Science.gov

Sample records for intelligent vehicle highway

  1. Intelligent vehicle/highway systems in action

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    The author reports on intelligent vehicle/highway systems (IVHS) projects. These projects are developed to improve traffic efficiency and safety. Included in this article is a description of California's Program on Advanced Technology for the Highway (PATH). PATH is developing a program of roadway electrification, in which electric cars and buses would be powered through and electrical conduction embedded in the roadway.

  2. Simulation and intelligent vehicle highway systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K. ); Santiago, A.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) is based on the premise of using advanced technologies in telecommunication, electronics, and computers to improve the nature and quality of highway travel while making it safer and more efficient. The safety benefits of the IVHS systems are unquestioned; however, there are different levels of optimism about the operational benefits of these systems. While there is a broad consensus that IVHS can improve the flow of traffic, and thus mobility, currently there is very limited empirical evidence or analytical basis to support this optimism. The lack of analytical framework for design, analysis, and evaluation of IVHS concepts will continue to fuel the debate between the skeptics and the advocates of IVHS. Computer simulation is likely to play a major role in the analysis and assessment of the IVHS technologies. In this paper, we attempt to identify the simulation modelling needs to support the IVHS functional areas dealing with traffic flow on highway networks. The paper outlines the envisioned IVHS operational environment. Functional requirements for the simulation modelling system that could be used to support the development and testing of IVHS concepts, namely Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS), are defined. Simulation modelling research and development needs to support the design and evaluations of IVHS concepts are described. The paper concludes by presenting on-going work on the traffic simulation models at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Simulation and intelligent vehicle highway systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K.; Santiago, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) is based on the premise of using advanced technologies in telecommunication, electronics, and computers to improve the nature and quality of highway travel while making it safer and more efficient. The safety benefits of the IVHS systems are unquestioned; however, there are different levels of optimism about the operational benefits of these systems. While there is a broad consensus that IVHS can improve the flow of traffic, and thus mobility, currently there is very limited empirical evidence or analytical basis to support this optimism. The lack of analytical framework for design, analysis, and evaluation of IVHS concepts will continue to fuel the debate between the skeptics and the advocates of IVHS. Computer simulation is likely to play a major role in the analysis and assessment of the IVHS technologies. In this paper, we attempt to identify the simulation modelling needs to support the IVHS functional areas dealing with traffic flow on highway networks. The paper outlines the envisioned IVHS operational environment. Functional requirements for the simulation modelling system that could be used to support the development and testing of IVHS concepts, namely Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS), are defined. Simulation modelling research and development needs to support the design and evaluations of IVHS concepts are described. The paper concludes by presenting on-going work on the traffic simulation models at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-05-15

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility.

  5. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  6. Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  7. Intelligent vehicle highway systems strategic deployment plan for Metropolitan Boston. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a strategic plan developed by the Massachusetts Executive Office of Transportation and Construction (EOTC) and the Massachusetts Highway Department (MHD) for implementing an Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System (IVHS) throughout metropolitan Boston during the next decade. The strategic deployment plan covers specific roadway and transit networks; and identifies the user services and functions to be provided, the overall system architecture, the supporting technologies and strategies, the operations and maintenance requirements, the implementation priorities, and the associated costs and benefits. This report is comprised of numerous exhibits, appendices, and the following thirteen chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Existing Conditions, (3) IVHS Functions, (4) Regional Architecture, (5) Surveillance, (6) Incident Management, (7) Traveler Interface, (8) Demand Management, (9) Communications, (10) Central Hardware and Software, (11) Control Center, (12) Operations and Maintenance, and (13) System Implementation Costs.

  8. The potential of intelligent vehicle highway systems for enhanced traveler security

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    The Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) program that was mandated by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) presents a number of opportunities and challenges. While the program primarily is intended to address the problem of traffic congestion, the technologies it will require could also be used to enhance the safety and security of the traveling public. Public transit systems offer the most likely near-term opportunities both for IVHS-type technologies, and for new security measures to be applied. This paper will address some of the possible security functions that could be applied to transit systems by utilizing the availability of Automatic Vehicle Location systems (AVL), broadband digital communication systems, and other IVHS functions.

  9. Increasing Intelligence in Inter-Vehicle Communications to Reduce Traffic Congestions: Experiments in Urban and Highway Environments

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Geraldo P. R.; Guidoni, Daniel L.; Pessin, Gustavo; Villas, Leandro A.; Ueyama, Jó

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) rely on Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) to streamline the operation of vehicles by managing vehicle traffic, assisting drivers with safety and sharing information, as well as providing appropriate services for passengers. Traffic congestion is an urban mobility problem, which causes stress to drivers and economic losses. In this context, this work proposes a solution for the detection, dissemination and control of congested roads based on inter-vehicle communication, called INCIDEnT. The main goal of the proposed solution is to reduce the average trip time, CO emissions and fuel consumption by allowing motorists to avoid congested roads. The simulation results show that our proposed solution leads to short delays and a low overhead. Moreover, it is efficient with regard to the coverage of the event and the distance to which the information can be propagated. The findings of the investigation show that the proposed solution leads to (i) high hit rate in the classification of the level of congestion, (ii) a reduction in average trip time, (iii) a reduction in fuel consumption, and (iv) reduced CO emissions PMID:27526048

  10. Increasing Intelligence in Inter-Vehicle Communications to Reduce Traffic Congestions: Experiments in Urban and Highway Environments.

    PubMed

    Meneguette, Rodolfo I; Filho, Geraldo P R; Guidoni, Daniel L; Pessin, Gustavo; Villas, Leandro A; Ueyama, Jó

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) rely on Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) to streamline the operation of vehicles by managing vehicle traffic, assisting drivers with safety and sharing information, as well as providing appropriate services for passengers. Traffic congestion is an urban mobility problem, which causes stress to drivers and economic losses. In this context, this work proposes a solution for the detection, dissemination and control of congested roads based on inter-vehicle communication, called INCIDEnT. The main goal of the proposed solution is to reduce the average trip time, CO emissions and fuel consumption by allowing motorists to avoid congested roads. The simulation results show that our proposed solution leads to short delays and a low overhead. Moreover, it is efficient with regard to the coverage of the event and the distance to which the information can be propagated. The findings of the investigation show that the proposed solution leads to (i) high hit rate in the classification of the level of congestion, (ii) a reduction in average trip time, (iii) a reduction in fuel consumption, and (iv) reduced CO emissions. PMID:27526048

  11. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  12. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

  13. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  15. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  16. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  17. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  18. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  19. Robust Vehicle and Traffic Information Extraction for Highway Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-12-01

    A robust vision-based traffic monitoring system for vehicle and traffic information extraction is developed in this research. It is challenging to maintain detection robustness at all time for a highway surveillance system. There are three major problems in detecting and tracking a vehicle: (1) the moving cast shadow effect, (2) the occlusion effect, and (3) nighttime detection. For moving cast shadow elimination, a 2D joint vehicle-shadow model is employed. For occlusion detection, a multiple-camera system is used to detect occlusion so as to extract the exact location of each vehicle. For vehicle nighttime detection, a rear-view monitoring technique is proposed to maintain tracking and detection accuracy. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of background extraction, which usually serves as the first step in any vehicle detection processing. Experimental results are given to demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient for vision-based highway surveillance.

  20. Energy Star Concepts for Highway Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-06-24

    The authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, have investigated the possible application of Energy Star ratings to passenger cars and light trucks. This study establishes a framework for formulating and evaluating Energy Star rating methods that is comprised of energy- and environmental-based metrics, potential vehicle classification systems, vehicle technology factors, and vehicle selection criteria. The study tests several concepts and Energy Star rating methods using model-year 2000 vehicle data--a spreadsheet model has been developed to facilitate these analyses. This study tests two primary types of rating systems: (1) an outcome-based system that rates vehicles based on fuel economy, GHG emissions, and oil use and (2) a technology-based system that rates vehicles based on the energy-saving technologies they use. Rating methods were evaluated based on their ability to select vehicles with high fuel economy, low GHG emissions, and low oil use while preserving a full range of service (size and acceleration) and body style choice. This study concludes that an Energy Star rating for passenger cars and light trucks is feasible and that several methods could be used to achieve reasonable tradeoffs between low energy use and emissions and diversity in size, performance, and body type. It also shows that methods that consider only fuel economy, GHG emissions, or oil use will not select a diverse mix of vehicles. Finally, analyses suggest that methods that encourage the use of technology only, may result in increases in acceleration power and weight rather than reductions in oil use and GHG emissions and improvements in fuel economy.

  1. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Abdallah, C.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  2. Intelligence Applied to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Gross, Anthony R.; Fletcher, L. Skip; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The exponential growth in information technology has provided the potential for air vehicle capabilities that were previously unavailable to mission and vehicle designers. The increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including new developments such as neural networks, provide a new balance of work between humans and machines. This paper will describe several NASA projects, and review results and conclusions from ground and flight investigations where vehicle intelligence was developed and applied to aeronautical and space systems. In the first example, flight results from a neural network flight control demonstration will be reviewed. Using, a highly-modified F-15 aircraft, a NASA/Dryden experimental flight test program has demonstrated how the neural network software can correctly identify and respond to changes in aircraft stability and control characteristics. Using its on-line learning capability, the neural net software would identify that something in the vehicle has changed, then reconfigure the flight control computer system to adapt to those changes. The results of the Remote Agent software project will be presented. This capability will reduce the cost of future spacecraft operations as computers become "thinking" partners along with humans. In addition, the paper will describe the objectives and plans for the autonomous airplane program and the autonomous rotorcraft project. Technologies will also be developed.

  3. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Intelligent advisory speed limit dedication in highway using VANET.

    PubMed

    Jalooli, Ali; Shaghaghi, Erfan; Jabbarpour, Mohammad Reza; Noor, Rafidah Md; Yeo, Hwasoo; Jung, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed limits (VSLs) as a mean for enhancing road traffic safety are studied for decades to modify the speed limit based on the prevailing road circumstances. In this study the pros and cons of VSL systems and their effects on traffic controlling efficiency are summarized. Despite the potential effectiveness of utilizing VSLs, we have witnessed that the effectiveness of this system is impacted by factors such as VSL control strategy used and the level of driver compliance. Hence, the proposed approach called Intelligent Advisory Speed Limit Dedication (IASLD) as the novel VSL control strategy which considers the driver compliance aims to improve the traffic flow and occupancy of vehicles in addition to amelioration of vehicle's travel times. The IASLD provides the advisory speed limit for each vehicle exclusively based on the vehicle's characteristics including the vehicle type, size, and safety capabilities as well as traffic and weather conditions. The proposed approach takes advantage of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) to accelerate its performance, in the way that simulation results demonstrate the reduction of incident detection time up to 31.2% in comparison with traditional VSL strategy. The simulation results similarly indicate the improvement of traffic flow efficiency, occupancy, and travel time in different conditions. PMID:24999493

  5. Intelligent Advisory Speed Limit Dedication in Highway Using VANET

    PubMed Central

    Md Noor, Rafidah; Yeo, Hwasoo; Jung, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed limits (VSLs) as a mean for enhancing road traffic safety are studied for decades to modify the speed limit based on the prevailing road circumstances. In this study the pros and cons of VSL systems and their effects on traffic controlling efficiency are summarized. Despite the potential effectiveness of utilizing VSLs, we have witnessed that the effectiveness of this system is impacted by factors such as VSL control strategy used and the level of driver compliance. Hence, the proposed approach called Intelligent Advisory Speed Limit Dedication (IASLD) as the novel VSL control strategy which considers the driver compliance aims to improve the traffic flow and occupancy of vehicles in addition to amelioration of vehicle's travel times. The IASLD provides the advisory speed limit for each vehicle exclusively based on the vehicle's characteristics including the vehicle type, size, and safety capabilities as well as traffic and weather conditions. The proposed approach takes advantage of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) to accelerate its performance, in the way that simulation results demonstrate the reduction of incident detection time up to 31.2% in comparison with traditional VSL strategy. The simulation results similarly indicate the improvement of traffic flow efficiency, occupancy, and travel time in different conditions. PMID:24999493

  6. An Ultrasonic Sensor System Based on a Two-Dimensional State Method for Highway Vehicle Violation Detection Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Lv, Hongqiang; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    With the continuing growth of highway construction and vehicle use expansion all over the world, highway vehicle traffic rule violation (TRV) detection has become more and more important so as to avoid traffic accidents and injuries in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Since very few works have contributed to solve the TRV detection problem by moving vehicle measurements and surveillance devices, this paper develops a novel parallel ultrasonic sensor system that can be used to identify the TRV behavior of a host vehicle in real-time. Then a two-dimensional state method is proposed, utilizing the spacial state and time sequential states from the data of two parallel ultrasonic sensors to detect and count the highway vehicle violations. Finally, the theoretical TRV identification probability is analyzed, and actual experiments are conducted on different highway segments with various driving speeds, which indicates that the identification accuracy of the proposed method can reach about 90.97%. PMID:25894940

  7. An ultrasonic sensor system based on a two-dimensional state method for highway vehicle violation detection applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Lv, Hongqiang; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    With the continuing growth of highway construction and vehicle use expansion all over the world, highway vehicle traffic rule violation (TRV) detection has become more and more important so as to avoid traffic accidents and injuries in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Since very few works have contributed to solve the TRV detection problem by moving vehicle measurements and surveillance devices, this paper develops a novel parallel ultrasonic sensor system that can be used to identify the TRV behavior of a host vehicle in real-time. Then a two-dimensional state method is proposed, utilizing the spacial state and time sequential states from the data of two parallel ultrasonic sensors to detect and count the highway vehicle violations. Finally, the theoretical TRV identification probability is analyzed, and actual experiments are conducted on different highway segments with various driving speeds, which indicates that the identification accuracy of the proposed method can reach about 90.97%. PMID:25894940

  8. Design of Scale Intelligent Vehicle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junliang; Zhang, Zufeng; Jia, Peng; Luo, Shaohua; Zhang, Zufeng

    Nowadays, intelligent vehicle is widely studied all over the world. On considering cost and safety of test on real vehicle, it takes scale intelligent vehicle as a carrier platform, which uses visual sensors to capture the environmental information in a Wi-Fi wireless communication network environment, and creates a system including video surveillance system, monitoring command terminal, data server and three-dimensional simulating test traffic environment. The core algorithms, such as road recognition perception, image data processing, path planning and the implementation of motion control, have been completely designed and applying on the vehicle platform. The experimental results verified its good effects and the robustness and stability of the algorithm.

  9. 77 FR 34129 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... fleet than in emergency vehicles, especially given some emergency vehicles' extreme duty cycles. By this... Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (66 FR 5001). The heavy-duty highway rule...\\ Control of Emissions of Air Pollution from Nonroad Diesel Engines and Fuel (69 FR 38958). III....

  10. Know Before You Go! Utah's Off-Highway Vehicle Education Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Dept. of Natural Resources, Salt Lake City. Div. of Parks and Recreation.

    This document is intended to teach the riders of off-highway vehicles (OHVs) how to ride safely and legally on Utah's public lands and how to take care of the places in which they ride. OHVs are all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), off-highway motorcycles, and snowmobiles. Receiving a passing grade on the final test and in an associated course on driving…

  11. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  12. Distributed tactical reasoning framework for intelligent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukthankar, Rahul; Pomerleau, Dean A.; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1998-01-01

    In independent vehicle concepts for the Automated Highway System (AHS), the ability to make competent tactical-level decisions in real-time is crucial. Traditional approaches to tactical reasoning typically involve the implementation of large monolithic systems, such as decision trees or finite state machines. However, as the complexity of the environment grows, the unforeseen interactions between components can make modifications to such systems very challenging. For example, changing an overtaking behavior may require several, non-local changes to car-following, lane changing and gap acceptance rules. This paper presents a distributed solution to the problem. PolySAPIENT consists of a collection of autonomous modules, each specializing in a particular aspect of the driving task - classified by traffic entities rather than tactical behavior. Thus, the influence of the vehicle ahead on the available actions is managed by one reasoning object, while the implications of an approaching exit are managed by another. The independent recommendations form these reasoning objects are expressed in the form of votes and vetos over a 'tactical action space', and are resolved by a voting arbiter. This local independence enables PolySAPIENT reasoning objects to be developed independently, using a heterogenous implementation. PolySAPIENT vehicles are implemented in the SHIVA tactical highway simulator, whose vehicles are based on the Carnegie Mellon Navlab robots.

  13. Advanced vehicle/highway systems and urban traffic problems. Staff paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Advanced Vehicle/Highway Systems (AVHS), an umbrella term for several interdependent vehicle and road technologies, offer potential for reducing congestion and the air pollution it engenders, and for improving highway safety. The term AVHS includes technologies for: automatic vehicle identification and billing; weighing vehicles in motion; collision warning and avoidance; driver information and route guidance; advanced traffic operations control and optimization; and automatic vehicle control -- both steering and headway. OTA concludes that AVHS technologies now available can increase roadway efficiency and throughput by 10 to 20 percent, make travel time more predictable, improve safety, and cut down harmful emissions, although by themselves they cannot solve our urban traffic problems.

  14. 77 FR 34149 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ..., especially given some emergency vehicles' extreme duty cycles. By this action, EPA intends to help our nation... Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (66 FR 5001). The heavy-duty highway rule adopted in 2001... Emissions of Air Pollution from Nonroad Diesel Engines and Fuel (69 FR 38958). III. Direct Final Rule...

  15. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  16. New intelligent power module for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Shigekazu; Uenishi, Akio; Shirasawa, Takaaki; Ukita, Susumu; Kimura, Yoshio

    1995-12-31

    A new intelligent power module (IPM) of 450A/600V has been developed. There are three major aspects in IPM development: IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) device technology, packaging technology, and intelligent driver and protection circuits technology. IGBT device has low power loss and high switching speed. Packaging has a smart housing with special easy-to-use connectors and high density mounting. The developed circuits constitute three phase inverter bridge, driver and three protection functions (short-circuit, over-temperature, and control supply under-voltage lock) in addition to a serially-coded fault output function. Furthermore, reliability and cost are important factors for electric vehicles. This paper describes the structure and the superior electric characteristics of the new IPM.

  17. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Hwang, Ho-Ling; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2013-01-01

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  18. The 18th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: trends and influences for intelligent ground vehicle control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Frederick, Philip; Smuda, William

    2011-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 18 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 75 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  19. Intelligent mission planner for autonomous underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, C.; Ganesan, K.

    1994-03-01

    We describe the design of an architecture for an intelligent integrated mission planner for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Mission planning is an integral and important part of the software architecture of an AUV. Among the several functional modules of an AUV such as planner, controller, navigator, and perception, the planner plays the key role in generating, monitoring, and controlling of all mission tasks. In order to perform complex missions, the planner needs a wide range of knowledge and efficient reasoning techniques. Mission planning involves navigational planning, resource planning, safety planning, and mission-specific task planning. These functions require reasoning about the knowledge of the environment, vehicle, on-board resources, and mission tasks. The proposed design employs a mixture of hierarchical and heterarchical architectures. Case-based reasoning is employed for synthesizing mission plans. Among the different planner modules, design details of the navigational planner have been elaborated. The approach integrates advanced artificial intelligence techniques with AUV control architecture to make mission planning and execution simpler and flexible. The design takes into consideration the limited availability of AUV resources, scalability, and portability to other autonomous systems.

  20. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongxi

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  1. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and their places of employment. A trip for this purpose includes driving the vehicle before or after employees are in the vehicle, so long as the mileage driven is necessary either to pick up or drop off... employees between their residences and their places of employment unless at least one-half the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and their places of employment. A trip for this purpose includes driving the vehicle before or after employees are in the vehicle, so long as the mileage driven is necessary either to pick up or drop off... employees between their residences and their places of employment unless at least one-half the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and their places of employment. A trip for this purpose includes driving the vehicle before or after employees are in the vehicle, so long as the mileage driven is necessary either to pick up or drop off... employees between their residences and their places of employment unless at least one-half the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and their places of employment. A trip for this purpose includes driving the vehicle before or after employees are in the vehicle, so long as the mileage driven is necessary either to pick up or drop off... employees between their residences and their places of employment unless at least one-half the...

  5. Highway Aesthetics: The Design of Motor Vehicles. Teaching Art with Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the design of highway vehicles as one means for students to learn about forms of three-dimensional art. Focuses on the Corvette, mass-produced cars like the Chrysler Concorde, the modern semi-trailer, and an antique 1931 Dusenberg Model J Murphy Aluminum Top Coupe. (CMK)

  6. Automated and Cooperative Vehicle Merging at Highway On-Ramps

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline; Malikopoulos, Andreas A.

    2016-08-05

    Recognition of necessities of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) is gaining momentum. CAVs can improve both transportation network efficiency and safety through control algorithms that can harmonically use all existing information to coordinate the vehicles. This paper addresses the problem of optimally coordinating CAVs at merging roadways to achieve smooth traffic flow without stop-and-go driving. Here we present an optimization framework and an analytical closed-form solution that allows online coordination of vehicles at merging zones. The effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed solution is validated through a simulation, and it is shown that coordination of vehicles can significantly reducemore » both fuel consumption and travel time.« less

  7. Safety analysis of natural gas vehicles transiting highway tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Shaaban, S.H.; Zuzovsky, M.; Anigstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to assess the relative hazard of compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicles traveling on various tunnels and bridges in New York City. The study considered those hazards arising from the release of fuel from CNG vehicles ranging in size from a passenger sedan to a full size 53 passenger bus. The approach used was to compare the fuel hazard of CNG vehicles to the fuel hazard of gasoline vehicles. The risk was assessed by estimating the frequency of occurrence and the severity of the hazard. The methodology was a combination of analyzing accident data, performing a diffusion analysis of the gas released in the tunnel and determining the consequences of ignition. Diffusion analysis was performed using the TEMPEST code for various accident scenarios resulting in CNG release inside the Holland Tunnel. The study concluded that the overall hazard of CNG vehicles transiting a ventilated tunnel is less than the hazard from a comparable gasoline fueled vehicle. 134 refs., 23 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data.

  9. Intelligent mobility through omnidirectional vehicles: a research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flann, Nicholas S.; Gunderson, Robert W.; Moore, Kevin L.; Wood, Carl G.

    2000-07-01

    Beginning in FY98 and continuing in FY99, the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) has been funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The long-range goal of the program is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that allow lightweight robotic and semiautonomous ground vehicles to achieve on-road and off-road mobility and survivability similar to current manned, wheeled, and tracked military vehicles, with a focus on small-scale to mid-scale vehicles. This paper describes the design concept and the performance of the T-series of robotic vehicles resulting from the TACOM Intelligent Mobility funding at USU (the T1, T2 and T3). USU-TACOM intelligent mobility concepts discussed in the paper include: (1) inherent mobility capability improvements, achieve through the unique concept of USU's omni-directional vehicle (ODV) steering design, which features six independently-controlled smart wheels; (2) intelligent mobility control, enhanced through intelligent coordination and control of each of the six wheels in the ODV vehicles; (3) global mobility control, enhanced through USU optimal multi-agent mission and mobility planning system; and (4) future mobility capability and control.

