude (temporal envelope) and fundamental frequency (F0). Young normal-hearing adults listened to sentences that preserved the original consonants but replaced the vowels with a single vowel production. This replacement vowel selectively preserved amplitude or F0 cues of the original vowel, but replaced cues to phonetic identity. Original vowel duration was always preserved. Three experiments investigated indexical contributions by replacing vowels with productions from the same or different talker, or by acoustically morphing the original vowel. These stimulus conditions investigated how vowel suprasegmental and indexical properties interact and contribute to intelligibility independently from phonetic information. Results demonstrated that indexical properties influence the relative contribution of suprasegmental properties to sentence intelligibility. F0 variations are particularly important in the presence of conflicting indexical information. Temporal envelope modulations significantly improve sentence intelligibility, but are enhanced when either indexical or F0 cues are available. These findings suggest that F0 and other indexical cues may facilitate perceptually grouping suprasegmental properties of vowels with the remainder of the sentence. Temporal envelope modulations of vowels may contribute to intelligibility once they are successfully integrated with the preserved signal. PMID:26543276

  14. Validating predictions from climate envelope models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watling, J.; Bucklin, D.; Speroterra, C.; Brandt, L.; Cabal, C.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species’ distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967–1971 (t1) and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998–2002 (t2). Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences) was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences) was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on species.

  15. Adaptive Spectral Envelope Estimation for Doppler Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Aditi; Karabiyik, Yucel; Eik-Nes, Sturla H; Tegnander, Eva; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Kiss, Gabriel; Torp, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Estimation of accurate maximum velocities and spectral envelope in ultrasound Doppler blood flow spectrograms are both essential for clinical diagnostic purposes. However, obtaining accurate maximum velocity is not straightforward due to intrinsic spectral broadening and variance in the power spectrum estimate. The method proposed in this paper for maximum velocity point detection has been developed by modifying an existing method-signal noise slope intersection, incorporating in it steps from an altered version of another method called geometric method. Adaptive noise estimation from the spectrogram ensures that a smooth spectral envelope is obtained postdetection of these maximum velocity points. The method has been tested on simulated Doppler signal with scatterers possessing a parabolic flow velocity profile constant in time, steady and pulsatile string phantom recordings, as well as in vivo recordings from uterine, umbilical, carotid, and subclavian arteries. The results from simulation experiments indicate a bias of less than 2.5% in maximum velocities when estimated for a range of peak velocities, Doppler angles, and SNR levels. Standard deviation in the envelope is low-less than 2% in the case of experiments done by varying the peak velocity and Doppler angle for steady phantom and simulated flow, and also less than 2% in the case of experiments done by varying SNR but keeping constant flow conditions for in vivo and simulated flow. Low variability in the envelope makes the prospect of using the envelope for automated blood flow measurements possible and is illustrated for the case of pulsatility index estimation in uterine and umbilical arteries.

  16. CO line emission from circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, D.; Hernandez, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Yoshida, H.; Phillips, T. G.

    2006-04-01

    Aims.We present the results of a multi-transition CO observational program conducted on a sample of AGB and post-AGB stars envelopes. We have collected maps and single pointing observations of these envelopes in 5 rotational transitions ranging from J = 1-0 to J = 6-5, including in particular new observations of the CO line at 691 GHz at the CSO. The use of such a set of mm and submm CO line on stellar envelopes is rare and limited to the work of some authors on IRC+10216. Methods: .Using a model for the CO emission of an AGB circumstellar envelope, in combination with a standard LVG approach, we have conducted a systematic modelling analysis using the whole set of CO data collected for a sample of 12 sources. We simultaneously fit all five transitions, taking into account the spatial information provided by the maps. Results: .We find mass-loss rates in the range 1 × 10-7 to 4 × 10-4 M_⊙/yr, and envelope temperatures ranging from 20 K to 1000 K at a radius of 1016 cm. There seem to be a general anti-correlation between mass loss rates and temperature, the high mass loss rate AGBs having low temperatures, and vice versa. We show that most AGB data can be fitted using a constant mass loss rate, at least within the calibration uncertainties associated with the data collected at different frequencies. For some cases though (e.g. CIT 6, R Hya, χ Cyg), a change in the mass loss rate history needs to be invoked to reconcile data at low- and high-J, a scenario already mentioned by several authors to explain observations of WX Psc.

