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Sample records for intensity neutrino source

  1. Physics prospects with an intense neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomey, Nickolas

    2000-12-01

    With new forthcoming intense neutrino beams, for the study of neutrino oscillations, it is possible to consider other physics experiments that can be done with these extreme neutrino fluxes available close to the source.

  2. High intensity neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, A. K.

    2015-07-15

    High-intensity proton accelerator complex enabled long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with a precisely controlled neutrino beam. The beam power so far achieved is a few hundred kW with enourmorous efforts of accelerator physicists and engineers. However, to fully understand the lepton mixing structure, MW-class accelerators are desired. We describe the current intensity-frontier high-energy proton accelerators, their plans to go beyond and technical challenges in the neutrino beamline facilities.

  3. A very intense neutrino super beam experiment for leptonic CP violation discovery based on the European spallation source linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baussan, E.; Blennow, M.; Bogomilov, M.; Bouquerel, E.; Caretta, O.; Cederkäll, J.; Christiansen, P.; Coloma, P.; Cupial, P.; Danared, H.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Dracos, M.; Ekelöf, T.; Eshraqi, M.; Fernandez Martinez, E.; Gaudiot, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Koutchouk, J.-P.; Lindroos, M.; Loveridge, P.; Matev, R.; McGinnis, D.; Mezzetto, M.; Miyamoto, R.; Mosca, L.; Ohlsson, T.; Öhman, H.; Osswald, F.; Peggs, S.; Poussot, P.; Ruber, R.; Tang, J. Y.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Wurtz, J.

    2014-08-01

    Very intense neutrino beams and large neutrino detectors will be needed in order to enable the discovery of CP violation in the leptonic sector. We propose to use the proton linac of the European Spallation Source currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, to deliver, in parallel with the spallation neutron production, a very intense, cost effective and high performance neutrino beam. The baseline program for the European Spallation Source linac is that it will be fully operational at 5 MW average power by 2022, producing 2 GeV 2.86 ms long proton pulses at a rate of 14 Hz. Our proposal is to upgrade the linac to 10 MW average power and 28 Hz, producing 14 pulses/s for neutron production and 14 pulses/s for neutrino production. Furthermore, because of the high current required in the pulsed neutrino horn, the length of the pulses used for neutrino production needs to be compressed to a few μs with the aid of an accumulator ring. A long baseline experiment using this Super Beam and a megaton underground Water Cherenkov detector located in existing mines 300-600 km from Lund will make it possible to discover leptonic CP violation at 5 σ significance level in up to 50% of the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase range. This experiment could also determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at a significance level of more than 3 σ if this issue will not already have been settled by other experiments by then. The mass hierarchy performance could be increased by combining the neutrino beam results with those obtained from atmospheric neutrinos detected by the same large volume detector. This detector will also be used to measure the proton lifetime, detect cosmological neutrinos and neutrinos from supernova explosions. Results on the sensitivity to leptonic CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy are presented.

  4. Reactor target from metal chromium for "pure" high-intensive artificial neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Logachev, A. V.; Logacheva, A. I.; Lednev, I. S.; Okunkova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of development of manufacturing technology of metallic chromium targets from highly enriched isotope 50Cr for irradiation in a high flux nuclear reactor to obtain a compact high intensity neutrino source with low content of radionuclide impurities and minimum losses of enriched isotope. The main technological stages are the hydrolysis of chromyl fluoride, the electrochemical reduction of metallic chromium, the hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and the electrical discharge machining of chromium bars. The technological stages of hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and of electrical discharge machining of Cr rods have been tested.

  5. A fast chopper for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.; Dymokde-Bradshaw, A.; Hares, J.; Kellett, P.

    2008-10-01

    A fast chopper capable of kicking single 2.5 MeV H-bunches spaced at 325 MHz, at rates greater than 50 MHz is needed for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) [1]. Four 1.2 kV fast pulsers, designed and manufactured by Kentech Instruments Ltd., will drive a 0.5 m long meander made from a copper plated ceramic composite. Test results showing pulses from the first 1.2 kV pulser and meander results will be presented.

  6. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  7. Chromium-51 calibrating neutrino source

    SciTech Connect

    Demchenko, N.F.; Karasev, V.I.; Karelin, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    The problem for measurement of the sun neutrino flux is resolved at the specially made Baksansk neutrino telescope and calls for calibration of registration system. For this a man made neutrino source is required with the known yield of particles and intensity comparable with the intensity of the measured subject. The most suitable radionuclide for production of this source is chromium-51 the radionuclide decay of which is accompanied with neutrino radiation. At the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (in Dimitrovgrad) the production technology is developed as well as the closed chromium-51 neutrino source is made of 4 x 10{sup 5} Ci activity. The parts of active source made in the form of core of metallic isotope-enriched chromium were irradiated in the high flux neutron trap of the SM-2 reactor. The sources were subsequently assembled at the shield cells with remote equipment application. The source was certificated as a special form radioactive material. Due to low half-life of chromium-51 (T 1/2 - 27 hours) all the operations on assembly, certification and delivery of source to the Baksansk Laboratory were performed at the earliest possible date (less than 3 days).

  8. Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini,Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

    2006-04-15

    The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here.

  9. Measuring the neutrino mass using intense photon and neutrino beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicus, Duane A.; Repko, Wayne W.; Vega, Roberto

    2000-11-01

    We compute the cross section for neutrino-photon scattering taking into account a neutrino mass. We explore the possibility of using intense neutrino beams, such as those available at proposed muon colliders, together with high powered lasers to probe the neutrino mass in photon-neutrino collisions.

  10. Probing of the neutrino magnetic moment at the level of 10{sup -22} μ{sub B} with an intense tritium source of (anti)neutrino and helium target (project)

    SciTech Connect

    Martemyanov, V.P.; Aleshin, V.I.; Tarasenko, V.G.; Tsinoev, V.G.; Sabelnikov, A.A.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Popov, V.V.; Baluev, V.V.; Golubkov, A.N.; Klevtsov, V.G.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Sitdikov, D.T.; Bogdanova, L.N.

    2015-03-15

    We present research results of the preparation project for the experimental measurement of the (anti)neutrino magnetic moment at the level of 10{sup -12} μ{sub B} using an intense tritium source of antineutrinos and a liquid helium scintillation detector. The neutrino detection in the scintillation detector is based on the scattering of neutrinos by the electrons of the helium atoms that produces fast electrons able to ionize and exciting helium atoms. The detection of the atomic radiation emitted during the relaxation process of the helium atoms and the knowledge of its parameters will allow us to conclude on the neutrino properties.

  11. Probing neutrino nature at Borexino detector with chromium neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobków, W.; Błaut, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we indicate a possibility of utilizing the intense chromium source (˜ 370 PBq) in probing the neutrino nature in low energy neutrino experiments with the ultra-low threshold and background real-time Borexino detector located near the source (˜ 8 m). We analyse the elastic scattering of electron neutrinos (Dirac or Majorana, respectively) on the unpolarised electrons in the relativistic neutrino limit. We assume that the incoming neutrino beam is the superposition of left-right chiral states produced by the chromium source. Left chiral neutrinos may be detected by the standard V - A and non-standard scalar S_L, pseudoscalar P_L, tensor T_L interactions, while right chiral ones partake only in the exotic V + A and S_R, P_R, T_R interactions. Our model-independent study is carried out for the flavour (current) neutrino eigenstates. We compute the expected event number for the standard V-A interaction of the left chiral neutrinos using the current experimental values of standard couplings and in the case of left-right chiral superposition. We show that the significant decrement in the event number due to the interference terms between the standard and exotic interactions for the Majorana neutrinos may appear. We also demonstrate how the presence of the exotic couplings affects the energy spectrum of outgoing electrons, both for the Dirac and Majorana cases. The 90~% C.L. sensitivity contours in the planes of corresponding exotic couplings are found. The presence of interferences in the Majorana case gives the stronger constraints than for the Dirac neutrinos, even if the neutrino source is placed outside the detector.

  12. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-10-05

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings ({mu}SR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included.

  13. PREFACE: Neutrino physics at spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avignone, F. T.; Chatterjee, L.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Strayer, M.

    2003-11-01

    Unique because of their super-light masses and tiny interaction cross sections, neutrinos combine fundamental physics on the scale of the miniscule with macroscopic physics on the scale of the cosmos. Starting from the ignition of the primal p-p chain of stellar and solar fusion reactions that signal star-birth, these elementary leptons (neutrinos) are also critical players in the life-cycles and explosive deaths of massive stars and the production and disbursement of heavy elements. Stepping beyond their importance in solar, stellar and supernova astrophysics, neutrino interactions and properties influence the evolution, dynamics and symmetries of the cosmos as a whole. Further, they serve as valuable probes of its material content at various levels of structure from atoms and nuclei to valence and sea quarks. In the light of the multitude of physics phenomena that neutrinos influence, it is imperative to enhance our understanding of neutrino interactions and properties to the maximum. This is accentuated by the recent evidence of finite neutrino mass and flavour mixing between generations that reverberates on the plethora of physics that neutrinos influence. Laboratory experiments using intense neutrino fluxes would allow precision measurements and determination of important neutrino reaction rates. These can then complement atmospheric, solar and reactor experiments that have enriched so valuably our understanding of the neutrino and its repertoire of physics applications. In particular, intermediate energy neutrino experiments can provide critical information on stellar and solar astrophysical processes, along with advancing our knowledge of nuclear structure, sub-nuclear physics and fundamental symmetries. So where should we look for such intense neutrino sources? Spallation neutron facilities by their design are sources of intense neutrino pulses that are produced as a by-product of neutron spallation. These neutrino sources could serve as unique laboratories

  14. Measureable characteristics of extraterrestrial sources of high energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Learned, J.; Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations were carried out to determine the characteristics of extraterrestial neutrino sources that could be observed in a high energy ( 1 TeV) neutrino detector given an adequate source intensity. Measureable quantities such as y and the ratio of muonless to muon containing events can, potentially, reveal source characteristics such as charge state (matter or antimatter), density, and local particle spectrum. Comparisons were made with the flux of atmospheric neutrinos including the effects of prompt neutrinos.

  15. Calorimetric method for determination of 51Cr neutrino source activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental study of nonstandard neutrino properties using high-intensity artificial neutrino sources requires the activity of the sources to be determined with high accuracy. In the BEST project, a calorimetric system for measurement of the activity of high-intensity (a few MCi) neutrino sources based on 51Cr with an accuracy of 0.5-1% is created. In the paper, the main factors affecting the accuracy of determining the neutrino source activity are discussed. The calorimetric system design and the calibration results using a thermal simulator of the source are presented.

  16. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    DOE PAGES

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; ...

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ+ and μ– beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case ismore » a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. Furthermore, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.« less

  17. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densam, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chance, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gomez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernandez, P.; Martin-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernandez Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menendez, J.; Giunti, C.; Gonzalez Garcia, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L. J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J. S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ+ and μ beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. Furthermore, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  18. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-18

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. How bright can the brightest neutrino source be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Feyereisen, Michael R.; Fornasa, Mattia

    2017-05-01

    After the discovery of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos, the next major goal of neutrino telescopes will be identifying astrophysical objects that produce them. The flux of the brightest source Fmax, however, cannot be probed by studying the diffuse neutrino intensity. We aim at constraining Fmax by adopting a broken power-law flux distribution, a hypothesis supported by observed properties of any generic astrophysical sources. The first estimate of Fmax comes from the fact that we can only observe one universe and, hence, the expected number of sources above Fmax cannot be too small compared with one. For abundant source classes such as starburst galaxies, this one-source constraint yields a value of Fmax that is an order of magnitude lower than the current upper limits from point-source searches. Then we derive upper limits on Fmax assuming that the angular power spectrum is still consistent with neutrino shot noise. We find that the limits obtained with upgoing muon neutrinos in IceCube can already be quite competitive, especially for rare but bright source populations such as blazars. The limits will improve nearly quadratically with exposure and, therefore, be even more powerful for the next generation of neutrino telescopes.

  20. Calorimetric method for determination of {sup 51}Cr neutrino source activity

    SciTech Connect

    Veretenkin, E. P. Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.

    2015-12-15

    Experimental study of nonstandard neutrino properties using high-intensity artificial neutrino sources requires the activity of the sources to be determined with high accuracy. In the BEST project, a calorimetric system for measurement of the activity of high-intensity (a few MCi) neutrino sources based on {sup 51}Cr with an accuracy of 0.5–1% is created. In the paper, the main factors affecting the accuracy of determining the neutrino source activity are discussed. The calorimetric system design and the calibration results using a thermal simulator of the source are presented.

  1. Detection of extended galactic sources with an underwater neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Leisos, A.; Tsirigotis, A. G.; Tzamarias, S. E.; Lenis, D.

    2014-11-18

    In this study we investigate the discovery capability of a Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope to Galactic extended sources. We focus on the brightest HESS gamma rays sources which are considered also as very high energy neutrino emitters. We use the unbinned method taking into account both the spatial and the energy distribution of high energy neutrinos and we investigate parts of the Galactic plane where nearby potential neutrino emitters form neutrino source clusters. Neutrino source clusters as well as isolated neutrino sources are combined to estimate the observation period for 5 sigma discovery of neutrino signals from these objects.

  2. Opportunities for Neutrino Physics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    SciTech Connect

    Efremenko, Yuri; Hix, William Raphael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss opportunities for a neutrino program at the Spallation Neutrons Source (SNS) being commissioning at ORNL. Possible investigations can include study of neutrino-nuclear cross sections in the energy rage important for supernova dynamics and neutrino nucleosynthesis, search for neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering, and various tests of the standard model of electro-weak interactions.

  3. First results from the 51Cr neutrino source experiment with the GALLEX detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmann, P.; Fockenbrock, R.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Pezzoni, S.; Rönn, U.; Sann, M.; Spielker, F.; Wink, R.; Wójcik, M.; Ammon, R. V.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Schlosser, C.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Lalla, H.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; Feilitzsch, F. V.; Mößbauer, R.; Schanda, U.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Bevilacqua, A.; Charbit, S.; Cribier, M.; Dupont, G.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Hartmann, F. X.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.; GALLEX Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    The radiochemical GALLEX experiment, which has been measuring the solar neutrino flux since May 1991, has performed an investigation with an intense man-made 51Cr neutrino source (61.9 ± 1.2 PBq). The source, produced via neutron irradiation of ≈ 36 kg of chromium enriched in 50Cr, primarily emits 746 keV neutrinos. It was placed for a period of 3.5 months in the reentrant tube in the GALLEX tank, to expose the gallium chloride target to a known neutrino flux. This experiment provides the ratio, R, of the production rate of Cr-produced 71Ge measured in these source exposures to the rate expected from the known source activity: R = 1.04 ± 0.12. This result not only constitutes the first observation of low-energy neutrinos from a terrestrial source, but also (a) provides an overall check of GALLEX, indicating that there are no significant experimental artifacts or unknown errors at the 10% level that are comparable to the 40% deficit in observed solar neutrino signal, and (b) directly demonstrates for the first time, using a man-made neutrino source, the validity of the basic principles of radiochemical methods used to detect rare events (at the level of 10 atoms or less). Because of the close similarity in neutrino energy spectra from 51Cr and from the solar 7Be branch, this source experiment also shows that the gallium detector is sensitive to 7Be neutrinos with full efficiency.

  4. Neutrino Intensity Interferometry: Measuring Protoneutron Star Radii During Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Warren P.; Kneller, James P.

    2017-08-01

    Intensity interferometry is a technique that has been used to measure the size of sources ranging from the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy ion collisions to the radii of stars. We investigate using the same technique to measure protoneutron star (PNS) radii with the neutrino signal received from a core-collapse supernovae. Using a full wave-packet analysis, including the neutrino mass for the first time, we derive criteria where the effect can be expected to provide the desired signal, and find that neutrinos from the next Galactic supernova should contain extractable PNS radius information.

  5. Detection of supernova neutrinos at spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2016-07-01

    After considering supernova shock effects, Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, neutrino collective effects, and Earth matter effects, the detection of supernova neutrinos at the China Spallation Neutron Source is studied and the expected numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are calculated with the neutrino energy spectra described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution and the “beta fit” distribution respectively. Furthermore, the numerical calculation method of supernova neutrino detection on Earth is applied to some other spallation neutron sources, and the total expected numbers of supernova neutrinos observed through different reactions channels are given. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205185, 11175020, 11275025, 11575023)

  6. Neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Dave; Cowen, Doug; Selen, Mats; Wiebusch, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos represent a new “window” to the Universe, spanning a large range of energy. We discuss the science of neutrino astrophysics and focus on two energy regimes. At “lower” energies (≈1 MeV), studies of neutrinos born inside the sun, or produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, have allowed the first incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos have mass. At energies typically one thousand to one million times higher, sources further than the sun (both within the Milky Way and beyond) are expected to produce a flux of particles that can be detected only through neutrinos. PMID:10588680

  7. Current status of new SAGE project with 51Cr neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V.; Cleveland, B.; Danshin, S.; Elliott, S.; Gorbachev, V.; Ibragimova, T.; Kalikhov, A.; Knodel, T.; Kozlova, Yu.; Malyshkin, Yu.; Matveev, V.; Mirmov, I.; Nico, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Shikhin, A.; Sinclair, D.; Veretenkin, E.; Wilkerson, J.

    2015-03-01

    A very short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with an intense 51Cr neutrino source is currently under construction at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research RAS (BNO). The experiment, which is based on the existing SAGE experiment, will use an upgraded Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope (GGNT) and an artificial 51Cr neutrino source with activity ˜3 MCi to search for transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states with Δ m 2 ˜1 eV2. The neutrino source will be placed in the center of a liquid Ga metal target that is divided into two concentric zones, internal and external. The average path length of neutrinos in each zone will be the same and the neutrino capture rate will be measured separately in each zone. The oscillation signature, which comes from the ratio of events in the near and far gallium volumes, will be largely free of systematic errors, such as may occur from cross section and source strength uncertainties, and will provide a clean signal of electron neutrino disappearance into a sterile state at baselines of about 0.6 and 2.0 m. The sensitivity to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is expected to be a few percent. Construction of this set of new facilities, including a two-zone tank for irradiation of 50 tons of Ga metal with the intense 51Cr source, as well as additional modules of the GGNT counting and extraction systems, is close to completion. To check the new facilities they will first be used for SAGE solar neutrino measurements.

  8. Probing light sterile neutrino signatures at reactor and Spallation Neutron Source neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, T. S.; Papoulias, D. K.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the impact of a fourth sterile neutrino at reactor and Spallation Neutron Source neutrino detectors. Specifically, we explore the discovery potential of the TEXONO and COHERENT experiments to subleading sterile neutrino effects through the measurement of the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering event rate. Our dedicated χ2-sensitivity analysis employs realistic nuclear structure calculations adequate for high purity sub-keV threshold Germanium detectors.

  9. Search for point sources of high energy neutrinos with Amanda

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.

    2002-08-01

    Report of search for likely point sources for neutrinos observed by the Amanda detector. Places intensity limits on observable point sources. This paper describes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector, an array of 302 photomultiplier tubes, used for the detection of Cherenkov light from upward traveling neutrino-induced muons, buried deep in ice at the South Pole. The absolute pointing accuracy and angular resolution were studied by using coincident events between the AMANDA detector and two independent telescopes on the surface, the GASP air Cherenkov telescope and the SPASE extensive air shower array. Using data collected from April to October of 1997 (130.1 days of livetime), a general survey of the northern hemisphere revealed no statistically significant excess of events from any direction. The sensitivity for a flux of muon neutrinos is based on the effective detection area for through-going muons. Averaged over the Northern sky, the effective detection area exceeds 10,000 m{sup 2} for E{sub {mu}} {approx} 10 TeV. Neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions were used to verify the predicted performance of the detector. For a source with a differential energy spectrum proportional to E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} and declination larger than +40{sup o}, we obtain E{sup 2} (dN{sub {nu}}/dE) {le} 10{sup -6} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for an energy threshold of 10 GeV.

  10. High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C>

    1998-05-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam via muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design.

  11. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  12. Neutrino oscillations: A source of Goldstone fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bento, L.

    1998-01-01

    It is proved that true Goldstone bosons develop coherent fields whenever the associated charges of the matter particles are not conserved in a macroscopic scale. The sources of the Goldstone fields are the time rates of quantum number violation. The case of neutrino flavor oscillations is studied with application to supernovae. It is shown that if the lepton numbers break at the Fermi scale, the {nu} potentials and oscillation patterns change in the periods of largest {nu} fluxes. In this way, {bar {nu}}{sub e}{leftrightarrow}{bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations may occur in the first instants of {nu} emission. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Searches for Point-like Sources of Astrophysical Neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feintzeig, Jacob

    Cosmic rays are accelerated to high energies in astrophysical objects, and create neutrinos when interacting with matter or photons. Observing a point source of high-energy astro-physical neutrinos would therefore be a smoking gun signature of cosmic ray acceleration. While evidence for a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos was recently found, the origin of this flux is not yet known. We present three analyses searching for neutrino point sources with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic kilometer Cherenkov detector located at the geographic South Pole. The analyses target astrophysical sources emitting neutrinos of all flavors, and cover energies from TeV to EeV. The first analysis searches point source emission of muon neutrinos using throughgoing muon tracks. The second analysis searches for spatial clustering among high-energy astrophysical neutrino candidate events, and is sensitive to neutrinos of all three flavors. The third analysis selects starting track events, muon neutrinos with interactions vertices inside the detector, to lower the energy threshold in the southern hemisphere. In each analysis, an un-binned likelihood method tests for spatial clustering of events anywhere in the sky as well as for neutrinos correlated with known gamma-ray sources. All results are consistent with the background-only hypothesis, and the resulting upper limits on E-2 neutrino emission are the most stringent throughout the entire sky. In the northern hemisphere, the upper limits are beginning to constrain emission models. In the southern hemisphere, the upper limits in the 100 TeV energy range are an order of magnitude lower than previous IceCube results, but are not yet probing predicted flux levels. By comparing the point source limits to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, we also constrain the minimum number of neutrino sources and investigate the properties of potential source populations contributing to the diffuse flux. Additionally, an a

  14. FEASIBILITY STUDY II OF A MUON BASED NEUTRINO SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    GALLARDO,J.C.; OZAKI,S.; PALMER,R.B.; ZISMAN,M.

