Science.gov

Sample records for intense field exposure

  1. Analyzing Exposures to Electromagnetic Fields in an Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gökmen, Necati; Erdem, Sabri; Toker, Kadir Atilla; Öçmen, Elvan; Gökmen, Başak Ilgım; Özkurt, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study, we conducted a numerical analysis of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in a hospital’s intensive care unit that is one of the most crucial one in terms of hazardous areas among all service units. This is a new study for measuring exposure to EMFs in an intensive care unit as well as other healthcare services in Turkey. Methods We measured the EMFs in the intensive care unit with a SRM-3006 (selective radiation metre), which was used for measurement of the absolute and the limit values of high frequency EMFs. The measurement points were chosen to represent the highest levels of exposure to which a person might be subjected. We obtained a dataset that included 5929 observations, with 96 extreme values, through measuring the magnetic field in terms of V/m. Results The measurements show the frequency varies from 47 MHz to 2.5 GHz as 17 frequency ranges at the measurement point as well. According to these findings, the referenced maximum safety limit was not exceeded. However, it was also found that mobile telecommunication was the most critical cause of magnetic fields. Conclusion Further studies need to be performed with different frequency antennas to assess the EMFs in intensive care units. PMID:27909603

  2. Out-of-Field Cell Survival Following Exposure to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the in-field and out-of-field cell survival of cells irradiated with either primary field or scattered radiation in the presence and absence of intercellular communication. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay in human prostate cancer (DU145) and primary fibroblast (AGO1552) cells following exposure to different field configurations delivered using a 6-MV photon beam produced with a Varian linear accelerator. Results: Nonuniform dose distributions were delivered using a multileaf collimator (MLC) in which half of the cell population was shielded. Clonogenic survival in the shielded region was significantly lower than that predicted from the linear quadratic model. In both cell lines, the out-of-field responses appeared to saturate at 40%-50% survival at a scattered dose of 0.70 Gy in DU-145 cells and 0.24 Gy in AGO1522 cells. There was an approximately eightfold difference in the initial slopes of the out-of-field response compared with the {alpha}-component of the uniform field response. In contrast, cells in the exposed part of the field showed increased survival. These observations were abrogated by direct physical inhibition of cellular communication and by the addition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine known to inhibit intercellular bystander effects. Additional studies showed the proportion of cells irradiated and dose delivered to the shielded and exposed regions of the field to impact on response. Conclusions: These data demonstrate out-of-field effects as important determinants of cell survival following exposure to modulated irradiation fields with cellular communication between differentially irradiated cell populations playing an important role. Validation of these observations in additional cell models may facilitate the refinement of existing radiobiological models and the observations considered important determinants of cell survival.

  3. Sinusoidal 50-Hz magnetic fields depress rat pineal NAT activity and serum melatonin. Role of duration and intensity of exposure.

    PubMed

    Selmaoui, B; Touitou, Y

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the exposure to a 50-Hz sinusoidal magnetic field could influence serum melatonin concentration and pineal enzymes activities in rats. The effects of both duration and intensity of exposure were also looked at. Two groups of Wistar male rats were exposed to 50-Hz magnetic fields of either 1, 10 or 100 microT. The first group was exposed for 12 hours and the second for 30 days (18 hours per day). During this time the animals were kept under a standard 12:12 light: dark cycle with a temperature of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 45 to 50%. Control (Sham-exposed) animals were kept in a similar environment but without exposure to a magnetic field. The animals were sacrificed under red dim light. Serum melatonin concentration and pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) activities were studied. Long-term exposure to a magnetic field (10 and 100 microT) significantly depressed the nocturne peak of serum melatonin concentration and pineal NAT activity whereas no effect was observed on HIOMT activity. Short-term exposure depressed both pineal NAT activity and nocturnal serum melatonin concentration but only with the highest intensity used (100 microT). Our results suggest that sinusoidal magnetic fields alter the production of melatonin through an inhibition of pineal NAT activity. Both duration and intensity of exposure play an important role in this effect. This work shows that, 1) sinusoidal magnetic field depresses NAT activity as static magnetic field does whereas HIOMT activity remains unaltered whatever the type of experiment and the intensity used, 2) the effect observed is related to both the duration of exposure and the intensity of magnetic fields, 3) the sensitivity threshold to magnetic fields vary with the duration of exposure which strongly suggests a cumulative effect of sinusoidal magnetic fields on pineal function.

  4. High-intensity static magnetic field exposure devices for in vitro experiments on biopharmaceutical plant factories in aerospace environments.

    PubMed

    Lopresto, Vanni; Merla, Caterina; Pinto, Rosanna; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    Three high-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) exposure devices have been designed and realized for application to in vitro experimental research on hairy root cultures, supposed to grow in extreme environments- as those of space aircrafts- for producing biopharmaceutical molecules. The devices allow the exposure at two different levels of induction magnetic (B) field (250 mT and 500 mT) plus sham for blind exposure. The exposure levels can be considered representative of possible B-fields experienced within the habitat of a spacecraft in presence of active magnetic shielding systems. Each device can house a single 85-mm diameter Petri dish. Numerical simulations have been performed to accurately evaluate the B-field distribution in the biological target. Numerical results have been confirmed by measured data, proving that designed setups allows exposure to SMFs with a homogeneity better than 90%. The exposure devices will be employed for experiments scheduled within BIOxTREME research project, funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  5. [Bioeffects of chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of low intensity (standardization strategy)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Shafirkin, A V; Vasin, A L

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the experimental researches on the effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health, carried out in the USSR, is presented. The results of chronic exposure of laboratory animals to EMF have been considered. Apparently, EMF in the range of 1750-2750 MHz with power density up to 100-500 W/cm2 caused in immune globullin fractions, and a development of autoimmune processes. The changes in parameters of reproductive functions and posterity, the increase in embryo mortality were found. The standartization strategy used in the USSR and currently applied in Russia has been discussed.

  6. Impact of fractionation on out-of-field survival and DNA damage responses following exposure to intensity modulated radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghita, Mihaela; Coffey, Caroline B.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McMahon, Stephen J.; Schettino, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    To limit toxicity to normal tissues adjacent to the target tumour volume, radiotherapy is delivered using fractionated regimes whereby the total prescribed dose is given as a series of sequential smaller doses separated by specific time intervals. The impact of fractionation on out-of-field survival and DNA damage responses was determined in AGO-1522 primary human fibroblasts and MCF-7 breast tumour cells using uniform and modulated exposures delivered using a 225 kVp x-ray source. Responses to fractionated schedules (two equal fractions delivered with time intervals from 4 h to 48 h) were compared to those following acute exposures. Cell survival and DNA damage repair measurements indicate that cellular responses to fractionated non-uniform exposures differ from those seen in uniform exposures for the investigated cell lines. Specifically, there is a consistent lack of repair observed in the out-of-field populations during intervals between fractions, confirming the importance of cell signalling to out-of-field responses in a fractionated radiation schedule, and this needs to be confirmed for a wider range of cell lines and conditions.

  7. Depletion of intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Seipt, D.; Heinzl, T.; Marklund, M.

    2017-03-01

    The problem of backreaction of quantum processes on the properties of the background field still remains on the list of outstanding questions of high intensity particle physics. Usually, photon emission by an electron or positron, photon decay into electron-positron pairs in strong electromagnetic fields, or electron-positron pair production by such fields are described in the framework of the external field approximation. It is assumed that the external field has infinite energy and is not affected by these processes. However, the above-mentioned processes have a multi-photon nature, i.e., they occur with the absorption of a significant number of field photons. As a result, the interaction of an intense electromagnetic field with either a highly charged electron bunch or a fast growing population of electrons, positrons, and gamma photons (as in the case of an electromagnetic cascade) may lead to a depletion of the field energy, thus making the external field approximation invalid. Taking the multi-photon Compton process as an example, we estimate the threshold of depletion and find it to become significant at field strengths (a0˜103) and electron bunch charge of about tens of nC.

  8. Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Agata; Gulino, Marisa; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Bellia, Paolo; Raciti, Giuseppina; Grasso, Rosaria; Musumeci, Francesco; Vanella, Angelo; Triglia, Antonio

    2010-03-31

    The exposure of primary rat neocortical astroglial cell cultures to acute electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the microwave range was studied. Differentiated astroglial cell cultures at 14 days in vitro were exposed for 5, 10, or 20min to either 900MHz continuous waves or 900MHz waves modulated in amplitude at 50Hz using a sinusoidal waveform and 100% modulation index. The strength of the electric field (rms value) at the sample position was 10V/m. No change in cellular viability evaluated by MTT test and lactate dehydrogenase release was observed. A significant increase in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation was found only after exposure of the astrocytes to modulated EMF for 20min. No evident effects were detected when shorter time intervals or continuous waves were used. The irradiation conditions allowed the exclusion of any possible thermal effect. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that even acute exposure to low intensity EMF induces ROS production and DNA fragmentation in astrocytes in primary cultures, which also represent the principal target of modulated EMF. Our findings also suggest the hypothesis that the effects could be due to hyperstimulation of the glutamate receptors, which play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain damage. Furthermore, the results show the importance of the amplitude modulation in the interaction between EMF and neocortical astrocytes.

  9. Multipole expansions and intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Howard R.

    1984-02-01

    In the context of two-body bound-state systems subjected to a plane-wave electromagnetic field, it is shown that high field intensity introduces a distinction between long-wavelength approximation and electric dipole approximation. This distinction is gauge dependent, since it is absent in Coulomb gauge, whereas in "completed" gauges of Göppert-Mayer type the presence of high field intensity makes electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole terms of importance equal to electric dipole at long wavelengths. Another consequence of high field intensity is that multipole expansions lose their utility in view of the equivalent importance of a number of low-order multipole terms and the appearance of large-magnitude terms which defy multipole categorization. This loss of the multipole expansion is gauge independent. Also gauge independent is another related consequence of high field intensity, which is the intimate coupling of center-of-mass and relative coordinate motions in a two-body system.

  10. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  11. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  12. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  13. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  14. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  15. The effects of different intensities, frequencies and exposure times of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Bayır, Ece; Bilgi, Eyüp; Şendemir-Ürkmez, Aylin; Hameş-Kocabaş, E Esin

    2015-03-01

    The impact of different types of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated. The cultures of bacteria in broth media were exposed to sinusoidal homogenous ELF-EMF with 2 and 4 mT magnetic intensities. Each intensity for each bacteria was combined with three different frequencies (20, 40 and 50 Hz), and four different exposure times (1, 2, 4 and 6 h). A cell suspension of each experiment was diluted for the appropriate range and inoculated to Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) plates after exposure to ELF-EMF. The number of colony forming units (CFU) of both strains was obtained after incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. Data were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), statistical significance was described at p < 0.05 and data were compared with their non-exposed controls. Magnetic intensity, frequency and exposure time of ELF-EMFs changed the characteristic responses for both microorganisms. Samples exposed to ELF-EMF showed a statistically significant decrease compared to their controls in colony forming capability, especially at long exposure times. An exposure to 4 mT-20 Hz ELF-EMF of 6 h produced maximum inhibition of CFU compared to their controls for both microorganisms (95.2% for S. aureus and 85% for E. coli).

  16. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  17. [Noise exposure in neonatal intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Magnavita, V; Arslan, E; Benini, F

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates the exposure of newborn babies in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) to noise which can cause hearing lesions directly (acoustic trauma) as well as indirectly (hypoxia). Moreover, noise can have an aggravating effect when combined with other potentially harmful factors in the NICU, such as ototoxic medication or stress due to other external stimuli, such as excessively bright light, lack of a day/night rhythm or pain. Sound pressure levels were measured in the NICU and inside the cribs in various experimental conditions, classified under 3 different types of sound events: constant background noise, variations in background noise and impulsive events. The main sources of noise detected were crib noise generated by ventilation and temperature control systems, ambient noise in the room, noise caused by the staff in the NICU, noise generated by crib alarm systems and NICU apparatus and noise caused by activity on the crib cover or on its plexiglas top. Findings revealed that the influence of ambient noise is fairly irrelevant. Background noise and its variations concerned with activities in the department never exceeded the limits considered potentially harmful to adults (DRC), whereas the impulsive noise generated by staff on the cribs or on the plexiglas tops was considerable and potentially harmful. These findings demonstrate that it is feasible and relatively easy to control noise in the NICU and significantly reduce the impulsive noise component by training staff to be more careful and avoid any unnecessary jolting and rough handling on and near the cribs.

  18. Mechanism of biological effects observed in honey bees (Apis mellifera, L. ) hived under extra-high-voltage transmission lines: implications derived from bee exposure to simulated intense electric fields and shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.; Greenberg, B.

    1988-01-01

    This work explores mechanisms for disturbance of honey bee colonies under a 765 kV, 60-Hz transmission line (electric (E) field = 7 kV/m) observed in previous studies. Proposed mechanisms fell into two categories: direct bee perception of enhanced in-hive E fields and perception of shock from induced currents. The adverse biological effects could be reproduced in simulations where only the worker bees were exposed to shock or to E field in elongated hive entranceways (= tunnels). We now report the results of full-scale experiments using the tunnel exposure scheme, which assesses the contribution of shock and intense E field to colony disturbance. Exposure of worker bees (1400 h) to 60-Hz E fields including 100 kV/m under moisture-free conditions within a nonconductive tunnel causes no deleterious affect on colony behavior. Exposure of bees in conductive (e.g., wet) tunnels produces bee disturbance, increased mortality, abnormal propolization, and possible impairment of colony growth. We propose that this substrate dependence of bee disturbance is the result of perception of shock from coupled body currents and enhanced current densities postulated to exist in the legs and thorax of bees on conductors. Similarly, disturbance occurs when bees are exposed to step-potential-induced currents. At 275-350 nA single bees are disturbed; at 600 nA bees begin abnormal propolization behavior; and stinging occurs at 900 nA. We conclude that biological effects seen in bee colonies under a transmission line are primarily the result of electric shock from induced hive currents. This evaluation is based on the limited effects of E-field exposure in tunnels, the observed disturbance thresholds caused by shocks in tunnels, and the ability of hives exposed under a transmission line to source currents 100-1,000 times the shock thresholds.

  19. Gauges for intense-field electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Howard R.

    1980-08-01

    For all gauges of the Göppert-Mayer type, the two-body Schrödinger equation for charged particles in a plane-wave electromagnetic field fails to separate into center-of-mass and relative-coordinate equations when the field is sufficiently intense.

  20. The NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Reuben A.

    1997-01-01

    High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) are the result of a multitude of intentional and nonintentional electromagnetic sources that currently exists in the world. Many of today's digital systems are susceptible to electronic upset if subjected to certain electromagnetic environments (EME). Modern aerospace designers and manufacturers increasingly rely on sophisticated digital electronic systems to provide critical flight control in both military, commercial, and general aviation aircraft. In an effort to understand and emulate the undesired environment that high energy RF provides modern electronics, the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB) of the Flight Electronics and Technology Division (FETD) conducts research on RF and microwave measurement methods related to the understanding of HIRF. In the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory, the effects of high energy radiating electromagnetic fields on avionics and electronic systems are tested and studied.

  1. Radiation reaction in high-intensity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-10-01

    Since the development of a radiating electron model by Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model of the so-called "radiation reaction". Recently, this effect has become important in ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a way of stabilizing the radiation reaction by quantum electrodynamics (QED) vacuum fluctuation [K Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014); K. Seto, Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2015, 023A01 (2015)]. On the other hand, the modification of the radiated field by highly intense incoming laser fields should be taken into account when the laser intensity is higher than 10^{22} W/cm2, which could be achieved by next-generation ultra-short-pulse 10 PW lasers, like the ones under construction for the ELI-NP facility. In this paper, I propose a running charge-mass method for the description of the QED-based synchrotron radiation by high-intensity external fields with stabilization by the QED vacuum fluctuation as an extension from the model by Dirac.

  2. [Clinical monitoring in areas of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Suvorov, I M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical syndromes induced by high intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic field chronic exposure are described. Persons injured by occupational exposure have been observed central nervous system changes in diencephalic syndrome form, cardio-vascular system changes revealed in atherosclerosis, isch(a)emic heart disease and coronary insufficiency rapid progressive expansion. General public living in territory of radar station exposure zone different functional disorders have been identified: vegetative dystonia (asthenovegetative syndrome), thrombocytopenia, decrease of blood coagulation index, and thyroid gland function changes. Observed diseases clinical variability may be determined by electromagnetic exposure characteristics.

  3. Atomic electron correlations in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    DiMauro, L.F.; Sheehy, B.; Walker, B. Agostini, P.A. Kulander, K.C.

    1999-06-01

    This talk examines two distinct cases in strong optical fields where electron correlation plays an important role in the dynamics. In the first example, strong coupling in a two-electron-like system is manifested as an intensity-dependent splitting in the ionized electron energy distribution. This two-electron phenomenon (dubbed continuum-continuum Autler-Townes effect) is analogous to a strongly coupled two-level, one-electron atom but raises some intriguing questions regarding the exact nature of electron-electron correlation. The second case examines the evidence for two-electron ionization in the strong-field tunneling limit. Although our ability to describe the one-electron dynamics has obtained a quantitative level of understanding, a description of the two (multiple) electron ionization remains unclear. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Atomic electron correlations in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    DiMauro, L.F.; Sheehy, B.; Walker, B.; Agostini, P.A.; Kulander, K.C.

    1998-11-01

    This talk examines two distinct cases in strong optical fields where electron correlation plays an important role in the dynamics. In the first example, strong coupling in a two-electron-like system is manifested as an intensity-dependent splitting in the ionized electron energy distribution. This two-electron phenomenon (dubbed continuum-continuum Autler-Townes effect) is analogous to a strongly coupled two-level, one-electron atom but raises some intriguing questions regarding the exact nature of electron-electron correlation. The second case examines the evidence for two-electron ionization in the strong-field tunneling limit. Although their ability to describe the one-electron dynamics has obtained a quantitative level of understanding, a description of the two (multiple) electron ionization remains unclear.

  5. Atomic electron correlations in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    DiMauro, L. F.; Sheehy, B.; Walker, B.; Agostini, P. A.; Kulander, K. C.

    1999-06-11

    This talk examines two distinct cases in strong optical fields where electron correlation plays an important role in the dynamics. In the first example, strong coupling in a two-electron-like system is manifested as an intensity-dependent splitting in the ionized electron energy distribution. This two-electron phenomenon (dubbed continuum-continuum Autler-Townes effect) is analogous to a strongly coupled two-level, one-electron atom but raises some intriguing questions regarding the exact nature of electron-electron correlation. The second case examines the evidence for two-electron ionization in the strong-field tunneling limit. Although our ability to describe the one-electron dynamics has obtained a quantitative level of understanding, a description of the two (multiple) electron ionization remains unclear.

  6. Atomic electron correlations in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, P A; DiMauro, L F; Kulander, K; Sheehy, B; Walker, B

    1998-09-03

    Abstract. This talk examines two distinct cases in strong opbical fields where electron correlation plays an important role in the dynamic.s. In the first. example, strong coupling in a two-electron-like system is manifested as an intensity-dependent splitting in the ionized electron energy distribution. This two-electron phenomenon (dubbed continuum-continuum Autler-Townes effect) is analogous to a strongly coupled two- level, one-electron atom but raises some intriguing questions regarding the exact nature of electron-electron correlation. The second case examines the evidence for two-electron ionization in the strong-field tunneling limit. Although our ability to describe the one- electron dynamics has obtained a quantitative level of understanding, a description of the two (multiple) electron ionization remains unc

  7. A Template for an Intensive Ecohydrology Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, R. E.; McGlynn, B. L.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the greatest challenges in the earth and environmental sciences are complex and interdisciplinary in nature. Ecohydrology exemplifies the type of holistic inquiry needed to address these challenges because it spans and integrates earth science, biological science and, often, social science. Ecohydrology courses can prepare the next generation of scientists, decision-makers and informed citizens to understand and address these challenges, and field courses in particular can play an important role in this preparation. Ecohydrology field course instructors have unique opportunities to convey interwoven theoretical and applied principles through a variety of modes that include lecture, discussion, immersion, and hands-on activity. In this presentation, we report on our experience co-teaching the Mountain Ecohydrology Field Course, a full-credit course taught 3 times in the past 5 years to more than 30 students representing 6 universities. The course, which has ranged from 1-2 weeks in length, has given students in-depth exposure to intensively instrumented ecohydrological field sites in the southern Appalachian and northern Rocky Mountains. Students learn fundamental principles in ecohydrology and related fields of watershed hydrology, soil biogeochemistry, micrometeorology and plant ecophysiology. They gain hands-on experience in a variety of cutting edge field techniques, tools and analyses while practicing presentation and communication of science. Students and instructors deal with real-world challenges of conducting fieldwork in remote settings. We offer our experience as one potential template for others interested in developing or refining ecohydrology field courses elsewhere.

  8. Real exposure: field measurement of chemical plumes in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David D; Moore, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    In fluvial systems, organismic exposure to nonpoint source pollutants will fluctuate in frequency (exposure events), intensity (concentration), and duration. The reliance on lethal concentrations and static exposure in many laboratory studies does not adequately represent nor address exposure to in situ chemical plumes of fluvial habitats. To adequately address field exposure in a laboratory setting, one needs an understanding of the physics of chemical transmission within moving fluids. Because of the chaotic nature of turbulence, chemical plumes introduced to fluvial systems have a spatial and temporal microstructure with fluxes in chemical concentration. Consequently, time-averaged static exposure models are not ecologically relevant for the major reason of in situ distribution. The purpose of this study was to quantify in situ chemical distribution and dispersion within two physically different streams. Dopamine was introduced as a chemical tracer mimicking groundwater runoff. Chemical fluxes and stream hydrodynamics were simultaneously measured using a microelectrode and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter, respectively, at three heights of three downstream locations at each research site. Fine-scale measurements of the dopamine plume microstructure showed that organisms could be exposed to chemical fluctuations where concentrations are significantly greater than the overall time-averaged concentration. These measurements demonstrate that rather than relying on static exposure, standards for pollution must consider the concept of exposure being interdependently linked to flow of the fluid medium. The relationship between fluid dynamics, pollution exposure, and organism physiology are complex and must be evaluated in ways to mimic natural systems.

  9. Real exposure: Field measurement of chemical plumes in headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David D.

    In fluvial systems, organismic exposure to nonpoint source pollutants will fluctuate in frequency (exposure events), intensity (concentration), and duration. The reliance on lethal concentrations and static exposure in many laboratory studies does not adequately represent nor address exposure to in situ chemical plumes of fluvial habitats. In order to adequately address field exposure in a lab setting, one needs an understanding of the physics of chemical transmission within moving fluids. Because of the chaotic nature of turbulence, chemical plumes introduced to fluvial systems have a spatial and temporal microstructure with fluxes in chemical concentration. Consequently, time-averaged static exposure models are not ecologically relevant for the major reason of in situ distribution. The purpose of this study was to quantify in situ chemical distribution and dispersion within two physically different streams. Dopamine was introduced as a chemical tracer mimicking groundwater runoff. Chemical fluxes and stream hydrodynamics were simultaneously measured using a microelectrode and an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV), respectively, at three heights of three downstream locations at each research site. Fine-scale measurements of the dopamine plume microstructure showed organisms could be exposed to chemical fluctuations where concentrations are significantly greater than the overall time-averaged concentration. These measurements demonstrate that rather than relying on static exposure, standards for pollution need to consider the concept of exposure being interdependently linked to flow of the fluid medium. The relationship between fluid dynamics, pollution exposure and organism physiology are complex and need to be evaluated in ways to mimic natural systems.

  10. Low Caspofungin Exposure in Patients in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, Kim C M; Veringa, Anette; Zijlstra, Jan G; Beishuizen, Albertus; Klont, Rob; Brummelhuis-Visser, Petra; Uges, Donald R A; Touw, Daan J; Kosterink, Jos G W; van der Werf, Tjip S; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2017-02-01

    In critically ill patients, drug exposure may be influenced by altered drug distribution and clearance. Earlier studies showed that the variability in caspofungin exposure was high in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the standard dose of caspofungin resulted in adequate exposure in critically ill patients. A multicenter prospective study in ICU patients with (suspected) invasive candidiasis was conducted in the Netherlands from November 2013 to October 2015. Patients received standard caspofungin treatment, and the exposure was determined on day 3 of treatment. An area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) of 98 mg · h/liter was considered adequate exposure. In case of low exposure (i.e., <79 mg · h/liter, a ≥20% lower AUC0-24), the caspofungin dose was increased and the exposure reevaluated. Twenty patients were included in the study, of whom 5 had a positive blood culture. The median caspofungin AUC0-24 at day 3 was 78 mg · h/liter (interquartile range [IQR], 69 to 97 mg · h/liter). A low AUC0-24 (<79 mg · h/liter) was seen in 10 patients. The AUC0-24 was significantly and positively correlated with the caspofungin dose in mg/kg/day (P = 0.011). The median AUC0-24 with a caspofungin dose of 1 mg/kg was estimated using a pharmacokinetic model and was 114.9 mg · h/liter (IQR, 103.2 to 143.5 mg · h/liter). In conclusion, the caspofungin exposure in ICU patients in this study was low compared with that in healthy volunteers and other (non)critically ill patients, most likely due to a larger volume of distribution. A weight-based dose regimen is probably more suitable for patients with substantially altered drug distribution. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01994096.).

  11. Nonauditory effects of repeated exposures to intense impulse noise

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Y.Y.; Dancer, A.; Richmond, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to intense impulse noise can cause injury to all of the air-containing structures of the body. While the ear is the most-sensitive organ, the upper respiratory tract (URT), the lungs, and the gut can be damaged by air blast. This nonauditory injury has been studied as a consequence of weapon-effects research. The development of light, long-range artillery and powerful shoulder-fired antitank weapons has increased the intensity of impulse noise to which soldiers are exposed. Hearing damage is recognized as a military occupational health hazard, and the advent of louder weapons has raised the possibility that nonauditory injury might become a limiting safety concern. Animal research was begun in Europe and the United States in an attempt to define that new hazard. Anesthetized sheep and swine were necropsied after being exposed to a variety of impulse conditions. It was readily demonstrated that with repeated exposures, nonauditory injury could build up at relatively low overpressure levels.

  12. Human melatonin during continuous magnetic field exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cook, M.R.; Riffle, D.W.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the third in a series of double-blind, laboratory-based studies that were aimed at determining the effects of nocturnal exposure to power frequency magnetic fields on blood levels of melatonin in human volunteers. The two earlier studies evaluated effects on melatonin of intermittent exposure to 60 Hz circularly polarized magnetic fields at 10 and 200 mG. No overall effects on melatonin levels were found. In the present study, men were exposed continuously rather than intermittently through the night to the same 200 mG magnetic field condition that was used previously; again, no overall effects on melatonin levels were found. The authors conclude that the intermittent and continuous exposure conditions used in the laboratory to date are not effective in altering nocturnal blood levels of melatonin in human volunteers.

  13. Assessment of inhomogeneous ELF magnetic field exposures.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N; Cech, R; Schröttner, J

    2008-01-01

    In daily life as well as at workplaces, exposures to inhomogeneous magnetic fields become very frequent. This makes easily applicable compliance assessment methods increasingly important. Reference levels have been defined linking basic restrictions to levels of homogeneous fields at worst-case exposure conditions. If reference levels are met, compliance with basic restrictions can be assumed. If not, further investigations could still prove compliance. Because of the lower induction efficiency, inhomogeneous magnetic fields such as from electric appliances could be allowed exceeding reference levels. To easily assess inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quick and flexible multi-step assessment procedure is proposed. On the basis of simulations with numerical, anatomical human models reference factors were calculated elevating reference levels to link hot-spot values measured at source surfaces to basic limits and allowing accounting for different source distance, size, orientation and position. Compliance rules are proposed minimising assessment efforts.

  14. Chlorpyrifos exposures in Egyptian cotton field workers.

    PubMed

    Farahat, Fayssal M; Fenske, Richard A; Olson, James R; Galvin, Kit; Bonner, Matthew R; Rohlman, Diane S; Farahat, Taghreed M; Lein, Pamela J; Anger, W Kent

    2010-06-01

    Neurobehavioral deficits have been reported in Egyptian pesticide application teams using organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but whether these effects are related to OP pesticide exposures has yet to be established. In preparation for a comprehensive study of the relationship between OP pesticide dose and neurobehavioral deficits, we assessed exposure within this population. We conducted occupational surveys and workplace observations, and collected air, dermal patch and biological samples from applicators, technicians and engineers involved in chlorpyrifos applications during cotton production to test the hypotheses that: (1) dermal exposure was an important contributor to internal dose and varied across body regions; and (2) substantial differences would be seen across the three job categories. Applicators were substantially younger and had shorter exposure histories than did technicians and engineers. Applicators and technicians were observed to have relatively high levels of skin or clothing contact with pesticide-treated foliage as they walked through the fields. Both dermal patch loadings of chlorpyrifos and measurements of a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (TCPy) in urine confirmed substantial exposure to and skin absorption of chlorpyrifos that varied according to job category; and dermal patch loading was significantly higher on the thighs than on the forearms. These findings support our hypotheses and support the need for research to examine neurobehavioral performance and exposures in this population. More importantly, the exposures reported here are sufficiently high to recommend urgent changes in work practices amongst these workers.

  15. Xenon clusters in intense VUV laser fields.

    PubMed

    Santra, Robin; Greene, Chris H

    2003-12-05

    A simple model is developed that quantitatively describes intense interactions of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulse with a xenon cluster. We find good agreement with a recent experiment [Nature (London) 420, 482 (2002)

  16. Wavelength and intensity effects on the dissociation of H2 + in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hongtao; Xu, Han; Bai, Ya; Sang, R. T.; Litvinyuk, Igor V.; Liu, Peng; Li, Ruxin

    2016-11-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of the dissociation dynamics of H2 + in intense laser fields, and study how the kinetic energy spectrum of the dissociating proton can be modulated by the wavelength and intensity of the driving laser field. In the experiment, H2 is dissociatively ionized by an intense laser pulse with varying carrier wavelengths ranging from 800 to 1800 nm and varying peak intensities. A model based on Floquet theory and Landau-Zener theory is adopted to explain the experimental observations. The intensity effect is further explored in a few-cycle pump-probe experiment. We observed a significant intensity-dependent proton kinetic energy shift, which can also be well explained by the theoretical simulation. The wavelength- and intensity-dependent proton spectra reveal the mechanism of selective excitation of vibrational levels of H2 + in intense laser fields.

  17. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the app...

  18. Enhancement of invertase production by Aspergillus niger OZ-3 using low-intensity static magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mesut; Esim, Nevzat; Genisel, Mucip; Ortucu, Serkan; Hasenekoglu, Ismet; Canli, Ozden; Erdal, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of low-intensity static magnetic fields (SMFs) on invertase activity and growth on different newly identified molds. The most positive effect of SMFs on invertase activity and growth was observed for Aspergillus niger OZ-3. The submerged production of invertase was performed with the spores obtained at the different exposure times (120, 144, 168, and 196 hr) and magnetic field intensities (0.45, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mT). The normal magnetic field of the laboratory was assayed as 0.45 mT (control). Optimization of magnetic field intensity and exposure time significantly increased biomass production and invertase activity compared to 0.45 mT. The maximum invertase activity (51.14 U/mL) and biomass concentration (4.36 g/L) were achieved with the spores obtained at the 144 hr exposure time and 5 mT magnetic field intensity. The effect of low-intensity static magnetic fields (SMFs) on invertase activities of molds was investigated for the first time in the present study. As an additional contribution, a new hyper-invertase-producing mold strain was isolated.

  19. Magnetic field exposure of commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Hood; Nicholas; Butler; Lackland; Hoel; Mohr

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Airline pilots are exposed to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical and electronic systems. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the flight deck magnetic fields to which commercial airline pilots are exposed when flying on different aircraft types over a 75-hour flight-duty month.METHODS: Magentic field measurements were taken using personal dosimeters capable of measuring magnetic fields in the 40-800 Hz frequency range. Dosimeters were carried by either the Captain or the First Officer on Boeing 737/200, Boeing 747/400, Boeing 767/300ER, and Airbus 320 aircraft. The data were analyzed by aircraft type, with statistics based on block hours. Block hours begin when the aircraft departs the gate prior to take off and end when the aircraft returns to the gate after landing.RESULTS: Approximately 1008 block hours were recorded at a sampling rate of 3 seconds. Total block time exposure to the pilots ranged from a harmonic geometric mean of 6.7 milliGauss (mG) for the Boeing 767/300ER to 12.7 mG for the Boeing 737/200.CONCLUSIONS: Measured flight deck magnetic field levels were substantially above the 0.8 to 1 mG level typically found in the home or office and suggest the need for further study to evaluate potential health effects of long-term exposure.

  20. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  1. Globally strong geomagnetic field intensity circa 3000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hoabin; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Ran Hee; Park, Jingyu; Doh, Seong-Jae; Kim, Wonnyon; Sung, Hyongmi

    2013-12-01

    High-fidelity geomagnetic field intensity determination was carried out using 191 baked fragments collected from 20 kilns or hearths with ages ranging between ∼1200 BC and ∼AD 1725 in South Korea. Geomagnetic field intensity variation displayed three narrow minima at ∼800-700 BC, ∼AD 700, and ∼AD 1600 and two maxima at ∼1200-1100 BC and ∼AD 1000-1100. In most time intervals, virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) variation is confined within 20% of the present VADM. However, geomagnetic field intensity circa 3000 yr ago is nearly 40% larger than the present value. Such high VADMs circa 3000 yr ago are in phase with those in other longitudinal bands in northern hemisphere centered at 5E (France), 30E (the Middle East) and 200E (Hawaii). Although strong geomagnetic field intensity circa 3000 yr ago is globally synchronous, the highest VADM occurs at slightly different time intervals in different locations. Hence it is possible that the globally strong geomagnetic field intensity circa 3000 yr ago reflects the migration of persistent hemispheric flux in northern hemisphere or an episode of geomagnetic field hemispheric asymmetry.

  2. Intense electron beam propagation across a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Striffler, C.D.; Yao, R.L.; Destler, W.W.; Reiser, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we consider the propagation of an intense electron-ion beam across an applied magnetic field. In the absence of the applied field, the beam system is in a Bennett equilibrium state that involves electrons with both large axial and thermal velocities and a cold stationary space-charge neutralizing ion species. Typical parameters under consideration are V{sub o} {approximately} 1 MV, I {approximately} 5 kA, T{sub e} {approximately} 100 keV, and beam radii {approximately} 1 cm. We find that in the intense beam regime, the propagation is limited due to space-charge depression caused by the deflection of the electron beam by the transverse field. This critical field is of the order of the peak self-magnetic field of the electron beam which is substantially higher than the single particle cut-off field. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Implications of Intense Magnetic Fields on Neutron-Star Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyl, Jeremy Samuel

    1998-08-01

    In this thesis, I will examine how intense magnetic fields influence physical processes in the vicinity of and inside neutron stars. An intense magnetic field can have dramatic effects on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation and the structure of a dipole field. We first derive a compact analytic form for the effective Lagrangian of quantum electrodynamics (QED) with an external field. An intense field modifies the propagators of the virtual electron-positron pairs formed as a photon travels. We first treat the effects of QED as an effective magnetic permeability and electric permittivity. We derive compact expressions for the index of refraction of a low-frequency photon traveling through an electric or magnetic field. We examine the one-loop corrections to a macroscopic magnetic dipole and find that the nonlinear paramagnetic properties of the vacuum result in dipole, hexapole, 2n-pole moments which are a function of distance from the dipole. The speed of light in a magnetized vacuum is a function of the strength of the fields. We propose an experiment using the existing LIGO testbed interferometer which can measure this effect with a signal-to-noise ratio of twenty. We expect an intense magnetic field to affect the propagation of an electromagnetic wave. We treat the electromagnetic field as a relativistic fluid and derive the equations for the characteristics. The characteristics of the wave begin to cross after a number of wavelengths. A shock forms. The energy of the wave dissipates into electron-positron pairs shortly thereafter. We next discuss how an intense magnetic field affects atomic structure. We find that the bound electron shields the nucleus quite effectively and that the cross section for nuclear fusion reactions is dramatically increased. We then develop both an analytic and a numerical technique to study the properties of simple atoms and molecules in an intense magnetic field. We increase the scale from atomic physics to solid

  4. Acute high-intensity sound exposure alters responses of place cells in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Goble, T J; Møller, A R; Thompson, L T

    2009-07-01

    Overstimulation is known to activate neural plasticity in the auditory nervous system causing changes in function and re-organization. It has been shown earlier that overstimulation using high-intensity noise or tones can induce signs of tinnitus. Here we show in studies in rats that overstimulation causes changes in the way place cells of the hippocampus respond as rats search for rewards in a spatial maze. In familiar environments, a subset of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, known as place cells, respond when the animal moves through specific locations but are relatively silent in others. This place-field activity (i.e. location-specific firing) is stable in a fixed environment. The present study shows that activation of neural plasticity through overstimulation by sound can alter the response of these place cells. Rats implanted with chronic drivable dorsal hippocampal tetrodes (four microelectrodes) were assessed for stable single-unit place-field responses that were extracted from multiunit responses using NeuroExplorer computer spike-sorting software. Rats then underwent either 30 min exposure to a 4 kHz tone at 104 dB SPL or a control period in the same sound chamber. The place-field activity was significantly altered after sound exposure showing that plastic changes induced by overstimulation are not limited to the auditory nervous system but extend to other parts of the CNS, in this case to the hippocampus, a brain region often studied in the context of plasticity.

  5. Biologic effects of prolonged exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields in rats. 2: 50 Hz magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Margonato, V.; Cerretelli, P.; Nicolini, P.; Conti, R.; Zecca, L.; Veicsteinas, Z.

    1995-12-31

    To provide possible laboratory support to health risk evaluation associated with long-term, low-intensity magnetic field exposure, 256 male albino rats and an equal number of control animals (initial age 12 weeks) were exposed 22 h/day to a 50 Hz magnetic flux density of 5 {micro}T for 32 weeks (a total of about 5,000 h). Hematology was studied from blood samples before exposure to the field and at 12 week intervals. Morphology and histology of liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, and testes as well as brain neurotransmitters were assessed at the end of the exposure period. In two identical sets of experiments, no significant differences in the investigated variables were found between exposed and sham-exposed animals. It is concluded that continuous exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field of 5 {micro}T from week 12 to week 44, which makes up {approximately}70% of the life span of the rat before sacrifice, does not cause changes in growth rate, in the morphology and histology of liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, testes, and bone marrow, in hematology and hematochemistry, or in the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin.

  6. Anomalous Radiative Trapping in Laser Fields of Extreme Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonoskov, A.; Bashinov, A.; Gonoskov, I.; Harvey, C.; Ilderton, A.; Kim, A.; Marklund, M.; Mourou, G.; Sergeev, A.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate that charged particles in a sufficiently intense standing wave are compressed toward, and oscillate synchronously at, the antinodes of the electric field. We call this unusual behavior anomalous radiative trapping (ART). We show using dipole pulses, which offer a path to increased laser intensity, that ART opens up new possibilities for the generation of radiation and particle beams, both of which are high energy, directed, and collimated. ART also provides a mechanism for particle control in high-intensity quantum-electrodynamics experiments.

  7. Heating of cardiovascular stents in intense radiofrequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Goldberg, R; Bonsignore, C

    1999-01-01

    We consider the heating of a metal stent in an alternating magnetic field from an induction heating furnace. An approximate theoretical analysis is conducted to estimate the magnetic field strength needed to produce substantial temperature increases. Experiments of stent heating in industrial furnaces are reported, which confirm the model. The results show that magnetic fields inside inductance furnaces are capable of significantly heating stents. However, the fields fall off very quickly with distance and in most locations outside the heating coil, field levels are far too small to produce significant heating. The ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992 limits for human exposure to alternating magnetic fields provide adequate protection against potential excessive heating of the stents.

  8. 78 FR 33633 - Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... June 4, 2013 Part IV Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Parts 1, 2, and 15, et al. Human Exposure..., and 95 Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields AGENCY: Federal Communications... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as they relate to the guidelines for human exposure to...

  9. Effects of high-intensity microwave pulse exposure of rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Arthur W.; Chou, Chung-Kwang

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that auditory responses could be evoked in the head of animals exposed to 500-μs-wide or less microwave pulses of relatively small absorbed energies (5-180 mJ/kg). These studies were extended using an exposure system capable of locally exposing the head and especially the brain of the animal to a single 915-MHz pulsed magnetic field with sufficient intensity to produce a specific absorption rate level as high as 4×105 W/kg for any pulse width. When the animal was exposed to various pulse widths (1μs to 360 ms) and power levels (2-10 kW), the animal displayed no reaction other than that due to the hearing effect until the peak absorbed energy density in the brain exceeded 28 kJ/kg, or an absorbed energy in the head of 680 J, regardless of peak power or pulse width. Thermographic and thermocouple measurements indicated a maximum temperature rise of 8°C or final maximum brain temperature of 46° -46.5°C at the reaction level. The reaction consisted of petit or grand mal seizures lasting for 1 min after exposure, followed by a 4- to 5-min unconscious state during which normal reflexes were displayed. There was a decrease in heartbeat rate in the exposed unanesthetized animals. After the period of unconsciousness the rats recovered without apparent effect from the exposure. Measurements indicated that the brain temperature returned to baseline level within 5 min after exposure and the animals began moving when the brain temperature returned to within 1°C of their normal values. These results would indicate that the thresholds for convulsions induced by short exposures of the brain to high energy pulses are dependent only on the deposited energy and temperature rise. Histological examinations of some of the animal brains indicated some demyelination of neurons 1 day after exposure and some microfocal glial nodules in the brain 1 month after exposure.

  10. Far-field intensity of Lorentz related beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xi; Chen, Chidao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Yulian; Zhou, Meiling; Zhang, Liping; Li, Dongdong; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a sufficient condition under which the Lorentz beam convolution with other beams constitutes valid cross-spectral densities. Two examples are given to show how the Lorentz related beam can be used for generation of a far field being a modulated version of another one. The far-field intensity patterns in the Cartesian symmetries by the convolution operation of the Lorentz beams with multi-sinc beams, and the convolution operation of the Lorentz beams with multi-sinc Gaussian beams, are shown respectively. We find that different beam order can result distinct far field changes.

  11. Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. . Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

    1992-12-01

    This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

  12. Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in ``electrical`` occupations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in ``electrical`` occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in ``non-electrical`` occupations? and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the ``electrical`` occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in ``non-electrical`` occupations? Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the ``electrical`` occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure? and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these ``electrical`` occupations? Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

  13. Free charged particle behavior in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkin, D. M.

    1984-03-01

    Theoretical studies were performed examining the effect of intense laser fields, together with auxiliary electromagnetic field configuration, on the behavior of otherwise free charged particles. The Lorentz-Dirac classical equation was employed to determine the effect of radiation reaction on the transfer of asymptotic energy momentum to a particle by a single intense plane wave pulse. The added effect due to a uniform magnetic field along the pulse propagation direction was determined. Single particle Dirac theory was employed to analyze particle polarization direction changes in a quantum-mechanical model. The general nature of the Lorentz transformation as a active transformation connecting initial and final states was determined, in which a single state characterization parameter was left unspecified. Analytic and computer studies were made of the effect of two simultaneous laser pulses, propagating in opposite directions on particle dynamics.

  14. Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-09-01

    High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease.

  15. Zeeman degeneracy effects in collisional intense-field resonance fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Burnett, K.

    1980-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence due to intense laser fields from a Zeeman degenerate atom being perturbed by collisional interactions is calculated in the impact regime by using the quantum-fluctuation-regression theorem. Various interesting effects are found. For example, the scattered intensity spectrum for a J = 0 to J = 1 transition for polarization parallel to the laser polarization is essentially an asymmetric triplet, whereas for a perpendicular polarization due to collisions the spectrum is essentially a doublet (whose frequencies do not correspond with any of those of the triplet). Further, the width of the fluorescent component (whose frequency is close to the unperturbed frequency) actually decreases with increasing laser power.

  16. Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciou, F. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Pan, C. T.; Lin, P. H.; Lin, P. H.; Hsu, F. T.

    2015-03-01

    In the exposure process, the intensity and uniformity of light in the exposure area directly influenced the precision of products. UV-LED (Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode) exposure system was established to reduce the radiation leakage and increase the energy efficiency for energy saving. It is a trend that conventional mercury lamp could be replaced with UV-LED exposure system. This study was based on the law of conservation of energy and law of refraction of optical field distributing on the target plane. With these, a freeform lens with uniform light field of main exposure area could be designed. The light outside the exposure area could be concentrated into the area to improve the intensity of light. The refraction index and UV transmittance of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is 1.43 at 385 nm wavelength and 85-90%, respectively. The PDMS was used to fabricate the optics lens for UV-LEDs. The average illumination and the uniformity could be obtained by increasing the number of UV-LEDs and the spacing of different arrangement modes. After exposure process with PDMS lens, about 5% inaccuracy was obtained. Comparing to 10% inaccuracy of general exposure system, it shows that it is available to replace conventional exposure lamp with using UV-LEDs.

  17. Electron emission and fragmentation of molecules in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, K.; Prümper, G.; Hatamoto, T.; Okunishi, M.; Mathur, D.

    2007-06-01

    We have constructed an apparatus for high-resolution electron spectroscopy and electron-ion coincidence experiments on gas-phase molecules in intense laser fields. The apparatus comprises an electron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer and an ion TOF spectrometer with a position detector, placed on either side of an effusive molecular beam. The ionizing radiation is either the fundamental (800 nm wavelength) of a Ti:sapphire laser or frequency doubled 400-nm light, with pulse durations of ~ 150 fs and the repetition rate of 1 kHz. We have investigated the electron emission and fragmentation of linear alcohol molecules, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol, in laser fields with peak intensities up to ~ 1×10 14 W/cm2. Details of our apparatus are described along with an overview of some recent results.

  18. Intensity calibration and flat-field correction for fluorescence microscopes.

    PubMed

    Model, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Standardization in fluorescence microscopy involves calibration of intensity in reproducible units and correction for spatial nonuniformity of illumination (flat-field or shading correction). Both goals can be achieved using concentrated solutions of fluorescent dyes. When a drop of a highly concentrated fluorescent dye is placed between a slide and a coverslip it produces a spatially uniform field, resistant to photobleaching and with reproducible quantum yield; it can be used as a brightness standard for wide-field and confocal microscopes. For wide-field microscopes, calibration can be further extended to absolute molecular units. This can be done by imaging a solution of known concentration and known depth; the latter can be prepared by placing a small spherical lens in a diluted solution of the same fluorophore that is used in the biological specimen.

  19. Intense ionospheric electric and magnetic field pulses generated by lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Ding, J. G.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and magnetic field measurements have been made in the ionosphere over an active thunderstorm and an optical detector onboard the same rocket yielded an excellent time base for the study of waves radiated into space from the discharge. In addition to detection of intense, but generally well understood whistler mode waves, very unusual electric and magnetic field pulses preceded the 1-10 kHz component of the radiated signal. These pulses lasted several ms and had a significant electric field component parallel to the magnetic field. No known propagating wave mode has this polarization nor a signal propagation velocity as high as those measured here. This study investigated and rejected an explanation based on an anomalous skin depth effect. Although only a hypothesis at this time, a more promising explanation involving the generation of the pulse via a nonlinear decay of whistler mode waves in the frequency range 10-80 kHz is being investigated.

  20. Atoms, molecules and clusters in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Zachary B.

    Recent advances in the technology of intense, short laser pulses have opened the possibility of investigating processes in atoms, molecules and clusters in which the normal intramolecular forces between electrons and nuclei, and between different electrons, are rivaled in strength by interactions with the driving laser, or with a cluster plasma. Experiments using rescattered electrons offer a means of probing atomic and molecular processes on ultrafast timescales. This thesis extends techniques and concepts of atomic and molecular physics to describe physics in the strong field regime. This involves investigating how electron scattering from atoms and molecules is affected by the intense and time-varying electric field of the laser, the effect of such scattering on experimental observables, and the role of intramolecular structure on strong field processes. Also investigated is the evolution of van derWaals atomic clusters when subject to intense laser pulses in the VUV regime. Here processes such as photoionization, inverse bremsstrahlung heating, and collisional ionization and recombination are affected both by the non-hydrogenic nature of the relevant atomic potentials but also by the screening of these potentials by the cluster plasma.

  1. Gene and Protein Expression following Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields from Mobile Phones

    PubMed Central

    Vanderstraeten, Jacques; Verschaeve, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1999, several articles have been published on genome-wide and/or proteome-wide response after exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields whose signal and intensities were similar to or typical of those of currently used mobile telephones. These studies were performed using powerful high-throughput screening techniques (HTSTs) of transcriptomics and/or proteomics, which allow for the simultaneous screening of the expression of thousands of genes or proteins. Objectives We reviewed these HTST-based studies and compared the results with currently accepted concepts about the effects of RF fields on gene expression. In this article we also discuss these last in light of the recent concept of microwave-assisted chemistry. Discussion To date, the results of HTST-based studies of transcriptomics and/or proteomics after exposure to RF fields relevant to human exposure are still inconclusive, as most of the positive reports are flawed by methodologic imperfections or shortcomings. In addition, when positive findings were reported, no precise response pattern could be identified in a reproducible way. In particular, results from HTST studies tend to exclude the role of a cell stressor for exposure to RF fields at nonthermal intensities. However, on the basis of lessons from microwave-assisted chemistry, we can assume that RF fields might affect heat-sensitive gene or protein expression to an extent larger than would be predicted from temperature change only. But in all likelihood, this would concern intensities higher than those relevant to usual human exposure. Conclusions The precise role of transcriptomics and proteomics in the screening of bioeffects from exposure to RF fields from mobile phones is still uncertain in view of the lack of positively identified phenotypic change and the lack of theoretical, as well as experimental, arguments for specific gene and/or protein response patterns after this kind of exposure. PMID:18795152

  2. Technical brief: Constant intense light exposure to lesion and initiate regeneration in normally pigmented zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Kamya; Summerbell, Emily R.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish are capable of robust and spontaneous regeneration of injured retina. Constant intense light exposure to adult albino zebrafish specifically causes apoptosis of rod and cone photoreceptor cells and is an excellent model to study the molecular mechanisms underlying photoreceptor regeneration. However, this paradigm has only been applied to lesion zebrafish of the nonpigmented albino genetic background, which precludes the use of numerous transgenic reporter lines that are widely used to study regeneration. Here, we explored the effectiveness of constant intense light exposure in causing photoreceptor apoptosis and stimulating regeneration in normally pigmented zebrafish retinas. We show that constant intense light exposure causes widespread photoreceptor damage in the dorsal-central retinas of pigmented zebrafish. Photoreceptor loss triggers dedifferentiation and proliferation of Müller glia as well as progenitor cell proliferation. We also demonstrate that the timeline of regeneration response is comparable between the albino and the pigmented retinas. PMID:25324680

  3. The dynamics of small molecules in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posthumus, J. H.

    2004-05-01

    In the past decade, the understanding of the dynamics of small molecules in intense laser fields has advanced enormously. At the same time, the technology of ultra-short pulsed lasers has equally progressed to such an extent that femtosecond lasers are now widely available. This review is written from an experimentalist's point of view and begins by discussing the value of this research and defining the meaning of the word 'intense'. It continues with describing the Ti : sapphire laser, including topics such as pulse compression, chirped pulse amplification, optical parametric amplification, laser-pulse diagnostics and the absolute phase. Further aspects include focusing, the focal volume effect and space charge. The discussion of physics begins with the Keldysh parameter and the three regimes of ionization, i.e. multi-photon, tunnelling and over-the-barrier. Direct-double ionization (non-sequential ionization), high-harmonic generation, above-threshold ionization and attosecond pulses are briefly mentioned. Subsequently, a theoretical calculation, which solves the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, is compared with an experimental result. The dynamics of H_{2}^{ + } in an intense laser field is interpreted in terms of bond-softening, vibrational trapping (bond-hardening), below-threshold dissociation and laser-induced alignment of the molecular axis. The final section discusses the modified Franck-Condon principle, enhanced ionization at critical distances and Coulomb explosion of diatomic and triatomic molecules.

  4. Intense magnetic field generation by solidification and crustal delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, J. A.; Bryson, J. F. J.; Nimmo, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic measurements of meteorites suggest that asteroidal magnetic fields are a common feature of the early solar system [1,2]. The iron cores of different asteroids may solidify in different ways [3]. For the IVA iron meteorite parent body the rapid cooling rates and correlation with Ni concentrations further suggest that their parent body was entirely metal, and that solidification of their parent asteroid proceeded from the top down. Here we present model constraints on the thermo-chemical evolution of such rapidly cooled iron asteroids. We show that the temperature of the liquid is rapidly well mixed, and equal to the composition-dependent freezing point, and that thermal convection contributes only at early times to generation of intense magnetic fields and is therefore not sufficient to explain the generation of a dynamo. Instead, we propose that viscous delamination [4] at the base of the solidifying, dense crust provides a sufficient buoyancy flux to generate a magnetic field with properties consistent with those inferred from paleomagnetic measurements of the two IVA meteorites [5]. A model that captures the aggregate effect of episodic delamination events predicts the evolution of the crust and the formation and growth of the asteroid core, the intensity and directional evolution of the magnetic field through time, and the times at which magnetic field generation ceases and total asteroid solidification occur. These predictions can be compared directly with recent measurements of IVA iron meteorites [5] with implications for top-down solidification, the solid structure of the IVA parent core, and magnetic field generation both on the IVA parent body, and wider implications for top-down core solidification generally. [1] Weiss et al. Space Sci. Rev. 152, 341-390 (2010). [2] Tarduno et al. Science. 338, 939-942 (2012). [3] Williams Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 284, 564-569 (2009) [4] Molnar et al. Geophys. J. Int. 133, 568-584 (1998) [5] Bryson et

  5. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2015-05-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  6. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    PubMed

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  7. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields.

  8. Palaeomagnetic field intensity variations suggest Mesoproterozoic inner-core nucleation.

    PubMed

    Biggin, A J; Piispa, E J; Pesonen, L J; Holme, R; Paterson, G A; Veikkolainen, T; Tauxe, L

    2015-10-08

    The Earth's inner core grows by the freezing of liquid iron at its surface. The point in history at which this process initiated marks a step-change in the thermal evolution of the planet. Recent computational and experimental studies have presented radically differing estimates of the thermal conductivity of the Earth's core, resulting in estimates of the timing of inner-core nucleation ranging from less than half a billion to nearly two billion years ago. Recent inner-core nucleation (high thermal conductivity) requires high outer-core temperatures in the early Earth that complicate models of thermal evolution. The nucleation of the core leads to a different convective regime and potentially different magnetic field structures that produce an observable signal in the palaeomagnetic record and allow the date of inner-core nucleation to be estimated directly. Previous studies searching for this signature have been hampered by the paucity of palaeomagnetic intensity measurements, by the lack of an effective means of assessing their reliability, and by shorter-timescale geomagnetic variations. Here we examine results from an expanded Precambrian database of palaeomagnetic intensity measurements selected using a new set of reliability criteria. Our analysis provides intensity-based support for the dominant dipolarity of the time-averaged Precambrian field, a crucial requirement for palaeomagnetic reconstructions of continents. We also present firm evidence for the existence of very long-term variations in geomagnetic strength. The most prominent and robust transition in the record is an increase in both average field strength and variability that is observed to occur between a billion and 1.5 billion years ago. This observation is most readily explained by the nucleation of the inner core occurring during this interval; the timing would tend to favour a modest value of core thermal conductivity and supports a simple thermal evolution model for the Earth.

  9. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed.

  10. DC response of hot carriers under circularly polarized intense microwave fields and intense magnetic fields in quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Norihisa

    2013-12-04

    Hot carrier dynamics under intense microwave and crossed magnetic fields are investigated theoretically for the case that the dominant scattering process is inelastic collision, especially intersubband and intrasubband transition in Quantum wells. If the applied electric fields are circularly polarized, the equation of motion forms symmetric on the x-y plane. But the carrier motions are complicated to accumulate because of acceleration and emission process. This situation makes possible to create a variation of the carrier motion, typically the carrier bunching is occurred. This state is a sort of population inversion. The DC response of this system attains strongly negative at appropriate field conditions. Through the simulation for the real case described below, it may include a type of induced emission.