  10. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  11. Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Khazzoom, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  13. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  14. IVHM Framework for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre; Trevino, Luis C.; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, this framework integrates technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear that IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives. These systems include the following: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle Mission Planning, Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented

  15. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-07-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  16. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  17. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco

    2015-08-18

    The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people.

  18. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people. PMID:26295234

  19. Intelligent mobility for robotic vehicles in the army after next

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhart, Grant R.; Goetz, Richard C.; Gorsich, David J.

    1999-07-01

    The TARDEC Intelligent Mobility program addresses several essential technologies necessary to support the army after next (AAN) concept. Ground forces in the AAN time frame will deploy robotic unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in high-risk missions to avoid exposing soldiers to both friendly and unfriendly fire. Prospective robotic systems will include RSTA/scout vehicles, combat engineering/mine clearing vehicles, indirect fire artillery and missile launch platforms. The AAN concept requires high on-road and off-road mobility, survivability, transportability/deployability and low logistics burden. TARDEC is developing a robotic vehicle systems integration laboratory (SIL) to evaluate technologies and their integration into future UGV systems. Example technologies include the following: in-hub electric drive, omni-directional wheel and steering configurations, off-road tires, adaptive tire inflation, articulated vehicles, active suspension, mine blast protection, detection avoidance and evasive maneuver. This paper will describe current developments in these areas relative to the TARDEC intelligent mobility program.

  20. 40 CFR 80.533 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle... for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the generation of NRLM credits or the use of the NRLM... § 80.533 How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for...

  1. 40 CFR 80.533 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle... for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the generation of NRLM credits or the use of the NRLM... § 80.533 How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for...

  2. 40 CFR 80.533 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle... for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the generation of NRLM credits or the use of the NRLM... § 80.533 How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for...

  3. 40 CFR 80.533 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle... for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the generation of NRLM credits or the use of the NRLM... § 80.533 How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for...

  4. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  5. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  6. Launch vehicle operations cost reduction through artificial intelligence techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Tom C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has attempted to develop AI methods in order to reduce the cost of launch vehicle ground operations as well as to improve the reliability and safety of such operations. Attention is presently given to cost savings estimates for systems involving launch vehicle firing-room software and hardware real-time diagnostics, as well as the nature of configuration control and the real-time autonomous diagnostics of launch-processing systems by these means. Intelligent launch decisions and intelligent weather forecasting are additional applications of AI being considered.

  7. Robotic air vehicle. Blending artificial intelligence with conventional software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, Christa; Graham, Joyce; Roewer, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV) system is described. The program's objectives were to design, implement, and demonstrate cooperating expert systems for piloting robotic air vehicles. The development of this system merges conventional programming used in passive navigation with Artificial Intelligence techniques such as voice recognition, spatial reasoning, and expert systems. The individual components of the RAV system are discussed as well as their interactions with each other and how they operate as a system.

  8. Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Rumsey

    2005-12-31

    Cummins Inc. is a world leader in the development and production of diesel engines for on-highway vehicles, off-highway industrial machines, and power generation units. Cummins Inc. diesel products cover a 50-3000 HP range. The power range for this project includes 174-750 HP to achieve EPA's Tier 3 emission levels of 4.0 NOx+NMHC gm/kW-hr and 0.2 PM gm/kWhr and Tier 4 Interim emission levels of 2.0 gm/kW-hr NOx and 0.02 gm/kW-hr PM. Cummins' anticipated product offerings for Tier 4 in this range include the following: QSB6.7, QSC8.3, QSL9, QSM11, QSX15, QSK19. (For reference, numerical values indicate engine displacement in liters, the letter designation ns indicate the product model). A summary of the EPA's mobile off-highway emissions requirements is given in Figure 1.

  9. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  10. Design and realization of an intelligent ground vehicle with modular payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmanalp, Mehmet A.; Doherty, Ryan M.; Gorges, Jeffrey; Kalauskas, Peter; Peterson, Ellen; Polido, Felipe; Nestinger, Stephen S.; Padir, Taskin

    2012-01-01

    In June 2011, Worcester Polytechnic Institute's (WPI) unmanned ground vehicle Prometheus participated in the 8th Annual Robotic Lawnmower and 19th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competitions back-to-back. This paper details the two-year design and development cycle for WPI's intelligent ground vehicle, Prometheus. The on-board intelligence algorithms include lane detection, obstacle avoidance, path planning, world representation and waypoint navigation. The authors present experimental results and discuss practical implementations of the intelligence algorithms used on the robot.

  11. Models of exposure to carbon monoxide inside a vehicle on a Honolulu highway.

    PubMed

    Flachsbart, P G

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents statistical models of passenger exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) inside a motor vehicle as it traveled a coastal highway in Honolulu, Hawaii during morning periods between November, 1981 and May, 1982. The 3.85-mile study site was divided into three links. The models predict the average CO concentration inside the vehicle's passenger cabin on the third link as a function of several variables: the average CO concentrations inside the cabin on previous links; traffic, temporal, and meteorological variables; motor vehicle CO emission factors; and ambient CO concentrations. Based on data for 80 trips, the three most powerful models (adjusted R2 = 0.69) were nonlinear combinations of four variables: the average CO concentration inside the cabin for the second link; wind speed and direction; and either the travel time, vehicle speed or CO emission factor for the third link. Several nonlinear models were based on data for 62 trips for which nonzero, ambient CO concentrations were available. For this database, the most practical models (adjusted R2 = 0.67) combined three variables: the ambient CO concentration; the second-link travel time; and either the travel time, vehicle speed or CO emission factor for the third link. Two factors of third-link CO exposure varied seasonally. Relatively lighter traffic flows and stronger winds lowered cabin exposures during late fall, while heavier traffic flows and calmer winds elevated cabin exposures during winter and spring. This study confirms the importance of seasonal effects on cabin exposure, as observed by a California study, and adds new insights about their effects. PMID:10412673

  12. Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

  13. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... vehicles, and new quality standards for highway diesel fuel (66 FR 5002). As part of this program, new... production (68 FR 19375) on April 21, 2003. The final rule (40 CFR part 63, subpart WWWW) includes standards... promulgated revised regulations for CAFOs on February 12, 2003 (68 FR 7175). The ``2003 CAFO Rule''...

  14. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto..., 1988). \\2\\ 53 FR 6197 (March 1, 1988) (Diesel) and 53 FR 7022 (March 4, 1988) (Otto-cycle). \\3\\ 69 FR... 209(b)(1)(C). \\11\\ See, e.g., 74 FR at 32767 (July 8, 2009); see also Motor and Equip. Mfrs. Assoc....

  15. Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 μg/m3, and 0.06-19.13 μg/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies.

  16. The 19th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: student built autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 19 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from almost 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  17. A Special Fiber Optic Sensor for Measuring Wheel Loads of Vehicles on Highways

    PubMed Central

    Malla, Ramesh B.; Sen, Amlan; Garrick, Norman W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from an investigation on a special optical fiber as a load sensor for application in Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems to measure wheel loads of vehicles traveling at normal speed on highways. The fiber used has a unique design with two concentric light guiding regions of different effective optical path lengths, which has the potential to enable direct measurement of magnitudes as well as locations of forces acting at multiple points along a single fiber. The optical characteristic of the fiber for intended sensing purpose was first assessed by a simple fiber bending experiment and by correlating the bend radii with the output light signal intensities. A simple laboratory load transmitting/fiber bending device was then designed and fabricated to appropriately bend the optical fiber under applied loads in order to make the fiber work as load sensor. The device with the optical fiber was tested under a universal loading machine and an actual vehicle wheel in the laboratory. The test results showed a good relationship between the magnitude of the applied load and the output optical signal changes. The results also showed a good correlation between the time delay between the inner and outer core light pulses and the distance of the applied load as measured from the output end of the fiber.

  18. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  19. Development of a vision system for an intelligent ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Robert L.; Perry, Kenneth; Stone, Robert B.; McAdams, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a vision system for an autonomous ground vehicle designed and constructed for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is discussed. The requirements for the vision system of the autonomous vehicle are explored via functional analysis considering the flows (materials, energies and signals) into the vehicle and the changes required of each flow within the vehicle system. Functional analysis leads to a vision system based on a laser range finder (LIDAR) and a camera. Input from the vision system is processed via a ray-casting algorithm whereby the camera data and the LIDAR data are analyzed as a single array of points representing obstacle locations, which for the IGVC, consist of white lines on the horizontal plane and construction markers on the vertical plane. Functional analysis also leads to a multithreaded application where the ray-casting algorithm is a single thread of the vehicle's software, which consists of multiple threads controlling motion, providing feedback, and processing the data from the camera and LIDAR. LIDAR data is collected as distances and angles from the front of the vehicle to obstacles. Camera data is processed using an adaptive threshold algorithm to identify color changes within the collected image; the image is also corrected for camera angle distortion, adjusted to the global coordinate system, and processed using least-squares method to identify white boundary lines. Our IGVC robot, MAX, is utilized as the continuous example for all methods discussed in the paper. All testing and results provided are based on our IGVC robot, MAX, as well.

  20. Low-cost, quantitative assessment of highway bridges through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenberg, Andrew; Kontsos, Antonios; Moon, Franklin; Bartoli, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Many envision that in the near future the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will impact the civil engineering industry. Use of UAVs is currently experiencing tremendous growth, primarily in military and homeland security applications. It is only a matter of time until UAVs will be widely accepted as platforms for implementing monitoring/surveillance and inspection in other fields. Most UAVs already have payloads as well as hardware/software capabilities to incorporate a number of non-contact remote sensors, such as high resolution cameras, multi-spectral imaging systems, and laser ranging systems (LIDARs). Of critical importance to realizing the potential of UAVs within the infrastructure realm is to establish how (and the extent to which) such information may be used to inform preservation and renewal decisions. Achieving this will depend both on our ability to quantify information from images (through, for example, optical metrology techniques) and to fuse data from the array of non-contact sensing systems. Through a series of applications to both laboratory-scale and field implementations on operating infrastructure, this paper will present and evaluate (through comparison with conventional approaches) various image processing and data fusion strategies tailored specifically for the assessment of highway bridges. Example scenarios that guided this study include the assessment of delaminations within reinforced concrete bridge decks, the quantification of the deterioration of steel coatings, assessment of the functionality of movement mechanisms, and the estimation of live load responses (inclusive of both strain and displacement).

  1. Temporal and spatial changes in golden eagle reproduction in relation to increased off highway vehicle activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, Karen; Brown, Jessi L.; Kochert, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    We used >40 years of data on golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting in southwestern Idaho, USA, to assess whether the proportion of territories and pairs producing young has changed over time, and whether territories in areas where off highway vehicle (OHV) use has increased significantly were less likely to be productive than those in areas that continued to have little or no motorized recreation. The proportion of territories that produced young was similar across southwestern Idaho from the late 1960s to 1999. After a dramatic increase in OHV use from 1999 to 2009, occupancy and success of territories in close proximity to recreational trails and parking areas declined, and the proportion of these territories producing young differed significantly from territories not impacted by OHVs. We could not pinpoint which types of motorized activity are most disturbing, nor could we identify disturbance thresholds at which eagles abandon their eggs, their young, and finally their territory. Timing, proximity, duration, and frequency of disturbance could all play a role. © 2014 The Wildlife Society.

  2. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm.

    PubMed

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability. PMID:26880881

  3. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm.

    PubMed

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability.

  4. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability. PMID:26880881

  5. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  6. Intelligent model-based diagnostics for vehicle health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianhui; Tu, Fang; Azam, Mohammad S.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Willett, Peter K.; Qiao, Liu; Kawamoto, Masayuki

    2003-08-01

    The recent advances in sensor technology, remote communication and computational capabilities, and standardized hardware/software interfaces are creating a dramatic shift in the way the health of vehicles is monitored and managed. These advances facilitate remote monitoring, diagnosis and condition-based maintenance of automotive systems. With the increased sophistication of electronic control systems in vehicles, there is a concomitant increased difficulty in the identification of the malfunction phenomena. Consequently, the current rule-based diagnostic systems are difficult to develop, validate and maintain. New intelligent model-based diagnostic methodologies that exploit the advances in sensor, telecommunications, computing and software technologies are needed. In this paper, we will investigate hybrid model-based techniques that seamlessly employ quantitative (analytical) models and graph-based dependency models for intelligent diagnosis. Automotive engineers have found quantitative simulation (e.g. MATLAB/SIMULINK) to be a vital tool in the development of advanced control systems. The hybrid method exploits this capability to improve the diagnostic system's accuracy and consistency, utilizes existing validated knowledge on rule-based methods, enables remote diagnosis, and responds to the challenges of increased system complexity. The solution is generic and has the potential for application in a wide range of systems.

  7. Intelligence algorithms for autonomous navigation in a ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovsek, Steve; Shakya, Rahul; Shin, Young Ho; Gautam, Prasanna; Norton, Adam; Ahlgren, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will discuss the approach to autonomous navigation used by "Q," an unmanned ground vehicle designed by the Trinity College Robot Study Team to participate in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). For the 2011 competition, Q's intelligence was upgraded in several different areas, resulting in a more robust decision-making process and a more reliable system. In 2010-2011, the software of Q was modified to operate in a modular parallel manner, with all subtasks (including motor control, data acquisition from sensors, image processing, and intelligence) running simultaneously in separate software processes using the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. This eliminated processor bottlenecks and increased flexibility in the software architecture. Though overall throughput was increased, the long runtime of the image processing process (150 ms) reduced the precision of Q's realtime decisions. Q had slow reaction times to obstacles detected only by its cameras, such as white lines, and was limited to slow speeds on the course. To address this issue, the image processing software was simplified and also pipelined to increase the image processing throughput and minimize the robot's reaction times. The vision software was also modified to detect differences in the texture of the ground, so that specific surfaces (such as ramps and sand pits) could be identified. While previous iterations of Q failed to detect white lines that were not on a grassy surface, this new software allowed Q to dynamically alter its image processing state so that appropriate thresholds could be applied to detect white lines in changing conditions. In order to maintain an acceptable target heading, a path history algorithm was used to deal with local obstacle fields and GPS waypoints were added to provide a global target heading. These modifications resulted in Q placing 5th in the autonomous challenge and 4th in the navigation challenge at IGVC.

  8. Tracking Vehicle in GSM Network to Support Intelligent Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppanyi, Z.; Lovas, T.; Barsi, A.; Demeter, H.; Beeharee, A.; Berenyi, A.

    2012-07-01

    The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO) zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA). Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project) is presented.

  9. Non-market valuation of off-highway vehicle recreation in Larimer County, Colorado: Implications of trail closures.

    PubMed

    Deisenroth, Daniel; Loomis, John; Bond, Craig

    2009-08-01

    Few economic studies are available to measure off-highway vehicle recreation benefits foregone when trails must be closed to protect the environment. This paper estimates the non-market benefits associated with off-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation on National Forest lands in Larimer County, Colorado. We use a contingent valuation model (CVM) to estimate benefits to OHV users, which includes dirt bike riders, all terrain vehicle (ATV) riders, and 4-wheel drive (4x4) users. Using CVM we find the mean consumer surplus estimates to be $78 per person per day. These results are consistent with the few previous estimates of OHV recreation benefits. This equates to a per trail per summer consumer surplus of at least between $219,467 and $296,876, and a county level surplus per summer to be at least between $796,447 and $1,077,367. These benefits can be compared to environmental costs to obtain a more complete picture of the effects of trail closure, as well as the negative spillovers to non-motorized users.

  10. Preliminary Surficial Geology of the Dove Spring Off-Highway Vehicle Open Area, Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Amoroso, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Introduction As part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring plan to evaluate the environmental impact of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land in California, this report presents results of geologic studies in the Dove Spring OHV Open Area. This study produced baseline data, which when combined with historic and current patterns of land use, forms the basis for vegetation and wildlife monitoring designed to address the following questions: 1. Is the density and length of OHV routes increasing? 2. Are there cumulative effects of past and current OHV use associated with changes in the environmental integrity of soils, plants, and wildlife? 3. Is the spread of invasive species associated with levels of OHV use? 4. Is there a threshold of OHV impact that might be translated to management action by the BLM? The monitoring studies will be used to collect baseline environmental information to determine levels of environmental impact of OHV use. This approach will use a low-impact area as a proxy for pre-impact conditions (substituting space for time) to determine thresholds of OHV impacts beyond which environmental integrity is affected. Indicators of environmental integrity will emphasize factors that are fundamental to ecosystem structure and function and likely to be sensitive to OHV impacts. Surficial geology is studied because material properties such as texture and chemistry strongly control soil moisture and nutrient availability and therefore affect plant growth and distribution. An understanding of surficial geology can be used to predict and extrapolate soil properties and improve understanding of vegetation assemblages and their distribution. In the present study, vegetation associations may be examined as a function of surficial geology as well as other environmental variables such as slope, aspect, NRCS (National Resources Conservation Service) soil classification, elevation, and land-use history. Ground measurements of

  11. Software design for an autonomous ground vehicle for the 13 th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Tim; Barber, Daniel; Becker, Brian C.; Gonzalez, Fernando

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the vision and path planning software design of a totally autonomous vehicle built to compete in the 13th Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition, IGVC. The vehicle, Calculon, is based on a powered wheelchair and uses a variety of sensors for its navigation and obstacle avoidance including a 3CCD Sony color camera, an outdoor laser range finder, a DGPS, 2 wheel encoders and a solid state compass. The modules forming the core vision system include: filters, color classifier, image segments, and line finder. Our color classifier is based on a modified implementation of an adaptive Gaussian color model similar to those used in some skin detection algorithms. A combination of various image enhancing filters and the color classifier allow for the isolation of possible obstacles within the image. After filtering the image for areas of high brightness and contrast, the line finder performs a Hough Transform to find lines in the image. Our path planning is accomplished using a variety of known and custom algorithms in combination including a modified road map method, a Rapidly Exploring Trees method and a Gaussian Potential Field's method. This paper will present the software design and methods of our autonomous vehicle focusing mainly on the 2 most difficult components, the vision and path planning.

  12. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Decision, 61 FR 69093 (December 31, 1996). The 1999 OHRV amendments did not change the numerical exhaust..., see 67 FR 68242 (November 8, 2002), and later amended in 2008, see 73 FR 59034 (October 8, 2008). The... vehicles. Second, the amendments reclassified sand cars, off-road utility vehicles and off-road...

  13. Monitoring intensity and patterns of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use in remote areas of the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Coffin, Alisa W.

    2013-01-01

    The continued growth of off-highway vehicle (OHV) activities – demonstrated by the dramatic increase in OHV sales, number of users, and areas experiencing OHV use – has elevated concerns about their ecological effects, the impacts on wildlife, and the sustainability of OHV use on secondary and tertiary road networks. Conflicts between visitors and wildlife are raising concerns about system resiliency and sustainable management. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of OHV use it is imperative to know about the timing and patterns of vehicle use. This study tested and used multiple vehicle-counter types to study vehicular OHV use patterns and volume throughout a mountainous road network in western Colorado. OHV counts were analyzed by time of day, day of week, season, and year. While daily use peaked within a two to three hour range for all sites, the overall volume of use varied among sites on an annual basis. The data also showed that there are at least two distinct patterns of OHV use: one dominated by a majority of use on weekends, and the other with continuous use throughout the week. This project provided important, but rarely captured, metrics about patterns of OHV use in a remote, mountainous region of Colorado. The techniques described here can provide land managers with a quantitative evaluation of OHV use across the landscape, an essential foundation for travel management planning. They also provide researchers with robust tools to further investigate the impacts of OHV use.

  14. Predictability in space launch vehicle anomaly detection using intelligent neuro-fuzzy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulati, Sandeep; Toomarian, Nikzad; Barhen, Jacob; Maccalla, Ayanna; Tawel, Raoul; Thakoor, Anil; Daud, Taher

    1994-01-01

    Included in this viewgraph presentation on intelligent neuroprocessors for launch vehicle health management systems (HMS) are the following: where the flight failures have been in launch vehicles; cumulative delay time; breakdown of operations hours; failure of Mars Probe; vehicle health management (VHM) cost optimizing curve; target HMS-STS auxiliary power unit location; APU monitoring and diagnosis; and integration of neural networks and fuzzy logic.

  15. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems: Commercial vehicle and transit ahs analysis. Volume 6. Final report, September 1993-February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiger, F.; Chemnitz, H.D.; Doorman, J.; Franke, U.; Zimmerman, T.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report of the Automated Highway System (AHS). The activities of Commercial Vehicle and Transit AHS Analysis are reported on in this document. This document type is resource materials. This volume is the six in a series. There are nine other volumes in the series.

  16. Investigation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility metrics for normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzic, Nikolina

    The effectiveness of in-vehicle speech communication can be a good indicator of the perception of the overall vehicle quality and customer satisfaction. Currently available speech intelligibility metrics do not account in their procedures for essential parameters needed for a complete and accurate evaluation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility. These include the directivity and the distance of the talker with respect to the listener, binaural listening, hearing profile of the listener, vocal effort, and multisensory hearing. In the first part of this research the effectiveness of in-vehicle application of these metrics is investigated in a series of studies to reveal their shortcomings, including a wide range of scores resulting from each of the metrics for a given measurement configuration and vehicle operating condition. In addition, the nature of a possible correlation between the scores obtained from each metric is unknown. The metrics and the subjective perception of speech intelligibility using, for example, the same speech material have not been compared in literature. As a result, in the second part of this research, an alternative method for speech intelligibility evaluation is proposed for use in the automotive industry by utilizing a virtual reality driving environment for ultimately setting targets, including the associated statistical variability, for future in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) was evaluated at the sentence Speech Receptions Threshold (sSRT) for various listening situations and hearing profiles using acoustic perception jury testing and a variety of talker and listener configurations and background noise. In addition, the effect of individual sources and transfer paths of sound in an operating vehicle to the vehicle interior sound, specifically their effect on speech intelligibility was quantified, in the framework of the newly developed speech intelligibility evaluation method. Lastly

  17. Robust vehicle detection for highway surveillance via rear-view monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2003-11-01

    Vision-based highway monitoring systems play an important role in transportation management and services owing to their powerful ability to extract a variety of information. Detection accuracy of vision-based systems is however sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting, shadow and weather conditions, and it is still a challenging problem to maintain detection robustness at all time. In this research, we present a novel method to enhance detection and tracking accuracy at the nighttime based on rear-view monitoring. In the meanwhile, a method is proposed to improve the background detection and extraction, which usually serves as the first step to moving object region detection. Finally, the effectiveness of the rear-view technique will be analyzed. We compare the tracking accuracy between the front-view and the rear-view techniques, and show that the proposed system can achieve higher detection accuracy at nighttime.

  18. Intelligent Highway System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under contract to the Texas Department of Transportation, AlliedSignal Technical Services developed the Transportation Guidance System (TransGuide) used in San Antonio, Texas. The system monitors the passage of traffic over the sensors embedded in the roadways and detects incidents. Control center operators are alerted to the occurrence of an accident and the area of the occurrence is highlighted on a map display. TransGuide incorporates technology AlliedSignal developed under various contracts to NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, including the design of ground control centers.