    2001-06-30

    The concept of using a muon storage ring to provide a well characterized beam of muon and electron neutrinos (a Neutrino Factory) has been under study for a number of years now at various laboratories throughout the world. The physics program of a Neutrino Factoryis focused on the relatively unexplored neutrino sector. In conjunction with a detector located a suitable distance from the neutrino source, the facility would make valuable contributions to the study of neutrino masses and lepton mixing. A Neutrino Factory is expected to improve the measurement accuracy of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} and provide measurements of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) and the sign of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}. It may also be able to measure CP violation in the lepton sector.

  15. Solar neutrino experiments and a test for neutrino oscillations with radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Rowley, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment are given and compared to the most recent standard solar model calculations. The observations are about a factor of 4 below theoretical expectations. In view of the uncertainties involved in the theoretical models of the sun, the discrepancy is not considered to be evidence for neutrino oscillations. The status of the development of a gallium solar neutrino detector is described. Radiochemical neutrino detectors can be used to search for ..nu../sub e/ oscillations by using megacurie sources of monoenergetic neutrinos like /sup 65/Zn. A quantitative evaluation of possible experiments using the Brookhaven chlorine solar neutrino detector and a gallium detector is given. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Neutrino signal from extended Galactic sources in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernin, C.; Aguilar, J. A.; Neronov, A.; Montaruli, T.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The Galactic plane is the brightest source of γ rays in the sky. It should also be one of the brightest very-high-energy neutrino sources, if a neutrino flux comparable to the γ-ray flux is produced by the cosmic ray interactions in the interstellar medium. Aims: We explore the detectability of the neutrino flux from the entire Galactic plane or from a part of it with the IceCube neutrino detector. Methods: We calculated the normalization and the spectral index of the neutrino power-law spectrum from different regions of the Galactic plane, based on the observed spectral characteristics of the pion decay γ-ray diffuse emission observed by the Fermi/LAT telescope in the energy band above 100 GeV. We compared the neutrino flux calculated in this way with the sensitivity of IceCube for the detection of extended sources. Results: Assuming a binned extended source analysis method, we find that the only possible evidence of neutrino emission for sources located in the northern hemisphere after 20 years of exposure is from the Cygnus region. For other parts of the Galactic plane even a 20 year exposure with IceCube is not sufficient for the detection. Taking into account marginal significance of the detectable source in the Cygnus region, we find a precise position and size of the source region that optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio for neutrinos. We also calculated the low-energy threshold above which the neutrino signal can be detected with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. This calculation of precise source position, size, and energy range, based on the γ-ray data, can be used to remove the so-called trial factor in the analysis of the real neutrino data of IceCube. We notice that the diffuse neutrino emission from the inner Galactic plane in the southern hemisphere is much brighter. A neutrino detector with characteristics equivalent to IceCube, but placed at the northern hemisphere (such as KM3NeT), would detect several isolated neutrino sources in

  17. An intense radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckeown, J.; Labrie, J.-P.; Funk, L. W.

    1985-05-01

    A 10 MeV linear accelerator operating at 100% duty factor has been designed for large radiation processing applications. A beam intensity of 50 mA has the capacity to irradiate up to 1.3 MGy-Mg/h (130 Mrad-tonne/h) making it suitable for emerging applications in bulk food irradiation and waste treatment. An ability to provide high dose rate makes on-line detoxification of industrial pollutants possible. The source can compete economically with steam-based processes, such as the degradation of cellulosic materials for the production of chemicals and liquid fuels, hence new industrial applications are expected. The paper describes the main machine components, the operating characteristics and a typical application.

  18. Glashow resonance as a window into cosmic neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, V.; Fu, Lingjun; Learned, J. G.; Marfatia, D.; Pakvasa, S.; Weiler, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Glashow resonance at Eν=6.3 PeV is a measure of the ν¯ e content of the astrophysical neutrino flux. The fractional ν¯e content depends on the neutrino production model at the cosmic neutrino source, and the environment at the source. Thus, the strength of the Glashow resonance event rate is a potential window into astrophysical sources. We quantify the "Glashow resonometer" and comment on the significance that no Glashow events are observed in the IceCube three-year data.

  19. FIRST SEARCH FOR POINT SOURCES OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC NEUTRINOS WITH THE ANTARES NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2011-12-10

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 {+-} 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}(E{sub {nu}}/ GeV){sup -2} GeV{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for the part of the sky that is always visible ({delta} < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed.

  20. First Search for Point Sources of High-energy Cosmic Neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J. A.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-12-01

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 ± 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 × 10-8(E ν/ GeV)-2 GeV-1 s-1 cm-2 for the part of the sky that is always visible (δ < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed. We dedicate this Letter to the memory of our colleague and friend Luciano Moscoso, who passed away during the preparation of this Letter.

  1. Probing neutrino magnetic moments at the Spallation Neutron Source facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, T. S.; Miranda, O. G.; Papoulias, D. K.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2015-07-01

    Majorana neutrino electromagnetic properties are studied through neutral current coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. We focus on the potential of the recently planned COHERENT experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source to probe muon-neutrino magnetic moments. The resulting sensitivities are determined on the basis of a χ2 analysis employing realistic nuclear structure calculations in the context of the quasiparticle random phase approximation. We find that they can improve existing limits by half an order of magnitude. In addition, we show that these facilities allow for standard model precision tests in the low energy regime, with a competitive determination of the weak mixing angle. Finally, they also offer the capability to probe other electromagnetic neutrino properties, such as the neutrino charge radius. We illustrate our results for various choices of experimental setup and target material.

  2. Diffuse neutrino intensity from the inner jets of active galactic nuclei: Impacts of external photon fields and the blazar sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Dermer, Charles D.

    2014-07-01

    We study high-energy neutrino production in inner jets of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN), taking into account effects of external photon fields and the blazar sequence. We show that the resulting diffuse neutrino intensity is dominated by quasar-hosted blazars, in particular, flat spectrum radio quasars, and that PeV-EeV neutrino production due to photohadronic interactions with broadline and dust radiation is unavoidable if the AGN inner jets are ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) sources. Their neutrino spectrum has a cutoff feature around PeV energies since target photons are due to Lyα emission. Because of infrared photons provided by the dust torus, neutrino spectra above PeV energies are too hard to be consistent with the IceCube data unless the proton spectral index is steeper than 2.5, or the maximum proton energy is ≲100 PeV. Thus, the simple model has difficulty in explaining the IceCube data. For the cumulative neutrino intensity from blazars to exceed ˜10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1, their local cosmic-ray energy generation rate would be ˜10-100 times larger than the local UHECR emissivity but is comparable to the averaged γ-ray blazar emissivity. Interestingly, future detectors such as the Askaryan Radio Array can detect ˜0.1-1 EeV neutrinos even in more conservative cases, allowing us to indirectly test the hypothesis that UHECRs are produced in the inner jets. We find that the diffuse neutrino intensity from radio-loud AGN is dominated by blazars with γ-ray luminosity of ≳1048 erg s-1, and the arrival directions of their ˜1-100 PeV neutrinos correlate with the luminous blazars detected by Fermi.

  3. Artificial neutrino source based on the {sup 37}Ar isotope

    SciTech Connect

    Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Kotelnikov, N. A.; Markov, S. Yu.; Selin, V. V.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N. Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-02-15

    In April 2004, a neutrino source was produced by irradiating a 330-kg piece of pressed calcium oxide at the fast-neutron reactor BN-600 (Zarechny, Russia) for six months. The {sup 37}Ar isotope was obtained via the (n, {alpha}) reaction on {sup 40}Ca, and {sup 37}Ar was extracted from an aqueous solution of nitric acid in which the solid target was dissolved. After that, {sup 37}Ar was purified and sealed into a capsule. This source was used to measure the neutrino-capture rate in metalic gallium for neutrinos from {sup 37}Ar decay, which have an energy close to that of the main line of solar {sup 7}Be neutrinos (863 keV). The target of the SAGE Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope was irradiated by using this source at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences). The source activity was measured by several methods during its production, in the course of irradiation, and after its completion. The weighted mean of the activity for six measurements was 409 {+-} 2 kCi at the beginning of irradiation of the gallium target (04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004). The scatter in the activity values obtained by different methods does not exceed 5%.

  4. Artificial neutrino source based on the 37Ar isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Kotelnikov, N. A.; Markov, S. Yu.; Selin, V. V.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-02-01

    In April 2004, a neutrino source was produced by irradiating a 330-kg piece of pressed calcium oxide at the fast-neutron reactor BN-600 (Zarechny, Russia) for six months. The 37Ar isotope was obtained via the (n, α) reaction on 40Ca, and 37Ar was extracted from an aqueous solution of nitric acid in which the solid target was dissolved. After that, 37Ar was purified and sealed into a capsule. This source was used to measure the neutrino-capture rate in metalic gallium for neutrinos from 37Ar decay, which have an energy close to that of the main line of solar 7Be neutrinos (863 keV). The target of the SAGE Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope was irradiated by using this source at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences). The source activity was measured by several methods during its production, in the course of irradiation, and after its completion. The weighted mean of the activity for six measurements was 409 ± 2 kCi at the beginning of irradiation of the gallium target (04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004). The scatter in the activity values obtained by different methods does not exceed 5%.

  5. Right-handed neutrinos as the source of density perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Creminelli, Paolo

    2006-05-15

    We study the possibility that cosmological density perturbations are generated by the inhomogeneous decay of right-handed neutrinos. This will occur if a scalar field whose fluctuations are created during inflation is coupled to the neutrino sector. Robust predictions of the model are a detectable level of non-Gaussianity and, if standard leptogenesis is the source of the baryon asymmetry, a baryon isocurvature perturbations at the level of the present experimental constraints.

  6. Dust Obscured Blazars as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, G.; de Vries, K. D.; van Eijndhoven, N.

    2016-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are believed to be among the most promising sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray flux. A hadronic component which is accelerated in the high energy environment of an AGN immediately implies the production of high-energy neutrinos. Nevertheless, no clear correlation between AGN and the high-energy cosmic-neutrino flux obtained by IceCube has been found so-far, putting strong limits on the neutrino production at AGN. We discuss a specific type of AGN for which an enhanced neutrino production is expected. This specific sub-set is given by AGN with their high-energy jet directed toward Earth, which is obscured by surrounding dust or gas, defining Dust Obscured Blazars. This type of AGN is predicted to have an enhanced neutrino emission due to the interaction of a possible hadronic component inside the AGN-jet with the surrounding matter. From two different galaxy catalogs, we have selected a sample of nearby sources with the characteristics of Dust Obscured Blazars. This selection is based on observations in the X-ray and radio bands. The data is consequently used to investigate the column density of the surrounding matter, providing an estimate for the neutrino production enhancement due to the nucleon-matter interactions in a beam dump scenario for various dust or gas compositions.

  7. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  8. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  9. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  10. Intense XUV Radiation Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    ifapplicable) AFOSR/NP 6c. ADDRESS (0ty, State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS ( City , State, and ZIP Code) Building 410, Bolling AFB DC College Park, MD 20742 20332...6448 8a. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if applicable) Bc. "DPSS ( City , State...the basis for the new generation laser plasma light source chamber just completed in the laboratory. A paper is being prepared describing the new

  11. Intense neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, R.J.; Bacon, F.M.; Brainard, J.P.; O'Hagan, J.B.; Riedel, A.A.

    1983-04-01

    A ScD/sub 2/ target film 5x10/sup -5/ m thick, tested in a UHV compatible 200 keV deuterium accelerator baked to 470/sup 0/C, maintained a D-D neutron output rate of 1.0-1.2x10/sup 11//s for 80 out of 140 hours of operation. This result demonstrates that a D-T neutron generator capable of a neutron output rate of 1x10/sup 13//s and having a target lifetime suitable for cancer therapy is possible. Contrary to sputter rate data, ErD/sub 2/ target films appear to erode about twice as fast as ScD/sub 2/ films, making ErD/sub 2/ unsuitable as a target material. A low pressure ion source has been developed to replace the high pressure duopigatron. Experiments have verified that the single ring magnetic cusp ion source can deliver 200 mA of deuterium ions (approx. =60% D/sup +/) at 10-15 A of arc current with a background deuterium pressure of 0.27-0.40 Pa. This source will improve the safety of a D-T machine by reducing the tritium inventory by a factor of 6, and by utilizing the Zr-Al getter as the gas reservoir.

  12. Intense neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, R.J.; Brainard, J.P.; Riedel, A.A.; O'Hagan, J.B.; Bacon, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    A ScD/sub 2/ target film 5 x 10/sup -5/ m thick, tested in a UHV compatible 200 keV deuterium accelerator baked to 470/sup 0/C, maintained a D-D neutron output rate of 1.0-1.2x10'' /s for 80 out of 140 hours of operation. This result demonstrates that a D-T neutron generator capable of a neutron output rate of 1 x 10/sup 13//s and having a target lifetime suitable for cancer therapy is possible. Contrary to sputter rate data, ErD/sub 2/ target films appear to erode about twice as fast as ScD/sub 2/ films, making ErD/sub 2/ unsuitable as a target material. A low pressure ion source has been developed to replace the more complicated duopigatron. Experiments have verified that the single ring magnetic cusp ion source can deliver 200 mA of deuterium ions (approx. = 60% D/sup +/) at 10-15 A of arc current with a background deuterium pressure of 0.27-0.40 Pa. This source will improve the safety of a D-T machine by reducing the tritium inventory by a factor of 6, and by utilizing the Zr-Al getter as the gas reservoir.

  13. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  14. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; ...

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  15. Constraining high-energy cosmic neutrino sources: Implications and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Waxman, Eli

    2016-11-01

    We consider limits on the local (z =0 ) density (n0) of extragalactic neutrino sources set by the nondetection of steady high-energy neutrino sources producing ≳50 TeV muon multiplets in the present IceCube data, taking into account the redshift evolution, luminosity function, and neutrino spectrum of the sources. We show that the lower limit depends moderately on source spectra and strongly on redshift evolution. We find n0≳10-8- 10-7 Mpc-3 for standard candle sources evolving rapidly, ns∝(1+z ) 3 , and n0≳10-6- 10-5 Mpc-3 for nonevolving sources. The corresponding upper limits on their neutrino luminosity are Lνμ eff≲1 042- 1 043 erg s-1 and Lνμ eff≲1 041- 1 042 erg s-1 , respectively. Applying these results to a wide range of classes of potential sources, we show that powerful "blazar" jets associated with active galactic nuclei are unlikely to be the dominant sources. For almost all other steady candidate source classes (including starbursts, radio galaxies, and galaxy clusters and groups), an order of magnitude increase in the detector sensitivity at ˜0.1 - 1 PeV will enable a detection (as point sources) of the few brightest objects. Such an increase, which may be provided by next-generation detectors like IceCube-Gen2 and an upgraded KM3NET, can improve the limit on n0 by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Future gamma-ray observations (by Fermi, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory, and the Cherenkov Telescope Array) will play a key role in confirming the association of the neutrinos with their sources.

  16. Investigation of a Possibility of Chromium-51 Accumulation in the SM-3 Reactor to Fabricate a Neutrino Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, E. G.; Gavrin, V. N.; Tarasov, V. A.; Malkov, A. P.; Kupriyanov, A. V.; Danshin, S. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.

    2017-01-01

    Compact high intensity neutrino sources based on 51Cr isotope are demanded for very short baseline neutrino experiments. In particular, a 3 MCi 51Cr neutrino source is needed for the experiment BEST on search for transitions of electron neutrinos to sterile states. The paper presents the results of the analysis of options of the irradiation of highly enriched 50Cr in the existing trap of thermal neutrons of high-flux reactor SM–3, as well as using the most promising variants of the trap after upcoming reconstruction of the reactor. It is shown that it is possible to to obtain the intensity of 51Cr up to 3.85 MCi at the end of irradiation of 50Cr enriched to 97% in the high-flux reactor SM–3 of the JSC “SSC NIIAR”.

  17. A Large Neutrino Detector at the National Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazely, Ali R.; Avignone, F.; Bugg, B.; Cochran, A. K.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Gabriel, T. A.; Imlay, R.; Kamishkov, Yu.; Metcalf, W.; Plasil, F.; Svoboda, R.; Tashakkori, R.

    1997-10-01

    We propose to construct a massive detector to search for neutrino oscillations and other neutrino induced reactions, as a comprehensive test of the electroweak theory of the Standard Model of particle phyiscs, at the National Spallation Neutron Source proposed to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The principal motivation of the experiment is to perform a class of experiments to rigorously test the validity of the standard model of particle physics using neutrinos as a probe. The proposed detector will yield high statistics neutrino-electron scattering for precise neutral current studies. The experiment will search for the appearance of barνe from barν_μ produced in the beam-stop from muons decaying at rest. It will also search for ν_μ arrow νe oscillations with super high sensitivity. The detector is to be used in conjunction with the newly proposed high-intensity short beam-spill spallation source. The experiment will yield data with high statistical precision and small systematic errors due to the precise measurement of νe + ^12C arrow ^12N_g.s. + e^- cross section. The proposed detector makes it also possible to measure other neutrino cross sections with super high precision which are of interest to fundamental physics as well as nuclear physics and astrophysics.

  18. Proton Beam Intensity Upgrades for the Neutrino Program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.

    2016-12-15

    Fermilab is committed to upgrading its accelerator complex towards the intensity frontier to pursue HEP research in the neutrino sector and beyond. The upgrade has two steps: 1) the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP), which is underway, has its primary goal to start providing 700 kW beam power on NOvA target by the end of 2017 and 2) the foreseen PIP–II will replace the existing LINAC, a 400 MeV injector to the Booster, by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC by the middle of next decade, with output beam intensity from the Booster increased significantly and the beam power on the NOvA target increased to <1.2 MW. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for the next two decades. In this context, we have recently developed and commissioned an innovative beam injection scheme for the Booster called "early injection scheme". This scheme is already in operation and has a potential to increase the Booster beam intensity from the PIP design goal by a considerable amount with a reduced beam emittance and beam loss. In this paper, we will present results from our experience from the new scheme in operation, current status and future plans.

  19. Final results of the 51Cr neutrino source experiments in GALLEX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Rau, W.; Roenn, U.; Schlosser, C.; Wojcik, M.; von Ammon, R.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Hartmann, F. X.; Sann, M.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Moessbauer, R.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cribier, M.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1998-02-01

    The radiochemical GALLEX experiment, which has been measuring the solar neutrino flux since May 1991, has performed an investigation with two intense 51Cr neutrino sources that were produced in the Siloé nuclear reactor and used at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, one between June and October 1994, and the second between October 95 and February 96. The ratio, R, of the the neutrino source strength derived from the measured rate of 71Ge production, divided by the directly determined source strength is R = 1.01 (-0.11, +0.12) for the first source and R = 0.84 (-0.11, +0.12) for the second one. The combined value of R for the two source experiments is R = 0.93±0.08. It shows that the >40% deficit of solar neutrino flux observed by GALLEX cannot be attributed to experimental artifacts and demonstrates the absence of any significant unexpected systematic errors at the 10% level.

  20. Final results of the 51Cr neutrino source experiments in GALLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GALLEX Collaboration; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Rau, W.; Rönn, U.; Schlosser, C.; Wójcik, M.; Ammon, R. V.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Hartmann, F. X.; Sann, M.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; Feilitzsch, F. V.; Mößbauer, R.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cribier, M.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1998-02-01

    The radiochemical GALLEX experiment, which has been measuring the solar neutrino flux since May 1991, has performed an investigation with two intense 51Cr neutrino sources (>60 PBq) that were produced in the Siloé nuclear reactor and used at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, one between June and October 1994, and the second between October 95 and February 96. The ratio, R, of the the neutrino source strength derived from the measured rate of 71Ge production, divided by the directly determined source strength is R=1.01 +0.12-0.11 for the first source and R=0.84 +0.12-0.11 for the second one. The combined value of R for the two source experiments is R=0.93 +/- 0.08. It shows that the > 40 % deficit of solar neutrino flux observed by GALLEX cannot be attributed to experimental artifacts and demonstrates the absence of any significant unexpected systematic errors at the 10 % level.

  1. Neutrino oscillations in a model with a source and detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kiers, K.; Weiss, N. ||

    1998-03-01

    We study the oscillations of neutrinos in a model in which the neutrino is coupled to a localized, idealized source and detector. By varying the spatial and temporal resolution of the source and detector we are able to model the full range of source and detector types ranging from coherent to incoherent. We find that this approach is useful in understanding the interface between the quantum mechanical nature of neutrino oscillations on the one hand and the production and detection systems on the other hand. This method can easily be extended to study the oscillations of other particles such as the neutral K and B mesons. We find that this approach gives a reliable way to treat the various ambiguities which arise when one examines the oscillations from a wave packet point of view. We demonstrate that the conventional oscillation formula is correct in the relativistic limit and that several recent claims of an extra factor of 2 in the oscillation length are incorrect. We also demonstrate {ital explicitly} that the oscillations of neutrinos which have separated spatially may be {open_quotes}revived{close_quotes} by a long coherent measurement. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Neutrino Interactions with Matter by a New Neutrino Source From the Isotope Radioactive Decay Produced by the Proton Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Kajino, Toshitaka; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    A new neutrino source for future's neutrino experiments is suggested in this work. Unstable isotope, 27Si, can be produced when 27Al target is bombarded by 15 MeV proton beams. Through the decay of the 27Si, a new electron-neutrino source in the 0-5.0 MeV energy range is obtained. Production of the neutrino source is studied by using GEANT4 code with JENDL-4.0/HE. For radioactive decay processes, we use "G4RadioactiveDecay" model based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). As for the detection system of the new neutrino source, we evaluate reaction or event rates for available radiochemical detectors and LENA type scintillator detector.

  3. Short-baseline electron antineutrino disappearance study by using neutrino sources from 13C + 9Be reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Hayakawa, Takehito

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the existence of sterile neutrino, we propose a new neutrino production method using 13C beams and a 9Be target for short-baseline electron antineutrino (bar nue) disappearance study. The production of secondary unstable isotopes which can emit neutrinos from the 13C + 9Be reaction is calculated with three different nucleus-nucleus (AA) reaction models. Different isotope yields are obtained using these models, but the results of the neutrino flux are found to have unanimous similarities. This feature gives an opportunity to study neutrino oscillation through shape analysis. In this work, expected neutrino flux and event rates are discussed in detail through intensive simulation of the light ion collision reaction and the neutrino flux from the beta decay of unstable isotopes followed by this collision. Together with the reactor and accelerator anomalies, the present proposed bar nue source is shown to be a practically alternative test of the existence of the Δ m2 ~ 1 eV2 scale sterile neutrino.