  11. Estimating worker exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzl, T.B.

    1992-01-01

    For a case-control study of brain cancer at a large automobile transmission plant, a strategy was developed to use two types of instruments to measure personal exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields. A representative group of 81 workers were asked to wear a data-logging dosimeter for one-half shift apiece. This instrument recorded 3-axis magnetic field values every 4 seconds. With little clarity about the biologic process which might connect these magnetic fields to cancer promotion, several indices summarizing exposure variability over time were computed. A new index of [open quotes]jaggedness[close quotes] was also computed, since some human studies suggest very uneven exposure profiles are the most biologically active, possibly via interference with melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland. Comparisons between the several exposure indices showed moderately high correlations between indices which were sensitive to peak exposures, but other indices were less well correlated. To test a simpler measurement strategy, a hand-held direct reading instrument was also used, with multiple measurements taken at the head and waist for most workstations. These were averaged and combined with time estimates to give[open quote] built-up[close quote] average exposures. Correlations were high (r = 0.8) between these built-up averages and averages derived from the datalogger records. It was possible to assign job titles to three distinct exposure categories based on measures of the central tendency of the distributions of measured exposures. By ranking job groups by their average exposures, electricians and non-production grinders were placed in a high exposure category, assemblers and material handlers were placed in a low category, and all other jobs were placed in a medium exposure category. Analysis of variance, with influence analysis, was used to determine that these categories had significant exposure differences from one another.

  12. Absence of acute ocular damage in humans after prolonged exposure to intense RF EMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibzadeh, F.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Verduijn, G. M.; Naus-Postema, N. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The eye is considered to be a critical organ when determining safety standards for radio frequency (RF) radiation. Experimental data obtained using animals showed that RF heating of the eye, particularly over a specific threshold, can induce cataracts. During the treatment of cancer in the head and neck by hyperthermia, the eyes receive a considerable dose of RF radiation due to stray radiation from the prolonged (60 min) and intense exposure at 434 MHz of this region. In the current study, we verified the exposure guidelines for humans by determining the association between the electromagnetic and thermal dose in the eyes with the reported ocular effects. We performed a simulation study to retrospectively assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature increase in the eyes of 16 selected patients (encompassing a total of 74 treatment sessions) whose treatment involved high power delivery as well as a minimal distance between the tumor site and the eye. Our results show that the basic restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (10 W kg-1) and peak tissue temperature increase (1 °C) are exceeded by up to 10.4 and 4.6 times, on average, and by at least 6.2 and 1.8 times when considering the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval. Evaluation of the acute effects according to patients’ feedback (all patients), the common toxicity criteria scores (all patients) and an ophthalmology investigation (one patient with the highest exposure) revealed no indication of any serious acute ocular effect, even though the eyes were exposed to high electromagnetic fields, leading to a high thermal dose. We also found that, although there is a strong correlation (R 2  =  0.88) between the predicted induced SAR and temperature in the eye, there are large uncertainties regarding the temperature-SAR relationship. Given this large uncertainty (129%) compared with the uncertainty of 3D temperature simulations (61%), we recommend using temperature

  13. Absence of acute ocular damage in humans after prolonged exposure to intense RF EMF.

    PubMed

    Adibzadeh, F; van Rhoon, G C; Verduijn, G M; Naus-Postema, N C; Paulides, M M

    2016-01-21

    The eye is considered to be a critical organ when determining safety standards for radio frequency (RF) radiation. Experimental data obtained using animals showed that RF heating of the eye, particularly over a specific threshold, can induce cataracts. During the treatment of cancer in the head and neck by hyperthermia, the eyes receive a considerable dose of RF radiation due to stray radiation from the prolonged (60 min) and intense exposure at 434 MHz of this region. In the current study, we verified the exposure guidelines for humans by determining the association between the electromagnetic and thermal dose in the eyes with the reported ocular effects. We performed a simulation study to retrospectively assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature increase in the eyes of 16 selected patients (encompassing a total of 74 treatment sessions) whose treatment involved high power delivery as well as a minimal distance between the tumor site and the eye. Our results show that the basic restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (10 W kg(-1)) and peak tissue temperature increase (1 °C) are exceeded by up to 10.4 and 4.6 times, on average, and by at least 6.2 and 1.8 times when considering the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval. Evaluation of the acute effects according to patients' feedback (all patients), the common toxicity criteria scores (all patients) and an ophthalmology investigation (one patient with the highest exposure) revealed no indication of any serious acute ocular effect, even though the eyes were exposed to high electromagnetic fields, leading to a high thermal dose. We also found that, although there is a strong correlation (R (2) =  0.88) between the predicted induced SAR and temperature in the eye, there are large uncertainties regarding the temperature-SAR relationship. Given this large uncertainty (129%) compared with the uncertainty of 3D temperature simulations (61%), we recommend using temperature simulations as a

  14. Exposure scheme separates effects of electric shock and electric field for honey bees, Apis mellifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.; Greenberg, B.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms to explain disturbance of honey bee colonies under a 765-kV, 60-Hz transmission line (electric (E) field = 7 kV/m) fall into two categories: direct bee perception of enhanced in-hive E fields, and perception of shock from induced currents. The same adverse biological effects previously observed in honey bee colonies exposed under a 765-kV transmission line can be reproduced by exposing worker bees to shock or E field within elongated hive entranceways (= tunnels). Exposure to intense E field caused disturbance only if bees were in contact with a conductive substrate. E-field and shock exposure can be separated and precisely defined within tunnels, eliminating dosimetric vagaries that occur when entire hives are exposed to E field.

  15. Analyses of magnetic-field peak-exposure summary measures.

    PubMed

    Mezei, Gabor; Bracken, T Dan; Senior, Russell; Kavet, Robert

    2006-11-01

    Two previous epidemiologic studies reported an association between the maximum magnetic field exposure logged during a 24-h measurement period and risk of miscarriage. A hypothesis was put forth which argued that the observed association may be the result of behavioral differences between women with healthy pregnancies (less physically active) and women with miscarriage. We analyzed four existing data sets with power-frequency magnetic-field personal exposure (PE) measurements to investigate the characteristics of peak-exposure measures. We found that the value of the measured maximum magnetic-field exposure varied inversely with the sampling interval between magnetic-field measurements and that maximum values demonstrated less stability over time in repeated measurements, compared to time-weighted average and 95th and 99th -percentile values. We also found that the number of activity categories entered by study subjects could be used to estimate the proportion of subjects with exposure above various threshold values. Exposure metrics based on maximum values exceeding thresholds tend to classify active people into higher exposure categories. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis suggesting that the association between maximum magnetic fields and miscarriage are possibly the result of behavioral differences between women with healthy pregnancies and women who experience miscarriages. Thus, generalization from a given study to more global exposure characterization should be made with particular caution and with due consideration to sampling interval and other characteristics of the measurement protocol potentially influencing the measured maximum. Future epidemiologic studies of peak magnetic field exposure and spontaneous abortion should carefully evaluate the potential confounding effect of the women's activity level during pregnancy.

  16. Effect of intense laser IR fields on triatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. V.; Panchenko, V. Ia.; Chugunov, A. V.

    1986-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the effect of intense laser IR fields on triatomic molecular gases are presented with particular emphasis on ozone. Experiments were conducted in single- and double-frequency IR fields at power densities ranging from 10 to the -6th to 10 GW/sq cm in the pulsed regime and 0.001 to 100 W/sq cm in the CW regime; studies were performed using a TEA CO2 laser system. Attention is given to: the nonlinear absorption spectrum; the dependence of absorption in ozone on the power density of incident radiation; results of numerical solutions; the analytical solution; two-photon resonances in the ozone absorption spectrum; the spectrum of double-frequency IR-IR absorption; cascade-excitation channels; and laser-stimulated explosion in ozone.

  17. Office worker exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hiebert, D.G.

    1994-05-01

    A study of office worker exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The main purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess ELF MF exposures. A secondary objective was to determine whether or not exposures to ELF MF can be reduced by implementing administrative controls and educating workers on the sources of such fields. EMDEX dosimeters were used to determine full shift personal exposures for 12 volunteers from two personnel sections and one training section. In addition, using the EMDEX meter in survey mode, office area evaluations were conducted. Administrative controls and training were implemented in an attempt to reduce exposures. Post control monitoring was conducted to determine if a reduction in ELF MF occurred among the workers. On average, baseline office worker exposures to ELF MF were 2.3 mG, ranging from 0.6 to 9.7 mG. The post control exposures averaged 1.1 mG with a range from 0.5 to 2.2 mG. A reduction of 53% overall was seen after implementation of administrative controls and training. The office area survey indicated that many sources of ELF MF influence exposure and that magnetic field strengths vary not only from one type of equipment to another, but also vary between two similar pieces of equipment.

  18. Electromagnetic cascades and the depletion of intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, Stepan; Seipt, Daniel; Heinzl, Thomas; Marklund, Mattias; Ji, Qing; Steinke, Sven; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim P.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of electrons, positrons, and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multi-photon Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution. Moreover the multi-photon nature of Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to a significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. The relevance of these results to the proposed BELLA-i beamline at BELLA center at LBNL is discussed. We acknowledge support from the Office of Science of the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  19. Magnetic field exposures in an automobile transmission plant.

    PubMed

    Wenzl, T B; Kriebel, D; Eisen, E A; Tolbert, P; Hallock, M

    1997-01-01

    Inconsistent findings from recent mortality studies of workers exposed to magnetic fields have led to calls for more detailed understanding of exposure distributions and metrics in various industries. The authors undertook personal monitoring at an automobile transmission plant to (a) learn if magnetic field exposure differences were present, (b) make assignments for a brain cancer study, and (c) compare two exposure indices. A wide range of average exposures occurred (i.e., 0.016-4.6 microtesla). Within-day variability was also large, and it reached 4 orders of magnitude for some workers. Unexpectedly, demagnetizers were found among the strong sources that contributed to elevated exposures. The authors used conventional summary measures to assign job groups to exposure categories, and they used a new index of exposure irregularity to make alternative assignments. These new assignments appeared to differ from the original ones with respect to work time in each exposure group (i.e., 54% of the work time fell into different exposure categories).

  20. Chronic exposure to ELF fields may induce depression

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric or magnetic fields has been postulated as a potentially contributing factor in depression. Epidemiologic studies have yielded positive correlations between magnetic- and/or electric-field strengths in local environments and the incidence of depression-related suicide. Chronic exposure to ELF electric or magnetic fields can disrupt normal circadian rhythms in rat pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase activity as well as in serotonin and melatonin concentrations. Such disruptions in the circadian rhythmicity of pineal melatonin secretion have been associated with certain depressive disorders in human beings. In the rat, ELF fields may interfere with tonic aspects of neuronal input to the pineal gland, giving rise to what may be termed functional pinealectomy. If long-term exposure to ELF fields causes pineal dysfunction in human beings as it does in the rat, such dysfunction may contribute to the onset of depression or may exacerbate existing depressive disorders. 85 references.

  1. Small animal electric and magnetic field exposure systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.C.; Dietrich, F.M.

    1993-10-01

    Laboratory evaluation of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and cancer in animals requires exposure of relatively large numbers of animals, usually rats or mice, to 60-Hz fields under very well controlled conditions for periods of up to two years. This report describes two exposure systems, the first of which is based on modifications of an existing electric field exposure system to include magnetic field exposure capability. In this system, each module houses 576--768 mice, which can be exposed to electric field levels of up to 100 kV/m and magnetic field levels of up to 10 Gauss. When a module was operated at 10 Gauss, measured levels of noise and vibration fell substantially below the detection threshold for humans. Moreover, temperature rise in the coils did not exceed 12{degrees}C at the 10 Gauss level. Specifications and test results for the second system, which provides magnetic field exposure capability only, are similar, except that each module houses 624--780 mice. After installation of the second system at the West Los Angeles Veterans Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, additional results were obtained. This report provides a complete description of the engineering design, specifications, and test results for the completed systems.

  2. Echolocation behavior in big brown bats is not impaired after intense broadband noise exposures.

    PubMed

    Hom, Kelsey N; Linnenschmidt, Meike; Simmons, James A; Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2016-10-15

    Echolocating bats emit trains of intense ultrasonic biosonar pulses and listen to weaker echoes returning from objects in their environment. Identification and categorization of echoes are crucial for orientation and prey capture. Bats are social animals and often fly in groups in which they are exposed to their own emissions and to those from other bats, as well as to echoes from multiple surrounding objects. Sound pressure levels in these noisy conditions can exceed 110 dB, with no obvious deleterious effects on echolocation performance. Psychophysical experiments show that big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) do not experience temporary threshold shifts after exposure to intense broadband ultrasonic noise, but it is not known if they make fine-scale adjustments in their pulse emissions to compensate for any effects of the noise. We investigated whether big brown bats adapt the number, temporal patterning or relative amplitude of their emitted pulses while flying through an acoustically cluttered corridor after exposure to intense broadband noise (frequency range 10-100 kHz; sound exposure level 152 dB). Under these conditions, four bats made no significant changes in navigation errors or in pulse number, timing and amplitude 20 min, 24 h or 48 h after noise exposure. These data suggest that big brown bats remain able to perform difficult echolocation tasks after exposure to ecologically realistic levels of broadband noise.

  3. Evidence for the initiation of decompression sickness by exposure to intense underwater sound

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Dror; Shachar-Bener, Hofit; Hershkovitz, Dov; Arieli, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Mass stranding of cetaceans (whales and dolphins), in close association with the activity of naval sonar systems, has been reported on numerous occasions. Necropsy showed bubble-associated lesions similar to those described in human decompression sickness (DCS). We examined the hypothesis that exposure to underwater sound may potentiate DCS. Rats were subjected to immersion and simulated dives with and without simultaneous acoustic transmissions at pressure levels and frequencies of 204 dB/8 kHz and 183.3 dB/15 kHz. DCS severity was assessed using the rotating wheel method. Recording of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) was employed under general anesthesia as an electrophysiological measure of neurologic insult. A significantly higher rate of decompression sickness was found among animals exposed to the 204-dB/8-kHz sound field. Significantly higher pathological SSEPs scores were noted for both underwater sound protocols. Pathological SSEPs scores in animals immersed during the acoustic transmissions, but without changes in ambient pressure, were comparable to those observed in animals exposed to the dive profile. The results demonstrate induction of neurological damage by intense underwater sound during immersion, with a further deleterious effect when this was combined with decompression stress. The study outcome has potential implications for human diving safety and may provide an explanation for the mass stranding of cetaceans purportedly associated with sonar activity. PMID:26133802

  4. Representative electromagnetic field intensities near the Clam Lake, Wisconsin and Republic, Michigan ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields produced by ELF antennas and commercial power lines at Clam Lake, WI, and by commercial power lines at Republic, MI, have been measured at residences, businesses and forest recreational areas for the continuing assessment of the Navy's ELF Communications Program. The ELF fields from existing antennas at Clam Lake, and from power lines in both states are low. Introducing ELF antenna fields at Republic, MI in several years will not significantly change the electromagnetic environment there. The existing field intensities are interpreted and compared with independent expert, judgment, professional standards-setting and judicial and administrative law opinions regarding safe exposure of the public to ELF electromagnetic fields.

  5. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cech, R.; Leitgeb, N.; Pediaditis, M.

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

  6. Dissociation dynamics of diatomic molecules in intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia

    We study the dynamics of diatomic molecules (dimers) in intense IR and XUV laser fields theoretically and compare the results with measured data in collaboration with different experimental groups worldwide. The first three chapters of the thesis cover the introduction and the background on solving time-independent and time-dependent Schrodinger equation. The numerical results in this thesis are presented in four chapters, three of which are focused on diatomic molecules in IR fields. The last one concentrates on diatomic molecules in XUV pulses. The study of nuclear dynamics of H2 or D2 molecules in IR pulses is given in Chapter 4. First, we investigate the optimal laser parameters for observing field-induced bond softening and bond hardening in D2+. Next, the nuclear dynamics of H2 + molecular ions in intense laser fields are investigated by analyzing their fragment kinetic-energy release (KER) spectra as a function of the pump-probe delay τ Lastly, the electron localization is studied for long circularly polarized laser pulses. Chapter 5 covers the dissociation dynamics of O2+ in an IR laser field. The fragment KER spectra are analyzed as a function of the pump-probe delay τ Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we calculate ab-initio adiabatic potential-energy curves and their electric dipole couplings, using the quantum chemistry code GAMESS. In Chapter 6, the dissociation dynamics of the noble gas dimer ions He 2+, Ne2+, Ar2 +, Kr2+, and Xe2 + is investigated in ultrashort pump and probe laser pulses of different wavelengths. We observe a striking "delay gap" in the pump-probe-delay-dependent KER spectrum only if the probe-pulse wavelength exceeds the pump-pulse wavelength. Comparing pump-probe-pulse-delay dependent KER spectra for different noble gas dimer cations, we quantitatively discuss quantum-mechanical versus classical aspects of the nuclear vibrational motion as a function of the nuclear mass. Chapter 7 focuses on diatomic molecules in XUV

  7. A comparative evaluation of three hydrophones and a numerical model in high intensity focused ultrasound fields.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julian; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Durando, Gianni; Shaw, Adam

    2012-02-01

    The pressure fields of two different high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers operated in burst mode were measured at acoustical power levels of 25 and 50 W (continuous wave equivalent) with three different hydrophones: A fiber-optic displacement sensor, a commercial HIFU needle hydrophone, and a prototype of a membrane hydrophone with a protective coating against cavitation effects. Additionally, the fields were modeled using a freely available simulations software package. The measured waveforms, the peak pressure profiles, as well as the spatial-peak temporal-average intensities from the different devices and from the modeling are compared and possible reasons for differences are discussed. The results clearly show that reliable pressure measurements in HIFU fields remain a difficult task concerning both the reliability of the measured values and the robustness of the sensors used: Only the fiber-optic hydrophone survived all four exposure regimes and the measured spatial-peak temporal-average intensities varied by a factor of up to 1.5 between the measurements and the modeling and between the measurements among themselves.

  8. Malnutrition and overcrowding/intensive exposure in severe measles infection: review of community studies.

    PubMed

    Aaby, P

    1988-01-01

    Most hospital studies of measles mortality suggest that high case fatality ratios are associated with malnutrition. However, no community study has documented this association. On the contrary, several community studies from Africa and Asia have found no relation between nutritional status and risk of severe or fatal measles. Instead, overcrowding and intensive exposure may be more important determinants of measles mortality. Clustering of several cases in the family and/or intensive exposure were associated with high measles mortality in community studies in West Africa, Bangladesh, and England. Thus sociocultural factors that concentrate many susceptible children in the home may increase the case-fatality ratio in measles. Conversely, this ratio will be lower when measles cases are dispersed. Siblings in rural areas, where long intervals separate epidemics, run a higher risk of contracting measles simultaneously than do their urban counterparts. Measles vaccination increases herd immunity and diminishes the clustering of several cases in a family. Vaccination may therefore reduce mortality even among unvaccinated children who contract measles. Crowding and intensive exposure may partly explain regional and historical variations in measles mortality; community studies suggest that mortality is high when a high proportion of measles patients have secondary cases (acquired through exposure at home).

  9. Behavioral evidence for possible simultaneous induction of hyperacusis and tinnitus following intense sound exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Lee, C; Sandridge, S A; Butler, H M; Manzoor, N F; Kaltenbach, J A

    2013-06-01

    Many human subjects suffering from chronic tinnitus also suffer from hyperacusis, a heightened perception of loudness at moderate to intense sound levels. While numerous studies suggest that animals develop chronic tinnitus following intense noise exposure, it is not yet clear whether sound exposure also induces chronic hyperacusis-like responses in animals. We addressed this question by examining the chronic effects of intense sound exposure on the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its suppression by background noise containing brief gaps. We compared startle amplitudes in intense tone-exposed (10 kHz, 115 dB SPL, 4 h) and age-matched controls at 2-28 weeks post-exposure. While both groups showed similar startle thresholds, exposed animals showed a hyperacusis-like augmentation of ASR at high stimulus levels. Addition of background noise had little effect on ASR in controls but had a strong suppressive effect on startle in exposed animals, indicating a sensitization to background noise. When the background noise contained a gap preceding the startle stimulus, ASR was suppressed in control animals, but exposed animals showed a marked weakening of gap-induced suppression of ASR. This weakening of gap-induced startle suppression is consistent with the interpretation that the gap may have been masked by tinnitus. The associated hyper-responsiveness to startle stimuli presented alone and the sensitization to background noise suggest that hyperacusis may have also been induced. The results indicate that noise exposure leads to increases in the gain of auditory responsiveness and may offer a model of the association of hyperacusis with tinnitus.

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z.; Will, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

  11. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  12. Static fields: biological effects and mechanisms relevant to exposure limits.

    PubMed

    van Rongen, Eric; Saunders, Richard D; van Deventer, Emilie T; Repacholi, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    Recently, the International EMF Project of the World Health Organization (WHO) published an Environmental Health Criteria monograph on static electric and magnetic fields. In the present paper a short overview is given of the biological and health effects discussed in this document. The main conclusions are that no acute effects other than transient phenomena such as vertigo and nausea have been observed with exposure to static magnetic flux densities up to 8 T. There are no reports of long term or chronic adverse effects following prolonged static magnetic field exposure, but few data are available on which to base any judgment. The guidelines on static field exposure recommended by ICNIRP in 1994 are discussed in the light of current scientific knowledge.

  13. Early exposure of rotating magnetic fields promotes central nervous regeneration in planarian Girardia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Lin, Gui-miao; Wu, Nan; Tang, Sheng-wei; Zheng, Zhi-jia; Lin, Marie Chia-mi; Xu, Gai-xia; Liu, Hao; Deng, Yue-yue; Zhang, Xiao-yun; Chen, Si-ping; Wang, Xiao-mei; Niu, Han-ben

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field exposure is an accepted safe and effective modality for nerve injury. However, it is clinically used only as a supplement or salvage therapy at the later stage of treatment. Here, we used a planarian Girardia sinensis decapitated model to investigate beneficial effects of early rotary non-uniform magnetic fields (RMFs) exposure on central nervous regeneration. Our results clearly indicated that magnetic stimulation induced from early RMFs exposure significantly promoted neural regeneration of planarians. This stimulating effect is frequency and intensity dependent. Optimum effects were obtained when decapitated planarians were cultured at 20 °C, starved for 3 days before head-cutting, and treated with 6 Hz 0.02 T RMFs. At early regeneration stage, RMFs exposure eliminated edema around the wound and facilitated subsequent formation of blastema. It also accelerated cell proliferation and recovery of neuron functionality. Early RMFs exposure up-regulated expression of neural regeneration related proteins, EGR4 and Netrin 2, and mature nerve cell marker proteins, NSE and NPY. These results suggest that RMFs therapy produced early and significant benefit in central nervous regeneration, and should be clinically used at the early stage of neural regeneration, with appropriate optimal frequency and intensity.

  14. Modelling and design of extremely low frequency uniform magnetic field exposure apparatus for in vivo bioelectromagnetic studies.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovic, D; Cosic, I

    2007-01-01

    Helmholtz coils are regularly utilised for various extremely low frequency (ELF) bioelectromagnetic experiments. The evaluation was conducted for the Helmholtz coil magnetic field frequency and uniformity, characterised by frequency-domain and geometric ELF magnetic exposure characteristics. An established approach which consisted of the mathematical calculations of the geometric parameters, computational modeling, and experimental development measurements of the Helmholtz coil's magnetic field frequency and uniformity, improved the quality of magnetic field uniformity and minimised the magnetic field intensity losses.

  15. The determinants of Canadian children's personal exposures to magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, B G; Deadman, J; McBride, M L

    2001-04-01

    Study of the health effects of magnetic fields often depends on identifying determinants and hence indicators of personal exposure. This study identified determinants of children's exposure to magnetic fields and constructed a prediction model for them. For 632 children participating in a case-control study of childhood leukemia, we made direct measures of exposure over 48 h using a portable device, together with observations on candidate determinants. A child's age and sex, the proportion of time spent in the home, and their parents' education or income were very weak predictors of (logged) mean 48 h magnetic field (R(2) < 1%). More important were province (R(2) = 8.0%) and type of residence (R(2) = 11.3%). Low temperatures at the time of measurement were associated with high fields (about 20% increase for each 10 degrees C below 14, R(2) = 4.9%). Several visible attributes of wiring around residences predicted exposure, mostly captured in the Wertheimer-Leeper wire code (R(2) = 13.5%). Stationary 24 h measurement in the bedroom (R(2) = 63.3%) and spot measurements outside the house (R(2) = 40.7%) predicted personal exposures best. Adding other minor predictors increased only slightly variance explained by 24 h stationary (R(2) = 66.2%) and spot (R(2) = 46.8%) measurements. Without spot or stationary measurements, the best model was much less powerful (R(2) = 29.0%). We conclude that spot measurements outside the residence provide a moderately effective basis for estimating exposure for children living there, but do not perform as well as 24 h stationary measurements in the child's bedroom. Although several other easily-observed variables were associated with personal exposure, they were weak determinants, either individually or in combination.

  16. Pulse activity of populations of cortical neurons under microwave exposures of different intensity.

    PubMed

    Chizhenkova, R A

    2004-06-01

    In rabbit pulse flows of populations of cortical neurons were investigated prior to, during, and after 1-min microwave irradiation (wavelength 37.5 cm, power density 0.2-40 mW/cm2). It was found that the microwave irradiation produced shifts in mean values of interspike intervals and in the number of spike bursts. Peculiarities of rearrangements of pulse flows of cortical neurons were conditioned by an intensity of exposures.

  17. Slope stability improvement using low intensity field electrosmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armillotta, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    The electrosmosis technique has been introduced in the past for slope stabilization. However, its application to real cases has been scarce due to several drawbacks mostly related to the high intensity electric field needed (1.0 V/cm or higher): the rapid degradation of the electrodes, the high system management cost, the heating and cracking of the soil and the reduction of its colloidal fraction. Thanks to the introduction of new materials, the technique is currently applied to decrease the consolidation time of saturated clay soils (forcing the elimination of water), consequently improving its mechanical strength. In clay soils, the volume variation is influenced by the presence of smectites. The clay compressibility decreases with the increasing of electrolytes concentration. Soil containing smectites that have interacted with calcium showed a reduction or the absence of swelling during hydration with distilled water and a positive increase of their shear strength. The different values of pH between the anode (acid) and the cathode (basic), induced by the electrosmosis create the conditions for the precipitation of CaCO3 near the cathode. The injection of solutions containing calcium in soils and their diffusion induced by the electrosmosis, lead to calcium precipitation and consequential increase of the shear strength. The material technological advances and the laboratory experiences described in this paper, demonstrate that the use low electric field (0.1 V/cm or lower) intensity electrosmosis (LEFE in acronym) can be effective for soil dewatering and shear strength increase while reducing its adverse effect. The LEFE can be used to: reduce the potential for swelling of active clay minerals through the introduction of ions and the precipitation of hardening substances; induce the "dewatering" in cohesive soils. Several Lab activities were carried out, using custom made electrosmosis equipment. These activities can be divided in two phases: Phase 1

  18. Effects of varying argon ion laser intensity and exposure time on the ablation of atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Strikwerda, S; Bott-Silverman, C; Ratliff, N B; Goormastic, M; Cothren, R M; Costello, B; Kittrell, C; Feld, M S; Kramer, J R

    1988-01-01

    Using continuous wave (CW) argon ion laser light, a total of 253 laser exposures of varying power (1.5, 3, 5, 8 or 10 W) and duration (20-1,333 ms) were delivered to four segments of human atheromatous aorta obtained at autopsy. Exposure conditions were controlled by using an optically shielded laser catheter that provided a 500 micron spot of light of known power. Two thresholds for consistently reproducible ablation could be defined-an intensity threshold at 25.5 W/mm2 and a fluence threshold at 3.2 J/mm2. Above threshold, a fluence of 5.1 J/mm2 was found to produce the most efficient ablation, ie, removed the greatest volume (mm3) per energy delivered (J) compared to other fluence levels employed (p less than 0.0001). Between aortic segments, however, considerable variability in efficiency (mm3/J) was observed, possibly owing to different optical properties and/or plaque composition. Low-intensity laser radiation produced inconsistent ablation and extensive coagulation effects to surrounding tissue. When a fluence of 5.1 J/mm2 was constructed with a high-intensity laser beam and a short exposure time, consistent and efficient tissue removal resulted without histologic evidence of coagulation necrosis.

  19. Fragmentation dynamics of Ar2^+ dimers in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, M.; Wu, J.; Dörner, R.; Thumm, U.

    2012-06-01

    We studied the fragmentation dynamics of the Ar2 dimers in 790 nm pump and 1400 nm probe pulses with intensities of 10^14 W/cm^2 by analyzing kinetic energy release (KER) spectra as a function of the pump probe delay. The KER spectra are measured by detecting Ar-ion fragments in a COLTRIMS [1] setup and are compared with model calculations based on the numerical propagations of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation [2]. The measured spectra are best reproduced by two-state calculations that include the adiabatic electronic states I(1/2)u and II(1/2)g of Ar2^+, dipole coupled in the pump- and probe-laser electric fields. [4pt] [1] J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. D"orner, PRA 83, 061403(R) (2011) [0pt] [2] M. Magrakvelidze, F. He, Th. Niederhausen, I. V. Litvinyuk, and U. Thumm, PRA 79, 033410 (2009).

  20. Zero-width resonances in intense-field molecular photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Atabek, Osman; Lefebvre, Roland; Gadea, Florent Xavier

    2006-12-15

    We provide additional evidence for the existence of zero-width resonances in the intense-field photodissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +}. In a previous investigation [Atabek, Chrysos, and Lefebvre, Phys. Rev. A 49, R8 (1994)] the situation, in a two-channel dressed picture, corresponded to a diabatic crossing point classically reachable in both adiabatic potentials. A semiclassical explanation could be modeled after that developed for predissociation in the intermediate-coupling regime. At higher frequencies the crossing point lies between the two turning points. A numerical study shows that zero-width resonances exist also in such a case. An extension of the semiclassical approach provides an explanation for the occurrence of these resonances. It is shown that they survive even when going to a multichannel description. The associated wave functions and probability densities are studied: they are very similar to those of the upper adiabatic potential, with a minor component in the lower adiabatic channel. Some conditions for the production of such long-lived dressed molecular species are stated.

  1. Noise exposure during early development impairs the processing of sound intensity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bures, Zbynek; Grécová, Jolana; Popelár, Jirí; Syka, Josef

    2010-07-01

    During the early postnatal development of rats, the structural and functional maturation of the central auditory nuclei strongly relies on the natural character of the incoming neural activity. Even a temporary deprivation in the critical period results in a deterioration of neuronal responsiveness in adult animals. We demonstrate that besides the poorer frequency selectivity of neurons in the impaired animals reported previously [Grecova et al. (2009)Eur. J. Neurosci. 29, 1921-1930], the neuronal representation of sound intensity is significantly affected. Rate-intensity functions of inferior colliculus neurons were recorded in anaesthetized adult rats that were exposed to intense noise at postnatal day 14, and compared with those obtained in age-matched controls. Although the response thresholds were similar in the exposed and control rats, the neurons in the exposed animals had a longer first-spike latency, a narrower dynamic range, lower maximum response magnitudes and a steeper slope of the rate-intensity functions. The percentage of monotonic neurons was significantly lower in the exposed animals. The observed anomalies were confined to the mid- and high-frequency regions, whereas no significant changes were found in the low-frequency neurons. The altered parameters of the individual rate-intensity functions led also to differences in the cumulative responses. We conclude that a brief noise exposure during the critical period leads to a frequency-dependent alteration of the sound intensity representation in the inferior colliculus of adult rats. The results suggest that such impairments may appear in individuals with normal hearing thresholds, but with a history of noise exposure very early in childhood.

  2. DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, PART II: FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to determine the adequacy of protocols for dietary exposure measurements. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of pesticides transferred from contaminated surfaces or hands to foods of young children and to validate a dietary mod...

  3. Electromagnetic field exposure assessment in Europe radiofrequency fields (10 MHz-6 GHz).

    PubMed

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Wiart, Joe; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Thuróczy, György

    2015-01-01

    Average levels of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of the general public in Europe are difficult to summarize, as exposure levels have been reported differently in those studies in which they have been measured, and a large proportion of reported measurements were very low, sometimes falling below detection limits of the equipment used. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the scientific literature on RF EMF exposure in Europe and to characterize exposure within the European population. A comparative analysis of the results of spot or long-term RF EMF measurements in the EU indicated that mean electric field strengths were between 0.08 V/m and 1.8 V/m. The overwhelming majority of measured mean electric field strengths were <1 V/m. It is estimated that <1% were above 6 V/m and <0.1% were above 20 V/m. No exposure levels exceeding European Council recommendations were identified in these surveys. Most population exposures from signals of radio and television broadcast towers were observed to be weak because these transmitters are usually far away from exposed individuals and are spatially sparsely distributed. On the other hand, the contribution made to RF exposure from wireless telecommunications technology is continuously increasing and its contribution was above 60% of the total exposure. According to the European exposure assessment studies identified, three population exposure categories (intermittent variable partial body exposure, intermittent variable low-level whole-body (WB) exposure and continuous low-level WB exposure) were recognized by the authors as informative for possible future risk assessment.

  4. Development of reading ability is facilitated by intensive exposure to a digital children's picture book

    PubMed Central

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Here the author presents preliminary evidence supporting the possibility that the reading ability of 4-year-old children can be improved as a consequence of intensive exposure to the narrative in a digital picture book over a consecutive 5-day period. When creating the digital version used here, two additional functions were provided with it. First, the entire story was voice-recorded by a professional narrator and programmed so that it was played as narration from the speaker of an iPad. Next, as the narration of each digitized page proceeded, the character exactly corresponding to that pronounced by the narrator at that moment became highlighted in red. When the subjects' literacy capability with respect to the syllabic script of the Japanese language (kana) was evaluated before and after the exposure, their performance score was found to increase after the exposure to the digital book, whereas such a change was not recorded in children who experienced exposure to the printed version of the same picture book read to them by their mother. These effects were confirmed when the children were retested 4 weeks later. Although preliminary, the current study represents the first experimental evidence for a positive effect of exposure to digital books upon any aspect of child development. PMID:24822051

  5. Setting prudent public health policy for electromagnetic field exposures.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O; Sage, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate our environment, coming both from such natural sources as the sun and from manmade sources like electricity, communication technologies and medical devices. Although life on earth would not be possible without sunlight, increasing evidence indicates that exposures to the magnetic fields associated with electricity and to communication frequencies associated with radio, television, WiFi technology, and mobile cellular phones pose significant hazards to human health. The evidence is strongest for leukemia from electricity-frequency fields and for brain tumors from communication-frequency fields, yet evidence is emerging for an association with other diseases as well, including neurodegenerative diseases. Some uncertainty remains as to the mechanism(s) responsible for these biological effects, and as to which components of the fields are of greatest importance. Nevertheless, regardless of whether the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Inaction is not compatible with the Precautionary Principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration. Because of ubiquitous exposure, the rapidly expanding development of new EMF technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers, the failure to take immediate action risks epidemics of potentially fatal diseases in the future.

  6. Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

  7. Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Zeena; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vohs, Kathleen; van Baaren, Rick B; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial breaks and afterwards completed a questionnaire. Smoking during the session was allowed and observed. Results Exposure to the movie with smoking had no effect on smoking intensity. Those who viewed two antismoking ads had significantly lower smoking intensity compared with those who viewed two prosocial ads. There was no interaction between movie smoking and antismoking ads. Baseline CO (carbon monoxide) level had the largest effect on smoking intensity. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence to support antismoking ads placed with movies because of their possible effect on young adult smoking behaviour. However, caution is warranted, because nicotine dependence appears to be the primary predictor of smoking intensity among young adult smokers in this study. PMID:20008155

  8. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Jin

    2012-01-01

    The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks. The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to frequency and wave, strength (energy), and duration of exposure. In the present review, the effects of EMFs on reproductive function are summarized according to the types of EMF, wave type, strength, and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels. PMID:22563544

  9. Prostate Cancer and Ambient Pesticide Exposure in Agriculturally Intensive Areas in California

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Myles; Mills, Paul; Zhang, Xinbo; Zadnick, John; Goldberg, Dan; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study in California's intensely agricultural Central Valley (2005–2006), the authors investigated relations between environmental pesticide/fungicide exposure and prostate cancer. Cases (n = 173) were obtained from a population-based cancer registry, and controls (n = 162) were obtained from Medicare listings and tax assessor mailings. Past ambient exposures to pesticides/fungicides were derived from residential history and independently recorded pesticide and land-use data, using a novel geographic information systems approach. In comparison with unexposed persons, increased risks of prostate cancer were observed among persons exposed to compounds which may have prostate-specific biologic effects (methyl bromide (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.59) and a group of organochlorines (odds ratio = 1.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.63)) but not among those exposed to other compounds that were included as controls (simazine, maneb, and paraquat dichloride). The authors assessed the possibility of selection bias due to less-than-100% enrollment of eligible cases and controls (a critical methodological concern in studies of this kind) and determined that there was little evidence of bias affecting the estimated effect size. This study provides evidence of an association between prostate cancer and ambient pesticide exposures in and around homes in intensely agricultural areas. The associations appear specific to compounds with a plausible biologic role in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:21447478

  10. Low intensity, long term exposure to tobacco smoke inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Csabai, Dávid; Csekő, Kata; Szaiff, Lilla; Varga, Zsófia; Miseta, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that high dose of nicotine administration or tobacco smoke exposure can reduce cell formation and the survival rate of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus. Here, we subjected adult mice to low intensity cigarette smoke exposure over long time periods. We did a 2×30min/day smoke exposure with two cigarettes per occasion over 1- or 2-months. Subsequently, we carried out a systematic quantitative histopathological analysis to assess the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. To investigate cell proliferation, the exogenous marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered on the last experimental day and animals were sacrificed 2h later. To investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on the population of immature neurons, we quantified the number of doublecortin-positive (DCX+) neurons in the same animals. We found that exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 1- or 2-months had no influence on cell proliferation rate, but significantly reduced the number of DCX-positive immature neurons. Our tobacco smoke exposure regimen caused no substantial changes in respiratory functions, but histopathological analysis of the pulmonary tissue revealed a marked perivascular/peribronchial edema formation after 1-month and signs of chronic pulmonary inflammation after 2-months of cigarette smoke exposure. These data demonstrate that even mild exposure to cigarette smoke, without significantly affecting respiratory functions, can have a negative effect on adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus, when applied over longer time periods. Our data indicate that besides nicotine other factors, such as inflammatory mediators, may also contribute to this effect.

  11. Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Alexander; Klose, Melanie; Grote, Karen; Wilhelm, Adalbert F X; Spathmann, Oliver; Fiedler, Thomas; Streckert, Joachim; Hansen, Volkert; Clemens, Markus

    2015-04-17

    The vast majority of in vitro and in vivo studies did not find cancerogenic effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), i.e. emitted by mobile phones and base stations. Previously published results from a pilot study with carcinogen-treated mice, however, suggested tumor-promoting effects of RF-EMF (Tillmann et al., 2010). We have performed a replication study using higher numbers of animals per group and including two additional exposure levels (0 (sham), 0.04, 0.4 and 2 W/kg SAR). We could confirm and extend the originally reported findings. Numbers of tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure. A clear dose-response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor-promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure. Since many of the tumor-promoting effects in our study were seen at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR), thus well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones, further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our findings may help to understand the repeatedly reported increased incidences of brain tumors in heavy users of mobile phones.

  12. DNA Electrophoretic Migration Patterns Change after Exposure of Jurkat Cells to a Single Intense Nanosecond Electric Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Stefania; Zeni, Luigi; Sarti, Maurizio; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Vernier, P. Thomas; Zeni, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Intense nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) interact with cellular membranes and intracellular structures. Investigating how cells respond to nanosecond pulses is essential for a) development of biomedical applications of nsPEFs, including cancer therapy, and b) better understanding of the mechanisms underlying such bioelectrical effects. In this work, we explored relatively mild exposure conditions to provide insight into weak, reversible effects, laying a foundation for a better understanding of the interaction mechanisms and kinetics underlying nsPEF bio-effects. In particular, we report changes in the nucleus of Jurkat cells (human lymphoblastoid T cells) exposed to single pulses of 60 ns duration and 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 MV/m amplitudes, which do not affect cell growth and viability. A dose-dependent reduction in alkaline comet-assayed DNA migration is observed immediately after nsPEF exposure, accompanied by permeabilization of the plasma membrane (YO-PRO-1 uptake). Comet assay profiles return to normal within 60 minutes after pulse delivery at the highest pulse amplitude tested, indicating that our exposure protocol affects the nucleus, modifying DNA electrophoretic migration patterns. PMID:22164287

  13. Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Billah, Baki; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-10-19

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental and personal radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures in kindergarten children. Ten children and 20 kindergartens in Melbourne, Australia participated in personal and environmental exposure measurements, respectively. Order statistics of RF-EMF exposures were computed for 16 frequency bands between 88 MHz and 5.8 GHz. Of the 16 bands, the three highest sources of environmental RF-EMF exposures were: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz downlink (82 mV/m); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 2100MHz downlink (51 mV/m); and GSM 900 MHz uplink (45 mV/m). Similarly, the three highest personal exposure sources were: GSM 900 MHz downlink (50 mV/m); UMTS 2100 MHz downlink, GSM 900 MHz uplink and GSM 1800 MHz downlink (20 mV/m); and Frequency Modulation radio, Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (10 mV/m). The median environmental exposures were: 179 mV/m (total all bands), 123 mV/m (total mobile phone base station downlinks), 46 mV/m (total mobile phone base station uplinks), and 16 mV/m (Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz). Similarly, the median personal exposures were: 81 mV/m (total all bands), 62 mV/m (total mobile phone base station downlinks), 21 mV/m (total mobile phone base station uplinks), and 9 mV/m (Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz). The measurements showed that environmental RF-EMF exposure levels exceeded the personal RF-EMF exposure levels at kindergartens.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 19 October 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.55.

  14. Effects on the nervous system by exposure to electromagnetic fields: experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Hansson, H A

    1988-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields may cause various types of effects on nervous tissue, in severe cases even irreversible damage. The exposure conditions, i.e. frequency including type and extent of modulation, time, intensity, wave form, as well as shape, size and position of exposed subject and possible treatment with drugs, are factors determining if damage, acute or chronic, ultimately result. Long term exposure of newborn rabbits, rats and mice to electromagnetic fields of power frequency (10-14 kV/m; 50 or 60 Hz; sinusoidal wave form; 21-24 h per day) may cause affection and even damage to the nervous system. Large nerve cells showed reactive changes such as lamellar bodies and cytoskeletal alteration to an extent varying with exposure conditions. Reactive neuroglial changes as well as increase in neuroglial marker proteins could concomitantly be demonstrated. The changes seemed to be reversible although we only have incomplete data available. Exposure in vitro of frog sciatic nerve to 16-60 Hz sinusoidal low current (50-1000 nA) for 17 h induced cytoskeletal changes. Exposure of rabbits to pulsed microwaves of moderate to high intensity (3.1 GHz; 300 Hz modulation; peak duration 1.4 usec with maximal peak intensity about 1000 times average; 55 mW/cm; SAR in the brain cortex about 20 W/kg; increase of temperature as measured by lightguide-equipped instruments in right brain hemisphere about 1-2 degrees C) during 1 h per day during three days resulted in no obvious initial changes in behaviour. Minimal acute dam- age could be demonstrated. However, after two to four months and later on both structural, immunohistochemical and biochemical changes could be documented. Radar technicians accidently and/or occupationally exposed to microwaves showed psychoneurological signs of affection as well as changes in cerebrospinal fluid protein pattern. No related changes have been noticed among matched controls. Exposure of nervous tissue to electromagnetic fields ranging

  15. Evaluation of pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound exposures on metastasis in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Hilary; Dreher, Matthew R.; Crawford, Nigel; Pollock, Claire B.; Shih, Jennifer; Wood, Bradford J.; Hunter, Kent; Frenkel, Victor

    2014-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) may be employed in two ways: continuous exposures for thermal ablation of tissue (>60°C), and pulsed-exposures for non-ablative effects, including low temperature hyperthermia (37–45°C), and non thermal effects (e.g. acoustic cavitation and radiation forces). Pulsed-HIFU effects may enhance the tissue's permeability for improved delivery of drugs and genes, for example, by opening up gaps between cells in the vasculature and parenchyma. Inducing these effects may improve local targeting of therapeutic agents, however; concerns exist that pulsed exposures could theoretically also facilitate dissemination of tumor cells and exacerbate metastases. In the present study, the influence of pulsed-HIFU exposures on increasing metastatic burden was evaluated in a murine model with metastatic breast cancer. A preliminary study was carried out to validate the model and determine optimal timing for treatment and growth of lung metastases. Next, the effect of pulsed-HIFU on the metastatic burden was evaluated using quantitative image processing of whole-lung histological sections. Compared to untreated controls (2/15), a greater number of mice treated with pulsed-HIFU were found to have lungs “overgrown” with metastases (7/15), where individual metastases grew together such that they could not accurately be counted. Furthermore, area fraction of lung metastases (area of metastases/area of lungs) was ~30% greater in mice treated with pulsed-HIFU; however, these differences were not statistically significant. The present study details the development of an animal model for investigating the influence of interventional techniques or exposures (such as pulsed HIFU) on metastatic burden. PMID:19517258

  16. Spectral analysis to assess exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in cars.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Barberá, Jorge

    2017-01-31

    A type of contamination that has been little studied in cars comes from the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields generated by the vehicle's electrical devices and the magnetized metal in the tyres. The magnetic fields in cars are frequently analysed with broadband meters sensitive to a frequency range above 30Hz. This has the disadvantage that they neither detect the magnetic field of the spinning tyres nor give any information on the spectral components, which makes it impossible to adequately assess exposure. The objective of the present study was to perform spectral analyses of ELF magnetic fields in cars, to identify their frequencies, and to assess exposure based on the ICNIRP regulatory guidelines. To do this, a meter and a spectrum analyser sensitive to magnetic fields in the 5Hz-2kHz frequency range were used. Spectra were acquired for different seats, heights, and speeds, and spatially averaged exposure coefficients were calculated. The results indicated that the main emissions were detected in the 5-100Hz range, where the wheel rotation frequencies and their harmonics are found. The intensity of the rest of the emissions were negligible in comparison. The exposure quotient increases with speed, and is approximately twice as great at foot level as at head level. The magnetic field levels are lower than the reference levels (the maximum represents 3% of the ICNIRP standard), but higher than those found in residential environments and than the cut-off threshold used by the IARC to classify ELF magnetic fields in Group 2B.

  17. Electromagnetic field exposure dosimeter. Final report, September 1992-May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Feaga, A.C.; Hilliard, M.P.; Link, R.

    1994-07-28

    The growing concern about adverse health effects caused by electromagnetic radiation prompted the ideas for this dosimeter. Data have been presented that link prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from power lines to leukemia and some types of cancer. At present, though, there is a lack of recording instrumentation to measure the prolonged exposure of an individual; thus, it is not possible to correlate properly the amount of exposure or dose to health effects. With the recent advances in small, low-power devices, a small measuring device can be developed. Once this is built, a large data base can be obtained to help correlate electromagnetic field exposure to health conditions. The objective of this project is to develop an instrument which can measure electromagnetic fields over a prolonged period of time. The instrument would be small, say about the size of a radio Walkman, and would be worn throughout the day while taking data, as the individual goes about normal activities. A PC would be used to retrieve the data from the instrument at the end of the day. The dosimeter comprises a triaxial ferrite-loaded coil sensor, a set of amplifiers and filters, analog-to-digital converters, a microcontroller, and random access data memory. The signals from the sensor are filtered into three frequency ranges: one to measure 60-Hz exposure and two harmonics, another to measure high-energy pulsed energy, and a third frequency range to record the activity level of the individual. The signals from the filters are digitized and read into a microcontroller. The microcontroller performs a few calculations and controls the flow of the data to either random access memory or to a computer. A computer is used to retrieve the data from the dosimeter, and can store and display the measured data.

  18. Quasistatic limit of the strong-field approximation describing atoms in intense laser fields: Circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Jaroslaw H.

    2011-03-15

    In the recent work of Vanne and Saenz [Phys. Rev. A 75, 063403 (2007)] the quasistatic limit of the velocity gauge strong-field approximation describing the ionization rate of atomic or molecular systems exposed to linearly polarized laser fields was derived. It was shown that in the low-frequency limit the ionization rate is proportional to the laser frequency {omega} (for a constant intensity of the laser field). In the present work I show that for circularly polarized laser fields the ionization rate is proportional to {omega}{sup 4} for H(1s) and H(2s) atoms, to {omega}{sup 6} for H(2p{sub x}) and H(2p{sub y}) atoms, and to {omega}{sup 8} for H(2p{sub z}) atoms. The analytical expressions for asymptotic ionization rates (which become nearly accurate in the limit {omega}{yields}0) contain no summations over multiphoton contributions. For very low laser frequencies (optical or infrared) these expressions usually remain with an order-of-magnitude agreement with the velocity gauge strong-field approximation.

  19. Fatal asbestosis 50 years after brief high intensity exposure in a vermiculite expansion plant.

    PubMed

    Wright, Robert S; Abraham, Jerrold L; Harber, Philip; Burnett, Bryan R; Morris, Peter; West, Phil

    2002-04-15

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old accountant whose only asbestos exposure was during a summer job 50 years earlier in a California vermiculite expansion plant. Vermiculite is a silicate material that is useful in building and agriculture as a filler and insulating agent. He developed extensive fibrocalcific pleural plaques and end-stage pulmonary fibrosis, with rapidly progressive respiratory failure. Careful occupational and environmental history revealed no other source of asbestos exposure, and the initial clinical diagnosis was idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; open lung biopsy shortly before his death confirmed asbestosis. Electron microscopic lung fiber burden analysis revealed over 8,000,000 asbestos fibers per gram dry lung, 68% of which were tremolite asbestos. Additional asbestiform fibers of composition not matching any of the standard asbestos varieties were also present at over 5,000,000 fibers per gram dry lung. Comparison analysis of a sample of Libby, Montana, vermiculite showed a similar mix of asbestiform fibers including tremolite asbestos. This case analysis raises several concerns: risks of vermiculite induced disease among former workers of the more than 200 expansion plants throughout the United States; health effects of brief but very high-intensity exposures to asbestos; and possible health effects in end-users of consumer products containing vermiculite.

  20. Pain-associated stressor exposure and neuroendocrine values for premature infants in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Annie J

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent stress during neonatal intensive care taxes the adaptive capacity of the premature infant and may be a risk factor for suboptimal developmental outcomes. This research used a descriptive, cross-sectional design and a life course perspective to examine the relationship between resting adrenocorticoid values at 37 postmenstrual weeks of age and cumulative pain-associated stressor exposure in prematurely born infants. Subjects were 59 infants born at under 35 completed weeks of gestation, who were at least 2 weeks of age, and who had been cared for in the NICU since birth. No significant relationships were identified between cortisol values and any of the study variables (number of skin breaking procedures, hours of assisted ventilation, gestational age at birth, exposure to antenatal steroids, history of severe academia, birthweight, days of age to attain birthweight, weight at testing, days of age at testing, recent pain-associated procedures, and 17-OHP value). A significant negative correlation (Spearman rank, one-tailed) between the number of skin-breaking procedures and 17-OHP values was identified (r = -.232, p = .039). Recurrent pain-associated stressor exposure may be a more important factor in explaining the variance of 17-OHP values at 37 postmenstrual weeks of age than birthweight, gestational age, or chronological age.

  1. Histologic study of the internal organs of rats chronically exposed to a high-intensity electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Y.J.; Majeau-Chargois, D.; Lymangrover, J.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Hsieh, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 120-day exposure to a high-intensity (80 kV/m), 60-Hz electric field on histology of selected internal organs of Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. The organs examined were the pituitary, thymus, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, right and left adrenals, right and left kidneys, and right and left testes. Histological examination of 10-micron tissue sections from randomly selected animals revealed no specific evidence of histopathologic differences between field-exposed and sham-exposed animals at the light microscopic level.

  2. Comparison of oro-sensory exposure duration and intensity manipulations on satiation.

    PubMed

    Lasschuijt, M P; Mars, M; Stieger, M; Miquel-Kergoat, S; de Graaf, C; Smeets, Pam

    2017-02-04

    Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) is an important factor in the regulation of food intake with increasing OSE leading to lower food intake. Oral processing time and taste intensity both play an important role in OSE but their individual contribution to satiation is unknown. We aimed to determine the independent and combined effects of oral processing time and taste intensity on satiation. Fifty eight participants (23±9y, BMI 22±2kg/m(2)) participated in a 2×2 factorial randomized crossover study in which they consumed one of four gel-based model foods until satiation during four sessions. Model foods were offered ad libitum and differed in texture (soft or hard texture, yielding shorter and longer oral processing time) and sweetness (low or high intensity). Model foods were isocaloric and were matched for flavor and palatability. Outcome measures were intake of the model food and the microstructure of eating behavior, such as number of chews and eating rate. There was an overall significant effect of texture (p<0.001) but not sweetness (p=0.33) on intake with a 29.2% higher intake of the soft model foods compared to the hard model foods. After correction for palatability the difference in intake between the soft and hard model foods was 21.5% (p<0.001). The number of chews was significantly lower for the soft (10.1±6.2) than for the hard (26.9±6.2) model foods (p<0.001), which resulted in a significantly lower eating rate (soft, 26.3±10.2 and hard, 15.3±7.1g/min, p<0.001). These results show that increasing texture hardness of gel model foods decreases food intake independent of sweet taste intensity. The higher number of chews and faster eating rate may cause this effect. In conclusion, oro-sensory exposure duration rather than taste intensity appears to be the main determinant of food intake.

  3. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.

  4. Effect modification of the association of cumulative exposure and cancer risk by intensity of exposure and time since exposure cessation: a flexible method applied to cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the SYNERGY Study.

    PubMed

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lützen; Schüz, Joachim; Olsson, Ann; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Consonni, Dario; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Tardón, Adonina; Zaridze, David; Field, John K; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peters, Susan; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans; Straif, Kurt; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-02-01

    The indiscriminate use of the cumulative exposure metric (the product of intensity and duration of exposure) might bias reported associations between exposure to hazardous agents and cancer risk. To assess the independent effects of duration and intensity of exposure on cancer risk, we explored effect modification of the association of cumulative exposure and cancer risk by intensity of exposure. We applied a flexible excess odds ratio model that is linear in cumulative exposure but potentially nonlinear in intensity of exposure to 15 case-control studies of cigarette smoking and lung cancer (1985-2009). Our model accommodated modification of the excess odds ratio per pack-year of cigarette smoking by time since smoking cessation among former smokers. We observed negative effect modification of the association of pack-years of cigarette smoking and lung cancer by intensity of cigarette smoke for persons who smoked more than 20-30 cigarettes per day. Patterns of effect modification were similar across individual studies and across major lung cancer subtypes. We observed strong negative effect modification by time since smoking cessation. Application of our method in this example of cigarette smoking and lung cancer demonstrated that reducing a complex exposure history to a metric such as cumulative exposure is too restrictive.

  5. Personal UV exposure on a ski-field at an alpine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, A. M.; Casale, G. R.; Diémoz, H.; Agnesod, G.; Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Colosimo, A.