  19. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  20. The 20th annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: building a generation of robotists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Kosinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 20 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  1. The 21st annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: robotists for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2013-12-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 21 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the fourday competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  2. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

  3. Control and learning for intelligent mobility of unmanned ground vehicles in complex terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentini, M.; Beckman, B.; Digney, B.

    2005-05-01

    The Autonomous Intelligent Systems program at Defence R&D Canada-Suffield envisions autonomous systems contributing to decisive operations in the urban battle space. Creating effective intelligence for these systems demands advances in perception, world representation, navigation, and learning. In the land environment, these scientific areas have garnered much attention, while largely ignoring the problem of locomotion in complex terrain. This is a gap in robotics research, where sophisticated algorithms are needed to coordinate and control robotic locomotion in unknown, highly complex environments. Unlike traditional control problems, intuitive and systematic control tools for robotic locomotion do not readily exist thus limiting their practical application. This paper addresses the mobility problem for unmanned ground vehicles, defined here as the autonomous maneuverability of unmanned ground vehicles in unknown, highly complex environments. It discusses the progress and future direction of intelligent mobility research at Defence R&D Canada-Suffield and presents the research tools, topics and plans to address this critical research gap.

  4. A Framework for Integration of IVHM Technologies for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Mike

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of IIVM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the effected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  5. Robust intelligent flight control for hypersonic vehicles. Ph.D. Thesis - Massachusetts Inst. of Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamitoff, Gregory Errol

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent optimization methods are applied to the problem of real-time flight control for a class of airbreathing hypersonic vehicles (AHSV). The extreme flight conditions that will be encountered by single-stage-to-orbit vehicles, such as the National Aerospace Plane, present a tremendous challenge to the entire spectrum of aerospace technologies. Flight control for these vehicles is particularly difficult due to the combination of nonlinear dynamics, complex constraints, and parametric uncertainty. An approach that utilizes all available a priori and in-flight information to perform robust, real time, short-term trajectory planning is presented.

  6. Intelligent Unmanned Vehicle Systems Suitable For Individual or Cooperative Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew O. Anderson; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth

    2007-04-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching autonomous unmanned vehicle systems for the past several years. Areas of research have included unmanned ground and aerial vehicles used for hazardous and remote operations as well as teamed together for advanced payloads and mission execution. Areas of application include aerial particulate sampling, cooperative remote radiological sampling, and persistent surveillance including real-time mosaic and geo-referenced imagery in addition to high resolution still imagery. Both fixed-wing and rotary airframes are used possessing capabilities spanning remote control to fully autonomous operation. Patented INL-developed auto steering technology is taken advantage of to provide autonomous parallel path swathing with either manned or unmanned ground vehicles. Aerial look-ahead imagery is utilized to provide a common operating picture for the ground and air vehicle during cooperative missions. This paper will discuss the various robotic vehicles, including sensor integration, used to achieve these missions and anticipated cost and labor savings.

  7. Highway traffic simulation on multi-processor computers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Doss, E.; Tentner, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate highway traffic for various degrees of automation with a high level of fidelity in regard to driver control and vehicle characteristics. The model simulates vehicle maneuvering in a multi-lane highway traffic system and allows for the use of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies such as an Automated Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC). The structure of the computer model facilitates the use of parallel computers for the highway traffic simulation, since domain decomposition techniques can be applied in a straight forward fashion. In this model, the highway system (i.e. a network of road links) is divided into multiple regions; each region is controlled by a separate link manager residing on an individual processor. A graphical user interface augments the computer model kv allowing for real-time interactive simulation control and interaction with each individual vehicle and road side infrastructure element on each link. Average speed and traffic volume data is collected at user-specified loop detector locations. Further, as a measure of safety the so- called Time To Collision (TTC) parameter is being recorded.

  8. Radar Sensing for Intelligent Vehicles in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Giulio; Johnson, David; Underwood, James

    2015-01-01

    Radar overcomes the shortcomings of laser, stereovision, and sonar because it can operate successfully in dusty, foggy, blizzard-blinding, and poorly lit scenarios. This paper presents a novel method for ground and obstacle segmentation based on radar sensing. The algorithm operates directly in the sensor frame, without the need for a separate synchronised navigation source, calibration parameters describing the location of the radar in the vehicle frame, or the geometric restrictions made in the previous main method in the field. Experimental results are presented in various urban scenarios to validate this approach, showing its potential applicability for advanced driving assistance systems and autonomous vehicle operations. PMID:26102493

  9. Radar Sensing for Intelligent Vehicles in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Reina, Giulio; Johnson, David; Underwood, James

    2015-01-01

    Radar overcomes the shortcomings of laser, stereovision, and sonar because it can operate successfully in dusty, foggy, blizzard-blinding, and poorly lit scenarios. This paper presents a novel method for ground and obstacle segmentation based on radar sensing. The algorithm operates directly in the sensor frame, without the need for a separate synchronised navigation source, calibration parameters describing the location of the radar in the vehicle frame, or the geometric restrictions made in the previous main method in the field. Experimental results are presented in various urban scenarios to validate this approach, showing its potential applicability for advanced driving assistance systems and autonomous vehicle operations. PMID:26102493

  10. Radar Sensing for Intelligent Vehicles in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Reina, Giulio; Johnson, David; Underwood, James

    2015-06-19

    Radar overcomes the shortcomings of laser, stereovision, and sonar because it can operate successfully in dusty, foggy, blizzard-blinding, and poorly lit scenarios. This paper presents a novel method for ground and obstacle segmentation based on radar sensing. The algorithm operates directly in the sensor frame, without the need for a separate synchronised navigation source, calibration parameters describing the location of the radar in the vehicle frame, or the geometric restrictions made in the previous main method in the field. Experimental results are presented in various urban scenarios to validate this approach, showing its potential applicability for advanced driving assistance systems and autonomous vehicle operations.

  11. Reversal of Travel Time between Zipper and Non-Zipper Mergings on Highway Traffic under the Existence of Vehicles Going Straight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Miki, Hiroshi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    Heavy traffic congestion often occurs at an intersection of highway traffic. For releasing this congestion, we compare “zipper” and “non-zipper” mergings by numerical simulations. The “zipper” merging is the alternating merging of vehicles on two lanes and achieved only by the local communication of vehicles before merging, while the “non-zipper” merging is the disorderly merging of vehicles. In simulations we use a stochastic cellular automaton model for traffic with a slow-to-start rule. Numerical results show that the travel time of the “zipper” merging is shorter (longer) than that of the “non-zipper” merging in the case of a strong (resp. weak) slow-to-start effect. Moreover, it is observed that this reversal is strongly affected by the ratio of vehicles going straight without changing lanes.

  12. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  13. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Commercial Vehicle-Operations (CVO). Interstate cooperation for implementation of its-cvo functions: Institutional opportunities and barriers. Phase 1 report. Final report, October 1993-October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Maze, T.H.; Hancock, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    The motor carrier industry is looking toward Intelligent Transportation Systems for Commercial Vehicle Operations (ITS-CVO) to increase highway transportation safety and efficiency through streamlining and automation of current processes and improved regulatory enforcement and infrastructure and fleet management enabled by more detailed, accurate, and timely information. These deployments will require some cooperation among states. This report documents the results of the first phase of project that identifies long-range institutional issues that could empede multi-state cooperation for development and deployment of ITS-CVO among seven midwestern states and offers possible approaches for mitigating such issues.

  14. Field experiments on an intelligent towed vehicle ``Flying Fish``

    SciTech Connect

    Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M.

    1995-12-31

    A depth, pitch and roll controllable towed vehicle, ``Flying Fish`` is being developed to measure the ocean current, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, chlorophyll and total inorganic hydrocarbon. The first field experiments on its performance were carried out in the Japan sea last summer. The motion data of the ``Flying Fish`` are compared with those of numerical simulations.

  15. Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2012-06-01

    Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

  16. Intelligent adaptive control of the vehicle-span/track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Konowrocki, Robert; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the strategy of semi-active damping of vibrations of a beam span subjected to a moving load. Intermediate supports as controlled dampers significantly decrease transverse displacements in comparison with a system with permanently active dampers. The gain can reach 40% in the case of high speed loads. In a real structure with a load moving at 3 m/s, considered in this paper, the improvement is about 10%. The control is determined by a minimization procedure. Numerical simulations are confirmed experimentally on a stand with a length of 4 m. Controlled dampers can be replaced with an intelligent material. The potential applications are in transport or robotics.

  17. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  18. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  19. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  20. Identifying Differences Between Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) and Non-OHV User Groups for Recreation Resource Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2012-09-01

    Off-highway vehicle (OHV) riding is among the fastest growing recreational activities in the United States. However, little research exists about the central components of outcomes-focused management (OFM) as it relates to motorized recreation. Utilizing a two-activity dichotomy, OHV and non-OHV centric user groups were compared on several key concepts associated with OFM, including desired experiences, perceived and desired recreation opportunity spectrum-type settings, and intentional behaviors (i.e., place-protective behavior, spending-time intentions) toward potential changes in settings. Results indicated that the two groups were different in terms of intensity and relative rankings of their perceived experiences and settings. Although both groups preferred social bonding, stress relief, nostalgia and learning experiences, the OHV user group ranked using equipment and achieving physical fitness experiences as more important than the non-OHV group. The non-OHV user group preferred enjoying nature and solitude/tranquility experiences more strongly than the OHV user group. Further analysis found that both groups perceived settings that they recreated in to be pristine and preferred such conditions, and both groups preferred moderate levels of rules and regulations. Finally, the OHV user group was more reactive to rules and regulations, while the non-OHV user group expressed stronger intentions to protect the environmental quality of recreation areas. The results suggest that planners and managers who understand OHV user's perceptions and behaviors could provide enhanced recreation opportunities potentially providing additional beneficial outcomes for motorized and non-motorized groups in spatially different zones. Additional implications for planners and managers and future studies are discussed.

  1. Identifying differences between off-highway vehicle (OHV) and non-OHV user groups for recreation resource planning.

    PubMed

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M; Stein, Taylor V

    2012-09-01

    Off-highway vehicle (OHV) riding is among the fastest growing recreational activities in the United States. However, little research exists about the central components of outcomes-focused management (OFM) as it relates to motorized recreation. Utilizing a two-activity dichotomy, OHV and non-OHV centric user groups were compared on several key concepts associated with OFM, including desired experiences, perceived and desired recreation opportunity spectrum-type settings, and intentional behaviors (i.e., place-protective behavior, spending-time intentions) toward potential changes in settings. Results indicated that the two groups were different in terms of intensity and relative rankings of their perceived experiences and settings. Although both groups preferred social bonding, stress relief, nostalgia and learning experiences, the OHV user group ranked using equipment and achieving physical fitness experiences as more important than the non-OHV group. The non-OHV user group preferred enjoying nature and solitude/tranquility experiences more strongly than the OHV user group. Further analysis found that both groups perceived settings that they recreated in to be pristine and preferred such conditions, and both groups preferred moderate levels of rules and regulations. Finally, the OHV user group was more reactive to rules and regulations, while the non-OHV user group expressed stronger intentions to protect the environmental quality of recreation areas. The results suggest that planners and managers who understand OHV user's perceptions and behaviors could provide enhanced recreation opportunities potentially providing additional beneficial outcomes for motorized and non-motorized groups in spatially different zones. Additional implications for planners and managers and future studies are discussed.

  2. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  3. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs. PMID:27026933

  4. Intelligent Autonomy for Unmanned Surface and Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Woodward, Gail

    2011-01-01

    As the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) platforms mature in endurance and reliability, a natural evolution will occur towards longer, more remote autonomous missions. This evolution will require the development of key capabilities that allow these robotic systems to perform a high level of on-board decisionmaking, which would otherwise be performed by humanoperators. With more decision making capabilities, less a priori knowledge of the area of operations would be required, as these systems would be able to sense and adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as unknown topography, currents, obstructions, bays, harbors, islands, and river channels. Existing vehicle sensors would be dual-use; that is they would be utilized for the primary mission, which may be mapping or hydrographic reconnaissance; as well as for autonomous hazard avoidance, route planning, and bathymetric-based navigation. This paper describes a tightly integrated instantiation of an autonomous agent called CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) developed at JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) that was designed to address many of the issues for survivable ASV/AUV control and to provide adaptive mission capabilities. The results of some on-water tests with US Navy technology test platforms are also presented.

  5. Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L; Rioux, Christine

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a distinct set of freshly-emitted air pollutants downwind from major highways, motorways, and freeways that include elevated levels of ultrafine particulates (UFP), black carbon (BC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO). People living or otherwise spending substantial time within about 200 m of highways are exposed to these pollutants more so than persons living at a greater distance, even compared to living on busy urban streets. Evidence of the health hazards of these pollutants arises from studies that assess proximity to highways, actual exposure to the pollutants, or both. Taken as a whole, the health studies show elevated risk for development of asthma and reduced lung function in children who live near major highways. Studies of particulate matter (PM) that show associations with cardiac and pulmonary mortality also appear to indicate increasing risk as smaller geographic areas are studied, suggesting localized sources that likely include major highways. Although less work has tested the association between lung cancer and highways, the existing studies suggest an association as well. While the evidence is substantial for a link between near-highway exposures and adverse health outcomes, considerable work remains to understand the exact nature and magnitude of the risks. PMID:17688699

  6. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  7. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

  8. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  9. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly. PMID:27504248

  10. Sensor fusion for intelligent behavior on small unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, G.; Ahuja, G.; Sights, B.; Pacis, E. B.; Everett, H. R.

    2007-04-01

    Sensors commonly mounted on small unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) include visible light and thermal cameras, scanning LIDAR, and ranging sonar. Sensor data from these sensors is vital to emerging autonomous robotic behaviors. However, sensor data from any given sensor can become noisy or erroneous under a range of conditions, reducing the reliability of autonomous operations. We seek to increase this reliability through data fusion. Data fusion includes characterizing the strengths and weaknesses of each sensor modality and combining their data in a way such that the result of the data fusion provides more accurate data than any single sensor. We describe data fusion efforts applied to two autonomous behaviors: leader-follower and human presence detection. The behaviors are implemented and tested in a variety of realistic conditions.

  11. Function-based design process for an intelligent ground vehicle vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Robert L.; Perry, Kenneth L.; Stone, Robert B.; McAdams, Daniel A.

    2010-10-01

    An engineering design framework for an autonomous ground vehicle vision system is discussed. We present both the conceptual and physical design by following the design process, development and testing of an intelligent ground vehicle vision system constructed for the 2008 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. During conceptual design, the requirements for the vision system are explored via functional and process analysis considering the flows into the vehicle and the transformations of those flows. The conceptual design phase concludes with a vision system design that is modular in both hardware and software and is based on a laser range finder and camera for visual perception. During physical design, prototypes are developed and tested independently, following the modular interfaces identified during conceptual design. Prototype models, once functional, are implemented into the final design. The final vision system design uses a ray-casting algorithm to process camera and laser range finder data and identify potential paths. The ray-casting algorithm is a single thread of the robot's multithreaded application. Other threads control motion, provide feedback, and process sensory data. Once integrated, both hardware and software testing are performed on the robot. We discuss the robot's performance and the lessons learned.

  12. Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a

  13. National Highway Planning Network

    1992-02-02

    NHPN, the National Highway Planning Network, is a database of major highways in the continental United States that is used for national-level analyses of highway transportation issues that require use of a network, such as studies of highway performance, network design, social and environmental impacts of transportation, vehicle routing and scheduling, and mapping. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) from the 1980 National Atlasmore » and has been enhanced with additional roads, attribute detail, and topological error corrections to produce a true analytic network. All data have been derived from or checked against information obtained from state and Federal governmental agencies. Two files comprise this network: one describing links and the other nodes. This release, NHPN1.0, contains 44,960 links and 28,512 nodes representing approximately 380,000 miles of roadway.« less

  14. On Board Data Acquisition System with Intelligent Transducers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochala, Zdzisław

    2012-02-01

    This report presents conclusions from research project no. ON50900363 conducted at the Mechatronics Department, Military University of Technology in the years 2007-2010. As the main object of the study involved the preparation of a concept and the implementation of an avionics data acquisition system intended for research during flight of unmanned aerial vehicles of the mini class, this article presents a design of an avionics system and describes equipment solutions of a distributed measurement system intended for data acquisition consisting of intelligent transducers. The data collected during a flight controlled by an operator confirmed proper operation of the individual components of the data acquisition system.

  15. Vision-based object detection and recognition system for intelligent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Bin; Liu, Henry X.; Martono, Wilfung

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a proactive crash mitigation system is proposed to enhance the crash avoidance and survivability of the Intelligent Vehicles. Accurate object detection and recognition system is a prerequisite for a proactive crash mitigation system, as system component deployment algorithms rely on accurate hazard detection, recognition, and tracking information. In this paper, we present a vision-based approach to detect and recognize vehicles and traffic signs, obtain their information, and track multiple objects by using a sequence of color images taken from a moving vehicle. The entire system consist of two sub-systems, the vehicle detection and recognition sub-system and traffic sign detection and recognition sub-system. Both of the sub- systems consist of four models: object detection model, object recognition model, object information model, and object tracking model. In order to detect potential objects on the road, several features of the objects are investigated, which include symmetrical shape and aspect ratio of a vehicle and color and shape information of the signs. A two-layer neural network is trained to recognize different types of vehicles and a parameterized traffic sign model is established in the process of recognizing a sign. Tracking is accomplished by combining the analysis of single image frame with the analysis of consecutive image frames. The analysis of the single image frame is performed every ten full-size images. The information model will obtain the information related to the object, such as time to collision for the object vehicle and relative distance from the traffic sings. Experimental results demonstrated a robust and accurate system in real time object detection and recognition over thousands of image frames.

  16. Calibration of laser scanner and camera fusion system for intelligent vehicles using Nelder-Mead optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osgood, Thomas J.; Huang, Yingping

    2013-03-01

    A novel method is presented here for the calibration of a sensor fusion system for intelligent vehicles. In this example, the sensors are a camera and a laser scanner which observe the same scene from different viewpoints. The method employs the Nelder-Mead direct search algorithm to minimize the sum of squared errors between the image coordinates and the re-projected laser data by iteratively adjusting and improving the calibration parameters. The method is applied to a real set of data collected from a test vehicle. Using only 11 well-spaced target points observable by each sensor, 12 intrinsic and extrinsic parameters indicating the position relationship between the sensors can be estimated to give an accurate projection. Experiments show that the method can project the laser points onto the image plane with an average error of 1.01 pixels (1.51 pixels worst case).

  17. Energy scavenging using piezoelectric sensors to power in pavement intelligent vehicle detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parhad, Ashutosh

    Intelligent transportation systems use in-pavement inductive loop sensors to collect real time traffic data. This method is very expensive in terms of installation and maintenance. Our research is focused on developing advanced algorithms capable of generating high amounts of energy that can charge a battery. This electromechanical energy conversion is an optimal way of energy scavenging that makes use of piezoelectric sensors. The power generated is sufficient to run the vehicle detection module that has several sensors embedded together. To achieve these goals, we have developed a simulation module using software's like LabVIEW and Multisim. The simulation module recreates a practical scenario that takes into consideration vehicle weight, speed, wheel width and frequency of the traffic.

  18. Intelligent obstacle avoidance system for unmanned undersea vehicles in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keehoon; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Erwin, Daniel A.

    2004-09-01

    An unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) needs an obstacle avoidance capability to make autonomous path planning decisions for successful undersea search and survey, maritime reconnaissance, communication/navigation aids, and tracking and trailing in uncharted shallow water. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) has developed a novel autonomous UUV path optimization navigator system for real-time, robust, self-adjusting, intelligent autonomous obstacle avoidance/navigation of UUVs. The POC system is based on our proprietary fast genetic algorithm, which processes signals from on-board obstacle avoidance sonar sensors to continuously optimize the navigation path while avoiding both moving and stationary obstacles in shallow waters. The system performs autonomous obstacle avoidance, accommodating navigation parameter changes. Vehicle dynamics are also incorporated by hydrodynamic compensation.

  19. Detection, recognition, identification, and tracking of military vehicles using biomimetic intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Paul W.; Sutherland, John

    2001-10-01

    This project is aimed at analyzing EO/IR images to provide automatic target detection/recognition/identification (ATR/D/I) of militarily relevant land targets. An increase in performance was accomplished using a biomimetic intelligence system functioning on low-cost, commercially available processing chips. Biomimetic intelligence has demonstrated advanced capabilities in the areas of hand- printed character recognition, real-time detection/identification of multiple faces in full 3D perspectives in cluttered environments, advanced capabilities in classification of ground-based military vehicles from SAR, and real-time ATR/D/I of ground-based military vehicles from EO/IR/HRR data in cluttered environments. The investigation applied these tools to real data sets and examined the parameters such as the minimum resolution for target recognition, the effect of target size, rotation, line-of-sight changes, contrast, partial obscuring, background clutter etc. The results demonstrated a real-time ATR/D/I capability against a subset of militarily relevant land targets operating in a realistic scenario. Typical results on the initial EO/IR data indicate probabilities of correct classification of resolved targets to be greater than 95 percent.

  20. High technology transportation and the information highway. A global market strategy for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.

    1994-12-31

    In terms of creating a sustained economy and jobs, Project California`s assessment of high technology transportation is now available. The assessment places Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems and Advanced Communications and electric vehicles at the top of the list. Those three areas have the best chances of producing jobs and a highly sustained economy. Although the author could build a strong case for all forms of high technology transportation to create a globally competitive industry, for the purposes of this essay, she will focus on the investment in an ubiquitous high capacity Advanced Communications System or Information Highway for the purpose of moving images and information. After defining the Information Highway, the author will discuss how it competes with Japan and major countries in the European Common Market and how it provides ancillary benefits to the US.

  1. Environmental effects of off-highway vehicles on Bureau of Land Management lands: A literature synthesis, annotated bibliographies, extensive bibliographies, and internet resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Haas, Christopher; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Stewart, Susan C.; Ponds, Phadrea D.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Burris, Lucy; Fancher, Tammy; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2007-01-01

    This report and its associated appendixes compile and synthesize the results of a comprehensive literature and Internet search conducted in May 2006. The literature search was undertaken to uncover information regarding the effects of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use on land health, or “natural resource attributes,” and included databases archiving information from before OHVs came into existence to May 2006. Information pertaining to socioeconomic implications of OHV activities is included as well. The literature and Internet searches yielded approximately 700 peer-reviewed papers, magazine articles, agency and non-governmental reports, and internet websites regarding effects of OHV use as they relate to the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) standards of land health. Discussions regarding OHV effects are followed by brief syntheses of potential indicators of OHV effects, as well as OHV-effects mitigation, site-restoration techniques, and research needs.