  17. The Circumstellar Envelope of IRC +10216.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keady, John Joseph

    1982-03-01

    Using recently obtained spatial and spectral line data on the circumstellar envelope of IRC +10216, we have attempted to semi-empirically probe the conditions in this envelope. The computational techniques utilized in our analysis accurately incorporate the effects of geometrical extension and velocity fields on the radiative transfer. We have also attempted to account for the non-equilibrium expected in the vibrational level populations of the gas phase species. Our modelling of the spatial distribution of the dust-produced circumstellar radiation field at 5 (mu)m and 11 (mu)m indicates that dust may be condensing in the circumstellar envelope. The dominant opacity source in our calculations, amorphous carbon, also seems to provide sufficient far-infrared flux. Modelling of the SiC emission feature confirms previous results that suggest a nonuniform particle-shape distribution for the SiC. We can produce multi-component absorption lines, very similar to the 2 (mu)m CO first overtone lines seen in IRC +10216, with continuous distributions of material. The requirement is regions of relatively low acceleration. Modelling of our high resolution, high signal-to-noise observations of the CO fundamental and first overtone indicates a mass -loss rate of 1.5(10('-4)) M(,(CIRCLE))/yr. Our calculations to date indicate that the gas reaches terminal velocity between 10 and 20 R(,*). The envelope mass within 100 R(,*) is 3(10('-2)) M(,(CIRCLE)), with the ratio (by mass) of dust to gas being 10('-3). The assumption of a constant mass-loss rate implies an envelope mass of (TURN)1 M(,(CIRCLE)) within 5000 R(,*). The computational techniques utilized are sufficiently adaptable and economical so that considerable future refinement of the modelling is possible.

  18. The envelope-based cyclic periodogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, P.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclostationary analysis has proven effective in identifying signal components for diagnostic purposes. A key descriptor in this framework is the cyclic power spectrum, traditionally estimated by the averaged cyclic periodogram and the smoothed cyclic periodogram. A lengthy debate about the best estimator finally found a solution in a cornerstone work by Antoni, who proposed a unified form for the two families, thus allowing a detailed statistical study of their properties. Since then, the focus of cyclostationary research has shifted towards algorithms, in terms of computational efficiency and simplicity of implementation. Traditional algorithms have proven computationally inefficient and the sophisticated "cyclostationary" definition of these estimators slowed their spread in the industry. The only attempt to increase the computational efficiency of cyclostationary estimators is represented by the cyclic modulation spectrum. This indicator exploits the relationship between cyclostationarity and envelope analysis. The link with envelope analysis allows a leap in computational efficiency and provides a "way in" for the understanding by industrial engineers. However, the new estimator lies outside the unified form described above and an unbiased version of the indicator has not been proposed. This paper will therefore extend the analysis of envelope-based estimators of the cyclic spectrum, proposing a new approach to include them in the unified form of cyclostationary estimators. This will enable the definition of a new envelope-based algorithm and the detailed analysis of the properties of the cyclic modulation spectrum. The computational efficiency of envelope-based algorithms will be also discussed quantitatively for the first time in comparison with the averaged cyclic periodogram. Finally, the algorithms will be validated with numerical and experimental examples.

  19. Selecting Energy Efficient Building Envelope Retrofits to Existing Department of Defense Building Using Value Focused Thinking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    galvanized steel transfer heat more readily than wood or polymer frames such as fiberglass or vinyl. In fact, metal framing has such a negative impact on...insulation and sound barrier, but also a backing for drywall on the inside, and stucco, lap siding, or brick on the outside. ICF walls are more...with a structural facing on each side. Common facings are drywall , oriented strand board (OSB), or plywood (DOE, 2005a). These wall systems can

  20. The Psp system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis integrates envelope stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions.