  4. SEARCHES FOR POINT-LIKE AND EXTENDED NEUTRINO SOURCES CLOSE TO THE GALACTIC CENTER USING THE ANTARES NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; Capone, A.; and others

    2014-05-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using six years of data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope has been performed. Clusters of muon neutrinos over the expected atmospheric background have been looked for. No clear signal has been found. The most signal-like accumulation of events is located at equatorial coordinates R.A. = –46.°8 and decl. = –64.°9 and corresponds to a 2.2σ background fluctuation. In addition, upper limits on the flux normalization of an E {sup –2} muon neutrino energy spectrum have been set for 50 pre-selected astrophysical objects. Finally, motivated by an accumulation of seven events relatively close to the Galactic Center in the recently reported neutrino sample of the IceCube telescope, a search for point sources in a broad region around this accumulation has been carried out. No indication of a neutrino signal has been found in the ANTARES data and upper limits on the flux normalization of an E {sup –2} energy spectrum of neutrinos from point sources in that region have been set. The 90% confidence level upper limits on the muon neutrino flux normalization vary between 3.5 and 5.1 × 10{sup –8} GeV cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, depending on the exact location of the source.

  5. Search for neutrino point sources with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan A.

    2013-06-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a kilometer-scale detector located at the South Pole. The full detector comprises 5,160 photomultipliers (PMTs) deployed among 86 strings from 1.5-2.5 km deep within the ice. The constructing phase started in the austral summer of 2004 and ended in December 2010 with the deployment of the last 7 strings that make up the full detector. In this proceeding we present the results of the time integrated and time dependent point source searches corresponding to the years from April 2008 to May 2010 with two different configurations of the IceCube detector (40 and 59 strings). In the northern sky the IceCube neutrino telescope is sensitive to point sources of neutrinos with E spectra mainly in the TeV-PeV energy range. In the opposite hemisphere, due to the higher contamination of high-energy atmospheric muons, the detector is most sensitive to sources with harder spectra, which produce high fluxes of PeV to EeV energies. The combined sensitivity is about a factor ˜2.5 better than the previous 1-year limit. An overview of the sensitivity and discovery potential for the time integrated searches over three years of IceCube, from April 2008 to May 2011, is also shown.

  6. Intense source of slow positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, P.; Rosowsky, A.

    2004-10-01

    We describe a novel design for an intense source of slow positrons based on pair production with a beam of electrons from a 10 MeV accelerator hitting a thin target at a low incidence angle. The positrons are collected with a set of coils adapted to the large production angle. The collection system is designed to inject the positrons into a Greaves-Surko trap (Phys. Rev. A 46 (1992) 5696). Such a source could be the basis for a series of experiments in fundamental and applied research and would also be a prototype source for industrial applications, which concern the field of defect characterization in the nanometer scale.

  7. Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, P. V. R.

    The astrophysics and high energy physics of neutrinos are discussed. The former includes the topics of solar neutrinos, gravitational stellar collapses, neutrinos at high and superhigh energies, and DUMAND and related topics. Experimental results from the Homestake mine chlorine-37 experiment on solar neutrinos are shown. The solar neutrino puzzle is assessed, the economic aspects of DUMAND are discussed, and expectations for related projects are examined. For high energy physics, the discussion includes DUMAND and related projects, neutrino oscillations, the resolution of the puzzles of the measurement of the stopping muon flux and of the cosmic ray event time intervals, and the proton decay experiments.

  8. Solar neutrinos and the influences of opacity, thermal instability, additional neutrino sources, and a central black hole on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Ezer, D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant quantities that affect the internal structure of the sun are examined for factors that reduce the temperature near the sun's center. The four factors discussed are: opacity, central black hole, thermal instability, and additional neutrino sources.

  9. Reanalysis of the GALLEX solar neutrino flux and source experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaether, F.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.

    2010-02-01

    After the completion of the gallium solar neutrino experiments at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (GALLEX: 1991-1997; GNO: 1998-2003) we have retrospectively updated the GALLEX results with the help of new technical data that were impossible to acquire for principle reasons before the completion of the low rate measurement phase (that is, before the end of the GNO solar runs). Subsequent high rate experiments have allowed the calibration of absolute internal counter efficiencies and of an advanced pulse shape analysis for counter background discrimination. The updated overall result for GALLEX (only) is 73.4-7.3+7.1 SNU. This is 5.3% below the old value of 77.5-7.8+7.5 SNU (GALLEX Collaboration, W. Hampel et al., 1999 [1]), with a substantially reduced error. A similar reduction is obtained from the reanalysis of the 51Cr neutrino source experiments of 1994/1995.

  10. Ion source issues for the DAEδALUS neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R. Barletta, William A.; Toups, Matthew H.; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y.; Bannister, Mark E.; Havener, C. C.; Vane, Randy

    2014-02-15

    The DAEδALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H{sub 2}{sup +} ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R and D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

  11. Ion source issues for the DAEδALUS neutrino experiment.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jose R; Barletta, William A; Toups, Matthew H; Conrad, Janet; Liu, Y; Bannister, Mark E; Havener, C C; Vane, Randy

    2014-02-01

    The DAEδALUS experiment calls for 10 mA of protons at 800 MeV on a neutrino-producing target. To achieve this record-setting current from a cyclotron system, H2 (+) ions will be accelerated. Loosely bound vibrationally excited H2 (+) ions inevitably produced in conventional ion sources will be Lorentz stripped at the highest energies. Presence of these states was confirmed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and strategies were investigated to quench them, leading to a proposed R&D effort towards a suitable ion source for these high-power cyclotrons.

  12. High-intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.

    1998-08-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam {ital via} muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Neutrino Oscillations at the Intensity Frontier: The NOvA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzikoutelis, Athanasios

    2013-02-01

    The "NuMI Off-Axis electron-neutrino Appearance" (NOvA) is a second generation, long- baseline, neutrino oscillation, experiment. It is made of two detectors, a large Far detector (14 ktons) and a similar Near detector (222 tons), both made of mostly active scintillator and separated by 810 km. Along with the 700 kW NuMI-beam upgrade (a prelude to the Intensity Frontier), it will be the leading neutrino experiment at Fermilab. In the wake of the recent measurement of the θ13 mixing angle, NOvA is positioned to see evidence of the neutrino mass hierarchy, possibly to resolve the θ23 octant ambiguity, and begin the study of the CP violation at the lepton sector. The experiment is under construction. The design and potential of this experiment is presented here along with the current status.

  14. New neutrino source for the study of solar neutrino physics in the vacuum-matter transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Park, Tae-Sun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Production of a neutrino source through a proton-induced reaction is studied by using the particle transport code geant4. Unstable isotopes such as 27Si can be produced when the 27Al target is bombarded by 15-MeV energetic proton beams. Through the β -decay process of the unstable isotope, a new electron-neutrino source in the 0-5.0 MeV energy range is obtained. Proton-induced reactions are simulated with JENDL-4.0 High Energy File (JENDL-4.0/HE). For radioactive decay processes, we use the G4 radioactive decay model based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). We suggest detailed target systems required for future solar neutrino experiments, in particular for the vacuum-matter transition region. As for a detection system of the new neutrino source, we evaluate reaction or event rates for available radiochemical detectors and Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA)-type scintillator detector and discuss effects due to possible sterile neutrinos as an application.

  15. ANTARES neutrino detection: CAHA photometry & spectroscopy of the Swift source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Hoyos, F.; Guijarro, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Fernández, M.; Tello, J. C.; Jeong, S.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.

    2015-09-01

    Following the detection of a possible counterpart to the neutrino ANTARES source by Swift (Dornic et al. GCNC 18231, ATel #7987), we conducted optical monitoring and spectroscopic observations with the 2.2m (+BUSCA) and 3.5m (+TWIN) telescopes at the German-Spanish Calar Alto Observatory (Spain), under non-optimal conditions (airmass 3), starting on Sep 3 at 20:07 UT (2.52 days post ANTARES detection) of the R=12.6 star USNO-B1.0 0626-0501169 (probably a G/K-type star, Smartt et al. ATel #7992).

  16. Neutrino detection of transient sources with optical follow-up observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornic, D.; Ageron, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Escoffier, S.; Schussler, F.; Vallage, B.; Vecchi, M.

    2010-12-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the opportunity to detect transient neutrino sources,such as gamma-ray bursts,core-collapse supernovae,flares of active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity to these sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. For this purpose the ANTARES Collaboration has implemented a fast on-line muon track reconstruction with a good angular resolution. These characteristics allow to trigger a network of optical telescopes in order to identify the nature of the neutrino sources. An optical follow-up of special events, such as neutrino doublets, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos with a very high energy, would not only give access to the nature of their sources but also improve the sensitivity for neutrino detection. The alert system is operational since early 2009, and as of September 2010, 22 alerts have been sent to the TAROT and ROTSE telescopes.

  17. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  18. Neutrino factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-01

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ13. The accelerator facility will deliver 1021 muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δCP that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δCP coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  19. Preliminary results from the Russian-American gallium experiment Cr-neutrino source measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.R.; Abdurashitov, J.N.; Bowles, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Russian-American Gallium Experiment has been collecting solar neutrino data since early 1990. The flux measurement of solar neutrinos is well below that expected from solar models. We discuss the initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93 + 0.15, {minus}0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Search for Sources of High Energy Astrophysical Neutrinos with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadimi, Ava; Santander, Marcos; VERITAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The IceCube collaboration has reported the detection of an all-sky astrophysical flux of high-energy neutrinos. So far, no neutrino point sources have been detected. The VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) gamma-ray observatory has observed the sky in the direction of muon neutrino events of poten- tial astrophysical origin looking for gamma-ray emission. Hadronic gamma-rays are expected to be produced in the same cosmic-ray interactions that lead to the emission of the high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube. We present results from follow-up VERITAS observations of 28 muon neutrino events detected by IceCube with energies above 100 TeV. No gamma-ray excess was detected at the locations of the neutrino events so gamma-ray flux upper limits were calculated. We will discuss how these results correlate to the all-sky neutrino flux.

  1. Proposed search for a fourth neutrino with a PBq antineutrino source.

    PubMed

    Cribier, Michel; Fechner, Maximilien; Lasserre, Thierry; Letourneau, Alain; Lhuillier, David; Mention, Guillaume; Franco, Davide; Kornoukhov, Vasily; Schönert, Stefan

    2011-11-11

    Several observed anomalies in neutrino oscillation data can be explained by a hypothetical fourth neutrino separated from the three standard neutrinos by a squared mass difference of a few eV(2). We show that this hypothesis can be tested with a PBq (ten kilocurie scale) (144)Ce or (106)Ru antineutrino beta source deployed at the center of a large low background liquid scintillator detector. In particular, the compact size of such a source could yield an energy-dependent oscillating pattern in event spatial distribution that would unambiguously determine neutrino mass differences and mixing angles.

  2. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris

    2012-06-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.

  3. Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Hulth, P. O.; Botner, O.; Carlson, P.; Ohlsson, T.

    2006-03-01

    J. N. Bahcall (1934-2005) -- Preface -- List of participants -- Committees -- Nobel symposium on neutrino physics - program -- The history of neutrino oscillations / S. M. Bilenky -- Super-Kamiokande results on neutrino oscillations / Y. Suzuki -- Sudbury neutrino observatory results / A. B. McDonald -- Results from KamLAND reactor neutrino detection / A. Suzuki -- New opportunities for surprise / J. Conrad -- Solar models and solar neutrinos / J. N. Bahcall -- Atmospheric neutrino fluxes / T. K. Gaisser -- The MSW effect and matter effects in neutrino oscillations / A. Yu. Smirnov -- Three-flavour effects and CP- and T-violation in neutrino oscillations / E. Kh. Akhmedov -- Global analysis of neutrino data / M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia -- Future precision neutrino oscillation experiments and theoretical implications / M. Lindner -- Experimental prospects of neutrinoless double beta decay / E. Fiorini -- Theoretical prospects of neutrinoless double beta decay / S. T. Petcov -- Supernova neutrino oscillations / G. G. Raffelt -- High-energy neutrino astronomy / F. Halzen -- Neutrino astrophysics in the cold: Amanda, Baikal and IceCube / C. Spiering -- Status of radio and acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos and a proposal on reporting results / D. Saltzberg -- Detection of neutrino-induced air showers / A. A. Watson -- Prospect for relic neutrino searches / G. B. Gelmini -- Leptogenesis in the early universe / T. Yanagida -- Neutrinos and big bang nucleosynthesis / G. Steigman -- Extra galactic sources of high energy neutrinos / E. Waxman -- Cosmological neutrino bounds for non-cosmologists / M. Tegmark -- Neutrino intrinsic properties: the neutrino-antineutrino relation / B. Kayser -- NuTeV and neutrino properties / M. H. Shaevitz -- Absolute masses of neutrinos - experimental results and future possibilities / C. Weinheimer -- Flavor theories and neutrino masses / P. Ramond -- Neutrino mass models and leptogenesis / S. F. King -- Neutrino mass and

  4. Searches for Time-dependent Neutrino Sources with IceCube Data from 2008 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Baker, M.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In this paper searches for flaring astrophysical neutrino sources and sources with periodic emission with the IceCube neutrino telescope are presented. In contrast to time-integrated searches, where steady emission is assumed, the analyses presented here look for a time-dependent signal of neutrinos using the information from the neutrino arrival times to enhance the discovery potential. A search was performed for correlations between neutrino arrival times and directions, as well as neutrino emission following time-dependent light curves, sporadic emission, or periodicities of candidate sources. These include active galactic nuclei, soft γ-ray repeaters, supernova remnants hosting pulsars, microquasars, and X-ray binaries. The work presented here updates and extends previously published results to a longer period that covers 4 years of data from 2008 April 5 to 2012 May 16, including the first year of operation of the completed 86 string detector. The analyses did not find any significant time-dependent point sources of neutrinos, and the results were used to set upper limits on the neutrino flux from source candidates.

  5. SEARCHES FOR TIME-DEPENDENT NEUTRINO SOURCES WITH ICECUBE DATA FROM 2008 TO 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Baker, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2015-07-01

    In this paper searches for flaring astrophysical neutrino sources and sources with periodic emission with the IceCube neutrino telescope are presented. In contrast to time-integrated searches, where steady emission is assumed, the analyses presented here look for a time-dependent signal of neutrinos using the information from the neutrino arrival times to enhance the discovery potential. A search was performed for correlations between neutrino arrival times and directions, as well as neutrino emission following time-dependent light curves, sporadic emission, or periodicities of candidate sources. These include active galactic nuclei, soft γ-ray repeaters, supernova remnants hosting pulsars, microquasars, and X-ray binaries. The work presented here updates and extends previously published results to a longer period that covers 4 years of data from 2008 April 5 to 2012 May 16, including the first year of operation of the completed 86 string detector. The analyses did not find any significant time-dependent point sources of neutrinos, and the results were used to set upper limits on the neutrino flux from source candidates.

  6. High-intensity source of extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, E.; Kumar, S.; Bowyer, S.

    1972-01-01

    High intensity ultraviolet radiation source was developed which is suitable for emission below 500 A. Source, useful for 100 to 1000 A range, is simple and inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and very stable. Because of sufficiently intense output spectrum, source can be used with monochromator at wavelengths as low as 160 A.

  7. Search for Astrophysical Sources of Neutrinos Using Cascade Events in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bagherpour, H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bourbeau, J.; Bradascio, F.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Brenzke, M.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; DeLaunay, J. J.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hokanson-Fasig, B.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kalacynski, P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koschinsky, J. P.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kyriacou, A.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Liu, Q. R.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Luszczak, W.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Micallef, J.; Momenté, G.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nakarmi, P.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Plum, M.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sälzer, T.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, A.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Tung, C. F.; Turcati, A.; Turley, C. F.; Ty, B.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Driessche, W.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Waza, A.; Weaver, C.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, J.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Yuan, T.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory has established the existence of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, which is inconsistent with the expectation from atmospheric backgrounds at a significance greater than 5σ. This flux has been observed in analyses of both track events from muon neutrino interactions and cascade events from interactions of all neutrino flavors. Searches for astrophysical neutrino sources have focused on track events due to the significantly better angular resolution of track reconstructions. To date, no such sources have been confirmed. Here we present the first search for astrophysical neutrino sources using cascades interacting in IceCube with deposited energies as small as 1 TeV. No significant clustering was observed in a selection of 263 cascades collected from 2010 May to 2012 May. We show that compared to the classic approach using tracks, this statistically independent search offers improved sensitivity to sources in the southern sky, especially if the emission is spatially extended or follows a soft energy spectrum. This enhancement is due to the low background from atmospheric neutrinos forming cascade events and the additional veto of atmospheric neutrinos at declinations ≲‑30°.

  8. Search for Point-like Sources of Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory and Improved Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Tau Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-08-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E ν between 1017 eV and 1020 eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55° and north of -65° declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of ~3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and ~2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k PS · E -2 ν from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k PS at the level of ≈5 × 10-7 and 2.5 × 10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  9. Five years of searches for point sources of astrophysical neutrinos with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, A.; Duvoort, M. R.; Heise, J.; Eijndhoven, N. van

    2007-05-15

    We report the results of a five-year survey of the northern sky to search for point sources of high energy neutrinos. The search was performed on the data collected with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope in the years 2000 to 2004, with a live time of 1001 days. The sample of selected events consists of 4282 upward going muon tracks with high reconstruction quality and an energy larger than about 100 GeV. We found no indication of point sources of neutrinos and set 90% confidence level flux upper limits for an all-sky search and also for a catalog of 32 selected sources. For the all-sky search, our average (over declination and right ascension) experimentally observed upper limit {phi}{sup 0}=((E/1 TeV)){sup {gamma}}{center_dot}(d{phi}/dE) to a point source flux of muon and tau neutrino (detected as muons arising from taus) is {phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}+{nu}{sub {mu}}{sup 0}}+{phi}{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}+{nu}{sub {tau}}}{sup 0}=11.1x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, in the energy range between 1.6 TeV and 2.5 PeV for a flavor ratio {phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}+{nu}{sub {mu}}{sup 0}}/{phi}{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}+{nu}{sub {tau}}}{sup 0}=1 and assuming a spectral index {gamma}=2. It should be noticed that this is the first time we set upper limits to the flux of muon and tau neutrinos. In previous papers we provided muon neutrino upper limits only neglecting the sensitivity to a signal from tau neutrinos, which improves the limits by 10% to 16%. The value of the average upper limit presented in this work corresponds to twice the limit on the muon neutrino flux {phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}+{nu}{sub {mu}}}{sup 0}=5.5x10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A stacking analysis for preselected active galactic nuclei and a search based on the angular separation of the events were also performed. We report the most stringent flux upper limits to date, including the results of a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties.

  10. KM3NeT/ARCA sensitivity and discovery potential for neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, A.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure with a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. Of these, the KM3NeT/ARCA detector, installed in the KM3NeT-It node of the network, is optimised for studying high-energy neutrinos of cosmic origin. Sensitivities to galactic sources such as the supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946 and the pulsar wind nebula Vela X are presented as well as sensitivities to a generic point source with an E-2 spectrum which represents an approximation for the spectrum of extragalactic candidate neutrino sources.

  11. Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, K.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Neutrinos are electrically neutral ELEMENTARY PARTICLES which experience only the weak nuclear force and gravity. Their existence was introduced as a hypothesis by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain the apparent violation of energy conservation in radioactive beta decay. Chadwick had discovered in 1914 that the energy spectrum of electrons emitted in beta decay was not monoenergetic but continuous...

  12. A search for cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos with small underground detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.; Castagnoli, C.; Galeotti, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of standard source calculations of high energy neutrino fluxes, some models of astrophysical object (single stars and binary systems) are discussed from which a detectable muon flux is expected in small underground detectors.

  13. Search for Cosmic Neutrino Point Sources with Four Years of Data from the ANTARES Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hamal, M.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leonora, E.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a time-integrated search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos is presented using the data collected from 2007 to 2010 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. No statistically significant signal has been found and upper limits on the neutrino flux have been obtained. Assuming an E -2 ν spectrum, these flux limits are at 1-10 ×10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 for declinations ranging from -90° to 40°. Limits for specific models of RX J1713.7-3946 and Vela X, which include information on the source morphology and spectrum, are also given.

  14. MAGIC gamma-ray telescopes hunting for neutrinos and their sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, D.; Bernardini, E.; Satalecka, K.; Noda, K.; Manganaro, M.; López, M.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of an astrophysical flux of high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube Collaboration marks a major breakthrough in the ongoing search for the origin of cosmic rays. Presumably, the neutrinos, together with gamma rays, result from pion decay, following hadronic interactions of protons accelerated in astrophysical objects to ultra-relativistic energies. So far, the neutrino sky map shows no significant indication of astrophysical sources. Here, we report first results from follow-up observations, of sky regions where IceCube has detected muon tracks from energetic neutrinos, using the MAGIC telescopes which are sensitive to gamma rays at TeV energies. Furthermore, we show that MAGIC has the potential to distinguish air showers induced by tau neutrinos from the background of hadronic showers in the PeV-EeV energy range, employing a novel analysis method to the data obtained with high-zenith angle observations.

  15. Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Cortez, B.G.; Chrysicopoulou, P.; Claus, R.; Dye, S.T.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.

    1985-07-03

    We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is <0.06 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of <0.009 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  16. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelker, M.; Adderley, P.; Brittian, J.; Clark, J.; Grames, J.; Hansknecht, J.; McCarter, J.; Stutzman, M. L.; Suleiman, R.; Surles-Law, K.

    2008-02-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive R&D devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source R&D. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular—Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model—requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlated current asymmetry less than 0.1 ppm. Neighboring halls will continue taking beam during Q-weak, pushing the total average beam current from the gun beyond 300 uA. This workshop contribution describes R&D at Jefferson Lab, dedicated toward extending the operating current of polarized electron sources to meet the requirements of high current experiments at CEBAF and to better appreciate the technological challenges of new accelerators, particularly high average current machines like eRHIC that require at least 25 mA at high polarization.