  2. A Survey on the Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Intersections and Merging at Highway On-Ramps

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have the potential to improve safety by reducing and mitigating traffic accidents. They can also provide opportunities to reduce trans- portation energy consumption and emissions by improving traffic flow. Vehicle communication with traffic structures and traffic lights can allow individual vehicles to optimize their operation and account for unpredictable changes. This paper summarizes the developments and the research trends in coordination with the CAVs that have been reported in the literature to date. Remain- ing challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

  3. A survey on the coordination of connected and automated vehicles at intersections and merging at highway on-ramps

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline; Malikopoulos, Andreas A.

    2016-09-07

    Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have the potential to improve safety by reducing and mitigating traffic accidents. They can also provide opportunities to reduce transportation energy consumption and emissions by improving traffic flow. Vehicle communication with traffic structures and traffic lights can allow individual vehicles to optimize their operation and account for unpredictable changes. This paper summarizes the developments and the research trends in coordination with the CAVs that have been reported in the literature to date. In conclusion, remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

  4. Remote Sensing-based Models of Soil Vulnerability to Compaction and Erosion from Off-highway Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal, M. L.; Webb, R. H.; Norman, L.; Psillas, J.; Rosenberg, A.; Carmichael, S.; Petrakis, R.; Sparks, P.

    2014-12-01

    Intensive off-road vehicle use for immigration, smuggling, and security of the United States-Mexico border has prompted concerns about long-term human impacts on sensitive desert ecosystems. To help managers identify areas susceptible to soil erosion from vehicle disturbances, we developed a series of erosion potential models based on factors from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), with particular focus on the management factor (P-factor) and vegetation cover (C-factor). To better express the vulnerability of soils to human disturbances, a soil compaction index (applied as the P-factor) was calculated as the difference in saturated hydrologic conductivity (Ks) between disturbed and undisturbed soils, which was then scaled up to remote sensing-based maps of vehicle tracks and digital soils maps. The C-factor was improved using a satellite-based vegetation index, which was better correlated with estimated ground cover (r2 = 0.77) than data derived from regional land cover maps (r2 = 0.06). RUSLE factors were normalized to give equal weight to all contributing factors, which provided more management-specific information on vulnerable areas where vehicle compaction of sensitive soils intersects with steep slopes and low vegetation cover. Resulting spatial data on vulnerability and erosion potential provide land managers with information to identify critically disturbed areas and potential restoration sites where off-road driving should be restricted to reduce further degradation.

  5. 77 FR 488 - Control of Emissions From New Highway Vehicles and Engines; Approval of New Scheduled Maintenance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ..., EPA stated that: \\8\\ 74 FR 57672 (November 9, 2009). * * * SCR systems are a new type of technology...-hr), to be phased-in between the 2007 and 2010 model years. \\1\\ 65 FR 6734 (February 10, 2000). \\2\\ 66 FR 5002 (January 18, 2001). Diesel vehicle and engine manufacturers began planning to meet...

  6. Kratos: Princeton University's entry in the 2008 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassano, Christopher A.; Franken, Gordon H.; Mayer, Jonathan R.; Saxe, Andrew M.; Yu, Derrick D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present Kratos, an autonomous ground robot capable of static obstacle field navigation and lane following. A sole color stereo camera provides all environmental data. We detect obstacles by generating a 3D point cloud and then searching for nearby points of differing heights, and represent the results as a cost map of the environment. For lane detection we merge the output of a custom set of filters and iterate the RANSAC algorithm to fit parabolas to lane markings. Kratos' state estimation is built on a square root central difference Kalman filter, incorporating input from wheel odometry, a digital compass, and a GPS receiver. A 2D A* search plans the straightest optimal path between Kratos' position and a target waypoint, taking vehicle geometry into account. A novel C++ wrapper for Carnegie Mellon's IPC framework provides flexible communication between all services. Testing showed that obstacle detection and path planning were highly effective at generating safe paths through complicated obstacle fields, but that Kratos tended to brush obstacles due to the proportional law control algorithm cutting turns. In addition, the lane detection algorithm made significant errors when only a short stretch of a lane line was visible or when lighting conditions changed. Kratos ultimately earned first place in the Design category of the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition, and third place overall.

  7. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  8. Phobetor: Princeton University's entry in the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Joshua; Zhu, Han; Partridge, Brenton A.; Szocs, Laszlo J.; Abiola, Solomon O.; Corey, Ryan M.; Suresh, Srinivasan A.; Yu, Derrick D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present Phobetor, an autonomous outdoor vehicle originally designed for the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). We describe new vision and navigation systems that have yielded 3x increase in obstacle detection speed using parallel processing and robust lane detection results. Phobetor also uses probabilistic local mapping to learn about its environment and Anytime Dynamic A* (AD*) to plan paths to reach its goals. Our vision software is based on color stereo images and uses robust, RANSAC-based algorithms while running fast enough to support real-time autonomous navigation on uneven terrain. AD* allows Phobetor to respond quickly in all situations even when optimal planning takes more time, and uses incremental replanning to increase search efficiency. We augment the cost map of the environment with a potential field which addresses the problem of "wall-hugging" and smoothes generated paths to allow safe and reliable path-following. In summary, we present innovations on Phobetor that are relevant to real-world robotics platforms in uncertain environments.

  9. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  10. Vehicle routing, traveler adis, network modeling, and advanced control systems. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Efficient Search Algorithms for Route Information Services of Direct and Connecting Transit Trips; Influence of Urban Network Features on Quality of Traffic Service; Advanced Traffic Management System: Real-Time Network Traffic Simulation Methodology with a Massively Parallel Computing Architecture; Standards for Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System Technologies; Concept of Super Smart Vehicle Systems and Their Relation to Advanced Vehicle Control Systems; Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System Safety: A Demonstration Specification and Hazard Analysis; California INRAD Project: Demonstration of Low-Power Inductive Loop Radio Technology for Use in Traffic Operations; Development of Prototype Knowledge-Based Expert System for Managing Congestion on Massachusetts Turnpike; Artificial Intelligence-Based System Representation and Search Procedures for Transit Route Network Design; Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network Applications in Transportation Engineering; Validation of an Expert System: A Case Study; Model for Optimum Deployment of Emergency Repair Trucks: Application in Electric Utility Industry.

  11. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department...

  12. Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  13. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  14. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  15. Ground vehicle control at NIST: From teleoperation to autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Karl N.; Juberts, Maris; Legowik, Steven A.; Nashman, Marilyn; Schneiderman, Henry; Scott, Harry A.; Szabo, Sandor

    1994-01-01

    NIST is applying their Real-time Control System (RCS) methodology for control of ground vehicles for both the U.S. Army Researh Lab, as part of the DOD's Unmanned Ground Vehicles program, and for the Department of Transportation's Intelligent Vehicle/Highway Systems (IVHS) program. The actuated vehicle, a military HMMWV, has motors for steering, brake, throttle, etc. and sensors for the dashboard gauges. For military operations, the vehicle has two modes of operation: a teleoperation mode--where an operator remotely controls the vehicle over an RF communications network; and a semi-autonomous mode called retro-traverse--where the control system uses an inertial navigation system to steer the vehicle along a prerecorded path. For the IVHS work, intelligent vision processing elements replace the human teleoperator to achieve autonomous, visually guided road following.

  16. Intelligent neuroprocessors for in-situ launch vehicle propulsion systems health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulati, S.; Tawel, R.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    Efficacy of existing on-board propulsion systems health management systems (HMS) are severely impacted by computational limitations (e.g., low sampling rates); paradigmatic limitations (e.g., low-fidelity logic/parameter redlining only, false alarms due to noisy/corrupted sensor signatures, preprogrammed diagnostics only); and telemetry bandwidth limitations on space/ground interactions. Ultra-compact/light, adaptive neural networks with massively parallel, asynchronous, fast reconfigurable and fault-tolerant information processing properties have already demonstrated significant potential for inflight diagnostic analyses and resource allocation with reduced ground dependence. In particular, they can automatically exploit correlation effects across multiple sensor streams (plume analyzer, flow meters, vibration detectors, etc.) so as to detect anomaly signatures that cannot be determined from the exploitation of single sensor. Furthermore, neural networks have already demonstrated the potential for impacting real-time fault recovery in vehicle subsystems by adaptively regulating combustion mixture/power subsystems and optimizing resource utilization under degraded conditions. A class of high-performance neuroprocessors, developed at JPL, that have demonstrated potential for next-generation HMS for a family of space transportation vehicles envisioned for the next few decades, including HLLV, NLS, and space shuttle is presented. Of fundamental interest are intelligent neuroprocessors for real-time plume analysis, optimizing combustion mixture-ratio, and feedback to hydraulic, pneumatic control systems. This class includes concurrently asynchronous reprogrammable, nonvolatile, analog neural processors with high speed, high bandwidth electronic/optical I/O interfaced, with special emphasis on NASA's unique requirements in terms of performance, reliability, ultra-high density ultra-compactness, ultra-light weight devices, radiation hardened devices, power stringency

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Artificial Intelligence Revolutionizing Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Luis F; Montes, Glen A; Puig, Eduard; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-14

    Surveying threatened and invasive species to obtain accurate population estimates is an important but challenging task that requires a considerable investment in time and resources. Estimates using existing ground-based monitoring techniques, such as camera traps and surveys performed on foot, are known to be resource intensive, potentially inaccurate and imprecise, and difficult to validate. Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), artificial intelligence and miniaturized thermal imaging systems represent a new opportunity for wildlife experts to inexpensively survey relatively large areas. The system presented in this paper includes thermal image acquisition as well as a video processing pipeline to perform object detection, classification and tracking of wildlife in forest or open areas. The system is tested on thermal video data from ground based and test flight footage, and is found to be able to detect all the target wildlife located in the surveyed area. The system is flexible in that the user can readily define the types of objects to classify and the object characteristics that should be considered during classification.

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Artificial Intelligence Revolutionizing Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Luis F; Montes, Glen A; Puig, Eduard; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Surveying threatened and invasive species to obtain accurate population estimates is an important but challenging task that requires a considerable investment in time and resources. Estimates using existing ground-based monitoring techniques, such as camera traps and surveys performed on foot, are known to be resource intensive, potentially inaccurate and imprecise, and difficult to validate. Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), artificial intelligence and miniaturized thermal imaging systems represent a new opportunity for wildlife experts to inexpensively survey relatively large areas. The system presented in this paper includes thermal image acquisition as well as a video processing pipeline to perform object detection, classification and tracking of wildlife in forest or open areas. The system is tested on thermal video data from ground based and test flight footage, and is found to be able to detect all the target wildlife located in the surveyed area. The system is flexible in that the user can readily define the types of objects to classify and the object characteristics that should be considered during classification. PMID:26784196

  19. What benefit does Intelligent Speed Adaptation deliver: a close examination of its effect on vehicle speeds.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank; Carsten, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) is a driver support system which brings the speed limit information into the vehicle. This paper describes the UK ISA field trials taken place between 2004 and 2006 and presents evidence on how drivers' choice of speed is altered. The ISA system was observed to have a distinctive effect in transforming the speed distribution from a conventional bell shape to an asymmetric distribution biased towards the high speed end. ISA not only diminished excessive speeding, but also led to a reduction in speed variation, prompting a positive implication to accident reduction. The use of an overridable ISA system also provided an opportunity to investigate where drivers would choose to have ISA based on observed behaviour instead of opinion. Evidence shows that ISA tends to be overridden on roads where it was perhaps needed most. Behavioural difference among driver groups also suggests that ISA tends to be overridden by those drivers who in safety terms stand to benefit most from using it, as with other safety systems.

  20. Argos: Princeton University's entry in the 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiola, Solomon O.; Baldassano, Christopher A.; Franken, Gordon H.; Harris, Richard J.; Hendrick, Barbara A.; Mayer, Jonathan R.; Partridge, Brenton A.; Starr, Eric W.; Tait, Alexander N.; Yu, Derrick D.; Zhu, Tony H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present Argos, an autonomous ground robot built for the 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). Discussed are the significant improvements over its predecessor from the 2008 IGVC, Kratos. We continue to use stereo vision techniques to generate a cost map of the environment around the robot. Lane detection is improved through the use of color filters that are robust to changing lighting conditions. The addition of a single-axis gyroscope to the sensor suite allows accurate measurement of the robot's yaw rate and compensates for wheel slip, vastly improving state estimation. The combination of the D* Lite algorithm, which avoids unnecessary re-planning, and the Field D* algorithm, which allows us to plan much smoother paths, results in an algorithm that produces higher quality paths in the same amount of time as methods utilizing A*. The successful implementation of a crosstrack error navigation law allows the robot to follow planned paths without cutting corners, reducing the chance of collision with obstacles. A redesigned chassis with a smaller footprint and a bi-level design, combined with a more powerful drivetrain, makes Argos much more agile and maneuverable compared to its predecessor. At the 2009 IGVC, Argos placed first in the Navigation Challenge.

  1. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  2. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-11-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Artificial Intelligence Revolutionizing Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Luis F.; Montes, Glen A.; Puig, Eduard; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Surveying threatened and invasive species to obtain accurate population estimates is an important but challenging task that requires a considerable investment in time and resources. Estimates using existing ground-based monitoring techniques, such as camera traps and surveys performed on foot, are known to be resource intensive, potentially inaccurate and imprecise, and difficult to validate. Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), artificial intelligence and miniaturized thermal imaging systems represent a new opportunity for wildlife experts to inexpensively survey relatively large areas. The system presented in this paper includes thermal image acquisition as well as a video processing pipeline to perform object detection, classification and tracking of wildlife in forest or open areas. The system is tested on thermal video data from ground based and test flight footage, and is found to be able to detect all the target wildlife located in the surveyed area. The system is flexible in that the user can readily define the types of objects to classify and the object characteristics that should be considered during classification. PMID:26784196

  4. Relative Importance of Dust, Splash, and Sheet/Rill Transport Processes on Off-Highway Vehicle Trails in the Ouachita Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, D.; Phillips, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sheet/rill erosion, dust displacement, and vehicle induced splash are the primary sediment transport processes on off-highway vehicle (OHV) trails in the Ouachita Mountains of the central United States. The relative importance of these three processes is assessed by comparing the area affected and the sediment connectivity of each process to affected streams using field data from the Wolf Pen Gap Trail Complex. The occurrence and areal extent of erosion processes were assessed using systematic transect measurements, feature inventories, and visual observation over representative trail segments. Sheet/rill erosion affects the entire denunded surface of the trail system, an area of 2,820 m2 km-1 of trail. Distinct erosion features created by sheet/rill erosion occur 16.3 times per km. Dust transport extends a mean travel distance of 3.7 m off-trail. Dust transport affects both the entire trail area and an additional 6,640 m2 km-1 of off-trail area. In contrast, splash transport was restricted to trail dips, and extends 1.6 m off-trail. Splash transport affects 60 m2 km-1of off-trail area.The impact of trail erosion increases where sediment sources are connected to drainageways. Of 480 sheet/rill erosion features rated, 69.4% had high to very high connectivity to channels. All sampled dips were directly connected to drainage ways. Dust transport affected 99% of dips on one trail side and 90% on both sides. About 80% of the dips had splash transport on one trail side and 42% on both sides.Sheet/rill, dust, and splash transport processes are all important in the Trail Complex, but for different reasons. Sheet/rill erosion affects the entire trail surface, is well connected to area drainageways, but only occurs after rainfall. Dust transport affects the largest area and occurs most often throughout the year, but the sediment is deposited diffusely, and the ratio delivered to the drainage network is relatively low. Splash affects the smallest area

  5. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  6. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  7. AERCam Autonomy: Intelligent Software Architecture for Robotic Free Flying Nanosatellite Inspection Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.; Duran, Steve G.; Braun, Angela N.; Straube, Timothy M.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a nanosatellite-class Free Flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spacecraft. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) technology demonstration unit has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The spherical Mini AERCam Free Flyer is 7.5 inches in diameter and weighs approximately 10 pounds, yet it incorporates significant additional capabilities compared to the 35-pound, 14-inch diameter AERCam Sprint that flew as a Shuttle flight experiment in 1997. Mini AERCam hosts a full suite of miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, power, propulsion, and imaging subsystems, including digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations, including automatic stationkeeping, point-to-point maneuvering, and waypoint tracking. The Mini AERCam Free Flyer is accompanied by a sophisticated control station for command and control, as well as a docking system for automated deployment, docking, and recharge at a parent spacecraft. Free Flyer functional testing has been conducted successfully on both an airbearing table and in a six-degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation with avionics hardware in the loop. Mini AERCam aims to provide beneficial on-orbit views that cannot be obtained from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by crewmembers during extravehicular activities (EVA s). On Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS), for example, Mini AERCam could support external robotic operations by supplying orthogonal views to the intravehicular activity (IVA) robotic operator, supply views of EVA operations to IVA and/or ground crews monitoring the EVA, and carry out independent visual inspections of areas of interest around the spacecraft. To enable these future benefits

  8. Regional analyses of highway energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, G.; Greene, D.L.; Walton, G.H.; Collins, M.J.; Shonka, D.B.; Blue, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    Regional variation among selected factors affecting energy use in highway transportation is described and analyzed. Highway vehicle use accounts for about 95% of all motor gasoline used and a substantial portion of the diesel fuel consumed in the US. For the purposes of analysis, highway energy use can be divided into three sectoral users: household, commercial, and government. Chapter 1, Nonhighway Use of Gasoline, covers agriculture, marine, aviation, industrial and commercial, construction, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Chapter 2, Topics in Commercial Highway Energy Use, includes the following: Commercial Use of Gasoline in Highway Transportation, Automotive Fleets and Electric Vehicle Applicability; Local and Short-Haul Commercial Trucking; Intercity Trucking; and Intracity Bus Service. Chapter 3, Selected Characteristics of Highway Energy Use by the Household Sector, includes sections entitled: Regional Gasoline Use; Ownership of New and Used Vehicles; Fuel Efficiencies and Market Shares of New Vehicle Registrations; Regional Trends in Import Passenger Car Sales and in Light Truck and Van Sales; Regional Variations in Recreational Vehicle Shipments and in Gasoline Consumption, 1977; Regional Patterns of Motorcycle and Moped Use; and An Analysis of the Differences in Carpooling Across Metropolitan Areas.

  9. Forecasting urban highway travel for year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, Shaw-Pin . Transportation Center); Rathi, A.K.; Southworth, F.; Greene, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    As part of a study aimed at estimating suburban highway needs for year 2005, models were developed for forecasting daily vehicle miles of travel (DVMT) for urban areas and its distribution by highway functional class, urban location, and urban area size. A regression model combining both time series and cross-sectional data is used to establish the relationship between the per capita DVMT of 339 urban areas in the United States and a set of explanatory variables including real income, employment, number of persons per household, number of driver licenses per 1000 persons, a variable representing highway supply deficiency, and a time variable. The dynamic shift over time in share of travel between urban locations and highway functional classes as urban areas grow in size is represented by conditional logit models. This paper presents the major findings from the forecasting and distribution models for urban highway travel in year 2005. 30 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Fuel used for off-highway recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Trumble, D.; Lu, A.

    1994-07-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation by transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund of individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile.

  11. Description of the National Highway Planning Network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.E.

    1990-09-01

    The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.

  12. Intelligent Control for Drag Reduction on the X-48B Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Brown, Nelson Andrew; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an intelligent control technology for in-flight drag reduction. The system is integrated with and demonstrated on the full X-48B nonlinear simulation. The intelligent control system utilizes a peak-seeking control method implemented with a time-varying Kalman filter. Performance functional coordinate and magnitude measurements, or independent and dependent parameters respectively, are used by the Kalman filter to provide the system with gradient estimates of the designed performance function which is used to drive the system toward a local minimum in a steepestdescent approach. To ensure ease of integration and algorithm performance, a single-input single-output approach was chosen. The framework, specific implementation considerations, simulation results, and flight feasibility issues related to this platform are discussed.

  13. Development of SPIES (Space Intelligent Eyeing System) for smart vehicle tracing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suzanah; Ariffin Osoman, Muhammad; Guan Liyong, Chua; Zulfadhli Mohd Noor, Mohd; Mohamed, Ikhwan

    2016-06-01

    SPIES or Space-based Intelligent Eyeing System is an intelligent technology which can be utilized for various applications such as gathering spatial information of features on Earth, tracking system for the movement of an object, tracing system to trace the history information, monitoring driving behavior, security and alarm system as an observer in real time and many more. SPIES as will be developed and supplied modularly will encourage the usage based on needs and affordability of users. SPIES are a complete system with camera, GSM, GPS/GNSS and G-Sensor modules with intelligent function and capabilities. Mainly the camera is used to capture pictures and video and sometimes with audio of an event. Its usage is not limited to normal use for nostalgic purpose but can be used as a reference for security and material of evidence when an undesirable event such as crime occurs. When integrated with space based technology of the Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS), photos and videos can be recorded together with positioning information. A product of the integration of these technologies when integrated with Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) and Geographic Information System (GIS) will produce innovation in the form of information gathering methods in still picture or video with positioning information that can be conveyed in real time via the web to display location on the map hence creating an intelligent eyeing system based on space technology. The importance of providing global positioning information is a challenge but overcome by SPIES even in areas without GNSS signal reception for the purpose of continuous tracking and tracing capability

  14. Hyperspectral Image-Based Night-Time Vehicle Light Detection Using Spectral Normalization and Distance Mapper for Intelligent Headlight Control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heekang; Kwon, Soon; Kim, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC), the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), High-intensity discharge (HID), and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM), and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM). The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen). PMID:27399720

  15. Hyperspectral Image-Based Night-Time Vehicle Light Detection Using Spectral Normalization and Distance Mapper for Intelligent Headlight Control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heekang; Kwon, Soon; Kim, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC), the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), High-intensity discharge (HID), and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM), and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM). The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen). PMID:27399720

  16. 40 CFR 80.533 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a motor vehicle or non-highway baseline for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (d) Calculation of the Motor vehicle Baseline, BMV. (1) Under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, BMV equals the average annual volume of motor vehicle diesel fuel produced or imported from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2005. (2) Under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, BMV equals the...

  17. Energy Beam Highways Through the Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of Energy Beam Flight Transportation Systems could dramatically change the way we travel in the 21st Century. A framework for formulating 'Highways of Light' and the top level architectures that invoke radically new Space Power Grid infrastructure, are introduced. Basically, such flight systems, hereafter called Lightcraft, would employ off-board energy beam sources (either laser or microwave) to energize on-board dependent 'motors' -- instead of the traditional autonomous 'engines' with their on-board energy sources (e.g., chemical fuels). Extreme reductions in vehicle dry mass appear feasible with the use of off-board power and a high degree of on-board artificial intelligence. Such vehicles may no longer need airports for refueling (since they require no propellant), and could possibly pick up travelers at their homes -- before motoring over to one of many local boost stations, for the flight out. With off-board power, hyper-energetic acceleration performance and boost-glide trajectories become feasible. Hypersonic MS airbreathing propulsion can enable boosts up to twice escape velocity, which will cut trip times to the moon down to 5.5 hours. The predominant technological, environmental and social factors that will result from such transportation systems will be stressed. This presentation first introduces the remote source siting options for the space power system infrastructure, and then provides three representative laser/microwave Lightcraft options (derived from historical Case Studies): i.e., 'Acorn', 'Toy Top', and 'Disc.' Next the gamut of combined-cycle engine options developed for these Lightcraft are examined -- to illuminate the 'emerging technologies' that must be harnessed to produce flight hardware. Needed proof-of concept experiments are identified, along with the Macro-Level Issues that can springboard these revolutionary concepts into hardware reality.