    PubMed

    Datta, Pratik; Ravi, Janani; Guerrini, Valentina; Chauhan, Rinki; Neiditch, Matthew B; Shell, Scarlet S; Fortune, Sarah M; Hancioglu, Baris; Igoshin, Oleg A; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2015-08-01

    The bacterial envelope integrates essential stress-sensing and adaptive functions; thus, envelope-preserving functions are important for survival. In Gram-negative bacteria, envelope integrity during stress is maintained by the multi-gene Psp response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was thought to lack the Psp system since it encodes only pspA and no other psp ortholog. Intriguingly, pspA maps downstream from clgR, which encodes a transcription factor regulated by the MprAB-σ(E) envelope-stress-signaling system. clgR inactivation lowered ATP concentration during stress and protonophore treatment-induced clgR-pspA expression, suggesting that these genes express Psp-like functions. We identified a four-gene set - clgR, pspA (rv2744c), rv2743c, rv2742c - that is regulated by clgR and in turn regulates ClgR activity. Regulatory and protein-protein interactions within the set and a requirement of the four genes for functions associated with envelope integrity and surface-stress tolerance indicate that a Psp-like system has evolved in mycobacteria. Among Actinobacteria, the four-gene module occurred only in tuberculous mycobacteria and was required for intramacrophage growth, suggesting links between its function and mycobacterial virulence. Additionally, the four-gene module was required for MprAB-σ(E) stress-signaling activity. The positive feedback between envelope-stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions allows sustained responses to multiple, envelope-perturbing signals during chronic infection, making the system uniquely suited to tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  1. Nuclear membrane: nuclear envelope PORosity in fission yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Sazer, Shelley

    2010-11-09

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes closed mitosis but 'virtual nuclear envelope breakdown' at anaphase of meiosis II, in which the nuclear envelope is structurally closed but functionally open.

  2. Thermodynamics and fluid dynamics of the double shell (envelope) house

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, V.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of the envelope house are summarized and a systems approach to the house heat energy flows is presented. Some basic principles of physics in the area of thermodynamic conduction are discussed in relation to the envelope concept. (MHR)

  3. The action of three antiseptics/disinfectants against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Wood, A; Payne, D

    1998-04-01

    The antiviral action of chloroxylenol, benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide/chlorhexidine was assessed against a range of enveloped and non-enveloped human viruses using a suspension test method. Viral suspensions of 10(6)-10(7) pfu/TCID50 or sfu were prepared in each of the antiseptic/disinfectant solutions in the presence of a bovine serum/yeast extract mixture to simulate 'dirty conditions'. During incubation, aliquots were removed at predetermined timepoints up to 10 min to assess the kinetics of inactivation. Results indicate that all products were effective in inactivating the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, whilst being ineffective in inactivating human coronavirus, also enveloped, and the non-enveloped viruses. The exception to this was the benzalkonium chloride-based product (Dettol Hospital Concentrate) which was active against the non-enveloped human coxsackie virus. Four antiseptic/disinfectant solutions with chloroxylenol, benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide/chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were also assessed for antiviral effect against human immunodeficiency virus in the presence of whole human blood. All four solutions proved to be effective within 1 min despite the cytotoxic nature of the compounds to the detection system.

  4. Effects of envelope shape on interaural envelope delay sensitivity in acoustic and electric hearing.

    PubMed

    Laback, Bernhard; Zimmermann, Inge; Majdak, Piotr; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Pok, Stefan-Marcel