    2008-02-01

    Mountain sites experience enhanced ambient UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces. This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect data of personal UV exposure in the mountainous areas of Italy, for the first time. Personal UV exposure (expressed in terms of Exposure Ratio, ER) of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers) at the Alpine site of La Thuile (Valle d'Aosta region, Italy) was assessed using polysulphone dosimetry which was tested in a mountainous snow-covered environment. In addition measurements of biological markers of individual response to UV exposure such as skin colorimetric parameters were carried out. It was found that snow and altitude of study site affect calibration curves of polysulphone dosimeters in comparison to a situation without snow. The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. There are no differences in exposures across skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experience lower values. UV exposures are not sensitive to the use of sunscreen across instructor/skier group by day or by seasons or by photo-type. With regard to colorimetric parameters, the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of L* and b* after exposure i.e. becoming darker but the inappropriate sunscreen use did not reveal any changes in skin colorimetric parameters except in one spring day. In conclusions UV intensities on the ski-fields are often significantly higher than those on horizontal surfaces. Given the high levels of exposure observed in the present study, dedicated public heath messages on the correct sunscreen use should be adopted.

  6. Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

  7. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kiray, Amac; Tayefi, Hamid; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Husnu Alper; Pekcetin, Cetin; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Ozogul, Candan

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) causes increased adverse effects on biological systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EMF on heart tissue by biochemical and histomorphological evaluations in EMF-exposed adult rats. In this study, 28 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The rats were divided into two groups: sham group (n = 14) and EMF group (n = 14). Rats in sham group were exposed to same conditions as the EMF group except the exposure to EMF. Rats in EMF group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months. After 2 months of exposure, rats were killed; the hearts were excised and evaluated. Determination of oxidative stress parameters was performed spectrophotometrically. To detect apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed. In EMF-exposed group, levels of lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with sham. Under electron microscopy, there were mitochondrial degeneration, reduction in myofibrils, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear vacuolization in EMF-exposed rats. In conclusion, the results show that the exposure to EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium of adult rats. The results of our study indicate that EMF-related changes in rat myocardium could be the result of increased oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether the exposure to EMF can induce adverse effects on myocardium.

  8. Light intensity exposure, sleep duration, physical activity, and biomarkers of melatonin among rotating shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Sanchez, Maria; Richardson, Harriet; Tranmer, Joan; Borugian, Marilyn; Graham, Charles H; Aronson, Kristan J

    2009-10-01

    Long-term, night shiftwork has been identified as a potential carcinogenic risk factor. It is hypothesized that increased light at night exposure during shiftwork reduces melatonin production, which is associated with increased cancer risk. Sleep duration has been hypothesized to influence both melatonin levels and cancer risk, and it has been suggested that sleep duration could be used as a proxy for melatonin production. Finally, physical activity has been shown to reduce cancer risk, and laboratory studies indicate it may influence melatonin levels. A cross-sectional study of light exposure, sleep duration, physical activity, and melatonin levels was conducted among 61 female rotating shift nurses (work schedule: two 12 h days, two 12 h nights, five days off). Light intensity was measured using a light-intensity data logger, and sleep duration and physical activity were self-reported in a study diary and questionnaire. Melatonin concentrations were measured from urine and saliva samples. The characteristics of nurses working day and night shifts were similar. Light intensity was significantly higher during sleep for those working at night (p< 0.0001), while urinary melatonin levels following sleep were significantly higher among those working days (p = 0.0003). Mean sleep duration for nurses working during the day (8.27 h) was significantly longer than for those working at night (4.78 h, p< 0.0001). An inverse association (p = 0.002) between light exposure and urinary melatonin levels was observed; however, this was not significant when stratified by shift group. There was no significant correlation between sleep duration and melatonin, and no consistent relationship between physical activity and melatonin. Analysis of salivary melatonin levels indicated that the circadian rhythms of night workers were not altered, meaning peak melatonin production occurred at night. This study indicates that two nights of rotating shift work may not change the timing of

  9. Hidden Toxicity in Neonatal Intensive Care Units: Phthalate Exposure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, Atalay; Çoban, Asuman; Yıldırım, Şükran; Doğan, Canan; Sancı, Rukiye; İnce, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine exposure to endocrine-disrupting phthalates in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Methods: Urine samples (n=151) from 36 preterm infants (<32 weeks of gestation and/or <1500 g of birth weight) were collected on the first 3 days of admission to the NICU and biweekly thereafter. Diethylhexyl phthalate contents of indwelling medical devices used in various procedures and the concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the urine samples were analyzed. The relationships between urinary excretion, exposure intensity, postnatal age and birth weight were examined. Results: The mean gestational age and mean birth weight of the study infants were 28.9±1.5 weeks and 1024±262 g, respectively. Diethylhexyl phthalate was detected in umbilical catheters, endotracheal tubes, nasogastric tubes, and nasal cannula. Monoethylhydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) was the most frequently detected metabolite (81.4%); its concentration increased during the first 4 weeks and then started to decrease but never disappeared. Patients who did not need indwelling catheters (except nasogastric tubes) after 2 weeks were classified as group 1 and those who continued to have indwelling catheters as group 2. Although not of statistical significance, MEHHP levels decreased in group 1 but continued to stay high in group 2 (in the 4th week, group 1: 65.9 ng/mL and group 2: 255.3 ng/mL). Levels of MEHHP in the first urinary samples were significantly higher in infants with a birth weight <1000 g (<1000 g: 63.2±93.8 ng/mL, ≥1000 g: 10.9±22.9 ng/mL, p=0.001). Conclusion: Phthalate metabolites were detected even in the first urine samples of very low birth weight newborns. Phthalate levels were higher in the first weeks of intensive invasive procedures and in preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1000 g. MEHHP was the most frequently detected metabolite and could be a suitable biomarker for the detection of phthalate exposure in preterm infants. PMID

  10. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  7. Lagrangian Formulation of Relativistic Particle Average Motion in a Laser Field of Arbitrary Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; G.M. Fraiman

    2003-02-06

    The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.

  8. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in... reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the flightcrew to respond to an adverse...

  9. Light-front time evolution in intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangyao; Zhao, Xingbo; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Tuchin, Kirill; Vary, James

    2016-03-01

    We report on the influence of strong electromagnetic fields generated by an ultra-relativistic heavy ion on the quantized field of a charged fermion particle using the time-dependent basis light-front quantization (tBLFQ) approach. We calculate transitions of the charged fermion and find agreement with light-front perturbation theory at small coupling. We then present non-perturbative effects, such as the real-time evolution of the momentum distribution and the helicity configuration of the fermion in strong fields. We will discuss prospects for applying the tBLFQ formalism to time-dependent QED and QCD fields in heavy ion collisions and electron-ion collisions. This work is supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40371 & DESC0008485.

  10. Mesons in ultra-intense magnetic field: an evaded collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbikov, B. O.; Andreichikov, M. A.; Simonov, Yu. A.

    2017-03-01

    Spectra of qq¯ mesons are investigated in the framework of the Hamiltonian obtained from the relativistic path integral in external homogeneous magnetic field. The spectra of all 12 spin-isospin s-wave states generated by π- and ρ-mesons with different spin projections, are studied analytically as functions of the field strength. Three types of behavior with characteristic splittings are found. The results are in agreement with recent lattice calculations.

  11. Effects of exposure to a 60-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field on the social behavior of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Easley, S.P.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Rogers, W.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors found in a previously reported study that exposure to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field had significant effects on the social behavior of baboons. However, it was not established whether or not the effects were related specifically to the 30-kV/m intensity of the field. A new experiment was conducted to determine whether or not exposure to a 60-Hz electric field at 60 kV/m would produce like changes in the baboons' social behavior. They exposed one group of eight male baboons to an electric field 12 hours a day, 7 days a week, for 6 weeks. A second group of eight animals was maintained under sham-exposure (control) conditions. Rates of performing on each of six categories of social behavior and on four categories of nonsocial behavior were used as criteria for comparing exposed with unexposed subjects and for within-group comparisons during three six-week experimental periods: Pre-Exposure, Exposure, and Post-Exposure. The results indicate that (1) during the exposure period, exposed animals exhibited statistically significant differences from controls in means of performance rates based on several behavioral categories; (2) across all three periods, within-group comparisons revealed that behaviors of exposed baboons were significantly affected by exposure to the electric field; (3) changes in performance levels probably reflect a stress response to the electric field; and (4) the means of response rates of animals exposed at 60 kV/m were higher, but not double, those of animals exposed at 30 kV/m. As in the 30-kV/m experiment, animals exposed at 60 kV/m exhibited significant differences in performances of Passive Affinity, Tension, and Stereotypy. Mean rates of performing these categories were 122% (Passive Affinity), 48% (Tension), and 40% (Stereotypy) higher in the exposed group than in the control group during exposure to the 60-kV/m field.

  12. Effects of low intensity static electromagnetic radiofrequency fields on leiomyosarcoma and smooth muscle cell lines.

    PubMed

    Karkabounas, Spyridon; Havelas, Konstantinos; Kostoula, Olga K; Vezyraki, Patra; Avdikos, Antonios; Binolis, Jayne; Hatziavazis, George; Metsios, Apostolos; Verginadis, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of low intensity static radiofrequency electromagnetic field (EMF) causing no thermal effects, on leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC), isolated from tumors of fifteen Wistar rats induced via a 3,4-benzopyrene injection. Electromagnetic resonance frequencies measurements and exposure of cells to static EMF were performed by a device called multi channel dynamic exciter 100 V1 (MCDE). The LSC were exposed to electromagnetic resonance radiofrequencies (ERF) between 10 kHz to 120 kHz, for 45 min. During a 24h period, after the exposure of the LSC to ERF, there was no inhibition of cells proliferation. In contrast, at the end of a 48 h incubation period, LSC proliferation dramatically decreased by more than 98% (P<0.001). At that time, the survived LSC were only 2% of the total cell population exposed to ERF, and under the same culture conditions showed significant decrease of proliferation. These cells were exposed once again to ERF for 45 min (totally 4 sessions of exposure, of 45 min duration each) and tested using a flow cytometer. Experiments as above were repeated five times. It was found that 45% of these double exposed to ERF, LSC (EMF cells) were apoptotic and only a small percentage 2%, underwent mitosis. In order to determinate their metastatic potential, these EMF cells were also counted and tested by an aggregometer for their ability to aggregate platelets and found to maintain this ability., since they showed no difference in platelet aggregation ability compared to the LSC not exposed to ERF (control cells). In conclusion, exposure of LSC to specific ERF, decreases their proliferation rate and induces cell apoptosis. Also, the LSC that survived after exposed to ERF, had a lower proliferation rate compared to the LSC controls (P<0.05) but did not loose their potential for metastases (platelet aggregation ability). The non-malignant SMC were not affected by the EMF exposure (P<0.4). The specific ERF generated from the MCDE

  13. Bio-effects and safety of low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasonic exposure.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farzaneh; McLoughlin, Ian V; Chauhan, Sunita; ter-Haar, Gail

    2012-04-01

    Low-frequency (LF) ultrasound (20-100 kHz) has a diverse set of industrial and medical applications. In fact, high power industrial applications of ultrasound mainly occupy this frequency range. This range is also used for various therapeutic medical applications including sonophoresis (ultrasonic transdermal drug delivery), dentistry, eye surgery, body contouring, the breaking of kidney stones and eliminating blood clots. While emerging LF applications such as ultrasonic drug delivery continue to be developed and undergo translation for human use, significant gaps exist in the coverage of safety standards for this frequency range. Accordingly, the need to understand the biological effects of LF ultrasound is becoming more important. This paper presents a broad overview of bio-effects and safety of LF ultrasound as an aid to minimize and control the risk of these effects. Its particular focus is at low intensities where bio-effects are initially observed. To generate a clear perspective of hazards in LF exposure, the mechanisms of bio-effects and the main differences in action at low and high frequencies are investigated and a survey of harmful effects of LF ultrasound at low intensities is presented. Mechanical and thermal indices are widely used in high frequency diagnostic applications as a means of indicating safety of ultrasonic exposure. The direct application of these indices at low frequencies needs careful investigation. In this work, using numerical simulations based on the mathematical and physical rationale behind the indices at high frequencies, it is observed that while thermal index (TI) can be used directly in the LF range, mechanical index (MI) seems to become less reliable at lower frequencies. Accordingly, an improved formulation for the MI is proposed for frequencies below 500 kHz.

  14. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  15. Free-field propagation of high intensity noise. [supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, O. H.; Roth, S. D.; Welz, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Research on high intensity (finite amplitude) acoustic waves shows that nonlinear distortion effects generally result in a shift of energy to higher frequencies. The higher intensities associated with supersonic jets would therefore indicate that high frequency enhancement of the spectrum should occur, resulting in the differences observed between subsonic and supersonic jets. A 10,000 acoustic watt source installed in an anechoic chamber generates sound levels such that acoustic shocks are readily observable. Dual frequency excitation of the source produces a strong parametric effect with a difference frequency comparable in level to the primary frequency. The test set up and recording equipment being used to determine the finite amplitude noise representative of an actual supersonic jet are described as well as the development of a computer program based on Burger's equation. The spectra of 1/2 octave band, 1 kHz sine wave, and dual frequency input and output are presented in graphs along with waveforms at Z = .025, 0.1, and 1.0.

  16. Free-field propagation of high intensity noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Joseph P.; Mcdaniel, Oliver H.

    1990-01-01

    Observed spectral data from supersonic jet aircraft are known to contain much more high frequency energy than can be explained by linear acoustic propagation theory. It is believed that the high frequency energy is an effect of nonlinear distortion due to the extremely high acoustic levels generated by the jet engines. The objective, to measure acoustic waveform distortion for spherically diverging high intensity noise, was reached by using an electropneumatic acoustic source capable of generating sound pressure levels in the range of 140 to 160 decibels (re 20 micro Pa). The noise spectrum was shaped to represent the spectra generated by jet engines. Two microphones were used to capture the acoustic pressure waveform at different points along the propagation path in order to provide a direct measure of the waveform distortion as well as spectral distortion. A secondary objective was to determine that the observed distortion is an acoustic effect. To do this an existing computer prediction code that deals with nonlinear acoustic propagation was used on data representative of the measured data. The results clearly demonstrate that high intensity jet noise does shift the energy in the spectrum to the higher frequencies along the propagation path. In addition, the data from the computer model are in good agreement with the measurements, thus demonstrating that the waveform distortion can be accounted for with nonlinear acoustic theory.

  17. [Cellular radio systems. Problems faced in assessing exposure to electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Zmyślony, M

    2000-01-01

    Over twenty years of its existence, cellular radio systems have become one of the major sources of human exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) of high frequency. With the increasing number of cellular phones, the interest in health effects of exposure to EMF emitted by them continues to grow. At present, there is a general opinion that thermal effect (change of electromagnetic energy into thermal energy) is an essential mechanism of possible biological effects. The majority of world standards for exposure to EMF are based on this effect. The author presents Polish standards and those of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for EMF of frequencies used in cellular radio systems, both basic that limits SAR (Specific Absorption Rate), and derived that limits the power density, as well as intensity of electric and magnetic fields. Attention was also turned to the problems concerning the application of cellular phones and those resulting from the character of the field emitted by them to which their users are exposed. Bearing in mind the results of the laboratory analyses of SAR values occurring in the user's head, and measurements of power density in the vicinity of the base station antennas, it can be stated that, in view of binding and recommended standards, cellular phones do not present any hazard to their users (private or professional). However, it should be stressed that standards adopted protect the user's head against the thermal effect, whereas the question on whether they also protect against non-thermal effects still remains without answer.

  18. Human exposure risk to heavy metals through groundwater used for drinking in an intensively irrigated river delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrimurugan, E.; Brindha, K.; Elango, L.; Ndwandwe, Osman Muzi

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water containing heavy metals above the maximum permissible limits cause potential risk to human health. The aim of this study was to determine the groundwater suitability for drinking use based on heavy metal concentration and the associated human exposure risk in an intensively irrigated part of the Cauvery river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Sixteen heavy metals analysed were in the order of dominance of chromium < zinc < copper < cadmium < cobalt < iron < aluminium < nickel < titanium < zirconium < boron < silver < manganese < lead < lithium < silicon in groundwater. Chromium and zinc were within permissible limits of the Bureau of Indian Standards for drinking water quality, and silver, lead and nickel were above limits in all the groundwater samples. In less than 50 % of the groundwater samples, aluminium, boron, cadmium, copper, iron and manganese exceeded their individual permissible limits. Heavy metal pollution index based on 11 heavy metals indicated that groundwater quality of this area is poor-to-unsuitable. Non-carcinogenic risk for humans due to ingestion of groundwater through drinking water pathway was very high for infants, children and adults. Silver, lead, nickel, cadmium and manganese largely contributed to the health hazard. Sources of heavy metals were identified to be geological and from human activities, i.e., application of fertilizers in agricultural fields, seawater intrusion due to intensive pumping for agriculture and wastewater from industries. Groundwater and surface water in this area pose large threat due to high levels of heavy metals, and it is necessary to avoid this water for drinking due to potential risk of health hazard. This study also demonstrated the application of HPI and human exposure hazard index to study the groundwater quality based on heavy metals' concentration.

  19. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, Burkhard; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g. laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields.

  20. Nonlinear transmission of an intense terahertz field through monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Hafez, H. A.; Ibrahim, A.; Ozaki, T.; Al-Naib, I.; Dignam, M. M.; Oguri, K.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Cooke, D. G.; Tanaka, S.; Komori, F.

    2014-11-15

    We report nonlinear terahertz (THz) effects in monolayer graphene, giving rise to transmission enhancement of a single-cycle THz pulse when the incident THz peak electric field is increased. This transmission enhancement is attributed to reduced photoconductivity, due to saturation effects in the field-induced current and increased intraband scattering rates arising from transient heating of electrons. We have developed a tight-binding model of the response using the length gauge interaction Hamiltonian that provides good qualitative agreement. The model fully accounts for the nonlinear response arising from the linear dispersion energy spectrum in graphene. The results reveal a strong dependence of the scattering time on the THz field, which is at the heart of the observed nonlinear response.

  1. Effects of low intensity static magnetic field on FTIR spectra and ROS production in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Emanuele; Condello, Salvatore; Currò, Monica; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Caccamo, Daniela; Magazù, Salvatore; Ientile, Riccardo

    2013-12-01

    Biological effects of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been studied so far by experimental approaches exposing animals and cell cultures to EMFs. However, the evidence for cell toxicity induced by static magnetic field (SMF) is still uncertain. We investigated the effects produced by the exposure of human SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells to a uniform magnetic field at intensities of 2.2 mT, which is less than the recommended public exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A decrease of membrane mitochondrial potential up to 30% was measured after 24 h of exposure to SMF in SH-SY5Y cells, and this effect was associated with reactive oxygen species production increase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that exposure to a static magnetic intensity around 2.2 mT changed the secondary structure of cellular proteins and lipid components. The vibration bands relative to the methylene group increased significantly after 4 h of exposure, whereas further exposure up to 24 h produced evident shifts of amide I and II modes and a relative increase in β-sheet contents with respect to α-helix components. Our study demonstrated that a moderate SMF causes alteration in cell homeostasis, as indicated by FTIR spectroscopy observations of changes in protein structures that are part of cell response to magnetic field exposure.

  2. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves.

  3. Calculation of externally applied electric field intensity for disruption of cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sardari, Dariush; Verga, Nicolae

    2010-06-01

    It is already known that electrostatic, magnetostatic, extremely low-frequency electric fields, and pulsed electric field could be utilized in cancer treatment. The healing effect depends on frequency and amplitude of electric field. In the present work, a simple theoretical model is developed to estimate the intensity of electrostatic field that damages a living cell during division. By this model, it is shown that magnification of electric field in the bottleneck of dividing cell is enough to break chemical bounds between molecules by an avalanche process. Our model shows that the externally applied electric field of 4 V/cm intensity is able to hurt a cancer cell at the dividing stage.

  4. Mechanism of action of moderate-intensity static magnetic fields on biological systems.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Arthur D

    2003-01-01

    There is substantial evidence indicating that moderate-intensity static magnetic fields (SMF) are capable of influencing a number of biological systems, particularly those whose function is closely linked to the properties of membrane channels. Most of the reported moderate SMF effects may be explained on the basis of alterations in membrane calcium ion flux. The mechanism suggested to explain these effects is based on the diamagnetic anisitropic properties of membrane phospholipids. It is proposed that reorientation of these molecules during moderate SMF exposure will result in the deformation of imbedded ion channels, thereby altering their activation kinetics. Channel inactivation would not be expected to be influenced by these fields because this mechanism is not located within the intramembraneous portion of the channel. Patch-clamp studies of calcium channels have provided support for this hypothesis, as well as demonstrating a temperature dependency that is understandable on the basis of the membrane thermotropic phase transition. Additional studies have demonstrated that sodium channels are similarly affected by SMFs, although to a lesser degree. These findings support the view that moderate SMF effects on biological membranes represent a general phenomenon, with some channels being more susceptible than others to membrane deformation.

  5. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Huang, Lei; Csiszar, Susan A; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we quantify cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific product intake fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. Combining product intake fractions with chemical mass in the product yields intake estimates for use in life cycle impact assessment and chemical alternatives assessment, or daily intake doses for use in risk-based assessment and high-throughput screening. Two illustrative examples of chemicals used in personal care products and flooring materials demonstrate how this matrix-based framework offers a consistent and efficient way to rapidly compare exposure pathways for adult and child users and for the general population. This framework constitutes a user-friendly approach to develop, compare and interpret multiple human exposure scenarios in a coupled system of near-field ('user' environment), far-field and human intake compartments, and helps understand the contribution of individual pathways to overall human exposure in various product application contexts to inform decisions in different science-policy fields for which exposure quantification is relevant.

  6. High-time resolution and size-segregated elemental composition in high-intensity pyrotechnic exposures.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Javier; Yubero, Eduardo; Nicolás, Jose F; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Chiari, Massimo; Calzolai, Giulia

    2012-11-30

    Typical of festivals in Eastern Spain, mascletàs are high-intensity pyrotechnic events where thousands of firecrackers are burnt in an intense, rapid episode that generates short-lived heavy aerosol clouds. High temporal resolution and size distribution characterisation of aerosol components were performed to evaluate the effects of the brief (<30 min) and acute exposure on the spectators present. Very high concentrations of firework specific elements, especially in the fine fraction, were reached during mascletàs, with values of about 500 μg/m(3) for K and 300 μg/m(3) for Cl. Sr, Al, Mg, Ba, Cu, Co, Zn, and Pb concentration increase factors of more than 100 (1000 for Sr and Ba) were observed in the fine fraction with respect to background levels. Crustal origin elements, like Ca, Fe, Si, Ti, also showed an important concentration rise (~10 times above background levels) but this is due to dust resuspension by pyrotechnic explosions. The crustal components are mainly in the coarse mode (>90% elemental mass), between 2 and 3 μm. Most firework related metals are concentrated in the submicrometric region (>80%) with a trimodal size distribution. This may be interesting to epidemiologists given the toxic effects that such fine, metal-rich particles can have on human health.

  7. OLD-FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING INTENSIVE HERBIVORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of severe disturbance, which was heavy grazing by cattle, in an old-field grassland subject to invasi...

  8. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-08

    I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  9. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, N; Tettamanti, E; Russo, V; Martelli, A; Turriani, M; Mattoli, M; Barboni, B

    2010-06-01

    Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model.

  10. Thermal relaxation of adsorbed atoms in an intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoldus, Henk F.; van Smaalen, Sander; George, Thomas F.

    1986-11-01

    Adsorbed atoms on the surface of a harmonic lattice are immersed in a strong laser field. The optical Bloch equations are derived, which include the thermal relaxation and the coherent excitation of the adbond. This is accomplished by a transformation to dressed states, which diagonalizes the interaction with the laser. The single-phonon couplings are then understood as transitions between dressed states. The radiative contributions for arbitrarily strong fields are obtained in the master equation, and it is shown that the coherences with respect to the dressed states decay exponentially, due to the phonon relaxation. General properties of the competing phonon-induced redistribution and optical excitation of the level populations are presented, and exemplified by an explicit elaboration of a three-level system. The results are amenable to analytical evaluation once the interaction potential is prescribed, and extensions of the approach to include multiphonon processes are straightforward.

  11. [Patient exposure to electromagnetic fields in magnetic resonance scanners: a review].

    PubMed

    Guibelalde del Castillo, E

    2013-12-01

    The use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the low frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and static fields, radiofrequencies (RF), and microwaves is fundamental both in modern communication systems and in diagnostic medical imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proliferation of these applications in recent decades has led to intense activity in developing regulations to guarantee their safety and to the establishment of guidelines and legal recommendations for the public, workers, and patients. In April 2012 it was foreseen that the European Parliament and Council would approve and publish a directive on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields, which would modify Directive 2004/40/EC. New studies related to the exposure to electromagnetic radiation and its impact on health published in recent years have led to a new postponement, and it is now foreseen that the directive will come into effect in October 2013. One of the most noteworthy aspects of the new version of the directive is the exclusion of the limits of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the clinical use of MRI. In exchange for this exception, physicians and experts in protection against non-ionizing radiation are asked to make additional efforts to train workers exposed to non-ionizing radiation and to establish mechanisms to guarantee the correct application of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in patients, along similar lines to the principles of justification and optimization established for ionizing radiation. On the basis of the most recently published studies, this article reviews some safety-related aspects to take into account when examining patients with MRI with high magnetic fields.

  12. Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

  13. The effects of intense magnetic fields on Landau levels in a neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Z. F.; Wang, N.; Song, D. L.; Yuan, J. P.; Chou, C.-K.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an approximate method of calculating the Fermi energy of electrons ( E F ( e)) in a high-intensity magnetic field, based on the analysis of the distribution of a neutron star magnetic field, has been proposed. In the interior of a neutron star, different forms of intense magnetic field could exist simultaneously and a high electron Fermi energy could be generated by the release of magnetic field energy. The calculation results show that: E F ( e) is related to density ρ, the mean electron number per baryon Y e and magnetic field strength B.

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an asymmetric double quantum well under non-resonant, intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency in an asymmetric double quantum well subjected to a non-resonant, intense laser field is theoretically investigated. We found that the energy levels configuration could be switched between a Λ-type and a ladder-type scheme by varying the non-resonant radiation intensity. This effect is due to the laser-induced electron tunneling between the wells and it allows a substantial flexibility in the manipulation of the optical properties. The dependence of the susceptibilities on the control field Rabi frequency, intensity of the nonresonant laser, and the control field detuning for both configurations are discussed and compared.

  15. Radiation Exposure to Premature Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Onal, Esra; Bor, Dogan; Okumus, Nurullah; Atalay, Yildiz; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koc, Esin

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the radiation dose received by infants from radiographic exposure and the contribution from scatter radiation due to radiographic exposure of other infants in the same room. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated the entrance skin doses (ESDs) and effective doses of 23 infants with a gestational age as low as 28 weeks. ESDs were determined from tube output measurements (ESDTO) (n = 23) and from the use of thermoluminescent dosimetry (ESDTLD) (n = 16). Scattered radiation was evaluated using a 5 cm Perspex phantom. Effective doses were estimated from ESDTO by Monte Carlo computed software and radiation risks were estimated from the effective dose. ESDTO and ESDTLD were correlated using linear regression analysis. Results The mean ESDTO for the chest and abdomen were 67 µGy and 65 µGy per procedure, respectively. The mean ESDTLD per radiograph was 70 µGy. The measured scattered radiation range at a 2 m distance from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was (11-17 µGy) per radiograph. Mean effective doses were 16 and 27 µSv per procedure for the chest and abdomen, respectively. ESDTLD was well correlated with ESDTO obtained from the total chest and abdomen radiographs for each infant (R2 = 0.86). The radiation risks for childhood cancer estimated from the effective dose were 0.4 × 10-6 to 2 × 10-6 and 0.6 × 10-6 to 2.9 × 10-6 for chest and abdomen radiographs, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study show that neonates received acceptable doses from common radiological examinations. Although the contribution of scatter radiation to the neonatal dose is low, considering the sensitivity of the neonates to radiation, further protective action was performed by increasing the distance of the infants from each other. PMID:18838850

  16. Phase-shift nano-emulsions induced cavitation and ablation during high intensity focused ultrasound exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Yin, Hui; Chang, Nan; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    Phase-shift Nano-emulsions (PSNEs) with a small initial diameter in nanoscale have the potential to leak out of the blood vessels and to accumulate at target point of tissue. At desired location, PSNEs can undergo acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process, change into gas bubbles and enhance focused ultrasound efficiency. The aim of this work was to provide spatial and temporal information on PSNE induced cavitation and ablation effects during pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure. The PSNEs were composed of perfluorohaxane (PFH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and then uniformly distributed in a transparent polyacrylamide phantom. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method was employed to visualize the cavitation distribution and formation process of PSNEs induced cavitation. For the phantom which was used for ablation observation, heat sensitive BSA was added. When the temperature generated by ultrasound exposure was high enough to denature BSA, the transparent phantom would turn out white lesions. The shape of the lesion and the formation process were compared with those of cavitation. Each of the pulse contained 12 cycles for a duration of 10 µs. And the duty cycle changed from 1:10 to 1:40. The total "on" time of HIFU was 2s. PSNE can evidently accelerate cavitation emitting bright SL in pre-focal region. The cavitation was generated layer by layer towards the transducer. The formed bubble wall can block acoustic waves transmitting to the distal end. And the lesion appeared to be separated into two parts. One in pre-focal region stemmed from one point and grew quickly toward the transducer. The other in focal region was formed by merging some small white dots, and grew much slower. The influence of duty cycle has also been examined. The lower duty cycle with longer pulse-off time would generate more intense cavitation, however, smaller lesion. Bubble cloud gradually developed within phantom would greatly influence the cavitation and ablation

  17. Rats avoid exposure to HVdc electric fields: a dose response study.

    PubMed

    Creim, J A; Lovely, R H; Weigel, R J; Forsythe, W C; Anderson, L E

    1993-01-01

    Rats, given the choice, avoid exposure to alternating current (ac) 60-Hz electric fields at intensities > or = 75 kV/m. This study investigated the generality of this behavior by studying the response of rats when exposed to high voltage direct current (HVdc) electric fields. Three hundred eighty male Long Evans rats were studied in 9 experiments with 40 rats per experiment and in one experiment with 20 rats to determine 1) if rats avoid exposure to HVdc electric fields of varying field strengths, and 2) if avoidance did occur, what role, if any, the concentration of air ions would have on the avoidance behavior. In all experiments a three-compartment glass shuttlebox was used; either the left or right compartment could be exposed to a combination of HVdc electric fields and air ions while the other compartment remained sham-exposed. The third, center compartment was a transition zone between exposure and sham-exposure. In each experiment, the rats were individually assessed in 1-h sessions where half of the rats (n = 20) had the choice to locomote between the two sides being exposed or sham-exposed, while the other half of the rats (n = 20) were sham-exposed regardless of their location, except in one experiment where there was no sham-exposed group. The exposure levels for the first six experiments were 80, 55, 42.5, 30, -36, and -55 kV/m, respectively. The air ion concentration was constant at 1.4 x 10(6) ions/cc for the four positive exposure levels and -1.4 x 10(6) ions/cc for the two negative exposure levels. Rats having a choice between exposure and non-exposure relative to always sham-exposed control animals significantly reduced the amount of time spent on the exposed side at 80 kV/m (P < .002) as they did at both 55 and -55 kV/m (P < .005). No significant differences between groups were observed at 42.5, 30, or -36 kV/m. To determine what role the air ion concentration might have had on the avoidance behavior at field strengths of 55 kV/m or greater, four

  18. Intensity of the geomagnetic field in Europe for the last 3 ka: Influence of data quality on geomagnetic field modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Hervé, Gwenaël.; Osete, María. Luisa; Chauvin, Annick

    2014-06-01

    of the main challenges of paleomagnetic research is to obtain high-resolution geomagnetic field intensity reconstructions. For the last millennia, these reconstructions are mostly based on archeomagnetic data. However, the quality of the intensity data available in the databases is very variable, and the high scatter observed in the records clearly suggests that some of them might not be reliable. In this work we investigate how the geomagnetic field intensity reconstructions and, hence, our present knowledge of the geomagnetic field in the past, are affected by the quality of the data selected for modeling the Earth's magnetic field. For this purpose we rank the European archeointensity data in four quality categories following widely accepted paleomagnetic criteria based on the methodology used during the laboratory treatment of the samples and on the number of specimens retained to calculate the mean intensities. Four geomagnetic field regional models have been implemented by applying the revised spherical cap harmonic analysis to these four groups of input data. Geomagnetic field models strongly depend on the used data set. The model built using all the available data (without any preselection) appears to be the less accurate, indicating some internal inconsistencies of the data set. In addition, some features of this model are clearly dominated by the less reliable archeointensity data, suggesting that such features might not reflect real variations of the past geomagnetic field. On the contrary, the regional model built on selected high-quality intensity data shows a very consistent intensity pattern at the European scale, confirming that the main intensity changes observed in Europe in the recent history of the geomagnetic field occurred at the continental scale.

  19. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of "laptop" computers.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, C V; Pinto, I; Bogi, A; Zoppetti, N; Andreuccetti, D; Buonocore, G

    2012-01-01

    Portable computers are often used at tight contact with the body and therefore are called "laptop." The authors measured electromagnetic fields (EMFs) laptop computers produce and estimated the induced currents in the body, to assess the safety of laptop computers. The authors evaluated 5 commonly used laptop of different brands. They measured EMF exposure produced and, using validated computerized models, the authors exploited the data of one of the laptop computers (LTCs) to estimate the magnetic flux exposure of the user and of the fetus in the womb, when the laptop is used at close contact with the woman's womb. In the LTCs analyzed, EMF values (range 1.8-6 μT) are within International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, but are considerably higher than the values recommended by 2 recent guidelines for computer monitors magnetic field emissions, MPR II (Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation) and TCO (Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees), and those considered risky for tumor development. When close to the body, the laptop induces currents that are within 34.2% to 49.8% ICNIRP recommendations, but not negligible, to the adult's body and to the fetus (in pregnant women). On the contrary, the power supply induces strong intracorporal electric current densities in the fetus and in the adult subject, which are respectively 182-263% and 71-483% higher than ICNIRP 98 basic restriction recommended to prevent adverse health effects. Laptop is paradoxically an improper site for the use of a LTC, which consequently should be renamed to not induce customers towards an improper use.

  20. Explosions of water clusters in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kumarappan, V.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Mathur, D.

    2003-06-01

    Energetic, highly charged oxygen ions O{sup q+} (q{<=}6), are copiously produced upon laser field-induced disassembly of highly charged water clusters, (H{sub 2}O){sub n} and (D{sub 2}O){sub n}, n{approx}60, that are formed by seeding high-pressure helium or argon with water vapor. Ar{sub n} clusters (n{approx}40 000) formed under similar experimental conditions are found to undergo disassembly in the Coulomb explosion regime, with the energies of Ar{sup q+} ions showing a q{sup 2} dependence. Water clusters, which are argued to be considerably smaller in size, should also disassemble in the same regime, but the energies of fragment O{sup q+} ions are found to depend linearly on q which, according to prevailing wisdom, ought to be a signature of hydrodynamic expansion that is expected of much larger clusters. The implication of these observations on our understanding of the two cluster explosion regimes, Coulomb explosion and hydrodynamic expansion, is discussed. Our results indicate that charge state dependences of ion energy do not constitute an unambiguous experimental signature of cluster explosion regime.

  1. Histological evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound with lower-intensity focused ultrasound pre-exposure on the treatment of rabbit VX2 liver tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Hairong; Zou Jianzhong; Wang Yan; Ou Xia

    2012-10-03

    This study was to evaluate the effect of pre-exposure lower-intensity focused ultrasound(US), or LIFU, in high-intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU) ablation of rabbit VX2 liver tumors . Liver VX2 tumor models were established in 30 rabbits, which were divided randomly into two groups. The liver tumors of rabbits in Group A underwent single HIFU ablation; those in Group B were given LIFU exposure before HIFU treatment. Five rabbits from each of the two groups were sacrificed at 0 hours, 3 days, and 7 days after HIFU ablation. Tissue samples that included targeted and short-range sounding (s-RS, within 5 mm of the targeted) and far-range sounding (f-RS, more than 5 mm of the targeted) tissues were observed using light microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The histological examination indicated that not only the targeted tumor cells became irreversible damage, but also the short-range sounding tumors were severely damaged by the HIFU with LIFU pre-exposure in group B. It is concluded that LIFU pre-exposure can enhance the effects of HIFU ablation on the destruction of cell ultrastructures and can enlarge the region of HIFU ablation.

  2. Interference stabilization and UV lasing in a plasma channel formed in gas by intense RF field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatskaya, A. V.; Popov, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of interference stabilization of Rydberg atoms in a high-intensity IR laser field is proposed to create a plasma channel with population inversion for conversion of the input laser energy into the VUV and XUV frequency band.

  3. The geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Iberian Peninsula during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Akimova, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    The pattern of variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field starting from the middle of the sixth millennium B.C. is reconstructed from the data about the intensity of the ancient geomagnetic field in the region of the Iberian Peninsula provided by the archaeomagnetic studies of ceramics from archaeological monuments. In this time interval, the intensity of the field widely varies from ~30 to ~90 µT. The smooth variation of the field is superimposed by the variations with characteristic times from thousands to hundreds of years. The intensity variations can be subdivided into two groups: rather sharp variations with a characteristic duration of about 200 years and smooth quasi-harmonic fluctuations with a duration of a few hundred years.

  4. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24–57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24–50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed. PMID:23369281

  5. Modeling microbial survival during exposure to a lethal agent with varying intensity.

    PubMed

    Peleg, M; Penchina, C M

    2000-03-01

    Traditionally, the efficacy of preservation and disinfection processes has been assessed on the basis of the assumption that microbial mortality follows a first-order kinetic. However, as departures from this assumed kinetics are quite common, various other models, based on higher-order kinetics or population balance, have also been proposed. The database for either type of models is a set of survival curves of the targeted organism or spores determined under constant conditions, that is, constant temperature, chemical agent concentration, etc. Hence, to calculate the outcome of an actual industrial process, where conditions are changing, as in heating and cooling during a thermal treatment or when the agent dissipates as in chlorination or hydrogen peroxide application, one has to integrate the momentary effects of the lethal agent. This involves mathematical models based on assumed mortality kinetics, and simulated or measured history, for example, temperature-time or concentration-time relationships at the "coldest" point. It is shown that the survival curve under conditions where the agent intensity increases, decreases, or oscillates can be constructed without assuming any mortality kinetics and without the use of the traditional D and Z values, which require linear approximation, and without thermal death times, which require extrapolation. The actual survival curves can be compiled from the isothermal survival curves provided that growth and damage repair do not occur over the pertinent time scale and that the mortality rate is a function of only the momentary agent intensity and of the organism's or spore's survival fraction (but not of the rate at which this fraction has been reached). The calculation is greatly facilitated if both the "isothermal" survival curves and the time-dependent agent intensity can be expressed algebraically. The differential equation derived from these considerations can be solved numerically to produce the required survival curve

  6. Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews published literature and current problems relating to the assessment of occupational and residential human exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Available occupational exposure data suggest that the class of job titles known as electrical workers may be an effective surrogate for time-weighted-average (TWA) magnetic-field (but not electric-field) exposure. Current research in occupational-exposure assessment is directed to the construction of job-exposure matrices based on electric- and magnetic-field measurements and estimates of worker exposures to chemicals and other factors of interest. Recent work has identified five principal sources of residential magnetic fields: electric power transmission lines, electric power distribution lines, ground currents, home wiring, and home appliances. Existing residential-exposure assessments have used one or more of the following techniques: questionnaires, wiring configuration coding, theoretical field calculations, spot electric- and magnetic-field measurements, fixed-site magnetic-field recordings, personal- exposure measurements, and geomagnetic-field measurements. Available normal-power magnetic-field data for residences differ substantially between studies. It is not known if these differences are due to geographical differences, differences in measurement protocols, or instrumentation differences. Wiring codes and measured magnetic fields (but not electric fields) are associated weakly. Available data suggest, but are far from proving, that spot measurements may be more effective than wire codes as predictors of long-term historical magnetic-field exposure. Two studies find that away-from-home TWA magnetic-field exposures are less variable than at-home exposures. The importance of home appliances as contributors to total residential magnetic-field exposure is not known at this time. It also is not known what characteristics (if any) of residential electric and magnetic fields are

  7. Chronic exposure to pulsed low-intensity microwaves is carcinogenic and tumorogenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2004-03-01

    To study health effects of lifetime exposure to low-intensity pulsed radiation >890 MHz, one controlled laboratory study of SPF* rats[1-3] and two of mice[4,5] were conducted, but only one[4] reported that its data showed an association between irradiation and cancer; reports of the other two studies minimized or denied such association. Critical review of these identified data evaluation errors; their correction enables a conclusion of microwave carcinogenicity from each study (the rat study also shows an association with endocrine-system primary malignancies and with a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla), enhancing the credibility of an epidemiological study[6] reporting a brain cancer risk for users of both analog and digital cellular phones. [1] J. Raloff. Science News 126(7):103(1984). [2] K. R. Foster & A. W. Guy. Sci Am 255(3):32-39(1986). [3] C.-K. Chou et al. Bioelectromagnetics 13:469-496(1992). [4] M. H. Repacholi et al. Radiat Res 147:631-640(1990)SPF\\. [5] T. D. Utteridge et al. Radiat Res 158:357-364(2002)non-SPF\\. [6] L. Hardell et al. Int J Oncol 22:399-407(2003). * SPF = specific-pathogen-free

  8. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of asymmetric double quantum well under intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum well under the intense non-resonant laser field is theoretically investigated. We calculate the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation within the compact density-matrix approach. The theoretical findings show that the influence of electric, magnetic, and intense laser fields leads to significant changes in the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation.

  9. Assessment of multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, N.

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields both in daily life and at workplaces exhibit increasingly complex frequency spectra. Present spectral assessment rules proved to be too conservative for health risk assessment. This is because they are based on the assumption that cells would react like linear systems in terms of responding to a sum of frequencies by a sum of independent responses to each individual frequency. Based on numerical investigations with the Hodgkin-Huxley and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley nerve cell models, it could be shown that accounting for the nonlinear behaviour of cellular excitation processes avoids considerable overestimation of simultaneous exposures to multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields. Besides this, it could be shown that the role of phase relationships is less important than that assumed so far. The present assessment rules lead to non-compliances of marketed electric appliances. For general application, a nonlinear biology-based assessment (NBBA) rule has been proposed, validated and proven advantageous compared with ICNIRP's rule. While staying conservative it avoids unnecessary overestimation and demonstrates compliance even in cases of suspected non-conformities. It is up to responsible bodies to decide upon the adoption of this proposal and the potential need for implementing additional or reducing the already incorporated safety factors.

  10. Assessment of multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2008-01-21

    Electromagnetic fields both in daily life and at workplaces exhibit increasingly complex frequency spectra. Present spectral assessment rules proved to be too conservative for health risk assessment. This is because they are based on the assumption that cells would react like linear systems in terms of responding to a sum of frequencies by a sum of independent responses to each individual frequency. Based on numerical investigations with the Hodgkin-Huxley and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley nerve cell models, it could be shown that accounting for the nonlinear behaviour of cellular excitation processes avoids considerable overestimation of simultaneous exposures to multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields. Besides this, it could be shown that the role of phase relationships is less important than that assumed so far. The present assessment rules lead to non-compliances of marketed electric appliances. For general application, a nonlinear biology-based assessment (NBBA) rule has been proposed, validated and proven advantageous compared with ICNIRP's rule. While staying conservative it avoids unnecessary overestimation and demonstrates compliance even in cases of suspected non-conformities. It is up to responsible bodies to decide upon the adoption of this proposal and the potential need for implementing additional or reducing the already incorporated safety factors.

  11. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.

    PubMed

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.

  12. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.

  13. Correction of in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates for geomagnetic field intensity variations during the past 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Jozef; Frank, Martin; Schäfer, Jörg M.; Wieler, Rainer

    2001-09-01

    We present integrated relative production rates for cosmogenic nuclides in rock surfaces, which take into account reported variations of the geomagnetic field intensity during the past 800,000 yr. The calculations are based on the model simulating cosmic ray particle interactions with the Earth's atmosphere given by Masarik and Beer ["Simulation of particle fluxes and cosmogenic nuclide production in the Earth's atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 104(D10), 12099-12111, 1999]. Corrections are nearly independent on altitude between sea level and at least 5000 m. The correction factors are essentially identical for all stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides with half-lives longer than a few hundred thousand years. At the equator, integrated production rates for exposure ages between ˜40,000 to 800,000 yr are 10 to 12% higher than the present-day values, whereas at latitudes >40°, geomagnetic field intensity variations have hardly influenced in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Correction factors for in situ 14C production rates differ from those of longer-lived nuclides. They are always smaller than ˜2% because the magnetic field intensity remained rather constant during the past ˜10 kyr, when the major fraction of the 14C extant today was produced.

  14. SHEDS-HT: an integrated probabilistic exposure model for prioritizing exposures to chemicals with near-field and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kristin K; Glen, W Graham; Egeghy, Peter; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Smith, Luther; Vallero, Daniel; Brooks, Raina; Grulke, Christopher M; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2014-11-04

    United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) researchers are developing a strategy for high-throughput (HT) exposure-based prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. These novel modeling approaches for evaluating chemicals based on their potential for biologically relevant human exposures will inform toxicity testing and prioritization for chemical risk assessment. Based on probabilistic methods and algorithms developed for The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Multimedia, Multipathway Chemicals (SHEDS-MM), a new mechanistic modeling approach has been developed to accommodate high-throughput (HT) assessment of exposure potential. In this SHEDS-HT model, the residential and dietary modules of SHEDS-MM have been operationally modified to reduce the user burden, input data demands, and run times of the higher-tier model, while maintaining critical features and inputs that influence exposure. The model has been implemented in R; the modeling framework links chemicals to consumer product categories or food groups (and thus exposure scenarios) to predict HT exposures and intake doses. Initially, SHEDS-HT has been applied to 2507 organic chemicals associated with consumer products and agricultural pesticides. These evaluations employ data from recent USEPA efforts to characterize usage (prevalence, frequency, and magnitude), chemical composition, and exposure scenarios for a wide range of consumer products. In modeling indirect exposures from near-field sources, SHEDS-HT employs a fugacity-based module to estimate concentrations in indoor environmental media. The concentration estimates, along with relevant exposure factors and human activity data, are then used by the model to rapidly generate probabilistic population distributions of near-field indirect exposures via dermal, nondietary ingestion, and inhalation pathways. Pathway-specific estimates of near-field direct exposures from consumer products are also modeled

  15. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  16. Relationship between auroral electrojet intensity fluctuations and the wind field near the mesopause

    SciTech Connect

    Balsley, B.B.; Carter, D.A.; Ecklund, W.L.

    1982-03-01

    We report an observed correlation between short-term fluctuation in the wind field near the mesopause (happrox. =83--90 km) and intensity variations of the auroral electrojet (happrox. =110--115 km). Our results were obtained by comparing mesospheric wind variations obtained from the MST radar at Poker Flat, Alaska with electrojet intensity varitions determined by both the intensity of radar-auroral echoes and ground-based magnetometer data. The apparent correlation between these parameters suggests a partial control of the mesospheric wind field by the overlying current system.

  17. Influence of relative humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using ELF electric field measurements.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field measurements. The study included 322 measurements in a climate room. We used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300, and employed two measurement techniques in the climate room where we varied the temperature from 15 to 25 °C, the relative humidity from 55% to 95%, and the electric field from 1 to 25 kV/m. We calculated Pearson correlations between humidity and percentage errors for all data and for data at different levels of humidity. When the relative humidity was below 70%, the results obtained by the different measurement methods in terms of percentage errors were of the same order of magnitude for the considered temperatures and field strength, but the results were less reliable when the relative humidity was higher than 80%. In the future, it is important to take humidity into account when electric field measurement results will be compared to the values given in different exposure guidelines.

  18. Biological effects of prolonged exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields in rats: III. 50 Hz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zecca, L; Mantegazza, C; Margonato, V; Cerretelli, P; Caniatti, M; Piva, F; Dondi, D; Hagino, N

    1998-01-01

    Groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats (64 rats each) were exposed for 8 months to electromagnetic fields (EMF) of two different field strength combinations: 5microT - 1kV/m and 100microT - 5kV/m. A third group was sham exposed. Field exposure was 8 hrs/day for 5 days/week. Blood samples were collected for hematology determinations before the onset of exposure and at 12 week intervals. At sacrifice, liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, bone marrow, and testes were collected for morphology and histology assessments, while the pineal gland and brain were collected for biochemical determinations. At both field strength combinations, no pathological changes were observed in animal growth rate, in morphology and histology of the collected tissue specimens (liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, testes, bone marrow), and in serum chemistry. An increase in norepinephrine levels occurred in the pineal gland of rats exposed to the higher field strength. The major changes in the brain involved the opioid system in frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and hippocampus. From the present findings it may be hypothesized that EMF may cause alteration of some brain functions.

  19. Characterization of structural vibration: Field descriptors based on energy density and intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linjama, Jukka

    Measurement of energy flow in acoustical and vibrational fields is usually based on the detection of one linear field quantity (e.g. sound pressure) and its spatial gradient, two transducers being used for the measurement. This report first reviews the quantities which can be obtained from the measurement of acoustical intensity with a two-microphone probe: intensity and the energy densities. A set of 'field descriptors', relative quantities giving a measure of propagating (active) character of the waves in the sound field, is proposed. These energetic quantities are based entirely on the transversal velocity measured and the gradient of that velocity, and are available when the two-transducer method of bending wave intensity is used. Examples of the energy densities and field descriptors measured in an aluminum plate are presented, and proposals for further work are given.

  20. Influence of exposure to electromagnetic field on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J H; Kim, J S; Lee, B C; Min, Y S; Kim, D S; Ryu, J S; Soh, K S; Seo, K M; Sohn, U D

    2005-01-01

    1 We examined whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) affect the basal level of cardiovascular parameters and influence of drugs acting on the sympathetic nervous system. 2 Male rats were exposed to sham control and EMF (60 Hz, 20 G) for 1 (MF-1) or 5 days (MF-5). We evaluated the alterations of blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR), and the PR interval, QRS interval and QT interval on the electrocardiogram and dysrhythmic ratio in basal level and dysrhythmia induced by beta-adrenoceptor agonists. 3 In terms of the basal levels, there were no statistically significant differences among control, MF-1 and MF-5 in PR interval, QRS interval, mean BP, HR and PP. However, the QT interval, representing ventricular repolarization, was significantly reduced by MF-1 (P < 0.05). 4 (-)-Dobutamine (beta1-adrenoceptor-selective agonist)-induced tachycardia was significantly suppressed by ELF-EMF exposure in MF-1 for the increase in HR (DeltaHR), the decrease in QRS interval (DeltaQRS) and the decrease in QT (DeltaQT) interval. Adrenaline (nonselective beta-receptor agonist)-induced dysrhythmia was also significantly suppressed by ELF-EMF in MF-1 for the number of missing beats, the dysrhythmic ratio, and the increase in BP and PP. 5 These results indicated that 1-day exposure to ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 20 G) could suppress the increase in HR by affecting ventricular repolarization and may have a down-regulatory effect on responses of the cardiovascular system induced by sympathetic agonists.

  1. Net effect of many gravitational fields on the intensity of celestial light sources. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cipperly, G.E.

    1982-12-01

    This thesis investigates the lens-like action of the gravitational fields of celestial bodies, which can alter the apparent intensity of more distant sources. Previous work in this area has shown that the chance of an individual body being sufficiently well aligned with a source to cause a very large gravitational intensity change is small. The issue addressed in this study is the possibility of there being a significant total change in the intensity of a source due to the combined effects of the gravitational fields of all celestial bodies, and in particular, the potential impact on intensity distance measurements, that is, determination of the distances of celestial light sources by means of intensity comparisons. It is first shown that the problem can be treated in flat space by associating an appropriate index of refraction with gravitational fields. A wave approach is taken in deriving the total deflection of a ray by the field of a single point mass. A statistical analysis is then performed to determine the expression for the mean total change in the intensity of celestial light sources due to the combined fields of all intervening bodies.

  2. Study on cavitation behavior during high-intensity focused ultrasound exposure by using optical and ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Kei; Takagi, Ryo; Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation bubbles are known to enhance the heating effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). In our previous study, the use of a “triggered HIFU” sequence consisting of a high-intensity pulse and a relatively low-intensity burst was proposed as an effective method to utilize the effect of cavitation bubbles. However, the duration of each component in the sequence has not been optimized. In this study, optical imaging was carried out to observe the behavior of cavitation bubbles in a gel phantom during the triggered HIFU exposure. Ultrasound imaging using the pulse inversion method was also conducted to detect the behavior of the bubbles. The results suggest that the oscillation of cavitation bubbles become inactive as the duration of HIFU burst exposure increases to the order of 10 ms. It was also suggested that ultrasonic imaging has potential use for detecting a change in the oscillation of cavitation bubbles for optimizing a triggered HIFU sequence.

  3. Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields on spermatogenesis in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weixia; Liu, Chuan; Wu, Hongjuan; Chen, Chunhai; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Peng; Luo, Xue; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The constant exposure of modern society to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) has raised considerable concerns about the potential risks to male reproduction. However, the epidemiological and experimental data remain contradictory and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 50 Hz ELF-MF of 500 µT applied 4 h/day, 7 days/week for 4 and 8 weeks on male reproduction, focusing on changes in spermatogenesis. Several biological endpoints related to testicular function and spermatogenesis were measured, including the following: body mass, masses of testes and epididymis, sperm count and abnormal sperm ratio in the caudal epididymis, serum testosterone level, testicular histology, frequency of 14 stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and of four stages of meiosis I, germ cell apoptosis and testicular oxidative status. No significant differences were found in the biological endpoints between the sham control and the exposed rats in either the 4- or 8-week exposure period. These negative results may result from the lack of change in serum testosterone. In conclusion, our study indicates that exposure to low intensity ELF-MF may have no adverse effects on spermatogenesis.

  4. Light fields with an axially expanded intensity distribution for stable three-dimensional optical trapping.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Susanne; Schaub, Christian; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-09-13

    We introduce a new kind of light field to improve and simplify the trapping process of axially displaced particles. To this end we employ a light field with an axially expanded intensity distribution, which at the same time enables stable axial trapping. We present simulations of the axial intensity distribution of the novel trapping field and first experimental results, which demonstrate the improvement of the reliability of the axial trapping process. The method can be used to automate trapping of particles that are located outside of the focal plane of the microscope.

  5. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Craniospinal Irradiation: Organ-at-Risk Exposure and a Low-Gradient Junctioning Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, Joshua B.; Grant, Jonathan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Pidikiti, Rajesh; Mahajan, Anita; Grosshans, David R.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To compare field junction robustness and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) during craniospinal irradiation (CSI) using intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) to conventional passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients, 5 adult and 5 pediatric patients, previously treated with PSPT-based CSI were selected for comparison. Anterior oblique cranial fields, using a superior couch rotation, and posterior spinal fields were used for IMPT planning. To facilitate low-gradient field junctioning along the spine, the inverse-planning IMPT technique was divided into 3 stages. Dose indices describing target coverage and normal tissue dose, in silico error modeling, and film dosimetry were used to assess plan quality. Results: Field junction robustness along the spine was improved using the staged IMPT planning technique, reducing the worst case impact of a 4-mm setup error from 25% in PSPT to <5% of prescription dose. This was verified by film dosimetry for clinical delivery. Exclusive of thyroid dose in adult patients, IMPT plans demonstrated sparing of organs at risk as good or better than PSPT. Coverage of the cribriform plate for pediatric (V95% [percentage of volume of the target receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose]; 87 ± 11 vs 92 ± 7) and adult (V95%; 94 ± 7 vs 100 ± 1) patients and the clinical target in pediatric (V95%; 98 ± 2 vs 100 ± 1) and adult (V95%; 100 ± 1 vs 100 ± 1) patients for PSPT and IMPT plans, respectively, were comparable or improved. For adult patients, IMPT target dose inhomogeneity was increased, as determined by heterogeneity index (HI) and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC). IMPT lowered maximum spinal cord dose, improved spinal dose homogeneity, and reduced exposure to other OARs. Conclusions: IMPT has the potential to improve CSI plan quality and the homogeneity of intrafractional dose at match lines. The IMPT approach developed may also simplify treatments and reduce

  6. Cholinergic transmission underlies modulation of frustration by open field exposure.

    PubMed

    Psyrdellis, Mariana; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Mustaca, Alba; Justel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Frustration can be defined as an emotional state generated by the omission or devaluation in the quantity or quality of an expected appetitive reward. Thus, reactivity to a reward is affected by prior experience with the different reinforcer values of that reward. This phenomenon is known as incentive relativity, and can be studied by different paradigms. Although methodologically simple, the exploration of a novel open field (OF) is a complex situation that involves several behavioral processes, including stress induction and novelty detection. OF exposure can enhance or block the acquisition of associative and non-associative memories. These experiments evaluated the effect of OF exploration on frustration and the role played by the cholinergic system in this phenomenon. OF exploration before first or second trial of incentive downshift modulated the expression of frustration. This effect of OF was blocked by the administration of scopolamine either before or after OF exploration. These results indicate that the cholinergic system is involved in the acquisition and consolidation of OF information.