  17. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, M.; Adderley, P.; Brittian, J.; Clark, J.; Grames, J.; Hansknecht, J.; McCarter, J.; Stutzman, M. L.; Suleiman, R.; Surles-Law, K.

    2008-02-06

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive R and D devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source R and D. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular - Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model--requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlated current asymmetry less than 0.1 ppm. Neighboring halls will continue taking beam during Q-weak, pushing the total average beam current from the gun beyond 300 uA. This workshop contribution describes R and D at Jefferson Lab, dedicated toward extending the operating current of polarized electron sources to meet the requirements of high current experiments at CEBAF and to better appreciate the technological challenges of new accelerators, particularly high average current machines like eRHIC that require at least 25 mA at high polarization.

  18. Angular correlation of cosmic neutrinos with ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and implications for their sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic neutrino events detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with energy 0∼> 3 TeV have poor angular resolutions to reveal their origin. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with better angular resolutions at 0>6 EeV energies, can be used to check if the same astrophysical sources are responsible for producing both neutrinos and UHECRs. We test this hypothesis, with statistical methods which emphasize invariant quantities, by using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array and past cosmic-ray experiments. We find that the arrival directions of the cosmic neutrinos are correlated with 0≥ 10 EeV UHECR arrival directions at confidence level ≈ 90%. The strength of the correlation decreases with decreasing UHECR energy and no correlation exists at energy 0∼ 6 EeV . A search in astrophysical databases within 3{sup o} of the arrival directions of UHECRs with energy 0≥ 10 EeV, that are correlated with the IceCube cosmic neutrinos, resulted in 18 sources from the Swift-BAT X-ray catalog with redshift z≤ 0.06. We also found 3 objects in the Kühr catalog of radio sources using the same criteria. The sources are dominantly Seyfert galaxies with Cygnus A being the most prominent member. We calculate the required neutrino and UHECR fluxes to produce the observed correlated events, and estimate the corresponding neutrino luminosity (25 TeV–2.2 PeV) and cosmic-ray luminosity (500 TeV–180 EeV), assuming the sources are the ones we found in the Swift-BAT and Kühr catalogs. We compare these luminosities with the X-ray luminosity of the corresponding sources and discuss possibilities of accelerating protons to 0∼> 10 EeV and produce neutrinos in these sources.

  19. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, Benard; Adderley, Philip; Brittian, Joshua; Clark, J.; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; McCarter, James; Stutzman, Marcy; Suleiman, Riad; Surles-law, Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive R&D devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source R&D. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular?Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model?requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlate

  20. Sensitivity of neutrinos to the supernova turbulence power spectrum: Point source statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, James P.; Kabadi, Neel V.

    2015-07-16

    The neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star created in a core-collapse supernova must run through a significant amount of turbulence before exiting the star. Turbulence can modify the flavor evolution of the neutrinos imprinting itself upon the signal detected here at Earth. The turbulence effect upon individual neutrinos, and the correlation between pairs of neutrinos, might exhibit sensitivity to the power spectrum of the turbulence, and recent analysis of the turbulence in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a core-collapse supernova indicates the power spectrum may not be the Kolmogorov 5 /3 inverse power law as has been previously assumed. In this paper we study the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence power spectra upon neutrinos from a point source as a function of neutrino energy and turbulence amplitude at a fixed postbounce epoch. We find the two effects of turbulence upon the neutrinos—the distorted phase effect and the stimulated transitions—both possess strong and weak limits in which dependence upon the power spectrum is absent or evident, respectively. Furthermore, since neutrinos of a given energy will exhibit these two effects at different epochs of the supernova each with evolving strength, we find there is sensitivity to the power spectrum present in the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic supernova.

  1. A maximum-likelihood search for neutrino point sources with the AMANDA-II detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, James R.

    Neutrino astronomy offers a new window to study the high energy universe. The AMANDA-II detector records neutrino-induced muon events in the ice sheet beneath the geographic South Pole, and has accumulated 3.8 years of livetime from 2000 - 2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria, we arrive at a sample of 6595 events originating from the Northern Sky, predominantly atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. We search these events for evidence of astrophysical neutrino point sources using a maximum-likelihood method. No excess above the atmospheric neutrino background is found, and we set upper limits on neutrino fluxes. Finally, a well-known potential dark matter signature is emission of high energy neutrinos from annihilation of WIMPs gravitationally bound to the Sun. We search for high energy neutrinos from the Sun and find no excess. Our limits on WIMP-nucleon cross section set new constraints on MSSM parameter space.

  2. Sensitivity of neutrinos to the supernova turbulence power spectrum: Point source statistics

    DOE PAGES

    Kneller, James P.; Kabadi, Neel V.

    2015-07-16

    The neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star created in a core-collapse supernova must run through a significant amount of turbulence before exiting the star. Turbulence can modify the flavor evolution of the neutrinos imprinting itself upon the signal detected here at Earth. The turbulence effect upon individual neutrinos, and the correlation between pairs of neutrinos, might exhibit sensitivity to the power spectrum of the turbulence, and recent analysis of the turbulence in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a core-collapse supernova indicates the power spectrum may not be the Kolmogorov 5 /3 inverse power law as has been previously assumed. Inmore » this paper we study the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence power spectra upon neutrinos from a point source as a function of neutrino energy and turbulence amplitude at a fixed postbounce epoch. We find the two effects of turbulence upon the neutrinos—the distorted phase effect and the stimulated transitions—both possess strong and weak limits in which dependence upon the power spectrum is absent or evident, respectively. Furthermore, since neutrinos of a given energy will exhibit these two effects at different epochs of the supernova each with evolving strength, we find there is sensitivity to the power spectrum present in the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic supernova.« less

  3. Production of neutrinos and secondary electrons in cosmic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.-Y.; Pohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    We study the individual contribution to secondary lepton production in hadronic interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) including resonances and heavier secondaries. For this purpose we use the same methodology discussed earlier [C.-Y. Huang, S.-E. Park, M. Pohl, C.D. Daniels, Astropart. Phys. 27 (2007) 429], namely the Monte-Carlo particle collision code DPMJET3.04 to determine the multiplicity spectra of various secondary particles with leptons as the final decay states, that result from inelastic collisions of cosmic-ray protons and Helium nuclei with the interstellar medium of standard composition. By combining the simulation results with parametric models for secondary particle (with resonances included) for incident cosmic-ray energies below a few GeV, where DPMJET appears unreliable, we thus derive production matrices for all stable secondary particles in cosmic-ray interactions with energies up to about 10 PeV. We apply the production matrices to calculate the radio synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons in a young shell-type SNR, RX J1713.7-3946, which is a measure of the age, the spectral index of hadronic cosmic rays, and most importantly the magnetic field strength. We find that the multi-mG fields recently invoked to explain the X-ray flux variations are unlikely to extend over a large fraction of the radio-emitting region, otherwise the spectrum of hadronic cosmic rays in the energy window 0.1-100 GeV must be unusually hard. We also use the production matrices to calculate the muon event rate in an IceCube-like detector that are induced by muon neutrinos from high-energy γ-ray sources such as RX J1713.7-3946, Vela Jr. and MGRO J2019+37. At muon energies of a few TeV, or in other word, about 10 TeV neutrino energy, an accumulation of data over about 5-10 years would allow testing the hadronic origin of TeV γ-rays.

  4. Observational constraints on multimessenger sources of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Imre; Finley, Chad; Corsi, Alessandra; Márka, Szabolcs

    2011-12-16

    Many astronomical sources of intense bursts of photons are also predicted to be strong emitters of gravitational waves (GWs) and high-energy neutrinos (HENs). Moreover some suspected classes, e.g., choked gamma-ray bursts, may only be identifiable via nonphoton messengers. Here we explore the reach of current and planned experiments to address this question. We derive constraints on the rate of GW and HEN bursts based on independent observations by the initial LIGO and Virgo GW detectors and the partially completed IceCube (40-string) HEN detector. We then estimate the reach of joint GW+HEN searches using advanced GW detectors and the completed km(3) IceCube detector to probe the joint parameter space. We show that searches undertaken by advanced detectors will be capable of detecting, constraining, or excluding, several existing models with 1 yr of observation. © 2011 American Physical Society

  5. INJECTION ACCELERATION AND EXTRACTION OF HIGH INTENSITY PROTON BEAM FOR THE NEUTRINO FACILITY PROJECT AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N; Barton, D; Ganetis, G; Jain, A; Lee, Y; Marneris, I; Meng, W; Raparia, D; Roser, T; Ruggiero, A; Tuozzolo, J; Wanderer, P; Weng, W

    2003-05-12

    The proposed ''neutrino-production'' project [1.2] to be built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) requires that the neutrino-production target be bombarded by a high intensity proton beam-pulse of {approx} 90 x 10{sup 12} protons of 28 GeV in energy and at a rate of 2.5 Hz, resulting in a 1 MW power of proton beam deposited on the target for the production of the neutrinos. In this paper we investigate the possibility of producing this high intensity proton beam, using as the main accelerator the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The following aspects of the project are reported in this paper: (a) The beam injection into the AGS synchrotron of 1.2 GeV H{sup -} beam produced by a super-conducting LINAC[3]; (b) The effect of the eddy currents induced on the vacuum chamber of the circulating beam during the ''ramping'' of the main magnets of the AGS; (c) The method of the beam extraction from the AGS and the optics of the 28 GeV beam extracted from the AGS.

  6. Search for neutrino point sources with ANTARES 2007-2012 data

    SciTech Connect

    Zornoza, J. D.

    2014-11-18

    Neutrinos are unique probes to study the high energy Universe, since they are neutral, only interact weakly and are stable. Furthermore, they can provide key information about several fundamental questions in Physics like the origin of cosmic rays and the nature of dark matter. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, installed in the Mediterranean Sea, has been taking data since 2007. In this paper we review the results concerning the search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos, using data of 2007–2012. Two main strategies have been followed: to look towards the direction of sources candidate to emmit neutrinos and to make an all-sky scan. Although no significant cluster has been found above the background, flux limits have been set at the level of E{sup 2}φν{sup 90CL}∼1–2×10{sup −8} GeV cm{sup −}2s{sup −1}.

  7. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  8. Anatomy of a cosmic-ray neutrino source and the Cygnus X-3 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Harding, A. K.; Barnard, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of an intense beam of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from a compact object in the Cygnus X-3 binary system hitting the companion star, and of the subsequent production of secondary neutrinos, are examined. A maximum allowable beam luminosity of about 10 to the 42nd erg/s is found for a system containing a 1-10 solar mass main sequence target star. The proton beam must heat a relatively small area of the target star to satisfy observational constraints on the resulting stellar wind. With such a model, the neutrino to gamma-ray flux ratio of about 1000 can result from a combination of gamma-ray absorption and a large neutrino to gamma-ray duty cycle ratio. It is found that the high density of the atmosphere resulting from compression by the beam leads to pion cascading and a neutrino spectrum peaking at 1-10 GeV energies.

  9. Anatomy of a cosmic-ray neutrino source and the Cygnus X-3 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Harding, A. K.; Barnard, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of an intense beam of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from a compact object in the Cygnus X-3 binary system hitting the companion star, and of the subsequent production of secondary neutrinos, are examined. A maximum allowable beam luminosity of about 10 to the 42nd erg/s is found for a system containing a 1-10 solar mass main sequence target star. The proton beam must heat a relatively small area of the target star to satisfy observational constraints on the resulting stellar wind. With such a model, the neutrino to gamma-ray flux ratio of about 1000 can result from a combination of gamma-ray absorption and a large neutrino to gamma-ray duty cycle ratio. It is found that the high density of the atmosphere resulting from compression by the beam leads to pion cascading and a neutrino spectrum peaking at 1-10 GeV energies.

  10. An Open-source Neutrino Radiation Hydrodynamics Code for Core-collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Evan

    2015-08-01

    We present an open-source update to the spherically symmetric, general-relativistic hydrodynamics, core-collapse supernova (CCSN) code GR1D. The source code is available at http://www.GR1Dcode.org. We extend its capabilities to include a general-relativistic treatment of neutrino transport based on the moment formalisms of Shibata et al. and Cardall et al. We pay special attention to implementing and testing numerical methods and approximations that lessen the computational demand of the transport scheme by removing the need to invert large matrices. This is especially important for the implementation and development of moment-like transport methods in two and three dimensions. A critical component of neutrino transport calculations is the neutrino-matter interaction coefficients that describe the production, absorption, scattering, and annihilation of neutrinos. In this article we also describe our open-source neutrino interaction library NuLib (available at http://www.nulib.org). We believe that an open-source approach to describing these interactions is one of the major steps needed to progress toward robust models of CCSNe and robust predictions of the neutrino signal. We show, via comparisons to full Boltzmann neutrino-transport simulations of CCSNe, that our neutrino transport code performs remarkably well. Furthermore, we show that the methods and approximations we employ to increase efficiency do not decrease the fidelity of our results. We also test the ability of our general-relativistic transport code to model failed CCSNe by evolving a 40-solar-mass progenitor to the onset of collapse to a black hole.

  11. LED based powerful nanosecond light sources for calibration systems of deep underwater neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Poleshuk, R. V.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.; Vyatchin, Y. E.

    2009-04-01

    Powerful nanosecond light sources based on LEDs have been developed for use in calibration systems of deep underwater neutrino telescopes. The light sources use either matrixes of ultra bright blue InGaN LEDs or new generation high power blue LEDs. It is shown that such light sources have light yield of up to 1010-1012 photons per pulse with very fast light emission kinetics. The developed light sources are currently used in a number of astroparticle physics experiments, namely: the lake Baikal neutrino experiment, the TUNKA EAS experiment, etc.

  12. SEARCH FOR POINT-LIKE SOURCES OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY AND IMPROVED LIMIT ON THE DIFFUSE FLUX OF TAU NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-08-10

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E{sub {nu}} between 10{sup 17} eV and 10{sup 20} eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55 Degree-Sign and north of -65 Degree-Sign declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of {approx}3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and {approx}2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k{sub PS} {center_dot} E {sup -2}{sub {nu}} from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k{sub PS} at the level of Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  13. Time-Dependent Searches for Neutrino Point Sources with the IceCube Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael Francis

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a km³ detector which recently completed construction at the geographic South Pole. Here we present four searches for flaring point-sources sources of neutrinos using IceCube data using maximum-likelihood techniques. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 mus and a year duration from astrophysical sources. This work is also an important step for the IceCube experiment in utilizing a multi-messenger approach, driving IceCube neutrino analysis with information from photon observatories. The use of time information is useful since integrated searches over time are less sensitive to flares as they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and moons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. One search is "untriggered" in the sense that it looks for any possible flare in the entire sky. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. A search for periodic emission of neutrinos is also performed on binary systems in the galaxy which are thought to be sources of particle acceleration. The searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between Apr 5, 2008 and May 20, 2009 and by 59 strings of IceCube between May 20, 2009 and May 31, 2010. The results from all searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.

  14. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-11-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no significance. Therefore, in this article we consider a specific subclass of AGN for which an increased neutrino production is expected. This subclass contains AGN for which their high-energy jet is pointing toward Earth. Furthermore, we impose the condition that the jet is obscured by gas or dust surrounding the AGN. A method is presented to determine the total column density of the obscuring medium, which is probed by determining the relative x-ray attenuation with respect to the radio flux as obtained from the AGN spectrum. The total column density allows us to probe the interaction of the jet with the surrounding matter, which leads to additional neutrino production. Finally, starting from two different source catalogs, this method is applied to specify a sample of low redshift radio galaxies for which an increased neutrino production is expected.

  15. Point-source and diffuse high-energy neutrino emission from Type IIn supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, M.; Coenders, S.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Kamble, A.; Sironi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe), a rare subclass of core collapse SNe, explode in dense circumstellar media that have been modified by the SNe progenitors at their last evolutionary stages. The interaction of the freely expanding SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium gives rise to a shock wave propagating in the dense SN environment, which may accelerate protons to multi-PeV energies. Inelastic proton-proton collisions between the shock-accelerated protons and those of the circumstellar medium lead to multimessenger signatures. Here, we evaluate the possible neutrino signal of Type IIn SNe and compare with IceCube observations. We employ a Monte Carlo method for the calculation of the diffuse neutrino emission from the SN IIn class to account for the spread in their properties. The cumulative neutrino emission is found to be ∼10 per cent of the observed IceCube neutrino flux above 60 TeV. Type IIn SNe would be the dominant component of the diffuse astrophysical flux, only if 4 per cent of all core collapse SNe were of this type and 20-30 per cent of the shock energy was channeled to accelerated protons. Lower values of the acceleration efficiency are accessible by the observation of a single Type IIn SN as a neutrino point source with IceCube using up-going muon neutrinos. Such an identification is possible in the first year following the SN shock breakout for sources within 20 Mpc.

  16. Absolute beam intensity measurements at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Erik B.; Carpenter, J. M.; Hill, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The three moderators at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source are of cryogenic methane (CH4): one of liquid methane at 100 K, and two of solid methane at 30 K. These moderators produce intense beams of both cold and thermal neutrons. The moderators are each of a different physical configuration in order to tailor their performance for the fourteen instruments and test facilities that operate on the twelve neutron beams. IPNS has started a program to enhance the effectiveness of its target/moderator/reflector system. This program involves both Monte Carlo computer modeling of the system and measuring the characteristics of the neutron beams. The measurements reported here provide absolute spectra using foil activation techniques joined with time-of-flight measurements performed with thin beam monitor detectors installed at the neutron scattering instruments. We also outline a codified procedure which we believe will be useful at other pulsed neutron sources to perform equivalent measurements. (auth)

  17. Pinpointing extragalactic neutrino sources in light of recent IceCube observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Markus; Halzen, Francis

    2014-08-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has recently reported the observation of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. The angular distribution of events is consistent with an isotropic arrival direction of neutrinos which is expected for an extragalactic origin. We estimate the prospects of detecting individual neutrino sources from a quasidiffuse superposition of many extragalactic sources at the level of the IceCube observation. Unlike previous analyses, we take into account ensemble variations of the source distribution as well as the event statistics of individual sources. We show that IceCube in its present configuration is sensitive to rare ≲10-8 Mpc-3 yr-1 transient source classes within five years of operation via the observation of event clusters. Identification of time-independent sources is more challenging due to larger backgrounds. We estimate that during the same period IceCube is sensitive to sparse sources with densities of ≲10-6 Mpc-3 via association of events with the closest 100 sources of an ensemble. We show that a next-generation neutrino observatory with 5 times the effective area of IceCube and otherwise similar detector performance would increase the sensitivity to source densities and rates by about 2 orders of magnitude.

  18. High intensity, pulsed thermal neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1973-12-11

    This invention relates to a high intensity, pulsed thermal neutron source comprising a neutron-producing source which emits pulses of fast neutrons, a moderator block adjacent to the last neutron source, a reflector block which encases the fast neutron source and the moderator block and has a thermal neutron exit port extending therethrough from the moderator block, and a neutron energy- dependent decoupling reflector liner covering the interior surfaces of the thermal neutron exit port and surrounding all surfaces of the moderator block except the surface viewed by the thermal neutron exit port. (Official Gazette)

  19. How Far Away Are the Sources of IceCube Neutrinos? Constraints from the Diffuse Teraelectronvolt Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xiao-Chuan; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-07-01

    The nearly isotropic distribution of teraelectronvolt to petaelectronvolt neutrinos recently detected by the IceCube Collaboration suggests that they come from sources at a distance beyond our Galaxy, but how far away they are is largely unknown because of a lack of any associations with known sources. In this paper, we propose that the cumulative TeV gamma-ray emission accompanying the production of neutrinos can be used to constrain the distance of these neutrino sources, since the opacity of TeV gamma rays due to absorption by the extragalactic background light depends on the distance these TeV gamma rays have traveled. As the diffuse extragalactic TeV background measured by Fermi is much weaker than the expected cumulative flux associated with IceCube neutrinos, the majority of IceCube neutrinos, if their sources are transparent to TeV gamma rays, must come from distances larger than the horizon of TeV gamma rays. We find that above 80% of the IceCube neutrinos should come from sources at redshift z > 0.5. Thus, the chance of finding nearby sources correlated with IceCube neutrinos would be small. We also find that, to explain the flux of neutrinos under the TeV gamma-ray emission constraint, the redshift evolution of neutrino source density must be at least as fast as the cosmic star formation rate.

  20. AN OPEN-SOURCE NEUTRINO RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    O’Connor, Evan

    2015-08-15

    We present an open-source update to the spherically symmetric, general-relativistic hydrodynamics, core-collapse supernova (CCSN) code GR1D. The source code is available at http://www.GR1Dcode.org. We extend its capabilities to include a general-relativistic treatment of neutrino transport based on the moment formalisms of Shibata et al. and Cardall et al. We pay special attention to implementing and testing numerical methods and approximations that lessen the computational demand of the transport scheme by removing the need to invert large matrices. This is especially important for the implementation and development of moment-like transport methods in two and three dimensions. A critical component of neutrino transport calculations is the neutrino–matter interaction coefficients that describe the production, absorption, scattering, and annihilation of neutrinos. In this article we also describe our open-source neutrino interaction library NuLib (available at http://www.nulib.org). We believe that an open-source approach to describing these interactions is one of the major steps needed to progress toward robust models of CCSNe and robust predictions of the neutrino signal. We show, via comparisons to full Boltzmann neutrino-transport simulations of CCSNe, that our neutrino transport code performs remarkably well. Furthermore, we show that the methods and approximations we employ to increase efficiency do not decrease the fidelity of our results. We also test the ability of our general-relativistic transport code to model failed CCSNe by evolving a 40-solar-mass progenitor to the onset of collapse to a black hole.

  1. Three dimensional calculation of flux of low energy atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H.; Bludman, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation of low energy flux of atmospheric neutrinos are presented and compared with earlier one-dimensional calculations 1,2 valid at higher neutrino energies. These low energy neutrinos are the atmospheric background in searching for neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Primary cosmic rays produce the neutrino flux peaking at near E sub=40 MeV and neutrino intensity peaking near E sub v=100 MeV. Because such neutrinos typically deviate by 20 approximately 30 from the primary cosmic ray direction, three-dimensional effects are important for the search of atmospheric neutrinos. Nevertheless, the background of these atmospheric neutrinos is negligible for the detection of solar and supernova neutrinos.