    2011-09-01

    The envelope shape is important for the perception of interaural time difference (ITD) in the envelope as supported by the improved sensitivity for transposed tones compared to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) tones. The present study investigated the effects of specific envelope parameters in nine normal-hearing (NH) and seven cochlear-implant (CI) listeners, using high-rate carriers with 27-Hz trapezoidal modulation. In NH listeners, increasing the off time (the silent interval in each modulation cycle) up to 12 ms, increasing the envelope slope from 6 to 8 dB/ms, and increasing the peak level improved ITD sensitivity. The combined effect of the off time and slope accounts for the gain in sensitivity for transposed tones relative to SAM tones. In CI listeners, increasing the off time up to 20 ms improved sensitivity, but increasing the slope showed no systematic effect. A 27-pulses/s electric pulse train, representing a special case of modulation with infinitely steep slopes and maximum possible off time, yielded considerably higher sensitivity compared to the best condition with trapezoidal modulation. Overall, the results of this study indicate that envelope-ITD sensitivity could be improved by using CI processing schemes that simultaneously increase the off time and the peak level of the signal envelope. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  5. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  6. Information Selection in Intelligence Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    formulation of preference elicitation problems,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Edmonton, AB 239–246. Bron, C... Artificial Intelligence , (AAAI) Seattle, WA. Central Intelligence Agency. (1999). Consumer’s guide to Intelligence . Cohen, J., McClure, S., & Yu, A. (2007...IN INTELLIGENCE PROCESSING by Yuval Nevo December 2011 Thesis Advisors: Moshe Kress Nedialko B. Dimitrov Second Reader

  7. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  8. Application of the Envelope Difference Index to Spectrally Sparse Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Pamela; Hoover, Eric; Gallun, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Amplitude compression is a common hearing aid processing strategy that can improve speech audibility and loudness comfort but also has the potential to alter important cues carried by the speech envelope. In previous work, a measure of envelope change, the Envelope Difference Index (EDI; Fortune, Woodruff, & Preves, 1994), was moderately…

  9. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-03-28

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

  10. Application of the Envelope Difference Index to Spectrally Sparse Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Pamela; Hoover, Eric; Gallun, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Amplitude compression is a common hearing aid processing strategy that can improve speech audibility and loudness comfort but also has the potential to alter important cues carried by the speech envelope. In previous work, a measure of envelope change, the Envelope Difference Index (EDI; Fortune, Woodruff, & Preves, 1994), was moderately…

  11. Fractionating human intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; Highfield, Roger R; Parkin, Beth L; Owen, Adrian M

    2012-12-20

    What makes one person more intellectually able than another? Can the entire distribution of human intelligence be accounted for by just one general factor? Is intelligence supported by a single neural system? Here, we provide a perspective on human intelligence that takes into account how general abilities or "factors" reflect the functional organization of the brain. By comparing factor models of individual differences in performance with factor models of brain functional organization, we demonstrate that different components of intelligence have their analogs in distinct brain networks. Using simulations based on neuroimaging data, we show that the higher-order factor "g" is accounted for by cognitive tasks corecruiting multiple networks. Finally, we confirm the independence of these components of intelligence by dissociating them using questionnaire variables. We propose that intelligence is an emergent property of anatomically distinct cognitive systems, each of which has its own capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing the public health intelligence workforce in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jenner, D; Hill, A; Greenacre, J; Enock, K

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK health policies have consistently stressed the importance of basing local action on evidence and local intelligence. A suitably skilled workforce is required to achieve this. In recent years, a new cadre of skilled public health intelligence practitioners has emerged in the UK. This paper describes some of the steps taken by public health observatories and other organizations to grow and train this new workforce, and looks ahead to future developments building on the progress to date.

  13. A Special Relationship: Bridging the NATO Intelligence Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    the uncertainty of a NATO-Soviet ground war on the plains of central Europe.15 As the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s NATO faced an...intelligence process, and other nations need to contribute more to the common intelligence picture. That way we can build on that picture rapidly in an...to lead such an organization. The proliferation of mobile communication devices such as cell phones, smart phones, and tablet devices along with

  14. Knowledge Intelligence: A New Field in Business Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Guangli; Li, Xiuting; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Yuejin; Shi, Yong

    This paper discussed the development of business intelligence considering the development of data mining. Business intelligence plays an important role in producing up-to-data information for operative and strategic decision-making. We proposed a new kind of knowledge named intelligent knowledge gotten from data. We illustrated a way to combine the business intelligence and intelligent knowledge and proposed a way of the management of intelligent knowledge which is more structural than the traditional knowledge.