  7. Development and Application of Integrated Optical Sensors for Intense E-Field Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rong; Wang, Bo; Niu, Ben; Yu, Zhanqing

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), coupler interferometer (CI) and common path interferometer (CPI). The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics. PMID:23112663

  8. Effects of different intensities of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on formation of osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyle; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Wu, Mei-Ling; Shih, Chung

    2003-09-01

    Over the past 30 years, the beneficial therapeutic effects of selected low energy, time varying electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been documented with increasing frequency to treat therapeutically resistant problems of the musculoskeletal system. However, the underlying mechanisms at a cellular level are still not completely understood. In this study, the effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on osteoclastogenesis, cultured from murine bone marrow cells and stimulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), were examined. Primary bone marrow cells were cultured from mature Wistar rats and exposed to ELF-PEMF stimulation daily for 7 days with different intensities of induced electric field (4.8, 8.7, and 12.2 micro V/cm rms) and stimulation times (0.5, 2, and 8 h/day). Recruitment and authentication of osteoclast-like cells were evaluated, respectively, by determining multinuclear, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cells on day 8 of culture and by the pit formation assay. During the experiments, cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), and prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) were assayed using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These findings suggest that ELF-PEMF can both enhance (approximately 50%) and suppress (approximately 27%) the formation of osteoclast-like cells in bone marrow culture, depending on the induced electric field intensity. In addition, consistent correlations were observed between TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and osteoclast-like cell number after exposure to different induced electric field intensities of ELF-PEMF. This in vitro study could be considered as groundwork for in vivo ELF-PEMF clinical applications on some osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  9. Early embryonic development of frogs under intense magnetic fields up to 8 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Iwasaka, M.; Shiokawa, K.

    1994-05-01

    A possible influence of intense magnetic fields on the embryonic development of frogs was studied in reference to a potential hazard in magnetic resonance imaging technology. Some of the most serious hazardous effects that could be induced by intense magnetic fields are teratogenic effects on developing embryos. In the present experiment, the possible influence of intense magnetic fields up to 8 T on the early embryonic development of Xenopus laevis was studied. Embryos were exposed to magnetic fields up to 8 T for the period from the precleavage stage to neurula in a small glass vial. Embryos were then cultured in Brown-Caston's medium until the feeding-tadpole stage. No apparent teratogenic effects were observed when embryos were cultured for 20 h from the stage of uncleaved fertilized egg to the neurula stage under magnetic fields of 8 T. We conclude that static magnetic fields up to 8 T do not appreciably affect the rapid cleavage and the following cell multiplication and differentiation in Xenopus laevis. We have also studied the early embryonic development of Xenopus laevis in a 40 nT magnetic field, or 1/1000 of the earth's magnetic field, and obtained negative results. Thus, again under this very low magnetic field, fertilized eggs developed normally and formed tadpoles with no appreciable abnormality.

  10. Neuronal Cellular Responses to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure: Implications Regarding Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2−, which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  11. Exposure estimates based on broadband ELF magnetic field measurements versus the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Pachón, Fernando T; Carrero, Julián

    2015-02-01

    The evaluation of exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields using broadband measurement techniques gives satisfactory results when the field has essentially a single frequency. Nevertheless, magnetic fields are in most cases distorted by harmonic components. This work analyses the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field in an outdoor urban context and compares the evaluation of the exposure based on broadband measurements with that based on spectral analysis. The multiple frequency rule of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory guidelines was applied. With the 1998 ICNIRP guideline, harmonics dominated the exposure with a 55% contribution. With the 2010 ICNIRP guideline, however, the primary frequency dominated the exposure with a 78% contribution. Values of the exposure based on spectral analysis were significantly higher than those based on broadband measurements. Hence, it is clearly necessary to determine the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field to assess exposure in urban contexts.

  12. The Inhibitory Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Escherichia coli from two Different Sources at Short Exposure Time

    PubMed Central

    Mousavian-Roshanzamir, Sofieh; Makhdoumi-Kakhki, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effectiveness of static magnetic field on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) provided from two sources, the urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections and the reference strain E. coli ATCC 25922. Bacterial samples in Nutrient Broth were subjected to a range of magnetic intensities (2, 4, 6, 9, 14, 16, 18, and 20 mT) at various exposure times (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min). The survival rate was measured in the presence and absence of the magnetic field over time. The cell counts of uropathogenic E. coli did not statistically differed from those of the standard strain if exposed to the magnetic field. The fluctuation was observed in cell viabilities at different magnetic intensities below 18 mT. Both groups presented a significant decline in survival rate as exposed to 18 and 20 mT. PMID:28367473

  13. Infrared mapping of ultrasound fields generated by medical transducers: Feasibility of determining absolute intensity levels

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Vera A.; Shmeleva, Svetlana M.; Gavrilov, Leonid R.; Martin, Eleanor; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Shaw, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in the use of infrared (IR) techniques for qualitative mapping of acoustic fields of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. The authors have previously developed and demonstrated a method based on IR camera measurement of the temperature rise induced in an absorber less than 2 mm thick by ultrasonic bursts of less than 1 s duration. The goal of this paper was to make the method more quantitative and estimate the absolute intensity distributions by determining an overall calibration factor for the absorber and camera system. The implemented approach involved correlating the temperature rise measured in an absorber using an IR camera with the pressure distribution measured in water using a hydrophone. The measurements were conducted for two HIFU transducers and a flat physiotherapy transducer of 1 MHz frequency. Corresponding correction factors between the free field intensity and temperature were obtained and allowed the conversion of temperature images to intensity distributions. The system described here was able to map in good detail focused and unfocused ultrasound fields with sub-millimeter structure and with local time average intensity from below 0.1 W/cm2 to at least 50 W/cm2. Significantly higher intensities could be measured simply by reducing the duty cycle. PMID:23927199

  14. Infrared mapping of ultrasound fields generated by medical transducers: feasibility of determining absolute intensity levels.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Vera A; Shmeleva, Svetlana M; Gavrilov, Leonid R; Martin, Eleanor; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Shaw, Adam

    2013-08-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in the use of infrared (IR) techniques for qualitative mapping of acoustic fields of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. The authors have previously developed and demonstrated a method based on IR camera measurement of the temperature rise induced in an absorber less than 2 mm thick by ultrasonic bursts of less than 1 s duration. The goal of this paper was to make the method more quantitative and estimate the absolute intensity distributions by determining an overall calibration factor for the absorber and camera system. The implemented approach involved correlating the temperature rise measured in an absorber using an IR camera with the pressure distribution measured in water using a hydrophone. The measurements were conducted for two HIFU transducers and a flat physiotherapy transducer of 1 MHz frequency. Corresponding correction factors between the free field intensity and temperature were obtained and allowed the conversion of temperature images to intensity distributions. The system described here was able to map in good detail focused and unfocused ultrasound fields with sub-millimeter structure and with local time average intensity from below 0.1 W/cm(2) to at least 50 W/cm(2). Significantly higher intensities could be measured simply by reducing the duty cycle.

  15. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  16. Control of Goos-Hänchen shift via input probe field intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    We suggest a scheme to control Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as super-atoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. The ensemble of three-level cold Rydberg-dressed (87Rb) atoms follows a cascade configurations where two fields, i.e, a strong control and a weak field are employed [D. Petrosyan, J. Otterbach, and M. Fleischhauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213601 (2011)]. The propagation of probe field is influenced by two-photon correlation within the blockade distance, which are damped due to the saturation of super-atoms. The amplitude of GH shift in the reflected light depends on the intensity of probe field. We observe large negative GH shift in the reflected light for small values of the probe field intensities.

  17. Intense-field-stimulated multiphoton transitions in a two-level system

    SciTech Connect

    Milman, Perola; Zagury, Nicim

    2011-11-15

    We study the interaction of an intense classical field with a two-level system coupled to a bosonic quantized field. We focus on the regime where the classical field and the two-level system characteristic frequencies are the same, while the quantized mode is set off resonance with both. We show that a parameter governing the dynamics of the system is the ratio between the classical field's intensity and the quantized mode detuning. Depending on this parameter, multiple excitations can be created in the quantized mode in a single cycle of the two-level system. Examples of physical setups allowing for the application of the presented ideas are superconducting circuits in strip-line resonators, laser cooled trapped ions, and neutral atoms coupled to the quantized field of a cavity. We focus on the latter in order to show that, with realistic experimental parameters, it is possible to generate up to four photons in a single Rabi cycle.

  18. Generation of intense magnetic field in a counter-streaming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Intense magnetic field generation by excitation of Weibel instability in dense plasmas has been investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. As energetic electrons driven by laser propagate in dense plasmas, a return current is excited to compensate the charge neutrality offset. In such a counter-streaming system, Weibel instability is driven, leading to current filamentation and magnetic field generation. The current filaments self-organize in coaxial structures where the relativistic current in the center is surrounded by the return current sheath and intense magnetic field. The magnetic field peaks in the current center with magnitude as high as several hundreds of MegaGauss, and decreases to zero outside the relativistic current. The influences of counter-streaming density and energy on the magnetic field generation are examined.

  19. Electron Raman scattering in a double quantum well tuned by an external nonresonant intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiutiunnyk, A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Morales, A. L.; Duque, C. M.; Restrepo, R. L.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we shall present a study of inelastic light scattering involving inter-subband electron transitions in coupled GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells. Calculations include the electron related Raman differential cross section and Raman gain. The effects of an external nonresonant intense laser field are used in order to tune these output properties. The confined electron states will be described by means of a diagonalization procedure within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. It is shown that the application of the intense laser field can produce values of the intersubband electron Raman gain above 400 cm-1. The system proposed here is an alternative choice for the development of AlxGa1-xAs semiconductor laser diodes that can be tuned via an external nonresonant intense laser field.

  20. Dynamical coupling of electrons and nuclei for Coulomb explosion of argon trimers in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiguo; Wu, Chengyin; Yuan, Zongqiang; Ye, Difa; Wang, Peng; Deng, Yongkai; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yunquan; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-08-01

    We have experimentally and theoretically studied the fragmentation dynamics of argon trimer (A r3) in intense laser fields. By coincidently measuring the momentum vectors, we obtained the emission geometry of the three fragmental ions produced in the three-body fragmentation process. In addition to the direct Coulomb explosion channels, we observed the indirect Coulomb explosion channels with Rydberg excitation. We have further developed a classical polyatomic molecular ensemble model, in which all interactions among electrons and nuclei are fully included, to simulate the fragmentation dynamics of argon trimer in intense laser fields. The experimental observations have been reproduced by the model calculation. The simulations show that the Rydberg excitation modifies the kinetic energy release as well as the emission geometry of fragmental ions during the explosion process. The study provides insight into the correlation dynamics of electrons and nuclei of many-body physics driven by intense laser fields.

  1. Determination of the duty cycle of WLAN for realistic radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Pareit, Daan; Vermeeren, Günter; Naudts, Dries; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Moerman, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are commonly deployed in various environments. The WLAN data packets are not transmitted continuously but often worst-case exposure of WLAN is assessed, assuming 100% activity and leading to huge overestimations. Actual duty cycles of WLAN are thus of importance for time-averaging of exposure when checking compliance with international guidelines on limiting adverse health effects. In this paper, duty cycles of WLAN using Wi-Fi technology are determined for exposure assessment on large scale at 179 locations for different environments and activities (file transfer, video streaming, audio, surfing on the internet, etc.). The median duty cycle equals 1.4% and the 95th percentile is 10.4% (standard deviation SD = 6.4%). Largest duty cycles are observed in urban and industrial environments. For actual applications, the theoretical upper limit for the WLAN duty cycle is 69.8% and 94.7% for maximum and minimum physical data rate, respectively. For lower data rates, higher duty cycles will occur. Although counterintuitive at first sight, poor WLAN connections result in higher possible exposures. File transfer at maximum data rate results in median duty cycles of 47.6% (SD = 16%), while it results in median values of 91.5% (SD = 18%) at minimum data rate. Surfing and audio streaming are less intensively using the wireless medium and therefore have median duty cycles lower than 3.2% (SD = 0.5-7.5%). For a specific example, overestimations up to a factor 8 for electric fields occur, when considering 100% activity compared to realistic duty cycles.

  2. Exposure of surgeons to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields during laparoscopic and robotic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Soo; Chung, Jai Won; Kim, Nam Kyu; Cho, Min Soo; Kang, Chang Moo; Choi, Soo Beom; Kim, Deok Won

    2015-02-01

    The development of new medical electronic devices and equipment has increased the use of electrical apparatuses in surgery. Many studies have reported the association of long-term exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) with diseases or cancer. Robotic surgery has emerged as an alternative tool to overcome the disadvantages of conventional laparoscopic surgery. However, there has been no report regarding how much ELF-MF surgeons are exposed to during laparoscopic and robotic surgeries. In this observational study, we aimed to measure and compare the ELF-MFs that surgeons are exposed to during laparoscopic and robotic surgery.The intensities of the ELF-MFs surgeons are exposed to were measured every 4 seconds for 20 cases of laparoscopic surgery and 20 cases of robotic surgery using portable ELF-MF measuring devices with logging capability.The mean ELF-MF exposures were 0.6 ± 0.1 mG for laparoscopic surgeries and 0.3 ± 0.0 mG for robotic surgeries (significantly lower with P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test).Our results show that the ELF-MF exposure levels of surgeons in both robotic and conventional laparoscopic surgery were lower than 2 mG, which is the most stringent level considered safe in many studies. However, we should not overlook the effects of long-term ELF-MF exposure during many surgeries in the course of a surgeon's career.

  3. An electron of helium atom under a high-intensity laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Adepoju, Adenike Grace; Liman, Muhammed S.; Oyewumi, K. J.; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2017-02-01

    We scrutinize the behavior of eigenvalues of an electron in a helium (He) atom as it interacts with electric field directed along the z-axis and is exposed to linearly polarized intense laser field radiation. To achieve this, we freeze one electron of the He atom at its ionic ground state and the motion of the second electron in the ion core is treated via a more general case of screened Coulomb potential model. Using the Kramers-Henneberger (KH) unitary transformation, which is the semiclassical counterpart of the Block-Nordsieck transformation in the quantized field formalism, the squared vector potential that appears in the equation of motion is eliminated and the resultant equation is expressed in the KH frame. Within this frame, the resulting potential and the corresponding wave function are expanded in Fourier series and using Ehlotzky’s approximation, we obtain a laser-dressed potential to simulate intense laser field. By fitting the more general case of screened Coulomb potential model into the laser-dressed potential, and then expanding it in Taylor series up to O≤ft({{r}4},α 09\\right) , we obtain the solution (eigenvalues and wave function) of an electron in a He atom under the influence of external electric field and high-intensity laser field, within the framework of perturbation theory formalism. We found that the variation in frequency of laser radiation has no effect on the eigenvalues of a He electron for a particular electric field intensity directed along z-axis. Also, for a very strong external electric field and an infinitesimal screening parameter, the system is strongly bound. This work has potential application in the areas of atomic and molecular processes in external fields including interactions with strong fields and short pulses.

  4. Repeated exposure attenuates the behavioral response of rats to static high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Cassell, Jennifer A.; Hood, Alison; DenBleyker, Megan; Janowitz, Ilana; Mueller, Kathleen; Ortega, Breyda; Smith, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high strength static magnetic fields of 7 T or above has behavioral effects such as the induction of locomotor circling, the suppression of rearing, and the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). To determine if habituation occurs across magnetic field exposures, rats were pre-exposed two times to a 14 T static magnetic field for 30 min on two consecutive days; on the third day, rats were given access to a novel 0.125% saccharin prior to a third 30-min exposure to the 14 T magnetic field. Compared to sham-exposed rats, pre-exposed rats showed less locomotor circling and an attenuated CTA. Rearing was suppressed in all magnet-exposed groups regardless of pre-exposure, suggesting that the suppression of rearing is more sensitive than other behavioral responses to magnet exposure. Habituation was also observed when rats under went pre-exposures at 2–3 hour intervals on a single day. Components of the habituation were also long lasting; a diminished circling response was observed when rats were exposed to magnetic field 36 days after 2 pre-exposures. To control for possible effects of unconditioned stimulus pre-exposure, rats were also tested in a similar experimental design with two injections of LiCl prior to the pairing of saccharin with a third injection of LiCl. Pre-exposure to LiCl did not attenuate the LiCl-induced CTA, suggesting that 2 pre-exposures to an unconditioned stimulus are not sufficient to explain the habituation to magnet exposure. Because the effects of magnetic field exposure are dependent on an intact vestibular apparatus, and because the vestibular system can habituate to many forms of perturbation, habituation to magnetic field exposure is consistent with mediation of magnetic field effects by the vestibular system. PMID:20045422

  5. Cumulative radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Fiachra; Fama, Daniel; Twomey, Maria; O’Leary, Ruth; Houlihane, Conor; Murphy, Kevin P; O’Neill, Siobhan B; O’Connor, Owen J; Breen, Dorothy; Maher, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To quantify cumulative effective dose of intensive care unit (ICU) patients attributable to diagnostic imaging. METHODS: This was a prospective, interdisciplinary study conducted in the ICU of a large tertiary referral and level 1 trauma center. Demographic and clinical data including age, gender, date of ICU admission, primary reason for ICU admission, APACHE II score, length of stay, number of days intubated, date of death or discharge, and re-admission data was collected on all patients admitted over a 1-year period. The overall radiation exposure was quantified by the cumulative effective radiation dose (CED) in millisieverts (mSv) and calculated using reference effective doses published by the United Kingdom National Radiation Protection Board. Pediatric patients were selected for subgroup-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2737 studies were performed in 421 patients. The total CED was 1704 mSv with a median CED of 1.5 mSv (IQR 0.04-6.6 mSv). Total CED in pediatric patients was 74.6 mSv with a median CED of 0.07 mSv (IQR 0.01-4.7 mSv). Chest radiography was the most commonly performed examination accounting for 83% of all studies but only 2.7% of total CED. Computed tomography (CT) accounted for 16% of all studies performed and contributed 97% of total CED. Trauma patients received a statistically significant higher dose [median CED 7.7 mSv (IQR 3.5-13.8 mSv)] than medical [median CED 1.4 mSv (IQR 0.05-5.4 mSv)] and surgical [median CED 1.6 mSv (IQR 0.04-7.5 mSv)] patients. Length of stay in ICU [OR = 1.12 (95%CI: 1.079-1.157)] was identified as an independent predictor of receiving a CED greater than 15 mSv. CONCLUSION: Trauma patients and patients with extended ICU admission times are at increased risk of higher CEDs. CED should be minimized where feasible, especially in young patients. PMID:27158429

  6. Assessment of physiotherapists' occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from shortwave and microwave diathermy devices: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed studies reporting the strength of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in physiotherapists' occupational environment. Studies from academic journals published from January 1990 to June 2010 were identified in nine online bibliographic databases. EMF strength was compared with occupational exposure limits (OELs) recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the reviewed studies, EMFs were measured at different distances (range 0.2 m to 6 m) from the console of diathermy devices, electrodes, and cables. For continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) (27.12 megahertz, MHz), measurements of EMFs at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m reported the maximum E field strength as 8197%, 1639%, 295%, and 69%, respectively, and the maximum H field strength as 6250%, 681%, 213%, and 56%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) (27.12 MHz), EMF measurements at < 1 m, 1 m, and, 1.1-1.5 m showed the maximum E field intensity as 1639%, 175%, and 32%, and the maximum H field strength as 1175%, 968%, and 28%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For microwave diathermy (MWD) (2.45 gigahertz, GHz), the maximum power density measured at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m was 200%, <30%, 0.76%, and 0.82%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limit for occupational exposure. RF EMF emissions measured from continuous and pulsed electrotherapeutic diathermy devices may well be higher than OELs at specific distances, i.e., at 1 m, which is currently designated to be a safe distance for physiotherapists. The minimum safe distance for physiotherapists should be revised to at least 2 m for CSWD and 1.5 m for PSWD. The reviewed studies did not provide evidence of exceeding the ICNIRP's reference levels for occupational exposure at 1 m from MWD devices.

  7. [Creatinine and calcium in urine and blood after brief exposure to magnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, F; Mannsåker, T; Løvlie, R

    1999-02-10

    In this experimental study, 35 males were exposed to artificial magnetic fields. The fields were produced by a set of Helmholz coils internally isolated by a Faraday cage which effectively eliminated electrical fields. Each participant stayed inside the coils for 40 minutes on two occasions with an interval of seven days, but was actually only once exposed to a static magnetic field (9.6 mT) and oscillating magnetic fields of variable frequency and strength. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exposure, and before and after non-exposure. Analysis detected significant changes in serum creatinine level after exposure (p < 0.0001). The changes in serum creatinine level in the nonexposed situation were significantly smaller than the changes found in the exposed situation (p < 0.0001). The changes i urine creatinine after 40 minutes of exposure was also found to be significant (p < 0.01). Exposure to magnetic fields may induce biological reactions.

  8. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) maintain hearing sensitivity after exposure to intense band-limited noise.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Hom, Kelsey N; Simmons, James A

    2017-03-01

    Thresholds to short-duration narrowband frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps were measured in six big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in a two-alternative forced choice passive listening task before and after exposure to band-limited noise (lower and upper frequencies between 10 and 50 kHz, 1 h, 116-119 dB sound pressure level root mean square; sound exposure level 152 dB). At recovery time points of 2 and 5 min post-exposure, thresholds varied from -4 to +4 dB from pre-exposure threshold estimates. Thresholds after sham (control) exposures varied from -6 to +2 dB from pre-exposure estimates. The small differences in thresholds after noise and sham exposures support the hypothesis that big brown bats do not experience significant temporary threshold shifts under these experimental conditions. These results confirm earlier findings showing stability of thresholds to broadband FM sweeps at longer recovery times after exposure to broadband noise. Big brown bats may have evolved a lessened susceptibility to noise-induced hearing losses, related to the special demands of echolocation.

  9. The Effects of Didactic Classroom Instruction versus Field Exposure on Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yongue, Imogene T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Tested two types of career training (field exposure and didactic classroom) to determine which is more effective in bringing about the development of career maturity. Results indicated that field exposure career training is an effective method to increase career maturity. (Author)

  10. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields exposure on cochlear cells' functionality in rats: evaluation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Galloni, Paolo; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Mancini, Sergio; Parazzini, Marta; Pinto, Rosanna; Piscitelli, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo; Marino, Carmela

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has been accompanied by public debate about possible adverse consequences on human health. The auditory system is a major target of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular telephones; the aim of this study was the evaluation of possible effects of cellular phone-like emissions on the functionality of rat's cochlea. Distortion Products OtoAcoustic Emission (DPOAE) amplitude was selected as cochlea's outer hair cells (OHC) status indicator. A number of protocols, including different frequencies (the lower ones in rat's cochlea sensitivity spectrum), intensities and periods of exposure, were used; tests were carried out before, during and after the period of treatment. No significant variation due to exposure to microwaves has been evidenced.

  11. Intraband optical absorption in a single quantum ring: Hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The intraband optical absorption in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As two-dimensional single quantum ring is investigated. Considering the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field the energy of the ground and few excited states has been found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intraband optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure for the different values of the laser field parameter. We also investigated the dependencies of the intraband optical absorption coefficient as a function of incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure and laser field parameter. It is found that the effects of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field lead to redshift and blueshift of the intraband optical spectrum respectively.

  12. The effect of magnetic field intensity and treatment time on graphene / epoxy composites’ fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Z. Q.; Zhang, L.; Fu, S.; Yuan, R. H.; Dong, Z. W.; Ren, X. M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the intensity of the magnetic field and the treatment time on the fracture toughness of graphene/epoxy composites is researched. Also, the mechanism of the effect of the magnetic field on the fracture toughness of graphene/epoxy composites and a method to improve the impact resistance is explored. Then, three-point bending tests are employed to characterize the fracture toughness of graphene/epoxy composite. The results show that the intervention of magnetic field could induce GNS to generated orientation arrangement, improving the fracture toughness of the graphene/epoxy composite. When the intensity of the magnetic field was increased, the growth rate of the fracture toughness slowed. However, when 2T magnetic was used to synthetically process the material, and when the processing time was less than 50 min, the fracture toughness of the composite material increased significantly.

  13. A Dosimetric Evaluation of Conventional Helmet Field Irradiation Versus Two-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, James B.; Shiao, Stephen L.; Knisely, Jonathan . E-mail: jonathan.knisely@yale.edu

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric differences between conventional two-beam helmet field irradiation (external beam radiotherapy, EBRT) of the brain and a two-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Ten patients who received helmet field irradiation at our institution were selected for study. External beam radiotherapy portals were planned per usual practice. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy fields were created using the identical field angles as the EBRT portals. Each brain was fully contoured along with the spinal cord to the bottom of the C2 vertebral body. This volume was then expanded symmetrically by 0.5 cm to construct the planning target volume. An IMRT plan was constructed using uniform optimization constraints. For both techniques, the nominal prescribed dose was 3,000 cGy in 10 fractions of 300 cGy using 6-MV photons. Comparative dose-volume histograms were generated for each patient and analyzed. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy improved dose uniformity over EBRT for whole brain radiotherapy. The mean percentage of brain receiving >105% of dose was reduced from 29.3% with EBRT to 0.03% with IMRT. The mean maximum dose was reduced from 3,378 cGy (113%) for EBRT to 3,162 cGy (105%) with IMRT. The mean percent volume receiving at least 98% of the prescribed dose was 99.5% for the conventional technique and 100% for IMRT. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces dose inhomogeneity, particularly for the midline frontal lobe structures where hot spots occur with conventional two-field EBRT. More study needs to be done addressing the clinical implications of optimizing dose uniformity and its effect on long-term cognitive function in selected long-lived patients.

  14. Oxygen consumption of zooplankton as affected by laboratory and field Cadmium exposures. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Kettle, W.D.; deNoyelles, F. Jr.; Lei, C.H.

    1980-10-01

    Virtually none of the many studies of the responses of aquatic organisms to heavy metals has involved organism response to heavy metals under natural, whole system exposure. The ability of laboratory studies to simulate and predict actual field conditions and responses remains questionable. The effects of cadmium exposure on zooplankton has been measured in laboratory studies and in enclosures placed in the field. However, studies involving zooplankton subjected to field exposure of cadmium are lacking. The objectives of this experiment were to measure oxygen consumption, survivorship, and reproduction of Daphnia pulex and Simocephalus serrulatus in response to low level cadmium exposure, in both laboratory and field situations. This design makes possible the comparisons of 1) laboratory and field exposures, and 2) responses of 2 common freshwater zooplankton species.

  15. Relation of the green coronal line intensity to sunspot areas and magnetic fields of different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalyan, O. G.; Bludova, N. G.

    2014-07-01

    The intensity of Fe XIV 530.3-nm green coronal line is compared quantitatively with the strength of magnetic fields of small and large scales and also with total sunspot areas for 1977-2001. A degree of similarity of appropriate synoptic maps is evaluated using correlation analysis. The green line intensity maps are constructed from data of its daily monitoring. Strengths of magnetic fields are calculated in a potential approximation using the photosphere observations of Wilcox Solar Observatory for a distance of 1.1 The calculations are performed separately for fields of large and small spatial scales. The total area of sunspots is obtained using data from the Greenwich Catalogue and its continuation by USAF/NOAA. The correlation has been calculated for the aggregate of areas (with a size of 20° in latitude and 30° in longitude) coinciding spatially on all maps. It is found that the most correlation between the green line intensity and coronal fields of small scales is observed in a zone of 0°-20°. The correlation with total sunspot areas (i.e., with local fields at the photosphere level) is substantially less here. In the higher-latitude zone 20°-40°, correlation of the green-line intensity with spot areas and small-scale coronal fields decreases. The large-scale fields have little influence on the green-line emission in the spot-formation zone. These results are the evidence of a complex nature of the effect of different-scale fields, arising as a result of dynamo activity in the subsurface (leptocline) and deep-lying (tachocline) layers of the convective zone, on the processes of the Sun's corona heating and green coronal line emission.

  16. Disorder fingerprint: Intensity distributions in the near field of random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraghi, R. Rezvani; Sukhov, S.; Dogariu, A.

    2016-11-01

    The structural morphology of complex dielectric media determines their functionalities by driving the statistical properties of the electromagnetic fields. Our controlled experiments and full electromagnetic calculations that go beyond common dipolar approximations demonstrate that the specific characteristics of disorder lead to non-Rayleigh statistics of detected intensity, which can be directly accessed in the near field of random media and can be unambiguously related to the short-range correlations of disorder.

  17. The atom in an intense optical field (2nd revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delone, N. B.; Krainov, V. P.

    The basic features characterizing multiphoton processes are examined, and descriptions are given of such phenomena as the multiphoton ionization of atoms, multiphoton resonance, and the perturbation of the bound-state spectrum in atoms in an optical field. The design of an experiment for measuring the interaction of laser radiation with atoms is proposed. Particular attention is given to nonlinear atomic susceptibilities, the effect of multifrequency laser radiation, and the behavior of highly excited atoms in an intense optical field.

  18. Spontaneous transitions in atomic system in the presence of high-intensity laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatskaya, Anna; Volkova, Ekaterina; Popov, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    A new approach to the study of the spontaneous emission of the quantum system driven by a high-intensity laser field is developed. This approach is based on the accurate consideration of quantum system interaction with vacuum quantized field modes in the first order of perturbation theory, while the intense laser field is considered classically beyond the perturbation theory which allows to observe any-order stimulated processes governed by classical field. The proposed approach is applied to the study of a number of quantum systems in intense laser field. The obtained data are compared with those obtained in the frames of semiclassical approximation typically used for analyzing of the strong-field dynamic. It is found that the applicability of the semiclassical approach is strictly limited. It is valid for calculation of transitions to the initially populated state only if the population of this state is close to unity during the pulse and in the after-pulse regime. If its population is depleted, the semiclassical approach fails.

  19. The Energy Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans under The Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhenhua; Yu, Hui; Sun, Yongyan; Yang, Chuanjun; Lian, Huiyong; Cai, Peng

    2015-02-01

    A literal mountain of documentation generated in the past five decades showing unmistakable health hazards associated with extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) exposure. However, the relation between energy mechanism and ELF-EMF exposure is poorly understood. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at intensities of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mT, respectively. Their metabolite variations were analyzed by GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics. Although minimal metabolic variations and no regular pattern were observed, the contents of energy metabolism-related metabolites such as pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, and L-malic acid were elevated in all the treatments. The expressions of nineteen related genes that encode glycolytic enzymes were analyzed by using quantitative real-time PCR. Only genes encoding GAPDH were significantly upregulated (P < 0.01), and this result was further confirmed by western blot analysis. The enzyme activity of GAPDH was increased (P < 0.01), whereas the total intracellular ATP level was decreased. While no significant difference in lifespan, hatching rate and reproduction, worms exposed to ELF-EMF exhibited less food consumption compared with that of the control (P < 0.01). In conclusion, C. elegans exposed to ELF-EMF have enhanced energy metabolism and restricted dietary, which might contribute to the resistance against exogenous ELF-EMF stress.

  20. Factors modifying the response of large animals to low-intensity radiation exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, N. P.; Still, E. T.

    1972-01-01

    In assessing the biological response to space radiation, two of the most important modifying factors are dose protraction and dose distribution to the body. Studies are reported in which sheep and swine were used to compare the hematology and lethality response resulting from radiation exposure encountered in a variety of forms, including acute (high dose-rate), chronic (low dose-rate), combinations of acute and chronic, and whether received as a continuous or as fractionated exposure. While sheep and swine are basically similar in response to acute radiation, their sensitivity to chronic irradiation is markedly different. Sheep remain relatively sensitive as the radiation exposure is protracted while swine are more resistant and capable of surviving extremely large doses of chronic irradiation. This response to chronic irradiation correlated well with changes in radiosensitivity and recovery following an acute, sublethal exposure.

  1. Effect of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields on melatonin levels in calves is seasonally dependent

    PubMed Central

    Kolbabová, Tereza; Pascal Malkemper, E.; Bartoš, Luděk; Vanderstraeten, Jacques; Turčáni, Marek; Burda, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    The question of health effects of extremely low frequency (50/60 Hz) magnetic fields (ELFMF) has been widely discussed, but the mechanisms of interaction of these fields with biological systems for intensities relevant to human and animal exposure are still under question. The melatonin (MLT) hypothesis suggests that exposure to ELFMF might decrease MLT production thereby promoting cancerogenesis. So far, most studies of MLT secretion under exposure to ELFMF reported negative or inconsistent results. Here, we measured salivary MLT in 1–2 months old cattle calves exposed to 50 Hz-MF in the hundreds of nT-range. We found an inhibitory effect of the ELFMF upon MLT secretion in winter (in accordance with the MLT hypothesis). In contrast, in summer, MLT concentration was increased by ELFMF exposure (contrary to the MLT hypothesis). The inhibitory effect in winter was much stronger than the positive effect in summer. We hypothesize that this season-dependent effect upon MLT synthesis might by mediated by an effect of ELFMF upon the serotonin metabolism and conclude that future tests of ELFMF effects should also measure serotonin levels and consider association with the seasonal effects (photoperiod or temperature) during the exposure. PMID:26381579

  2. Does Exposure to a Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Modify Thermal Preference in Juvenile Rats?

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Amandine; Delanaud, Stéphane; de Seze, René; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Loos, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have shown that people living near a mobile phone base station may report sleep disturbances and discomfort. Using a rat model, we have previously shown that chronic exposure to a low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) was associated with paradoxical sleep (PS) fragmentation and greater vasomotor tone in the tail. Here, we sought to establish whether sleep disturbances might result from the disturbance of thermoregulatory processes by a RF-EMF. We recorded thermal preference and sleep stage distribution in 18 young male Wistar rats. Nine animals were exposed to a low-intensity RF-EMF (900 MHz, 1 V.m−1) for five weeks and nine served as non-exposed controls. Thermal preference was assessed in an experimental chamber comprising three interconnected compartments, in which the air temperatures (Ta) were set to 24°C, 28°C and 31°C. Sleep and tail skin temperature were also recorded. Our results indicated that relative to control group, exposure to RF-EMF at 31°C was associated with a significantly lower tail skin temperature (−1.6°C) which confirmed previous data. During the light period, the exposed group preferred to sleep at Ta = 31°C and the controls preferred Ta = 28°C. The mean sleep duration in exposed group was significantly greater (by 15.5%) than in control group (due in turn to a significantly greater amount of slow wave sleep (SWS, +14.6%). Similarly, frequency of SWS was greater in exposed group (by 4.9 episodes.h−1). The PS did not differ significantly between the two groups. During the dark period, there were no significant intergroup differences. We conclude that RF-EMF exposure induced a shift in thermal preference towards higher temperatures. The shift in preferred temperature might result from a cold thermal sensation. The change in sleep stage distribution may involve signals from thermoreceptors in the skin. Modulation of SWS may be a protective adaptation in response to RF-EMF exposure. PMID

  3. Permanent-magnet Faraday isolator with the field intensity of 25 kOe

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, E A; Snetkov, I L; Voitovich, A V; Palashov, O V

    2013-08-31

    A Faraday isolator with a single magneto-optical element is constructed and experimentally tested. It provides the isolation ratio of 30 dB at an average laser radiation power of 650 W. These parameters are obtained by increasing the field intensity in the magnetic system of the isolator and employing a low-absorption magneto-optical element. (elements of laser devices)

  4. Variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Siberia during the last 13000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Pilipenko, O. V.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal magnetization of the samples from the archaeological sites in Siberia is studied. The magnetization of the collected samples was studied using the authors' modification of the Thellier method amended by the magnetic anisotropy and chemical alterations. Resulting from the study of the burned material from the Kazachka site, the time series of the geomagnetic field intensity in Siberia spanning the time interval from 10000 to 1000 B.C. is obtained. These data are unique in terms of the duration and representativeness. For the first time, the main variation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field is traced by studying the magnetization of the samples from a single archeological site. The pattern of the variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Siberia from 11000 B.C. to 2000 A.D., which is reconstructed from the data of the Kazachka, Ust-Karenga, and some other sites of Cis-Baikalia, indicates that the characteristics time of the long-period oscillation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field is about 8000 years. It also suggests the existence of rapid variations superimposed on the main oscillation.

  5. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    PubMed

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High... that performs a function whose failure would significantly reduce the capability of the airplane or...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High... performs a function whose failure would significantly reduce the capability of the rotorcraft or...

  8. Electromagnetic Confined Plasma Target for Interaction Studies with Intense Laser Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zielbauer, B; Ursescu, U; Trotsenko, S; Spillmann, U; Schuch, R; Stohlker, T; Kuhl, T; Borneis, S; Schenkel, T; McDonald, J; Schneider, D

    2006-08-09

    The paper describes a novel application of an electron beam ion trap as a plasma target facility for intense laser-plasma interaction studies. The low density plasma target ({approx}10{sup 13}/cm{sup 3}) is confined in a mobile cryogenic electromagnetic charged particle trap, with the magnetic confinement field of 1-3T maintained by a superconducting magnet. Ion plasmas for a large variety of ion species and charge states are produced and maintained within the magnetic field and the space charge of an energetic electron beam in the ''Electron Beam Ion Trap'' (EBIT) geometry. Intense laser beams (optical lasers, x-ray lasers and upcoming ''X-Ray Free Electron Lasers'' (XFEL)) provide strong time varying electromagnetic fields (>10{sup 12} V/cm in femto- to nano-sec pulses) for interactions with electromagnetically confined neutral/non-neutral plasmas. The experiments are aimed to gain understanding of the effects of intense photon fields on ionization/excitation processes, the ionization balance, as well as photon polarization effects. First experimental scenarios and tests with an intense laser that utilize the ion plasma target are outlined.

  9. ELF magnetic field exposure system with feedback-controlled disturbance rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.K.C.

    1997-06-01

    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field exposure systems are usually subject to field disturbances induced by external sources. Here, a method for designing a feedback control system for canceling the effect of external ELF magnetic field disturbances on the magnetic field over the exposure area is presented. This method was used in the design of a feedback-controlled exposure system for an inverted microscope stage. The effectiveness of the proposed feedback control system for disturbance rejection was verified experimentally and by means of computer simulation.

  10. Computation of acoustic ressure fields produced in feline brain by high-intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, Nazanin

    In 1975, Dunn et al. (JASA 58:512-514) showed that a simple relation describes the ultrasonic threshold for cavitation-induced changes in the mammalian brain. The thresholds for tissue damage were estimated for a variety of acoustic parameters in exposed feline brain. The goal of this study was to improve the estimates for acoustic pressures and intensities present in vivo during those experimental exposures by estimating them using nonlinear rather than linear theory. In our current project, the acoustic pressure waveforms produced in the brains of anesthetized felines were numerically simulated for a spherically focused, nominally f1-transducer (focal length = 13 cm) at increasing values of the source pressure at frequencies of 1, 3, and 9 MHz. The corresponding focal intensities were correlated with the experimental data of Dunn et al. The focal pressure waveforms were also computed at the location of the true maximum. For low source pressures, the computed waveforms were the same as those determined using linear theory, and the focal intensities matched experimentally determined values. For higher source pressures, the focal pressure waveforms became increasingly distorted, with the compressional amplitude of the wave becoming greater, and the rarefactional amplitude becoming lower than the values calculated using linear theory. The implications of these results for clinical exposures are discussed.

  11. Prenatal exposures to LTP-patterned magnetic fields: quantitative effects on specific limbic structures and acquisition of contextually conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Whissell, P D; Tsang, E W; Mulligan, B P; Persinger, M A

    2009-01-01

    Weak (<1 microT) complex magnetic fields (CMFs) may exert their behavioral influences through the hippocampus by resonating by accident or design with intrinsic electrical patterns. Rats were exposed prenatally to one of four intensities of a CMF (either <5 nanoTesla [nT], 10-50 nT, 50-500 nT, or 500-1000 nT) designed to interact with the process of Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. Rats then underwent testing in the forced swim, open field, and fear-conditioning procedures. The cell densities of all amygdaloid nuclei, specific hypothalamic structures, and the major regions of the hippocampus were quantified. Results showed that acquisition of conditioned fear was strongly inhibited in animals exposed to LTP-CMFs. Rats exposed to intensities above 10 nT showed decreased cell density in the CA2 fields of the hippocampus; more neurons were present in the CA1 fields of rats exposed to the 10-50 nT intensities compared to all other groups. A decrease in cell density in the medial preoptic nucleus was linearly dependent on field intensity. In the forced-swim test, swimming was decreased in rats that had been exposed to low (10-50 nT) and medium intensity (50-500 nT) LTP-CMFs in a manner consistent with monoamine modulation. In the open field, exposed rats were indistinguishable from controls. These findings support the hypothesis that continuous exposure during prenatal development to CMFs designed to simulate intrinsic LTP within the hippocampus can affect adult behaviors specific to this structure and produce quantitative alterations in neuronal density.

  12. Development of a source-exposure matrix for occupational exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields in the INTEROCC study.

    PubMed

    Vila, Javier; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Moriña, David; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2016-11-09

    To estimate occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the INTEROCC study, a database of source-based measurements extracted from published and unpublished literature resources had been previously constructed. The aim of the current work was to summarize these measurements into a source-exposure matrix (SEM), accounting for their quality and relevance. A novel methodology for combining available measurements was developed, based on order statistics and log-normal distribution characteristics. Arithmetic and geometric means, and estimates of variability and maximum exposure were calculated by EMF source, frequency band and dosimetry type. The mean estimates were weighted by our confidence in the pooled measurements. The SEM contains confidence-weighted mean and maximum estimates for 312 EMF exposure sources (from 0 Hz to 300 GHz). Operator position geometric mean electric field levels for radiofrequency (RF) sources ranged between 0.8 V/m (plasma etcher) and 320 V/m (RF sealer), while magnetic fields ranged from 0.02 A/m (speed radar) to 0.6 A/m (microwave heating). For extremely low frequency sources, electric fields ranged between 0.2 V/m (electric forklift) and 11,700 V/m (high-voltage transmission line-hotsticks), whereas magnetic fields ranged between 0.14 μT (visual display terminals) and 17 μT (tungsten inert gas welding). The methodology developed allowed the construction of the first EMF-SEM and may be used to summarize similar exposure data for other physical or chemical agents.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 9 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.60.

  13. Exposure to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields elicits an HSP-related stress response in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Sen; He, Gen-Lin; Hao, Yu-Tong; Xiao, Yang; Chen, Chun-Hai; Zhang, Guang-Bin; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The issue of possible neurobiological effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is highly controversial. To determine whether electromagnetic field exposure could act as an environmental stimulus capable of producing stress responses, we employed the hippocampus, a sensitive target of electromagnetic radiation, to assess the changes in its stress-related gene and protein expression after EMF exposure. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with body restrained were exposed to a 2.45 GHz EMF at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 6 W/kg or sham conditions. cDNA microarray was performed to examine the changes of gene expression involved in the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. Of 2048 candidate genes, 23 upregulated and 18 downregulated genes were identified. Of these differential expression genes, two heat shock proteins (HSP), HSP27 and HSP70, are notable because expression levels of both proteins are increased in the rat hippocampus. Result from immunocytochemistry revealed that EMF caused intensive staining for HSP27 and HSP70 in the hippocampus, especially in the pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and granular cells of dentate gyrus (DG). The gene and protein expression profiles of HSP27 and HSP70 were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Our data provide direct evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields elicits a stress response in the rat hippocampus.

  14. Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: Possible role of the pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.B.; Stevens, R.G.; Anderson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Reports from recent epidemiological studies have suggested a possible association between extremely low frequently (ELF; including 50- or 60-Hz) electric- and magnetic-field exposure, and increased risk of certain cancers, depression, and miscarriage. ELF field-induced pineal gland dysfunction is a possible etiological factor in these effects. Work in our laboratory and elsewhere has shown that ELF electromagnetic-field exposure can alter the normal circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. Consequences of reduced or inappropriately timed melatonin release on the endocrine, neuronal, and immune systems are discussed. Laboratory data linking ELF field exposure to changes in pineal circadian rhythms in both animal and humans are reviewed. The authors suggest that the pineal gland, in addition to being a convenient locus for measuring dyschronogenic effects of ELF field exposure, may play a central role in biological response to these fields via alterations in the melatonin signal.

  15. In vivo setup characterization for pulsed electromagnetic field exposure at 3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, A.; Perrin, A.; Cretallaz, C.; Pla, S.; Arnaud-Cormos, D.; Debouzy, J. C.; Leveque, P.

    2016-08-01

    An in vivo setup for pulsed electric field exposure at 3 GHz is proposed and characterized in this work. The exposure system allows far field, whole-body exposure of six animals placed in Plexiglas cages with a circular antenna. Chronic exposures under 18 W incident average power (1-4 kW peak power) and acute exposures under 56 W incident average power (4.7 kW peak power) were considered. Numerical and experimental dosimetry of the setup allowed the accurate calculation of specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions under various exposure conditions. From rat model numerical simulations, the whole-body mean SAR values were 1.3 W kg-1 under chronic exposures and 4.1 W kg-1 under acute exposure. The brain-averaged SAR value was 1.8 W kg-1 and 5.7 W kg-1 under chronic and acute exposure, respectively. Under acute exposure conditions, a 10 g specific absorption of 1.8  ±  1.1 mJ · kg-1 value was obtained. With temperature rises below 0.8 °C, as measured or simulated on a gel phantom under typical in vivo exposures, this exposure system provides adequate conditions for in vivo experimental investigations under non-thermal conditions.

  16. Improving our knowledge of the rapid geomagnetic field intensity variation observed in Europe around 800 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Kovacheva, M.; Hill, M. J.; Beamud, E.; Gutiérrez-Lloret, S.; Cañavate, V.; Blain, S.; Bouvier, A.; Oberlin, C.; Guibert, P.; Sapin, C.; Pringent, D.

    2011-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes. The aim of this study is to obtain an improved description of the sharp geomagnetic intensity change that took place in Western Europe around 800 yrs AD as well as to investigate if this peak is observed at a continental scale. For this purpose 13 precisely dated early medieval Spanish pottery fragments, 4 archeological French kilns and a 3 collections of bricks used for the construction of different historical buildings from France and with ages ranging between 330 to 1290 AD have been studied. The material collected has been dated by archeological/historical constraints together with radiocarbon,thermoluminiscence (TL) and archeomagentic analysis. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 164 specimens (119 of them giving reliable results) ten new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. The new intensity data together with a selection of the most reliable data from Western Europe have been relocated to the latitude of Paris and confirm the existence of an intensity maxima of ~85 μT centred at ~850 AD and related to intensity changes up to 20 μT per century. The results also indicate that a previous abrupt intensity change (reaching a maximum value of ~ 90 μT) took place in Western Europe around 650 AD. A selection of high-quality intensity data from Bulgaria, Italy and Greece indicate a very similar intensity trend for Eastern Europe. Although available data indicate that the duration of such periods of high intensities may be of less than one century more data are needed to infer the exact duration of these maximums. A comparison between the selected data and regional and global geomagnetic field models indicates that

  17. Rigorous electromagnetic field simulation of two-beam interference exposures for the exploration of double patterning and double exposure scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Schnattinger, Thomas; Xu, Cheng-Bai; Szmanda, Chuck

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of double patterning and double exposure technologies, especially in combination with hyper NA, increases the importance of wafer topography phenomena. Rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) simulations of two beam interference exposures over non-planar wafers are used to explore the impact of the hardmask material and pattern on resulting linewidths and swing curves after the second lithography step. Moreover, the impact of the optical material contrast between the frozen and unfrozen resist in a pattern freezing process and the effect of a reversible contrast enhancement layer on the superposition of two subsequent lithographic exposures are simulated. The described simulation approaches can be used for the optimization of wafer stack configurations for double patterning and to identify appropriate optical material properties for alternative double patterning and double exposure techniques.

  18. Liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fibers for electric field intensity measurements.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Sunish; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya

    2011-06-10

    The application of nematic liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fiber as a sensor for electric field intensity measurement is demonstrated. The device is based on an intrinsic sensing mechanism for electric fields. The sensor probe, which consists of a 1  cm infiltrated section of photonic crystal fiber with a lateral size of ∼125  μm, is very compact with small size and weight. A simple all-fiber design for the sensor is employed in an intensity based measurement scheme. The transmitted and reflected power of the infiltrated photonic crystal fiber is shown to have a linear response with the applied electric field. The sensor is operated in the telecommunication window at 1550  nm. The temperature dependence of the device at this operating wavelength is also experimentally studied and discussed. These structures can be used to accurately measure electric field intensity and can be used for the fabrication of all-fiber sensors for high electric field environments as both an in-line and reflective type point sensor.

  19. Intense-field molecular spectroscopy: Vibrational and rotational effects in harmonic generation by H+2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubanel, E. E.; Zuo, T.; Bandrauk, A. D.

    1994-05-01

    We present results of a complete treatment of electronic, vibrational, and rotational motion in numerical calculation of harmonic generation (HG) of 1064-nm laser radiation by the H+2 molecular ion for intensities 1013<=I<=1014 W/cm2. We show that efficient HG can be enhanced by suppression of photodissociation, a phenomenon which results from vibrational trapping in laser-field-induced potential wells. The HG spectra exhibit peaks clustered around even and odd harmonic orders. All peaks can be assigned to Raman-like transitions between dressed eigenstates of the field-molecule system. Rotational excitation is shown to compete with HG. Thus harmonic generation and photon scattering in molecules holds the promise of a potential diagnostic for molecular stabilization by intense laser fields.

  20. Megagauss magnetic fields in ultra-intense laser generated dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Moniruzzaman; Lad, Amit D.; Jana, Kamalesh; Sarkar, Deep; Dey, Indranuj; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    Table-top terawatt lasers can create relativistic light intensities and launch megaampere electron pulses in a solid. These pulses induce megagauss (MG) magnetic pulses, which in turn strongly affect the hot electron transport via electromagnetic instabilities. It is therefore crucial to characterize the MG magnetic fields in great detail. Here, we present measurements of the spatio-temporal evolution of MG magnetic fields produced by a high contrast (picosecond intensity contrast 10-9) laser in a dense plasma on a solid target. The MG magnetic field is measured using the magneto-optic Cotton-Mouton effect, with a time delayed second harmonic (400 nm) probe. The magnetic pulse created by the high contrast laser in a glass target peaks much faster and has a more rapid fall than that induced by a low contrast (10-6) laser.

  1. Incidence of Sepsis and Mortality With Prior Exposure of HMG-COA Reductase Inhibitors in a Surgical Intensive Care Population.

    PubMed

    Schurr, James W; Wu, Wenchen; Smith-Hannah, Alexandria; Smith, Candace J; Barrera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may reduce the risk of developing sepsis in surgical intensive care patients and improve outcomes in those who do become septic. The objective of this study was to assess whether surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients with prior exposure to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors had a lower incidence of developing sepsis and improved outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patient demographic data, statin use, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, vasopressor requirements, ventilator days, length of SICU stay, and mortality in septic patients were collected. Incidence of development of sepsis was determined using systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Patients were grouped into cohorts based on whether they met the sepsis criteria and if they had previously received statins. Cohorts of patients who did and did not become septic with prior statin exposure were compared and an odds ratio was calculated to determine a protective effect. The setting was a SICU. The study comprised of 455 SICU patients and had no interventions. Among the 455 SICU patients, 427 patients were included for the final results. Patients receiving statins verses not receiving statins were similar in demographics. Previous statin exposure had a protective effect in the development of sepsis (9.77% on statins vs. 33.6% without statins; odds ratio 0.203, confidence interval 0.118-0.351). Of those patients who developed sepsis, there was a statistically significant decrease in 28-day mortality in patients with prior statin exposure (P = 0.0341). No statistical difference was noted in length of stay, vasopressor requirements, or days on mechanical ventilation. Prior exposure to statins may have a protective effect on the development of sepsis and decrease mortality in critically ill surgical patients.

  2. Intensity-dependent two-electron emission dynamics with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zongqiang; Ye, Difa; Xia, Qinzhi; Liu, Jie; Fu, Libin

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we explore the intensity-dependent strong-field double ionization of Ne with orthogonally polarized two-color laser pulses consisting of 800- and 400-nm laser fields. The yield of Ne2+ as a function of the relative phase Δ ϕ of the two colors experiences a qualitative transition as the laser intensity decreases from the saturation regime to the far-below-saturation regime. In the saturation regime, our simulations well reproduce the recent experimental observations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.193002]. Turning to the far-below-saturation regime, however, we find that the observed small knee structure totally disappears and the maximum yield of Ne2+ is shifted by a π /2 phase. This is explained by the competition between the trajectory concentration effect and the Δ ϕ -dependent ionization rate of the tunneling electron. The possibility of controlling over the two-electron emission direction along the 400-nm field through the laser intensity is also investigated. We show that the two-electron emission direction can be reversed by changing the laser intensity for some vales of Δ ϕ , while this fails for some other values of Δ ϕ .

  3. Investigation of EEG changes during exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field to conduct brain signals.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, S A; Firoozabadi, S M; Tabatabaie, K Rasoulzadeh; Ghabaee, M

    2014-11-01

    There are evidences that confirm the effect of magnetic fields (MFs) on brain signals and some psychological disorders such as headache, migraine and depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in EEG power spectrum due to localized exposure in different parts of the brain by extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) to extract some protocols for treatment of some psychological disorders. In addition, regular effects were investigated by increasing intensity of ELF-MF. Therefore, EEG relative power spectrum was evaluated at T4, T3, F3, F4, and Cz points, when all the points were exposed to MFs with 45, 17, 10, 5, and 3 Hz frequencies, separately. Intensity of MF was 0, 100, 240, or 360 μT in four sessions. Significant changes were observed in different EEG bands caused by locally exposing to ELF-MF in different points of brain (P < 0.05). Some exposure to MFs decreased alpha band of frontal and central areas in closed-eyes state. Based on the findings in this study, some protocols can be designed using a combination of various MFs exposures to conduct the brain signals that is necessary to evaluate clinically.

  4. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat heart.

    PubMed

    Türedi, Sibel; Hancı, Hatice; Topal, Zehra; Ünal, Deniz; Mercantepe, Tolga; Bozkurt, İlyas; Kaya, Haydar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    The growing spread of mobile phone use is raising concerns about the effect on human health of the electromagnetic field (EMF) these devices emit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on rat pup heart tissue of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. For this purpose, pregnant rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group rats were exposed to a 900 MHz EMF (1 h/d) on days 13-21 of pregnancy. Measurements were performed with rats inside the exposure box in order to determine the distribution of EMF intensity. Our measurements showed that pregnant experimental group rats were exposed to a mean electrical field intensity of 13.77 V/m inside the box (0.50 W/m(2)). This study continued with male rat pups obtained from both groups. Pups were sacrificed on postnatal day 21, and the heart tissues were extracted. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase values were significantly higher in the experimental group rats, while glutathione values were lower. Light microscopy revealed irregularities in heart muscle fibers and apoptotic changes in the experimental group. Electron microscopy revealed crista loss and swelling in the mitochondria, degeneration in myofibrils and structural impairments in Z bands. Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue.