  18. Energy Beam Highways Through the Skies

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, L.N.

    1996-02-01

    The emergence of Energy Beam Flight Transportation Systems could dramatically change the way one travels in the 21st Century. A framework for formulating `Highways of Light` and the top level architectures that invoke radically new Space Power Grid infrastructure, are introduced. Basically, such flight systems, hereafter called Lightcraft, would employ off-board energy beam sources (either laser or microwave) to energize on-board dependent `motors` -- instead of the traditional autonomous `engines` with their on-board energy sources (e.g., chemical fuels). Extreme reductions in vehicle dry mass appear feasible with the use of off-board power and a high degree of on-board artificial intelligence. Such vehicles may no longer need airports for refueling (since they require no propellant), and could possibly pick up travelers at their homes -- before motoring over to one of many local boost stations, for the flight out. With off-board power, hyper-energetic acceleration performance and boost-glide trajectories become feasible. Hypersonic MS airbreathing propulsion can enable boosts up to twice escape velocity, which will cut trip times to the moon down to 5.5 hours. The predominant technological, environmental and social factors that will result from such transportation systems will be stressed. This presentation first introduces the remote source siting options for the space power system infrastructure, and then provides three representative laser/microwave Lightcraft options (derived from historical Case Studies): i.e., `Acorn`, `Toy Top`, and `Disc.` Next the gamut of combined-cycle engine options developed for these Lightcraft are examined -- to illuminate the `emerging technologies` that must be harnessed to produce flight hardware. Needed proof-of concept experiments are identified, along with the Macro-Level Issues that can springboard these revolutionary concepts into hardware reality.

  19. 49 CFR 392.12 - Highway-rail crossings; safe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.12 Highway-rail crossings; safe clearance. No driver of a commercial motor vehicle shall drive onto a highway-rail grade crossing without having sufficient space to drive completely through the crossing without stopping....

  20. 49 CFR 392.12 - Highway-rail crossings; safe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.12 Highway-rail crossings; safe clearance. No driver of a commercial motor vehicle shall drive onto a highway-rail grade crossing without having sufficient space to drive completely through the crossing without stopping. Effective...

  1. Fuel Used for Off-Highway Recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile. Two factors governed the development of this estimation procedure. First, individual state shares of the total Trust Funds need to be developed using a uniform approach. Second, data needed for the estimation procedure should be publicly available and easily obtainable so that estimates for all subsequent years can be generated easily. Estimates were developed based on existing data sources. Adjustment factors were developed to take into account different vehicular off-highway recreational usage among states.

  2. Islisberg-2011 - measurements of vehicle emissions in a highway tunnel: CO2, CO, H2, N2O, O2/N2; stable isotopes of CO2, CO and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, M. E.; Vollmer, M. K.; Brand, W.; Jordan, A.; Rothe, M.; Batenburg, A. M.; Pathirana, S.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    A measurement campaign of vehicle emissions took place in the summer of 2011 in the Islisberg highway tunnel in Switzerland. The purpose was to characterize the present vehicle fleet in terms of emission rates of H2, CO, CO2 and N2O; emission ratios O2:CO2, CO:CO2 and H2:CO, and isotopic signatures in CO2, CO and H2. The tunnel has a separate bore for each traffic direction, and no active ventilation, thus offering an ideal setting for measuring large traffic signals without significant interference of other sources or sinks. Two RGA analyzers were installed at the entrance and at the exit of the tunnel for continuous, in-situ measurements of H2 and CO. This in-situ dataset allows to determine the CO and H2 emission rates and the H2:CO emission ratios for different traffic conditions and vehicle types (traffic count data are also available). Additionally, a large number of flask samples were filled at both entrance and exit and were distributed for various measurements at three institutes. Some of the flasks were analyzed at MPI-BGC (Jena, Germany) for CO2, CO, N2O, H2, O2/N2 and 13C and 18O in CO2. A second flask batch was analyzed at EMPA (Switzerland) for H2 and CO, and at IMAU (Utrecht, Netherlands) for the corresponding H2 and CO isotopes. A third flask batch travelled to all three institutes for a complete set of measurements, serving also as a consistency check. We will present the initial results, discussing the following points: - H2 and CO emission rates, and H2:CO ratios of vehicle emissions; - H2 and CO isotopic composition; - CO:CO2 ratios; - O2:CO2 ratios; - 13C and 18O in CO2.

  3. 26. Photograph of bridge plans titled "State of Idaho Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photograph of bridge plans titled "State of Idaho Highway Department, proposed bridge across Clarks Fork of the Columbia at Clark Fork, Idaho, Bonner County" December 1917 Sheet 2 of 4 - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  4. 28. Photograph of bridge plans titled "State of Idaho Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photograph of bridge plans titled "State of Idaho Highway Department, proposed bridge across Clarks Fork of the Columbia at Clark Fork, Idaho, Bonner County" December 1917 Sheet 4 of 4 - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  5. 25. Photograph of bridge plans titled "State of Idaho Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photograph of bridge plans titled "State of Idaho Highway Department, proposed bridge across Clarks Fork of the Columbia at Clark Fork, Idaho, Bonner County" December 1917 Sheet 1 of 4 - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  6. 27. Photograph of bridge plans titled "State of Idaho Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photograph of bridge plans titled "State of Idaho Highway Department, proposed bridge across Clarks Fork of the Columbia at Clark Fork, Idaho, Bonner County" December 1917 Sheet 3 of 4 - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  7. Long-term trends in United States highway emissions, ambient concentrations, and in-vehicle exposure to carbon monoxide in traffic.

    PubMed

    Flachsbart, P G

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews 16 published studies conducted between 1965 and 1992 of in-vehicle exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) in traffic on urban roadways in the United States. Analysis of these studies shows a downward trend in CO exposure, which corresponds to similar trends for CO in motor vehicle emission factors and ambient concentrations. The analysis demonstrates that emission controls on motor vehicles sold in the United States have been very effective in reducing commuter CO exposure. It is recommended that future studies of this kind be done routinely in cities nationwide to provide a more robust database for accurate estimates of commuter exposure. Such studies should relate human exposure measurements to estimates of emissions at study sites to document the progress of motor vehicle emission control programs. In addition, future studies should use standard protocols to enable comparisons of results in time and space. Previous studies have shown that typical in-vehicle exposures vary by study approach (direct versus indirect), city, season, roadway type and location, travel mode, and vehicular ventilation. Future studies should carefully account for these factors. PMID:8938245

  8. Long-term trends in United States highway emissions, ambient concentrations, and in-vehicle exposure to carbon monoxide in traffic.

    PubMed

    Flachsbart, P G

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews 16 published studies conducted between 1965 and 1992 of in-vehicle exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) in traffic on urban roadways in the United States. Analysis of these studies shows a downward trend in CO exposure, which corresponds to similar trends for CO in motor vehicle emission factors and ambient concentrations. The analysis demonstrates that emission controls on motor vehicles sold in the United States have been very effective in reducing commuter CO exposure. It is recommended that future studies of this kind be done routinely in cities nationwide to provide a more robust database for accurate estimates of commuter exposure. Such studies should relate human exposure measurements to estimates of emissions at study sites to document the progress of motor vehicle emission control programs. In addition, future studies should use standard protocols to enable comparisons of results in time and space. Previous studies have shown that typical in-vehicle exposures vary by study approach (direct versus indirect), city, season, roadway type and location, travel mode, and vehicular ventilation. Future studies should carefully account for these factors.

  9. Effects of Vehicle Number Feedback in Multi-Route Intelligent Traffic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Xu; Wang, Binghong

    We first study dynamics of traffic flow with real-time information and the influence of a new feedback strategy named Vehicle Number Feedback Strategy (VNFS) in a multi-route scenario in which dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the board (the board refers to a variable message sign where information on the routes is displayed) to guide road users to make a choice. In a multi-route scenario, our model incorporates the effects of adaptability into the cellular automaton models of traffic flow and simulation results adopting vehicle number feedback strategy have demonstrated high efficiency in controlling spatial distribution of traffic patterns compared with the other three information feedback strategies, i.e. Travel Time Feedback Strategy (TTFS), Mean Velocity Feedback Strategy (MVFS) and Congestion Coefficient Feedback Strategy (CCFS). We also discuss the influence of expected arrival rate (Vp) at the entrance on the average flux of each route, and we find that the flux adopting VNFS is always the largest at each Vp value among these four feedback strategies.

  10. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  11. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  12. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND..., or enhancement of scenic beauty as seen from the traveled way of the highway as a landscape...

  13. Intelligent transportation systems strategic plan: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This interim report on an Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Strategic Plan has been developed as documentation of the process of offering a vision for ITS and recommending an outline for organizational structure, infrastructure, and long-term planning for ITS in Kentucky. This plan provides an overview of the broad scope of ITS and relationships between various Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) functional areas and ITS user service areas. Three of the functional areas of ITS have been addressed in this interim report with sections devoted to mission, vision, goals, and potential technology applications. Within each of the three areas, recommendations have been made for applications and technologies for deployment. A more formalized business plan for ITS will be developed to recommend specific projects for implementation. Those three functional areas are: (1) Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS), (2) Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), and (3) Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO).

  14. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  15. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  16. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  17. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  18. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  19. Experimental demonstration of highway I2V using visible light communications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hyeon; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2016-08-01

    A visible light communication (VLC)-based intelligent transportation system (ITS) has drawn much interest from telematics and automobile industries due to its enhanced safety and cost effectiveness. Within the framework of ITS, vehicle-to-vehicle and infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) communications have largely been considered. I2V can be viewed as an important ITS technology that broadcasts traffic information from fixed traffic infrastructure. In this paper, an experimental demonstration of a highway VLC-based I2V system is presented. For robust and reliable detection in the VLC-based I2V, the receiver structure of the proposed system is comprised of an optical filter, a color filter, and a Fresnel lens. We consider two primary atmospheric conditions in the highway I2V, i.e., sunlight and cloud effects. To alleviate these adverse effects, we propose an efficient and robust zone detection (ZD) and adaptive decision threshold (ADT) method. The sunlight effect is reduced predominantly by the ZD, while the cloud effect is lessened significantly by the ADT. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well to counter the sunlight and cloud effects. It is found that the proposed ZD and ADT method provides an approximate SNR improvement ranging from 16 to 26 dB, depending upon measurement times of the day.

  20. Experimental demonstration of highway I2V using visible light communications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hyeon; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2016-08-01

    A visible light communication (VLC)-based intelligent transportation system (ITS) has drawn much interest from telematics and automobile industries due to its enhanced safety and cost effectiveness. Within the framework of ITS, vehicle-to-vehicle and infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) communications have largely been considered. I2V can be viewed as an important ITS technology that broadcasts traffic information from fixed traffic infrastructure. In this paper, an experimental demonstration of a highway VLC-based I2V system is presented. For robust and reliable detection in the VLC-based I2V, the receiver structure of the proposed system is comprised of an optical filter, a color filter, and a Fresnel lens. We consider two primary atmospheric conditions in the highway I2V, i.e., sunlight and cloud effects. To alleviate these adverse effects, we propose an efficient and robust zone detection (ZD) and adaptive decision threshold (ADT) method. The sunlight effect is reduced predominantly by the ZD, while the cloud effect is lessened significantly by the ADT. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well to counter the sunlight and cloud effects. It is found that the proposed ZD and ADT method provides an approximate SNR improvement ranging from 16 to 26 dB, depending upon measurement times of the day. PMID:27505361

  1. Intelligent modified internal model control for speed control of nonlinear uncertain heavy duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Gaur, Prerna

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to control the speed of heavy duty vehicle (HDV) through angular position of throttle valve. Modified internal model control (IMC) schemes with fuzzy supervisor as an adaptive tuning are proposed to control the speed of HDV. Internal model (IM) plays a key role in design of various IMC structures with robust and adaptive features. The motivation to design an IM is to produce nearly stable performance as of the system itself. Clustering algorithm and Hankel approximation based model order reduction techniques are used for the design of suitable IM. The time domain performance specifications such as overshoot, settling time, rise time and integral error performance indices such as the integral of the absolute error and the integral of the square of error are taken into consideration for performance analysis of HDV for various uncertainties.

  2. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  3. Weight Control for Highway Trucking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LODEC, Inc. scales use load cell technology, a spinoff from aerospace technology, in manufacturing electronic axle scales for weighing trucks and trailers to insure that they are within legal highway limits. The scales trace their origin to the space program of the 1960's when ELDEC Corporation, then LODEC parent company, acquired advanced electronic technology as a subcontractor on such projects as Apollo and Saturn launch vehicles. LODEC scales come in both permanent and portable versions with accuracy of within one percent and frequently better.

  4. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  5. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  6. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Automated Guided Vehicle Systems in Changing Logistics Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, L.; Behling, S.; Buhrs, S.

    2008-06-01

    The usage of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) is growing. This has not always been the case in the past. A new record of the sells numbers is the result of inventive developments, new applications and modern thinking. One market that AGVS were not able to thoroughly conquer yet were rapidly changing logistics environments. The advantages in recurrent transportation with AGVS used to be hindered by the needs of flexibility. When nowadays managers talk about Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) there is no reason not to consider AGVS. Fixed guidelines, permanent transfer stations and static routes are no necessity for most AGVS producers. Flexible Manufacturing Systems can raise profitability with AGVS. When robots start saving billions in production costs, the next step at same plants are automated materials handling systems. Today, there are hundreds of instances of computer-controlled systems designed to handle and transport materials, many of which have replaced conventional human-driven platform trucks. Reduced costs due to damages and failures, tracking and tracing as well as improved production scheduling on top of fewer personnel needs are only some of the advantages.

  7. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  8. Nanoparticle emissions on Minnesota highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittelson, D. B.; Watts, W. F.; Johnson, J. P.

    The objective of this project was to characterize on-road aerosol on highways surrounding the Minneapolis area. Data were collected under varying on-road traffic conditions and in residential areas to determine the impact of highway traffic on air quality. The study was focused on determining on-road nanoparticle concentrations, and estimating fuel-specific and particle emissions km -1. On-road aerosol number concentrations ranged from 10 4 to 10 6 particles cm -3. The highest nanoparticle concentrations were associated with high-speed traffic. At high vehicular speeds engine load, exhaust temperature, and exhaust flow all increase resulting in higher emissions. Less variation was observed in particle volume, a surrogate measure of particle mass. Most of the particles added by the on-road fleet were below 50 nm in diameter. Particles in this size range may dominate particle number, but contribute little to particle volume or mass. Furthermore, particle number is strongly influenced by nucleation and coagulation, which have little or no effect on particle volume. Measurements made in heavy traffic, speeds<32 km h -1, produced lower number concentrations and larger particles. Number concentrations measured in residential areas, 10-20 m from the highway, were considerably lower than on-road concentrations, but the size distributions were similar to on-road aerosol with high concentrations of very small (<20 nm) particles. Much lower number concentrations and larger particles were observed in residential areas located 500-700 m from the highway. Estimated emissions of total particle number larger than 3 nm ranged from 1.9 to 9.9×10 14 particles km -1 and 2.2-11×10 15 particles (kg fuel) -1 for a gasoline-dominated vehicle fleet.

  9. Empirical Behavioral Models to Support Alternative Tools for the Analysis of Mixed-Priority Pedestrian-Vehicle Interaction in a Highway Capacity Context.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Bastian J; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation environment, where they can more fully describe the interaction of these two modes. The approach is intended to supplement HCM analytical procedure for locations where significant interaction occurs between drivers and pedestrians, including modern roundabouts.

  10. Empirical Behavioral Models to Support Alternative Tools for the Analysis of Mixed-Priority Pedestrian-Vehicle Interaction in a Highway Capacity Context

    PubMed Central

    Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation environment, where they can more fully describe the interaction of these two modes. The approach is intended to supplement HCM analytical procedure for locations where significant interaction occurs between drivers and pedestrians, including modern roundabouts. PMID:21643488

  11. PCDD/F emissions from light-duty diesel vehicles operated under highway conditions and a diesel-engine based power generator.

    PubMed

    Rey, M D; Font, R; Aracil, I

    2014-08-15

    PCDD/F emissions from three light-duty diesel vehicles--two vans and a passenger car--have been measured in on-road conditions. We propose a new methodology for small vehicles: a sample of exhaust gas is collected by means of equipment based on United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) method 23 A for stationary stack emissions. The concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 have also been measured. Six tests were carried out at 90-100 km/h on a route 100 km long. Two additional tests were done during the first 10 min and the following 60 min of the run to assess the effect of the engine temperature on PCDD/F emissions. The emission factors obtained for the vans varied from 1800 to 8400 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) for a 2004 model year van and 490-580 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) for a 2006 model year van. Regarding the passenger car, one run was done in the presence of a catalyst and another without, obtaining emission factors (330-880 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3)) comparable to those of the modern van. Two other tests were carried out on a power generator leading to emission factors ranging from 31 to 78 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3). All the results are discussed and compared with literature.

  12. PCDD/F emissions from light-duty diesel vehicles operated under highway conditions and a diesel-engine based power generator.

    PubMed

    Rey, M D; Font, R; Aracil, I

    2014-08-15

    PCDD/F emissions from three light-duty diesel vehicles--two vans and a passenger car--have been measured in on-road conditions. We propose a new methodology for small vehicles: a sample of exhaust gas is collected by means of equipment based on United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) method 23 A for stationary stack emissions. The concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 have also been measured. Six tests were carried out at 90-100 km/h on a route 100 km long. Two additional tests were done during the first 10 min and the following 60 min of the run to assess the effect of the engine temperature on PCDD/F emissions. The emission factors obtained for the vans varied from 1800 to 8400 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) for a 2004 model year van and 490-580 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) for a 2006 model year van. Regarding the passenger car, one run was done in the presence of a catalyst and another without, obtaining emission factors (330-880 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3)) comparable to those of the modern van. Two other tests were carried out on a power generator leading to emission factors ranging from 31 to 78 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3). All the results are discussed and compared with literature. PMID:24953943

  13. Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism: A Novel Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Ganeshkumar, P; Gokulakrishnan, P

    2015-01-01

    In Indian four-lane express highway, millions of vehicles are travelling every day. Accidents are unfortunate and frequently occurring in these highways causing deaths, increase in death toll, and damage to infrastructure. A mechanism is required to avoid such road accidents at the maximum to reduce the death toll. An Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism, a novel and proactive approach, is proposed in this paper for achieving the best of Intelligent Transportation System using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. ESPM intends to predict the possibility of occurrence of an accident in an Indian four-lane express highway. In ESPM, the emergency situation prediction is done by the Road Side Unit based on (i) the Status Report sent by the vehicles in the range of RSU and (ii) the road traffic flow analysis done by the RSU. Once the emergency situation or accident is predicted in advance, an Emergency Warning Message is constructed and disseminated to all vehicles in the area of RSU to alert and prevent the vehicles from accidents. ESPM performs well in emergency situation prediction in advance to the occurrence of an accident. ESPM predicts the emergency situation within 0.20 seconds which is comparatively less than the statistical value. The prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is found better in different traffic scenarios.

  14. Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism: A Novel Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gokulakrishnan, P.

    2015-01-01

    In Indian four-lane express highway, millions of vehicles are travelling every day. Accidents are unfortunate and frequently occurring in these highways causing deaths, increase in death toll, and damage to infrastructure. A mechanism is required to avoid such road accidents at the maximum to reduce the death toll. An Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism, a novel and proactive approach, is proposed in this paper for achieving the best of Intelligent Transportation System using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. ESPM intends to predict the possibility of occurrence of an accident in an Indian four-lane express highway. In ESPM, the emergency situation prediction is done by the Road Side Unit based on (i) the Status Report sent by the vehicles in the range of RSU and (ii) the road traffic flow analysis done by the RSU. Once the emergency situation or accident is predicted in advance, an Emergency Warning Message is constructed and disseminated to all vehicles in the area of RSU to alert and prevent the vehicles from accidents. ESPM performs well in emergency situation prediction in advance to the occurrence of an accident. ESPM predicts the emergency situation within 0.20 seconds which is comparatively less than the statistical value. The prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is found better in different traffic scenarios. PMID:26065014

  15. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  16. AAA: Road Debris a Mounting Danger on U.S. Highways

    MedlinePlus

    ... Highways Crashes involving objects that have fallen from vehicles up 40 percent since 2001 To use the ... the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. Crashes involving vehicle-related debris are up 40 percent since the ...

  17. Highways and Population Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Paul R.; Chi, Guangqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we return to an issue often discussed in the literature regarding the relationship between highway expansion and population change. Typically it simply is assumed that this relationship is well established and understood. We argue, following a thorough review of the relevant literature, that the notion that highway expansion leads to…

  18. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Carrier phase GPS for AHS vehicle control. Resource materials. Final report, September 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Galijan, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describs the results of a PSA contract awarded to SRI International to analyze applications of advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement techniques to provide data for lateral and longitudinal control of AHS vehicles. The report includes: (1) a review of control sensor requirements suggested by other PSA contractors and AHS researchers; (2) an indepth discussion of GPS principles of operation, advanced techniques for achieving extremely accurate GPS positioning and velocity data, and techniques for augmenting GPS to provide continuous high-accuracy data; (3) current and expected GPS capabilities and performance; (4) a review of other proposed sensor types for providing lateral and longitudinal control data; (5) a description of a notional architecture and operation of an AHS incorporating GPS; and (6) a preliminary evaluation by SRI of GPS operation in a typical AHS roadway environment.

  19. 76 FR 43121 - Highway Use Tax; Filing and Payment for Taxable Period Beginning July 1, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... on the filing of Form 2290 (``Heavy Highway Vehicle Use Tax Return'') and payment of the associated... the return is Form 2290, ``Heavy Highway Vehicle Use Tax Return.'' The due date for filing Form 2290... files Form 2290 and pays the amount of tax due with the return. The taxpayer generally must...

  20. Short Course in Highway Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This course guide in highway lighting includes an overview of trends in highway lighting, illustrated information on three light sources for today's luminaires, a reference guide to lamp classification, specifications for highway lighting equipment, and instructions for calculating appropriate use. Maintenance notes on highway illumination and…

  1. Governors Highway Safety Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12) GHSA comments on the Interim Final Rule (IFR) for FAST Act implementation (Sept. 20) Online forum on proposed changes to MMUCC (Sept. 16) Directions in Highway Safety Newsletter (Sept. 2016) Member ...