  15. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Intelligence for making the work of Richards J. Heuer, Jr. on the psychology of intelligence analysis available to a new generation of intelligence...treat- ments elsewhere.3 Here I address his general legacy to the analytical pro- fession. Kent, a professor of European history at Yale, worked in the...found impact on earlier generations of analysts and managers, and his work continues to exert an indirect influence among practitioners of the

  16. On what intelligence is.

    PubMed

    Howard, R W

    1993-02-01

    Despite much controversy over the exact definition of intelligence, most researchers agree that it is a concept labelled by a word, or even several related concepts labelled by a word. The present study applies recent theorizing about the nature of concepts in general to clarify the notion (or notions) of intelligence. This theorizing defines a concept as a person's unique and individual information about a category and a category as a set of things in the world. An example of a concept/category pair is 'dog', with the category being the set of all dogs and an individual's concept of dog being his or her personal knowledge of dogs. This knowledge can be used to place things in or out of the category. Different individuals may have somewhat different knowledge about the same category and a single word may label several different concept/category pairs. A concept of intelligence thus consists of information about a general category labelled by the word 'intelligence'. This study analyses three major concept/category pairs of 'intelligence': (1) Spearman's g; (2) intelligence as a property of behaviour; and (3) intelligence as a set of abilities. Each concept contains different information, refers to a different category, and should be used in different ways. Several recurrent issues, such as whether the word 'intelligence' refers to a thing and what things are intelligent (e.g. animals, computers), can be resolved by considering each issue in relation to these concept/category pairs. For instance, the word 'intelligence' refers to a thing only if one uses the g concept. Similarly, only humans are intelligent according to the g concept but animals and computers may be considered intelligent if the other concepts are applied. Recent theorizing on the nature of concepts can be used to clarify other important psychological notions.

  17. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  18. Dimensions of Intelligent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Keywords: IS, Intelligent Systems, Turing Test, Cognitive Model, situated cognition, BDI, Deep Blue, constructionism 1: Introduction Investigation of...of Intelligent Clinical Protocol System One of the most prolific areas of AI research has been in the medical realm which provides more representative...diagnosis are too diverse to cover easily. Instead I look at one well researched area - the support provided by intelligent system for clinical

  19. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  20. Intelligence Essentials for Everyone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Larry Kahaner, Competitive Intelligence : From Black Ops to Boardrooms — How Businesses Gather, Analyze and Use Infor- mation to Succeed in the Global...32744.fm Page 2 Tuesday, June 22, 1999 9:42 AMauthorities. The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals...SCIP, Competitive Intelligence Review, 8, No. 3 (Fall 1997), unnumbered 8th page. 5 SCIP, 1995 SCIP Membership Directory (Alexandria, VA: SCIP, 1995

  1. Intelligence Analysis: Once Again

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    This paper provides a sense of the literature written specifically about intelligence analysis , including general definitions, themes, divergent...has not been a progression of thinking relative to the core aspect and complexities of doing intelligence analysis ; hence, the title, "Once Again...including how they influence the determination of meaning. The literature on rigor in intelligence analysis is reviewed, including the role of

  2. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D.

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise

  3. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  4. Small carbon chains in circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Hinkle, K.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-11-01

    Observations of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes were made using the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope to determine the abundance of small carbon chain molecules. Vibration-rotation lines of the ν3 antisymmetric stretch of C3 near 2040 cm-1 (4.902 μm) have been used to determine the column density for four carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes: CRL 865, CRL 1922, CRL 2023 and IRC +10216. We additionally calculate the column density of C5 for IRC +10216, and provide an upper limit for five more objects. An upper limit estimate for the C7 column density is also provided for IRC+10216. A comparison of these column densities suggests a revision to current circumstellar chemical models may be needed.