  2. Intense and exciting: current and future accelerator-based measurements of neutrino oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Accelerator-based experiments have been crucial in our understanding of neutrino oscillations. In this talk, I will give an overview of current accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, which have observed electron neutrino appearance and made precision measurements of the parameters governing muon neutrino disappearance. I will discuss what the current set of experiments can contribute to the remaining questions in neutrino oscillation physics, including measuring the CP violating phase, determining the mass hierarchy, resolving the θ23 octant, and searching for sterile neutrinos. Finally, I will describe the plans and physics goals for future accelerator-based neutrino experiments.

  3. Prospects of establishing the origin of cosmic neutrinos using source catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, I.; Ahrens, M.; Finley, C.; Márka, S.

    2017-07-01

    The cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by IceCube will be instrumental in probing the highest-energy astrophysical processes. Nevertheless, the origin of these neutrinos is still unknown. While it would be more straightforward to identify a transient, or galactic source, class, finding a population of distant, continuous sources is challenging. We introduce a source-type classification technique that incorporates all available information from catalogs of source candidates. We show that IceCube-Gen2 can statistically establish the origin of cosmic neutrinos, even for the most challenging source populations-starburst galaxies, AGN, or galaxy clusters-if neutrino track directions can be reconstructed with a precision ˜0.3° . We further show that the source catalog out to ˜100 Mpc can be sufficient for the most challenging source types, allowing for more straightforward source surveys. We also characterize the role of detector properties, namely angular resolution, size, and veto power in order to understand the effects of IceCube-Gen2's design specifics.

  4. Future short baseline neutrino searches with nuclear decays

    SciTech Connect

    Caccianiga, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    Several anomalies coming from neutrino experiments may be pointing towards new physics: these hints suggest the existence of one (or more) sterile neutrinos. We discuss some of the experiments proposed to verify (or disproof) this hypothesis by using an intense radioactive source in proximity of large neutrino detectors.

  5. Prospects for detecting galactic sources of cosmic neutrinos with IceCube: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali; Niro, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    Air-Cherenkov telescopes have mapped the Galactic plane at TeV energies. Here we evaluate the prospects for detecting the neutrino emission from sources in the Galactic plane assuming that the highest energy photons originate from the decay of pions, which yields a straightforward prediction for the neutrino flux from the decay of the associated production of charged pions. Four promising sources are identified based on having a large flux and a flat spectrum. We subsequently evaluate the probability of their identification above the atmospheric neutrino background in IceCube data as a function of time. We show that observing them over the twenty-year lifetime of the instrumentation is likely, and that some should be observable at the 3 σ level with six years of data. In the absence of positive results, we derive constraints on the spectral index and cut-off energy of the sources, assuming a hadronic acceleration mechanism.

  6. A high intensity H2 + multicusp ion source for the isotope decay-at-rest experiment, IsoDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axani, S.; Winklehner, D.; Alonso, J.; Conrad, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Isotope Decay-At-Rest (IsoDAR) experimental program aims to decisively test the sterile neutrino hypothesis. In essence, it is a novel cyclotron based neutrino factory that will improve the frontiers in both high-intensity cyclotrons and electron flavor anti-neutrino sources. By using a source in which the usual H- ions are replaced with the more tightly bound H2 + ions, we can negate the effects of Lorentz stripping in a cyclotron, reduce the overall perveance due to the space-charge effect, and deliver twice the number of protons per nuclei on target. To produce the H2 + , we are currently developing a dedicated multicusp ion source, MIST-1 (generation-1 Multicusp Ion Source Technologies at MIT), and a low-energy beam transport system for the IsoDAR cyclotron. This will increase the overall H2 + current leading up to the cyclotron and improve the emittance of the beam injected into the cyclotron.

  7. A Large Neutrino Detector Facility at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Efremenko, Y.V.

    1999-02-14

    The ORLaND (Oak Ridge Large Neutrino Detector) collaboration proposes to construct a large neutrino detector in an underground experimental hall adjacent to the first target station of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The main mission of a large (2000 ton) Scintillation-Cherenkov detector is to measure {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {r_arrow} {bar {nu}}{sub e} neutrino oscillation parameters more accurately than they can be determined in other experiments, or significantly extending the covered parameter space below (sin'20 {le} 10{sup {minus}4}). In addition to the neutrino oscillation measurements, ORLaND would be capable of making precise measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}, search for the magnetic moment of the muon neutrino, and investigate the anomaly in the KARMEN time spectrum, which has been attributed to a new neutral particle. With the same facility an extensive program of measurements of neutrino nucleus cross sections is also planned to support nuclear astrophysics.

  8. Constraining Very High-Energy Gamma Ray Sources Using IceCube Neutrino Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Gregory; Feintzeig, J.; Karle, A.; IceCube Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Modern gamma ray astronomy has revealed the most violent, energetic objects in the known universe, from nearby supernova remnants to distant active galactic nuclei. In an effort to discover more about the fundamental nature of such objects, we present searches for astrophysical neutrinos in coincidence with known gamma ray sources. Searches were conducted using data from IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic-kilometer neutrino detector that is sensitive to astrophysical particles with energies above 1 TeV. The detector is situated at the South Pole, and uses more than 5,000 photomultiplier tubes to detect Cherenkov light from the interactions of particles within the ice. Existing models of proton-proton interactions allow us to link gamma ray fluxes to the production of high-energy neutrinos, so neutrino data from IceCube can be used to constrain the mechanisms by which gamma ray sources create such energetic photons. For a few particularly bright sources, such as the blazar Markarian 421, IceCube is beginning to reach the point where actual constraints can be made. As more years of data are analyzed, the limits will improve and stronger constraints will become possible. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation's REU Program through NSF Award AST-1004881 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  9. Neutrino Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Rey, Juan Jose

    2006-11-28

    We review the present status of high energy neutrino astronomy. The advantages of neutrinos as extra-terrestrial messengers are recalled and their possible extra-terrestrial sources examined. We review as well the status of present and future neutrino telescopes and summarize the results obtained so far in this field.

  10. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >10{sup 10} neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the {<=}2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons ({approx_equal}3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low ({gamma},n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low ({gamma},n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D{sub 2}O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated

  11. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >1010 neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the ≤2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons (≈3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low (γ,n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low (γ,n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D2O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated. Conversion efficiency of more than

  12. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    DOE PAGES

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes ofmore » neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.« less

  13. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes of neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.

  14. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes of neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.

  15. SEARCH FOR COSMIC NEUTRINO POINT SOURCES WITH FOUR YEARS OF DATA FROM THE ANTARES TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2012-11-20

    In this paper, a time-integrated search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos is presented using the data collected from 2007 to 2010 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. No statistically significant signal has been found and upper limits on the neutrino flux have been obtained. Assuming an E {sup -2} {sub {nu}} spectrum, these flux limits are at 1-10 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for declinations ranging from -90 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign . Limits for specific models of RX J1713.7-3946 and Vela X, which include information on the source morphology and spectrum, are also given.

  16. Beam intensity increases at the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Norem, J.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator system has managed a 40% increase in time average beam current over the last two years. Currents of up to 15.6..mu..A (3.25 x 10/sup 12/ protons at 30 Hz) have been successfully accelerated and cleanly extracted. Our high current operation demands low loss beam handling to permit hands-on maintenance. Synchrotron beam handling efficiencies of 90% are routine. A new H/sup -/ ion source which was installed in March of 1983 offered the opportunity to get above 8 ..mu..A but an instability caused unacceptable losses when attempting to operate at 10 ..mu..A and above. Simple techniques to control the instabilities were introduced and have worked well. These techniques are discussed below. Other improvements in the regulation of various power supplies have provided greatly improved low energy orbit stability and contributed substantially to the increased beam current.

  17. Searches for Point-like Sources of Neutrinos with the 40-String IceCube Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumm, Jonathan P.

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is the first 1 km3 neutrino telescope. Data were collected using the partially-completed IceCube detector in the 40-string configuration recorded between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20, totaling 375.5 days livetime. An unbinned maximum likelihood ratio method is used to search for astrophysical signals. The data sample contains 36,900 events: 14,121 front the northern sky, mostly muons induced by atmospheric neutrinos and 22,779 from the southern sky, mostly high energy atmospheric muons. The analysis includes time-integrated searches for individual point sources and targeted searches for specific stacked source classes and spatially extended sources. While this analysis is sensitive to TeV-PeV energy neutrinos in the northern sky, it is primarily sensitive to neutrinos with energy greater than about 1 PeV in the southern sky. A number of searches are performed and significances (given as p-values, the chance probability to occur with only background present) calculated: (1) a scan of the entire sky for point sources (p=18%), (2) a predefined list of 39 interesting source candidates (p=62%), (3) stacking 16 sources of TeV gamma rays observed by Milagro and Fermi, along with an unconfirmed hot spot (p=32%), (4) stacking 127 starburst galaxies ( p=100%), and (5) stacking five nearby galaxy clusters (p =78%). No evidence for a signal is found in any of the searches. Limits are set for neutrino fluxes from astrophysical sources over the entire sky and compared to predictions. The sensitivity is at least a factor of two better than previous searches (depending on declination), with 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits being between E 2dN/dE ˜ 2--200 x 10-12 TeV cm-2s-1 in the northern sky and between 3--700 x 10-12 TeV cm-2s-1 in the southern sky. The stacked source searches provide the best limits to specific source classes. For the case of supernova remnants, we are just a factor of three from ruling out realistic

  18. High Energy Gamma Rays and Neutrinos from Star-forming Activities in the Galactic and Extragalactic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaque, Soebur

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the IceCube astrophysical neutrinos is an outstanding question. Star-forming activities which can accelerate particles to very high energies have been suggested as possible origin of these neutrinos. I will present a scenario where a subset of the neutrino events originate from the Galactic center region and Fermi Bubbles, resulting from star-forming activities. Multi-messenger signal in high energy gamma rays and neutrinos can probe this scenario. I will also present an analysis of the statistical association of the star-forming sources in our Galaxy and outside, with astrophysical neutrinos, as well as expected neutrino signal from these sources by fitting gamma-ray data.

  19. Search for Point Sources of High Energy Neutrinos with Final Data from AMANDA-II

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-03-06

    We present a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos using 3.8 years of data recorded by AMANDA-II during 2000-2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria designed to optimally retain neutrino-induced events originating in the Northern Sky, we arrive at a sample of 6595 candidate events, predominantly from atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. Our search of this sample reveals no indications of a neutrino point source. We place the most stringent limits to date on E{sup -2} neutrino fluxes from points in the Northern Sky, with an average upper limit of E{sup 2}{Phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}+{nu}{sub {tau}}} {le} 5.2 x 10{sup -11} TeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} on the sum of {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} fluxes, assumed equal, over the energy range from 1.9 TeV to 2.5 PeV.

  20. Search for point sources of high energy neutrinos with final data from AMANDA-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, J.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Baret, B.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Davour, A.; Day, C. T.; Depaepe, O.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hasegawa, Y.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hughey, B.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kawai, H.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Leich, H.; Leier, D.; Lewis, C.; Lucke, A.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Meli, A.; Merck, M.; Messarius, T.; Mészáros, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Mohr, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Pretz, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Razzaque, S.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robbins, W. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schultz, O.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, A. J.; Song, C.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; Viscomi, V.; Vogt, C.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos using 3.8 yr of data recorded by AMANDA-II during 2000-2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria designed to optimally retain neutrino-induced events originating in the northern sky, we arrive at a sample of 6595 candidate events, predominantly from atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. Our search of this sample reveals no indications of a neutrino point source. We place the most stringent limits to date on E-2 neutrino fluxes from points in the northern sky, with an average upper limit of E2Φνμ+ντ≤5.2×10-11TeVcm-2s-1 on the sum of νμ and ντ fluxes, assumed equal, over the energy range from 1.9 TeV to 2.5 PeV.

  1. Detection prospects for high energy neutrino sources from the anisotropic matter distribution in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Rameez, Mohamed; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-03-01

    Constraints on the number and luminosity of the sources of the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube have been set by targeted searches for point sources. We set complementary constraints by using the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) catalogue, which maps the matter distribution of the local Universe. Assuming that the distribution of the neutrino sources follows that of matter, we look for correlations between ``warm'' spots on the IceCube skymap and the 2MRS matter distribution. Through Monte Carlo simulations of the expected number of neutrino multiplets and careful modelling of the detector performance (including that of IceCube-Gen2), we demonstrate that sources with local density exceeding 10-6 Mpc-3 and neutrino luminosity Lν lesssim 1042 erg s-1 (1041 erg s-1) will be efficiently revealed by our method using IceCube (IceCube-Gen2). At low luminosities such as will be probed by IceCube-Gen2, the sensitivity of this analysis is superior to requiring statistically significant direct observation of a point source.

  2. Angular distribution of muons produced by cosmic ray neutrinos in rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boliev, M. M.; Buckevich, A. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Leonov-Vendrovsky, A. V.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Zakidyshev, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the upgoing muons flux, produced by cosmic ray neutrinos is aiming at: (1) search for neutrino oscillation; (2); search for extraterrestrial neutrinos from local sources; and (3); search for any hypothetical neutral penetrating radiation different from neutrinos. Experimental data of the Baksan underground telescope on intensity of upward muons for three years of living time, was analyzed having in mind mainly neutrino oscillation.

  3. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2003-02-06

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

  4. Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This prepares the way for a Neutrino Factory (NF) in which high energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The NF concept was proposed in 1997 at a time when the discovery that the three known types of neutrino ({nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}) can change their flavor as they propagate through space (neutrino oscillations) was providing a first glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source: a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  5. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E -2.5 and E -2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  6. Estimating the contribution of Galactic sources to the diffuse neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Paul, Thomas C.; da Silva, Luiz H. M.; Vlcek, Brian J.

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent IceCube observations we reexamine the idea that microquasars are high energy neutrino emitters. By stretching to the maximum the parameters of the Fermi engine we show that the nearby high-mass x-ray binary LS 5039 could accelerate protons up to above about 20 PeV. These highly relativistic protons could subsequently interact with the plasma producing neutrinos up to the maximum observed energies. After that we adopt the spatial density distribution of high-mass x-ray binaries obtained from the deep INTEGRAL Galactic plane survey, and we assume LS 5039 typifies the microquasar population to demonstrate that these powerful compact sources could provide a dominant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux recently observed by IceCube.

  7. Gas Filled RF Resonator Hadron Beam Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, Katsuya; Abrams, Robert; Dinkel, Holly; Freemire, Ben; Johnson, Rolland; Kazakevich, Grigory; Tollestrup, Alvin; Zwaska, Robert

    2016-06-01

    MW-class beam facilities are being considered all over the world to produce an intense neutrino beam for fundamental particle physics experiments. A radiation-robust beam monitor system is required to diagnose the primary and secondary beam qualities in high-radiation environments. We have proposed a novel gas-filled RF-resonator hadron beam monitor in which charged particles passing through the resonator produce ionized plasma that changes the permittivity of the gas. The sensitivity of the monitor has been evaluated in numerical simulation. A signal manipulation algorithm has been designed. A prototype system will be constructed and tested by using a proton beam at the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab.

  8. Follow-up of GW150914 and multi-messenger studies of transient astrophysical sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleiro, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    By constantly monitoring at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, neutrino telescopes are well designed to detect neutrinos emitted by transient astrophysical sources. In particular, the ANTARES telescope is currently the largest high-energy neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. Searches for ANTARES neutrino candidates coincident with multi-wavelength and multi-messenger transient phenomena are performed by triggering optical, X-ray and radio observations immediately after the detection of an interesting ANTARES event and also by looking for neutrino emission spatially and temporally coincident with transient astrophysical events detected across the electromagnetic spectrum or with new messengers as gravitational-wave signals. The latest results of the multi-messenger analyses performed with ANTARES will be presented in this contribution. In particular, we will focus on the neutrino follow-up performed after the detection of the first gravitation-wave event, GW150914.

  9. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, Michel; Al Samarai, Imen; Akerlof, Carl; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien; Klotz, Alain; Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand; Vecchi, Manuela; Zheng, Weikang

    2012-11-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5°. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  10. FIRST NEUTRINO POINT-SOURCE RESULTS FROM THE 22-STRING ICECUBE DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-05-14

    We present new results of searches for neutrino point sources in the northern sky, using data recorded in 2007-08 with 22 strings of the IceCube detector (approximately one-fourth of the planned total) and 275.7 days of livetime. The final sample of 5114 neutrino candidate events agrees well with the expected background of atmospheric muon neutrinos and a small component of atmospheric muons. No evidence of a point source is found, with the most significant excess of events in the sky at 2.2 {sigma} after accounting for all trials. The average upper limit over the northern sky for point sources of muon-neutrinos with E{sup -2} spectrum is E{sup 2} {Phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}} < 1.4 x 10{sup -1} TeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in the energy range from 3 TeV to 3 PeV, improving the previous best average upper limit by the AMANDA-II detector by a factor of two.

  11. First Neutrino Point-Source Results from the 22 String Icecube Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Day, C. T.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Leich, H.; Lennarz, D.; Lucke, A.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Mohr, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, A.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Ice Cube Collaboration

    2009-08-01

    We present new results of searches for neutrino point sources in the northern sky, using data recorded in 2007-2008 with 22 strings of the IceCube detector (approximately one-fourth of the planned total) and 275.7 days of live time. The final sample of 5114 neutrino candidate events agrees well with the expected background of atmospheric muon neutrinos and a small component of atmospheric muons. No evidence of a point source is found, with the most significant excess of events in the sky at 2.2σ after accounting for all trials. The average upper limit over the northern sky for point sources of muon-neutrinos with E -2 spectrum is E^{2} Φ_{ν_{μ}} < 1.4 × 10^{-11} TeV cm^{-2} s^{-1}, in the energy range from 3 TeV to 3 PeV, improving the previous best average upper limit by the AMANDA-II detector by a factor of 2.

  12. Extending the search for neutrino point sources with IceCube above the horizon

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.

    2009-11-20

    Point source searches with the IceCube neutrino telescope have been restricted to one hemisphere, due to the exclusive selection of upward going events as a way of rejecting the atmospheric muon background. We show that the region above the horizon can be included by suppressing the background through energy-sensitive cuts. This approach improves the sensitivity above PeV energies, previously not accessible for declinations of more than a few degrees below the horizon due to the absorption of neutrinos in Earth. We present results based on data collected with 22 strings of IceCube, extending its field of view and energy reach for point source searches. No significant excess above the atmospheric background is observed in a sky scan and in tests of source candidates. Upper limits are reported, which for the first time cover point sources in the southern sky up to EeV energies.

  13. Extending the search for neutrino point sources with IceCube above the horizon.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Botner, O; Bradley, L; Braun, J; Breder, D; Carson, M; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Day, C T; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Duvoort, M R; Edwards, W R; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Gozzini, R; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gunasingha, R M; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Hasegawa, Y; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Imlay, R L; Inaba, M; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Knops, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lennarz, D; Lundberg, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miyamoto, H; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Patton, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Potthoff, N; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Roucelle, C; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schukraft, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoufer, M C; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terranova, C; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tooker, J; Tosi, D; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wiedemann, A; Wikström, G; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S

    2009-11-27

    Point source searches with the IceCube neutrino telescope have been restricted to one hemisphere, due to the exclusive selection of upward going events as a way of rejecting the atmospheric muon background. We show that the region above the horizon can be included by suppressing the background through energy-sensitive cuts. This improves the sensitivity above PeV energies, previously not accessible for declinations of more than a few degrees below the horizon due to the absorption of neutrinos in Earth. We present results based on data collected with 22 strings of IceCube, extending its field of view and energy reach for point source searches. No significant excess above the atmospheric background is observed in a sky scan and in tests of source candidates. Upper limits are reported, which for the first time cover point sources in the southern sky up to EeV energies.

  14. Extending the Search for Neutrino Point Sources with IceCube above the Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Carson, M.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Day, C. T.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Paul, L.; de Los Heros, C. Pérez; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tooker, J.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, A.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.

    2009-11-01

    Point source searches with the IceCube neutrino telescope have been restricted to one hemisphere, due to the exclusive selection of upward going events as a way of rejecting the atmospheric muon background. We show that the region above the horizon can be included by suppressing the background through energy-sensitive cuts. This improves the sensitivity above PeV energies, previously not accessible for declinations of more than a few degrees below the horizon due to the absorption of neutrinos in Earth. We present results based on data collected with 22 strings of IceCube, extending its field of view and energy reach for point source searches. No significant excess above the atmospheric background is observed in a sky scan and in tests of source candidates. Upper limits are reported, which for the first time cover point sources in the southern sky up to EeV energies.

  15. Solar neutrino detectors as sterile neutrino hunters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Marco; Borexino-SOX Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Atroshchenko, V.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Carlini, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cloué, O.; Cribier, M.; D’Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Gschwender, M.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, A.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Jeschke, D.; Jonquères, N.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Ortica, F.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Reinert, Y.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Veyssière, C.; Vishneva, A.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The large size and the very low radioactive background of solar neutrino detectors such as Borexino at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy offer a unique opportunity to probe the existence of neutrino oscillations into new sterile components by means of carefully designed and well calibrated anti-neutrino and neutrino artificial sources. In this paper we briefly summarise the key elements of the SOX experiment, a program for the search of sterile neutrinos (and other short distance effects) by means of a 144Ce-144Pr anti-neutrino source and, possibly in the medium term future, with a 51Cr neutrino source.

  16. Reevaluation of the prospect of observing neutrinos from Galactic sources in the light of recent results in gamma ray and neutrino astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Halzen, F.; Niro, V.

    2014-05-01

    In light of the recent IceCube evidence for a flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos, we revisit the prospect of observing the sources of the Galactic cosmic rays. In particular, we update the predictions for the neutrino flux expected from sources in the nearby star-forming region in Cygnus taking into account recent TeV gamma ray measurements of their spectra. We consider the three Milagro sources: MGRO J2019+37, MGRO J1908+06 and MGRO J2031+41 and calculate the attainable confidence level limits and statistical significance as a function of the exposure time. We also evaluate the prospects for a kilometer-scale detector in the Mediterranean to observe and elucidate the origin of the cosmic neutrino flux measured by IceCube.