  5. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia: analysis of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Willett, E; McKinney, P; Fear, N; Cartwright, R; Roman, E

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether the risk of acute leukaemia among adults is associated with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. Methods: Probable occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields at higher than typical residential levels was investigated among 764 patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia during 1991–96 and 1510 sex and age matched controls. A job exposure matrix was applied to the self reported employment histories to determine whether or not a subject was exposed to electromagnetic fields. Risks were assessed using conditional logistic regression for a matched analysis. Results: Study subjects considered probably ever exposed to electromagnetic fields at work were not at increased risk of acute leukaemia compared to those considered never exposed. Generally, no associations were observed on stratification by sex, leukaemia subtype, number of years since exposure stopped, or occupation; there was no evidence of a dose-response effect using increasing number of years exposed. However, relative to women considered never exposed, a significant excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was observed among women probably exposed to electromagnetic fields at work that remained increased irrespective of time prior to diagnosis or job ever held. Conclusion: This large population based case-control study found little evidence to support an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia. While an excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among women was observed, it is unlikely that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was responsible, given that increased risks remained during periods when exposure above background levels was improbable. PMID:12883018

  6. Water intensity assessment of shale gas resources in the Wattenberg field in northeastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Stephen; Carlson, Ken; Knox, Ken; Douglas, Caleb; Rein, Luke

    2014-05-20

    Efficient use of water, particularly in the western U.S., is an increasingly important aspect of many activities including agriculture, urban, and industry. As the population increases and agriculture and energy needs continue to rise, the pressure on water and other natural resources is expected to intensify. Recent advances in technology have stimulated growth in oil and gas development, as well as increasing the industry's need for water resources. This study provides an analysis of how efficiently water resources are used for unconventional shale development in Northeastern Colorado. The study is focused on the Wattenberg Field in the Denver-Julesberg Basin. The 2000 square mile field located in a semiarid climate with competing agriculture, municipal, and industrial water demands was one of the first fields where widespread use of hydraulic fracturing was implemented. The consumptive water intensity is measured using a ratio of the net water consumption and the net energy recovery and is used to measure how efficiently water is used for energy extraction. The water and energy use as well as energy recovery data were collected from 200 Noble Energy Inc. wells to estimate the consumptive water intensity. The consumptive water intensity of unconventional shale in the Wattenberg is compared with the consumptive water intensity for extraction of other fuels for other energy sources including coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear, and renewables. 1.4 to 7.5 million gallons is required to drill and hydraulically fracture horizontal wells before energy is extracted in the Wattenberg Field. However, when the large short-term total freshwater-water use is normalized to the amount of energy produced over the lifespan of a well, the consumptive water intensity is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2.7 gal/MMBtu and is similar to surface coal mining.

  7. The Human Exposure Model (HEM): A Tool to Support Rapid Assessment of Human Health Impacts from Near-Field Consumer Product Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is developing an open and publically available software program called the Human Exposure Model (HEM) to provide near-field exposure information for Life Cycle Impact Assessments (LCIAs). Historically, LCIAs have often omitted impacts from near-field sources of exposur...

  8. The contribution of temperature, exposure intensity and visible light to the inhibitory effect of irradiation on acute chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Marti, Hanna; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) is radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria associated with various diseases in both animals and humans. A recent in vitro study demonstrated that wIRA combined with visible light (wIRA/VIS) has potential as a non-chemical method for the treatment of chlamydial infections without adversely affecting the cell viability. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various factors on the effect of wIRA/VIS on acute chlamydial infection, namely the impact of temperature, exposure intensity and infectious dose (multiplicity of infection) as well as the efficacy of the visible light component.We demonstrate that non-thermal effects contribute to the inhibition of acute chlamydial infection. Visible light enhances the inhibitory effect of wIRA on extracellular bacteria (elementary bodies or EBs).Moreover, the inhibitory effect of wIRA/VIS following treatment of EBs prior to infection correlated with increased irradiation intensity. The infectivity of mature chlamydial inclusions was significantly reduced upon wIRA/VIS exposure at all irradiation intensities investigated, suggesting the contribution of host cell factors to the anti-chlamydial effect of wIRA/VIS in the late stage of the developmental cycle. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the infectious dose.

  9. Matching Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy to an Anterior Low Neck Field

    SciTech Connect

    Amdur, Robert J. Liu, Chihray; Li, Jonathan; Mendenhall, William; Hinerman, Russell

    2007-10-01

    When using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to treat head and neck cancer with the primary site above the level of the larynx, there are two basic options for the low neck lymphatics: to treat the entire neck with IMRT, or to match the IMRT plan to a conventional anterior 'low neck' field. In view of the potential advantages of using a conventional low neck field, it is important to look for ways to minimize or manage the problems of matching IMRT to a conventional radiotherapy field. Treating the low neck with a single anterior field and the standard larynx block decreases the dose to the larynx and often results in a superior IMRT plan at the primary site. The purpose of this article is to review the most applicable studies and to discuss our experience with implementing a technique that involves moving the position of the superior border of the low neck field several times during a single treatment fraction.

  10. Intense THz radiation produced in organic salt crystals for high-field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicario, C.; Ruchert, C.; Hauri, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    Organic stilbazolium salt crystals pumped by intense, ultrashort mid-infrared laser have been investigated for efficient THz generation by optical rectification. In this paper we present our latest results in view of the generation of single-cycle and high-field THz transient in the THz gap (0.1-10 THz). The organic rectifiers like DAST, OH1 and DSTMS combine extremely large optical susceptibility with excellent velocity matching between the infrared pump and the THz radiation. Our simple collinear conversion scheme provides THz beams with excellent focusing properties and single cycle electric field larger than 1.5 MV/cm and magnetic field strength beyond 0.5 Tesla. The source can potentially cover the full THz gap at field strength which is barely provided by other THz sources. The THz pulse is carrier-envelope phase stable and the polarity of the field can be easily inverted.

  11. Hexavalent chromium exposures and exposure-control technologies in American enterprise: results of a NIOSH field research study.

    PubMed

    Blade, L M; Yencken, M Story; Wallace, M E; Catalano, J D; Khan, A; Topmiller, J L; Shulman, S A; Martinez, A; Crouch, K G; Bennett, J S

    2007-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted 21 field surveys in selected industries to characterize workers' exposures to hexavalent chromium-containing airborne particulate and to evaluate existing technologies for controlling these exposures. Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a respiratory irritant and chronic inhalation may cause lung cancer. Primary evaluation methods included collection of full work shift, personal breathing-zone (PBZ) air samples for Cr(VI), measurement of ventilation system parameters, and documentation of processes and work practices. This study emphasized evaluation of engineering exposure control measures, so PBZ exposures were measured on the outside of personal protective equipment, for example, respirators. Field surveys were conducted in two chromium electroplating facilities, including one where full-shift PBZ exposures to Cr(VI) ranged from 3.0 to 16 times the 1 micro g/m(3)NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) despite several engineering controls on the plating tanks. At a painting and coating facility that used Cr(VI)-containing products, full-shift exposures of painters and helpers (2.4 to 55 micro g/m(3)) exceeded the REL, but LEV effectiveness was limited. Other operations evaluated included welding in construction; metal cutting operations on chromium-containing materials in ship breaking; chromate-paint removal with abrasive blasting; atomized alloy-spray coating; foundry operations; printing; and the manufacture of refractory brick, colored glass, prefabricated concrete products, and treated wood products. NIOSH researchers concluded that, in many of the evaluated processes, Cr(VI) exposures at or below the current NIOSH REL are achievable. However, for some processes, it is unclear whether controlling exposures to this range is consistently achievable without respirator use. Some operations involving the application of coatings and finishes may be among those most difficult to control to this

  12. Radiation Exposure to Staff in Intensive Care Unit with Portable CT Scanner.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhichao; Liao, Xuelian; Kang, Yan; Zhang, Jiangqian; Jia, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bedside radiological procedures pose a risk of radiation exposure to ICU staff. The perception of risk may increase the degree of caution among the health care staff and raise new barriers preventing patients from obtaining prompt care. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual cumulative radiation dose to individual ICU staff. Methods. In this prospective study, forty subjects were required to wear thermoluminescent dosimeter badges during their working hours. The badges were analyzed to determine the exposure after 3 months. Results. A total of 802 radiological procedures were completed at bedside during the study period. The estimated annual dosage to doctors and nurses on average was 0.99 mSv and 0.88 mSv (p < 0.001), respectively. Residents were subjected to the highest radiation exposure (1.04 mSv per year, p = 0.002). The radiation dose was correlated with day shift working hours (r = 0.426; p = 0.006) and length of service (r = -0.403; p < 0.01). Conclusions. With standard precautions, bedside radiological procedures-including portable CT scans-do not expose ICU staff to high dose of ionizing radiation. The level of radiation exposure is related to the daytime working hours and length of service.

  13. Radiation Exposure to Staff in Intensive Care Unit with Portable CT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhichao; Liao, Xuelian; Zhang, Jiangqian; Jia, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bedside radiological procedures pose a risk of radiation exposure to ICU staff. The perception of risk may increase the degree of caution among the health care staff and raise new barriers preventing patients from obtaining prompt care. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual cumulative radiation dose to individual ICU staff. Methods. In this prospective study, forty subjects were required to wear thermoluminescent dosimeter badges during their working hours. The badges were analyzed to determine the exposure after 3 months. Results. A total of 802 radiological procedures were completed at bedside during the study period. The estimated annual dosage to doctors and nurses on average was 0.99 mSv and 0.88 mSv (p < 0.001), respectively. Residents were subjected to the highest radiation exposure (1.04 mSv per year, p = 0.002). The radiation dose was correlated with day shift working hours (r = 0.426; p = 0.006) and length of service (r = −0.403; p < 0.01). Conclusions. With standard precautions, bedside radiological procedures—including portable CT scans—do not expose ICU staff to high dose of ionizing radiation. The level of radiation exposure is related to the daytime working hours and length of service. PMID:27556036

  14. Kidney-Sparing Methods for Extended-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) in Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kunogi, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Nanae; Terao, Yasuhisa; Sasai, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) targeting the whole-pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes in patients with advanced cervical cancer results in impaired creatinine clearance. An improvement in renal function cannot be expected unless low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) kidney exposure is reduced. The dosimetric method should be considered during EF-IMRT planning to further reduce low-dose exposure to the kidneys. To assess the usefulness of non-coplanar EF-IMRT with kidney-avoiding beams to spare the kidneys during cervical carcinoma treatment in dosimetric analysis between non-coplanar and coplanar EF-IMRT, we compared the doses of the target organ and organs at risk, including the kidney, in 10 consecutive patients. To estimate the influence of EFRT on renal dysfunction, creatinine clearance values after treatment were also examined in 18 consecutive patients. Of these 18 patients, 10 patients who were included in the dosimetric analysis underwent extended field radiation therapy (EFRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, and eight patients underwent whole-pelvis radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy to treat cervical carcinoma between April 2012 and March 2015 at our institution. In the dosimetric analysis, non-coplanar EF-IMRT was effective at reducing low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) exposure to the kidneys, thus maintaining target coverage and sparing other organs at risk, such as the small bowel, rectum, and bladder, compared with coplanar EF-IMRT. Renal function in all 10 patients who underwent EFRT, including coplanar EF-IMRT (with kidney irradiation), was low after treatment, and differed significantly from that of the eight patients who underwent WPRT (no kidney irradiation) 6 months after the first day of treatment (P = 0.005). In conclusion, non-coplanar EF-IMRT should be considered in patients with advanced cervical cancer, particularly in patients with a long life expectancy or with pre-existing renal dysfunction. PMID

  15. Intensity and phase fields behind Phase Shifting Masks studied with High Resolution Interference Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthankovilakam, Krishnaparvathy; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Weichelt, Tina; Zeitner, Uwe; Vogler, Uwe; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2015-03-01

    The proximity printing industry is in real need of high resolution results and it can be done using Phase Shift Mask (PSM) or by applying Optical Proximity Correction (OPC). In our research we are trying to find out details of how light fields behind the structures of photo masks develop in order to determine the best conditions and designs for proximity printing. We focus here on parameters that are used in real situation with gaps up to 50 μm and structure sizes down to 2 μm. The light field evolution behind the structures is studied and delivers insight in to precisions and tolerances that need to be respected. It is the first time that an experimental analysis of light propagation through mask is presented in detail, which includes information on intensity and phase. The instrument we use is known as High Resolution Interference Microscopy (HRIM). HRIM is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer which is capable of recording three dimensional distributions of intensity and phase with diffraction limited resolution. Our characterization technique allows plotting the evolution of the desired light field and therefore printable structure till the desired proximity gap. In this paper we discuss in detail the evolution of intensity and phase fields of elbow or corner structure at different position behind a phase mask and interpret the main parameters. Of particular interest are tolerances against proximity gap variation and the resolution in printed structures.

  16. Effect of dielectric spacer thickness on signal intensity of surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Arima, Yusuke; Toda, Mitsuaki; Takiguchi, Hiromi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2012-02-15

    Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) combines enhanced field platform and fluorescence detection. Its advantages are the strong intensity of the electromagnetic field and the high signal/noise (S/N) ratio due to the localized evanescent field at the water/metal interface. However, the energy transfer from the fluorophore to the metal surface diminishes the fluorescence intensity, and this reduces the sensitivity. In this study, we tested whether polystyrene (PSt) could act as a dielectric layer to suppress the energy transfer from the fluorophore to the metal surface. We hypothesized that this would improve the sensitivity of SPFS-based immunoassays. We used α-fetoprotein (AFP) as a model tumor biomarker in the sandwich-type immunoassay. We determined the relationship between fluorescent signal intensity and PSt layer thickness and compared this to theoretical predictions. We found that the fluorescence signal increased by optimally controlling the thickness of the PSt layer. Our results indicated that the SPFS-based immunoassay is a promising clinical diagnostic tool for quantitatively determining the concentrations of low-level biomarkers in blood samples.

  17. Mapping the spatial patterns of field traffic and traffic intensity to predict soil compaction risks at the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duttmann, Rainer; Kuhwald, Michael; Nolde, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil compaction is one of the main threats to cropland soils in present days. In contrast to easily visible phenomena of soil degradation, soil compaction, however, is obscured by other signals such as reduced crop yield, delayed crop growth, and the ponding of water, which makes it difficult to recognize and locate areas impacted by soil compaction directly. Although it is known that trafficking intensity is a key factor for soil compaction, until today only modest work has been concerned with the mapping of the spatially distributed patterns of field traffic and with the visual representation of the loads and pressures applied by farm traffic within single fields. A promising method for for spatial detection and mapping of soil compaction risks of individual fields is to process dGPS data, collected from vehicle-mounted GPS receivers and to compare the soil stress induced by farm machinery to the load bearing capacity derived from given soil map data. The application of position-based machinery data enables the mapping of vehicle movements over time as well as the assessment of trafficking intensity. It also facilitates the calculation of the trafficked area and the modeling of the loads and pressures applied to soil by individual vehicles. This paper focuses on the modeling and mapping of the spatial patterns of traffic intensity in silage maize fields during harvest, considering the spatio-temporal changes in wheel load and ground contact pressure along the loading sections. In addition to scenarios calculated for varying mechanical soil strengths, an example for visualizing the three-dimensional stress propagation inside the soil will be given, using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) to construct 2D or 3D maps supporting to decision making due to sustainable field traffic management.

  18. Electric-field effects on the OH vibrational frequency and infrared absorption intensity for water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermansson, Kersti

    1993-07-01

    The variations of the anharmonic OH frequency and the infrared absorption intensity with field strength have been calculated for the uncoupled OH stretching vibration of a water molecule in a static, homogeneous electric field using ab initio methods at the MP4 level with a nearly saturated basis set. The OH frequency is found to be virtually independent of the field components perpendicular to the vibrating OH bond. For the parallel component, the frequency vs field curve is close to quadratic, with a maximum for a slightly negative (directed from H to O) field strength. The external field perturbation, defined as Vext(E∥,rOH)=Vtot(E∥, rOH)-Vfree(rOH), is found to be closely linear in rOH, except when the field strength E∥ is both large and negative. The linear external force constant is almost perfectly accounted for by the sum of two terms, -E∥ṡdμ∥free/drOH and -1/2ṡE∥ṡ∂μ∥induced/∂rOH. These derivatives are quite insensitive to the choice of basis-set. The ∂μ∥induced/∂rOH derivative is approximately proportional to E∥, and gives rise to the arclike shape of the frequency vs field curve. The frequency maximum occurs where ∂μ∥tot/∂rOH≊0. It is the sign of dμ∥free/drOH which determines that the frequency maximum occurs at a negative field strength for water (but at a positive field strength for OH-, for example), i.e., that a frequency red-shift (blue-shift for OH-) occurs when the molecule is bound. The linear relationship between the infrared absorption intensity and frequency of the water OH vibration is derived.

  19. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES IN PHOTOSPHERIC INTENSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high-spatial and temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter (705.7 nm), while the magnetic field was analyzed using the spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode. For the first time, we observed a bipolar MMF simultaneously in intensity images and magnetic field data, and studied the details of its structure. The vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF were also studied. A bipolar MMF with its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed, accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO data connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow ({<=}2 km s{sup -1}) was detected at the positive polarity. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion revealed that a bipolar MMF has a U-shaped magnetic field configuration. Our observations provide a clear intensity counterpart of the observed MMF in the photosphere, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

  20. Impact of high-intensity pulsed electric fields on carotenoids profile of tomato juice made of moderate-intensity pulsed electric field-treated tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2013-12-01

    The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the carotenoid content of tomato juices was studied. First, moderate-intensity PEF (MIPEF) was applied to raw tomatoes. Afterwards, MIPEF-treated and untreated tomatoes were immediately refrigerated at 4 °C for 24 h and then, they were separately ground to produce tomato juices. Juices were treated by heat treatments or by high-intensity PEF (HIPEF) and stored under refrigeration for 56 days. MIPEF treatment of tomatoes increased the content of carotenoid compounds in tomato juices. An enhancement of 63-65% in 15-cis-lycopene was observed in juices prepared with MIPEF-treated tomatoes. A slight increase in cis-lycopene isomers was observed over time, whereas other carotenoids slightly decreased. However, HIPEF treated tomato juices maintained higher carotenoid content (10-20%) through the storage time than thermally and untreated juices. The combination of MIPEF and HIPEF treatments could be used not only to produce tomato juices with high carotenoid content but also, to maintain higher the carotenoid content during storage time.

  1. A Genome-Wide mRNA Expression Profile in Caenorhabditis elegans under Prolonged Exposure to 1750MHz Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dawen; Yu, Zhoulong; Wu, Tongning; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-01-01

    Objective C. elegans has been used as a biomonitor for microwave-induced stress. However, the RF (radiofrequency) fields that have been used in previous studies were weak (≤1.8W/kg), and the bio-effects on C. elegans were mostly negative or ambiguous. Therefore, this study used more intense RF fields (SAR = 3W/kg) and longer time course of exposure (60h at 25°C, L1 stage through adult stage) to investigate the biological consequences of 1750 MHz RF fields in wild-type worms. Methods The growth rates and lifespans of RF-exposure group and the control group were carefully recorded. RNA samples were collected at L4 (35h) and gravid adult (50h) stages for further high-throughput sequencing, focusing on differences between the RF-exposure and the sham control groups. Results The RF-exposed and sham control groups developed at almost the same rate and had similar longevity curves. In L4 stage worms, 94 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated genes were identified, while 186 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes were identified in adult stage worms. GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes at 35h were associated with growth, body morphogenesis and collagen and cuticle-based development. Genes that were linked to growth rate and reproductive development were differentially expressed at 50h. Some embryonic and larval development genes in the offspring were also differentially expressed at 50h. Ten genes were differentially expressed at both 35h and 50h, most of which were involved in both embryonic and larval developmental processes. Although prolonged RF fields did not induce significant temperature increase in RF exposure groups, the temperature inside worms during exposure was unknown. Conclusions No harmful effects were observed in prolonged exposure to 1750 MHz RF fields at SAR of 3W/kg on development and longevity of C. elegans. Although some differentially expressed genes were found after prolonged RF exposure, these differences were ascribed to

  2. Numerical investigation of acoustic field in enclosures: Evaluation of active and reactive components of sound intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Mirosław

    2015-03-01

    The paper focuses on a theoretical description and numerical evaluation of active and reactive components of sound intensity in enclosed spaces. As the study was dedicated to low-frequency room responses, a modal expansion of the sound pressure was used. Numerical simulations have shown that the presence of energy vortices whose size and distribution depend on the character of the room response is a distinctive feature of the active intensity field. When several modes with frequencies close to a source frequency are excited, the vortices within the room are positioned irregularly. However, if the response is determined by one or two dominant modes, a regular distribution of vortices in the room can be observed. The irrotational component of the active intensity was found using the Helmholtz decomposition theorem. As was evidenced by numerical simulations, the suppression of the vortical flow of sound energy in the nearfield permits obtaining a clear image of the sound source.

  3. Holocene geomagnetic field intensity variations: Contribution from the low latitude Canary Islands site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wandres, C.

    2015-11-01

    New absolute paleomagnetic intensity (PI) are investigated from 37 lava flows located at Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). They complete previously published directional results from the same flows and therefore allow to examine the time variations of the full geomagnetic vector. Twenty-eight flows are radiocarbon dated between 1706 AD and about 13 200 BC and one is historical. Eight other flows are not dated but they have stratigraphic links with the dated flows and archeomagnetic ages had been attributed to them based on their paleomagnetic directions. Various mineralogical analyses were conducted, giving access to the nature of the magnetic minerals and to their grain size. We performed the original Thellier and Thellier paleointensity (PI) experiments with a success rate of about 65% coupling this experiment with the strict set of selection criteria PICRIT-03. The mean PIs at the flow level are based on 3 to 12 independent PI determinations except for one site in which only one reliable determination could be obtained. The data indicate some variability in the local field intensity with a prominent PI peak centered around 600 BC and reaching 80 μT (VADM 16 ×1022 Am2), documented for the first time in this region. Combined with the published data obtained from western Africa, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the Azores within a 2000 km-radius around the Canary Islands, our data allow to construct a curve illustrating the Earth magnetic field intensity fluctuations for Southwestern Europe/Western Africa. This curve, compared to the one produced for the Middle East and one calculated for Central Asia shows that maximum intensity patches have a very large geographical extent. They do not yet appear clearly in the models of variations of the dipolar field intensity.

  4. Comparison of personal radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in different urban areas across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Wout; Thuroczy, Gyoergy; Gajsek, Peter; Trcek, Tomaz; Bolte, John; Vermeeren, Guenter; Juhasz, Peter; Finta, Viktoria

    2010-10-15

    Background: Only limited data are available on personal radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday life. Several European countries performed measurement studies in this area of research. However, a comparison between countries regarding typical exposure levels is lacking. Objectives: To compare for the first time mean exposure levels and contributions of different sources in specific environments between different European countries. Methods: In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), measurement studies were performed using the same personal exposure meters. The pooled data were analyzed using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method in order to allow for data below the detection limit. Mean exposure levels were compared between different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoor. Results: Exposure levels were of the same order of magnitude in all countries and well below the international exposure limits. In all countries except for the Netherlands, the highest total exposure was measured in transport vehicles (trains, car, and busses), mainly due to radiation from mobile phone handsets (up to 97%). Exposure levels were in general lower in private houses or flats than in offices and outdoors. At home, contributions from various sources were quite different between countries. Conclusions: Highest total personal RF-EMF exposure was measured inside transport vehicles and was well below international exposure limits. This is mainly due to mobile phone handsets. Mobile telecommunication can be considered to be the main contribution to total RF-EMF exposure in all microenvironments.

  5. Orbital Noise of the Earth Causes Intensity Fluctuation in the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Wade, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital noise of Earth's obliquity can provide an insight into the core of the Earth that causes intensity fluctuations in the geomagnetic field. Here we show that noise spectrum of the obliquity frequency have revealed a series of frequency periods centered at 250-, 1OO-, 50-, 41-, 30-, and 26-kyr which are almost identical with the observed spectral peaks from the composite curve of 33 records of relative paleointensity spanning the past 800 kyr (Sint-800 data). A continuous record for the past two million years also reveals the presence of the major 100 kyr periodicity in obliquity noise and geomagnetic intensity fluctuations. These results of correlation suggest that obliquity noise may power the dynamo, located in the liquid outer core of the Earth, which generates the geomagnetic field.

  6. The revised electromagnetic fields directive and worker exposure in environments with high magnetic flux densities.

    PubMed

    Stam, Rianne

    2014-06-01

    Some of the strongest electromagnetic fields (EMF) are found in the workplace. A European Directive sets limits to workers' exposure to EMF. This review summarizes its origin and contents and compares magnetic field exposure levels in high-risk workplaces with the limits set in the revised Directive. Pubmed, Scopus, grey literature databases, and websites of organizations involved in occupational exposure measurements were searched. The focus was on EMF with frequencies up to 10 MHz, which can cause stimulation of the nervous system. Selected studies had to provide individual maximum exposure levels at the workplace, either in terms of the external magnetic field strength or flux density or as induced electric field strength or current density. Indicative action levels and the corresponding exposure limit values for magnetic fields in the revised European Directive will be higher than those in the previous version. Nevertheless, magnetic flux densities in excess of the action levels for peripheral nerve stimulation are reported for workers involved in welding, induction heating, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The corresponding health effects exposure limit values for the electric fields in the worker's body can be exceeded for welding and MRI, but calculations for induction heating and transcranial magnetic stimulation are lacking. Since the revised European Directive conditionally exempts MRI-related activities from the exposure limits, measures to reduce exposure may be necessary for welding, induction heating, and transcranial nerve stimulation. Since such measures can be complicated, there is a clear need for exposure databases for different workplace scenarios with significant EMF exposure and guidance on good practices.

  7. The Revised Electromagnetic Fields Directive and Worker Exposure in Environments With High Magnetic Flux Densities

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    Some of the strongest electromagnetic fields (EMF) are found in the workplace. A European Directive sets limits to workers’ exposure to EMF. This review summarizes its origin and contents and compares magnetic field exposure levels in high-risk workplaces with the limits set in the revised Directive. Pubmed, Scopus, grey literature databases, and websites of organizations involved in occupational exposure measurements were searched. The focus was on EMF with frequencies up to 10 MHz, which can cause stimulation of the nervous system. Selected studies had to provide individual maximum exposure levels at the workplace, either in terms of the external magnetic field strength or flux density or as induced electric field strength or current density. Indicative action levels and the corresponding exposure limit values for magnetic fields in the revised European Directive will be higher than those in the previous version. Nevertheless, magnetic flux densities in excess of the action levels for peripheral nerve stimulation are reported for workers involved in welding, induction heating, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The corresponding health effects exposure limit values for the electric fields in the worker’s body can be exceeded for welding and MRI, but calculations for induction heating and transcranial magnetic stimulation are lacking. Since the revised European Directive conditionally exempts MRI-related activities from the exposure limits, measures to reduce exposure may be necessary for welding, induction heating, and transcranial nerve stimulation. Since such measures can be complicated, there is a clear need for exposure databases for different workplace scenarios with significant EMF exposure and guidance on good practices. PMID:24557933

  8. Local exposure of brain central areas to a pulsed ELF magnetic field for a purposeful change in EEG.

    PubMed

    Amirifalah, Zeinab; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad P; Shafiei, S Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the simultaneous exposure of 2 brain areas in the location of central electrodes (C3 and C4) to a weak and pulsed extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on the electroencephalogram (EEG). The intent is to change the EEG for a therapeutic application, such as neurofeedback, by inducing the "resonance effect." A total of 10 healthy women received 9 minutes of ELF-MF (intensity 200 μT) and sham in a counterbalanced design. ELF-MF exposure frequencies were 10, 14, and 18 Hz. The paired t test revealed that local pulsed ELF-MF significantly decreases beta (15-25 Hz), sensorimotor rhythm (13-15 Hz), and theta (4-8 Hz) powers at a frequency of 10 Hz in C3 and C4 regions (12.0%-26.6%) after exposure, in comparison with that achieved during the exposure (P < .05). Variations during the exposure were transient and different from those after. The resonance effect was observed nowhere around the regions. The study suggests that this technique may be applied in the treatment of anxiety; however, further investigation is needed.

  9. Effects of magnetic field intensity on carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in γ-Fe temperature region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Duan, Guosheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Effects of magnetic field intensity on carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in the γ-Fe temperature region were investigated using carburizing technology. The carbon penetration profiles from the iron surface to interior were measured by field emission electron probe microanalyzer. The carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron carburized with different magnetic field intensities was calculated according to the Fick's second law. It was found that the magnetic field intensity could obviously affect the carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in the γ-Fe temperature region, and the carbon diffusion coefficient decreased obviously with the enhancement of magnetic field intensity, when the magnetic field intensity was higher than 1 T, the carbon diffusion coefficient in field annealed specimen was less than half of that of the nonfield annealed specimen, further enhancing the magnetic field intensity, the carbon diffusion coefficient basically remains unchanged. The stiffening of lattice due to field-induced magnetic ordering was responsible for an increase in activation barrier for jumping carbon atoms. The greater the magnetic field intensity, the stronger the inhibiting effect of magnetic field on carbon diffusion.

  10. FIELD COLLECTION METHODS USED IN THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM TO EVALUATE CHILDREN'S AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: A TUTORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tutorial on the field sampling equipment used to collect multimedia samples.

    We conduct observational human exposure measurement studies in order to understand what chemicals people come into contact with, at what levels, what the sources of those chemicals are, and wher...

  11. Electronic and intraband optical properties of single quantum rings under intense laser field radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, A.; Kirakosyan, A. A.; Baghramyan, H. M.; Barseghyan, M. G.; Laroze, D.

    2014-09-07

    The influence of an intense laser field on one-electron states and intraband optical absorption coefficients is investigated in two-dimensional GaAs/Ga{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}As quantum rings. An analytical expression of the effective lateral confining potential induced by the laser field is obtained. The one-electron energy spectrum and wave functions are found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. We have shown that changes in the incident light polarization lead to blue- or redshifts in the intraband optical absorption spectrum. Moreover, we found that only blueshift is obtained with increasing outer radius of the quantum ring.

  12. Positron acceleration by sheath field in ultra-intense laser–solid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yonghong; Wu, Yuchi; Chen, Jia; Yu, Minghai; Dong, Kegong; Gu, Yuqiu

    2017-04-01

    A positron production experiment was performed by irradiating an ultra-intense picosecond laser on solid tantalum targets. Quasi-monoenergetic positron beams were obtained owing to the sheath field on the back of the target. The experiment shows that the peak energy of the positron spectrum has a linear relation with the reciprocal of the target diameter. A simple analytical model of the sheath field was constructed to explain the experimental data, which predicts the positron peak energy in terms of the target diameter and hot electron parameters. Based on the field model, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to treat the positron production and acceleration self-consistently. The simulated spectra are in good agreement with most experiment results. The disagreement of the 1 mm diameter data reveals that the hot electron propagation along the target flank surface plays an important role in the sheath field set up. Several aspects involved in the positron acceleration are discussed.

  13. Tunneling wave packets of atoms from intense elliptically polarized fields in natural geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Meng; Li, Min; Liu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yunquan

    2017-02-01

    We study strong-field tunneling of atoms in intense elliptically polarized laser fields in natural tunneling geometry. We obtain the temporal- and spatial-dependent tunneling ionization rates, the transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions, and the position distributions of the tunnel exit in parabolic coordinates. The tunneling electron wave packets at the tunnel exit are three dimensionally characterized for both momentum and spatial distributions. The conjunction between the tunneling point and the classical propagation of the widely used semiclassical model are naturally connected. We further calculate the ellipticity-dependent photoelectron momentum distributions on the detector, which are validated by comparison with the exact results through numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The theory clarifies crucial questions about strong-field tunneling ionization, which has important implications for the attoclock with elliptical or circular fields, photoelectron holography, molecular orbital imaging, etc.

  14. Coherent manipulation of absorption by intense fields in four level ladder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Dasgupta, Shubhrangshu

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear optical processes attributed to the dependence of the susceptibility of the medium on the input fluence can be remarkably manipulated by the quantum interference and coherence. One of these processes, the optical bistability (OB), that refers to the possibilities of two stable outputs for the same input fields, can also be modified by quantum coherence. Further, the nonlinear dependence of the absorption on the power of the input light gives rise to interesting processes like saturable absorption (SA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA). While the SA corresponds to the decrease in the absorption coefficient with the increase of intensity of input light, the RSA corresponds to otherwise, that finds applications in optical limiting. We show, using a four-level Ladder system, how a control field manipulates these processes for an intense probe field applied in the excited state transition. The nonlinear absorption increases whereas the threshold of OB decreases in presence of a control field. We further delineates how the control field and the decay rates modifies SA and RSA. The control of these processes find applications in optical switching, optical limiting and optical communications.

  15. The influence of intense electric fields on three-dimensional asymmetric magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, P. L.

    2013-06-15

    A three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection in an asymmetric configuration without a guide field and with temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub e}>1 demonstrates that intense perpendicular electric fields are produced on the low-density side of the current layer where there is a strong gradient in the plasma density. The simulation shows that the 3-D reconnection rate is unaffected by these intense electric fields, that the electron current layer near the X line remains coherent and does not break up, but that localized regions of strong energy dissipation exist along the low-density separatrices. Near the X line the dominant term in the generalized Ohm's law for the reconnection electric field remains the off-diagonal electron pressure gradient ∂P{sub exy}/∂x. On the low-beta separatrix, however, the anomalous drag −<δnδE{sub y}>/ makes an equally important contribution to that of the pressure gradient to the average E{sub y} field.

  16. The role of the magnetic field intensity and geometry in the type III burst generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlobec, P.; Messerotti, M.; Ruzdjak, V.; Vrsnak, B.; Karlicky, M.

    1990-12-01

    The association of type III bursts related to H-alpha flares in different magnetic environments were studied in the period 1970-1981. Special attention is paid to flares which partly cover a major spot umbra (Z-flares). In particular, the location of the spots in the active regions and the magnetic field intensities of spots covered by a ribbon are considered. The association rate with type III bursts decreases to 17 percent when the flare is located inside the bipolar pattern of a large active region, compared with an association rate of 54 percent when the flare is situated outside it. The association rate increases with the magnetic field intensity of the spot covered by H-alpha emission; this is most clearly revealed for the flares occurring outside the bipolar pattern of active regions. Ninety-three percent of the flare-associated type III burst were accompanied by 10 cm radio bursts. For the most general case, in which a flare is developing anywhere in an active region, the association with type III bursts generation increases with the increasing magnetic field intensity of the main spot of the group.

  17. Monitoring tropical cyclone intensity using wind fields derived from short-interval satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Gentry, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Rapid scan visible images from the Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer sensor on board SMS-2 and GOES-1 were used to derive high resolution upper and lower tropospheric environmental wind fields around three western Atlantic tropical cyclones (1975-78). These wind fields were used to derive upper and lower tropospheric areal mean relative vorticity and their differences, the net relative angular momentum balance and upper tropospheric mass outflow. These kinematic parameters were shown by studies using composite rawinsonde data to be strongly related to tropical cyclone formation and intensity changes. Also, the role of forced synoptic scale subsidence in tropical cyclone formation was examined. The studies showed that satellite-derived lower and upper tropospheric wind fields can be used to monitor and possibly predict tropical cyclone formation and intensity changes. These kinematic analyses showed that future changes in tropical cyclone intensity are mainly related to the "spin-up" of the storms by the net horizontal transport of relative angular momentum caused by convergence of cyclonic vorticity in the lower troposphere and to a lesser extent the divergence of anticyclone vorticity in the upper troposphere.

  18. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields: A combined measurement and modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Canney, Michael S.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields is important both for the accurate prediction of ultrasound induced bioeffects in tissues and for the development of regulatory standards for clinical HIFU devices. In this paper, a method to determine HIFU field parameters at and around the focus is proposed. Nonlinear pressure waveforms were measured and modeled in water and in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom for a 2 MHz transducer with an aperture and focal length of 4.4 cm. Measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe hydrophone at intensity levels up to 24 000 W∕cm2. The inputs to a Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov-type numerical model were determined based on experimental low amplitude beam plots. Strongly asymmetric waveforms with peak positive pressures up to 80 MPa and peak negative pressures up to 15 MPa were obtained both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agreed well; however, when steep shocks were present in the waveform at focal intensity levels higher than 6000 W∕cm2, lower values of the peak positive pressure were observed in the measured waveforms. This underrepresentation was attributed mainly to the limited hydrophone bandwidth of 100 MHz. It is shown that a combination of measurements and modeling is necessary to enable accurate characterization of HIFU fields. PMID:19062878

  19. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields: a combined measurement and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Canney, Michael S; Bailey, Michael R; Crum, Lawrence A; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2008-10-01

    Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields is important both for the accurate prediction of ultrasound induced bioeffects in tissues and for the development of regulatory standards for clinical HIFU devices. In this paper, a method to determine HIFU field parameters at and around the focus is proposed. Nonlinear pressure waveforms were measured and modeled in water and in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom for a 2 MHz transducer with an aperture and focal length of 4.4 cm. Measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe hydrophone at intensity levels up to 24,000 W/cm(2). The inputs to a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov-type numerical model were determined based on experimental low amplitude beam plots. Strongly asymmetric waveforms with peak positive pressures up to 80 MPa and peak negative pressures up to 15 MPa were obtained both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agreed well; however, when steep shocks were present in the waveform at focal intensity levels higher than 6000 W/cm(2), lower values of the peak positive pressure were observed in the measured waveforms. This underrepresentation was attributed mainly to the limited hydrophone bandwidth of 100 MHz. It is shown that a combination of measurements and modeling is necessary to enable accurate characterization of HIFU fields.

  20. High light intensity protects photosynthetic apparatus of pea plants against exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Romanowska, E; Wróblewska, B; Drozak, A; Siedlecka, M

    2006-01-01

    The electron transport rates and coupling factor activity in the chloroplasts; adenylate contents, rates of photosynthesis and respiration in the leaves as well as activity of isolated mitochondria were investigated in Pisum sativum L. leaves of plants grown under low or high light intensity and exposed after detachment to 5 mM Pb(NO(3))(2). The presence of Pb(2+) reduced rate of photosynthesis in the leaves from plants grown under the high light (HL) and low light (LL) conditions, whereas the respiration was enhanced in the leaves from HL plants. Mitochondria from Pb(2+) treated HL-leaves oxidized glycine at a higher rate than those isolated from LL leaves. ATP content in the Pb-treated leaves increased to a greater extend in the HL than LL grown plants. Similarly ATP synthase activity increased markedly when chloroplasts isolated from control and Pb-treated leaves of HL and LL grown plants were subjected to high intensity light. The presence of Pb ions was found inhibit ATP synthase activity only in chloroplasts from LL grown plants or those illuminated with low intensity light. Low light intensity during growth also lowered PSI electron transport rates and the Pb(2+) induced changes in photochemical activity of this photosystem were visible only in the chloroplasts isolated from LL grown plants. The activity of PSII was influenced by Pb ions on similar manner in both light conditions. This study demonstrates that leaves from plants grown under HL conditions were more resistant to lead toxicity than those obtained from the LL grown plants. The data indicate that light conditions during growth might play a role in regulation of photosynthetic and respiratory energy conservation in heavy metal stressed plants by increasing the flexibility of the stoichiometry of ATP to ADP production.

  1. Effect of electric field exposure on melatonin and enzyme circadian rhythms in the rat pineal

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    The effects of chronic 30-day electric field exposure on pineal serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.1.15) activity as well as melatonin and 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOL) concentrations in rats, were assessed.

  2. A localized ELF magnetic field exposure system for microscope cover-slips.

    PubMed

    Wang, Paul K C

    2014-07-01

    In extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field exposure systems for the inverted microscope stage where the cells grown on the entire microscope cover-slip are exposed to the magnetic field, the effects of variations in cell characteristics from one cover-slip to another on the experimental data cannot be readily identified. To overcome this drawback, a localized ELF magnetic field exposure system for cells grown on cover-slips was designed. The basic idea is to expose only a marked portion of the cover-slip to the magnetic field so that the effect of the ELF magnetic field on the cells grown on the same cover-slip can be observed under a microscope. A prototype system was built and tested. Experimental test results pertaining to the prototype system performance validate the proposed design approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternative approaches to the design of localized ELF magnetic field exposure systems.

  3. MAGNETIC FLUX CONSERVATION IN THE HELIOSHEATH INCLUDING SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, A. T.; Opher, M.; Provornikova, E.; Richardson, J. D.; Tóth, G. E-mail: mopher@bu.edu E-mail: jdr@space.mit.edu

    2015-04-10

    In the heliosheath (HS), Voyager 2 has observed a flow with constant radial velocity and magnetic flux conservation. Voyager 1, however, has observed a decrease in the flow’s radial velocity and an order of magnitude decrease in magnetic flux. We investigate the role of the 11 yr solar cycle variation of the magnetic field strength on the magnetic flux within the HS using a global 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the heliosphere. We use time and latitude-dependent solar wind velocity and density inferred from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/SWAN and interplanetary scintillations data and implemented solar cycle variations of the magnetic field derived from 27 day averages of the field magnitude average of the magnetic field at 1 AU from the OMNI database. With the inclusion of the solar cycle time-dependent magnetic field intensity, the model matches the observed intensity of the magnetic field in the HS along both Voyager 1 and 2. This is a significant improvement from the same model without magnetic field solar cycle variations, which was over a factor of two larger. The model accurately predicts the radial velocity observed by Voyager 2; however, the model predicts a flow speed ∼100 km s{sup −1} larger than that derived from LECP measurements at Voyager 1. In the model, magnetic flux is conserved along both Voyager trajectories, contrary to observations. This implies that the solar cycle variations in solar wind magnetic field observed at 1 AU does not cause the order of magnitude decrease in magnetic flux observed in the Voyager 1 data.

  4. Analysis of human brain exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields: a numerical assessment of spatially averaged electric fields and exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Lin; Benkler, Stefan; Chavannes, Nicholas; De Santis, Valerio; Bakker, Jurriaan; van Rhoon, Gerard; Mosig, Juan; Kuster, Niels

    2013-07-01

    Compliance with the established exposure limits for the electric field (E-field) induced in the human brain due to low-frequency magnetic field (B-field) induction is demonstrated by numerical dosimetry. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependency of dosimetric compliance assessments on the applied methodology and segmentations. The dependency of the discretization uncertainty (i.e., staircasing and field singularity) on the spatially averaged peak E-field values is first determined using canonical and anatomical models. Because spatial averaging with a grid size of 0.5 mm or smaller sufficiently reduces the impact of artifacts regardless of tissue size, it is a superior approach to other proposed methods such as the 99th percentile or smearing of conductivity contrast. Through a canonical model, it is demonstrated that under the same uniform B-field exposure condition, the peak spatially averaged E-fields in a heterogeneous model can be significantly underestimated by a homogeneous model. The frequency scaling technique is found to introduce substantial error if the relative change in tissue conductivity is significant in the investigated frequency range. Lastly, the peak induced E-fields in the brain tissues of five high-resolution anatomically realistic models exposed to a uniform B-field at ICNIRP and IEEE reference levels in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz show that the reference levels are not always compliant with the basic restrictions. Based on the results of this study, a revision is recommended for the guidelines/standards to achieve technically sound exposure limits that can be applied without ambiguity.

  5. [Effect of a constant high intensity magnetic field on reproductive functions in male rats].

    PubMed

    Kokoreva, L V; Chuvpilo, T A; Pustynnikova, A M

    1990-01-01

    In two experiments male rats were exposed to a constant magnetic field (CMF) of 0.4 T either once for 3 hours or 56 times for the same time (throughout the entire spermatogenetic cycle). During the first week after exposure they were mated with untreated females. Some of the females were sacrificed on their 21st day of gestation. The following parameters were measured: percentage of implantations and resorptions, total fetal lethality, number and weight of alive fetuses, weight of placentas and ovaries, hydration of placentas and fetuses. At birth the duration of gestation, the amount of alive and dead newborns, their weight and distribution in the litter were determined. These parameters were used to evaluate the genetic quality of spermatozoa that were involved in fertilization. The pups were observed during the first month of life. The results obtained suggest that mature spermatozoa are resistant to a single CMF exposure and that this exposure causes no mutations in the gametes which may reduce fetal viability. However, chronic exposure to CMF leads to a small and significant increase of preimplantation lethality of fetuses which may indicate a higher frequency of lethal mutations in the gametes.

  6. High exposure rates of anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory bird species in intensively managed landscapes in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Lassen, Pia; Elmeros, Morten

    2012-10-01

    The extensive use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodent control has led to widespread secondary exposure in nontarget predatory wildlife species. We investigated exposure rates and concentrations of five ARs in liver samples from five raptors and six owls from Denmark. A total of 430 birds were analysed. ARs were detected in 84-100 % of individual birds within each species. Multiple AR exposure was detected in 73 % of all birds. Average number of substances detected in individual birds was 2.2 with no differences between owls and raptors. Difenacoum, bromadiolone, and brodifacoum were the most prevalent substances and occurred in the highest concentrations. Second-generation ARs made up 96 % of the summed AR burden. Among the six core species (sample size >30), summed AR concentrations were lower in rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus) and long-eared owl (Asio otus) than in barn owl (Tyto alba), buzzard (B. buteo), kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and tawny owl (Strix aluco). There was a strong tendency for seasonal variations in the summed AR concentration with levels being lowest during autumn, which is probably related to an influx of less-exposed migrating birds from northern Scandinavia during autumn. High hepatic AR residue concentrations (>100 ng/g wet weight), which have been associated with symptoms of rodenticide poisoning and increased mortality, were recorded high frequencies (12.9-37.4 %) in five of the six core species. The results suggest that the present use of ARs in Denmark, at least locally, may have adverse effects on reproduction and, ultimately, population status in some raptors and owls.

  7. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field intensity differences between ASM and VFM instruments onboard Swarm constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michelis, Paola; Tozzi, Roberta; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    From the very first measurements made by the magnetometers onboard Swarm satellites launched by European Space Agency (ESA) in late 2013, it emerged a discrepancy between scalar and vector measurements. An accurate analysis of this phenomenon brought to build an empirical model of the disturbance, highly correlated with the Sun incidence angle, and to correct vector data accordingly. The empirical model adopted by ESA results in a significant decrease in the amplitude of the disturbance affecting VFM measurements so greatly improving the vector magnetic data quality. This study is focused on the characterization of the difference between magnetic field intensity measured by the absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) and that reconstructed using the vector field magnetometer (VFM) installed on Swarm constellation. Applying empirical mode decomposition method, we find the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) associated with ASM-VFM total intensity differences obtained with data both uncorrected and corrected for the disturbance correlated with the Sun incidence angle. Surprisingly, no differences are found in the nature of the IMFs embedded in the analyzed signals, being these IMFs characterized by the same dominant periodicities before and after correction. The effect of correction manifests in the decrease in the energy associated with some IMFs contributing to corrected data. Some IMFs identified by analyzing the ASM-VFM intensity discrepancy are characterized by the same dominant periodicities of those obtained by analyzing the temperature fluctuations of the VFM electronic unit. Thus, the disturbance correlated with the Sun incidence angle could be still present in the corrected magnetic data. Furthermore, the ASM-VFM total intensity difference and the VFM electronic unit temperature display a maximal shared information with a time delay that depends on local time. Taken together, these findings may help to relate the features of the observed VFM-ASM total intensity

  8. Regularly scheduled, day-time, slow-onset 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure does not depress serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.; Orr, J.L.; Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments conducted with laboratory rodents indicate that exposure to 60 Hz electric fields or magnetic fields can suppress nocturnal melatonin concentrations in pineal gland and blood. In three experiments employing three field-exposed and three sham-exposed nonhuman primates, each implanted with an indwelling venous cannula to allow repeated blood sampling, the authors studied the effects of either 6 kV/m and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) or 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G) on serum melatonin patterns. The fields were ramped on and off slowly, so that no transients occurred. Extensive quality control for the melatonin assay, computerized control and monitoring of field intensities, and consistent exposure protocols were used. No changes in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration resulted from 6 weeks of day-time exposure with slow field onset/offset and a highly regular exposure protocol. These results indicate that, under the conditions tested, day-time exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in combination does not result in melatonin suppression in primates.

  9. [Exposure to VHF and UHF electromagnetic fields among workers employed in radio and TV broadcast centers. I. Assessment of exposure].

    PubMed

    Zmyślony, M; Aniołczyk, H; Bortkiewicz, A

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, radio and television have become one of the areas of the human technical activity that develops most rapidly. Also ultra-short waves of VHF (30-300 MHz) and UHF (0.3-3 GHz) bands have proved to be the most important carriers of radio and TV-programs. In Poland, a network of radio and TV broadcast centers (RTCN) with high (over 200 m) masts was set up in the 1960s and 1970s. These centers concentrate the majority of stations broadcasting national and local programs (for areas within the RTCN range). At present, the RTCN established several decades ago are equally important. The assessment of the exposure to electromagnetic fields among workers of multi-program broadcast stations is complicated and feasible only to a certain degree of approximation because of changing conditions of exposure in individual stations during their long history, resulting from the changing numbers and types of transmitters installed. In this work, the method of retrospective estimation of exposure dose is described, and the results of the assessment carried out at three kinds of typical RTCN are discussed. The results of the analysis indicate that the workers of RTCN are exposed primarily to electromagnetic fields of VHF and UHF bands, but this exposure may be considered as admissible, hence it should not exert an adverse effect on the workers' health.

  10. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Roivainen, Päivi; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that populations of multiapartment buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the relationship between childhood leukaemia and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). This study investigated whether classification based on structural characteristics of the transformer stations would improve ELF MF exposure assessment. The data included MF measurements in apartments directly above transformer stations ("exposed" apartments) in 30 buildings in Finland, and reference apartments in the same buildings. Transformer structural characteristics (type and location of low-voltage conductors) were used to classify exposed apartments into high-exposure (HE) and intermediate-exposure (IE) categories. An exposure gradient was observed: both the time-average MF and time above a threshold (0.4 μT) were highest in the HE apartments and lowest in the reference apartments, showing a statistically significant trend. The differences between HE and IE apartments, however, were not statistically significant. A simulation exercise showed that the three-category classification did not perform better than a two-category classification (exposed and reference apartments) in detecting the existence of an increased risk. However, data on the structural characteristics of transformers is potentially useful for evaluating exposure-response relationship.

  11. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz-100 kHz).

    PubMed

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Bakos, József; Thuróczy, György

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure.

  12. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz)

    PubMed Central

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Bakos, József; Thuróczy, György

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure. PMID:27598182

  13. Midbrain Frequency Representation following Moderately Intense Neonatal Sound Exposure in a Precocious Animal Model (Chinchilla laniger)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Auditory brain areas undergo reorganization resulting from abnormal sensory input during early postnatal development. This is evident from studies at the cortical level but it remains unclear whether there is reorganization in the auditory midbrain in a species similar to the human, that is, with early hearing onset. We have explored midbrain plasticity in the chinchilla, a precocious species that matches the human in terms of hearing development. Neonatal chinchillas were chronically exposed to a 2 kHz narrowband sound at 70 dB SPL for 4 weeks. Tonotopic maps in inferior colliculus (central nucleus) were defined based on single neuron characteristic frequency. We hypothesized an overrepresentation of the 2 kHz region of the maps. However, we observed a significant decrease in the proportion of neurons dedicated to the 2 kHz octave band and also away from the exposure frequency at 8 kHz. In addition, we report a significant increase in low frequency representation (<1 kHz), again a change to tonotopic mapping distant to the 2 kHz region. Thus in a precocious species, tonotopic maps in auditory midbrain are altered following abnormal stimulation during development. However, these changes are more complex than the overrepresentation of exposure related frequency regions that are often reported. PMID:27895941

  14. Exposure to strong static magnetic field slows the growth of human cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Raylman, R R; Clavo, A C; Wahl, R L

    1996-01-01

    Proposals to enhance the amount of radiation dose delivered to small tumors with radioimmunotherapy by constraining emitted electrons with very strong homogeneous static magnetic fields has renewed interest in the cellular effects of prolonged exposures to such fields. Past investigations have not studied the effects on tumor cell growth of lengthy exposures to very high magnetic fields. Three malignant human cell lines, HTB 63 (melanoma), HTB 77 IP3 (ovarian carcinoma), and CCL 86 (lymphoma: Raji cells), were exposed to a 7 Tesla uniform static magnetic field for 64 hours. Following exposure, the number of viable cells in each group was determined. In addition, multicycle flow cytometry was performed on all cell lines, and pulsed-field electrophoresis was performed solely on Raji cells to investigate changes in cell cycle patterns and the possibility of DNA fragmentation induced by the magnetic field. A 64 h exposure to the magnetic field produced a reduction in viable cell number in each of the three cell lines. Reductions of 19.04 +/- 7.32%, 22.06 +/- 6.19%, and 40.68 +/- 8.31% were measured for the melanoma, ovarian carcinoma, and lymphoma cell lines, respectively, vs. control groups not exposed to the magnetic field. Multicycle flow cytometry revealed that the cell cycle was largely unaltered. Pulsed-field electrophoresis analysis revealed no increase in DNA breaks related to magnetic field exposure. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to a very strong magnetic field appeared to inhibit the growth of three human tumor cell lines in vitro. The mechanism underlying this effect has not, as yet, been identified, although alteration of cell growth cycle and gross fragmentation of DNA have been excluded as possible contributory factors. Future investigations of this phenomenon may have a significant impact on the future understanding and treatment of cancer.

  15. Acute effects of 50 Hz magnetic field exposure on human visual task and cardiovascular performance

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, C.J.; Podd, J.V.; Rapley, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    One hundred subjects, males and females with ages ranging between 18 and 48 years, were studied under both field-exposed and sham-exposed conditions. A 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field (MF) was used. To examine the effect of field exposure on performance, a two-alternative, forced-choice, duration-discrimination task with three levels of difficulty was used. The subject`s task was to decide which of two sequentially presented light flashes had the longer duration. The standard duration was 50 ms, and the alternative durations were 65, 100, or 125 ms. Both reaction time and percentage of correct responses were recorded for each subject. MF and sham exposure were for 9 min each. Blood pressure and heart rate were also measured before and following MF exposure and sham-exposure trials. The study was performed double blind, with the exposure order counterbalanced. Compared to sham exposure, MF exposure significantly decreased reaction time on the hardest level of the performance task. MF exposure did not reliably affect percentage correct or cardiovascular performance. It was demonstrated that a relatively high level of statistical power was the basis for the observed MF effect, and the need to pay closer attention to power levels in future research is discussed.

  16. Modeling high-intensity pulsed electric field inactivation of a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Soliva-Fortuny, R; Bendicho-Porta, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-11-01

    The inactivation kinetics of a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (EC 3.1.1.3.) were studied in a simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields. Samples were subjected to electric field intensities ranging from 16.4 to 27.4 kV/cm for up to 314.5 micros, thus achieving a maximum inactivation of 62.1%. The suitability of describing experimental data using mechanistic first-order kinetics and an empirical model based on the Weibull distribution function is discussed. In addition, different mathematical expressions relating the residual activity values to field strength and treatment time are supplied. A first-order fractional conversion model predicted residual activity with good accuracy (A(f) = 1.018). A mechanistic insight of the model kinetics was that experimental values were the consequence of different structural organizations of the enzyme, with uneven resistance to the pulsed electric field treatments. The Weibull model was also useful in predicting the energy density necessary to achieve lipase inactivation.