  5. Constant envelope chirped OFDM power efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dida, Mussa A.; Hao, Huan; Anjum, M. R.; Ran, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Fractional Fourier OFDM or simply chirped OFDM performs better in time-frequency selective channel than its convectional OFDM. Although chirped OFDM outperforms OFDM it still inherits Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) drawback as a convectional OFDM. To eliminate PAPR drawback Constant Envelope OFDM was developed and for better performance in time frequency selective channel Constant Envelope Fractional Fourier OFDM (CE-COFDM) is used. Its BER performance is analyzed and compared to chirped OFDM and OFDM in AWGN and Rayleigh channel. The simulations show the BER performance of CE-COFDM is the same as chirped OFDM and OFDM. The power efficiency of CE-COFDM is also studied and different simulations performed shows CE-COFDM is more power efficient than chirped OFDM and convectional OFDM for class A and class B Linear Power Amplifier (LPA).

  6. Nonlinear Analysis of Airship Envelop Aerolasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. M.; Lu, C. J.; Xue, L. P.

    The large airship in flow field is a flexible body with low rigidity. The distribution of the peripheral flow field around the airship is closely related to its shape. It is essentially one of the Fluid-structure Interaction problems. Based on this, this paper aims at the numerical simulation of nonlinear airship envelop aeroelasticity by means of coupling aerodynamics and structure using an iteration method. The three-dimensional flow around the airship was studied numerically by means of SIMPLE method based on the Finite Volume Method. Two approaches, the linear method whose equilibrium equations are based on the membrance theory of thin shell and the nonlinear method which uses a nonlinear finite element method to account for the large deformation of the airship envelop, are introduced for geometrically deformation of the airship shape. A thin plate spline method is adopted as the interface of exchanging information between the fluid and structure models.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide in a circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukita, N.; Morris, M.

    1983-01-01

    A search for hydrogen sulfide in the cool circumstellar envelopes of 25 stars was made using the 1(10)-1(01) rotational line at 1.8 mm. It was detected in the bipolar nebula/OH maser OH231.8+4.2, an object having a high rate of mass loss. An approximate analysis indicates that 1/60 of the sulfur in this outflowing envelope is in the form of H2S, a fraction which may be similar to that in the atmosphere of the central star. In addition, the shape of the observed line profile is discussed in terms of a possible variation of the outflow velocity with latitude above the system's equatorial plane.

  8. Formaldehyde in envelopes of interstellar dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Allen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Observed formaldehyde column densities of 1 x 10 to the 12th - 3 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm in cloud envelopes along lines of sight with A(V) = 1-4 mag can not be explained with the current understanding of interstellar gas phase chemistry. However, these column densities can be reproduced by a simple time-dependent model in which H2CO is supplied to the gas phase by the erosion of icy grain mantles. The release of H2CO from the grain mantles must occur on time scales comparable to the time scales for mixing from the cloud interior to the cloud envelope. Thus, in low-density regions of clouds, it appears that formaldehyde is the second molecule whose gas phase source is primarily ejection from grains. This simple model suggests understanding gas phase steady state in clouds on macroscopic, rather than microscopic, spatial scales.

  9. Uses and misuses of bioclimatic envelope modeling.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Miguel B; Peterson, A Townsend

    2012-07-01

    Bioclimatic envelope models use associations between aspects of climate and species' occurrences to estimate the conditions that are suitable to maintain viable populations. Once bioclimatic envelopes are characterized, they can be applied to a variety of questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation. However, some have questioned the usefulness of these models, because they may be based on implausible assumptions or may be contradicted by empirical evidence. We review these areas of contention, and suggest that criticism has often been misplaced, resulting from confusion between what the models actually deliver and what users wish that they would express. Although improvements in data and methods will have some effect, the usefulness of these models is contingent on their appropriate use, and they will improve mainly via better awareness of their conceptual basis, strengths, and limitations.