  2. Alternative Techniques for Testing A Highway Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, Truman; Mast, Truman

    1974-01-01

    The highway transport system as contrasted with other modes of transportation is quite unique in that the users of the system are responsible for the guidance and control functions of the vehicle. Research has shown that improved forms of motorist information, such as highway signs and markings, can enhance the predictability and reliability of the driving task. Test and evaluation of promising new concepts in motorist information must preceed widespread endorsement and implementation on our highway system. This paper reviews the merits and limitations of presently available human factor research techniques--laboratory, instrumented vehicle and traffic performance studies on operational facilities--for evaluating the efficacy of motorist information concepts. Specific examples are given to demonstrate the utility and the interrelationships of the alternative research techniques and there is a discussion of the most pressing immediate and future needs for improved highway signing and road marking research methodology.

  3. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore, to estimate the transportation-related fuel used off-highway, transportation equipment is defined to

  4. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  5. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. An hypothesized evolution of an automated highway system. Resource materials. Final report, September 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes and broadly analyzes an evolutionary deployment scenario for an Automated Highway System in which vehicles equipped for automated operation are deployed in mixed traffic with unequipped, manually operated vehicles. A gradual evolution of incremental change, both in scope and capability of the automated features in the vehicle fleet is assumed.

  6. A Stellar Highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, Case

    2015-10-01

    Thomas Henderson, at the Royal Observatory of the Cape, was the first person to measure the distance to a star in 1834. Robert Innes, at the Union Observatory in Johannesburg, discovered that Proxima Centauri was the nearest star to the Sun in 1915. The idea of marking the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Proxima Centauri in 2015 led to the development of a Stellar Highway, similar to the well-known scale models of the Solar System or Planetary Highways, but showing the scaled distance between stars.

  7. Modeling worldwide highway networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas Boas, Paulino R.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; da F. Costa, Luciano

    2009-12-01

    This Letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and the destination vertices. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used for the comparison. The highway networks of Australia, Brazil, India, and Romania are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model.

  8. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  9. Forensic aspects of the highway crash.

    PubMed

    Gikas, P W

    1983-01-01

    It can be stated that patterns of injury in highway crashes can often be related to specific design and damage features of the vehicle. The restraint systems designed to attenuate injury may also, under severe crash circumstances, produce trauma. Problems may arise as to identification of vehicular drivers. It behooves the pathologist concerned with the necropsy of crash victims and the physician responsible for treating crash victims to become familiar with the pathogenesis of injuries. Such knowledge can be utilized in the recommendation for improvement of vehicles to render them more crashworthy. Awareness of the various mechanisms of injury in vehicle crashes also enhances the diagnostic skill of the initial treating physician when he or she is confronted with a crash victim in the emergency department. Ideally, when the victim arrives at the hospital, the emergency room physician should be supplied with the details of the crash including the type of vehicle, position within the vehicle, use or nonuse of restraint systems, and the direction of the impact. When a fatality results from a car crash, ideally the autopsy pathologist should inspect the vehicle or at least view pictures of the exterior and interior of the vehicle to help establish the pathogenesis of injury in a specific collision. Unfortunately, because of time constraints, this ideal is not always achieved. Because of the considerable volume of civil and criminal litigation resulting from highway crashes, there is a need for competent medical expertise to help both the plaintiff and the defendent. The pathologist involved in forensic work and the treating physician play a particularly important role in the judicial arena.

  10. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  11. Mathematical design of a highway exit curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A highway exit curve is designed under the assumption that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of the vehicle remain constant throughout the path. Using fundamental principles of physics and calculus, the differential equation determining the curve function is derived. The equation and initial conditions are cast into a dimensionless form first for universality of the results. It is found that the curves are effected by only one dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of the tangential acceleration to the normal acceleration. For no tangential acceleration, the equation can be solved analytically yielding a circular arc solution as expected. For nonzero tangential acceleration, the function is complicated and no closed-form solutions exist for the differential equation. The equation is solved numerically for various acceleration ratios. Discussions for applications to highway exits are given.

  12. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  13. MaNIAC-UAV - a methodology for automatic pavement defects detection using images obtained by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Castelo Branco, Luiz; César Lima Segantine, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS is a set of integrated technologies (Remote Sensing, Image Processing, Communications Systems and others) that aim to offer services and advanced traffic management for the several transportation modes (road, air and rail). Collect data on the characteristics and conditions of the road surface and keep them update is an important and difficult task that needs to be currently managed in order to reduce accidents and vehicle maintenance costs. Nowadays several roads and highways are paved, but usually there is insufficient updated data about current condition and status. There are different types of pavement defects on the roads and to keep them in good condition they should be constantly monitored and maintained according to pavement management strategy. This paper presents a methodology to obtain, automatically, information about the conditions of the highway asphalt pavement. Data collection was done through remote sensing using an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and the image processing and pattern recognition techniques through Geographic Information System.

  14. Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

  15. 76 FR 72888 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit...

  16. Hydrological modeling using high resolution dem to level control on highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, Zeynep; Cömert, Çetin

    2016-04-01

    Floods are natural disasters that must be managed, controlled and taken precautions before it happens considering the damage they inflicted to environment and human lives. As to highways, the main vein of urban life flow, must be taken into consideration as a different entity that affected by excessive rainfalls and floods. Due to inadequate drainage that allow rainfall to form water ponds on highways cause vehicles to lose control and that lead vehicles to have traffic accidents. To reduce the traffic accidents caused by ponding waters on highways we need to know area of inundation and water depths. In this context we used FLO-2D Basic Model (2009) to hydrological modeling of Black Sea Coastal Highway with meteorological and hydrological data using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this study, ponding areas on highways determined by simulating the rainfall with a high resolution DEM that can represent the actual road surface correctly. With this information, General Directorate of Highways (GDH) in Turkey can adjust the cross-sectional and longitudinal slope or build better and bigger drainage structures where water accumulated to prevent ponding. With the results obtained from Hydrological Model, GDH can rapidly control highways conformity to regulations before highways come into service. Also these ponding areas acquired by reveals where to prioritize in flood risk managements. Key Words: Area of Inundation, Digital Elevation Model, FLO-2D, Hydrological Modeling, Highway, Rainfall-Runoff Simulation, Water Depth.

  17. Highway proximity associations with blood markers of inflammation: Evidence for a role for IL-1β

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin J.; Stewart, Andrea; Tai, Albert K; Woodin, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is associated with proximity to major roadways and highways. We analyzed blood samples from 20 near highway and 20 urban background residents for cytokines and other biomarkers. Near highway participants had significantly lower SES and significantly higher occupational vehicle exhaust exposure and higher LDL levels (p = 0.046). Controlling for exposure to vehicle exhaust on-the-job, IL-6 was borderline significantly higher (p = 0.07) in near highway participants. In logistic regression analyses IL-1β was elevated near highway (OR = 3.27; p = 0.09). It is interesting that we found elevations in IL-1β, a key cytokine linked to inflammation from particulate matter. More research is needed with larger sample sizes to assess the possible role of IL-1β. PMID:23356649

  18. Simulations of highway traffic with various degrees of automation

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.; Hanebutte, U.; Vitela, J.; Brown-VanHoozer, A.; Ewing, T.; Tentner, A.

    1996-10-01

    A traffic simulator to study highway traffic under various degrees of automation is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The key components of this simulator include a global and a local Expert Drive Mode, a human factor study and a graphical user interface. Further, an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) which is based on a neural network controller is described and results for a typical driving scenario are given.

  19. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings. PMID:26922288

  20. Posted and free-flow speeds for rural multilane highways in Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.K.; Wu, C.H.; Sarasua, W.; Daniel, J.

    1999-12-01

    The National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 repealed the national maximum speed limit. As a result, approximately 70% of the US has increased posted speed limits to 104.7 km/h (65 mi/h) for select multilane highways. This study evaluates the application of the Highway Capacity Manual multilane highway rules-of-thumb for free-flow speed to both an 88.6 and a 104.7 km/h (55 and 65 mi/h) posted speed limit condition. The paper further quantifies the observed relationship between the posted speed limit and observed free-flow speed on rural multilane highways in Georgia. Specific issues evaluated include heavy vehicle influence, traffic volumes, access point density, and vertical grade. The research indicates that the current Highway Capacity Manual rule-of-thumb free-flow estimation technique based on posted speed limit does not adequately estimate free-flow speed for the higher speed limit condition.

  1. Risk of death in crashes on Ontario’s highways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) that result in one or more fatalities on the 400-series Highways represent a serious public health problem in Ontario, and were estimated to have cost $11 billion in 2004. To date, no studies have examined risk factors for fatal MVCs on Ontario’s 400 series highways. The investigate how demographic and environmental risk factors are associated with fatal MVCs on Ontario’s 400-Series Highways. Methods Data were provided from the Ontario Ministry of Transport database, and included driver demographics, vehicle information, environmental descriptors, structural descriptors, as well as collision information (date and time), and severity of the collision. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors significantly associated with the odds of dying in a collision. Results There were 53,526 vehicles involved in collisions from 2001 to 2006 included in our analysis. Results from the multivariate analysis suggest that collisions with older age and male drivers were associated with an increased risk of involving a fatality. Highway 405 and an undivided 2-way design proved to be the most fatal structural configurations. Collisions in the summer, Fridays, between 12 am-4 am, and in drifting snow conditions during the wintertime were also shown to have a significantly increased risk of fatality. Conclusion Our results suggest that interventions to reduce deaths as a result of MVCs should focus on both driver-related and road-related modifications. PMID:23273001

  2. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway...

  3. 76 FR 12792 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic.... SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of General Motors Corporation's (GM) petition for...

  4. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  5. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  6. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS...). (3) The National Highway System shall include the Strategic Highway Corridor Network (STRAHNET) and... important to the United States strategic defense policy and which provide defense access, continuity,...

  7. 40 CFR 86.131-00 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  8. 40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  9. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  10. 40 CFR 86.131-00 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  11. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  12. 4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shoreof Clark Fork River showing 4 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  13. 19. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking at north abutment and underside of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  14. 20. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up. Looking at understructure of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  15. 21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  16. 22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing downwest side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing down-west side. Looking at road deck and vertical laced channel. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  17. 2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  18. 18. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking at north concrete abutment and timber stringers. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  19. 12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach from the north road. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  20. 1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama showing the entire span of bridge from north shore of the Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  1. 11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost span. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  2. 8. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Looking at understructure of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  3. 7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  4. 3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge from north shore of Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  5. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, S.M.

    2002-07-31

    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, and suboptimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Prior to this study, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity had been made by type of capacity-reducing event. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. This study is an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events. The objective of this study was to develop and implement methods for producing national-level estimates of the loss of capacity on the nation's highway facilities due to temporary phenomena as well as estimates of the impacts of such losses. The estimates produced by this study roughly indicate the magnitude of problems that are likely be addressed by the Congress during the next re-authorization of the Surface Transportation Programs. The scope of the study includes all urban and rural freeways and principal arterials in the nation's highway system for 1999. Specifically, this study attempts to quantify the extent of temporary capacity losses due to crashes, breakdowns, work zones, weather, and sub-optimal signal timing. These events can cause impacts such as capacity reduction, delays, trip rescheduling, rerouting, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability. This study focuses on the reduction of capacity and resulting delays caused by the temporary events mentioned

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. I Appendix I to Part 600—Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles) I Appendix I to Part 600 Protection of Environment... MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. I Appendix I to Part 600—Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule...

  8. Rehabilitating asphalt highways

    SciTech Connect

    Butalia, T.S.

    2007-07-01

    Coal fly ash has been used on two Ohio full-depth reclamation projects in Delaware and Warren. The object of the project carried out with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science at Ohio State University is to demonstrate the effective use of Class fly ash in combination with lime or lime kiln dust in the full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements. The article describes the mixes used for the highway reconstruction of part of Section Line Road Delaware County and of a road in Warren County. During construction the pavement sections were instrumented with several structural and environmental monitoring devices and data is being collected on a quarterly basis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests to measure load defection behaviour, resilient of pavement layers and soil and base structural layer coefficient are being carried out twice a year. It was shown that use of fly ash increased the elastic modulus of base layers. This article first appeared in the Feb/May 2007 issue of Asphalt Contractor. 4 photos.

  9. Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. Bulletin, 1920, No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    On May 14-15, in Washington, a Conference on Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport was held. This was attended by about 75 highway engineers, deans and supervisors of engineering in colleges, universities, and technical schools, National, State, and County highway commissioners, and men interested in highway and automotive…

  10. Demonstration and evaluation of plastic bag streamlining on highway trucks for drag reduction and energy savings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, A.E.

    1982-03-01

    Highway tests on a tractor-trailer with and without a rear-door drag reduction device have demonstrated a 13 horse-power savings for an 88'' x 94'' rear door at a vehicle speed of 55 mph. Greater savings would be realized for larger trailer door sizes and higher highway speeds. Implementation of such devices on high-use vehicles would provide a payback period of less than a year for installation of rear-door drag reduction devices.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle...

  13. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... around to each carousel item Federal vehicle cybersecurity guidance issued Covers best practices for all motor vehicles, individuals and organizations manufacturing and designing vehicle systems and software Read More Takata air bags repaired: ...

  14. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  15. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  16. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  17. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  18. Chain-reaction crash on a highway in high visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We study the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in high-visibility condition on a highway. In the traffic situation, drivers control their vehicles by both gear-changing and braking. Drivers change the gears according to the headway and brake according to taillights of the forward vehicle. We investigate whether or not the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash numerically. It is shown that dynamic transitions occur from no collisions, through a single collision, to multiple collisions with decreasing the headway. Also, we find that the dynamic transition occurs from the finite chain reaction to the infinite chain reaction when the headway is less than the critical value. We compare the multiple-vehicle collisions in high-visibility with that in low-visibility. We derive the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in high visibility.

  19. Quality of stormwater runoff discharged from Massachusetts highways, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation, conducted a field study from September 2005 through September 2007 to characterize the quality of highway runoff for a wide range of constituents. The highways studied had annual average daily traffic (AADT) volumes from about 3,000 to more than 190,000 vehicles per day. Highway-monitoring stations were installed at 12 locations in Massachusetts on 8 highways. The 12 monitoring stations were subdivided into 4 primary, 4 secondary, and 4 test stations. Each site contained a 100-percent impervious drainage area that included two or more catch basins sharing a common outflow pipe. Paired primary and secondary stations were located within a few miles of each other on a limited-access section of the same highway. Most of the data were collected at the primary and secondary stations, which were located on four principal highways (Route 119, Route 2, Interstate 495, and Interstate 95). The secondary stations were operated simultaneously with the primary stations for at least a year. Data from the four test stations (Route 8, Interstate 195, Interstate 190, and Interstate 93) were used to determine the transferability of the data collected from the principal highways to other highways characterized by different construction techniques, land use, and geography. Automatic-monitoring techniques were used to collect composite samples of highway runoff and make continuous measurements of several physical characteristics. Flowweighted samples of highway runoff were collected automatically during approximately 140 rain and mixed rain, sleet, and snowstorms. These samples were analyzed for physical characteristics and concentrations of 6 dissolved major ions, total nutrients, 8 total-recoverable metals, suspended sediment, and 85 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which include priority polyaromatic

  20. Feebates, Footprints and Highway Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a market-based policy aimed at encouraging manufacturers to develop more fuel efficient vehicles without affecting the car buyer s choice of vehicle size. A vehicle s size is measured by its footprint , the product of track width and wheelbase. Traditional market-based policies to promote higher fuel economy, such as higher gasoline taxes or gas guzzler taxes, also induce motorists to purchase smaller vehicles. Whether or not such policies affect overall road safety remains controversial, however. Feebates, a continuous schedule of new vehicle taxes and rebates as a function of vehicle fuel consumption, can also be made a function of vehicle size, thus removing the incentive to buy a smaller vehicle. A feebate system based on a vehicle s footprint creates the same incentive to adopt technology to improve fuel economy as simple feebate systems while removing any incentive for manufacturers or consumers to downsize vehicles.

  1. 40 CFR 86.1231-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1231-96... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1231-96 Vehicle preparation. (a) For gasoline- and...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1774-99 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.1774-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1232-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.1232-96... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1232-96 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Fuel tank cap(s) of...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1231-90 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1231-90... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1231-90 Vehicle preparation. (a) Prepare the fuel tank(s)...

  5. 40 CFR 86.430-78 - Vehicle failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle failure. 86.430-78 Section 86...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.430-78 Vehicle failure. Any test vehicle which...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1774-99 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.1774-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  7. 40 CFR 86.430-78 - Vehicle failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle failure. 86.430-78 Section 86...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.430-78 Vehicle failure. Any test vehicle which...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1231-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1231-96... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1231-96 Vehicle preparation. (a) For gasoline- and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1231-90 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1231-90... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1231-90 Vehicle preparation. (a) Prepare the fuel tank(s)...

  10. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determining when a vehicle is introduced into U.S. commerce, an assembly of motor vehicle parts is deemed to be a vehicle if either of the following applies: (1) A piece of equipment that is intended for self... that is intended for self-propelled use on highways becomes a vehicle when it includes a...

  11. 40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... the tank(s) as installed on the vehicle. The canister shall not be removed from the vehicle,...

  12. 40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... the tank(s) as installed on the vehicle. The canister shall not be removed from the vehicle,...

  13. 40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... the tank(s) as installed on the vehicle. The canister shall not be removed from the vehicle,...

  14. 49 CFR 176.89 - Control of transport vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of transport vehicles. 176.89 Section 176... Vessels § 176.89 Control of transport vehicles. (a) A transport vehicle containing hazardous materials may... prevent movement; (4) The motor of a highway vehicle shall be shut off and not restarted until the...

  15. Reliable freestanding position-based routing in highway scenarios.

    PubMed

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  16. 78 FR 13853 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; Vehicle Rollover...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... wheels to assist the driver in maintaining control in critical driving situations where the vehicle is... strength requirement for light vehicles weighing up to 6,000 pounds. It specifies that both the driver and... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...

  17. Extending cost–benefit analysis for the sustainability impact of inter-urban Intelligent Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kolosz, Ben Grant-Muller, Susan

    2015-01-15

    The paper reports research involving three cost–benefit analyses performed on different ITS schemes (Active Traffic Management, Intelligent Speed Adaptation and the Automated Highway System) on one of the UK's busiest highways — the M42. The environmental scope of the assets involved is widened to take into account the possibility of new technology linked by ICT and located within multiple spatial regions. The areas focused on in the study were data centre energy emissions, the embedded emissions of the road-side infrastructure, vehicle tailpipe emissions, additional hardware required by the vehicles (if applicable) and safety, and all aspects of sustainability. Dual discounting is applied which aims to provide a separate discount rate for environmental elements. For ATM, despite the energy costs of the data centre, the initial implementation costs and mitigation costs of its embedded emissions, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved, although the scheme becomes less effective later on its lifecycle due to rising costs of energy. ISA and AHS generate a negative result, mainly due to the cost of getting the vehicle on the road. In order to negate these costs, the pricing of the vehicle should be scaled depending upon the technology that is outfitted. Retrofitting on vehicles without the technology should be paid for by the driver. ATM will offset greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over a 25 year lifespan. This reduction has taken into account the expected improvement in vehicle technology. AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 15 years of operational usage. However, this offset is largely dependent on assumptions such as the level of market penetration. - Highlights: • Three cost–benefit analyses are applied to inter-urban intelligent transport. • For ATM, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved. • ATM offsets greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 25 years.

  18. Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2016-05-01

    In a mini-review Kerner (2013) it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown - a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters of automatic driving vehicles can either decrease or increase the probability of the breakdown. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown, i.e., the deterioration of the performance of the traffic system can occur already at a small percentage (about 5%) of automatic driving vehicles. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown through automatic driving vehicles can be realized, even if any platoon of automatic driving vehicles satisfies condition for string stability.

  19. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION... charge by sending a self-addressed mailing label to Charles J. Kahane (NVS-431), National Highway...

  20. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  1. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 12: Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 12 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on highway design, construction and maintenance. The purpose and specific objectives of such a program are described. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding…

  2. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Knowledge based systems and learning methods for AHS. Volume 10. Final report, September 1993-February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoltz, J.; Blumer, A.; Noonan, J.; Shedd, D.; Twarog, J.

    1995-06-01

    Managing each AHS vehicle and the AHS system as a whole is an extremely complex yndertaking. The authors have investigated and now report on Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches that can help. In particular, we focus on AI technologies known as Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs) and Learning Methods (LMs). Our primary purpose is to identify opportunities: we identify several problems in AHS and AI technologies that can solve them. Our secondary purpose is to examine in some detail a subset of these opportunities: we examine how KBSs and LMs can help in controlling the high level movements--e.g., keep in lane, change lanes, speed up, slow down--of an automated vehicle. This detailed examination includes the implementation of a prototype system having three primary components. The Tufts Automated Highway System Kit(TAHSK) discrete time micro-level traffic simulator is a generic AHS simulator. TAHSK interfaces with the Knowledge Based Controller (KBCon) knowledge based high level controller, which controls the high level actions of individual AHS vehicles. Finally, TAHSK also interfaces with a Reinforcement learning (RL) module that was used to explore the possibilities of RL techniques in an AHS environment.

  3. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  4. Intelligent Intelligence Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, Bonnie; Pedrini, D. T.

    Intelligence tests should be used to help persons; they should not be used to penalize persons. Furthermore, our focus should be on treatment; it should not be on labeling. IQ testers often stigmatize young children and poor persons (children, adolescents, adults). Large groups of Black Americans, Spanish Americans, and Indian Americans are…

  5. Potential Impacts of Highway Median Barriers on Wildlife: State of the Practice and Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Anthony P.; Kociolek, Angela V.

    2013-11-01

    Median barriers separate lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions on multilane highways. Such traffic safety devices can reduce head-on collisions but also have the potential to reduce landscape permeability by impeding wildlife movements across highways. Median barriers may also increase the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions if an animal becomes trapped or confused amid barriers searching for a place to cross. A 2002 Transportation Research Board report highlighted the need to better understand the potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife. This lack of information can cause significant project delays and increase transportation project costs. This study represents the first attempt in North America to bring together information about highway median and roadside barriers and wildlife and provide preliminary guidelines to balance the needs of motorist safety and wildlife movements.

  6. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  7. Automated driving and autonomous functions on road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. J.; Lidberg, M.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, road vehicle automation has become an important and popular topic for research and development in both academic and industrial spheres. New developments have received extensive coverage in the popular press, and it may be said that the topic has captured the public imagination. Indeed, the topic has generated interest across a wide range of academic, industry and governmental communities, well beyond vehicle engineering; these include computer science, transportation, urban planning, legal, social science and psychology. While this follows a similar surge of interest - and subsequent hiatus - of Automated Highway Systems in the 1990s, the current level of interest is substantially greater, and current expectations are high. It is common to frame the new technologies under the banner of 'self-driving cars' - robotic systems potentially taking over the entire role of the human driver, a capability that does not fully exist at present. However, this single vision leads one to ignore the existing range of automated systems that are both feasible and useful. Recent developments are underpinned by substantial and long-term trends in 'computerisation' of the automobile, with developments in sensors, actuators and control technologies to spur the new developments in both industry and academia. In this paper, we review the evolution of the intelligent vehicle and the supporting technologies with a focus on the progress and key challenges for vehicle system dynamics. A number of relevant themes around driving automation are explored in this article, with special focus on those most relevant to the underlying vehicle system dynamics. One conclusion is that increased precision is needed in sensing and controlling vehicle motions, a trend that can mimic that of the aerospace industry, and similarly benefit from increased use of redundant by-wire actuators.