  17. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments. >>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  18. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  19. Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

    The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water Čerenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

  20. IceCube constraints on fast-spinning pulsars as high-energy neutrino sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko; Murase, Kohta; Olinto, Angela V. E-mail: kotera@iap.fr E-mail: olinto@kicp.uchicago.edu

    2016-04-01

    Relativistic winds of fast-spinning pulsars have been proposed as a potential site for cosmic-ray acceleration from very high energies (VHE) to ultrahigh energies (UHE). We re-examine conditions for high-energy neutrino production, considering the interaction of accelerated particles with baryons of the expanding supernova ejecta and the radiation fields in the wind nebula. We make use of the current IceCube sensitivity in diffusive high-energy neutrino background, in order to constrain the parameter space of the most extreme neutron stars as sources of VHE and UHE cosmic rays. We demonstrate that the current non-observation of 10{sup 18} eV neutrinos put stringent constraints on the pulsar scenario. For a given model, birthrates, ejecta mass and acceleration efficiency of the magnetar sources can be constrained. When we assume a proton cosmic ray composition and spherical supernovae ejecta, we find that the IceCube limits almost exclude their significant contribution to the observed UHE cosmic-ray flux. Furthermore, we consider scenarios where a fraction of cosmic rays can escape from jet-like structures piercing the ejecta, without significant interactions. Such scenarios would enable the production of UHE cosmic rays and help remove the tension between their EeV neutrino production and the observational data.

  1. IceCube constraints on fast-spinning pulsars as high-energy neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko; Murase, Kohta; Olinto, Angela V.

    2016-04-01

    Relativistic winds of fast-spinning pulsars have been proposed as a potential site for cosmic-ray acceleration from very high energies (VHE) to ultrahigh energies (UHE). We re-examine conditions for high-energy neutrino production, considering the interaction of accelerated particles with baryons of the expanding supernova ejecta and the radiation fields in the wind nebula. We make use of the current IceCube sensitivity in diffusive high-energy neutrino background, in order to constrain the parameter space of the most extreme neutron stars as sources of VHE and UHE cosmic rays. We demonstrate that the current non-observation of 1018 eV neutrinos put stringent constraints on the pulsar scenario. For a given model, birthrates, ejecta mass and acceleration efficiency of the magnetar sources can be constrained. When we assume a proton cosmic ray composition and spherical supernovae ejecta, we find that the IceCube limits almost exclude their significant contribution to the observed UHE cosmic-ray flux. Furthermore, we consider scenarios where a fraction of cosmic rays can escape from jet-like structures piercing the ejecta, without significant interactions. Such scenarios would enable the production of UHE cosmic rays and help remove the tension between their EeV neutrino production and the observational data.

  2. Development of a compact 20 MeV gamma-ray source for energy calibration at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, A.W.P.; Browne, M.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Waltham, C.E.; Kherani, N.P.

    1995-12-31

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a real-time neutrino detector under construction near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. SNO collaboration is developing various calibration sources in order to determine the detector response completely. This paper describes briefly the calibration sources being developed by the collaboration. One of these, a compact {sup 3}H(p,{gamma}){sup 4}He source, which produces 20-MeV {gamma}-rays, is described.

  3. [Variations in the intensity of solar neutrinos as a problem for physical chemistry].

    PubMed

    Vladimirskiĭ, B M; Bruns, A V

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of variations in the solar neutrino flux in Brookhaven measurements with solar activity indices clearly shows that the neutrino flux is controlled by surface solar processes. These processes can lead to changes in the efficiency of registrations of the neutrino flux. From this view point, the results of the measurements of the neutrino flux on the Brookhaven detector in 1970-1994 (108 runs) were analyzed. It was found that the neutrino flux depends on the heliogeophysical situation. The well known anticorrelation between the neutrino flux and Wolf numbers is observed only for odd cycle of solar activity. A similar regularity occurs for critical frequencies of E-ionosphere. By contrast, the correlation between the neutrino flux and the Ap-index is observed only for the even activity cycle. The predominance of the sign of radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field in the last 7-14 days of exposure has the greatest effect on the neutrino flux (this sign changes as the sign of the total magnetic field of the Sun changes). In short runs, the neutrino flux changes more than threefold. The conclusion is made that variations of the solar neutrino flux are falcious. These fictitious variations are caused probably by the action of very low-frequency electromagnetic emissions of the magnetosphere upon the substance of the target and the technology of the extraction of 37Ar atoms from perchloretylene.

  4. Intense X-ray and EUV light source

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Joshua; Ekdahl, Carl; Oertel, John

    2017-06-20

    An intense X-ray or EUV light source may be driven by the Smith-Purcell effect. The intense light source may utilize intense electron beams and Bragg crystals. This may allow the intense light source to range from the extreme UV range up to the hard X-ray range.

  5. Prospects for Detecting Galactic Sources of Cosmic Neutrinos with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheirandish, Ali; Halzen, Francis; Niro, Vivana

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the prospects for detecting the neutrino emission from sources in the Galactic plane assuming that the highest energy photons originate from the decay of pions, which yields a straightforward prediction for the neutrino flux from the decay of the associated production of charged pions. Four promising sources are identified based on having a large flux and a flat spectrum. We subsequently evaluate the probability of their identification in IceCube data as a function of time. We show that observing them over the twenty-year lifetime of the instrumentation is likely, and that some should be observable at the 3 σ level with six years of data. In the absence of positive results, we derive constraints on the spectral index and cut-off energy of the sources, assuming a hadronic acceleration mechanism.

  6. A New Method for Finding Point Sources in High-Energy Neutrino Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovinazzi, Mark; IceCube Neutrino Observatory Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has not yet been able to identify an astrophysical point source from which a high-energy neutrino has originated. In this analysis, we implement a new method for finding such point sources by choosing to examine pairs of detected events rather than individual ones, noting that clusters of events are more likely to come from a single source than those from widely different parts of the sky. We wish to measure the angular distances between all possible pairs of events, scaling each by the pair's angular resolution errors summed in quadrature. Furthermore, we compare this result to statistically generated distributions of both a diffuse and a clustered set of events. Our new method is thus designed to teach us exactly how point-source-like our sample of detected events really is. We propose that our analysis should be able to determine the origins of any given clustering of events within the IceCube data, allowing us to discover the first neutrino point source in history.

  7. Neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed.

  8. The EM algorithm applied to the search of high energy neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.

    The detection of astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos is one of the most interesting quests in modern astrophysics. Unlike gamma and X-ray observations, the low number of signal events expected in high energy neutrino telescopes, constrains significantly the discovery probability of the sources. New algorithms to disentangle clusters of small number events from the background events are required. In this contribution, we will explore the potentiality of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to the search of point-like source with a generic Kilometre-Scale neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean sea. The EM algorithm is a widely used algorithm in the clustering analysis. This method can also be applied to the search of nearby ultra-high energy cosmic rays sources from ground detection infrastructures. Complexity arising from the low statistics will be described as well as the results compared to the well-known binning technique applied in this kind of experiments and developed firstly by the MACRO collaboration.

  9. Choked jets and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts as hidden neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We consider gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets that are choked by extended material as sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We take into account the jet propagation physics both inside the progenitor star and the surrounding dense medium. Radiation constraints, which are relevant for high-energy neutrino production, are considered as well. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays is possible for sufficiently low-power jets and/or jets buried in a dense, extended wind or outer envelope. Such conditions also favor GRB jets to become stalled, and the necessary conditions for stalling are explicitly derived. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic supernovae (SNe) and low-luminosity (LL) GRBs, giving a unified picture of GRBs and GRB-SNe. Focusing on this unified scenario for GRBs, we calculate the resulting neutrino spectra from choked jets, including the relevant microphysical processes such as multipion production in p p and p γ interactions, as well as the energy losses of mesons and muons. We obtain diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results for the luminosity function of LL GRBs. Although uncertainties are large, we confirm that LL GRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux. Our results are consistent with the present IceCube data and do not violate the stacking limits on classical high-luminosity GRBs. We find that high-energy neutrino production in choked jets is dominated by p γ interactions. These sources are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Assuming stalled jets can launch a quasispherical shock in the dense medium, "precursor" TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout gamma-ray emission can be used as smoking-gun evidence for a choked jet model for LL GRBs. Our results strengthen the relevance of wide field-of-view sky monitors with better sensitivities in the 1-100 keV range.

  10. Neutrino-Gamma Multi-Messenger Source Detection via the Astrophysical Multi-Messenger Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixelle, Josh; Miles, S.; AMON

    2014-01-01

    The idea of multi-messenger event detection has long been explored in the context of above-threshold analysis performed by the IceCube collaboration using Swift BAT and by the Amanda collaboration using BATSE. While these investigations produced null results, they left the event space of sub-threshold events untouched. This untapped event space, combined with the addition of new observatories for various bands and messenger types, provides the obvious niche for a GBN style network to exist: AMON. We consider Monte-carlo models of pair-wise detection between sub-threshold IceCube neutrino doublets, sub-threshold neutrino-gamma doublets with Swift BAT, and with sub-threshold higher multiplicity neutrino-gamma coincidences with Fermi LAT. Several detection methods were considered and compared to the status quo analyses of neutrino doublets by IceCube, demonstrating significant sensitivity gain. The MC model analysis was followed by an archival doublet analysis between IceCube-40 and Fermi LAT data within their co-temporal window of observation. Several methods for detecting statistical signal excess in the archival analysis were considered, providing an upper limit on source population parameters for the given analysis sensitivity.

  11. Choked Jets and Low-Luminosity Gamma-Ray Bursts as Hidden Neutrino Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-03-01

    I will discuss choked gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets as possible sources of very high-energy (VHE) cosmic neutrinos. The jet propagation physics and radiation constraints are taken into account. We find that efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays inside a high density stellar environment is possible for sufficiently low-powered jets and/or jets buried in an extended optically think envelope. Such conditions are favorable also for the GRB jets to become stalled. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic SNe or low-luminosity GRBs by launching quasi-spherical shocks that breakout in the optically thick wind. Focusing on this possibility, we calculate the resulting diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results of the local llGRB rate and luminosity function. We confirm that llGRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the measured neutrino flux. The results are compatible with the IceCube (IC) data around 10-100 TeV without contradicting other IC limits on classical GRBs. Choked and llGRBs are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays, and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Precursor TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout emission can be used as smoking gun evidence for a choked jet model for llGRBs.

  12. Low-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-05-01

    There exist several kinds of sources emitting neutrinos in the MeV energy range. These low-energy neutrinos from different sources can be often detected by the same multipurpose detectors. The status-of-art of the field of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, and the search for sterile neutrino with artificial neutrino sources is provided here; other neutrino sources, as for example reactor or high-energy neutrinos, are described elsewhere. For each of these three fields, the present-day motivation and open questions, as well as the latest experimental results and future perspectives are discussed.

  13. A combined study of source, detector and matter non-standard neutrino interactions at DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Choubey, Sandhya; Ohlsson, Tommy; Pramanik, Dipyaman; Raut, Sushant K.

    2016-08-01

    We simultaneously investigate source, detector and matter non-standard neutrino interactions at the proposed DUNE experiment. Our analysis is performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo exploring the full parameter space. We find that the sensitivity of DUNE to the standard oscillation parameters is worsened due to the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions. In particular, there are degenerate solutions in the leptonic mixing angle θ 23 and the Dirac CP-violating phase δ. We also compute the expected sensitivities at DUNE to the non-standard interaction parameters. We find that the sensitivities to the matter non-standard interaction parameters are substantially stronger than the current bounds (up to a factor of about 15). Furthermore, we discuss correlations between the source/detector and matter non-standard interaction parameters and find a degenerate solution in θ 23. Finally, we explore the effect of statistics on our results.

  14. Underground neutrino astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium.

  15. Portable, high intensity isotopic neutron source provides increased experimental accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, W. C.; Stewart, D. C.; Wahlgren, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Small portable, high intensity isotopic neutron source combines twelve curium-americium beryllium sources. This high intensity of neutrons, with a flux which slowly decreases at a known rate, provides for increased experimental accuracy.

  16. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  17. From super beams to neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities ({beta}-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R&D program.

  18. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the `exotic` particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino (`little neutral one`, as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with `neutron`, a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a `paper tiger`. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  20. Status of the intense pulsed neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.; Brown, B.S.; Kustom, R.L.; Lander, G.H.; Potts, C.W.; Schulke, A.W.; Wuestefeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fortunately in spite of some premature reports of its impending demise, IPNS has passed the fourth anniversary of the first delivery of protons to the targets (May 5, 1981) and is approaching the fourth anniversary of its operation as a scattering facility (August 4, 1981). On June 10, 1984, the RCS delivered its one billionth pulse to the IPNS target - the total number of protons delivered to the targets amounted then to 75 stp cm/sup 3/ of H/sub 2/ gas. Since startup IPNS has improved steadily in terms of the performance of the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron, the source and its moderators and the scattering instruments, and a substantial and productive user program has evolved. This report summarizes the current status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We include reference to recent accelerator operating experience, neutron facility operating experience, improvements to these systems, design work on the ASPUN high-current facility, booster target design, the new solid methane moderator, characterization of the room temperature moderators, and provide some examples of recent results from several of the spectrometers.

  1. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2011-12-01

    Radiochemical experiments have been crucial to solar neutrino research. Even today, they provide the only direct measurement of the rate of the proton-proton fusion reaction, p+p→d+e++νe, which generates most of the Sun's energy. We first give a little history of radiochemical solar neutrino experiments with emphasis on the gallium experiment SAGE - the only currently operating detector of this type. The combined result of all data from the Ga experiments is a capture rate of 67.6±3.7 SNU. For comparison to theory, we use the calculated flux at the Sun from a standard solar model, take into account neutrino propagation from the Sun to the Earth and the results of neutrino source experiments with Ga, and obtain 67.3-3.5+3.9 SNU. Using the data from all solar neutrino experiments we calculate an electron neutrino pp flux of ϕpp♁=(3.41-0.77+0.76)×1010/(cm-s), which agrees well with the prediction from a detailed solar model of ϕpp♁=(3.30-0.14+0.13)×1010/(cm-s). Four tests of the Ga experiments have been carried out with very intense reactor-produced neutrino sources and the ratio of observed to calculated rates is 0.88±0.05. One explanation for this unexpectedly low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. We end with consideration of possible time variation in the Ga experiments and an enumeration of other possible radiochemical experiments that might have been.

  2. Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou and J. Wei

    2002-08-20

    The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

  3. Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA) — Towards Survey of Astronomical ντ Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, George W.-S.

    The Earth-skimming ντ method allows for huge target mass and detection volume simultaneously. In part motivated by IceCube PeV astro-neutrino events, the planned NTA observatory has three site stations watching the air mass surrounded by Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, and Hualalai on Hawaii Island, plus a site station at the center watching the lower night sky. Sensitivities equivalent to >100 km3 water and pointing accuracy of <0.2° can be achieved with Cherenkov-fluorescence stereoscopic observation for PeV-EeV neutrinos that is almost background-free. With design based on experience from Ashra-1 and the goal of clear discovery and identification of astronomical ντ sources, a new international collaboration is being formed.

  4. Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Cardall, Christian Y

    2007-01-01

    A nascent neutron star resulting from stellar collapse is a prodigious source of neutrinos of all flavors. While the most basic features of this neutrino emission can be estimated from simple considerations, the detailed simulation of the neutrinos' decoupling from the hot neutron star is not yet computationally tractable in its full glory, being a time-dependent six-dimensional transport problem. Nevertheless, supernova neutrino fluxes are of great interest in connection with the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism and supernova nucleosynthesis, and as a potential probe of the supernova environment and of some of the neutrino mixing parameters that remain unknown; hence, a variety of approximate transport schemes have been used to obtain results with reduced dimensionality. However, none of these approximate schemes have addressed a recent challenge to the conventional wisdom that neutrino flavor mixing cannot impact the explosion mechanism or r-process nucleosynthesis.

  5. Large acceptance magnetic focussing horns for production of a high intensity narrow band neutrino beam at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.; Chimienti, L.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Sims, W.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.; Thorwarth, H.

    1985-01-01

    A set of two large acceptance (20 to 140 mrad) horns have been designed and built to form a parallel beam of 3 GeV/c pions and kaons for the production of an intense, dichromatic neutrino beam. A set of beam plugs and collimators determined the momentum of the particles which pass through the horns. The cooling and maintenance of the horns and target was a particular concern since they were operated with an incident intensity of over 10/sup 13/ proton/sec. These systems were designed for simplicity, reliability, and easy replacement.

  6. Gamma-ray constraints on maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes and UHECR source evolution models

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Kalashev, Oleg; Semikoz, Dmitri V. E-mail: kalashev@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2012-01-01

    The dip model assumes that the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10{sup 18} eV consist exclusively of protons and is consistent with the spectrum and composition measure by HiRes. Here we present the range of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes in the dip-model which are compatible with a recent determination of the extragalactic very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray diffuse background derived from 2.5 years of Fermi/LAT data. We show that the largest fluxes predicted in the dip model would be detectable by IceCube in about 10 years of observation and are within the reach of a few years of observation with the ARA project. In the incomplete UHECR model in which protons are assumed to dominate only above 10{sup 19} eV, the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes could be a factor of 2 or 3 larger. Any fraction of heavier nuclei in the UHECR at these energies would reduce the maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. We also consider here special evolution models in which the UHECR sources are assumed to have the same evolution of either the star formation rate (SFR), or the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate, or the active galactic nuclei (AGN) rate in the Universe and found that the last two are disfavored (and in the dip model rejected) by the new VHE gamma-ray background.

  7. Gamma-ray constraints on maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes and UHECR source evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Kalashev, Oleg; Semikoz, Dmitri V.

    2012-01-01

    The dip model assumes that the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 1018 eV consist exclusively of protons and is consistent with the spectrum and composition measure by HiRes. Here we present the range of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes in the dip-model which are compatible with a recent determination of the extragalactic very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray diffuse background derived from 2.5 years of Fermi/LAT data. We show that the largest fluxes predicted in the dip model would be detectable by IceCube in about 10 years of observation and are within the reach of a few years of observation with the ARA project. In the incomplete UHECR model in which protons are assumed to dominate only above 1019 eV, the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes could be a factor of 2 or 3 larger. Any fraction of heavier nuclei in the UHECR at these energies would reduce the maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. We also consider here special evolution models in which the UHECR sources are assumed to have the same evolution of either the star formation rate (SFR), or the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate, or the active galactic nuclei (AGN) rate in the Universe and found that the last two are disfavored (and in the dip model rejected) by the new VHE gamma-ray background.

  8. A high intensity H₂⁺ multicusp ion source for the isotope decay-at-rest experiment, IsoDAR.

    PubMed

    Axani, S; Winklehner, D; Alonso, J; Conrad, J M

    2016-02-01

    The Isotope Decay-At-Rest (IsoDAR) experimental program aims to decisively test the sterile neutrino hypothesis. In essence, it is a novel cyclotron based neutrino factory that will improve the frontiers in both high-intensity cyclotrons and electron flavor anti-neutrino sources. By using a source in which the usual H(-) ions are replaced with the more tightly bound H2(+) ions, we can negate the effects of Lorentz stripping in a cyclotron, reduce the overall perveance due to the space-charge effect, and deliver twice the number of protons per nuclei on target. To produce the H2(+), we are currently developing a dedicated multicusp ion source, MIST-1 (generation-1 Multicusp Ion Source Technologies at MIT), and a low-energy beam transport system for the IsoDAR cyclotron. This will increase the overall H2(+) current leading up to the cyclotron and improve the emittance of the beam injected into the cyclotron.

  9. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Requejo, Olga Mena; Quigg, Chris

    2005-04-15

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z{sup 0}. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (10{sup 21}-10{sup 25}-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the line shape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality.

  10. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z{sup 0}. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (10{sup 21} - 10{sup 25}-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time-evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the lineshape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality.

  11. Galactic sources of high energy neutrinos: Expectation from gamma-ray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahakyan, N.

    2016-07-01

    The recent results from ground based γ-ray detectors (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) provide a population of TeV galactic γ-ray sources which are potential sources of High Energy (HE) neutrinos. Since the γ-rays and ν-s are produced from decays of neutral and charged pions, the flux of TeV γ-rays can be used to estimate the upper limit of ν flux and vice versa; the detectability of ν flux implies a minimum flux of the accompanying γ-rays (assuming the internal and the external absorption of γ-rays is negligible). Using this minimum flux, it is possible to find the sources which can be detected with cubic-kilometer telescopes. I will discuss the possibility to detect HE neutrinos from powerful galactic accelerators, such as Supernova Remnants (SNRs) and Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) and show that likely only RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622 and Vela X can be detected by current generation of instruments (IceCube and Km3Net). It will be shown also, that galactic binary systems could be promising sources of HE ν-s. In particular, ν-s and γ-rays from Cygnus X-3 will be discussed during recent gamma-ray activity, showing that in the future such kind of activities could produce detectable flux of HE ν-s.

  12. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  13. Search for cosmic high energy down-going neutrino fluxes from point-like sources with ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrina, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    Installed in the Mediterranean Sea, at a depth of ∼ 2.5 km, ANTARES is the largest undersea neutrino telescope currently operating. The search for point-like sources with neutrino telescopes is normally limited to a fraction of the sky, due to the selection of events for which the direction of the neutrino candidate has been reconstructed as coming from below the detector horizon, usually referred to as “up-going” events, in order to significantly reduce the atmospheric muons background. In this contribution we demonstrate that through an energy and direction dependent event selection the background can be effectively suppressed so that a part of the region above the horizon can be included in the search. The strategy for the study of a “down-going” neutrino flux is described and the ANTARES sensitivity is presented. No indication of a neutrino signal has been found in the analysed data and upper limits on the flux normalization of a ∝ Ev -2 energy spectrum of neutrinos from several candidate point-like sources in that region have been set.