  17. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: a nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    van Wijngaarden, E.; Savitz, D.; Kleckner, R.; Cai, J.; Loomis, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This nested case-control study examines mortality from suicide in relation to estimated exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in a cohort of 138 905 male electric utility workers.
METHODS—Case-control sampling included 536 deaths from suicide and 5348 eligible controls. Exposure was classified based on work in the most common jobs with increased exposure to magnetic fields and indices of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on a measurement survey.
RESULTS—Suicide mortality was increased relative to work in exposed jobs and with indices of exposure to magnetic fields. Increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for years of employment as an electrician (OR 2.18; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25 to 3.80) or lineman (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.14), whereas a decreased OR was found for power plant operators (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.40). A dose response gradient with exposure to magnetic fields was found for exposure in the previous year, with a mortality OR of 1.70 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.90) in the highest exposure category. Stronger associations, with ORs in the range of 2.12-3.62, were found for men <50 years of age.
CONCLUSION—These data provide evidence for an association between occupational electromagnetic fields and suicide that warrants further evaluation. A plausible mechanism related to melatonin and depression provides a direction for additional laboratory research as well as epidemiological evaluation.


Keywords: electromagnetic fields; suicide; nested case-control PMID:10810112

  18. Intense laser field effects on the linear and nonlinear intersubband optical properties of a semi-parabolic quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.

    2011-07-01

    By using the compact-density matrix approach, the effect of a nonresonant intense laser field on the linear and nonlinear optical absorptions based on intersubband transitions and the refractive index changes in an asymmetric semiconductor quantum well have been presented. Our results show that the peak position of the absorption coefficient is sensitive to intense laser field, the absorption maximum shifts towards lower energies for increasing intense laser field value. Also we observe as the intense laser field strength increases, the total refractive index change has been increased in magnitude and also shifted towards lower energies. The results indicate that linear and nonlinear optical properties of the low dimensional semiconductor heterostructures can be adjusted in a desired energy range by using intense laser field.

  19. The use of a sweetener substitution method to predict dietary exposures for the intense sweetener rebaudioside A.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    2008-07-01

    There are more published dietary exposure data for intense sweeteners than for any other group of food additives. Data are available for countries with different patterns of sweetener approvals and also for population groups with high potential intakes, such as children and diabetic subjects. These data provide a secure basis for predicting the potential intakes of a novel intense sweetener by adjustment of the reported intakes of different sweeteners in mg/kg body weight by their relative sweetness intensities. This approach allows the possibility that a novel sweetener attains the same pattern and extent of use as the existing sweeteners. The intakes by high consumers of other sweeteners allows for possible brand loyalty to the novel sweetener. Using this method, the estimated dietary exposures for rebaudioside A in average and high consumers are predicted to be 1.3 and 3.4mg/kg body weight per day for the general population, 2.1 and 5.0mg/kg body weight per day for children and 3.4 and 4.5mg/kg body weight per day for children with diabetes. The temporary ADI defined by the JECFA for steviol glycosides [JECFA, 2005. Steviol glycosides. In: 63rd Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, WHO Technical Report Series 928, pp. 34-39] was set at 0-2mg/kg body weight (expressed as steviol equivalents); after correction for the difference in molecular weights, these estimated intakes of rebaudioside A are equivalent to daily steviol intakes of less than 2mg/kg. In consequence, this analysis shows that the intakes of rebaudioside A would not exceed the JECFA temporary ADI set for steviol glycosides.

  20. Investigating short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields on reproductive capacity of invertebrates in the field situation.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Bolte, John F B; Evans, Tracy R; Tamis, Wil L M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are exposed to electromagnetic fields from the introduction of wireless networks that send information all over the world. In this study we examined the impact of exposure to the fields from mobile phone base stations (GSM 900 MHz) on the reproductive capacity of small, virgin, invertebrates. A field experiment was performed exposing four different invertebrate species at different distances from a radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) transmitter for a 48-h period. The control groups were isolated from EMF exposure by use of Faraday cages. The response variables as measured in the laboratory were fecundity and number of offspring. Results showed that distance was not an adequate proxy to explain dose-response regressions. No significant impact of the exposure matrices, measures of central tendency and temporal variability of EMF, on reproductive endpoints was found. Finding no impact on reproductive capacity does not fully exclude the existence of EMF impact, since mechanistically models hypothesizing non-thermal-induced biological effects from RF exposure are still to be developed. The exposure to RF EMF is ubiquitous and is still increasing rapidly over large areas. We plea for more attention toward the possible impacts of EMF on biodiversity.

  1. Writing Intensive Undergraduate Field Camp and Education: Expanding the Classroom and Preparing Students for the Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    There has always been a strong perception within the geoscience community that a capstone field course was the pinnacle of an undergraduate geoscience degree. Such a course draws from the student's accumulated knowledge base, using information from multiple sub-disciplines to solve "real-world" problems. Since 2006, there has been a 92% increase in students attending field camps (Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014 - AGI). But, the number of field camps has significantly declined. In 1995, 35% of geoscience departments offered a summer field course but by 2006 that number had dropped to 15% (Status Report on Geoscience Summer Field Camps - AGI) and since 2009, the number of field camps listed in the Geology.com directory has dropped from 100 to about 75. This decline is despite the fact that 88% of industry professionals believe fieldwork should "be an integral and required part of undergraduate programs" (Petcovic, et al., 2014). In 2012, in order to meet the growing needs of industry and better prepare our students, Texas A&M University-Kingsville developed an in-house, unique set of field courses that expand the limits of the classroom. We have two required courses. One is similar to a traditional field camp except that it contains a writing intensive component. The six-credit course runs for seven weeks. Prior to camp, students are required to write an introduction (geologic history section) on the study area. We spend two weeks in the field, mapping daily (Big Bend National Park), and then return to Kingsville. Students then have two weeks to finish a fully referenced paper, including their edited introduction, methods, observations, interpretations, discussion and conclusions and once complete, they begin the introduction for the next area. This is another two-week field session, in central Texas. After this, we return the first paper which has been edited for content by geoscience faculty and for grammar by an English instructor. Students spend the next

  2. An inverse method for estimation of the acoustic intensity in the focused ultrasound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ying; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a new method which based on infrared (IR) imaging was introduced. Authors (A. Shaw, et al and M. R. Myers, et al) have established the relationship between absorber surface temperature and incident intensity during the absorber was irradiated by the transducer. Theoretically, the shorter irradiating time makes estimation more in line with the actual results. But due to the influence of noise and performance constrains of the IR camera, it is hard to identify the difference in temperature with short heating time. An inverse technique is developed to reconstruct the incident intensity distribution using the surface temperature with shorter irradiating time. The algorithm is validated using surface temperature data generated numerically from three-layer model which was developed to calculate the acoustic field in the absorber, the absorbed acoustic energy during the irradiation, and the consequent temperature elevation. To assess the effect of noisy data on the reconstructed intensity profile, in the simulations, the different noise levels with zero mean were superposed on the exact data. Simulation results demonstrate that the inversion technique can provide fairly reliable intensity estimation with satisfactory accuracy.

  3. Effects of acute electromagnetic fields exposure on the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity during resting state.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bin; Shao, Qing; Chen, Zhiye; Ma, Lin; Wu, Tongning

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aimed to investigate the possible effects of acute radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. We designed a controllable LTE-related EMF exposure environment at 2.573 GHz and performed the 30 min real/sham exposure experiments on human brain under the safety limits. The resting state fMRI signals were collected before and after EMF exposure. Then voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity method was utilized to evaluate the acute effects of LTE EMF exposure on the homotopic functional connectivity between two human hemispheres. Based on our previous research, we further demonstrated that the 30 min short-term LTE EMF exposure would modulate the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity in resting state around the medial frontal gyrus and the paracentral lobule during the real exposure.

  4. Ligand field and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters of samarium doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanko, Y. A.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Sahar, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    We report the samarium ions (Sm3+) contents dependent ligand field and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) of zinc tellurite glass. The amorphous nature of the melt-quench synthesized glasses is confirmed using XRD. The lower energy region of the absorption spectra is used to calculate JO intensity parameters and the UV edge is exploited to determine the Nephelauxetic ratio, bonding, and Racah parameters. The Nephelauxetic ratio and Racah parameter is reduced and the bonding parameter is enhanced with the increase of Sm3+ concentration. The enhancement in covalency is found to increase the non-bridging oxygen and crystal field strength by delocalizing more d-shell electrons. Furthermore, Nephelauxetic function revealed an increase due to the reduction of localized d-electrons that is aroused from the overlap of d-orbital and ligand orbital. The JO intensity parameters displayed the Ω4>Ω6>Ω2 trend. Increase in Ω2 and decrease in Ω2 and Ω2 with the increase of Sm3+ concentration indicated an increase in the Smsbnd O covalency and coordination in the asymmetry of the prepared glasses. The large vale of spectroscopic quality factor (greater than unity) makes the proposed glass system prospective for various optical devices fabrication.

  5. Spatial correlation of the high intensity zone in deep-water acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Li, Zheng-Lin; Ren, Yun

    2016-12-01

    The spatial correlations of acoustic field have important implications for underwater target detection and other applications in deep water. In this paper, the spatial correlations of the high intensity zone in the deep-water acoustic field are investigated by using the experimental data obtained in the South China Sea. The experimental results show that the structures of the spatial correlation coefficient at different ranges and depths are similar to the transmission loss structure in deep water. The main reason for this phenomenon is analyzed by combining the normal mode theory with the ray theory. It is shown that the received signals in the high intensity zone mainly include one or two main pulses which are contributed by the interference of a group of waterborne modes with similar phases. The horizontal-longitudinal correlations at the same receiver depth but in different high intensity zones are analyzed. At some positions, more pulses are received in the arrival structure of the signal due to bottom reflection and the horizontal-longitudinal correlation coefficient decreases accordingly. The multi-path arrival structure of receiving signal becomes more complex with increasing receiver depth. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 41561144006).

  6. An Active Contour Model for the Segmentation of Images with Intensity Inhomogeneities and Bias Field Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chencheng; Zeng, Li

    2015-01-01

    Intensity inhomogeneity causes many difficulties in image segmentation and the understanding of magnetic resonance (MR) images. Bias correction is an important method for addressing the intensity inhomogeneity of MR images before quantitative analysis. In this paper, a modified model is developed for segmenting images with intensity inhomogeneity and estimating the bias field simultaneously. In the modified model, a clustering criterion energy function is defined by considering the difference between the measured image and estimated image in local region. By using this difference in local region, the modified method can obtain accurate segmentation results and an accurate estimation of the bias field. The energy function is incorporated into a level set formulation with a level set regularization term, and the energy minimization is conducted by a level set evolution process. The proposed model first appeared as a two-phase model and then extended to a multi-phase one. The experimental results demonstrate the advantages of our model in terms of accuracy and insensitivity to the location of the initial contours. In particular, our method has been applied to various synthetic and real images with desirable results. PMID:25837416

  7. Lightning criteria relative to space shuttles: Currents and electric field intensity in Florida lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uman, M. A.; Mclain, D. K.

    1972-01-01

    The measured electric field intensities of 161 lightning strokes in 39 flashes which occurred between 1 and 35 km from an observation point at Kennedy Space Center, Florida during June and July of 1971 have been analyzed to determine the lightning channel currents which produced the fields. In addition, typical channel currents are derived and from these typical electric fields at distances between 0.5 and 100 km are computed and presented. On the basis of the results recommendations are made for changes in the specification of lightning properties relative to space vehicle design as given in NASA TMX-64589 (Daniels, 1971). The small sample of lightning analyzed yielded several peak currents in the 100 kA range. Several current rise-times from zero to peak of 0.5 microsec or faster were found; and the fastest observed current rate-of-rise was near 200 kA/microsec. The various sources of error are discussed.

  8. High intensity 5 eV O-atom exposure facility for material degradation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Archuleta, F. A.; Leger, Lubert; Visentine, James; Hunton, Don E.; Cross, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    An atomic oxygen exposure facility was developed for studies of material degradation. The goal of these studies is to provide design criteria and information for the manufacture of long life (20 to 30 years) construction materials for use in low Earth orbit. The studies that are being undertaken will provide: (1) absolute reaction cross sections for the engineering design problems, (2) formulations of reaction mechanisms for use in the selection of suitable existing materials and the design of new more resistant ones, and (3) the calibration of flight hardware (mass spectrometers, etc.) in order to directly relate experiments performed in low Earth orbit to ground based investigations. The facility consists of a CW laser sustained discharge source of O-atoms, an atomic beam formation and diagnostics system, a spinning rotor viscometer, and provision for using the system for calibration of actual flight instruments.

  9. Acceleration of electrons by a circularly polarized laser pulse in the presence of an intense axial magnetic field in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. P.

    2006-08-15

    Acceleration of electrons by a circularly polarized laser pulse in the presence of a short duration intense axial magnetic field has been studied. Resonance occurs between the electrons and the laser field for an optimum magnetic field leading to effective energy transfer from laser to electrons. The value of optimum magnetic field is independent of the laser intensity and decreases with initial electron energy. The electrons rotate around the axis of the laser pulse with small angle of emittance and small energy spread. Acceleration gradient increases with laser intensity and decreases with initial electron energy.

  10. Influence of electromagnetic field intensity on the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization in circulating water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianguo; Liang, Yandong; Chen, Si

    2016-09-01

    In this study, changes in the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization was determined through conductivity titration by altering electromagnetic field parameters applied to the circulating water system. The critical conductivity value and metastable zone curves of CaCO3 crystallization were determined under different solution concentrations and electromagnetic field intensities. Experimental results indicate that the effect of the electromagnetic field intensity on the critical conductivity value intensifies with the increase of solution concentration. Moreover, the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization increases with the increase of electromagnetic field intensity within 200 Gs, thereby prolonging the induction period of nucleation.

  11. The application of strain field intensity method in the steel bridge fatigue life evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yanjun; Cao, Kaisheng

    2012-04-01

    Asce's survey shows that 80%--90% bridge damage were associated with fatigue and fracture problems. With the operation of vehicle weight and traffic volume increases constantly, the fatigue of welded steel bridge is becoming more and more serious in recent years. A large number of studies show that most prone to fatigue damage of steel bridge is part of the welding position. Thus, it's important to find a more precise method to assess the fatigue life of steel bridge. Three kinds of fatigue analysis method is commonly used in engineering practice, such as nominal stress method, the local stress strain method and field intensity method. The first two methods frequently used for fatigue life assessment of steel bridge, but field intensity method uses less ,and it widely used in fatigue life assessment of aerospace and mechanical. Nominal stress method and the local stress strain method in engineering has been widely applied, but not considering stress gradient and multiaxial stress effects, the accuracy of calculation stability is relatively poor, so it's difficult to fully explain the fatigue damage mechanism. Therefore, it used strain field intensity method to evaluate the fatigue life of steel bridge. The fatigue life research of the steel bridge based on the strain field method and the fatigue life of the I-section plate girder was analyzed. Using Ansys on the elastoplastic finite element analysis determined the dangerous part of the structure and got the stress-strain history of the dangerous point. At the same time, in order to divide the unit more elaborate introduced the sub-structure technology. Finally, it applies K.N. Smith damage equation to calculate the fatigue life of the dangerous point. In order to better simulating the actual welding defects, it dug a small hole in the welding parts. It dug different holds from different view in the welding parts and plused the same load to calculate its fatigue life. Comparing the results found that the welding

  12. Effects of radiation damping on the dynamics of electrons in ELI intensity laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Christopher; Marklund, Mattias

    2012-07-01

    An electron in the presence of a high intensity laser field, such as that anticipated at ELI, will be accelerated so strongly that its own radiation emission may significantly affect its motion. This opens up the possibility of testing experimentally the classical theory of radiation reaction in such a context. We therefore explore the effects of radiation damping on the dynamics of electrons in optical laser pulses. In the case of high intensities and high initial electron energies, the trajectories and net energy changes of the electrons are found to be significantly altered. These effects are found to become increasingly significant the closer one gets to a directly head on collision between the laser and electrons.

  13. Mechanism of enhanced ionization of linear H+3 in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, I.; Kono, H.; Bandrauk, A. D.

    2001-10-01

    We investigate the mechanism of enhanced ionization that occurs at a critical internuclear distance Rc in the two-electron symmetric linear triatomic molecule H+3 subjected to an ultrashort, intense laser pulse by solving exactly the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a one-dimensional model of H+3. Results of the simulations are analyzed by using three essential adiabatic field states \\|1>, \\|2>, and \\|3> that are adiabatically connected with the lowest three electronic states X1Σ+g, B1Σ+u, and E1Σ+g of the field free ion. We give also a simple MO (molecular orbital) picture in terms of these three states to illustrate the important electronic configurations in an intense field. The states \\|1>, \\|2>, and \\|3> are shown to be composed mainly of the configurations HHH+, HH+H, and H+HH, respectively in the presence of the field. We conclude that the overall level dynamics is governed mainly by transitions at the zero-field energy quasicrossings of these three states. The response of H+3 to a laser field can be classified into two regimes. In the adiabatic regime (RRc), internuclear electron transfer is suppressed due to electron repulsion and laser induced localization. In the intermediate (R~=Rc) region, where enhanced ionization occurs, the state \\|3> is most efficiently created by the field-induced nonadiabatic transitions between the states at quasicrossing points. The ``quasistatic'' laser-induced potential barriers are low enough for the electron to tunnel from the ascending (upper) well, thus confirming the quasistatic model at high intensities. Analytic expressions for the critical distance Rc are obtained from this model and collective electron motion is inferred from the detailed time-dependent two-electron distributions.

  14. Electric field exposure and evidence of stress in mice

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruyn, L.; De Jager, L. )

    1994-04-01

    The effect of stress induced by an electric field on the adrenal gland cortex of mice was examined by means of corticosterone serum assay and evaluation of the lipid profile of the different zones of the cortex. Six generations of experimental mice were exposed to a 10 kV/m electric field from conception and corresponding control groups were sham exposed. Mice were sacrificed at 35 days (n = 10), as adults (n = 20) and at 18 months (old mice) (n = 10). Blinded lipid estimates were performed on histological preparations of the adrenals, serum corticosterone levels were determined, and the results were statistically analyzed. The mean lipid volume in the zona glomerulosa of the exposed adult male group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.004). The median daytime corticosterone level of the exposed male mice was also significantly higher than that in the controls (P = 0.02). The lipid profiles and corticosterone values in the other subgroups did not differ significantly. As chronic stress increases the lipid volume of all the zones of the adrenal cortex and stimulates the zona glomerulosa to corticosterone secretion, the data suggest that the electric field acted as a chronic stressor in the adult male mice. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effects of different cold-air exposure intensities on the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Zhang, Shuyu; Ma, Shoucun; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Baojian

    2014-03-01

    Ten-week-old male Wistar rats (systolic blood pressure, 106-116 mmHg; body weight, 300-320 g) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (systolic blood pressure, 160-176 mmHg; body weight, 210.9-244.9 g) were used as healthy and hypertensive subjects to determine the effects of varying degrees of cold-air exposure in a climate chamber box. The three cold-air ranks were cold air I [minimum temperature (TMIN) 6.4 °C, ↓∆T48 8.6 °C], cold air II (TMIN 3.8 °C, ↓∆T48 11.2 °C), and cold air III (TMIN -0.3 °C, ↓∆T48 15.3 °C), as established from the cold-air data of Zhangye City, China. Each cold-air rank consisted of a temperature drop and a temperature increase with the same initial and terminal temperatures (15 °C). After cold-air exposure, the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity (10/s and 150/s), plasma fibrinogen, and blood lipids of the rats were determined. The results indicated that the CVD risk factors of the healthy and hypertensive rats increased significantly with cold-air exposure intensities. The increase in systolic blood pressure was greater during temperature drops, whereas the increases in whole blood viscosity and plasma fibrinogen were greater after cold-air exposure. The effects of cold-air exposure on the CVD risk factors of healthy rats, particularly the systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity (150/s), and LDL/HDL, were greater than those in hypertensive rats. In conclusion, CVD risk may increase with cold-air ranks. Blood pressure-induced CVD risk may be greater during cold-air temperature drop, whereas atherosclerosis-induced CVD risk may be greater after cold-air exposure. The effect of cold air on the CVD risk factors in healthy subjects may be more significant than those in hypertensive subjects.

  16. Effects of different cold-air exposure intensities on the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypertensive rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Zhang, Shuyu; Ma, Shoucun; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Baojian

    2014-03-01

    Ten-week-old male Wistar rats (systolic blood pressure, 106-116 mmHg; body weight, 300-320 g) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (systolic blood pressure, 160-176 mmHg; body weight, 210.9-244.9 g) were used as healthy and hypertensive subjects to determine the effects of varying degrees of cold-air exposure in a climate chamber box. The three cold-air ranks were cold air I [minimum temperature (TMIN) 6.4 °C, ↓∆T48 8.6 °C], cold air II (TMIN 3.8 °C, ↓∆T48 11.2 °C), and cold air III (TMIN -0.3 °C, ↓∆T48 15.3 °C), as established from the cold-air data of Zhangye City, China. Each cold-air rank consisted of a temperature drop and a temperature increase with the same initial and terminal temperatures (15 °C). After cold-air exposure, the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity (10/s and 150/s), plasma fibrinogen, and blood lipids of the rats were determined. The results indicated that the CVD risk factors of the healthy and hypertensive rats increased significantly with cold-air exposure intensities. The increase in systolic blood pressure was greater during temperature drops, whereas the increases in whole blood viscosity and plasma fibrinogen were greater after cold-air exposure. The effects of cold-air exposure on the CVD risk factors of healthy rats, particularly the systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity (150/s), and LDL/HDL, were greater than those in hypertensive rats. In conclusion, CVD risk may increase with cold-air ranks. Blood pressure-induced CVD risk may be greater during cold-air temperature drop, whereas atherosclerosis-induced CVD risk may be greater after cold-air exposure. The effect of cold air on the CVD risk factors in healthy subjects may be more significant than those in hypertensive subjects.

  17. Epidemiological appraisal of studies of residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C Y; Thériault, G; Lin, R S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To appraise epidemiological evidence of the purported association between residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers. METHODS: Literature review and epidemiological evaluation. RESULTS: Seven epidemiological studies have been conducted on the risk of cancer among adults in relation to residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Leukaemia was positively associated with magnetic fields in three case-control studies. The other two case-control studies and two cohort studies did not show such a link. Brain tumours and breast cancer have rarely been examined by these studies. Based on the epidemiological results, the analysis of the role of chance and bias, and the criteria for causal inferences, it seems that the evidence is not strong enough to support the putative causal relation between residential exposure to magnetic fields and adult leukaemia, brain tumours, or breast cancer. Inadequate statistical power is far more a concern than selection bias, information bias, and confounding in interpreting the results from these studies, and in explaining inconsistencies between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our reviews suggested that the only way to answer whether residential exposure to magnetic fields is capable of increasing the risks of adult cancers is to conduct more studies carefully avoiding methodological flaws, in particular small sample size. We also suggested that the risk of female breast cancer should be the object of additional investigations, and that future studies should attempt to include information on exposure to magnetic fields from workplaces as well as residential exposure to estimate the effects of overall exposure to magnetic fields. PMID:8983460

  18. Measured electric field intensities near electric cloud discharges detected by the Kennedy Space Center's Lightning Detection and Ranging System, LDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    For a summer thunderstorm, for which simultaneous, airborne electric field measurements and Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System data was available, measurements were coordinated to present a picture of the electric field intensity near cloud electrical discharges detected by the LDAR System. Radar precipitation echos from NOAA's 10 cm weather radar and measured airborne electric field intensities were superimposed on LDAR PPI plots to present a coordinated data picture of thunderstorm activity.

  19. Public health risk from ELF (electromagnetic fields) exposure -- can it be assessed

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, T.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) are a ubiquitous environmental agent. There are persistent indications that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action. Epidemiologic researchers of ELF face several methodological obstacles, and quantitative risk assessment is in a quandary. Simply stated there is a need for more data---especially with regard to exposure assessment.

  20. [Effects of electromagnetic field of thermal intensity on the hypophysis-thyroid unit of the neuroendocrine system].

    PubMed

    Izmest'eva, O S; Parshkov, E M; Zhavoronkov, L P; Izmest'ev, V I; Litovkina, L V; Voron'ko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Acute 12-minute exposure of laboratory rats to microwaves with specific dose rate (SAR) of 30 W/kg that exceeded a basal metabolism caused a transient response of hyppophysis-thyroid system of compensatory-adaptive character. Prolonged exposure to microwaves of less intensity (SAR = 6 W/kg, which approximately corresponds to basic metabolic rate for these animals) caused insufficiency of the function of thyroid control in a form of primary hypothyroidis.

  1. The effect of exposure to high flux density static and pulsed magnetic fields on lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Aldinucci, Carlo; Garcia, Julian Blanco; Palmi, Mitri; Sgaragli, Gianpietro; Benocci, Alberto; Meini, Antonella; Pessina, Federica; Rossi, Claudio; Bonechi, Claudia; Pessina, Gian Paolo

    2003-09-01

    We investigated whether a combination of static electromagnetic field (EMF) at a flux density of 4.75 T together with pulsed EMF at a flux density of 0.7 mT generated by an NMR apparatus (NMRF), could promote movements of Ca(2+), cell proliferation, and the eventual production of proinflammatory cytokines in human lymphocytes as well as in Jurkat cells, after exposure to the field for 1 h. The same study was also performed after activation of cells with 5 micro g/ml phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) immediately before the exposure period. Our results clearly demonstrate that NMRF exposure increases the [Ca(2+)](i), without any proliferative, or activating, or proinflammatory effect on both normal and PHA stimulated lymphocytes. Accordingly, the levels of interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-2, and interleukin-6 remained unvaried after exposure. Exposure of Jurkat cells statistically decreased the [Ca(2+)](i) and the proliferation. This is consistent with the low levels of IL-2 measured in supernatants of these cells after exposure. On the whole our data suggest that static and pulsed NMRF exposure contribute synergistically in the increase of the [Ca(2+)](i) without any activating or proinflammatory effect either in normal or in PHA challenged lymphocytes. In Jurkat cells, by changing the properties of cell membranes, NMRF exposure can influence Ca(2+) transport processes and hence Ca(2+) homeostasis, causing a marked decrease of proliferation.

  2. The regulation of rat activity following exposure to hyperdynamic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.; Ishihama, Linda M.; Murakami, Dean M.

    1993-01-01

    The microgravity of space flight and the hyperdynamic fields produced via centrifugation have allowed researchers to examine the effect of altered gravitational environments on the regulation of physiological systems. In this study, a high frequency light/dark cycle was provided for 24 hours as an environmental challenge to assess the recovery of homeostatic and circadian components of physiological regulation in rats. For example, the nocturnal rat exhibited a homeostatic increase in body temperature during the dark periods and a decrease during the light periods. In addition, the magnitude of the body temperature response exhibits a time of day variation demonstrating the effect on circadian regulation.

  3. No effect of exposure to static and sinusoidal magnetic fields on nitric oxide production by macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Mnaimneh, S. |; Bizri, M. |; Veyret, B.

    1996-12-31

    The effects of exposure to static (1--100 mT) or sinusoidal (1 Hz, 1.6 mT) magnetic fields on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by murine BCG-activated macrophages were investigated. In these cells, the inducible isoform of NO synthase is present. No significant differences were observed in nitrite levels among exposed, sham-exposed, or control macrophages after exposure for 14 h to static fields of 1, 10, 50, and 100 mT and to sinusoidal 1.6 mT, 1 Hz magnetic fields.

  4. Circular swimming in mice after exposure to a high magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Houpt, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to high magnetic fields of 4 tesla and above perturbs the vestibular system of rodents and humans. Performance in a swim test is a sensitive test of vestibular function. In order to determine the effect of magnet field exposure on swimming in mice, mice were exposed for 30-min within a 14.1 tesla superconducting magnet and then tested at different times after exposure in a 2-min swim test. As previously observed in open field tests, mice swam in tight counter-clockwise circles when tested immediately after magnet exposure. The counter-clockwise orientation persisted throughout the 2-min swim test. The tendency to circle was transient, because no significant circling was observed when mice were tested at 3 min or later after magnet exposure. However, mice did show a decrease in total distance swum when tested between 3 and 40 min after magnet exposure. The decrease in swimming distance was accompanied by a pronounced postural change involving a counter-clockwise twist of the pelvis and hindlimbs that was particularly severe in the first 15 s of the swim test. Finally, no persistent difference from sham-exposed mice was seen in the swimming of magnet-exposed mice when tested 60 min, 24 h, or 96 h after magnet exposure. This suggests that there is no long-lasting effect of magnet exposure on the ability of mice to orient or swim. The transient deficits in swimming and posture seen shortly after magnet exposure are consistent with an acute perturbation of the vestibular system by the high magnetic field. PMID:20206191

  5. A comparison of a laboratory and field study of annoyance and acceptability of aircraft noise exposures. [human reactions and tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1977-01-01

    Residents living in close, middle and distant areas from JFK Airport were included in a field interview and laboratory study. Judgments were made of simulated aircraft noise exposures of comparable community indoor noise levels and mixes of aircraft. Each group of subjects judged the levels of noise typical for its distance area. Four different numbers of flyovers were tested: less than average for each area, the approximate average, the peak number, or worst day, and above peak number. The major findings are: (1) the reported integrated field annoyance is best related to the annoyance reported for the simulated approximate worst day exposure in the laboratory; (2) annoyance is generally less when there are fewer aircraft flyovers, and the subject has less fear of crashes and more favorable attitudes toward airplanes; (3) beliefs in harmful health effects and misfeasance by operators of aircraft are also highly correlated with fear and noise annoyance; (4) in direct retrospective comparisons of number of flights, noise levels and annoyance, subjects more often said the worst day laboratory exposured more like their usual home environments; and (5) subjects do not expect an annoyance-free environment. Half of the subjects can accept an annoyance level of 5 to 6 from a possible annoyance range of 0 to 9, 28% can live with an annoyance intensity of 7, and only 5% can accept the top scores of 8 to 9.

  6. Investigation of the effects of magnetic field exposure on human melatonin. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cook, M.R.; Cohen, H.D.

    1994-08-01

    Several rodent studies have suggested that magnetic field exposure may alter the daily pattern of melatonin secretion. This study investigated melatonin levels in mean exposed overnight to magnetic fields of 10 mG and 200 mG. The study also assessed the potential effects of exposure on a number of performance and self-reported endpoints in the subjects. Investigation of this area is important, as altered diurnal melatonin cycles have been linked to a variety of endpoints, including reproductive outcome, neurobehavioral function, and carcinogenesis. The results of this investigation did not support the a priori hypothesis that exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields of 10 mG and 200 mG alters nighttime melatonin levels in a population of adult males. However, the data suggested the possibility of differential sensitivity to magnetic fields based on an individual`s baseline melatonin level.

  7. Minimising exposure of amphibians to pathogens during field studies.

    PubMed

    Phillott, A D; Speare, R; Hines, H B; Skerratt, L F; Meyer, E; McDonald, K R; Cashins, S D; Mendez, D; Berger, L

    2010-11-01

    Many of the recent global amphibian mass mortalities, declines and extinctions have been attributed to the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis. There have been mass mortalities due to ranaviral disease but no major declines or extinctions. Controlling the transmission and spread of disease is of utmost importance, especially where there is the potential for human involvement. We have reviewed current hygiene guidelines for working with wild frogs, identified potential flaws and recommended those most suitable and effective for the field environment. Our within-site hygiene measures aim to reduce the risk of transmission among individuals. These measures encompass the capture, handling and holding of amphibians, skin disinfection before and after invasive procedures, marking frogs, sealing open wounds and treatment of accessory equipment. Our between-site hygiene measures aim to mitigate the risk of pathogen spread among populations. We have designed a risk calculator to help simplify and standardise the decision-making process for determining the level of risk and appropriate risk mitigation strategies to reduce the risk of increasing pathogen spread above background levels. Calculation of an overall risk score for pathogen spread takes into account the prior activity of field workers, the proposed activity, remoteness of the site, presence of known pathogens and the consequences of increased pathogen spread for amphibians in a given area.

  8. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  9. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  10. Neutral wind acceleration in the polar lower E-region during an intense electric-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takuo T.; Buchert, Stephan C.; Nozawa, Satonori; Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Fujii, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    The Joule heating and ion drag effects are considered as important factors in the neutral wind dynamics in the polar E-region. However, quantitative evaluations for these effects are insufficient for correct understanding, particularly, in the lower E-region (100-110 km heights) where the anomalous heating effect, related with the electron Pedersen currents, can occur during the intense electric field. In the present study, using EISCAT Svalbard radar data, we have investigated, for the first time, the normal and anomalous heating effects to the neutral wind acceleration in the lower E-region.

  11. From Recollisions to the Knee: A Road Map for Double Ionization in Intense Laser Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2010-01-29

    We examine the nature and statistical properties of electron-electron collisions in the recollision process in a strong laser field. The separation of the double ionization yield into sequential and nonsequential components leads to a bell-shaped curve for the nonsequential probability and a monotonically rising one for the sequential process. We identify key features of the nonsequential process and connect our findings in a simplified model which reproduces the knee shape for the probability of double ionization with laser intensity and associated trends.

  12. Steering Proton Migration in Hydrocarbons Using Intense Few-Cycle Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübel, M.; Siemering, R.; Burger, C.; Kling, Nora G.; Li, H.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bergues, B.; Zherebtsov, S.; Azzeer, A. M.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Moshammer, R.; de Vivie-Riedle, R.; Kling, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    Proton migration is a ubiquitous process in chemical reactions related to biology, combustion, and catalysis. Thus, the ability to manipulate the movement of nuclei with tailored light within a hydrocarbon molecule holds promise for far-reaching applications. Here, we demonstrate the steering of hydrogen migration in simple hydrocarbons, namely, acetylene and allene, using waveform-controlled, few-cycle laser pulses. The rearrangement dynamics is monitored using coincident 3D momentum imaging spectroscopy and described with a widely applicable quantum-dynamical model. Our observations reveal that the underlying control mechanism is due to the manipulation of the phases in a vibrational wave packet by the intense off-resonant laser field.

  13. Ion and electron emission from silver nanoparticles in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Doeppner, T.; Fennel, Th.; Radcliffe, P.; Tiggesbaeumker, J.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

    2006-03-15

    By a comparative analysis of the emission of highly charged ions and energetic electrons the interaction dynamics of intense femtosecond laser fields (10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) with nanometer-sized silver clusters is investigated. Using dual laser pulses with variable optical delay the time-dependent cluster response is resolved. A dramatic increase both in the atomic charge state of the ions and the maximum electron kinetic energy is observed for a certain delay of the pulses. Corresponding Vlasov calculations on a metal cluster model system indicate that enhanced cluster ionization as well as the generation of fast electrons coincide with resonant plasmon excitation.

  14. Heating and ionization of metal clusters in the field of an intense femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostenko, O. F.; Andreev, N. E.

    2007-06-01

    Inverse bremsstrahlung heating and thermal electron-impact ionization of a metal cluster are analyzed with account for the spatial structure of the electromagnetic field. It is shown that, for a femtosecond IR radiation pulse with an intensity of ˜1018 W/cm2 and for an iron cluster with an optimum radius of ˜25 nm, the electron temperature is higher than 1 keV. In this case, the L shell of the ions is highly stripped. The X-ray bremsstrahlung yield from clusters with a radius greater than the skin depth is estimated.

  15. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  16. A Method of Estimating Pressure and Intensity Distributions of Multielement Phased Array High Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Field at Full Power Using a Needle Hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yu; Guofeng, Shen; Jingfeng, Bai; Yazhu, Chen

    2011-09-01

    The pressure and intensity distribution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields at full power are critical for predicting heating patterns and ensuring safety of the therapy. With the limitations of maximum pressure at the hydrophone and damage from cavitation or thermal effects, it is hard to measure pressure and intensity directly when HIFU is at full power. HIFU-phased arrays are usually composed of large numbers of small elements and the sound power radiated from some of them at full power is measureable using a hydrophone, we grouped them based on the limitation of maximum permissible pressure at the hydrophone and the characteristics of the element arrangement in the array. Then sound field measurement of the group was carried out at full power level. Using the acoustic coherence principle, the pressure and intensity distribution of the array at full power level can be calculated from corresponding values from the groups. With this method, computer simulations and sound field measurement of a 65-element concentric distributed phased array was carried out. The simulation results demonstrate theoretically the feasibility of this method. Measurements on the 65-element phased array also verify the effectiveness of this method for estimating the pressure and intensity distribution of phased array at full power level using a needle hydrophone.

  17. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields generated from a transmitter with a large aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tao; Fan, Tingbo; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Tu, Juan E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-03-21

    Prediction and measurement of the acoustic field emitted from a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is essential for the accurate ultrasonic treatment. In this study, the acoustic field generated from a strongly focused HIFU transmitter was characterized by a combined experiment and simulation method. The spheroidal beam equation (SBE) was utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation. The curve of the source pressure amplitude versus voltage excitation was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; finally, the acoustic pressure field generated by the strongly focused HIFU transmitter was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1 MHz HIFU transmitter with a large half aperture angle of 30°. The maximum measured peak-to-peak pressure was up to 72 MPa. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results indicate that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field. The results also suggest that this method is not valid for low excitations owing to low sensitivity of the second harmonic.

  18. UTILIZATION OF THE WAVEFRONT SENSOR AND SHORT-EXPOSURE IMAGES FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF QUASI-STATIC ABERRATION AND EXOPLANET INTENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2013-04-10

    Heretofore, the literature on exoplanet detection with coronagraphic telescope systems has paid little attention to the information content of short exposures and methods of utilizing the measurements of adaptive optics wavefront sensors. This paper provides a framework for the incorporation of the wavefront sensor measurements in the context of observing modes in which the science camera takes millisecond exposures. In this formulation, the wavefront sensor measurements provide a means to jointly estimate the static speckle and the planetary signal. The ability to estimate planetary intensities in as little as a few seconds has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of exoplanet search surveys. For simplicity, the mathematical development assumes a simple optical system with an idealized Lyot coronagraph. Unlike currently used methods, in which increasing the observation time beyond a certain threshold is useless, this method produces estimates whose error covariances decrease more quickly than inversely proportional to the observation time. This is due to the fact that the estimates of the quasi-static aberrations are informed by a new random (but approximately known) wavefront every millisecond. The method can be extended to include angular (due to diurnal field rotation) and spectral diversity. Numerical experiments are performed with wavefront data from the AEOS Adaptive Optics System sensing at 850 nm. These experiments assume a science camera wavelength {lambda} of 1.1 {mu}, that the measured wavefronts are exact, and a Gaussian approximation of shot-noise. The effects of detector read-out noise and other issues are left to future investigations. A number of static aberrations are introduced, including one with a spatial frequency exactly corresponding the planet location, which was at a distance of Almost-Equal-To 3{lambda}/D from the star. Using only 4 s of simulated observation time, a planetary intensity, of Almost-Equal-To 1 photon ms{sup -1

  19. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and electric shocks and risk of ALS: the Swiss National Cohort.

    PubMed

    Huss, Anke; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been associated with exposures in so-called 'electrical occupations'. It is unclear if this possible link may be explained by exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) or by electrical shocks. We evaluated ALS mortality in 2000-2008 and exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks in the Swiss National Cohort, using job exposure matrices for occupations at censuses 1990 and 2000. We compared 2.2 million workers with high or medium vs. low exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks using Cox proportional hazard models. Results showed that mortality from ALS was higher in people who had medium or high ELF-MF exposure in both censuses (HR 1.55 (95% CI 1.11-2.15)), but closer to unity for electrical shocks (HR 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65)). When both exposures were included in the same model, the HR for ELF-MF changed little (HR 1.56), but the HR for electric shocks was attenuated to 0.97. In conclusion, there was an association between exposure to ELF-MF and mortality from ALS among workers with a higher likelihood of long-term exposure.

  20. Occupational Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Breast Cancer Among Women Textile Workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects’ complete work histories were linked to a job–exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24043439

  1. Building Exposure Maps Of Urban Infrastructure And Crop Fields In The Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, E.; Weichselbaum, J.; Gangkofner, U.; Miltzer, J.; Wali, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the frame of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) initiative for the Mekong river basin World Bank is collaborating with the Mekong River Commission and governmental organizations in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam to build national and regional capacities for managing the risks associated with natural disasters, such as floods, flash floods and droughts. Within ‘eoworld', a joint initiative set up by ESA and World Bank to foster the use of Earth Observation (EO) for sustainable development work, a comprehensive database of elements at risk in the Lower Mekong river basin has been established by GeoVille, including urban infrastructure and crops (primarily rice paddies). In the long term, this exposure information shall be fed into an open-source multi- hazard modeling tool for risk assessment along the Mekong River, which then shall be used by national stakeholders as well as insurance and financial institutions for planning, disaster preparedness and emergency management. Earth Observation techniques can provide objective, synoptic and repetitive observations of elements at risk including buildings, infrastructure and crops. Through the fusion of satellite-based with in-situ data from field surveys and local knowledge (e.g. on building materials) features at risk can be characterised and mapped with high accuracy. Earth Observation data utilised comprise bi-weekly Envisat ASAR imagery programmed for a period of 9 months in 2011 to map the development of the rice cultivation area, identify predominant cropping systems (wet-season vs. dry season cultivation), crop cycles (single /double / triple crop per year), date of emergence/harvest and the distinction between rice planted under intensive (SRI) vs. regular rice cultivation techniques. Very High Resolution (VHR) optical data from SPOT, KOMPSAT and QuickBird were used for mapping of buildings and infrastructure, such as building footprints, residential / commercial areas, industrial

  2. Exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields and risk of childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.M.; Thomas, D.C.; Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Cheng, T.C. )

    1991-11-01

    This study was conducted on 232 cases of childhood leukemia occurring in children age 10 and under between 1980 and 1987 in Los Angeles County. Two hundred thirty-two controls were selected from the same geographic area and were matched on sex, age and race. The parents of the 464 subjects were interviewed by telephone to elicit information on medical histories of the parents and child, residential histories of the subjects, occupational histories of both parents, environmental chemical histories, personal histories including drug use and smoking habits, and time and space occupancy of subjects, including exposures to electrical appliances. An extensive assessment of exposure to electric and magnetic fields was made by determining wiring configurations of most subjects (90%), by measuring electric and magnetic fields in various areas of the inside and outside of the home, and by measuring magnetic fields for 24 to 72 hours in the child's sleeping area (66%). We conclude that our data offer no support for a relationship between measured electric field exposure and leukemia risk, little support for the relationship between measured magnetic field exposure and leukemia risk, considerable support for a relationship between wiring configuration and leukemia risk, and considerable support for a relationship between children's electrical appliance use and leukemia risk. The reason(s) why wiring configuration correlates with leukemia risk better than measured exposure are not clear. It is also not clear whether short-term, very high exposure of children to magnetic (or electric) fields from electric appliances are responsible for the observed risk or whether associated exposures or recall biases are responsible. These latter two issues deserve continued research. 41 refs., 31 tabs.

  3. Exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields and risk of childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.M.; Thomas, D.C.; Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Cheng, T.C.

    1991-11-01

    This study was conducted on 232 cases of childhood leukemia occurring in children age 10 and under between 1980 and 1987 in Los Angeles County. Two hundred thirty-two controls were selected from the same geographic area and were matched on sex, age and race. The parents of the 464 subjects were interviewed by telephone to elicit information on medical histories of the parents and child, residential histories of the subjects, occupational histories of both parents, environmental chemical histories, personal histories including drug use and smoking habits, and time and space occupancy of subjects, including exposures to electrical appliances. An extensive assessment of exposure to electric and magnetic fields was made by determining wiring configurations of most subjects (90%), by measuring electric and magnetic fields in various areas of the inside and outside of the home, and by measuring magnetic fields for 24 to 72 hours in the child`s sleeping area (66%). We conclude that our data offer no support for a relationship between measured electric field exposure and leukemia risk, little support for the relationship between measured magnetic field exposure and leukemia risk, considerable support for a relationship between wiring configuration and leukemia risk, and considerable support for a relationship between children`s electrical appliance use and leukemia risk. The reason(s) why wiring configuration correlates with leukemia risk better than measured exposure are not clear. It is also not clear whether short-term, very high exposure of children to magnetic (or electric) fields from electric appliances are responsible for the observed risk or whether associated exposures or recall biases are responsible. These latter two issues deserve continued research. 41 refs., 31 tabs.

  4. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after intensive exposure to high ethanol content mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Pesce, Amadeo J; Crews, Bridgit O; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    To determine the degree of ethanol absorption and the resultant formation and urinary excretion of its conjugated metabolites following intensive use of high ethanol content mouthwash, 10 subjects gargled with Listerine(®) antiseptic 4 times daily for 3¼ days. First morning void urine specimens were collected on each of the four study days and post-gargle specimens were collected at 2, 4, and 6 h after the final gargle of the study. Urine ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and creatinine were measured. Ethanol was below the positive threshold of 20 mg/dL in all of the urine specimens. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (6 and 82 ng/mL; 16 and 83 μg/g creatinine). Only one specimen contained detectable EtG (173 ng/mL; 117 μg/g creatinine). EtS was detected in the urine of seven study subjects, but was not detected in the single specimen that had detectable EtG. The maximum EtS concentrations were 104 ng/mL and 112 μg/g creatinine (in different subjects). Three subjects produced a total of eight (non-baseline) urinary EtS concentrations above 50 ng/mL or 50 μg/g creatinine and three EtS concentrations exceeding 100 ng/mL or 100 μg/g creatinine. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG and EtS concentrations, currently accepted EtG and EtS cutoffs of 500 ng/mL are adequate to distinguish between ethanol consumption and four times daily use of high ethanol content mouthwash.

  5. In vitro exposure of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes to ELF fields and new therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields: biological evidence.

    PubMed

    Vannoni, D; Albanese, A; Battisti, E; Aceto, E; Giglioni, S; Corallo, C; Carta, S; Ferrata, P; Fioravanti, A; Giordano, N

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequently occurring rheumatic disease, caused by metabolic changes in chondrocytes, the cells that maintain cartilage. Treatment with electromagnetic fields (MF) produces benefits in patients affected by this pathology. Isolated human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes were cultured in vitro under standard conditions or stimulated with IL-1beta or IGF-1, to mimic the imbalance between chondroformation and chondroresorption processes observed in OA cartilage in vivo. The cells were exposed for a specific time to extremely low frequency (ELF; 100-Hz) electromagnetic fields and to the Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Fields (TAMMEF), which are characterized by variable frequencies, intensities, and waveforms. Using flow cytometry, we tested the effects of the different types of exposure on chondrocyte metabolism. The exposure of the cells to both systems enhances cell proliferation, does not generate reactive oxygen species, does not cause glutathione depletion or changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and does not induce apoptosis. This study presents scientific support to the fact that MF could influence OA chondrocytes from different points of view (viability, ROS production and apoptosis). We can conclude that both ELF and TAMMEF systems could be recommended for OA therapy and represent a valid non-pharmacological approach to the treatment of this pathology.

  6. Intense transient electric field sensor based on the electro-optic effect of LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing Sun, Shangpeng; Han, Rui; Sima, Wenxia; Liu, Tong

    2015-10-15

    Intense transient electric field measurements are widely applied in various research areas. An optical intense E-field sensor for time-domain measurements, based on the electro-optic effect of lithium niobate, has been studied in detail. Principles and key issues in the design of the sensor are presented. The sensor is insulated, small in size (65 mm × 15 mm × 15 mm), and suitable for high-intensity (<801 kV/m) electric field measurements over a wide frequency band (10 Hz–10 MHz). The input/output characteristics of the sensor were obtained and the sensor calibrated. Finally, an application using this sensor in testing laboratory lightning impulses and in measuring transient electric fields during switch-on of a disconnector confirmed that the sensor is expected to find widespread use in transient intense electric field measurement applications.

  7. Assessment of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure from GSM mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Carolina; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Findlay, Richard; Maslanyj, Myron; Conil, Emmanuelle; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-kyoung; Sim, Malcolm R; Taki, Masao; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    Although radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones have received much attention, relatively little is known about the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields emitted by phones. This paper summarises ELF magnetic flux density measurements on global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones, conducted as part of the MOBI-KIDS epidemiological study. The main challenge is to identify a small number of generic phone models that can be used to classify the ELF exposure for the different phones reported in the study. Two-dimensional magnetic flux density measurements were performed on 47 GSM mobile phones at a distance of 25 mm. Maximum resultant magnetic flux density values at 217 Hz had a geometric mean of 221 (+198/-104) nT. Taking into account harmonic data, measurements suggest that mobile phones could make a substantial contribution to ELF exposure in the general population. The maximum values and easily available variables were poorly correlated. However, three groups could be defined on the basis of field pattern indicating that manufacturers and shapes of mobile phones may be the important parameters linked to the spatial characteristics of the magnetic field, and the categorization of ELF magnetic field exposure for GSM phones in the MOBI-KIDS study may be achievable on the basis of a small number of representative phones. Such categorization would result in a twofold exposure gradient between high and low exposure based on type of phone used, although there was overlap in the grouping.

  8. Occupational exposure levels of static magnetic field during routine MRI examination in 3T MR system.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Nakai, Toshiharu; Imai, Shinya; Izawa, Shuhei; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to the high static magnetic fields (SMFs) during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations raises concerns of adverse health effects. In this study, personal exposure monitoring of the magnetic fields during routine examinations in two 3 T MRI systems was carried out. A three-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to a subject's chest during monitoring. Data acquisition started every time the subject entered the scanner room and ended when the subject exited the room. Four radiologic technologists from two different institutes participated in this study. The maximum exposed field ranged from 0 to 1250 mT and the average peak magnetic field (B) was 428 ± 231 mT (mean ± standard deviation (SD): number of samples (N) = 103). Then, the relationship between exposure levels and work duties was analyzed. The MRI examination of the head or neck showed the highest average peak B among four work categories. These results provide information of real exposure levels for 3 T MRI system operators and can also improve the current practical training advice for preventing extra occupational field exposure.

  9. Nonadiabatic Electron Dynamics in Orthogonal Two-Color Laser Fields with Comparable Intensities.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ji-Wei; Xiong, Wei-Hao; Xiao, Xiang-Ru; Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-11-06

    We theoretically investigate the nonadiabatic subcycle electron dynamics in orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields with comparable intensities. The photoelectron dynamics is simulated by exact solution to the 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and also by two other semiclassical methods, i.e., the quantum trajectory Monte Carlo simulation and the Coulomb-corrected strong field approximation. Through these methods, we identify the underlying mechanisms of the subcycle electron dynamics and find that both the nonadiabatic effects and the Coulomb potential play very important roles. The contribution of the nonadiabatic effects manifest in two aspects, i.e., the nonadiabatic ionization rate and the nonzero initial velocities at the tunneling exit. The Coulomb potential has a different impact on the electrons' trajectories for different relative phases between the two pulses.

  10. Near field intensity enhancement and localization in noble metal nanoparticle ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedyalkov, N. N.; Nikov, Ru G.; Atanasov, P. A.

    2013-03-01

    Theoretical analysis on the electromagnetic field properties in vicinity of noble metal nanostructures is presented. The study is done on the basis of numerical simulation using Finite Difference Time Domain approach. The systems under consideration are two- and three-dimensional arrays composed of gold or silver nanoparticles. The near field intensity distribution and its enhancement are calculated for structures with different characteristics - particle size, inter-particle distance, and at different conditions related to the incident irradiation - polarization, and geometry of excitation. This analysis is used for definition of some optimal parameters for such structures from the viewpoint of application in Surface Enhancement Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). It is shown that the manipulation of the geometry of excitation of the nanoparticle system could be used as a crucial parameter for improving the efficiency of the classical configuration in SERS. The predicted influences of the nanoparticle system properties on the Raman signal enhancement are confirmed experimentally.

  11. Low-level exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: health effects and research needs.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, M H

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the German and Austrian Governments jointly sponsored an international seminar in November of 1996 on the biological effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. For purposes of this seminar, RF fields having frequencies only in the range of about 10 MHz to 300 GHz were considered. This is one of a series of scientific review seminars held under the International Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Project to identify any health hazards from EMF exposure. The scientific literature was reviewed during the seminar and expert working groups formed to provide a status report on possible health effects from exposure to low-level RF fields and identify gaps in knowledge requiring more research to improve health risk assessments. It was concluded that, although hazards from exposure to high-level (thermal) RF fields were established, no known health hazards were associated with exposure to RF sources emitting fields too low to cause a significant temperature rise in tissue. Biological effects from low-level RF exposure were identified needing replication and further study. These included in vitro studies of cell kinetics and proliferation effects, effects on genes, signal transduction effects and alterations in membrane structure and function, and biophysical and biochemical mechanisms for RF field effects. In vivo studies should focus on the potential for cancer promotion, co-promotion and progression, as well as possible synergistic, genotoxic, immunological, and carcinogenic effects associated with chronic low-level RF exposure. Research is needed to determine whether low-level RF exposure causes DNA damage or influences central nervous system function, melatonin synthesis, permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), or reaction to neurotropic drugs. Reported RF-induced changes to eye structure and function should also be investigated

  12. Moderate-Intensity Rotating Magnetic Fields Do Not Affect Bone Quality and Bone Remodeling in Hindlimb Suspended Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guanghao; Zhai, Mingming; Tong, Shichao; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Xu, Xinmin; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence has substantiated the positive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and static magnetic fields (SMF) on inhibiting osteopenia and promoting fracture healing. However, the osteogenic potential of rotating magnetic fields (RMF), another common electromagnetic application modality, remains poorly characterized thus far, although numerous commercial RMF treatment devices have been available on the market. Herein the impacts of RMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone metabolism were systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty two 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the Control (n = 10), HU (n = 10) and HU with RMF exposure (HU+RMF, n = 12) groups. Rats in the HU+RMF group were subjected to daily 2-hour exposure to moderate-intensity RMF (ranging from 0.60 T to 0.38 T) at 7 Hz for 4 weeks. HU caused significant decreases in body mass and soleus muscle mass of rats, which were not obviously altered by RMF. Three-point bending test showed that the mechanical properties of femurs in HU rats, including maximum load, stiffness, energy absorption and elastic modulus were not markedly affected by RMF. µCT analysis demonstrated that 4-week RMF did not significantly prevent HU-induced deterioration of femoral trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Serum biochemical analysis showed that RMF did not significantly change HU-induced decrease in serum bone formation markers and increase in bone resorption markers. Bone histomorphometric analysis further confirmed that RMF showed no impacts on bone remodeling in HU rats, as evidenced by unchanged mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, osteoblast numbers and osteoclast numbers in cancellous bone. Together, our findings reveal that RMF do not significantly affect bone microstructure, bone mechanical strength and bone remodeling in HU-induced disuse osteoporotic rats. Our study indicates potentially

  13. Atoms and molecules in intense laser fields: gauge invariance of theory and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, A. D.; Fillion-Gourdeau, F.; Lorin, E.

    2013-08-01

    Gauge invariance was discovered in the development of classical electromagnetism and was required when the latter was formulated in terms of the scalar and vector potentials. It is now considered to be a fundamental principle of nature, stating that different forms of these potentials yield the same physical description: they describe the same electromagnetic field as long as they are related to each other by gauge transformations. Gauge invariance can also be included into the quantum description of matter interacting with an electromagnetic field by assuming that the wavefunction transforms under a given local unitary transformation. The result of this procedure is a quantum theory describing the coupling of electrons, nuclei and photons. Therefore, it is a very important concept: it is used in almost every field of physics and it has been generalized to describe electroweak and strong interactions in the standard model of particles. A review of quantum mechanical gauge invariance and general unitary transformations is presented for atoms and molecules in interaction with intense short laser pulses, spanning the perturbative to highly nonlinear non-perturbative interaction regimes. Various unitary transformations for a single spinless particle time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) are shown to correspond to different time-dependent Hamiltonians and wavefunctions. Accuracy of approximation methods involved in solutions of TDSEs such as perturbation theory and popular numerical methods depend on gauge or representation choices which can be more convenient due to faster convergence criteria. We focus on three main representations: length and velocity gauges, in addition to the acceleration form which is not a gauge, to describe perturbative and non-perturbative radiative interactions. Numerical schemes for solving TDSEs in different representations are also discussed. A final brief discussion of these issues for the relativistic time-dependent Dirac equation

  14. Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  15. Mercury exposure in a high fish eating Bolivian Amazonian population with intense small-scale gold-mining activities.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Gardon, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Methylmercury exposure in Amazonian communities through fish consumption has been widely documented in Brazil. There is still a lack of data in other Amazonian countries, which is why we conducted this study in the Bolivian Amazon basin. Simple random sampling was used from a small village located in the lower Beni River, where there is intense gold mining and high fish consumption. All participants were interviewed and hair samples were taken to measure total mercury concentrations. The hair mercury geometric mean in the general population was 3.02 microg/g (CI: 2.69-3.37; range: 0.42-15.65). Age and gender were not directly associated with mercury levels. Fish consumption showed a positive relation and so did occupation, especially small-scale gold mining. Hair mercury levels were lower than those found in Brazilian studies, but still higher than in non-exposed populations. It is necessary to assess mercury exposure in the Amazonian regions where data is still lacking, using a standardized indicator.