  8. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  9. In-vehicle signing functions and systems concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Tufano, D.R.; Spelt, P.F.; Knee, H.E.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes functional requirements and system concepts for an In-Vehicle Signing (IVS) system, which will bring information from roadway signs, signals, and pavement markings into the vehicle for presentation to the driver. Information filter functions will assure that the only messages displayed are those which are important to the driver and which apply. Display functions will optimize the presentation of the message to ambient conditions, driver preferences, the number of simultaneous messages, and the urgency of the message. Timing functions will display a sign as soon as it is needed, for the entire time that it applies, and only while it applies. IVS is one of the core components of an integrated In-Vehicle Information System, which will manage and fuse all driving-related information. Two different IVS system concepts have been investigated: one based on a map database, the other on beacon technology. This work is being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Federal Highway Administration as part of the Intelligent Transportation System Program.

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  11. Lead Isotopes in Highway Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M.; Lau, S.; Green, P. G.; Stenstrom, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes have been used extensively to study the provenance of lead pollution on air, water, and sediments. In this study, we measured Pb isotopes and Pb aqueous concentration in highway runoff in three west Los Angeles sites. Those three sites, part of a long-term study sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, represent small catchment areas, and host heavy traffic. In addition, there were no inputs of sand or salt to the highway because the sites are almost completely impervious and also due to the lack of snow to be controlled. Highway runoff from the three sites was collected for 7 storms during the 2004-2005 Winter. Grab samples were collected every 15 minutes during the first hour, and hourly afterwards. A total of 202 samples were collected and filtered into five size fractions (<0.45μm, 0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Aqueous concentration of Pb range from 0.08μg/L to 46.95μg/L (7.98±10.89μg/L) and it is not correlated with any of the lead isotope ratios. The 208Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 1.983 to 2.075 (2.024±0.026) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 208Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). However, the 208Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils yield 2.060±0.021 and it is statistically different from the ratios obtained for the highway runoff. This hints that the lead present in highway runoff does not come from local soils. The 207Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 0.804 to 0.847 (0.827±0.011) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 207Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Surprisingly, there is also no statistical difference with the 207Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils (0.833±0.009).

  12. Hybrid 320 Ton Off Highway Haul Truck: Quarterly Technical Status Report 9

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-03-02

    This ninth quarterly status report for the Hybrid Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) project, DOE Award DEFC04- 2002AL68080 presents the project status at the end of December 2004, and covers activities in the ninth project quarter, October - December 2004.

  13. Hybrid 320 Ton Off Highway Haul Truck: Quarterly Technical Status Report 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-05-05

    This tenth quarterly status report for the Hybrid Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) project, DOE Award DE-FC04-2002AL68080 presents the project status at the end of March 2005, and covers activities in the tenth project quarter, January-March 2005.

  14. Hybrid 320 Ton Off Highway Haul Truck: Quarterly Technical Status Report 13

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2006-03-23

    This thirteenth quarterly status report for the Hybrid Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) project, DOE Award DE-FC04-02AL68080 presents the project status at the end of December 2005, and covers activities in the thirteenth project quarter, October 2005 ? December 2005.

  15. 76 FR 43225 - Highway Use Tax; Filing and Payment for Taxable Period Beginning July 1, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... operators of highway motor vehicles with a taxable gross weight of 55,000 pounds or more. The text of the.... ADDRESSES: Send submissions to: CC:PA:LPD:PR (REG-122813-11), Room 5203, Internal Revenue Service, P.O. Box 7604, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044. Submissions may be hand-delivered to:...

  16. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  17. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly…

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  20. New technology and vehicle operation on roadways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some concepts towards the optimum movement of vehicles on highways are presented. It is stressed that in proper perspective, the private automobile is one element of several modes of transportation. The modal mix in the long run is determined by proper land use planning, population density, and historic growth patterns. Discussion investigates the two main interacting elements of the highway in the dynamic state: the roadway and the driver operated vehicle, noting that the inefficiencies of the system are caused by the uncoordinated and disassociated actions of the two elements. Also discussed are vehicle operations on streets, highways, and freeways, on board communication, control, and guidance, systems considerations and traffic management, and benefits of optimized vehicle operations on roadways.

  1. Intelligent navigation and multivehicle coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Flann, Nicholas S.

    1999-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University's Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles. This paper discusses the development of a strategy that uses a sophisticated, highly intelligent sensor platform to allow centralized coordination between smaller and inexpensive robots. The three components of the multi-agent cooperative scheme are small-scale robots, large-scale robots, and the central control station running a mission and path- planning software. The smaller robots are used for activities where the probability of loss increases, such as Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or mine detonation. The research is aimed at building simple, inexpensive multi-agent vehicles and an intelligent navigation and multi-vehicle coordination system suitable for UXO, environmental remediation or mine detection. These simplified robots are capable of conducting hunting missions using low-cost positioning sensors and intelligent algorithms. Additionally, a larger sensor-rich intelligent system capable of transporting smaller units to outlying remote sites has been developed. The larger system interfaces to the central control station and provides navigation assistance to multiple low-cost vehicles. Finally, mission and path-planning software serves as the operator control unit, allowing central data collection, map creation and tracking, and an interface to the larger system as well as each smaller unit. The power of this scheme is the ability to scale to the appropriate level for the complexity of the mission.

  2. 77 FR 65765 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... vehicle line beginning with the 2011 MY (See 74 FR 62385, November 27, 2009). The average theft rate using... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...

  3. 78 FR 77790 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Cadillac CTS vehicle line beginning with the 2011 MY (See 74 FR ] 62385, November 27, 2009). The average... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  4. WSNs in the Highway Long Distance Tunnel Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Xiao; Feng, Xin-Xi; Guan, Hua

    Wireless sensor networks have been widely used in the monitoring application. In this paper we shed some lights on several issues in building a complete system for using wireless sensor networks for practical highway long distance tunnel environment monitoring application. From the engineering perspective it is necessary to consider the nodes deployment and from the application perspective it is necessary to meet the performance requirements. Energy conservation, topology and coverage are some important factors need to be taken full consideration for the purpose of providing safe friendly vehicle running environment. Still more deserve to discuss for brighter future of the tracking and monitoring foreground.

  5. Coal-truck impacts on highway safety and traffic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, R.W.; Polus, A.; Halkias, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    A computer simulation model of accident rates and delay times is used to quantify highway hazards and congestion introduced by increases in large coal trucks. The effects of trucks on long grades, where the speed differences between trucks and other vehicles becomes greater, increases the potential for accident. Long lines of slow-moving trucks, however, reduce accidents because they reduce the opportunity for passing. At best, the trucks make traffic flow less stable. The results of this study can help in the design of passing lanes and improved grade alignment. 18 references. (DCK)

  6. Highway traffic segmentation using super-resolution and Gaussian mixture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Amr Hussein; Flora, Jeff; Iftekharuddin, Khan

    2013-09-01

    One benefit of employing computer vision techniques to extract individual vehicles from a highway traffic scene is the abundance of networked, traffic surveillance cameras that may be leveraged as the input video. However, the acquisition sensors that are monitoring the highway traffic will have very limited quality. Additionally, video streams are heavily compressed, causing noise and, in some cases, visible artifacts to be introduced into the video. Further challenges are presented by external environmental and weather conditions, such as rain, fog, and snow, that cause video blurring or noise. The resulting output of a segmentation algorithm yields poorer results, with many vehicles undetected or partially detected. Our goal is to extract individual vehicles from a highway traffic scenes using super-resolution and the utilization of Gaussian mixture model algorithm (GMM). We used a speeded-up enhanced stochastic Wiener filter for SR reconstruction and restoration. It can be used to remove artifacts and enhance the visual quality of the reconstructed images and can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain. The filter derivation depends on the continuous-discrete-continuous (CDC) model that represents most of the degradations encountered during the image-gathering and image-display processes. Then, we use GMM followed by the clustering of individual vehicles. Individual vehicles are detected from the segmented scene through the use of a series of morphological operations, followed by two-dimensional connected component labeling. We evaluate our hybrid approach quantitatively in the segmentation of the extracted vehicles.

  7. Highway Repair: A New Silicosis Threat

    PubMed Central

    Valiante, David J.; Schill, Donald P.; Rosenman, Kenneth D.; Socie, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an emerging public health concern regarding silicosis in the fast-growing highway repair industry. Methods. We examined highway construction trends, silicosis surveillance case data, and environmental exposure data to evaluate the risk of silicosis among highway repair workers. We reviewed silicosis case data from the construction industry in 3 states that have silicosis registries, and we conducted environmental monitoring for silica at highway repair work sites. Results. Our findings indicate that a large population of highway workers is at risk of developing silicosis from exposure to crystalline silica. Conclusions. Exposure control methods, medical screenings, protective health standards, and safety-related contract language are necessary for preventing future occupational disease problems among highway repair workers. PMID:15117715

  8. 40 CFR 86.098-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.098-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1807-07 - Vehicle labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle labeling. 86.1807-07 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...

  10. 40 CFR 86.531-78 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.531-78 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.531-78 Vehicle preparation. (a) The...

  11. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.131-96 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  12. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incomplete vehicles, classification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...

  13. 40 CFR 86.415-78 - Production vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production vehicles. 86.415-78 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.415-78 Production vehicles. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation; refueling test... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  15. 40 CFR 86.428-80 - Maintenance, scheduled; test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance, scheduled; test vehicles... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... vehicles. (a) Periodic maintenance on the engine, emission control system, and fuel system of test...

  16. 40 CFR 86.411-78 - Maintenance instructions, vehicle purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance instructions, vehicle...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... instructions, vehicle purchaser. (a) The manufacturer shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the...

  17. 40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.231-94 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  18. 40 CFR 86.423-78 - Test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test vehicles. 86.423-78 Section 86...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.423-78 Test vehicles. (a)(1) Before beginning...

  19. 40 CFR 86.532-78 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.532-78... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.532-78 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) The...

  20. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.131-96 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  1. 40 CFR 86.000-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.000-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  2. 40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.231-94 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  3. 40 CFR 86.096-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.096-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  4. 40 CFR 86.532-78 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.532-78... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.532-78 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) The...

  5. 40 CFR 86.001-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.001-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.131-00 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.131-00 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  7. 40 CFR 86.085-37 - Production vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production vehicles and engines. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...

  8. 40 CFR 86.531-78 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.531-78 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.531-78 Vehicle preparation. (a) The...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1807-07 - Vehicle labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle labeling. 86.1807-07 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...

  10. 40 CFR 86.131-00 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.131-00 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  11. 40 CFR 86.423-78 - Test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles. 86.423-78 Section 86...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.423-78 Test vehicles. (a)(1) Before beginning...

  12. 40 CFR 86.415-78 - Production vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production vehicles. 86.415-78 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.415-78 Production vehicles. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1724-99 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.1724-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General... Trucks § 86.1724-99 Test vehicles and engines. The provisions of § 86.096-24 and subsequent model...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1724-99 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.1724-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General... Trucks § 86.1724-99 Test vehicles and engines. The provisions of § 86.096-24 and subsequent model...

  15. 76 FR 24402 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 RIN 2127-AK81 Federal Motor Vehicle Theft... areas on high theft major parts of motor vehicles. E-mail is now included as a means to submit the... motor vehicle lines subject to parts marking, and manufacturers of replacement parts designed for...

  16. 76 FR 51120 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... decelerate the vehicle sufficiently to deploy the air bags. Moreover, neither the driver nor the front... crashes when compared against other compact vehicles. The FARS database contains one report of a driver... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition AGENCY:...

  17. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011). Two... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the...

  18. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heavy-duty vehicle. 523.6 Section 523.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR...

  19. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle....

  20. 40 CFR 86.000-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.000-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  1. 40 CFR 86.000-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.000-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  2. 40 CFR 86.001-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.001-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  3. 40 CFR 86.001-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.001-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  4. 40 CFR 86.000-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.000-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1807-07 - Vehicle labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks... by model year 2007 and later diesel-fueled engines and other diesel vehicles certified using a...

  6. Heading South on 'Erebus Highway'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is currently traveling southward over a pavement of outcrop dubbed the 'Erebus Highway.' 'Erebus Crater,' the rover's next target, lies less than 100 meters (328 feet) south of its current position. This view is a mosaic produced from from frames taken by the rover's navigation camera during Opportunity's 582nd martian day, or sol (Sept. 13, 2005). It shows fractured blocks of ancient sedimentary rock separated by recent sand dunes. Mars Exploration Rover team scientists are investigating both the composition of the rocks and the processes by which the distinctive fracture pattern arose.

  7. 23 CFR 1.28 - Diversion of highway revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversion of highway revenues. 1.28 Section 1.28 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.28 Diversion of highway revenues. (a) Reduction in apportionment. If the Secretary shall...

  8. 23 CFR 1.28 - Diversion of highway revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diversion of highway revenues. 1.28 Section 1.28 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.28 Diversion of highway revenues. (a) Reduction in apportionment. If the Secretary shall...

  9. 23 CFR 1.28 - Diversion of highway revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diversion of highway revenues. 1.28 Section 1.28 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.28 Diversion of highway revenues. (a) Reduction in apportionment. If the Secretary shall...

  10. 23 CFR 1.28 - Diversion of highway revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diversion of highway revenues. 1.28 Section 1.28 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.28 Diversion of highway revenues. (a) Reduction in apportionment. If the Secretary shall...

  11. 23 CFR 1.28 - Diversion of highway revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diversion of highway revenues. 1.28 Section 1.28 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.28 Diversion of highway revenues. (a) Reduction in apportionment. If the Secretary shall...

  12. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... Marine Highway or in direct support of designated Marine Highway Corridors and Projects. (b)...

  13. 40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements that apply to recreational vehicles under 40 CFR parts 1051. A highway motorcycle is a motorcycle... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 1051 for each recreational vehicle to also be a valid certificate of... 40 CFR part 1051. This applies to engine manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, and all other...

  14. 40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements that apply to recreational vehicles under 40 CFR parts 1051. A highway motorcycle is a motorcycle... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 1051 for each recreational vehicle to also be a valid certificate of... 40 CFR part 1051. This applies to engine manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, and all other...

  15. 40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements that apply to recreational vehicles under 40 CFR parts 1051. A highway motorcycle is a motorcycle... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 1051 for each recreational vehicle to also be a valid certificate of... 40 CFR part 1051. This applies to engine manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, and all other...

  16. 40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements that apply to recreational vehicles under 40 CFR parts 1051. A highway motorcycle is a motorcycle... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 1051 for each recreational vehicle to also be a valid certificate of... 40 CFR part 1051. This applies to engine manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, and all other...

  17. 40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements that apply to recreational vehicles under 40 CFR parts 1051. A highway motorcycle is a motorcycle... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 1051 for each recreational vehicle to also be a valid certificate of... 40 CFR part 1051. This applies to engine manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, and all other...

  18. 14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  19. 13. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  20. 2. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING WEST FRONT AND VEHICLE STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING WEST FRONT AND VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING SOUTHWEST FRONT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  1. 10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG NORTHWEST SPILLWAY ABUTMENT; SERVICE VEHICLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG NORTHWEST SPILLWAY ABUTMENT; SERVICE VEHICLE GARAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  2. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J.

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-04 Section 86.1811-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-04 Section 86.1811-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-04 Section 86.1811-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-04 Section 86.1811-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  7. Analysis of automated highway system risks and uncertainties. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Sicherman, A.

    1994-10-01

    This volume describes a risk analysis performed to help identify important Automated Highway System (AHS) deployment uncertainties and quantify their effect on costs and benefits for a range of AHS deployment scenarios. The analysis identified a suite of key factors affecting vehicle and roadway costs, capacities and market penetrations for alternative AHS deployment scenarios. A systematic protocol was utilized for obtaining expert judgments of key factor uncertainties in the form of subjective probability percentile assessments. Based on these assessments, probability distributions on vehicle and roadway costs, capacity and market penetration were developed for the different scenarios. The cost/benefit risk methodology and analysis provide insights by showing how uncertainties in key factors translate into uncertainties in summary cost/benefit indices.

  8. Highway deaths: false PR on the effects of PR.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1994-01-01

    In June, 1988, the Department of Public Safety (DPS) in South Carolina launched a media campaign, called "Highways or Dieways?", in an attempt to reduce motor vehicle fatalities. Deaths per vehicle mile declined during the succeeding years and the DPS attributed all of the reduction to the campaign, gleaning some 62 awards in the process. This research indicates that the DPS took credit for a decline in fatalities that resulted from other factors. Fatality rates in South Carolina were actually higher during the campaign than would have been expected from the historic association of South Carolina's rates with the national rate or those of other states in the region. The campaign actually illustrates the principle that ad campaigns alone are often ineffective in changing public health.

  9. Highway deaths: false PR on the effects of PR.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1994-01-01

    In June, 1988, the Department of Public Safety (DPS) in South Carolina launched a media campaign, called "Highways or Dieways?", in an attempt to reduce motor vehicle fatalities. Deaths per vehicle mile declined during the succeeding years and the DPS attributed all of the reduction to the campaign, gleaning some 62 awards in the process. This research indicates that the DPS took credit for a decline in fatalities that resulted from other factors. Fatality rates in South Carolina were actually higher during the campaign than would have been expected from the historic association of South Carolina's rates with the national rate or those of other states in the region. The campaign actually illustrates the principle that ad campaigns alone are often ineffective in changing public health. PMID:7883944

  10. HIGHWAY 3. 1: An enhanced HIGHWAY routing model: Program description, methodology, and revised user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S. ); Clarke, D.B.; Jacobi, J.M. . Transportation Center)

    1993-03-01

    The HIGHWAY program provides a flexible tool for predicting highway routes for transporting radioactive materials in the United States. The HIGHWAY data base is essentially a computerized road atlas that currently describes over 240,000 miles of highways. Complete descriptions of all Interstate System and most US highways (except those that parallel a nearby Interstate highway) are included in the data base. Many of the principal state highways and a number of local and county highways are also identified. The data base also includes locations of nuclear facilities and major airports. Several different types of routes may be calculated, depending on a set of user-supplied constraints. Routes are calculated by minimizing the total impedance between the origin and the destination. Basically, the impedance is defined as a function of distance and driving time along a particular highway segment. Several routing constraints can be imposed during the calculations. One of the special features of the HIGHWAY model is its ability to calculate routes that maximize use of Interstate System highways. This feature allows the user to predict routes for shipments of radioactive materials that conform to the US Department of Transportation routing regulations. Other features of the model include the ability to predict routes that bypass a specific state, city, town, or highway segment. Two special features have been incorporated in HIGHWAY, version 3.1. The first is the ability to automatically calculate alternative routes. Frequently, there are a number of routes between the source and destination that vary slightly in distance and estimated driving time. The HIGHWAY program offers a selection of different but nearly equal routes. The second special feature is the capability to calculate route-specific population density statistics. The population density distribution is calculated for each highway segment in the route and is reported on a state-by-state basis.

  11. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  12. 36 CFR 14.56 - Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Under Title 23, U.S.C. (Interstate and Defense Highway System) § 14.56 Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration. The appropriate State highway department...

  13. 36 CFR 14.56 - Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Under Title 23, U.S.C. (Interstate and Defense Highway System) § 14.56 Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration. The appropriate State highway department...

  14. 36 CFR 14.56 - Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Under Title 23, U.S.C. (Interstate and Defense Highway System) § 14.56 Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration. The appropriate State highway department...

  15. 36 CFR 14.56 - Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Under Title 23, U.S.C. (Interstate and Defense Highway System) § 14.56 Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration. The appropriate State highway department...

  16. 36 CFR 14.56 - Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Under Title 23, U.S.C. (Interstate and Defense Highway System) § 14.56 Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration. The appropriate State highway department...

  17. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  18. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.28 Public... for public highway rights-of-way over and across roadless and wild areas shall be considered...

  19. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.28 Public... for public highway rights-of-way over and across roadless and wild areas shall be considered...

  20. Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

    2003-01-01

    This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

  1. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  2. 40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.153-98 Vehicle and...

  3. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  4. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  5. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  6. Predicting travel time to limit congestion at a highway bottleneck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2010-09-01

    A new method is proposed to predict the travel time on a highway route with a bottleneck caused by an on-ramp. The method takes advantage of the slow variation of the bottleneck throughput when congestion exists. The predicted travel time for a vehicle leaving the origin is given by the current number of vehicles on the route divided by the estimated throughput. The latter is an average of N/T recorded as each vehicle reaches the destination where N is the number of vehicles at the start of the trip and T is the time to complete the trip. Drivers divert to an off-ramp when the predicted travel time exceeds a target value. The target could be historical average travel times of alternative routes or chosen to limit the amount of congestion. Simulations employing three-phase traffic theory show that the travel time converges to the target value and remains close to or below it with the proposed prediction strategy. Strong oscillations in travel time obtained when other strategies are used for diversion do not develop with the new method because the inherent delay is effectively removed.

  7. Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nodjomian, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

  8. Simple cellular automaton model for traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple cellular automaton (CA) model for two-lane roads explaining the physics of traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow. The model consists of the rules “acceleration,” “deceleration,” “randomization,” and “motion” of the Nagel-Schreckenberg CA model as well as “overacceleration through lane changing to the faster lane,” “comparison of vehicle gap with the synchronization gap,” and “speed adaptation within the synchronization gap” of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. We show that these few rules of the CA model can appropriately simulate fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity found in traffic data measured over years in different countries, like characteristics of synchronized flow, the existence of the spontaneous and induced breakdowns at the same bottleneck, and associated probabilistic features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity. Single-vehicle data derived in model simulations show that synchronized flow first occurs and then self-maintains due to a spatiotemporal competition between speed adaptation to a slower speed of the preceding vehicle and passing of this slower vehicle. We find that the application of simple dependences of randomization probability and synchronization gap on driving situation allows us to explain the physics of moving synchronized flow patterns and the pinch effect in synchronized flow as observed in real traffic data.

  9. On a simulation study of cyber attacks on vehicle-to-infrastructure communication (V2I) in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekedebe, Nnanna; Yu, Wei; Song, Houbing; Lu, Chao

    2015-05-01

    An intelligent transportation system (ITS) is one typical cyber-physical system (CPS) that aims to provide efficient, effective, reliable, and safe driving experiences with minimal congestion and effective traffic flow management. In order to achieve these goals, various ITS technologies need to work synergistically. Nonetheless, ITS's reliance on wireless connectivity makes it vulnerable to cyber threats. Thus, it is critical to understand the impact of cyber threats on ITS. In this paper, using real-world transportation dataset, we evaluated the consequences of cyber threats - attacks against service availability by jamming the communication channel of ITS. In this way, we can have a better understanding of the importance of ensuring adequate security respecting safety and life-critical ITS applications before full and expensive real-world deployments. Our experimental data shows that cyber threats against service availability could adversely affect traffic efficiency and safety performances evidenced by exacerbated travel time, fuel consumed, and other evaluated performance metrics as the communication network is compromised. Finally, we discuss a framework to make ITS secure and more resilient against cyber threats.