  14. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  15. The diffuse neutrino flux from FR-II radio galaxies and blazars: A source property based estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Julia K.; Biermann, Peter L.; Rhode, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    Water and ice Cherenkov telescopes of the present and future aim for the detection of a neutrino signal from extraterrestrial sources at energies Eν > PeV [Woschnagg and AMANDA Collaboration, Astro-ph/0409423, talk at Neutrino 2004; Montaruli, in: Peter W. Gorham, Particle Astrophysics Instrumentation, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4858, 2003, p. 92; IceCube Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 20 (2004) 507]. Some of the most promising extragalactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this paper, the neutrino flux from two kinds of AGN sources will be estimated assuming pγ interactions in the jets of the AGN. The first analyzed sample contains FR-II radio galaxies while the second AGN type examined are blazars. The result is highly dependent on the proton's index of the energy spectrum. To normalize the spectrum, the connection between neutrino and disk luminosity will be used by applying the jet-disk symbiosis model from Falcke and Biermann [Astron. Astrophys. 293 (1995) 665]. The maximum proton energy and thus, also the maximum neutrino energy of the source is connected to its disk luminosity, which was shown by Lovelace [Nature 262 (1976) 649] and was confirmed by Falcke et al. [Astron. Astrophys. 298 (1995) 375].

  16. High-intensity sources for light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

  17. Time-integrated Searches for Point-like Sources of Neutrinos with the 40-string IceCube Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Singh, K.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    We present the results of time-integrated searches for astrophysical neutrino sources in both the northern and southern skies. Data were collected using the partially completed IceCube detector in the 40-string configuration recorded between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20, totaling 375.5 days livetime. An unbinned maximum likelihood ratio method is used to search for astrophysical signals. The data sample contains 36,900 events: 14,121 from the northern sky, mostly muons induced by atmospheric neutrinos, and 22,779 from the southern sky, mostly high-energy atmospheric muons. The analysis includes searches for individual point sources and stacked searches for sources in a common class, sometimes including a spatial extent. While this analysis is sensitive to TeV-PeV energy neutrinos in the northern sky, it is primarily sensitive to neutrinos with energy greater than about 1 PeV in the southern sky. No evidence for a signal is found in any of the searches. Limits are set for neutrino fluxes from astrophysical sources over the entire sky and compared to predictions. The sensitivity is at least a factor of two better than previous searches (depending on declination), with 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits being between E 2 dΦ/dE ~ 2-200 × 10-12 TeV cm-2 s-1 in the northern sky and between 3-700 × 10-12 TeV cm-2 s-1 in the southern sky. The stacked source searches provide the best limits to specific source classes. The full IceCube detector is expected to improve the sensitivity to dΦ/dEvpropE -2 sources by another factor of two in the first year of operation.

  18. TIME-INTEGRATED SEARCHES FOR POINT-LIKE SOURCES OF NEUTRINOS WITH THE 40-STRING IceCube DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.

    2011-05-01

    We present the results of time-integrated searches for astrophysical neutrino sources in both the northern and southern skies. Data were collected using the partially completed IceCube detector in the 40-string configuration recorded between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20, totaling 375.5 days livetime. An unbinned maximum likelihood ratio method is used to search for astrophysical signals. The data sample contains 36,900 events: 14,121 from the northern sky, mostly muons induced by atmospheric neutrinos, and 22,779 from the southern sky, mostly high-energy atmospheric muons. The analysis includes searches for individual point sources and stacked searches for sources in a common class, sometimes including a spatial extent. While this analysis is sensitive to TeV-PeV energy neutrinos in the northern sky, it is primarily sensitive to neutrinos with energy greater than about 1 PeV in the southern sky. No evidence for a signal is found in any of the searches. Limits are set for neutrino fluxes from astrophysical sources over the entire sky and compared to predictions. The sensitivity is at least a factor of two better than previous searches (depending on declination), with 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits being between E {sup 2} d{Phi}/dE {approx} 2-200 x 10{sup -12} TeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the northern sky and between 3-700 x 10{sup -12} TeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the southern sky. The stacked source searches provide the best limits to specific source classes. The full IceCube detector is expected to improve the sensitivity to d{Phi}/dE{proportional_to}E {sup -2} sources by another factor of two in the first year of operation.

  19. Multimessenger Astronomy with Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franckowiak, Anna

    2017-09-01

    The recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has opened a new window to the Universe. However, the sources of those neutrinos are still unknown. Among the plausible candidates are gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei and supernovae. Combining neutrino data with electromagnetic measurements in a multimessenger approach will increase our ability to identify the neutrino sources and help to solve long-standing problems in astrophysics such as the origin of cosmic rays. Neutrino observations may also contribute to future detections of gravitational wave signals, and enable the study of their source progenitors. I will review the recent progress in multimessenger astronomy using neutrino data.

  20. Neutrino beams from muon storage rings: Characteristics and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.

    1998-06-01

    High-intensity high-energy neutrino beams could be produced by exploiting a very intense future muon source, and allowing the muons to decay in a storage ring containing a long straight section. Taking the parameters of muon source designs that are currently under study, the characteristics of the neutrino beams that could be produced are discussed and some examples of their physics potential given. It is shown that the neutrino and antineutrino beam intensities may be sufficient to produce hundreds of charged current interactions per year in a detector on the far side of the Earth. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Cold and intense OH radical beam sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ploenes, Ludger; Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T. van de; Haas, Dominik; Zhang, Dongdong E-mail: stefan.willitsch@unibas.ch; Willitsch, Stefan E-mail: stefan.willitsch@unibas.ch

    2016-05-15

    We present the design and performance of two supersonic radical beam sources: a conventional pinhole-discharge source and a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) source, both based on the Nijmegen pulsed valve. Both designs have been characterized by discharging water molecules seeded in the rare gases Ar, Kr, or Xe. The resulting OH radicals have been detected by laser-induced fluorescence. The measured OH densities are (3.0 ± 0.6) × 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and (1.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} for the pinhole-discharge and DBD sources, respectively. The beam profiles for both radical sources show a relative longitudinal velocity spread of about 10%. The absolute rotational ground state population of the OH beam generated from the pinhole-discharge source has been determined to be more than 98%. The DBD source even produces a rotationally colder OH beam with a population of the ground state exceeding 99%. For the DBD source, addition of O{sub 2} molecules to the gas mixture increases the OH beam density by a factor of about 2.5, improves the DBD valve stability, and allows to tune the mean velocity of the radical beam.

  2. Rapidly pulsed, high intensity, incoherent light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A rapid pulsing, high intensity, incoherent light is produced by selectively energizing a plurality of discharge lamps with a triggering circuit. Each lamp is connected to a capacitor, and a power supply is electrically connected to all but one of the capacitors. This last named capacitor is electrically connected to a discharge lamp which is connected to the triggering circuit.

  3. Cathodoluminescent Source of Intense White Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The device described exploits cathodoluminescence to generate intense light in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. In this device, the material to be excited to luminescence is a layer of quartz or alumina powder on an electrically conductive plate exposed to a low-pressure plasma discharge. The plate is electrically biased positively to collect electron current.

  4. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  5. Calorimetric system for high-precision determination of activity of the 51Cr neutrino source in the BEST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalashnikova, A. A.; Kozlova, J. P.; Martynov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The calorimetric system based on mass-flow calorimeter for high-precision determination of neutrino flux from 51Cr source with activity 3MCi and higher is created for experiment BEST. The achieved heat release uncertainties are less than 0.25% in the whole range of the heat power and less than 0.1% in the range of 250-500 W. Total value the uncertainty considering the uncertainty of the energy release in the 51Cr decay (0.23%) shows that the activity of 3MCi 51Cr neutrino source can be determined with accuracy better than 0.5%.

  6. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  7. Applications of an Y88/Be Photoneutron Calibration Source to Dark Matter and Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collar, J. I.

    2013-05-01

    The low-energy monochromatic neutron emission from an Y88/Be source can be exploited to mimic the few keVnr nuclear recoils expected from low-mass weakly interacting massive particles and coherent scattering of neutrinos off nuclei. Using this source, a ≲10% quenching factor is measured for sodium recoils below 24keVnr in NaI[Tl]. This is considerably smaller than the 30% typically adopted in the interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA dark matter experiment, resulting in a marked increase of its tension with other searches, under the standard set of phenomenological assumptions. The method is illustrated for other target materials (superheated and noble liquids).

  8. Applications of an 88Y/Be photoneutron calibration source to dark matter and neutrino experiments.

    PubMed

    Collar, J I

    2013-05-24

    The low-energy monochromatic neutron emission from an (88)Y/Be source can be exploited to mimic the few keV(nr) nuclear recoils expected from low-mass weakly interacting massive particles and coherent scattering of neutrinos off nuclei. Using this source, a

  9. An experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using a cryogenic tritium source

    SciTech Connect

    Fackler, O.; Jeziorski, B.; Kolos, W.; Monkhorst, H.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; Szalewicz, K.; White, R.M.; Woerner, R.

    1985-06-25

    An experiment has been performed to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectrometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations have been made for tritium and the HeT/sup +/ daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. The excited final molecular state calculations and the experimental apparatus are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using a frozen tritium source

    SciTech Connect

    Fackler, O.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; White, R.M.; Woerner, R.

    1985-03-01

    We are performing an experiment to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectrometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations can be precisely made for tritium and the HeT/sup +/ daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. We discuss the excited final molecular state calculations and describe the experimental apparatus. 2 references, 6 figures.

  11. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  12. High Intensity Tactical Power Sources for the 1990 Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conceptual or physical study which may become feasible as high intensity power sources . These considerations include present state of the art of...requirements, energy and power output capabilities, and fixed costs. From these tables, it may be seen that a variety of electrical power sources would be...required to satisfy diverse requirements, but an attempt is made to categorize possible high intensity power sources into their areas of optimum

  13. Evidence against Star-forming Galaxies as the Dominant Source of Icecube Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtol, Keith; Ahlers, Markus; Di Mauro, Mattia; Ajello, Marco; Vandenbroucke, Justin

    2017-02-01

    The cumulative emission resulting from hadronic cosmic-ray interactions in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) has been proposed as the dominant contribution to the astrophysical neutrino flux at TeV to PeV energies reported by IceCube. The same particle interactions also inevitably create γ-ray emission that could be detectable as a component of the extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), which is now measured with the Fermi-LAT in the energy range from 0.1 to 820 GeV. New studies of the blazar flux distribution at γ-ray energies above 50 GeV place an upper bound on the residual non-blazar component of the EGB. We show that these results are in strong tension with models that consider SFGs as the dominant source of the diffuse neutrino backgrounds. A characteristic spectral index for parent cosmic rays in starburst galaxies of ΓSB ≃ 2.3 for {dN}/{dE}\\propto {E}-{{{Γ }}{SB}} is consistent with the observed scaling relation between γ-ray and IR luminosity for SFGs, the bounds from the non-blazar EGB, and the observed γ-ray spectra of individual starbursts, but underpredicts the IceCube data by approximately an order of magnitude.

  14. Intense XUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) Radiation Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-31

    191 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NA tI VI B IU R -AlI T N [ APFID q - II OT FILE COPY U"ICLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT...more serious problem for multiple exposures is the accumulation of spattered debris on optics and other surfaces. Incoming laser surfaces can be...background pressure to protect their optical system from spattered Hg from their target. °, % • S. . .. . . -. . . .- . o . . . . . ° . Sources of Radiation

  15. Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.; et al.,

    2013-07-28

    In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) deployed there as a 'far' detector. The facilities envisioned are expected to enable many other science opportunities due to the high event rates and excellent detector resolution from beam neutrinos in the near detector and atmospheric neutrinos in the far detector. This is a mature, well developed, world class experiment whose relevance, importance, and probability of unearthing critical and exciting physics has increased with time.

  16. Novel Ideas for Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, Ken

    2007-04-23

    Recent developments in neutrino physics, primarily the demonstration of neutrino oscillations in both atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos, provide the first conclusive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The simplest phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, for three generations of neutrino, requires six parameters - two squared mass differences, 3 mixing angles and a complex phase that could, if not 0 or {pi}, contribute to the otherwise unexplained baryon asymmetry observed in the universe. Exploring the neutrino sector will require very intense beams of neutrinos, and will need novel solutions.

  17. An intense alpha ion source for INRS cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ling,-xing; Chen Mao-bei

    1985-10-01

    An intense PIG alpha source for INRS has been developed with low arc power and low gas flow. Generally, the alpha yield of the new source is twice as much as the old one. The structure and character of the source and its experimental results both on the bench and cyclotron are described in this paper.

  18. Status of the intense pulsed neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Crawford, R.K.; Rauchas, A.V.; Schulke, A.W.; Worlton, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    IPNS is not unique in having concerns about the level of funding, and the future looks good despite these concerns. This report details the progress made at IPNS during the last two years. Other papers in these proceedings discuss in detail the status of the enriched uranium Booster target, the two instruments that are under construction, GLAD and POSY II, and a proposal for research on an Advanced Pulsed Neutron Source (ASPUN) that has been submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE). Further details on IPNS are available in the IPNS Progress Report 1987--1988, available by writing the IPNS Division Office. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Intense polarized /sup 3/He ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Bertrand, R.; Grioux, J.; Labrie, R.; Lapainte, R.; Meunier, J.F.; Pigeon, G.; Pouliot, L.; Rioux, C.; Roy, R.

    1985-10-01

    This source is based on the atomic polarization of the 2/sup 3/S/sub 1/ metastable state of the neutral atom. A version suitable for operation on the high voltage terminal of a CN Van de Graaff has been constructed, bench tested and installed in the terminal of a 7.5 MV machine. The polarization of the atomic beam is higher than 90%. It is now fully operational and a current of /sup 3/He/sup +/ of 300 nA has been measured after acceleration.

  20. Two-dimensional Core-collapse Supernova Simulations with the Isotropic Diffusion Source Approximation for Neutrino Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Hempel, Matthias; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mechanism of core-collapse supernova is investigated via non-relativistic, two-dimensional (2D), neutrino radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. For the transport of electron flavor neutrinos, we use the interaction rates defined by Bruenn and the isotropic diffusion source approximation (IDSA) scheme, which decomposes the transported particles into trapped-particle and streaming-particle components. Heavy neutrinos are described by a leakage scheme. Unlike the “ray-by-ray” approach in some other multidimensional supernova models, we use cylindrical coordinates and solve the trapped-particle component in multiple dimensions, improving the proto-neutron star resolution and the neutrino transport in angular and temporal directions. We provide an IDSA verification by performing one-dimensional (1D) and 2D simulations with 15 and 20 M⊙ progenitors from Woosley et al. and discuss the difference between our IDSA results and those existing in the literature. Additionally, we perform Newtonian 1D and 2D simulations from prebounce core collapse to several hundred milliseconds postbounce with 11, 15, 21, and 27 M⊙ progenitors from Woosley et al. with the HS(DD2) equation of state. General-relativistic effects are neglected. We obtain robust explosions with diagnostic energies Edia ≳ 0.1-0.5 B (1 B ≡ 1051 erg) for all considered 2D models within approximately 100-300 ms after bounce and find that explosions are mostly dominated by the neutrino-driven convection, although standing accretion shock instabilities are observed as well. We also find that the level of electron deleptonization during collapse dramatically affects the postbounce evolution, e.g., the neglect of neutrino-electron scattering during collapse will lead to a stronger explosion.

  1. Annular Plasmas for Intense X-Radiation Sources: Assessment Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-14

    AD-Al29 382 ANNULAR PLASMAS FOR INTENSE X-RADIATION4 SOURCES: f ASSESSMENT REPORT(U) OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) D MOSHER 14 MAR 83...STANDARDS 1963-A CNR LON inPO.T R-4-83 OFFICEIF NAVAL ___ ___ ___ ___ ANNULAR PLASMAS FOR INTENSE X-RADIATION SOURCES: ASSESSMENT REPORT D. MOSHER 14 MARCH...REPORT B PFmoo COVERED Annular Plasmas for Intense X-radiation Sources: Assessment Asses’sment Report I. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR(*) S

  2. Searches for Extended and Point-like Neutrino Sources with Four Years of IceCube Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    We present results on searches for point-like sources of neutrinos using four years of IceCube data, including the first year of data from the completed 86 string detector. The total livetime of the combined data set is 1373 days. For an E -2 spectrum, the observed 90% C.L. flux upper limits are ~10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and ~10-11 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 for energies between 100 TeV and 100 PeV in the southern sky. This represents a 40% improvement compared to previous publications, resulting from both the additional year of data and the introduction of improved reconstructions. In addition, we present the first results from an all-sky search for extended sources of neutrinos. We update the results of searches for neutrino emission from stacked catalogs of sources and test five new catalogs; two of Galactic supernova remnants and three of active galactic nuclei. In all cases, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis, and upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos are reported for the sources considered.

  3. Searches for extended and point-like neutrino sources with four years of IceCube data

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Berley, D.; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2014-12-01

    We present results on searches for point-like sources of neutrinos using four years of IceCube data, including the first year of data from the completed 86 string detector. The total livetime of the combined data set is 1373 days. For an E {sup –2} spectrum, the observed 90% C.L. flux upper limits are ∼10{sup –12} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and ∼10{sup –11} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} for energies between 100 TeV and 100 PeV in the southern sky. This represents a 40% improvement compared to previous publications, resulting from both the additional year of data and the introduction of improved reconstructions. In addition, we present the first results from an all-sky search for extended sources of neutrinos. We update the results of searches for neutrino emission from stacked catalogs of sources and test five new catalogs; two of Galactic supernova remnants and three of active galactic nuclei. In all cases, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis, and upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos are reported for the sources considered.

  4. Coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering detection with a CsI[Na] scintillator at the SNS spallation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collar, J. I.; Fields, N. E.; Hai, M.; Hossbach, T. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Perumpilly, G.; Scholz, B.

    2015-02-01

    We study the possibility of using CsI[Na] scintillators as an advantageous target for the detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS), using the neutrino emissions from the SNS spallation source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The response of this material to low-energy nuclear recoils like those expected from this process is characterized. Backgrounds are studied using a 2 kg low-background prototype crystal in a dedicated radiation shield. The conclusion is that a planned 14 kg detector should measure approximately 550 CENNS events per year above a demonstrated ~ 7 keVnr low-energy threshold, with a signal-to-background ratio sufficient for a first measurement of the CENNS cross-section. The cross-section for the 208Pb(νe ,e-)208Bi reaction, of interest for future supernova neutrino detection, can be simultaneously obtained.

  5. Search for time-independent neutrino emission from astrophysical sources with 3 yr of IceCube data

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Ahlers, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Altmann, D.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; and others

    2013-12-20

    We present the results of a search for neutrino point sources using the IceCube data collected between 2008 April and 2011 May with three partially completed configurations of the detector: the 40-, 59-, and 79-string configurations. The live-time of this data set is 1040 days. An unbinned maximum likelihood ratio test was used to search for an excess of neutrinos above the atmospheric background at any given direction in the sky. By adding two more years of data with improved event selection and reconstruction techniques, the sensitivity was improved by a factor of 3.5 or more with respect to the previously published results obtained with the 40-string configuration of IceCube. We performed an all-sky survey and a dedicated search using a catalog of a priori selected objects observed by other telescopes. In both searches, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis. In the absence of evidence for a signal, we set upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos. For an E {sup –2} neutrino spectrum, the observed limits are (0.9-5) × 10{sup –12} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and (0.9-23.2) × 10{sup –12} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} for energies between 10{sup 2} TeV and 10{sup 2} PeV in the southern sky. We also report upper limits for neutrino emission from groups of sources that were selected according to theoretical models or observational parameters and analyzed with a stacking approach. Some of the limits presented already reach the level necessary to quantitatively test current models of neutrino emission.

  6. Sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to neutrino fluxes from Galactic point-like sources

    SciTech Connect

    Trovato, A.; Coniglione, R.; Sapienza, P.; Kooijman, P.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration has started the implementation of the first phase of a cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere with an integrated platform for Earth and deep sea sciences. The location in the Mediterranean Sea will allow for surveying a large part of the sky, including most of the Galactic Plane and the Galactic Centre, thus complementing the sky coverage of IceCube at the South Pole. Amongst the potential Galactic neutrino sources, SuperNova Remnants are particularly promising since their measured gamma-ray emission extends to several tenths of TeV and exhibits indications for hadronic processes. Assuming a hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission, the models for neutrino emission from SuperNova Remnants and also from other source types such as pulsars are robustly constrained by gamma-ray measurements. We report expected KM3NeT sensitivities for neutrino fluxes from RXJ1713.7-3946 and Vela X. The sensitivity to point-like sources with a E{sup −2} power law energy spectrum is also reported and compared to the other existing detectors.

  7. TIME-DEPENDENT SEARCHES FOR POINT SOURCES OF NEUTRINOS WITH THE 40-STRING AND 22-STRING CONFIGURATIONS OF ICECUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents four searches for flaring sources of neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction, and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 {mu}s and a year duration from astrophysical sources. Searches that integrate over time are less sensitive to flares because they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and muons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei, soft gamma-ray repeaters, and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. Two searches are 'untriggered' in the sense that they look for any possible flare in the entire sky and from a predefined catalog of sources from which photon flares have been recorded. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares from blazars and from a soft gamma-ray repeater. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. The untriggered searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20. The triggered searches also use data taken by the 22-string configuration of IceCube operating between 2007 May 31 and 2008 April 5. The results from all four searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.

  8. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H− ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H− ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H− ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H− beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  9. Solar neutrino experiments and neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Rowley, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    This report gives the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment that is based upon the neutrino capture reaction, /sup 37/Cl(..nu..,e/sup -/)/sup 37/Ar. The experiment was built in 1967 to test the theory of solar energy production, and it is well known that the neutrino capture rate in the detector is lower than that expected from theoretical models of the sun. The results will be compared to the current solar model calculations. One possible explanation of the low solar neutrino capture rate is that the neutrinos oscillate between two or more neutrino states, a topic of particular interest to this conference. This question is discussed in relation to the /sup 37/Cl experiment, and to other solar neutrino detectors that are capable of observing the lower energy neutrinos from the sun. A radiochemical solar neutrino detector located deep underground has a very low background and is capable of detecting the monoenergetic neutrinos from megacurie sources of radioisotopes that decay by electron capture. Experiments of this nature are described that are capable of testing for neutrino oscillations with a omicronm/sup 2/ as low as 0.2 eV/sup 2/ if there is maximum mixing between two neutrino states.

  10. Solar neutrino experiments and neutrino oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Bruce T.; Davis, Raymond; Rowley, J. K.