  16. Nuclear classical dynamics of H2 in an intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami, Firoozeh; Vafaee, Mohsen; Shokri, Babak

    2011-08-01

    In the first part of this paper, the different distinguishable pathways and regions of the single and sequential double ionization are determined and discussed. It is shown that there are two distinguishable pathways for the single ionization and four distinct pathways for the sequential double ionization. It is also shown that there are two and three different regions of space which are related to the single and double ionization, respectively. In the second part of the paper, the time-dependent Schrödinger and Newton equations are solved simultaneously for the electrons and the nuclei of H2, respectively. The electron and nuclei dynamics are separated on the basis of the adiabatic approximation. The soft-core potential is used to model the electrostatic interaction between the electrons and the nuclei. A variety of wavelengths (390, 532 and 780 nm) and intensities (5 × 1014 and 5 × 1015 W cm-2) of the ultrashort intense laser pulses with a sinus second-order envelope function are used. The behaviour of the time-dependent classical nuclear dynamics in the absence and presence of the laser field is investigated and compared. In the absence of the laser field, there are three distinct sections for the nuclear dynamics on the electronic ground state energy curve. The bond hardening phenomenon does not appear in this classical nuclear dynamics simulation.

  17. First archaeomagnetic field intensity data from Ethiopia, Africa (1615 ± 12 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, María Luisa; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Chauvin, Annick; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Roperch, Pierrick; Fernández, Víctor M.

    2015-05-01

    First archaeointensity determinations have been obtained from Ethiopia. Seven bricks (34 specimens) from the Däbsan archaeological remains were subjected to archaeointensity determination by means of classical Thellier-Thellier experiment including tests for magnetic anisotropy and magnetic cooling rate dependency. The age of the Däbsan Palace is well controlled by historical information: between 1603, when land grants were conceded to the Jesuits and the Catholicism was established as the official religion in Ethiopia, and the age of the Palace foundation in 1626-27. Successful archaeointensity determinations were obtained in 27 specimens from five individual bricks revealing an average field value of 33.5 ± 1.1 μT, which is 11-26% lower than expected values from global geomagnetic models based on historical and archaeomagnetic data. Global models for 1615 AD predict a low in central-southern Africa related to past location of the present Southern Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Our results suggest that the field intensity in central Africa may have been slightly lower than global model predictions. This would indicate that the low could be probably more extended towards central-eastern Africa (or more intense) than previously considered. Further data from this region are especially welcome to delineate the evolution of the SAA.

  18. Space-time contours to treat intense field-dressed molecular states

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Amit K.; Adhikari, Satrajit; Baer, Michael

    2010-01-21

    In this article we consider a molecular system exposed to an intense short-pulsed external field. It is a continuation of a previous publication [A. K. Paul, S. Adhikari, D. Mukhopadhyay et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 7331 (2009)] in which a theory is presented that treats quantum effects due to nonclassical photon states (known also as Fock states). Since these states became recently a subject of intense experimental efforts we thought that they can be treated properly within the existing quantum formulation of dynamical processes. This was achieved by incorporating them in the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) treatment with time-dependent coefficients. The extension of the BO treatment to include the Fock states results in a formidable enhancement in numerical efforts expressed, in particular, in a significant increase in CPU time. In the present article we discuss an approach that yields an efficient and reliable approximation with only negligible losses in accuracy. The approximation is tested in detail for the dissociation process of H{sub 2}{sup +} as caused by a laser field.

  19. On the angular error of intensity vector based direction of arrival estimation in reverberant sound fields.

    PubMed

    Levin, Dovid; Habets, Emanuël A P; Gannot, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    An acoustic vector sensor provides measurements of both the pressure and particle velocity of a sound field in which it is placed. These measurements are vectorial in nature and can be used for the purpose of source localization. A straightforward approach towards determining the direction of arrival (DOA) utilizes the acoustic intensity vector, which is the product of pressure and particle velocity. The accuracy of an intensity vector based DOA estimator in the presence of noise has been analyzed previously. In this paper, the effects of reverberation upon the accuracy of such a DOA estimator are examined. It is shown that particular realizations of reverberation differ from an ideal isotropically diffuse field, and induce an estimation bias which is dependent upon the room impulse responses (RIRs). The limited knowledge available pertaining the RIRs is expressed statistically by employing the diffuse qualities of reverberation to extend Polack's statistical RIR model. Expressions for evaluating the typical bias magnitude as well as its probability distribution are derived.

  20. A Review of the Field on Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: A Risk Assessment Approach.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Alesia; Penney, Rosalind; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2017-03-04

    Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child's body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children's unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments. Approach: There is a need to review the field of children's environmental exposures in order to understand trends and identify gaps in research, which may lead to better protection of this vulnerable and sensitive population. Therefore, explored here are previously published contemporary works in the broad area of children's environmental exposures and potential impact on health from around the world. A discussion of children's exposure to environmental contaminants is best organized under the last four steps of a risk assessment approach: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment (including children's activity patterns) and risk characterization. We first consider the many exposure hazards that exist in the indoor and outdoor environments, and emerging contaminants of concern that may help guide the risk assessment process in identifying focus areas for children. A section on special diseases of concern is also included. Conclusions: The field of children's exposures to environmental contaminants is broad. Although there are some well-studied areas offering much insight into children exposures, research is still needed to further our understanding of exposures to newer compounds, growing disease trends and the role of gene-environment interactions that modify adverse health outcomes. It is clear that behaviors of adults and children play a role in reducing or

  1. Does apartment's distance to an in-built transformer room predict magnetic field exposure levels?

    PubMed

    Huss, Anke; Goris, Kelly; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that magnetic field exposure in apartments located directly on top or adjacent to transformer rooms is higher compared with exposure in apartments located further away from the transformer rooms. It is unclear whether this also translates into exposure contrast among individuals living in these apartments. We performed spot measurements of magnetic fields in 35 apartments in 14 apartment buildings with an in-built transformer and additionally performed 24-h personal measurements in a subsample of 24 individuals. Apartments placed directly on top of or adjacent to a transformer room had on average exposures of 0.42 μT, apartments on the second floor on top of a transformer room, or sharing a corner or edge with the transformer room had 0.11 μT, and apartments located further away from the transformer room had levels of 0.06 μT. Personal exposure levels were approximately a factor 2 lower compared with apartment averages, but still showed exposure contrasts, but only for those individuals who live in the apartments directly on top or adjacent to a transformer room compared with those living further away, with 0.23 versus 0.06 μT for personal exposure when indoors, respectively. A classification of individuals into 'high' and 'low' exposed based on the location of their apartment within a building with an in-built transformer is possible and could be applied in future epidemiological studies.

  2. Disruption in climatic rhythm and anomalous cooling during large decreases in geomagnetic field intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaba, I.; Hyodo, M.; Katoh, S.; Sato, H.; Matsushita, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate is regulated by many factors. Especially, the orbital elements have a large influence on climate. Are there any factors which impact this strong regulation force? The galactic cosmic ray (CR) can be a candidate for such factors. The correlation between CR flux and global cloud cover suggests that the geomagnetic field affects the Earth's climate. CR is strongly modulated by the geomagnetic field. During the geomagnetic polarity reversal, the decrease in field intensity causes an increase in CR flux which would raise cloud cover. In order to examine this effect in the geological past, we examined climate and sea-level changes focusing on marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 31 to 17. The climate changes well accord with eustatic sea-level variations dominated by the Earth's orbital elements. However, in MIS 31 and 19, the thermal maximum was clearly lagged behind the sea-level highstand, and instead anomalous cooling occurred. These interglacial periods have the Lower Jaramillo and Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversals, respectively. Comparing the climate and relative paleointensity variations for the interglacials, the cooling event coincides with the paleointensity minimum associated with the geomagnetic reversal. The coincidence suggests that the geomagnetic field decrease may have caused the disruption of the orbitally forced Earth's climate rhythm.

  3. A 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure facility for nonhuman primates: Design and operational data during experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Cory, W.E.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    A unique exposure facility was designed and constructed to generate large-scale vertical electric fields (EF) of up to 65 kV/m and horizontal magnetic fields (MF) of up to 100 {micro}T (1G), so that the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of 60 Hz EF or combined electric and magnetic field (E/MF) exposure could be examined using nonhuman primates as subjects. Facility design and operational problems and their solutions are presented, and representative operational data from four sets of experiments are provided. A specially designed, optically isolated, 4 cm spherical-dipole EF probe and a commercially available MF probe were used to map the EF and MF within the fiberglass animal cages. In addition, amplifiers, signal conditioners, and A/D converters provided EF, MF, and transformer signals to a microcomputer at 15 min intervals. The apparatus produced homogeneous, stable E/MF at the desired intensities, and the fiberglass cages did not produce appreciable distortion or attenuation. Levels of recognized EF artifacts such as corona and ozone were negligible. The facility worked as intended, providing a well-characterized and artifact-controlled environment for experiments with baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

  4. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers.

    PubMed

    Teşneli, N Berna; Teşneli, Ahmet Y

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m(-1) and 215.6 μT in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m(-1) and 7.6 μT in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m(-1) and 65 μT. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council.

  5. System for the exposure of cell suspensions to power-frequency electric fields.

    PubMed

    Kaune, W T; Frazier, M E; King, A J; Samuel, J E; Hungate, F P; Causey, S C

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that uses an oscillating magnetic field to produce power-frequency electric fields with strengths in excess of those produced in an animal or human standing under a high-voltage electric-power transmission line. In contrast to other types of exposure systems capable of generating fields of this size, no electrodes are placed in the conducting growth media: the possibility of electrode contamination of the exposed suspension is thereby eliminated. Electric fields in the range 0.02-3.5 V/m can be produced in a cell culture with total harmonic distortions less than 1.5%. The magnetic field used to produce electric fields for exposure is largely confined within a closed ferromagnetic circuit, and experimental and control cells are exposed to leakage magnetic flux densities less than 5 microT . The temperatures of the experimental and control cell suspensions are held fixed within +/- 0.1 degrees C by a water bath. Special chambers were developed to hold cell cultures during exposure and sham exposure. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells incubated in these chambers grew for at least 48 h and had population doubling times of 16-17 h, approximately the same as for CHO cells grown under standard cell-culture conditions.

  6. Radar and optical measurements of ionospheric processes associated with intense subauroral electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Providakes, J.F.; Kelley, M.C.; Swartz, W.E. ); Mendillo, M. ); Holt, J.M. )

    1989-05-01

    Observations of very large poleward directed electric fields were obtained with a clustered set of instrumentation that included the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar, the Boston University Mobile Ionospheric Observatory, and the HILAT and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F6 and F7 satellites. In this paper the authors concentrate on data from the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar which was operated on selected evenings in a rapid azimuthal scan, centered on magnetic west. The mode was designed with the express purpose of measuring line-of-sight drift velocity and electron density as a function of latitude during events with large localized electric fields. On the evenings of April 20 and 21, 1985, during an intense magnetic storm, large ionospheric electric fields (E > 80 mV/m) were detected along the edge of the auroral oval with the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar. These constitute the first definitive incoherent scatter observations of this phenomenon. An L shell-aligned (zero order) deep trough in electron density was colocated with these large electric fields at L shells as low as L = 2.8. These data indicate that the trough develops much more quickly than present theories predict, at least near the F peak. They also report elevated ion and electron temperatures in the trough and conjecture that these may contribute to the rapid decay. They also show that the associated field-aligned currents are very weak. They also discuss the data set in light of competing theories for the production of large electric fields and for undulations of the edge of the diffuse aurora.

  7. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    PubMed

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  8. In vitro Magnetic Stimulation: A Simple Stimulation Device to Deliver Defined Low Intensity Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Grehl, Stephanie; Martina, David; Goyenvalle, Catherine; Deng, Zhi-De; Rodger, Jennifer; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by electromagnetic fields appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although, in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits) so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined. Here, we develop a simple in vitro stimulation device with plug-and-play features that allow delivery of a range of stimulation parameters. We chose to test low intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) delivered at three frequencies to hindbrain explant cultures containing the olivocerebellar pathway. We used computational modeling to define the parameters of a stimulation circuit and coil that deliver a unidirectional homogeneous magnetic field of known intensity and direction, and therefore a predictable electric field, to the target. We built the coil to be compatible with culture requirements: stimulation within an incubator; a flat surface allowing consistent position and magnetic field direction; location outside the culture plate to maintain sterility and no heating or vibration. Measurements at the explant confirmed the induced magnetic field was homogenous and matched the simulation results. To validate our system we investigated biological effects following LI-rMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and biomimetic high frequency, which we have previously shown induces neural circuit reorganization. We found that gene expression was modified by LI-rMS in a frequency-related manner. Four hours after a single 10-min stimulation session, the number of c-fos positive cells increased, indicating that our stimulation activated the tissue. Also, after 14 days of LI-rMS, the expression of genes normally present in the tissue was differentially modified

  9. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-03-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  10. Potential health impacts of residential exposures to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in Europe.

    PubMed

    Grellier, James; Ravazzani, Paolo; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades residential exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) has been associated with childhood leukaemia relatively consistently in epidemiological studies, though causality is still under investigation. We aimed to estimate the cases of childhood leukaemia that might be attributable to exposure to ELF MF in the European Union (EU27), if the associations seen in epidemiological studies were causal. We estimated distributions of ELF MF exposure using studies identified in the existing literature. Individual distributions of exposure were integrated using a probabilistic mixture distribution approach. Exposure-response functions were estimated from the most recently published pooled analysis of epidemiological data. Probabilistic simulation was used to estimate population attributable fractions (AFP) and attributable cases of childhood leukaemia in the EU27. By assigning the literature review-based exposure distribution to all EU27 countries, we estimated the total annual number of cases of leukaemia attributable to ELF MF at between ~50 (95% CIs: -14, 132) and ~60 (95% CIs: -9, 610), depending on whether exposure-response was modelled categorically or continuously, respectively, for a non-threshold effect. This corresponds to between ~1.5% and ~2.0% of all incident cases of childhood leukaemia occurring annually in the EU27. Considerable uncertainties are due to scarce data on exposure and the choice of exposure-response model, demonstrating the importance of further research into better understanding mechanisms of the potential association between ELF MF exposure and childhood leukaemia and the need for improved monitoring of residential exposures to ELF MF in Europe.

  11. Far field intensity distributions due to spatial self phase modulation of a Gaussian beam by a thin nonlocal nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, E V Garcia; Carrasco, M L Arroyo; Otero, M M Mendez; Cerda, S Chavez; Castillo, M D Iturbe

    2010-10-11

    In this work we present a simple model that can be used to calculate the far field intensity distributions when a Gaussian beam cross a thin sample of nonlinear media but the response can be nonlocal.

  12. Correlation between Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Embryonic Development in the First Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiu-Juan; Yuan, Wei; Tan, Hui; Liu, Xiang-Yun; Li, Dan; Li, De-Kun; Huang, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Li-Wen; Miao, Mao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between maternal magnetic field (MF) exposure in daily life and embryonic development. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 149 pregnant women who were seeking induced abortion of unwanted pregnancies. Participating women were asked to wear an EMDEX Lite magnetic field meter for a 24-h period to obtain MF exposure level within 4 weeks following the abortion. Embryonic bud and sac lengths were measured through B-mode ultrasound before the surgical abortion. Embryo sections were prepared and examined for histological changes, and the apoptosis status of the deciduas was examined using the TUNEL apoptosis assay. Results Embryonic bud length was inversely associated with maternal daily MF exposure level; the association was statistically significant at the time-weighted-average and 75th percentile of MF exposure levels, with coefficients of −3.09 (P = 0.0479) and −3.07(P = 0.0228), respectively. Logistic regression for examining the risk of higher MF exposure indicated that women with her 75th percentile of daily MF measurements ≥0.82 mG had a 3.95-fold risk of having a fetus with a shorter embryonic bud length than those whose daily MF exposure were <0.82 mG. MF exposure was associated with a higher degree of apoptosis, but the association was not statistically significant. We failed to find a statistical correlation between MF exposure and embryonic sac length and histological changes in the first trimester. Conclusion Prenatal MF exposure may have an adverse effect on embryonic development. PMID:24977708

  13. [Exposure to static magnetic field and health hazards during the operation of magnetic resonance scanners].

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof; Politański, Piotr; Zmyślony, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners belong to the most modern imaging diagnostic devices, which involve workers' exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) during the preparation and performance of MRI examinations. This paper presents the data on workers' exposure to SMF in the vicinity of MRI scanners and the analysis of SMF-related biological effects and health hazards to find out whether softening the legislative requirements concerning protection against SMF exposure of workers involved in MRI diagnostics is justified. Measurements in the vicinity of 1.5 T MRI magnets showed that exposure to SMF by various scanners depends on both SMF of magnets and scanners design, as well as on work organization. In a routine examination of one patient the radiographer is exposed to SMF exceeding 0.5 mT for app. 1.5-7 min, and up to 1.3 min to SMF exceeding 70 mT. In examinations of patients who need more attention, the duration of exposure may be significantly longer. The mean values (B mean) of exposure to SMF are 5.6-85 mT (mean 30 +/- 19 mT, N = 16). These data demonstrate that only well designed procedures, proper organization of workplace and awareness of workers how to attend the patients without being exposed to strong SMF allow for meeting the requirements of labor law concerning workers' exposure to SMF. The analysis of the available literature on biological effects of SMF has disclosed the lack of data on health effects of many years exposure of workers and the abundance of data demonstrating the biological activity of SMF. Therefore, a radical softening of legislative requirements concerning the exposure of workers' head or trunk is premature, and what is more, it is not indispensable for the development of MRI diagnostic. Such an action should be preceded by extensive international investigations on the health status of workers exposed to electromagnetic fields by MRI scanners.

  14. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M.; Mermelstein, Claudia S.; Costa, Manoel L.; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm2 continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm2 pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm2 pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm2 continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  15. SU-E-T-17: A Comparison of Forward and Field in Field Intensity Modulation Radiotherapy Planning for Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T; Sun, T; Chen, J; Zhang, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric difference in forward intensity modulation radiotherapy(fIMRT) and field in field IMRT (FIF IMRT)planning for breast cancer. Methods: Ten patients received radiotherapy are selected.For each patient,two treatment plans(fIMRT and FIF IMRT) were designed with Varian Eclipse ver11.0 treatment planning system.Evaluate the dose parameters of targets, organs at risk (OAR), monitor units and treatment time, using dose-volume histogram (DVH). Results: There were no significant difference were found in conformal index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) of PTV,V5,V10,V20,V30,V40,V50 of heart, lung and monitor unit(MU)(P>0.05).The differences were significant in the treatment time(fIMRT=8.3min,FIF IMRT=2.5,p<0.05). Conclusion: FIF IMRT is equal to fIMRT in dosimetril evaluation. Due to much less delivery time,FIF IMRT is an efficient technique in treating patients by reduceing the uncomfortable influnce which could effect the treatment.

  16. Energy levels and far-infrared optical absorption of impurity doped semiconductor nanorings: Intense laser and electric fields effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of electron-impurity interaction on energy levels and far-infrared absorption in semiconductor nanoring under the action of intense laser and lateral electric fields have been investigated. Numerical calculations are performed using exact diagonalization technique. It is found that the electron-impurity interaction and external fields change the energy spectrum dramatically, and also have significant influence on the absorption spectrum. Strong dependence on laser field intensity and electric field of lowest energy levels, also supported by the Coulomb interaction with impurity, is clearly revealed.

  17. Experimental studies of protozoan response to intense magnetic fields and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevorkian, Karine

    Intense static magnetic fields of up to 31 Tesla were used as a novel tool to manipulate the swimming mechanics of unicellular organisms. It is shown that homogenous magnetic fields alter the swimming trajectories of the single cell protozoan Paramecium caudatum, by aligning them parallel to the applied field. Immobile neutrally buoyant paramecia also oriented in magnetic fields with similar rates as the motile ones. It was established that the magneto-orientation is mostly due to the magnetic torques acting on rigid structures in the cell body and therefore the response is a non-biological, passive response. From the orientation rate of paramecia in various magnetic field strengths, the average anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the cell was estimated. It has also been demonstrated that magnetic forces can be used to create increased, decreased and even inverted simulated gravity environments for the investigation of the gravi-responses of single cells. Since the mechanisms by which Earth's gravity affects cell functioning are still not fully understood, a number of methods to simulate different strength gravity environments, such as centrifugation, have been employed. Exploiting the ability to exert magnetic forces on weakly diamagnetic constituents of the cells, we were able to vary the gravity from -8 g to 10 g, where g is Earth's gravity. Investigations of the swimming response of paramecia in these simulated gravities revealed that they actively regulate their swimming speed to oppose the external force. This result is in agreement with centrifugation experiments, confirming the credibility of the technique. Moreover, the Paramecium's swimming ceased in simulated gravity of 10 g, indicating a maximum possible propulsion force of 0.7 nN. The magnetic force technique to simulate gravity is the only earthbound technique that can create increased and decreased simulated gravities in the same experimental setup. These findings establish a general

  18. Ntp technical report on toxicity, reproductive, and developmental studies of 60-Hz magnetic fields, administered by whole body exposure to F344/N rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series

    SciTech Connect

    Boorman, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    Electric and magnetic fields are associated with the production, transmission, and use of electricity; thus the potential for human exposure is high. These electric and magnetic fields are predominantly of low frequency (60 Hz) and generally of low intensity. The prevailing view among physicists is that exposure to these low-frequency, low-intensity fields does not pose a health hazard. However, this view has been challenged by reports linking magnetic field exposure to the development of leukemia and other cancers. Because multiple epidemiologic studies suggested a potential for increased cancer rates with increasing exposure, and because of public concern, the effects of 60-Hz magnetic field exposure were examined in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in 8-week full-body-exposure studies. Animals were evaluated for hematology and clinical chemistry (rats only) parameters, pineal gland hormone concentrations, and histopathology. Additional studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats to examine teratologic and reproductive effects of magnetic field exposure.

  19. Multiphoton and tunneling ionization probability of atoms and molecules in an intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Song-Feng; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2014-02-01

    We theoretically studied ionization of atoms exposed to an intense laser field by using three different methods, i.e., the numerical solution of the single-active-electron approximation based time-dependent Schrödinger equation (SAE-TDSE), the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) model, and the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) model. The ionization of several linear molecules in a strong laser field is also investigated with the molecular ADK (MO-ADK) and the molecular PPT (MO-PPT) model. We show that the ionization probability from the PPT and the MO-PPT model agrees well with the corresponding SAE-TDSE result in both the multiphoton and tunneling ionization regimes. By considering the volume effect of the laser field, the ionization signal obtained from the PPT and the MO-PPT model fits well the experimental data in the whole range of the multiphoton and tunneling ionization regimes. However, both the ADK and MO-ADK models seriously underestimate the ionization probabilities (or signals) in the multiphoton regime.

  20. Generation of high-order harmonics in a high-intensity laser radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Platonenko, Viktor T; Strelkov, V V

    1998-07-31

    An analysis is made of the generation of high-order harmonics by atoms and ions in high-intensity laser beams. A brief description is given of the main experimental relationships governing such generation, of methods for numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation for an atom in a strong field, and of some approximate models which make it possible to understand the mechanism of the effect (in particular, the 'semiclassical' model). A detailed discussion is made of an analytic quantum-mechanical theory of high-order harmonic generation in a one-electron system with the Coulomb, delta-like, and other potentials. Expressions are provided for the complex amplitudes of harmonics generated by monochromatic and bichromatic excitation. The results of simulation of high-order harmonic generation in an extended medium are given. This simulation takes into account the phases of the harmonics and their dependences on the amplitude of the fundamental-frequency field. The phase-matching problem and ways of solving it, the problem of the spectrum and duration of a pulse of a single harmonic and of the feasibility of controlling them, the problem of the total harmonic field, and other topics are considered. (review)

  1. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in the INTEROCC study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Michelle C; Benke, Geza; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF) is a suspected risk factor for brain tumours, however the literature is inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether ELF in different time windows of exposure may be associated with specific histologic types of brain tumours. This study examines the association between ELF and brain tumours in the large-scale INTEROCC study. Methods Cases of adult primary glioma and meningioma were recruited in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, United Kingdom) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of mean workday ELF exposure based on a job exposure matrix assigned. Estimates of cumulative exposure, average exposure, maximum exposure, and exposure duration were calculated for the lifetime, and 1–4, 5–9, and 10+ years prior to the diagnosis/reference date. Results There were 3,761 included brain tumour cases (1,939 glioma, 1,822 meningioma) and 5,404 population controls. There was no association between lifetime cumulative ELF exposure and glioma or meningioma risk. However, there were positive associations between cumulative ELF 1–4 years prior to the diagnosis/reference date and glioma (odds ratio (OR) ≥ 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–2.07, p < 0.0001 linear trend), and, somewhat weaker associations with meningioma (OR ≥ 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.23, 95% CI 0.97–1.57, p = 0.02 linear trend). Conclusions Results showed positive associations between ELF in the recent past and glioma. Impact Occupational ELF exposure may play a role in the later stages (promotion and progression) of brain tumourigenesis. PMID:24935666

  2. Evolution of dark state of an open atomic system in constant intensity laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Krmpot, A. J.; Radonjic, M.; Cuk, S. M.; Nikolic, S. N.; Grujic, Z. D.; Jelenkovic, B. M.

    2011-10-15

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the evolution of open atomic systems in the constant intensity laser field. The study is performed by analyzing the line shapes of Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) obtained in different segments of a laser beam cross section of constant intensity, i.e., a {Pi}-shaped laser beam. Such Hanle EIT resonances were measured using a small movable aperture placed just in front of the photodetector, i.e., after the entire laser beam had passed through the vacuum Rb cell. The laser was locked to the open transition F{sub g}=2{yields}F{sub e}=1 at the D{sub 1} line of {sup 87}Rb with laser intensities between 0.5 and 4 mW/cm{sup 2}. This study shows that the profile of the laser beam determines the processes governing the development of atomic states during the interaction. The resonances obtained near the beam center are narrower than those obtained near the beam edge, but the significant changes of the linewidths occur only near the beam edge, i.e., right after the atom enters the beam. The Hanle EIT resonances obtained near the beam center exhibit two pronounced minima next to the central maximum. The theoretical model reveals that the occurrence of these transmission minima is a joint effect of the preparation of atoms into the dark state and the optical pumping into the uncoupled ground level F{sub g}=1. The appearance of the transmission minima, although similar to that observed in the wings of a Gaussian beam [A. J. Krmpot et al., Opt. Express 17, 22491 (2009)], is of an entirely different nature for the {Pi}-shaped laser beam.

  3. Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Afinogenov, Gennadi; Afinogenova, Anna; Kalinin, Andrey

    2009-12-16

    Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields - 80 mcTl - on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth's magnetic field intensity.The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206+/-22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31+/-6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.

  4. Ventricular myocyte injury by high-intensity electric field: Effect of pulse duration.

    PubMed

    Prado, Luiza Ns; Goulart, Jair T; Zoccoler, Marcelo; Oliveira, Pedro X

    2016-04-01

    Although high-intensity electric fields (HEF) application is currently the only effective therapy available to terminate ventricular fibrillation, it may cause injury to cardiac cells. In this study we determined the relation between HEF pulse length and cardiomyocyte lethal injury. We obtained lethality curves by survival analysis, which were used to determine the value of HEF necessary to kill 50% of cells (E50) and plotted a strength-duration (SxD) curve for lethality with 10 different durations: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 70 ms. For the same durations we also obtained an SxD curve for excitation and established an indicator for stimulatory safeness (stimulation safety factor - SSF) as the ratio between the SxD curve for lethality and one for excitation. We found that the lower the pulse duration, the higher the HEF intensity required to cell death. Contrary to expectations, the highest SSF value does not correspond to the lowest pulse duration but to the one of 0.5 ms. As defibrillation threshold has been described as duration-dependent, our results imply that the use of shorter stimulus duration - instead of the one typically used in the clinic (10 ms) - might increase defibrillation safeness.

  5. Intensity modulated radiation therapy with field rotation--a time-varying fractionation study.

    PubMed

    Dink, Delal; Langer, Mark P; Rardin, Ronald L; Pekny, Joseph F; Reklaitis, Gintaras V; Saka, Behlul

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel mathematical approach to the beam selection problem in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. The approach allows more beams to be used over the course of therapy while limiting the number of beams required in any one session. In the proposed field rotation method, several sets of beams are interchanged throughout the treatment to allow a wider selection of beam angles than would be possible with fixed beam orientations. The choice of beamlet intensities and the number of identical fractions for each set are determined by a mixed integer linear program that controls jointly for the distribution per fraction and the cumulative dose distribution delivered to targets and critical structures. Trials showed the method allowed substantial increases in the dose objective and/or sparing of normal tissues while maintaining cumulative and fraction size limits. Trials for a head and neck site showed gains of 25%-35% in the objective (average tumor dose) and for a thoracic site gains were 7%-13%, depending on how strict the fraction size limits were set. The objective did not rise for a prostate site significantly, but the tolerance limits on normal tissues could be strengthened with the use of multiple beam sets.

  6. Intense-Field Multiple-Detachment of F2¯: Competition with Photodissociation.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Abhishek; Albeck, Yishai; Strasser, Daniel

    2017-04-07

    The competition of intense-field multiple-detachment with efficient photodissociation of F2¯ is studied as a function of laser peak intensity. The main product channels are disentangled and characterized by 3D coincidence fragment imaging. The presented kinetic energy release spectra, angular distributions as well as two color pump-probe measurements allow identification of competing sequential and non-sequential mechanisms. Dissociative detachment, producing two neutral atoms (F + F) is found to be dominated by a sequential mechanism of photodissociation (F¯ + F) followed by detachment of the atomic anion fragment. In contrast, dissociative ionization (F + F(+)) shows competing contributions of both a sequential two-step mechanism as well as a non-sequential double-detachment of the molecular anion, which are distinguished by the kinetic energy released in the dissociation. Triple-detachment is found to be non-sequential in nature and results in Coulomb explosion (F(+)+F(+)). Furthermore, the measured kinetic energy release for dissociation on the (2)Σg(+) state provides a direct measurement of the F2¯ dissociation energy, D0 = 1.26±0.03 eV.

  7. Chronic exposure to a 60-Hz electric field: effects on neuromuscular function in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, R.A.; Laszewski, B.L.; Carr, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    Neuromuscular function in adult male rats was studied following 30 days of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field at 100 kV/m (unperturbed field strength). Isometric force transducters were attached to the tendons of the plantaris (predominantly fast twitch), and soleus (predominantly slow twitch) muscles in the urethan-anesthetized rat. Square-wave stimuli were delivered to the distal stump of the transected sciatic nerve. Several measurements were used to characterize neuromuscular function, including twitch characteristics, chronaxie, tetanic and posttetanic potentiation, and fatigue and recovery. The results from three independent series of experiments are reported. Only recovery from fatigue in slow-twitch muscles was consistently and significantly affected (enhanced) by electric-field exposure. This effect does not appear to be mediated by field-induced changes in either neuromuscular transmission, or in the contractile mechanism itself. It is suggested that the effect may be mediated secondary to an effect on mechanisms regulating muscle blood flow or metabolism.

  8. Chronic exposure to a 60-Hz electric field: effects on neuromuscular function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, R A; Laszewski, B L; Carr, D B

    1981-01-01

    Neuromuscular function in adult male rats was studied following 30 days of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field at 100 kV/m (unperturbed field strength). Isometric force transducers were attached to the tendons of the plantaris (predominantly fast twitch), and soleus (predominantly slow twitch) muscles in the urethan-anesthetized rat. Square-wave stimuli were delivered to the distal stump of the transected sciatic nerve. Several measurements were used to characterized neuromuscular function, including twitch characteristics, chronaxie, tetanic and posttetanic potentiation, and fatigue and recovery. The results from three independent series of experiments are reported. Only recovery from fatigue in slow-twitch muscles was consistently and significantly affected (enhanced) by electric-field exposure. This effect does not appear to be mediated by field-induced changes in either neuromuscular transmission, or in the contractile mechanism itself. It is suggested that the effect may be mediated secondary to an effect on mechanisms regulating muscle blood flow or metabolism.

  9. Structure characteristics in industrially centrifugally cast 25Cr20Ni stainless steel tubes solidified under different electromagnetic field intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.Q.; Yang, Y.S.; Zhang, J.S.; Jia, G.L.; Hu, Z.Q.

    1999-10-01

    The influences of different electromagnetic field intensities on the solidification structures of industrially centrifugally cast 25Cr20Ni stainless steel tubes have been investigated in detail. The results reveal that the electromagnetic field exerted during the centrifugal solidification causes a marked variation in the structures of the cast tubes. With an increase of the electromagnetic field intensity, the area fraction of the equiaxed structures in transverse sections of the cast tubes increases, and the macrostructures are gradually refined. The distribution of the eutectic carbides changes from the dendrite boundaries to the grain boundaries. However, an excessive electromagnetic field intensity gives rise to many intergranular cast defects formed along the inner walls of the centrifugally cast tubes. The effects of fluid flow induced by the electromagnetic field on the solidification process of the centrifugally cast tubes are the primary reason for the previously mentioned structure variations.

  10. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Megan M.; Jetly, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness. PMID:25206947

  11. Exploration of the electron multiple recollision dynamics in intense laser fields with Bohmian trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-06-01

    Electron multiple recollision dynamics under intense midinfrared laser fields is studied by means of the de Broglie-Bohm framework of Bohmian mechanics. Bohmian trajectories contain all the information embedded in the time-dependent wave function. This makes the method suitable to investigate the coherent dynamic processes for which the phase information is crucial. In this study, the appearance of the subpeaks in the high-harmonic-generation time-frequency profiles and the asymmetric fine structures in the above-threshold ionization spectrum are analyzed by the comprehensive and intuitive picture provided by Bohmian mechanics. The time evolution of the individual electron trajectories is closely studied to address some of the major structural features of the photoelectron angular distributions.

  12. Research activities on high-intensity laser and high field physics at APRI-GIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Tae Moon

    2015-05-01

    The performance of a 0.1-Hz-repetition-rate, 30-fs, 1.5-PW Ti:sapphire laser which is using for research on high field physics in APRI-GIST is presented. The charged particles (electrons and protons) are accelerated and an efficient x-ray generation is demonstrated using the PW laser. Protons are accelerated up to 80 MeV when an ultra-thin polymer target is irradiated by a circularly-polarized PW laser pulse. Electrons are accelerated to multi-GeV level with a help of injector and accelerator scheme. In the relativistic harmonic generation experiment, the harmonic order is dramatically extended, by optimizing the intensity of pre-pulse level, up to 164th that corresponds to 4.9 nm in wavelength and the experimental results can be explained by the oscillatory flying mirror model. The upgrade of the PW laser to the multi-PW level is under way.

  13. Risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia following parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Reid, A; Glass, D C; Bailey, H D; Milne, E; de Klerk, N H; Downie, P; Fritschi, L

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies have reported moderate increases in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) among children whose mothers have been occupationally exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Other studies examining parental occupational exposure to ELF and ALL have reported mixed results. Methods: In an Australian case–control study of ALL in children aged <15 years, parents were asked about tasks they undertook in each job. Exposure variables were created for any occupational exposure before the birth of the child, in jobs 2 years before birth, in jobs 1 year before birth and up to 1 year after birth. Results: In all, 379 case and 854 control mothers and 328 case and 748 control fathers completed an occupational history. Exposure to ELF in all time periods was similar in case and control mothers. There was no difference in exposure between case and control fathers. There was no association between maternal (odds ratio (OR)=0.96; 95% CI=0.74–1.25) or paternal (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.56–1.09) exposure to ELF any time before the birth and risk of childhood ALL. Conclusion: We did not find an increased risk of ALL in offspring of parents with occupational exposure to ELF. PMID:21915123

  14. Transient Sound Intensity Measurements for Evaluating the Spatial Information of Sound Fields in Reverberant Enclosures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdov, Adel Abdel-Moneim

    Over the last twenty years, new subjectively relevant objective room-acoustic indicators for evaluating the acoustical quality of an enclosure have been introduced. While these indicators give new insight into the acoustical "Goodness" of a listener position, in order to design halls, assess or to correct an acoustical defect in an existing enclosure, there is a need to understand to what extent they are influenced by the physical design features of the enclosure. To meet such a need, information about the directional characteristics of sound is required. The spatial distribution of sound energy is usually not considered due to lack of an efficient, accurate and easy to perform measurement method. The main objectives of the present study are, first; to review known and speculative room-acoustic indicators for use in assessing reverberant spaces such as concert halls, opera houses, multi-purpose halls and churches. Second, to introduce an easy to perform measurement method for directional sensing in sound fields. Third, to develop a simple and inexpensive PC-based instrument primarily for the measurement of sound fields directional characteristics as well as contemporary room-acoustic indicators. Fourth, to propose new room-acoustic indicators which have relevance to directional information. This study introduces a three-dimensional sound intensity measurement technique for obtaining spatial information of sound fields in an enclosure. The technique has been validated and its accuracy investigated. The method gives results that provide valuable information regarding the directional behaviour of sound in enclosures. Subsequently both the system and the measurement method were applied to known spaces as example applications in order to assess sound quality, to detect the effect of the surrounding interior features of the space, and to assess potential diagnostic capability with respect to interior physical changes. The study has validated the measurement procedure as

  15. Electron-positron pair production from vacuum in the field of high-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. S.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhnyi, N. B.; Popruzhenko, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    The works dealing with the theory of e + e - pair production from vacuum under the action of highintensity laser radiation are reviewed. The following problems are discussed: pair production in a constant electric field E and time-variable homogeneous field E( t); the dependence of the number of produced pairs {N_{{e^ + }{e^ - }}} on the shape of a laser pulse (dynamic Schwinger effect); and a realistic three-dimensional model of a focused laser pulse, which is based on exact solution of Maxwell's equations and contains parameters such as focal spot radius R, diffraction length L, focusing parameter Δ, pulse duration τ, and pulse shape. This model is used to calculate {N_{{e^ + }{e^ - }}} for both a single laser pulse ( n = 1) and several ( n ≥ 2) coherent pulses with a fixed total energy that simultaneously "collide" in a laser focus. It is shown that, at n ≫ 1, the number of pairs increases by several orders of magnitude as compared to the case of a single pulse. The screening of a laser field by the vapors that are generated in vacuum, its "depletion," and the limiting fields to be achieved in laser experiments are considered. The relation between pair production, the problem of a quantum frequency-variable oscillator, and the theory of groups SU(1, 1) and SU(2) is discussed. The relativistic version of the imaginary time method is used in calculations. In terms of this version, a relativistic theory of tunneling is developed and the Keldysh theory is generalized to the case of ionization of relativistic bound systems, namely, atoms and ions. The ionization rate of a hydrogen-like ion with a charge 1 ≤ Z ≤ 92 is calculated as a function of laser radiation intensity ( F and ellipticity ρ.

  16. Elevation of heat shock gene expression from static magnetic field exposure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Laramee, Craig B; Frisch, Paul; McLeod, Kenneth; Li, Gloria C

    2014-09-01

    Previously, we found that extremely low frequency (ELF) electric fields were able to elicit an approximate 3.5-fold increase in heat shock gene expression, a response which may have applicability to cancer therapy. Based on recent studies demonstrating the ability of magnetic fields to influence gene expression, we hypothesized that low level static magnetic fields may be able to affect heat shock gene expression while avoiding some of the clinical difficulties that arise with electric fields. Transfected rat primary cells in monolayer were exposed to magnetic fields of 1 to 440 mT for 16, 24, or 48 h starting at 24 and 48 h post transfection. Heat shock protein (HSP70) expression, as indicated by a promoter linked luciferase reporter, was followed for up to 96 h and showed a dependence on flux density, exposure duration, and start time post transfection. A nonlinear response was observed for increasing flux density with a maximum of a 3.5-fold increase in expression for 48 h of exposure starting 48 h after transfection. These results demonstrate an enhancement of gene expression similar in magnitude to that observed with external electric field exposure, while eliminating many of the clinical complications.

  17. Symptoms of the musculoskeletal system and exposure to magnetic fields in an aluminium plant.

    PubMed Central

    Moen, B E; Drabløs, P A; Pedersen, S; Sjøen, M; Thommesen, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The study was performed to examine the influence of the exposure to magnetic fields in the potrooms of an electrolysis plant on the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms among the employees. The study was performed after much discussion and worry in the aluminium industry about this issue. METHODS--A retrospective cohort study was performed at an aluminium plant. The occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms registered at health controls performed by the occupational health care unit in 1986 and 1991 was assessed from employees exposed to magnetic fields in the potrooms (n = 342) and from a control group (n = 277). The data were collected before the discussion about the effects of magnetic fields started. The exposure to static magnetic fields was found to be 3-20 mT inside the potrooms. Ripple components (alternating currents (AC fields)) were registered as well. RESULTS--No difference between the exposed and unexposed groups was found for the reported musculoskeletal symptoms in 1986 or in 1991. CONCLUSIONS--There seems to be no relation between work in potrooms with exposure to static magnetic fields and the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. PMID:7663637

  18. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Kohn, Gabriel; Hicho, George; Swartzendruber, Lydon

    1997-01-01

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment.

  19. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Kohn, G.; Hicho, G.; Swartzendruber, L.

    1997-04-08

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment. 7 figs.

  20. Residential exposure to electromagnetic fields and childhood leukaemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Angelillo, I. F.; Villari, P.

    1999-01-01

    Although individual epidemiological investigations have suggested associations between residential exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and childhood leukaemia, overall the findings have been inconclusive. Several of these studies do, however, lend themselves to application of the meta-analysis technique. For this purpose we carried out searches using MEDLINE and other sources, and 14 case-control studies and one cohort study were identified and evaluated for epidemiological quality and included in the meta-analysis. Relative risk estimates were extracted from each of the studies and pooled. Separate meta-analyses were performed on the basis of the assessed EMF exposure (wiring configuration codes, distance to power distribution equipment, spot and 24-h measures of magnetic field strength (magnetic flux density) and calculated magnetic field). The meta-analysis based on wiring configuration codes yielded a pooled relative risk estimate of 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-2.04, P = 0.024) and for that for exposure to 24-h measurements of magnetic fields, 1.59 (95% CI = 1.14-2.22, P = 0.006), indicating a potential effect of residential EMF exposure on childhood leukaemia. In most cases, lower risk estimates were obtained by pooling high-quality studies than pooling low-quality studies. There appears to be a clear trend for more recent studies to be of higher quality. Enough evidence exists to conclude that dismissing concerns about residential EMFs and childhood leukaemia is unwarranted. Additional high-quality epidemiological studies incorporating comparable measures for both exposure and outcomes are, however, needed to confirm these findings and, should they prove to be true, the case options for minimizing exposure should be thoroughly investigated to provide definitive answers for policy-makers. PMID:10612886

  1. Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Kännälä, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Alanko, Tommi; Jokela, Kari

    2009-04-07

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s(-1) for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s(-1) for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s(-1)) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner.

  2. Focus formation of C3H/10T1/2 cells and exposure to a 836.55 MHz modulated radiofrequency field

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, C.D.; Thomas, D.L.; Adey, W.R.

    1997-05-01

    Disruption of communication between transformed cells and normal cells is involved in tumor promotion. The authors have tested the hypothesis that exposures to radiofrequency (RF) fields using a form of digital modulation (TDMA) and a chemical tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), are copromoters that enhance focus formation of transformed cells in coculture with parental C3H/10T1/2 murine fibroblasts. RF field exposures did not influence TPA`s dose-dependent promotion of focus formation in coculture. Cell cultures were exposed to an 836.55 MHz TDMA-modulated field in TEM transmission line chambers, with incident energies that simulated field intensities at a user`s head. Specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0.15, 1.5, and 15 {micro}W/g were used during each digital packet, and the packet frequency was 50/s. The TEM chambers were placed in a commercial incubator at 37 C and 95% humidity/5% CO{sub 2}. The RF field exposures were in a repeating cycle, 20 min on, 20 min off, 24 h/day for 28 days. At 1.5 {micro}W/g, TPA-induced focus formation was not significantly different in RF-exposed cultures compared to parallel sham-exposed cultures in ten independent experiments in terms of the number, density, and area of foci. Similarly, at 0.15 and 15.0 {micro}W/g, in two and four experiments, respectively, RF exposure did not alter TPA-induced focus formation. The findings support a conclusion that repeated exposures to this RF field do not influence tumor promotion in vitro, based on the RF field`s inability to enhance TPA-induced focus formation.

  3. International policy and advisory response regarding children's exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).

    PubMed

    Redmayne, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure regulations/guidelines generally only consider acute effects, and not chronic, low exposures. Concerns for children's exposure are warranted due to the amazingly rapid uptake of many wireless devices by increasingly younger children. This review of policy and advice regarding children's RF-EMF exposure draws material from a wide variety of sources focusing on the current situation. This is not a systematic review, but aims to provide a representative cross-section of policy and advisory responses within set boundaries. There are a wide variety of approaches which I have categorized and tabulated ranging from ICNIRP/IEEE guidelines and "no extra precautions needed" to precautionary or scientific much lower maxima and extensive advice to minimize RF-EMF exposure, ban advertising/sale to children, and add exposure information to packaging. Precautionary standards use what I term an exclusion principle. The wide range of policy approaches can be confusing for parents/carers of children. Some consensus among advisory organizations would be helpful acknowledging that, despite extensive research, the highly complex nature of both RF-EMF and the human body, and frequent technological updates, means simple assurance of long-term safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children.

  4. Effect of near-earth thunderstorms electric field on the intensity of ground cosmic ray positrons/electrons in Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. X.; Wang, X. J.; Huang, D. H.; Jia, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (located at YangBaJing, Tibet, China, 4300 m a. s. l.). The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of intensity occurs in inclined showers within the range of 0-500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are analyzed, especially concerning those decreasing phenomena in positive electric fields. Our simulation results could be helpful in understanding the decreases observed in some ground-based experiments (such as the Carpet air shower array and ARGO-YBJ), and also be useful in understanding the acceleration mechanisms of secondary charged particles caused by an atmospheric electric field.

  5. Field test of spectral line intensity parameters for tropospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierk, B.; Solomon, S.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Gutman, S. I.; Langford, A. O.; Eubank, C. S.; Holub, K. H.; Florek, S. V.

    2003-06-01

    We report the results of a field experiment designed to study atmospheric water vapor absorption in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions between 550 and 1000 nm. We carried out spectroscopic ground measurements of direct solar radiation under clear-sky conditions in Boulder, Colorado. The data with a spectral resolution of approximately 1 nm were analyzed using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique in five different absorption bands of water vapor. We show that this technique can reveal the broadband effects of errors and inconsistencies in absorption spectra information for the water molecule. Retrievals of column tropospheric water vapor from the field spectra were compared to simultaneous independent estimates from Global Positioning System (GPS) data and radiosonde soundings. The data set is used to critically assess the widely used High-Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption Database (HITRAN) [, 1998]. The results indicate that line intensities in the 3ν + δ polyad centered at 820 nm are underestimated by 21% with respect to the strong 3ν polyad centered at 940 nm, while the 4ν polyad at 720 nm shows agreement within the measurement accuracy of 3%. Two weaker bands centered at 650 and 590 nm were found to be overestimated by about 8-10%. The effect of the proposed corrections on the absorption of incoming solar flux for a clear-sky atmosphere is estimated to be 0.6 W/m2 for an overhead Sun.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Field Campaigns or Intensive Operational Periods (IOP)

    DOE Data Explorer

    ARM Climate Research Facility users regularly conduct field campaigns to augment routine data acquisitions and to test and validate new instruments. Any field campaign which is proposed, planned, and implemented at one or more research sites is referred to as an intensive operational period (IOP). IOPs are held using the fixed and mobile sites; Southern Great Plains, North Slope of Alaska, Tropical Western Pacific, ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), and Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP). [Taken from http://www.arm.gov/science/fc.stm] Users may search with the specialized interface or browse campaigns/IOPs in table format. Browsing allows users to see the start date of the IOP, the status (Past, In Progress, etc.), the duration, the Principal Investigator, and the research site, along with the title of the campaign/IOP. Clicking on the title leads to a descriptive summary of the campaign, names of co-investigators, contact information, links to related websites, and a link to available data in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The URL to go directly to the ARM Archive, bypassing the information pages, is http://www.archive.arm.gov/. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE's Office of Science is responsible for the ARM Program. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Establishment of auditory discrimination and detection of tinnitus induced by salicylic acid and intense tone exposure in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sederholm, Fredrik; Swedberg, Michael D B

    2013-05-13

    Rats were trained in a two lever food reinforced operant procedure to discriminate a 8000 Hz pure tone stimulus from its absence. Responding on one lever was reinforced in the presence of the tone and responding on the other lever was reinforced when the tone was absent. Frequency generalization testing yielded an inverted U-shaped function, whereas sound pressure level generalization testing yielded a continuous decrease in responding on the tone associated lever with decreasing sound pressure levels. The administration of sodium salicylic acid (150-450 mg/kg) generated responding on the tone associated lever suggesting that salicylic acid induced an experience that had commonalities with the percept of the training tone stimulus. After exposure to intense sound, responding consistent with the presence of tinnitus was achieved and Lidocaine failed to reduce tinnitus behavior. The use of a two choice design helped avoid confounding factors induced by drug induced side effects. Further, since no auditory cues were employed in the test situation the model achieves resistance to potential bias due to hearing impairment and hyperacusis. We propose that this model may be useful in detecting tinnitus.

  8. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  9. Variability in electromagnetic field levels over time, and Monte-Carlo simulation of exposure parameters.

    PubMed

    Pachón-García, F T; Paniagua-Sánchez, J M; Rufo-Pérez, M; Jiménez-Barco, A

    2014-12-01

    This article analyses the electric field levels around medium-wave transmitters, delimiting the temporal variability of the levels received at a pre-established reception point. One extensively used dosimetric criterion is to consider historical levels of the field recorded over a certain period of time so as to provide an overall perspective of radio-frequency electric field exposure in a particular environment. This aspect is the focus of the present study, in which the measurements will be synthesised in the form of exposure coefficients. Two measurement campaigns were conducted: one short term (10 days) and the other long term (1 y). The short-term data were used to study which probability density functions best approximate the measured levels. The long-term data were used to compute the principal statistics that characterise the field values over a year. The data that form the focus of the study are the peak traces, since these are the most representative from the standpoint of exposure. The deviations found were around 6 % for short periods and 12 % for long periods. The information from the two campaigns was used to develop and implement a computer application based on the Monte Carlo method to simulate values of the field, allowing one to carry out robust statistics.

  10. Chromosomal damage in human diploid fibroblasts by intermittent exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Winker, Robert; Ivancsits, Sabine; Pilger, Alexander; Adlkofer, Franz; Rüdiger, H W

    2005-08-01

    Environmental exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) has been implicated in the development of cancer in humans. An important basis for assessing a potential cancer risk due to ELF-EMF exposure is knowledge of biological effects on human cells at the chromosomal level. Therefore, we investigated in the present study the effect of intermittent ELF electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 5'field-on/10'field-off, 2-24 h, 1 mT) on the induction of micronuclei (MN) and chromosomal aberrations in cultured human fibroblasts. ELF-EMF radiation resulted in a time-dependent increase of micronuclei, which became significant after 10 h of intermittent exposure at a flux density of 1 mT. After approximately 15 h a constant level of micronuclei of about three times the basal level was reached. In addition, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 10-fold above basal levels. Our data strongly indicate a clastogenic potential of intermittent low-frequency electromagnetic fields, which may lead to considerable chromosomal damage in dividing cells.

  11. Kinetic Alfven Waves Carrying Intense Field Aligned Currents: Particle Trapping and Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Artemyev, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is now common knowledge that dispersive scale Alfvén waves can drive parallel electron acceleration [Lotko et al., JGR, 1998; Samson et al., Ann. Geophys., 2003; Wygant et al., JGR, 2002] and transverse ion energization in the auroral zone and inner magnetosphere [Johnson and Cheng, JGR, 2001; Chaston et al., 2004]. In this paper we show that relatively low energy electrons (plasma sheet electrons with energies ranging up to ˜100 eV) can be accelerated very efficiently as they interact nonlinearly with kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) that carry intense field aligned currents from the equatorial plane toward the ionosphere in the inner magnetosphere. We propose a theoretical model describing electron trapping into an effective wave potential generated by parallel wave electric fields (with perpendicular wavelengths on the order of the ion gyro-radius) and the mirror force acting on electrons as they propagate along geomagnetic field lines. We demonstrate that waves with an electric potential amplitude between ~100 - 400 V can trap and accelerate electrons to energies approaching several keVs. Trapping acceleration corresponds to conservation of the electron magnetic moment and, thus, results in a significant decrease of the electron equatorial pitch-angle with time. Analytical and numerical estimates of the maximum energy and probability of trapping are presented. We discuss the application of the proposed model in light of recent observations of electromagnetic fluctuations in the inner magnetosphere that are present during periods of strong geomagnetic activity [Chaston et al., GRL, 2014; Califf et al., JGR, 2015].

  12. [Physical model of the plant tissue response to exposure to the microwave electromagnetic field].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, L G; Boshkova, I L

    2003-01-01

    A hypothesis was suggested to explain the effect of biostimulation of seeds exposed to microwave electromagnetic field. It was shown that the assumption on the determining influence of the microwave field on the transport properties of the conducting system of a plant satisfactorily explains the phenomena observed in germinating seeds and growing plants. A physical model of the response of a plant cell to a microwave field is presented, which served as a basis for the method of calculating the maximum possible time of exposure of plant tissue.

  13. Electric Field Distribution Excited by Indoor Radio Source for Exposure Compliance Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Junji; Tarusawa, Yoshiaki

    Correction factors are presented for estimating the RF electromagnetic field strength in the compliance assessment of human exposure from an indoor RF radio source in the frequency range from 800MHz to 3.5GHz. The correction factors are derived from the increase in the spatial average electric field strength distribution, which is dependent on the building materials. The spatial average electric field strength is calculated using relative complex dielectric constants of building materials. The relative complex dielectric constant is obtained through measurement of the transmission and reflection losses for eleven kinds of building materials used in business office buildings and single family dwellings.

  14. Association between Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from High Voltage Transmission Lines and Neurobehavioral Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiongli; Tang, Tiantong; Hu, Guocheng; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yuyu; Wang, Qiang; Su, Jing; Zou, Yunfeng; Peng, Xiaowu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT) lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. Methods Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old) was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. Conclusions The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children. PMID:23843999

  15. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  16. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  17. Radiofrequency field exposure and cancer: what do the laboratory studies suggest?