  10. Development of a highway noise prediction model using an Leq20 s measure of basic vehicular noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamanikabud, P.; Tansatcha, M.; Brown, A. L.

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to build a highway traffic noise simulation model for free-flow traffic conditions in Thailand employing a technique utilizing individual vehicular noise modelling based on the equivalent sound level over 20 s ( Leq20 s). This Leq20 s technique provides a more accurate measurement of noise energy from each type of vehicle under real running conditions. The coefficient of propagation and ground effect for this model was then estimated using a trial-and-error method, and applied to the highway traffic noise simulation model. This newly developed highway traffic noise model was tested for its goodness-of-fit to field observations. The test shows that this new model provides good predictions for highway noise conditions in Thailand. The concepts and techniques that are modeled and tested in this study can also be applied for prediction of traffic noise for local conditions in other countries.

  11. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined.

  12. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-03-01

    Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  13. The physics of empirical nuclei for spontaneous traffic breakdown in free flow at highway bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Koller, Micha; Klenov, Sergey L.; Rehborn, Hubert; Leibel, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Based on an empirical study of real field traffic data measured in 1996-2014 through road detectors installed on German freeways, we reveal physical features of empirical nuclei for spontaneous traffic breakdown in free flow at highway bottlenecks. A microscopic stochastic three-phase traffic model of the nucleation of spontaneous traffic breakdown presented in the article explains the empirical findings. It turns out that in the most cases a nucleus for the breakdown occurs through an interaction of one of waves in free flow with an empirical permanent speed disturbance localized at a highway bottleneck. The wave is a localized structure in free flow, in which the total flow rate is larger and the speed averaged across the highway is smaller than outside the wave. The waves in free flow appear due to oscillations in the percentage of slow vehicles; these waves propagate with the average speed of slow vehicles in free flow. Any of the empirical waves exhibits a two-dimensional asymmetric spatiotemporal structure: Wave's characteristics are different in different highway lanes.

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  15. Hitting the Highway? Keep Safety in Mind

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160238.html Hitting the Highway? Keep Safety in Mind Planning ahead is essential ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Traveler's Health Recent ...

  16. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...; integrate the marine highway into the transportation planning process; and research improvements in... transportation planners and policymakers involve making better use of existing infrastructure, addressing the... infrastructure cannot adequately meet our future transportation needs. Land-based infrastructure...

  17. Voyager 1 Explores the "Magnetic Highway"

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of animations show NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft exploring a new region in our solar system called the "magnetic highway." In this region, the sun's magnetic field lines are connected to int...

  18. Design of highway embankments using tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Bosscher, P.J.; Edil, T.B.; Kuraoka, S.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

  19. Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

  20. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  1. Distributed Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLagan, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed intelligence occurs when people in an organization take responsibility for creating innovations, solving problems, and making decisions. Organizations that have it excel in their markets and the global environment. (Author/JOW)

  2. Hybrid 240 Ton Off Highway Haul Truck: Quarterly Technical Status Report 19, DOE/AL68080-TSR19

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2007-06-30

    This nineteenth quarterly status report for the Hybrid Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) project, DOE Award DE-FC04-02AL68080 presents the project status at the end of June 2007, and covers activities in the nineteenth project quarter, April 2007 – June 2007.

  3. Hybrid 320 Ton Off Highway Haul Truck: Quarterly Technical Status Report 11, DOE/AL68080-TSR11

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-09-26

    This eleventh quarterly status report for the Hybrid Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) project, DOE Award DE-FC04-02AL68080 presents the project status at the end of June 2005, and covers activities in the eleventh project quarter, April 2005-June 2005.

  4. Analysis of Yearly Traffic Fluctuation on Latvian Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freimanis, A.; Paeglı¯tis, A.

    2015-11-01

    Average annual daily traffic and average annual truck traffic are two most used metrics for road management decisions. They are calculated from data gathered by continuous counting stations embedded in road pavement, manual counting sessions or mobile counting devices. Last two usually do not last longer than a couple of weeks so the information gathered is influenced by yearly traffic fluctuations. Data containing a total of 8,186,871 vehicles or 1989 days from 4 WIM stations installed on highways in Latvia were used in this study. Each of the files was supposed to contain data from only 1 day and additional data were deleted. No other data cleaning steps were performed, which increased the number of vehicles as counting systems sometimes split vehicles into two. Weekly traffic and weekly truck traffic was normalized against respective average values. Each weekly value was then plotted against its number in a year for better visual perception. Weekly traffic amplitudes were used to assess differences between different locations and standard deviations for fluctuation comparison of truck and regular traffic at the same location. Results show that truck traffic fluctuates more than regular traffic during a year, especially around holidays. Differences between counting locations were larger for regular traffic than truck traffic. These results show that average annual daily traffic could be influenced more if short term counting results are adjusted by factors derived from unsuitable continuous counting stations, but truck traffic is more influenced by the time of year in which counting is done.

  5. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... passenger vehicles, station wagons, passenger vans, and sport utility vehicles, except for vehicles that are.... (vii) The words “Star ratings based on the risk of injury in a frontal impact.”, followed (on the...

  6. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... passenger vehicles, station wagons, passenger vans, and sport utility vehicles, except for vehicles that are.... (vii) The words “Star ratings based on the risk of injury in a frontal impact.”, followed (on the...

  7. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... passenger vehicles, station wagons, passenger vans, and sport utility vehicles, except for vehicles that are.... (vii) The words “Star ratings based on the risk of injury in a frontal impact.”, followed (on the...

  8. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... passenger vehicles, station wagons, passenger vans, and sport utility vehicles, except for vehicles that are.... (vii) The words “Star ratings based on the risk of injury in a frontal impact.”, followed (on the...

  9. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  10. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  11. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  12. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  13. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  14. 40 CFR 86.085-37 - Production vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production vehicles and engines. 86.085-37 Section 86.085-37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  15. 23. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing upwest side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up-west side. Looking at structural connection of top chord, vertical laced channel and diagonal bars. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  16. 13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where strioed traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  17. 5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River-southernmost span. 1900-era Northern Pacific Railway Bridge in background. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  18. 14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach from the south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  19. 40 CFR 86.098-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.098-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for...-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled,...

  20. 40 CFR 86.085-37 - Production vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production vehicles and engines. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural...

  1. 40 CFR 86.001-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.001-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for...-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled,...

  2. 40 CFR 86.423-78 - Test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test vehicles. 86.423-78 Section 86.423-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978...

  3. 49 CFR 563.6 - Requirements for vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for vehicles. 563.6 Section 563.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.6 Requirements for vehicles. Each...

  4. 49 CFR 563.6 - Requirements for vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for vehicles. 563.6 Section 563.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.6 Requirements for vehicles. Each...

  5. 40 CFR 86.085-37 - Production vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production vehicles and engines. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural...

  6. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR...; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds)...

  7. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  8. Intelligent approach for parallel HEV control strategy based on driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Asadi, M.

    2011-02-01

    This article describes a methodological approach for the intelligent control of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) by the inclusion of the concept of driving cycles. In this approach, a fuzzy logic controller is designed to manage the internal combustion engine to work in the vicinity of its optimal condition instantaneously. In addition, based on the definition of microtrip, several driving patterns are classified that represent the congested to highway traffic conditions. The driving cycle and traffic conditions are then incorporated in an optimisation process to tune the fuzzy membership function parameters. In this study, the optimisation process is formulated to minimise the HEV fuel consumption (FC) and emissions as well as the satisfaction of the driving performance constraints. Finally, optimisation results are provided for three different driving cycles including ECE-EUDC, FTP and TEH-CAR. TEH-CAR is a driving cycle that is developed based on the experimental data collected from the real traffic condition in the city of Tehran. The results from the computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and reduction in FC and emissions while ensuring that the vehicle performance is not sacrificed.

  9. Hydrocarbon deposition and soil microflora as affected by highway traffic.

    PubMed

    Tuhácková, J; Cajthaml, T; Novák, K; Novotný, C; Mertelík, J; Sasek, V

    2001-01-01

    The proximity of a busy highway (90,000 vehicles/day) increased the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at the depth of 5-15 cm from 106 ng/g as a grassland background to 3095 ng/g dry soil at the highway verge (a sum of 10 PAH species). The PAH concentration was related to the distance from the source and exhibited a biphasic character, which is interpreted in terms of bimodal distribution of the exhaust microparticles with different rates of deposition. Similarly, the tendency of benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene to decrease their proportion with distance from the highway, in contrast to phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, was attributed to their prevalent localisation on the heavier particle fraction. The abundance of bacteria (8.33 x background) and fungi (3.17 x background) close to the highway is thought to be a consequence of hydrocarbon deposition from the traffic that serves as a significant energetic input into the soil. The elevated concentrations of hydrocarbon substrates, as indicated by PAHs, increased both the absolute and relative numbers of the microbial degraders of diesel fuel, biphenyl, naphthalene, and pyrene. Their maximum numbers at 0.5-1.5 m from the pavement reached 1.3 x 10(4), 1.2 x 10(5), 1.1 x 10(4), and 6.6 x 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) or infection units per gramme dry soil, respectively. On the other hand, the number of anthracene degraders (1.1 x 10(3) CFU per g dry soil) remained close to the detection limit of the enumeration technique used (0.1-0.2 x 10(3) per g dry soil), consistently with the absence of anthracene and higher linear PAHs in the investigated soil samples. The amounts of persisting PAHs justify artificial inoculation with effective degrader strains in the vicinity of motorways.

  10. Highway Surveying. Instructor's Guide for an Adult Course. Highway Technicians Program Unit III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimmano, Ralph; Kacharian, John C.

    The revised instructor's guide, which is part of the New York State Highway Technician's Program to provide needed technicians and engineers by upgrading people in the lower-level technician jobs, is geared toward the improvement of technical skills and knowledge in highway surveying. In view of the shortage of qualified technicians and engineers…

  11. Uses of recycled rubber tires in highways: A synthesis of highway practice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Epps, J.A.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis on the use of recycled rubber tires in highways will be of interest to administrators and policymakers; pavement, materials, geotechnical, environmental, and traffic operations engineers; and research engineers involved with highway design and construction issues. Information is provided on the uses of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials as well as other uses, such as on fills and embankments, for erosion control and on railroad grade crossings. Specifically, information is included which identifies the highway agencies using or implementing applications for recycled rubber tires and defines the design parameters, technical and construction limitations, performance, costs, benefits, environmental limitations, specifications, and availability. This synthesis of information defines the use of recycled rubber tires in highways and is based on a review of nearly 500 references and on information recorded from state highway agency responses to a 1991 survey of practice.

  12. Evolution of aerosol downwind of a major highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Gordon, M.; Makar, P.; Mihele, C.; Evans, G. J.; Jeong, C.; Wentzell, J. J.; Lu, G.; Lee, P.

    2010-12-01

    Primary aerosol from traffic emissions can have a considerable impact local and regional scale air quality. In order to assess the effect of these emissions and of future emissions scenarios, air quality models are required which utilize emissions representative of real world conditions. Often, the emissions processing systems which provide emissions input for the air quality models rely on laboratory testing of individual vehicles under non-ambient conditions. However, on the sub-grid scale particle evolution may lead to changes in the primary emitted size distribution and gas-particle partitioning that are not properly considered when the emissions are ‘instantly mixed’ within the grid volume. The affect of this modeling convention on model results is not well understood. In particular, changes in organic gas/particle partitioning may result in particle evaporation or condensation onto pre-existing aerosol. The result is a change in the particle distribution and/or an increase in the organic mass available for subsequent gas-phase oxidation. These effects may be missing from air-quality models, and a careful analysis of field data is necessary to quantify their impact. A study of the sub-grid evolution of aerosols (FEVER; Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions from Roadways) was conducted in the Toronto area in the summer of 2010. The study included mobile measurements of particle size distributions with a Fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS), aerosol composition with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), black carbon (SP2, PA, LII), VOCs (PTR-MS) and other trace gases. The mobile laboratory was used to measure the concentration gradient of the emissions at perpendicular distances from the highway as well as the physical and chemical evolution of the aerosol. Stationary sites at perpendicular distances and upwind from the highway also monitored the particle size distribution. In addition, sonic anemometers mounted on the mobile lab provided measurements of

  13. Intelligence: Theories and Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    This paper reviews what is known about intelligence and the use of intelligence tests. Environmental and hereditary factors that affect performance on intelligence tests are reviewed, along with various theories that have been proposed about the basis of intelligence. Intelligence tests do not test intelligence per se but make inferences about a…

  14. 76 FR 23254 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Rulemaking, March 14, 2005 (Docket No. NHTSA-2005-20286-0009) \\2\\ 72 FR 68234 (December 4, 2007)....

  15. 77 FR 25534 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... 2011 MY (See 74 FR 62385, November 27, 2009). The average theft rate using 3 MYs theft data (MYs 2007... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...

  16. Intelligent Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2001-01-01

    The topic of "intelligent buildings" (IBs) emerged in the early 1980s. Since, the term has been used to represent a variety of related, yet differing topics, each with a slightly different focus and purpose. Wiring and networking-infrastructure companies emphasize the cabling requirements for communication in intelligent buildings and the need to accommodate future needs for higher-speed broadband. Lucent (Lucent 2000) for example, defines an IB as "...one with a completely integrated wiring architecture. A single cabling system that handles all information traffic - voice, data, video, even the big building management systems."

  17. Artificial Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Y.; Tsujii, Jun-ichi

    1985-01-01

    Based on the Japanese 5th Generation Computer Program, this volume provides coverage of the fundamental concepts and various techniques in the different applications of Artificial Intelligence. Also presented are the methods which can be used to put these concepts and techniques into practice. Explanations are presented of all the basic topics in the field, including the representation of problems; searching techniques; the control of problem solving; programming languages for Al, such as LISP, PLANNER, CONNIVER, and PROLOG; the representation and utilization of knowledge; and the approach to human intelligence.

  18. Intelligent Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Marshall Space Flight Center, Ultrafast, Inc. developed the world's first, high-temperature resistant, "intelligent" fastener. NASA needed a critical-fastening appraisal and validation of spacecraft segments that are coupled together in space. The intelligent-bolt technology deletes the self-defeating procedure of having to untighten the fastener, and thus upset the joint, during inspection and maintenance. The Ultrafast solution yielded an innovation that is likely to revolutionize manufacturing assembly, particularly the automobile industry. Other areas of application range from aircraft, computers and fork-lifts to offshore platforms, buildings, and bridges.

  19. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and users' manual

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Gibson, S.M.

    1982-12-01

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire interstate highway system, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations > 100,000. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment.

  20. Market definition studies for photovoltaic highway applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Prospects for solar electric power in applications related to highways within the continental United States are examined. Principal prospective users are found to be the highway departments of the various states. Economic analysis is employed to demonstrate that suitable applications can occur when powering apparatus such as signs, crossing signals, or instruments which consume less than 100 watts on the average, provided they are located at least one-half mile from existing utility power. Such applications are projected to occur two or three times per state per year. Attitudes of highway officials toward possible use of solar power are sampled and described. Although falling photovoltaic cell prices are expected to have little effect on sales potential here, methods for federal stimulation of this market are discussed.

  1. 77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... proposing voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices (77 FR 11200). The...-Vehicle Electronic Devices AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., 2012, NHTSA published proposed voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle...

  2. 78 FR 67213 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Porsche Cars...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft... standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the 49 CFR part 541, Federal Motor Vehicle Theft...

  3. The Effects of a Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon on Vehicle Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWagner, Michelle; Van Houten, Ron; Betts, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, nearly 31% of vehicle fatalities were related to failure to adhere to safe vehicle speeds (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2009). The current study evaluated the effect of a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB) triggered by excessive speed on vehicle speed using a combined alternating treatments and reversal…

  4. 77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL07 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... technical amendments to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection.... This document also makes a correction to the air bag warning label requirements for vehicle...

  5. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)...

  6. 76 FR 4991 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Suzuki

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention... Suzuki Motor Corporation's (Suzuki) petition for an exemption of the Kizashi vehicle line in accordance... likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the...

  7. 77 FR 15843 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Nissan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... vehicle lines (62 FR 20058, April 24, 1997) from the parts-marking requirements of the theft prevention... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention... America, Inc.'s (Nissan) petition for exemption of the Juke vehicle line in accordance with 49 CFR...

  8. 75 FR 70670 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research... availability of the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013 (Priority Plan) in Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108. This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...

  9. 78 FR 19363 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Honda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... vehicle is started without any further action by the driver. Honda also stated that the device will... the key fob to unlock the vehicle doors or by unlocking the driver's door with the ignition key... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft...

  10. 78 FR 28018 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Nissan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... for its Buick Riviera and Oldsmobile Aurora vehicle lines (58 FR 44872, August 25, 1993) and its Cadillac Seville vehicle line (62 FR 20058, April 24, 1997) from the parts-marking requirements of the... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft...

  11. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... revisions to the tire standards and to the rim and labeling requirements for motor vehicles. \\1\\ 68 FR 38116... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special...

  12. 75 FR 29812 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Volkswagen

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention... Volkswagen Group of America (Volkswagen) petition for an exemption of the new vehicle line in accordance with... to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts...

  13. 78 FR 21850 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... applies to vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2009. \\4\\ 75 FR 67233 (Nov. 2, 2010). The... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL25 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... vehicle safety standards (FMVSSs). Additionally, the final rule removed an obsolete FMVSS, No. 208a,...

  14. 78 FR 50014 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... published on July 9, 2013 (78 FR 41016) which erroneously reported the theft rate for CY/MY 2011 vehicles... higher than 3.5826 per thousand vehicles, the established median theft rate for MYs 1990/1991 (See 59 FR... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle...

  15. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.5Platform lighting on public use lifts. Public use lifts... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR..., Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift-equipped motor vehicles, other than...

  16. 40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sites. This section does not exempt the engine used in the vehicle from the standards of 40 CFR part 86... speed rating at or below 55 mph. (2) Vehicles are exempt if they were primarily designed to perform work... speeds such that it is unsuitable for normal highway operation. (ii) The vehicle must meet one of...

  17. Intelligent control: integrating AI and control theory

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, K.

    1983-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the requirements placed upon computer-controlled systems is forcing a departure from rigid, predetermined control sequences toward more flexible, intelligent control regimes. The basic premise of this research is that such systems can be developed by exploiting the strengths of both standard control theory and recent developments in artificial intelligence. A framework is described for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques with more traditional control theory approaches both at the design stages as well as online control. Its potential is then discussed in the context of several complex navy control problems including automatic tracking systems, autonomous vehicles, and large-scale, flexible space structures. 8 references.

  18. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, S.M.

    2004-11-10

    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, railroad crossings, large trucks loading/unloading in urban areas, and other factors such as toll collection facilities and sub-optimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. In response to this need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), made an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events (Chin et al. 2002). This study, called the Temporary Loss of Capacity (TLC) study, estimated capacity loss and delay on freeways and principal arterials resulting from fatal and non-fatal crashes, vehicle breakdowns, and adverse weather, including snow, ice, and fog. In addition, it estimated capacity loss and delay caused by sub-optimal signal timing at intersections on principal arterials. It also included rough estimates of capacity loss and delay on Interstates due to highway construction and maintenance work zones. Capacity loss and delay were estimated for calendar year 1999, except for work zone estimates, which were estimated for May 2001 to May 2002 due to data availability limitations. Prior to the first phase of this study, which was completed in May of 2002, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity by type of capacity-reducing event had been made

  19. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  20. Civic Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, David

    1985-01-01

    Social studies must educate students to be socially responsible, civically competent persons. In addition to encouraging civic literacy, civic values, and civic skill, teachers need to help students develop civic-mindedness. The objective of the NCSS' National Issues Forum in the Classroom Project is to develop students' civic intelligence. (RM)

  1. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  2. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  3. Long-path measurements of pollutants and micrometeorology over Highway 401 in Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, R. M.; You, Y.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Moussa, S.; Liggio, J.; Su, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Highway traffic emissions are an important source of air pollution, especially in urban areas. Traffic-related pollution has been linked to a number of adverse health effects, such as respiratory problems, cancer, heart failure, and a general increase in mortality. Determining the pollutants involved and quantifying their emission rates is paramount in developing high resolution air quality models to predict future developments with some confidence. Highway 401, as it passes through Toronto, is the world's busiest highway with a typical traffic volume of over 450,000 vehicles per day. In July 2015, three weeks of measurements were conducted over the 401 with an open-path FTIR (Fourier Transform infra-red) spectrometer in parallel with a scintillometer, integrating a variety of gas concentrations as well as turbulence parameters over a 310m path length. Relationships between traffic volume, micrometeorological conditions and the build-up and venting of pollutants on the highway are analyzed and quantified, demonstrating the role of stratification and turbulence in the accumulation and dispersal of traffic emissions. The feasibility of deriving emission rates by combining the micrometeorological data from the scintillometer with the gas concentrations from the FTIR using an inverse dispersion approach is investigated. The suitability of this novel approach for long-term monitoring of emissions is discussed. The findings will be compared with output from a high-resolution air quality model (GEM-MACH) to aid future improvements in the sub-grid parameterization of pollutant dispersion.

  4. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Young, J.R.; Lu, An

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  5. Demonstration of the fuel economy potential associated with M85-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, J W; Huff, S P

    1993-12-01

    A gasoline-fueled 1988 Chevrolet Corsica was converted to operate on M85 to demonstrate that the characteristics of methanol fuels can be exploited to emphasize vehicle fuel economy rather than vehicle performance. The results of the tests performed indicated fuel economy improvements of up to 21% at steady highway speeds, and almost 20% on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s federal test procedure city and highway cycles.

  6. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH APPROACH TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  7. 28. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). TOWER DETAILS. - Corduroy Creek Bridge, Spanning Corduroy Creek at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  8. 24. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). DETAILS OF ABUTMENTS. - Corduroy Creek Bridge, Spanning Corduroy Creek at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  9. 25. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ABUTMENT NO. 4. - Corduroy Creek Bridge, Spanning Corduroy Creek at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  10. 26. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). PIN BEARING AND ABUTMENT. - Corduroy Creek Bridge, Spanning Corduroy Creek at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  11. 23. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1936 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). PLAN AND ELEVATION. - Corduroy Creek Bridge, Spanning Corduroy Creek at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  12. View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking east. Proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  13. 54. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). FLOOR SYSTEM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  14. 47. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). TITLE PAGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  15. 55. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). APPROACH SPANS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  16. 62. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ERECTION DIAGRAM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  17. 61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). HANDRAIL DESIGN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 53. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). FOUNDATIONS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 56. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). APPROACH SPANS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 49. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). GENERAL LAYOUT. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