  10. The search for intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, E. J.

    1980-12-01

    Implications of current understandings of the nature of human intelligence for the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence are discussed. The perceptual theory of intelligence as the manipulation of perceptual images rather than language is introduced, and conditions leading to the ascendancy of man over other hominids with similar conceptual abilities are discussed, including the liberation of the hands from a locomotive function and the evolution of neoteny. It is argued that the specificity of the environmental, behavioral and physiological conditions which lead to the emergence of technologically oriented, and communicative intelligent creatures suggests that any SETI would most likely be fruitless.

  11. Intelligence and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  13. Machine listening intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  14. Invitation to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    D'heedene, R.N.

    1983-02-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence displayed by non-living objects, that is, machines. The possibility of creating intelligent machines has been a motivating force behind a great deal of computing machine development. The methods of AI are not only of historical interest, but are powerful in themselves. Artificial intelligence therefore deserves a prominent place in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. This paper discusses the pedagogical advantages of emphasizing AI in upper level courses, reasons for its present neglect, and the importance of introducing ai study. 5 references.

  15. Inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses on seeded human tissues by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    Human tissue allografts are widely used in a variety of clinical applications with over 1.5 million implants annually in the US alone. Since the 1990s, most clinically available allografts have been disinfected to minimize risk of disease transmission. Additional safety assurance can be provided by terminal sterilization using low dose gamma irradiation. The impact of such irradiation processing at low temperatures on viruses was the subject of this study. In particular, both human tendon and cortical bone samples were seeded with a designed array of viruses and the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate those viruses was tested. The irradiation exposures for the samples packed in dry ice were 11.6-12.9 kGy for tendon and 11.6-12.3 kGy for bone, respectively. The viruses, virus types, and log reductions on seeded tendon and bone tissue, respectively, were as follows: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (RNA, enveloped), >2.90 and >3.20; Porcine Parvovirus (DNA, non-enveloped), 1.90 and 1.58; Pseudorabies Virus (DNA, enveloped), 3.80 and 3.79; Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (RNA, enveloped), 2.57 and 4.56; and Hepatitis A Virus (RNA, non-enveloped), 2.54 and 2.49, respectively. While proper donor screening, aseptic technique, and current disinfection practices all help reduce the risk of viral transmission from human allograft tissues, data presented here indicate that terminal sterilization using a low temperature, low dose gamma irradiation process inactivates both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses containing either DNA or RNA, thus providing additional assurance of safety from viral transmission.

  16. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of...

  17. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of...

  18. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of...

  19. Bound Cyclic Systems with the Envelope Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2017-09-01

    Approximate but reliable solutions of a quantum system with N identical particles can be easily computed with the envelope theory, also known as the auxiliary field method. This technique has been developed for Hamiltonians with arbitrary kinematics and one- or two-body potentials. It is adapted here for cyclic systems with N identical particles, that is to say systems in which a particle i has only an interaction with particles i-1 and i+1 (with N+1≡1).

  20. Envelope instability and the fourth order resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhao, Ya Liang

    2014-12-01

    The well-known envelope instability or the second order even collective mode [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4 (1998)] and the fourth order resonance 4 σ =360 ° due to the nonlinear space charge effect in high intensity beams have been studied previously. A wide stop band around 15° is found in a pure periodic focusing channel. In addition, it is illustrated that the fourth order resonance dominates over the envelope instability and practically replaces it in the stop band [D. Jeon et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 054204 (2009)]. In this paper, for a continuous beam with remarkable space charge, our 2D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation work with the code topopic shows these two kinds of effects respectively in a periodic focusing defocusing (FD) channel. For a fixed tune depression η =0.8 , a stop band with a width of almost 15° is also demonstrated. Moreover, it is confirmed that analytical results of the rms envelope instability diagram are a valid tool to interpret the width of the stop band. Emittance growth rates in stop band are also well explained. It is found that, for a nearly rms matched beam, the emittance growth in the stop band is almost proportional to the saturation time of the nonlinear instability of the envelope, which happens in a quick manner and takes only a few FD cells. In contrast, the fourth order resonance is independent of rms matching and will be accompanied by beam evolution as "a long term effect" once the related mechanism is excited.