    PubMed Central

    Repacholi, M H

    1997-01-01

    Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunications systems. Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. These questions have followed scientific reports suggesting that residence near high voltage power lines may to be associated with an increased childhood leukemia risk. Epidemiologic studies have been plagued by poor RF exposure assessment and differences in methodology. There are no high-quality epidemiologic studies that can be used to evaluate health risks from RF exposure. Laboratory studies in this area have been somewhat confusing. Some animal studies suggest that RF fields accelerate the development of sarcoma colonies in the lung, mammary tumors, skin tumors, hepatomas, and sarcomas. A substantial RF-induced increase in lymphoma incidence in transgenic mice exposed for up to 18 months has also been reported. In contrast, other studies have not found carcinogenic effects. These conflicting results indicate the need for more well-conducted studies on laboratory animals, supplemented with high-quality in vitro studies to identify effects that need further research in vivo, and to characterize any acting mechanisms, especially at low RF field levels. This paper provides a review of the laboratory studies and indicates what conclusions about RF-induced cancer can be drawn. PMID:9467083

  18. Human adverse reproductive outcomes and electromagnetic field exposures: review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, G M; Croen, L A

    1993-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding a relation between residential and occupational electromagnetic (EM) field exposures and adverse reproductive effects. This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this possible relation, including some pertinent methodologic issues, notes relevant findings from the experimental literature, and discusses areas for future research. Evidence is lacking for a strong association between a woman's use of a video display terminal (VDT) during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. The evidence for a strong association between a women's use of a VDT and other adverse reproductive endpoints is also lacking, with some suggestive findings for congenital malformations and too few data to reach a conclusion about other endpoints. With respect to low-level EM field exposures other than VDTs, the paucity of data prevents one from determining whether there are reproductive health risks associated with such exposures. Therefore, this is an area that needs further investigation. Given that altered growth may be an underlying biologic effect of EM field exposures, endpoints that might be pursued in future studies include congenital malformations not associated with chromosomal anomalies, intrauterine growth retardation, and chromosomally normal spontaneous abortions. PMID:8206019

  19. Semi-quantitative proteomics of mammalian cells upon short-term exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Laffeber, Charlie; Eppink, Berina; Bezstarosti, Karel; Dekkers, Dick; Woelders, Henri; Zwamborn, A. Peter M.; Demmers, Jeroen; Lebbink, Joyce H. G.; Kanaar, Roland

    2017-01-01

    The potential effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), such as those emitted by power-lines (in extremely low frequency range), mobile cellular systems and wireless networking devices (in radio frequency range) on human health have been intensively researched and debated. However, how exposure to these EMFs may lead to biological changes underlying possible health effects is still unclear. To reveal EMF-induced molecular changes, unbiased experiments (without a priori focusing on specific biological processes) with sensitive readouts are required. We present the first proteome-wide semi-quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of human fibroblasts, osteosarcomas and mouse embryonic stem cells exposed to three types of non-ionizing EMFs (ELF 50 Hz, UMTS 2.1 GHz and WiFi 5.8 GHz). We performed controlled in vitro EMF exposures of metabolically labeled mammalian cells followed by reliable statistical analyses of differential protein- and pathway-level regulations using an array of established bioinformatics methods. Our results indicate that less than 1% of the quantitated human or mouse proteome responds to the EMFs by small changes in protein abundance. Further network-based analysis of the differentially regulated proteins did not detect significantly perturbed cellular processes or pathways in human and mouse cells in response to ELF, UMTS or WiFi exposure. In conclusion, our extensive bioinformatics analyses of semi-quantitative mass spectrometry data do not support the notion that the short-time exposures to non-ionizing EMFs have a consistent biologically significant bearing on mammalian cells in culture. PMID:28234898

  20. Semi-quantitative proteomics of mammalian cells upon short-term exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kuzniar, Arnold; Laffeber, Charlie; Eppink, Berina; Bezstarosti, Karel; Dekkers, Dick; Woelders, Henri; Zwamborn, A Peter M; Demmers, Jeroen; Lebbink, Joyce H G; Kanaar, Roland

    2017-01-01

    The potential effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), such as those emitted by power-lines (in extremely low frequency range), mobile cellular systems and wireless networking devices (in radio frequency range) on human health have been intensively researched and debated. However, how exposure to these EMFs may lead to biological changes underlying possible health effects is still unclear. To reveal EMF-induced molecular changes, unbiased experiments (without a priori focusing on specific biological processes) with sensitive readouts are required. We present the first proteome-wide semi-quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of human fibroblasts, osteosarcomas and mouse embryonic stem cells exposed to three types of non-ionizing EMFs (ELF 50 Hz, UMTS 2.1 GHz and WiFi 5.8 GHz). We performed controlled in vitro EMF exposures of metabolically labeled mammalian cells followed by reliable statistical analyses of differential protein- and pathway-level regulations using an array of established bioinformatics methods. Our results indicate that less than 1% of the quantitated human or mouse proteome responds to the EMFs by small changes in protein abundance. Further network-based analysis of the differentially regulated proteins did not detect significantly perturbed cellular processes or pathways in human and mouse cells in response to ELF, UMTS or WiFi exposure. In conclusion, our extensive bioinformatics analyses of semi-quantitative mass spectrometry data do not support the notion that the short-time exposures to non-ionizing EMFs have a consistent biologically significant bearing on mammalian cells in culture.

  1. Dermal exposure of pesticide applicators as a measure of coverall performance under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Machera, K; Tsakirakis, A; Charistou, A; Anastasiadou, P; Glass, C R

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the field performance of two coverall designs used by pesticide applicators was determined. Two coverall types were selected based on data from previously conducted comfort testing under field conditions in southern Europe. Dermal exposure was measured during 22 applications conducted with 11 operators using similar hand-held spray guns in greenhouse pepper crops in the Ierapetra region of Crete, Greece. One of the coverall designs studied was made from a cotton/polyester material treated with a water-repellent Resist Spills(R) finish, which was compared in the field study to a coverall of similar design, but using a woven, untreated cotton material. An in-house analytical method was developed and validated for determining residues of the active substance (a.s.) malathion on the dosimeters. The derived levels of dermal exposure were used as a measure of the protection provided by the two types of coveralls. In addition, by comparing the total amount of the a.s. recovered from outer and inner dosimeters (potential dermal exposure = 238.8 mg kg(-1) a.s. for the cotton coverall and 160.44 mg kg(-1) a.s. for the Resist Spills coverall), a value could be determined for the degree of coverall penetration. The mean penetration (milligrams per kilogram a.s.) of the outer coveralls, calculated as a percentage of the total contamination, was 0.4% for the water-repellent coverall and 2.3% for the cotton coverall. The mean recovery from the laboratory and field-fortified samples was >91 and 74%, respectively and used as the main criterion for quality control of the analytical data. Under the field trial conditions evaluated, both the coverall designs gave better protection than the default values used in the most relevant predictive exposure model. Therefore, they could be considered as appropriate tools of personal protection when both comfort and field performance is taken into account under the specific application scenario.

  2. Mid-Continental Intensive Field Campaign Atmospheric CO2 Observations Compared to Forward Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, L. I.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A.; Andrews, A. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Corbin, K.

    2009-12-01

    Two commonly used approaches to study source/sinks of CO2 are the “bottom-up” and the “top-down” methods. Because of the large discrepancies between these approaches, the North America Carbon Program devised the Mid-Continental Intensive field campaign (MCI). The MCI campaign aims at improving the carbon flux estimates of both approaches with a combination of atmospheric transport models, a denser network of in-situ atmospheric CO2 measurements and agricultural inventories. The first step in evaluating and improving inverse models is to compare observed CO2 concentrations and predicted concentrations from forwards models. This study shows a model-data comparison at multiple temporal and spatial scales for the 2007 growing season. In-situ tower-based observations are compared to two different forwards models: NOAA’s Carbon Tracker and CSU’s SiBcrop-RAMS. Observations from two tall towers of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and five towers of Ring2 PSU network are used for this comparison. The towers are located in an intensively agricultural region of the North American continent. Comparisons to date show that both models predict higher mid-summer concentrations at three sites located in the “corn belt.” Both models have difficulty reproducing the observed monthly-average spatial gradient across these sites. The models also underestimate the maximum observed spatial gradients in daytime, daily-averaged boundary layer concentrations. These results suggest that the rapid photosynthetic rates found in corn are not yet well-simulated in these models, and that these data, when used in inversions, will provide a valuable constraint on regional fluxes.

  3. Electromagnetic exposure in a phantom in the near and far fields of wire and planar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazady, Md. Anas Boksh

    Due to the wide availability and usage of wireless devices and systems there have been and are concerns regarding their effects on the human body. Respective regulatory agencies have developed safety standards based on scientific research on electromagnetic (EM) exposure from wireless devices and antennas. The metric that quantifies the exposure level is called the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). Wireless devices must satisfy the regulatory standards before being marketed. In the past, researchers have primarily focused on investigating the EM exposure from wireless devices that are used very near to the user's head or body (less than 25 mm). But as time progressed many more wireless devices have become ubiquitous (vehicular wireless devices, laptop PCMCIA cards, Bluetooth dongles, wireless LAN routers, cordless phone base stations, and pico base stations are to name a few) and are operated at distances greater than 25 mm yet smaller than 200 mm. Given the variations in operating frequency, distance, and antenna size and type it is challenging to develop an approach using which EM exposure from a wide variety of wireless devices can be evaluated. The problem becomes more involved owing to the difficulties in identifying the antenna zone boundaries, e.g. reactive near-field, radiating near-field, far-field etc. The focus of this thesis is to investigate a large class of low and highly directive antennas and evaluate the EM exposure from them into a large elliptical phantom. The objective is to be able to predict threshold power levels that meet the SAR limits imposed by the regulatory agencies. It was observed that among the low directivity antennas at close near-field distances, electrically small antennas induced distinguishably higher SAR than electrically larger antennas. But differences in SAR were small as the phantom moved into the far-fields of the antennas. SAR induced by highly directive antennas were higher when the phantom was in the far-field of the

  4. A review of models for near-field exposure pathways of chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to chemicals in consumer products has been gaining increasing attention, with multiple studies showing that near-field exposures from products is high compared to far-field exposures. Regarding the numerous chemical-product combinations, there is a need for an overarching review of models able to quantify the multiple transfers of chemicals from products used near-field to humans. The present review therefore aims at an in-depth overview of modeling approaches for near-field chemical release and human exposure pathways associated with consumer products. It focuses on lower-tier, mechanistic models suitable for life cycle assessments (LCA), chemical alternative assessment (CAA) and high-throughput screening risk assessment (HTS). Chemicals in a product enter the near-field via a defined "compartment of entry", are transformed or transferred to adjacent compartments, and eventually end in a "human receptor compartment". We first focus on models of physical mass transfers from the product to 'near-field' compartments. For transfers of chemicals from article interior, adequate modeling of in-article diffusion and of partitioning between article surface and air/skin/food is key. Modeling volatilization and subsequent transfer to the outdoor is crucial for transfers of chemicals used in the inner space of appliances, on object surfaces or directly emitted to indoor air. For transfers from skin surface, models need to reflect the competition between dermal permeation, volatilization and fraction washed-off. We then focus on transfers from the 'near-field' to 'human' compartments, defined as respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and epidermis, for which good estimates of air concentrations, non-dietary ingestion parameters and skin permeation are essential, respectively. We critically characterize for each exposure pathway the ability of models to estimate near-field transfers and to best inform LCA, CAA and HTS, summarizing the main characteristics of the

  5. Ionization and dissociation of CH3I in intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongtao; Yang, Zheng; Gao, Zhen; Tang, Zichao

    2007-01-01

    The ionization-dissociation of methyl iodide in intense laser field has been studied using a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RTOF-MS), at a laser intensity of ⩽6.6×1014W/cm2, λ =798nm, and a pulse width of 180fs. With the high resolution of RTOF-MS, the fragment ions with the same M /z but from different dissociation channels are resolved in the mass spectra, and the kinetic energy releases (KERs) of the fragment ions such as Iq + (q=1-6), CHm+ (m =0-3), C2+, and C3+ are measured. It is found that the KERs of the fragment ions are independent of the laser intensity. The fragments CH3+ and I + with very low KERs (<1eV for CH3+ and <0.07eV for I +) are assigned to be produced by the multiphoton dissociation of CH3I +. For the fragments CH3+ and I + from CH3I2+, they are produced by the Coulomb explosion of CH3I2+ with the interaction from the covalent force of the remaining valence electrons. The split of the KER of the fragments produced from CH3I2+ dissociation is observed experimentally and explained with the energy split of I +(P23) and I+(P0,13). The dissociation CH3I3+→CH3++I2+ is caused by Coulomb explosion. The valid charge distance Rc between I2+ and CH3+, at which enhanced ionization of methyl iodide occurs, is obtained to be 3.7Å by the measurements of the KERs of the fragments CH3+ and I2+. For the CH3In + (n⩾3), the KERs of the fragment ions CH3p + and Iq + are attributed to the Coulomb repulsion between CH3p + and Iq + from Rc≈3.7Å. The dissociation of the fragment CH3+ is also discussed. By the enhanced ionization mechanism and using the measured KER of Iq +, all the possible Coulomb explosion channels are identified. By comparing the abundance of fragment ions in mass spectrum, it is found that the asymmetric dissociation channels with more charges on iodine, q >p, are the dominant channels.

  6. Exposure to GSM RF fields does not affect calcium homeostasis in human endothelial cells, rat pheocromocytoma cells or rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rodney P; Madison, Steve D; Leveque, Philippe; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Bootman, Martin D

    2010-07-27

    In the course of modern daily life, individuals are exposed to numerous sources of electromagnetic radiation that are not present in the natural environment. The strength of the electromagnetic fields from sources such as hairdryers, computer display units and other electrical devices is modest. However, in many home and office environments, individuals can experience perpetual exposure to an "electromagnetic smog", with occasional peaks of relatively high electromagnetic field intensity. This has led to concerns that such radiation can affect health. In particular, emissions from mobile phones or mobile phone masts have been invoked as a potential source of pathological electromagnetic radiation. Previous reports have suggested that cellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is affected by the types of radiofrequency fields emitted by mobile phones. In the present study, we used a high-throughput imaging platform to monitor putative changes in cellular Ca2+ during exposure of cells to 900 MHz GSM fields of differing power (specific absorption rate 0.012-2 W/Kg), thus mimicking the type of radiation emitted by current mobile phone handsets. Data from cells experiencing the 900 Mhz GSM fields were compared with data obtained from paired experiments using continuous wave fields or no field. We employed three cell types (human endothelial cells, PC-12 neuroblastoma and primary hippocampal neurons) that have previously been suggested to be sensitive to radiofrequency fields. Experiments were designed to examine putative effects of radiofrequency fields on resting Ca2+, in addition to Ca2+ signals evoked by an InsP(3)-generating agonist. Furthermore, we examined putative effects of radiofrequency field exposure on Ca2+ store emptying and store-operated Ca2+ entry following application of the Ca2+ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin. Multiple parameters (e.g., peak amplitude, integrated Ca2+ signal, recovery rates) were analysed to explore potential impact of radiofrequency field

  7. Exposure to GSM RF Fields Does Not Affect Calcium Homeostasis in Human Endothelial Cells, Rat Pheocromocytoma Cells or Rat Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Rodney P.; Madison, Steve D.; Leveque, Philippe; Roderick, H. Llewelyn; Bootman, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of modern daily life, individuals are exposed to numerous sources of electromagnetic radiation that are not present in the natural environment. The strength of the electromagnetic fields from sources such as hairdryers, computer display units and other electrical devices is modest. However, in many home and office environments, individuals can experience perpetual exposure to an “electromagnetic smog”, with occasional peaks of relatively high electromagnetic field intensity. This has led to concerns that such radiation can affect health. In particular, emissions from mobile phones or mobile phone masts have been invoked as a potential source of pathological electromagnetic radiation. Previous reports have suggested that cellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is affected by the types of radiofrequency fields emitted by mobile phones. In the present study, we used a high-throughput imaging platform to monitor putative changes in cellular Ca2+ during exposure of cells to 900 MHz GSM fields of differing power (specific absorption rate 0.012–2 W/Kg), thus mimicking the type of radiation emitted by current mobile phone handsets. Data from cells experiencing the 900 Mhz GSM fields were compared with data obtained from paired experiments using continuous wave fields or no field. We employed three cell types (human endothelial cells, PC-12 neuroblastoma and primary hippocampal neurons) that have previously been suggested to be sensitive to radiofrequency fields. Experiments were designed to examine putative effects of radiofrequency fields on resting Ca2+, in addition to Ca2+ signals evoked by an InsP3-generating agonist. Furthermore, we examined putative effects of radiofrequency field exposure on Ca2+ store emptying and store-operated Ca2+ entry following application of the Ca2+ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin. Multiple parameters (e.g., peak amplitude, integrated Ca2+ signal, recovery rates) were analysed to explore potential impact of radiofrequency field

  8. Cancer incidence and magnetic field exposure in industries using resistance welding in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hakansson, N; Floderus, B; Gustavsson, P; Johansen, C; Olsen, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cancer incidence in workers exposed to high levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). Methods: A cohort based on the engineering industry was established. Industries assumed to use resistance welding in production were chosen in order to increase the prevalence of high exposed subjects and to reduce the influence of confounding factors. All men and women employed in these branches during 1985–94 were selected, 537 692 men and 180 529 women. Occupation, based on census information from 1980, 1985, and 1990, was linked to a job exposure matrix on ELF-MF. Four exposure groups were used by stratifying on mean workday ELF-MF exposure, using the lowest exposure group as reference. Cancer incidence was obtained by linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results: Men in the very high exposure group showed an increased incidence of tumours of the kidney, pituitary gland, and biliary passages and liver; for these cancer sites an exposure–response relation was indicated. Women in the very high exposure group showed an increased incidence of astrocytoma I–IV, with a clear exposure–response pattern. An association was suggested in the high exposure group only, for cancer of the corpus uteri and multiple myeloma. Decreased risks in the very high exposure group among men were found for cancer of the colon and connective tissue/muscle. Conclusions: The results on cancer of the liver, kidney, and pituitary gland among men are in accordance with previous observations. Regarding brain tumours and leukaemia, the outcome for women provided further support of an association. The hypothesis of a biological mechanism involving the endocrine system was partly supported. PMID:12107298

  9. [Verification of Polish regulations of maximum permissible intensities in electromagnetic fields by the Commission for Bioelectromagnetic Issues of the Polish Radiation Research Society].

    PubMed

    Zmyślony, Marek; Kubacki, Roman; Aniołczyk, Halina; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Trzaska, Hubert; Bieńkowski, Paweł; Krawczyk, Andrzej; Szmigielski, Stanisław

    2005-01-01

    Experts in the field of bioelectromagnetism have reported a growing need to verify Polish regulations on the protection against electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the 0-300 GHz range, especially in their maximal permissible intensities (MPI). There is a general belief that Polish standards do not fully comply with recommendations and directives of the European Union (EU) and that Polish regulations on the border values for environmental and occupational exposure to EMF are not harmonized. To this end, the Commission for Bioelectromagnetic Issues have been set up in the Polish Radiation Research Society. Following a through analysis of standards binding in Poland and EU, the Commission set about working on verified MPI values for EMF. This paper presents some comments of the Commission members, stressing the complexity of this undertaking.

  10. Thunderstorms' atmospheric electric field effects in the intensity of cosmic ray muons and in neutron monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Dorman, I. V.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.; Ne'Eman, Y.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Signoretti, F.; Sternlieb, A.; Villoresi, G.; Zukerman, I. G.

    2003-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the influence of thunderstorms' atmospheric electric field on cosmic ray secondary components are presented. On the basis of the approach proposed by [1987], theoretical models for a correct numerical evaluation of these effects on hard muon, soft muon, and neutron monitor component are developed. For hard and soft muons the validity of the models are checked by their comparison with experimental results of the Baksan muon detector. For the first time, the effect of thunderstorms' atmospheric electric field on cosmic rays is investigated by simultaneous measurements of one-minute neutron monitor intensity and of atmospheric electric field at the Emilio Segre' Observatory on Mt. Hermon (Israel). A series of large thunderstorms during February 2000 is investigated; for each thunderstorm the maximum atmospheric electric field intensity was ranging from 10 to about 100 kV/m. Clear correlation between field intensity and neutron monitor intensity variations is presented for total intensity and for different detected multiplicity channels. This correlation is quantitatively in agreement with the developed model which takes into account the formation of short-living meso-atoms by the capture of slow negative muons in the lead of the monitor. The effect is relevant only for neutron events with detected multiplicity m = 1 and evident for multiplicity m = 2; the other multiplicity channels are not influenced by neutrons from meso-atoms.

  11. Relationship between x-ray illumination field size and flat field intensity and its impacts on x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Xue; Niu Tianye; Jia Xun; Zhu Lei

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: X-ray cone-beam CT (CBCT) is being increasingly used for various clinical applications, while its performance is still hindered by image artifacts. This work investigates a new source of reconstruction error, which is often overlooked in the current CBCT imaging. The authors find that the x-ray flat field intensity (I{sub 0}) varies significantly as the illumination volume size changes at different collimator settings. A wrong I{sub 0} value leads to inaccurate CT numbers of reconstructed images as well as wrong scatter measurements in the CBCT research. Methods: The authors argue that the finite size of x-ray focal spot together with the detector glare effect cause the I{sub 0} variation at different illumination sizes. Although the focal spot of commercial x-ray tubes typically has a nominal size of less than 1 mm, the off-focal-spot radiation covers an area of several millimeters on the tungsten target. Due to the large magnification factor from the field collimator to the detector, the penumbra effects of the collimator blades result in different I{sub 0} values for different illumination field sizes. Detector glare further increases the variation, since one pencil beam of incident x-ray is scattered into an area of several centimeters on the detector. In this paper, the authors study these two effects by measuring the focal spot distribution with a pinhole assembly and the detector point spread function (PSF) with an edge-spread function method. The authors then derive a formula to estimate the I{sub 0} value for different illumination field sizes, using the measured focal spot distribution and the detector PSF. Phantom studies are carried out to investigate the accuracy of scatter measurements and CT images with and without considering the I{sub 0} variation effects. Results: On our tabletop system with a Varian Paxscan 4030CB flat-panel detector and a Varian RAD-94 x-ray tube as used on a clinical CBCT system, the focal spot distribution has a

  12. Relationship between x-ray illumination field size and flat field intensity and its impacts on x-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Jia, Xun; Zhu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray cone-beam CT (CBCT) is being increasingly used for various clinical applications, while its performance is still hindered by image artifacts. This work investigates a new source of reconstruction error, which is often overlooked in the current CBCT imaging. The authors find that the x-ray flat field intensity (I0) varies significantly as the illumination volume size changes at different collimator settings. A wrong I0 value leads to inaccurate CT numbers of reconstructed images as well as wrong scatter measurements in the CBCT research. Methods: The authors argue that the finite size of x-ray focal spot together with the detector glare effect cause the I0 variation at different illumination sizes. Although the focal spot of commercial x-ray tubes typically has a nominal size of less than 1 mm, the off-focal-spot radiation covers an area of several millimeters on the tungsten target. Due to the large magnification factor from the field collimator to the detector, the penumbra effects of the collimator blades result in different I0 values for different illumination field sizes. Detector glare further increases the variation, since one pencil beam of incident x-ray is scattered into an area of several centimeters on the detector. In this paper, the authors study these two effects by measuring the focal spot distribution with a pinhole assembly and the detector point spread function (PSF) with an edge-spread function method. The authors then derive a formula to estimate the I0 value for different illumination field sizes, using the measured focal spot distribution and the detector PSF. Phantom studies are carried out to investigate the accuracy of scatter measurements and CT images with and without considering the I0 variation effects. Results: On our tabletop system with a Varian Paxscan 4030CB flat-panel detector and a Varian RAD-94 x-ray tube as used on a clinical CBCT system, the focal spot distribution has a measured full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM

  13. Effects of Agricultural Management Policies on the Exposure of Black-Winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) Chicks to Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides in Rice Fields.

    PubMed

    Toral, Gregorio M; Baouab, Riad E; Martinez-Haro, Mónica; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Broggi, Juli; Martínez-de la Puente, Josue; Viana, Duarte; Mateo, Rafael; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Levels of exposure to pesticides in rice fields can be significant depending on the environmental policies practiced. The aim of European Union integrated management policy is to reduce pesticide use and impact on environment. Rice fields provide an alternative breeding habitat for many waterbirds that are exposed to the pesticides used and therefore can be valuable indicators of their risk for wildlife. To evaluate integrated management success we examined exposure of Black-winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in rice fields under different types of management by measuring plasma cholinesterase activity. Cholinesterase activity was lower in birds sampled in (a) 2008 after a period of intense pesticide application, than in (b) 2005-2007 and 2011 in rice fields subject to integrated management in Doñana (SW Spain) and (c) in control natural wetlands in Spain and Morocco. During 2009 and 2010, cholinesterase activity was lower in rice fields in Doñana than in rice fields in Larache and Sidi Allal Tazi (NW Morocco). Our results suggest that integrated management successfully reduced the exposure of Black-winged Stilts to pesticides in most of the years. Care should be taken to implement mosquito and pest crop controls on time and with environmentally friendly products in order to reduce its impact on wildlife.

  14. Whole-Field Simultaneous Integrated-Boost Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Frank C.S.; Ng, Alice W.Y.; Lee, Victor H.F.; Lui, Collin M.M.; Yuen, K.-K.; Sze, W.-K.; Leung, T.-W.; Tung, Stewart Y.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the outcomes of our patients with newly diagnosed nondisseminated nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy using a whole-field simultaneous integrated-boost technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 175 patients treated with WF-SIB between mid-2004 and 2005 were eligible for study inclusion. The distribution of disease by stage was Stage IA in 10.9%, Stage IIA in 2.3%, Stage IIB in 21.7%, Stage III in 41.1%, Stage IVA in 14.9%, and Stage IVB in 9.1%. Of the 175 patients, 2 (1.2%), 10 (5.7%), and 163 (93.1%) had World Health Organization type I, II, and III histologic features, respectively. We prescribed 70 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy delivered in 33 fractions within 6.5 weeks at the periphery of three planning target volumes (PTV; PTV70, PTV60, and PTV54, respectively). Of the 175 patients, 46 with early T-stage disease received a brachytherapy boost, and 127 with advanced local or regional disease received chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up period was 34 months. The overall 3-year local failure-free survival, regional failure-free survival, distant failure-free survival, and overall survival rate was 93.6%, 93.3%, 86.6%, and 87.2%, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed Stage N2-N3 disease (p = .029) and PTV (p = .024) to be independent factors predicting a greater risk of distant failure and poor overall survival, respectively. Grade 3 acute mucositis/pharyngitis occurred in 23.4% of patients, and Stage T4 disease was the only significant predictor of mucositis/pharyngitis (p = .021). Conclusion: Whole-field simultaneous integrated-boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy with a dose >70 Gy achieved excellent locoregional control, without an excess incidence of severe, acute mucositis/pharyngitis, in the present study. Strategies for using such highly conformal treatment for patients with a large tumor and late N-stage disease are potential areas of investigation for future studies.

  15. Calibration of exposure dose for nanoscale plasmonic lithography with microsized far-field spot patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dandan; Park, Changhoon; Jung, Howon; Hahn, Jae W.

    2016-09-01

    To improve the reliability of a plasmonic lithography system for nanoscale device fabrication, a rapid calibration process is essentially required. The calibration needs a time-consuming process using an atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure a number of nano-sized spot pattern widths recorded for the variation of the exposure dose. On the basis of the underlying mechanisms of a propagating field through a bowtie aperture, we conducted a theoretical study to derive a fitting equation to predict the widths of spot patterns in a near-field region compared with those in the far-field region. We obtained a calibration curve of the exposure dose to fit the width of spot pattern in the far-field region that is measureable using an optical microscope (OM). The validity of the rapid calibration process using an OM was verified by comparison between the calibration curves determined using AFM and OM, and the uncertainty between them was found to be 3.4%. The drift of the calibration curve was further explored to calculate the system stability of the plasmonic lithography technique, which was estimated to be  >93%. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the calibration curve is effective in the prediction of the exposure dose for nanoscale line patterning.

  16. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of brain tumors. An analysis of possible associations

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.S.; Dischinger, P.C.; Conde, J.; Farrell, K.P.

    1985-06-01

    To explore the association between occupation and the occurrence of brain tumor, an epidemiologic study was conducted using data from the death certificates of 951 adult white male Maryland residents who died of brain tumor during the period 1969 through 1982. Compared with the controls, men employed in electricity-related occupations, such as electrician, electric or electronic engineer, and utility company serviceman, were found to experience a significantly higher proportion of primary brain tumors. An increase in the odds ratio for brain tumor was found to be positively related to electromagnetic (EM) field exposure levels. Furthermore, the mean age at death was found to be significantly younger among cases in the presumed high EM-exposure group. These findings suggest that EM exposure may be associated with the pathogenesis of brain tumors, particularly in the promoting stage.

  17. Mean-field thalamocortical modeling of longitudinal EEG acquired during intensive meditation training.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Manish; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-07-01

    Meditation training has been shown to enhance attention and improve emotion regulation. However, the brain processes associated with such training are poorly understood and a computational modeling framework is lacking. Modeling approaches that can realistically simulate neurophysiological data while conforming to basic anatomical and physiological constraints can provide a unique opportunity to generate concrete and testable hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting complex cognitive tasks such as meditation. Here we applied the mean-field computational modeling approach using the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) collected at three assessment points from meditating participants during two separate 3-month-long shamatha meditation retreats. We modeled cortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic interactions to generate a simulation of EEG signals recorded across the scalp. We also present two novel extensions to the mean-field approach that allow for: (a) non-parametric analysis of changes in model parameter values across all channels and assessments; and (b) examination of variation in modeled thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) connectivity over the retreat period. After successfully fitting whole-brain EEG data across three assessment points within each retreat, two model parameters were found to replicably change across both meditation retreats. First, after training, we observed an increased temporal delay between modeled cortical and thalamic cells. This increase provides a putative neural mechanism for a previously observed reduction in individual alpha frequency in these same participants. Second, we found decreased inhibitory connection strength between the TRN and secondary relay nuclei (SRN) of the modeled thalamus after training. This reduction in inhibitory strength was found to be associated with increased dynamical stability of the model. Altogether, this paper presents the first computational approach, taking core aspects of physiology and

  18. Guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell description of intense beam propagation through a periodic focusing field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2001-10-01

    This paper provides a systematic derivation of a guiding-center kinetic model that describes intense beam propagation through a periodic focusing lattice with axial periodicity length S, valid for sufficiently small phase advance (say, σ<60°). The analysis assumes a thin \\(a,b<field potential ψ¯\\(x¯,y¯,s\\) in the four-dimensional transverse phase space \\(x¯,y¯,x¯',y¯'\\). In the resulting kinetic equation for f¯b\\(x¯,y¯,x¯',y¯',s\\), the average effects of the applied focusing field are incorporated in constant focusing coefficients κx sf>0 and κy sf>0, and the model is readily accessible to direct analytical investigation. Similar smooth-focusing Vlasov-Maxwell descriptions are widely used in the accelerator physics literature, often without a systematic justification, and the present analysis is intended to place these models on a rigorous, yet physically intuitive, foundation.

  19. Testing of Performance of Optical Fibers Under Irradiation in Intense Radiation Fields, When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang; Dickerson, Bryan

    2013-01-03

    The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica's optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and the

  20. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Huang, Xueliang

    2017-01-01

    The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems working

  1. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Huang, Xueliang

    2017-02-08

    The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems working

  2. Donor impurity-related intraband optical absorption in a single quantum ring: Hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-10-01

    The simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field on hydrogenic donor impurity states and intraband optical absorption has been investigated in GaAs/Ga_{1-tilde{x}}Al_{tilde{x}}As quantum ring. The one-electron energy spectrum and wave functions have been found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. The intraband absorption coefficient is calculated for different values of the hydrostatic pressure, intense laser field parameter and different locations of hydrogenic donor impurity. The simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field shows that while the increment of the first one leads only to the blueshift of the absorption spectrum, the augmentation of the second one makes the redshift. In addition, both blueshift and redshift of the spectrum have been obtained with the changes of impurity location. The obtained theoretical results indicate good controlling means of the optical spectrum of ring-like structures by the combined influence of the considered factors.

  3. Diabatic Mechanisms of Higher-Order Harmonic Generation in Solid-State Materials under High-Intensity Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaya, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Ogawa, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate mechanisms of higher-order harmonic generation in solid-state materials under a high-intensity ac electric field. A new theoretical framework presented in this Letter holds the legitimacy of Bloch's theorem even under the influence of the high-intensity electric field and provides an exact treatment of the diabatic processes of Bloch electrons. Utilizing this framework, we first discovered that the diabatic processes, namely, ac Zener tunneling and semimetallization of semiconductors, are key factors for nonperturbative mechanisms of HHG. These mechanisms are classified by the field intensity and could be understood by an extended simple man model based on an analogy between tunnel ionization in gaseous media and Zener tunneling in semiconductors. These conclusions would stimulate the universal understanding of HHG mechanisms in both atomic and solid cases.

  4. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Katharine T

    2016-03-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)-rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales-can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Particularly, when done as part of a multiple timescale design-in bursts over macro timescales-ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to family intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM.

  5. Photodissociation dynamics of weakly bound He H2 + in intense light fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szidarovszky, Tamás; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    2016-12-01

    Photoinduced dynamics of a weakly bound triatomic molecule He H2 + exposed to electromagnetic radiation is investigated by time-dependent quantum wave-packet propagation. Adopting a two-dimensional linear H-H-He model, the three lowest-lying potential energy surfaces (PESs) and corresponding dipole moment surfaces are constructed. One of the two characteristic excited PESs of He H2 + leads to the charge-transfer reaction H2 ++He → H2+H e+ and the other corresponds to the first excited state of H2 + perturbed by the presence of He. When He H2 + is exposed to a femtosecond intense ultraviolet light pulse (I =4 ×1014W c m-2 , λ =400 nm ), both of the two excited PESs are found to be coupled with the light field and a variety of reaction pathways become opened so that HeH, He H+ , H2, H2 +,H , H+ , He, and H e+ are produced. Simulations also show that the anharmonic coupling between the two stretching vibrational modes in He H2 + leads to the stabilization of the H2 + moiety against the decomposition into H + H+ compared with bare H2 +. The theoretical findings of the formation of He H+ composed of the most abundant elements in the universe are also discussed in view of the theoretical modeling of the chemical reactions proceeding in the primordial gas and in the interstellar medium.

  6. Spin dynamics in HeH(2+) molecular ion in intense laser fields.

    PubMed

    Korani, Youssef; Sabzyan, Hassan

    2016-11-23

    A theoretical study is carried out on the effect of non-dipole interactions on the electron spin dynamics in the asymmetric diatomic HeH(2+) in its first excited state in intense linearly polarized laser fields. The Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to solve the Dirac equation numerically without BOA. Effects of the phase of the laser pulse and alignment of the molecule on the relativistic characteristics, such as the pure spin and the pure spin-orbit current densities, spin-orbit force and spin torque, are investigated. The results of this study demonstrate that population oscillates between the two spin states during the course of interaction and its configuration depends on the molecular axis orientation and initial phase of the laser pulse. Also, a small polarization takes place in the spin states, even in the absence of the spin-orbit coupling. Furthermore, spin and spin-orbit current densities are phase-dependent and affected differently by the phase of the laser pulse.

  7. Reconstructing the Geomagnetic Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kapper, Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Tema, Evdokia; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Julio Morales, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We present absolute geomagnetic intensities from iron smelting furnaces discovered at the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Burkina Faso. Up to now, archaeologists recognized four different types of furnaces based on different construction methods, which were related to four subsequent time periods. Additionally, radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal confine the studied furnaces to ages ranging from 700–1700 AD, in good agreement with the archaeologically determined time periods for each type of furnace. Archaeointensity results reveal three main groups of Arai diagrams. The first two groups contain specimens with either linear Arai diagrams, or slightly curved diagrams or two phases of magnetization. The third group encompasses specimens with strong zigzag or curvature in their Arai diagrams. Specimens of the first two groups were accepted after applying selection criteria to guarantee the high quality of the results. Our data compared to palaeosecular variation curves show a similar decreasing trend between 900–1500 AD. However, they reveal larger amplitudes at around 800 AD and 1650 AD than the reference curves and geomagnetic field models. Furthermore, they agree well with archaeomagnetic data from Mali and Senegal around 800 AD and with volcanic data around 1700 AD. PMID:28350006

  8. Coulomb explosion of CS2 molecule under an intense femtosecond laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wang; Jian, Zhang; Shi-An, Zhang; Zhen-Rong, Sun

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the Coulomb explosion process of CS2 molecule under a near-infrared (800 nm) intense femtosecond laser field by a DC-sliced ion imaging technique. We obtain the DC-sliced images of these fragment ions S+, S2+, CS+, and CS2+ by breaking one C-S bond, and assign their Coulomb explosion channels by considering their kinetic energy release and angular distribution. We also numerically simulate the dissociation dynamics of parent ions by a Coulomb potential approximation, and obtain the time evolution of Coulomb energy and kinetic energy release, which indicates that the dissociation time of parent ions decreases with the increase of the charge number k. These experimental and theoretical results can serve as a useful benchmark for those researchers who work in the related area. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51132004 and 11474096), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 14JC1401500). We acknowledge the support of the NYU-ECNU Institute of Physics at NYU Shanghai, China.

  9. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research

    PubMed Central

    Bamberger, Katharine T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)—rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales—can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Especially when done as part of a multiple timescale design—in bursts over macro timescales, ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based (rather than family-based) interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM. PMID:26541560

  10. MRI tissue classification and bias field estimation based on coherent local intensity clustering: a unified energy minimization framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunming; Xu, Chenyang; Anderson, Adam W; Gore, John C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new energy minimization method for simultaneous tissue classification and bias field estimation of magnetic resonance (MR) images. We first derive an important characteristic of local image intensities--the intensities of different tissues within a neighborhood form separable clusters, and the center of each cluster can be well approximated by the product of the bias within the neighborhood and a tissue-dependent constant. We then introduce a coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) criterion function as a metric to evaluate tissue classification and bias field estimation. An integration of this metric defines an energy on a bias field, membership functions of the tissues, and the parameters that approximate the true signal from the corresponding tissues. Thus, tissue classification and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved by minimizing this energy. The smoothness of the derived optimal bias field is ensured by the spatially coherent nature of the CLIC criterion function. As a result, no extra effort is needed to smooth the bias field in our method. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is robust to the choice of initial conditions, thereby allowing fully automatic applications. Our algorithm has been applied to high field and ultra high field MR images with promising results.

  11. The effects of repeated exposure to graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages: A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Arie; Bos, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarette packages. In this field-experiment, 118 smokers were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions with either graphic fear appeals or textual warnings on their cigarette packages. During 3 weeks, fear and disgust were assessed 6 times. The intention to quit smoking after 3 weeks and quitting activity during the 3 weeks were the dependent measures. The effects of 3 pretest individual difference moderators were tested: disengagement beliefs, number of cigarettes smoked a day, and readiness to quit. Three weeks of exposure to the graphic fear appeals led to a stronger intention to quit, but only when smokers scored low on disengagement beliefs, or were heavier smokers. In addition, smokers low in disengagement more often reported to have cut down on smoking in the graphic condition. There were no indications of habituation of fear and disgust over the 3 weeks. The effects of graphic fear appeals depended on smokers' characteristics: The moderators may explain the mixed findings in the literature. The lack of habituation may be caused by the renewal of the graphics every few days. The used field-experimental design with natural repeated exposure to graphics is promising.

  12. Field: a new meta-authoring platform for data-intensive scientific visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, M.; Ameres, E.; Fox, P. A.; Goebel, J.; Graves, A.; Hendler, J.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will demonstrate a new platform for data-intensive scientific visualization, called Field, that rethinks the problem of visual data exploration. Several new opportunities for scientific visualization present themselves here at this moment in time. We believe that when taken together they may catalyze a transformation of the practice of science and to begin to seed a technical culture within science that fuses data analysis, programming and myriad visual strategies. It is at integrative levels that the principle challenges exist, for many fundamental technical components of our field are now well understood and widely available. File formats from CSV through HDF all have broad library support; low-level high-performance graphics APIs (OpenGL) are in a period of stable growth; and a dizzying ecosystem of analysis and machine learning libraries abound. The hardware of computer graphics offers unprecedented computing power within commodity components; programming languages and platforms are coalescing around a core set of umbrella runtimes. Each of these trends are each set to continue — computer graphics hardware is developing at a super-Moore-law rate, and trends in publication and dissemination point only towards an increasing amount of access to code and data. The critical opportunity here for scientific visualization is, we maintain, not a in developing a new statistical library, nor a new tool centered on a particular technique, but rather new visual, "live" programming environment that is promiscuous in its scope. We can identify the necessarily methodological practice and traditions required here not in science or engineering but in the "live-coding" practices prevalent in the fields of digital art and design. We can define this practice as an approach to programming that is live, iterative, integrative, speculative and exploratory. "Live" because it is exclusively practiced in real-time (often during performance); "iterative", because

  13. Measurement of electric fields induced in a human subject due to natural movements in static magnetic fields or exposure to alternating magnetic field gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, P. M.; Bowtell, R.

    2008-01-01

    A dual dipole electric field probe has been used to measure surface electric fields in vivo on a human subject over a frequency range of 0.1-800 Hz. The low-frequency electric fields were induced by natural body movements such as walking and turning in the fringe magnetic fields of a 3 T magnetic resonance whole-body scanner. The rate-of-change of magnetic field (dB/dt) was also recorded simultaneously by using three orthogonal search coils positioned near to the location of the electric field probe. Rates-of-change of magnetic field for natural body rotations were found to exceed 1 T s-1 near the end of the magnet bore. Typical electric fields measured on the upper abdomen, head and across the tongue for 1 T s-1 rate of change of magnetic field were 0.15 ± 0.02, 0.077 ± 0.003 and 0.015 ± 0.002 V m-1 respectively. Electric fields on the abdomen and chest were measured during an echo-planar sequence with the subject positioned within the scanner. With the scanner rate-of-change of gradient set to 10 T m-1 s-1 the measured rate-of-change of magnetic field was 2.2 ± 0.1 T s-1 and the peak electric field was 0.30 ± 0.01 V m-1 on the chest. The values of induced electric field can be related to dB/dt by a 'geometry factor' for a given subject and sensor position. Typical values of this factor for the abdomen or chest (for measured surface electric fields) lie in the range of 0.10-0.18 m. The measured values of electric field are consistent with currently available numerical modelling results for movement in static magnetic fields and exposure to switched magnetic field gradients.

  14. Measurement of electric fields induced in a human subject due to natural movements in static magnetic fields or exposure to alternating magnetic field gradients.

    PubMed

    Glover, P M; Bowtell, R

    2008-01-21

    A dual dipole electric field probe has been used to measure surface electric fields in vivo on a human subject over a frequency range of 0.1-800 Hz. The low-frequency electric fields were induced by natural body movements such as walking and turning in the fringe magnetic fields of a 3 T magnetic resonance whole-body scanner. The rate-of-change of magnetic field (dB/dt) was also recorded simultaneously by using three orthogonal search coils positioned near to the location of the electric field probe. Rates-of-change of magnetic field for natural body rotations were found to exceed 1 T s(-1) near the end of the magnet bore. Typical electric fields measured on the upper abdomen, head and across the tongue for 1 T s(-1) rate of change of magnetic field were 0.15+/-0.02, 0.077+/-0.003 and 0.015+/-0.002 V m(-1) respectively. Electric fields on the abdomen and chest were measured during an echo-planar sequence with the subject positioned within the scanner. With the scanner rate-of-change of gradient set to 10 T m(-1) s(-1) the measured rate-of-change of magnetic field was 2.2+/-0.1 T s(-1) and the peak electric field was 0.30+/-0.01 V m(-1) on the chest. The values of induced electric field can be related to dB/dt by a 'geometry factor' for a given subject and sensor position. Typical values of this factor for the abdomen or chest (for measured surface electric fields) lie in the range of 0.10-0.18 m. The measured values of electric field are consistent with currently available numerical modelling results for movement in static magnetic fields and exposure to switched magnetic field gradients.

  15. Exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field beneficially affects allergic inflammation in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Csillag, Anikó; Kumar, Brahma V.; Szabó, Krisztina; Szilasi, Mária; Papp, Zsuzsa; Szilasi, Magdolna E.; Pázmándi, Kitti; Boldogh, István; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Bácsi, Attila; László, János F.

    2014-01-01

    Previous observations suggest that static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure acts on living organisms partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) reactions. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of SMF-exposure on ragweed pollen extract (RWPE)-induced allergic inflammation closely associated with oxidative stress. Inhomogeneous SMF was generated with an apparatus validated previously providing a peak-to-peak magnetic induction of the dominant SMF component 389 mT by 39 T m−1 lateral gradient in the in vivo and in vitro experiments, and 192 mT by 19 T m−1 in the human study at the 3 mm target distance. Effects of SMF-exposure were studied in a murine model of allergic inflammation and also in human provoked skin allergy. We found that even a single 30-min exposure of mice to SMF immediately following intranasal RWPE challenge significantly lowered the increase in the total antioxidant capacity of the airways and decreased allergic inflammation. Repeated (on 3 consecutive days) or prolonged (60 min) exposure to SMF after RWPE challenge decreased the severity of allergic responses more efficiently than a single 30-min treatment. SMF-exposure did not alter ROS production by RWPE under cell-free conditions, while diminished RWPE-induced increase in the ROS levels in A549 epithelial cells. Results of the human skin prick tests indicated that SMF-exposure had no significant direct effect on provoked mast cell degranulation. The observed beneficial effects of SMF are likely owing to the mobilization of cellular ROS-eliminating mechanisms rather than direct modulation of ROS production by pollen NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:24647908

  16. Exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field beneficially affects allergic inflammation in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Csillag, Anikó; Kumar, Brahma V; Szabó, Krisztina; Szilasi, Mária; Papp, Zsuzsa; Szilasi, Magdolna E; Pázmándi, Kitti; Boldogh, István; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Bácsi, Attila; László, János F

    2014-06-06

    Previous observations suggest that static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure acts on living organisms partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) reactions. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of SMF-exposure on ragweed pollen extract (RWPE)-induced allergic inflammation closely associated with oxidative stress. Inhomogeneous SMF was generated with an apparatus validated previously providing a peak-to-peak magnetic induction of the dominant SMF component 389 mT by 39 T m(-1) lateral gradient in the in vivo and in vitro experiments, and 192 mT by 19 T m(-1) in the human study at the 3 mm target distance. Effects of SMF-exposure were studied in a murine model of allergic inflammation and also in human provoked skin allergy. We found that even a single 30-min exposure of mice to SMF immediately following intranasal RWPE challenge significantly lowered the increase in the total antioxidant capacity of the airways and decreased allergic inflammation. Repeated (on 3 consecutive days) or prolonged (60 min) exposure to SMF after RWPE challenge decreased the severity of allergic responses more efficiently than a single 30-min treatment. SMF-exposure did not alter ROS production by RWPE under cell-free conditions, while diminished RWPE-induced increase in the ROS levels in A549 epithelial cells. Results of the human skin prick tests indicated that SMF-exposure had no significant direct effect on provoked mast cell degranulation. The observed beneficial effects of SMF are likely owing to the mobilization of cellular ROS-eliminating mechanisms rather than direct modulation of ROS production by pollen NAD(P)H oxidases.

  17. Effects of chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on energy balance in developing rats.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Amandine; Delanaud, Stéphane; Décima, Pauline; Thuroczy, Gyorgy; de Seze, René; Cerri, Matteo; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Loos, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on the control of body energy balance in developing organisms have not been studied, despite the involvement of energy status in vital physiological functions. We examined the effects of chronic RF-EMF exposure (900 MHz, 1 V m(-1)) on the main functions involved in body energy homeostasis (feeding behaviour, sleep and thermoregulatory processes). Thirteen juvenile male Wistar rats were exposed to continuous RF-EMF for 5 weeks at 24 °C of air temperature (T a) and compared with 11 non-exposed animals. Hence, at the beginning of the 6th week of exposure, the functions were recorded at T a of 24 °C and then at 31 °C. We showed that the frequency of rapid eye movement sleep episodes was greater in the RF-EMF-exposed group, independently of T a (+42.1 % at 24 °C and +31.6 % at 31 °C). The other effects of RF-EMF exposure on several sleep parameters were dependent on T a. At 31 °C, RF-EMF-exposed animals had a significantly lower subcutaneous tail temperature (-1.21 °C) than controls at all sleep stages; this suggested peripheral vasoconstriction, which was confirmed in an experiment with the vasodilatator prazosin. Exposure to RF-EMF also increased daytime food intake (+0.22 g h(-1)). Most of the observed effects of RF-EMF exposure were dependent on T a. Exposure to RF-EMF appears to modify the functioning of vasomotor tone by acting peripherally through α-adrenoceptors. The elicited vasoconstriction may restrict body cooling, whereas energy intake increases. Our results show that RF-EMF exposure can induce energy-saving processes without strongly disturbing the overall sleep pattern.

  18. Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields alters the calcium dynamics of cultured entorhinal cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fen-Lan; Yang, Nian; He, Chao; Li, Hong-Li; Li, Chao; Chen, Fang; Xiong, Jia-Xiang; Hu, Zhi-An; Zhang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have revealed that extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure affects neuronal dendritic spine density and NMDAR and AMPAR subunit expressions in the entorhinal cortex (EC). Although calcium signaling has a critical role in control of EC neuronal functions, however, it is still unclear whether the ELF-EMF exposure affects the EC neuronal calcium homeostasis. In the present study, using whole-cell recording and calcium imaging, we record the whole-cell inward currents that contain the voltage-gated calcium currents and show that ELF-EMF (50Hz, 1mT or 3mT, lasting 24h) exposure does not influence these currents. Next, we specifically isolate the high-voltage activated (HVA) and low-voltage activated (LVA) calcium channels-induced currents. Similarly, the activation and inactivation characteristics of these membrane calcium channels are also not influenced by ELF-EMF. Importantly, ELF-EMF exposure reduces the maximum amplitude of the high-K(+)-evoked calcium elevation in EC neurons, which is abolished by thapsigargin, a Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor, to empty the intracellular calcium stores of EC neurons. Together, these findings indicate that ELF-EMF exposure specifically influences the intracellular calcium dynamics of cultural EC neurons via a calcium channel-independent mechanism.

  19. [Structural-functional changes in lymphocyte ans erythrocyte membranes after exposure to alternating magnetic field].

    PubMed

    Bordiushkov, Iu N; Goroshinskaia, I A; Frantsiiants, E M; Tkacheva, G N; Gorlo, E I; Neskubina, I V

    2000-01-01

    The lymphocyte membrane fluidity, membrane potential, isoenzyme spectrum of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catabolic product level of blood cell receptors in rats, healthy volunteers and patients with ovary and skin tumors were studied under the influence of low frequency electromagnetic field (EMF). The increase of fluidity of rat blood lymphocyte membranes was observed at 20 and 40 min exposure of the lymphocyte suspension to EMF. The increase of ANS fluorescence observed after 20 min exposure to EMF suggested a decrease of cell membrane potential. EMF exerted opposite changes of lymphocyte membrane fluidity of healthy volunteers and the effect depended on the initial level of this parameter. Study of SOD isoenzyme spectrum revealed that Cu,Zn-dependent SOD can account for the superoxide dismutase catalytic activity of supernatant and lymphocytes. The EMF exposure for 20 min caused 2-fold increase of SOD activity. The EMF exposure for 40 min caused the further increase of SOD activity but only in lymphocytes. At the same time the EMF exposure did not influence the actual SOD-activity in erythrocytes. However, there was clear anti-R-reagent-sensitive SOD-activity which was not abolished by DDC. The reasons and possible consequences of these changes of feuidity and SOD-activity under EMF effect are discussed.

  20. A newly designed experimental system for exposure of mammalian cells to extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, J; Ohtsu, S; Tatsumi-Miyajima, J; Takebe, H

    1994-03-01

    To examine the biological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF), we have designed and manufactured a new equipment for long-term and high-density exposure of cells to ELFMF. The ELFMF exposure system consists of a generator of magnets with a built-in CO2 incubator, an alternating current (AC) power supply, a gas compressor and a thermocontroller for the incubator, and a cooling unit for the magnets. The CO2 incubator made of acrylic resin is inserted into the inner-space of the silicon steel strip-cores. In this system, the temperature of the incubator is maintained at 37 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The maximum magnetic flux density on the exposure area of the incubator is 500 mT (T; tesla) at a current of 556 Arms (rms; root mean square) at 50 Hz. The long-term (up to 120 hr) exposure of 400 mT ELFMF did not affect the growth of both HL60RG and CCRF-CEM cells originated from human leukemia. The post-X-irradiation exposure of 400 mT ELFMF for 2 hr also did not affect the radiation sensitivity of GM0637 and TAT2SF cells originated from a normal human and an ataxia telangiectasia patient.

  1. Amplitude modulation detection by human listeners in reverberant sound fields: Effects of prior listening exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zahorik, Pavel; Anderson, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work [Zahorik et al., POMA, 15, 050002 (2012)] has reported that for both broadband and narrowband noise carrier signals in a simulated reverberant sound field, human sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM) is higher than would be predicted based on the acoustical modulation transfer function (MTF) of the listening environment. These results may be suggestive of mechanisms that functionally enhance modulation in reverberant listening, although many details of this enhancement effect are unknown. Given recent findings that demonstrate improvements in speech understanding with prior exposure to reverberant listening environments, it is of interest to determine whether listening exposure to a reverberant room might also influence AM detection in the room, and perhaps contribute to the AM enhancement effect. Here, AM detection thresholds were estimated (using an adaptive 2-alternative forced-choice procedure) in each of two listening conditions: one in which consistent listening exposure to a particular room was provided, and a second that intentionally disrupted listening exposure by varying the room from trial-to-trial. Results suggest that consistent prior listening exposure contributes to enhanced AM sensitivity in rooms. [Work supported by the NIH/NIDCD.] PMID:24163718

  2. [Bioelectromagnetic studies: an analysis of errors in evaluation of electromagnetic field exposure].

    PubMed

    Długosz, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a review of exposure systems used in biomedical studies. Typical exposure systems of the whole frequency range are described. The attention was paid to technical limitations of applicability of the discussed exposure systems and the problem of correlation between the study results obtained in closed (TEM cell) and free spaces. Computer simulations of power absorbed by investigated objects with different numerical methods were made. As presented estimations show, electromagnetic energy absorption may differ between individual objects. The difference is a function of the system dimension and the number of exposed objects. Moreover, the energy distribution in a single object is a function of the frequency, system dimension, and placement of the object in relation to field vectors, not mentioning individual properties of the object. The presented results undermine the interpretation of the results of biomedical investigations carried out with use of closed exposure systems. Even if all inaccuracies and approximations in presented estimations are taken into account, the significance of mutual interactions between tested objects and exposure systems raises no doubts. Therefore, an attempt should be made to re-interpret the results of biomedical studies and to develop a closer cooperation between physicians and engineers.

  3. Controversies on electromagnetic field exposure and the nervous systems of children.

    PubMed

    Warille, Aymen A; Onger, M Emin; Turkmen, A Pinar; Deniz, Ö Gülsüm; Altun, Gamze; Yurt, K Kubra; Altunkaynak, B Zuhal; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviewed possible health effects from exposure to low levels of electromagnetic field (EMF) in children, arising from electrical power sources and mobile phones. Overall, the information about effects on developmental processes and cognitive functions is insufficient and further research on children and adolescents is critically needed. New research approaches are required focused on the effects on the developmental processes of children exposed to electromagnetic fields, using consistent protocols. When the current data were considered in detail, it was noted that children's unique vulnerabilities make them more sensitive to EMFs emitted by electronics and wireless devices, as compared to adults. Some experimental research shows a neurological impact and exposure in humans may lead to the cognitive and behavioral impairments. Because of the proliferation of wireless devices, public awareness of these dangers now is important to safeguard children's future healthy brain development.

  4. Laser intensity determination using nonadiabatic tunneling ionization of atoms in close-to-circularly polarized laser fields.

    PubMed

    Quan, Wei; Yuan, MingHu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Chen, YongJu; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Xiao, ZhiLei; Gong, Cheng; Hua, LinQiang; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2016-10-03

    We conceive an improved procedure to determine the laser intensity with the momentum distributions from nonadiabatic tunneling ionization of atoms in the close-to-circul