    1981-05-01

    This report will give the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment that is based upon the neutrino capture reaction, 37Cl (ν,e-)37Ar. The experiment was built in 1967 to test the theory of solar energy production, and it is well known that the neutrino capture rate in the detector is lower than that expected from theoretical models of the sun. The results will be compared to the current solar model calculations. One possible explanation of the low solar neutrino capture rate is that the neutrinos oscillate between two or more neutrino states, a topic of particular interest to this conference. We will discuss this question in relation to the 37Cl experiment, and to other solar neutrino detectors that are capable of observing the lower energy neutrinos from the sun. A radiochemical solar neutrino detector located deep underground has a very low background and is capable of detecting the monoenergetic neutrinos from megacurie sources of radioisotopes that decay by electron capture. Experiments of this nature will be described that are capable of testing for neutrino oscillations with a δm2 as low as 0.2 eV2 if there is maximum mixing between the neutrino states.

  11. The ESS neutrino facility for CP violation discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baussan, Eric; Bouquerel, Elian; Dracos, Marcos

    2017-09-01

    The comparatively large value of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 measured in 2012 by neutrino reactor experiments has opened the possibility to observe for the first time CP violation in the leptonic sector. The measured value of θ 13 also privileges the 2nd oscillation maximum for the discovery of CP violation instead of the usually used 1st oscillation maximum. The sensitivity at the 2nd oscillation maximum is about three times higher than at the 1st oscillation maximum implying a significantly lower sensitivity to systematic errors. Measuring at the 2nd oscillation maximum necessitates a very intense neutrino beam with the appropriate energy. The world’s most intense pulsed spallation neutron source, the European Spallation Source, has a proton linac with 5 MW power and 2 GeV energy. This linac also has the potential to become the proton driver of the world’s most intense neutrino beam with very high potential for the discovery of neutrino CP violation. The physics performance of that neutrino Super Beam in conjunction with a megaton Water Cherenkov neutrino detector installed ca 1000 m down in a mine at a distance of about 500 km from ESS has been evaluated. In addition, the use of such a detector will make it possible to extent the physics program to proton decay, atmospheric neutrinos and astrophysics searches. The ESS proton linac upgrade, the accumulator ring needed for proton pulse compression, the target station optimization and the physics potential are described. In addition to the production of neutrinos, this facility will also be a copious source of muons which could be used to feed a low energy nuSTORM facility, a future neutrino factory or a muon collider. The ESS linac, under construction, will reach full operation at 5 MW by 2023 after which the upgrades for the neutrino facility could start.

  12. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS WITH THE ISOTROPIC DIFFUSION SOURCE APPROXIMATION FOR NEUTRINO TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Hempel, Matthias; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2016-01-20

    The neutrino mechanism of core-collapse supernova is investigated via non-relativistic, two-dimensional (2D), neutrino radiation–hydrodynamic simulations. For the transport of electron flavor neutrinos, we use the interaction rates defined by Bruenn and the isotropic diffusion source approximation (IDSA) scheme, which decomposes the transported particles into trapped-particle and streaming-particle components. Heavy neutrinos are described by a leakage scheme. Unlike the “ray-by-ray” approach in some other multidimensional supernova models, we use cylindrical coordinates and solve the trapped-particle component in multiple dimensions, improving the proto-neutron star resolution and the neutrino transport in angular and temporal directions. We provide an IDSA verification by performing one-dimensional (1D) and 2D simulations with 15 and 20 M{sub ⊙} progenitors from Woosley et al. and discuss the difference between our IDSA results and those existing in the literature. Additionally, we perform Newtonian 1D and 2D simulations from prebounce core collapse to several hundred milliseconds postbounce with 11, 15, 21, and 27 M{sub ⊙} progenitors from Woosley et al. with the HS(DD2) equation of state. General-relativistic effects are neglected. We obtain robust explosions with diagnostic energies E{sub dia} ≳ 0.1–0.5 B (1 B ≡ 10{sup 51} erg) for all considered 2D models within approximately 100–300 ms after bounce and find that explosions are mostly dominated by the neutrino-driven convection, although standing accretion shock instabilities are observed as well. We also find that the level of electron deleptonization during collapse dramatically affects the postbounce evolution, e.g., the neglect of neutrino–electron scattering during collapse will lead to a stronger explosion.

  13. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    DOEpatents

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  14. INTEGRAL/SPI data segmentation to retrieve source intensity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, L.; Amestoy, P. R.; Buttari, A.; Rouet, F.-H.; Chauvin, M.

    2013-07-01

    Context. The INTEGRAL/SPI, X/γ-ray spectrometer (20 keV-8 MeV) is an instrument for which recovering source intensity variations is not straightforward and can constitute a difficulty for data analysis. In most cases, determining the source intensity changes between exposures is largely based on a priori information. Aims: We propose techniques that help to overcome the difficulty related to source intensity variations, which make this step more rational. In addition, the constructed "synthetic" light curves should permit us to obtain a sky model that describes the data better and optimizes the source signal-to-noise ratios. Methods: For this purpose, the time intensity variation of each source was modeled as a combination of piecewise segments of time during which a given source exhibits a constant intensity. To optimize the signal-to-noise ratios, the number of segments was minimized. We present a first method that takes advantage of previous time series that can be obtained from another instrument on-board the INTEGRAL observatory. A data segmentation algorithm was then used to synthesize the time series into segments. The second method no longer needs external light curves, but solely SPI raw data. For this, we developed a specific algorithm that involves the SPI transfer function. Results: The time segmentation algorithms that were developed solve a difficulty inherent to the SPI instrument, which is the intensity variations of sources between exposures, and it allows us to obtain more information about the sources' behavior. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland), Czech Republic and Poland with participation of Russia and the USA.

  15. Study of the sensitivity to point-like neutrino sources for a flexible-tower geometry for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, Rosa; Distefano, Carla; Sapienza, Piera; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    The KM3NeT consortium has investigated the performance of a high energy neutrino detector by means of Monte Carlo simulations. In this work the study of the sensitivity to point-like neutrino sources as a function of detector size and of source declination is presented. It is shown that the detector sensitivity improves less than linearly with increasing homogeneously instrumented volume and that the detector sky view is very large (about 3.5π).

  16. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  17. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  18. On the Detection of the Free Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., Jr.

    1953-08-06

    The experiment previously proposed [to Detect the Free Neutrino] has been initiated, with a Hanford pile as a neutrino source. It appears probable that neutrino detection has been accomplished, and confirmatory work is in progress. (K.S.)

  19. Bayesian approach for counting experiment statistics applied to a neutrino point source analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, D.; Brayeur, L.; Casier, M.; de Vries, K. D.; Golup, G.; van Eijndhoven, N.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a model independent analysis method following Bayesian statistics to analyse data from a generic counting experiment and apply it to the search for neutrinos from point sources. We discuss a test statistic defined following a Bayesian framework that will be used in the search for a signal. In case no signal is found, we derive an upper limit without the introduction of approximations. The Bayesian approach allows us to obtain the full probability density function for both the background and the signal rate. As such, we have direct access to any signal upper limit. The upper limit derivation directly compares with a frequentist approach and is robust in the case of low-counting observations. Furthermore, it allows also to account for previous upper limits obtained by other analyses via the concept of prior information without the need of the ad hoc application of trial factors. To investigate the validity of the presented Bayesian approach, we have applied this method to the public IceCube 40-string configuration data for 10 nearby blazars and we have obtained a flux upper limit, which is in agreement with the upper limits determined via a frequentist approach. Furthermore, the upper limit obtained compares well with the previously published result of IceCube, using the same data set.

  20. Environment, safety, and health considerations for a neutrino source based on a muon storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    J. Donald Cossairt

    2000-05-15

    The Neutrino Source presents a number of challenges in the general area of environment, safety, and health. It is the intent of this paper to identify these challenges and make a preliminary, but not detailed assessment of how they might be addressed and of their potential impact on the project. Some of the considerations which must be taken into account are very similar to those that have been encountered and solved during the construction and operation of other facilities at Fermilab and at similar laboratories elsewhere in the US and worldwide. Other considerations have not been encountered previously in connection with the construction and operation of accelerator laboratories. These novel issues will require particular attention as such a project proceeds to assure their timely resolution in a manner that is cost-effective and that meets the approval of the public. In this paper, both the conventional and the novel issues are discussed, with more emphasis on the latter. It is concluded here that with adequate planning in the design stages, these problems can be adequately addressed in a manner that merits the support of the Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and the public. An abbreviated version of this paper appears as Chapter 14 in the report of a recent feasibility study (Ho 00)and the figures have come from that work.

  1. Measuring the activity of a 51Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 51Cr is presented.

  2. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; ...

    2016-10-19

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We will proceed from the rst evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research

  3. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  4. Neutrinos from AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The great penetrating power of neutrinos makes them ideal probe of astrophysical sites and conditions inaccessible to other forms of radiation. These are the centers of stars (collapsing or not) and the centers of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It has been suggested that AGN presented a very promising source of high energy neutrinos, possibly detectable by underwater neutrino detectors. This paper reviews the evolution of ideas concerning the emission of neutrinos from AGN in view of the more recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy and their implications for the neutrino emission from these class of objects.

  5. Mass determination of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.

  6. Mass determination of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.

  7. Broadband source localization using horizontal-beam acoustic intensity striations.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Altan; Orr, Marshall; Rouseff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Waveguide invariant theory is applied to horizontal line array (HLA) beamformer output to localize moving broadband noise sources from measured acoustic intensity striation patterns. Acoustic signals emitted by ships of opportunity (merchant ships) were simultaneously recorded on a HLA and three hydrophones separated by 10 km during the RAGS03 (relationship between array gain and shelf-break fluid processes) experiment. Hough transforms are used to estimate both the waveguide invariant parameter "beta" and the ratio of source range at the closest point of approach to source speed from the observed striation patterns. Broadband (50-150-Hz) acoustic data-sets are used to demonstrate source localization capability as well as inversion capability of waveguide invariant parameter beta. Special attention is paid to bathymetric variability since the acoustic intensity striation patterns seem to be influenced by range-dependent bathymetry of the experimental area. The Hough transform method is also applied to the HLA beam-time record data and to the acoustic intensity data from three distant receivers to validate the estimation results from HLA beamformer output. Good agreement of the results from all three approaches suggests the feasibility of locating broadband noise sources and estimating waveguide invariant parameter beta in shallow waters.

  8. Solar Neutrino Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feilitzsch, F. v.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering experiment of R. Davis et al., which started neutrino astronomy by measuring the solar neutrinos via the inverse beta decay reaction on 37Cl, all solar neutrino experiments find a considerably lower flux than expected by standard solar models. This finding is generally called the solar neutrino problem. Many attempts have been made to explain this result by altering the solar models, or assuming different nuclear cross sections for fusion processes assumed to be the energy sources in the sun. There have been performed numerous experiments recently to investigate the different possibilities to explain the solar neutrino problem. These experiments covered solar physics with helioseismology, nuclear cross section measurements, and solar neutrino experiments. Up to now no convincing explanation based on "standard" physics was suggested. However, assuming nonstandard neutrino properties, i.e. neutrino masses and mixing as expected in most extensions of the standard theory of elementary particle physics, natural solutions for the solar neutrino problem can be found. It appears that with this newly invented neutrino astronomy fundamental information on astrophysics as well as elementary particle physics are tested uniquely. In this contribution an attempt is made to review the situation of the neutrino astronomy for solar neutrino spectroscopy and discuss the future prospects in this field.

  9. Neutrino fluxes from dark matter in the HESS J1745-290 source at the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Gammaldi, V.; Maroto, A. L.

    2014-08-01

    The spectral study of the HESS J1745-290 high-energy gamma-ray cutoff from the Galactic center is compatible with a signal of dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay. If this is the case, a neutrino flux from that source is also expected. We analyze the neutrino flux predicted by DM particles able to create the HESS J1745-290 gamma-rays observations. We focus on the electroweak and hadronic channels, which are favored by present measurements. In particular, we study DM annihilating into W+W- and uu¯ with DM masses of 48.8 and 27.9 TeV, respectively. We estimate the resolution angle and exposition time necessary to test the DM hypothesis as the origin of the gamma-ray signal.

  10. Acoustic intensity in the interaction region of a parametric source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauchle, G. C.; Gabrielson, T. B.; van Tol, D. J.; Kottke, N. F.; McConnell, J. A.

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this project was to measure acoustic intensity in the strong interaction region of a parametric source in order to obtain a clear definition of the source-generation region and to separate the local generation (the reactive field) from propagation (the real or active field). The acoustic intensity vector was mapped in the interaction region of a parametric projector at Lake Seneca. The source was driven with primary signals at 22 kHz and 27 kHz. Receiving sensors were located 8.5 meters from the projector. At that range, the secondary at 5 kHz was between 40 and 45 dB below either primary. For the primary levels used, the plane-wave shock inception distance would have been at least 14 meters. Furthermore, the Rayleigh distance for the projector was about 4 meters so the measurements at 8.5 meters were in the strong interaction region but not in saturation. Absorption was negligible over these ranges. The intensity measurements were made at fixed range but varying azimuth angle and varying depth thus developing a two-dimensional cross-section of the secondary beam. Measurements of both the active and reactive intensity vectors will be presented along with a discussion of measurement error. [Work supported by ONR Code 321SS.

  11. Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 1 09 GeV , based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high- energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5 ×1 05 GeV to above 1 011 GeV . Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6 ±0.3 )×1 06 GeV , the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7 ±2.0 )×1 05 GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6 σ . The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at >99 % CL because of the limited deposited energy and the nonobservation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having a cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and γ -ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models. These limits on the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux models are the most stringent to date.

  12. High energy reactor neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raper, Neill

    We present the first measurement of a nonzero reactor neutrino flux with energies above 8 MeV. Measurements are taken with the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiments detectors, using the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station as a source. Disagreement between data and theory regarding rate and shape of reactor neutrino spectra have made the need for direct measurement clear. Data are especially useful at high energies, where far fewer isotopes contribute. Neutrino candidates are correlated to reactor power and reactor power is extrapolated to zero in order to separate neutrino events from background. We find evidence of reactor neutrinos up to ˜12.5 MeV at 1.92 sigma above 0 and include a survey of isotopes likely to be contributing neutrinos in this energy range.

  13. Neutrino-heated winds from millisecond protomagnetars as sources of the weak r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Andrey D.; Metzger, Brian D.; Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2017-06-01

    We explore heavy element nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds from rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized protoneutron stars ('millisecond protomagnetars') for which the magnetic dipole is aligned with the rotation axis, and the field is assumed to be a static force-free configuration. We process the protomagnetar wind trajectories calculated by Vlasov, Metzger & Thompson through the r-process nuclear reaction network SkyNet using contemporary models for the evolution of the wind electron fraction during the protoneutron star cooling phase. Although we do not find a successful second or third-peak r-process for any rotation period P, we show that protomagnetars with P ˜ 1-5 ms produce heavy element abundance distributions that extend to higher nuclear mass number than from otherwise equivalent spherical winds (with the mass fractions of some elements enhanced by factors of ≳100-1000). The heaviest elements are synthesized by outflows emerging along flux tubes that graze the closed zone and pass near the equatorial plane outside the light cylinder. Due to dependence of the nucleosynthesis pattern on the magnetic field strength and rotation rate of the protoneutron star, natural variations in these quantities between core collapse events could contribute to the observed diversity of the abundances of weak r-process nuclei in metal-poor stars. Further diversity, including possibly even a successful third-peak r-process, could be achieved for misaligned rotators with non-zero magnetic inclination with respect to the rotation axis. If protomagnetars are central engines for GRBs, their relativistic jets should contain a high-mass fraction of heavy nuclei of characteristic mass number \\bar{A}≈ 100, providing a possible source for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays comprised of heavy nuclei with an energy spectrum that extends beyond the nominal Grezin-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off for protons or iron nuclei.

  14. The Latest Neutrino Oscillation Results from Super-Kamiokande

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, Henry W.

    2006-02-08

    Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with a net mass of 50,000 tons. The scientific goals of the experiment include searches for proton decays, and studies of neutrinos from various sources. In this paper we review some of the latest results from our neutrino oscillations studies using atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos and neutrinos from the KEK neutrino beam.

  15. A capillary discharge plasma source of intense VUV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel'man, Igor I; Shevelko, A P; Yakushev, O F; Knight, L V; Turley, R S

    2003-01-31

    The results of investigation of a capillary discharge plasma, used as a source of intense VUV radiation and soft X-rays, are presented. The plasma was generated during the discharge of low-inductance condensers in a gas-filled ceramic capillary. Intense line radiation was observed in a broad spectral range (30-400 A) in various gases (CO{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). The absolute radiation yield for the xenon discharge was {approx}5 mJ (2{pi} sr){sup -1} pulse{sup -1} within a spectral band of width 9 A at 135 A. Such a radiation source can be used for various practical applications, such as EUV projection lithography, microscopy of biological objects in a 'water window', reflectometry, etc. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  16. All-sky Search for Time-integrated Neutrino Emission from Astrophysical Sources with 7 yr of IceCube Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Since the recent detection of an astrophysical flux of high-energy neutrinos, the question of its origin has not yet fully been answered. Much of what is known about this flux comes from a small event sample of high neutrino purity, good energy resolution, but large angular uncertainties. In searches for point-like sources, on the other hand, the best performance is given by using large statistics and good angular reconstructions. Track-like muon events produced in neutrino interactions satisfy these requirements. We present here the results of searches for point-like sources with neutrinos using data acquired by the IceCube detector over 7 yr from 2008 to 2015. The discovery potential of the analysis in the northern sky is now significantly below {E}ν 2dφ /{{dE}}ν = 10-12 TeV cm-2 s-1, on average 38% lower than the sensitivity of the previously published analysis of 4 yr exposure. No significant clustering of neutrinos above background expectation was observed, and implications for prominent neutrino source candidates are discussed.

  17. Low-intensity calibration source for optical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David W.

    2017-03-01

    Laboratory optical imaging systems for fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have become widely available for research applications. These systems use an ultra-sensitive CCD camera to produce quantitative measurements of very low light intensity, detecting signals from small-animal models labeled with optical fluorophores or luminescent emitters. Commercially available systems typically provide quantitative measurements of light output, in units of radiance (photons s-1 cm-2 SR-1) or intensity (photons s-1 cm-2). One limitation to current systems is that there is often no provision for routine quality assurance and performance evaluation. We describe such a quality assurance system, based on an LED-illuminated thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid-crystal display module. The light intensity is controlled by pulse-width modulation of the backlight, producing radiance values ranging from 1.8 x 106 photons s-1 cm-2 SR-1 to 4.2 x 1013 photons s-1 cm-2 SR-1. The lowest light intensity values are produced by very short backlight pulses (i.e. approximately 10 μs), repeated every 300 s. This very low duty cycle is appropriate for laboratory optical imaging systems, which typically operate with long-duration exposures (up to 5 minutes). The low-intensity light source provides a stable, traceable radiance standard that can be used for routine quality assurance of laboratory optical imaging systems.

  18. Short distance neutrino oscillations with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminata, A.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; di Noto, L.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquères, N.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino detector has convincingly shown its outstanding performances in the low energy, sub-MeV regime through its unprecedented accomplishments in the solar and geo-neutrinos detection. These performances make it the ideal tool to accomplish a state-of-the-art experiment able to test unambiguously the long-standing issue of the existence of a sterile neutrino, as suggested by the several anomalous results accumulated over the past two decades, i.e. the outputs of the LSND and Miniboone experiments, the results of the source calibration of the two Gallium solar neutrino experiments, and the recently hinted reactor anomaly. The SOX project will exploit two sources, based on Chromium and Cerium, respectively, which deployed under the experiment, in a location foreseen on purpose at the time of the construction of the detector, will emit two intense beams of neutrinos (Cr) and anti-neutrinos (Ce). Interacting in the active volume of the liquid scintillator, each beam would create an unmistakable spatial wave pattern in case of oscillation of the νe (or ν̅e) into the sterile state: such a pattern would be the smoking gun proving the existence of the new sterile member of the neutrino family. Otherwise, its absence will allow setting a very stringent limit on its existence.

  19. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  20. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  1. Admission source and mortality in a pediatric intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    El Halal, Michel Georges dos Santos; Barbieri, Evandro; Filho, Ricardo Mombelli; Trotta, Eliana de Andrade; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies carried out in different countries have shown that source of patient admission in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) is associated to death. Patients admitted from wards show a greater ICU mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between admission source and outcome in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Materials and Methods: We studied all PICU admissions that took place between January 2002 and December 2005 in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. The major outcome studied was death while in the PICU. The independent variable analyzed was admission source, defined either as pediatric emergency room (PER), wards, operating room (OR) of the same hospital or other sources. Results: A total of 1823 admissions were studied. The overall expected mortality based on the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 was 6.5% and the observed mortality was 10.3%. In adjusted analysis, the mortality was doubled in patients admitted from wards when compared with the PER patients. Conclusions: Observed mortality rates were higher in patients admitted from wards within the same hospital, even after adjustment. PMID:22988362

  2. Admission source and mortality in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Michel Georges Dos Santos; Barbieri, Evandro; Filho, Ricardo Mombelli; Trotta, Eliana de Andrade; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci

    2012-04-01

    Studies carried out in different countries have shown that source of patient admission in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) is associated to death. Patients admitted from wards show a greater ICU mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between admission source and outcome in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). We studied all PICU admissions that took place between January 2002 and December 2005 in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. The major outcome studied was death while in the PICU. The independent variable analyzed was admission source, defined either as pediatric emergency room (PER), wards, operating room (OR) of the same hospital or other sources. A total of 1823 admissions were studied. The overall expected mortality based on the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 was 6.5% and the observed mortality was 10.3%. In adjusted analysis, the mortality was doubled in patients admitted from wards when compared with the PER patients. Observed mortality rates were higher in patients admitted from wards within the same hospital, even after adjustment.

  3. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  4. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.; Stockli, Martin P; Welton, Robert F; Dudnikova, Galina

    2010-01-01

    Spallation neutron source user facilities require reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron can provide the needed beam currents, but may be limited by the ion sources that have currents and reliability that do not meet future requirements and emittances that are too large for efficient acceleration. In this project we are developing an H- source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, small emittance, good lifetime, high reliability, and power efficiency. We describe planned modifications to the present external antenna source at SNS that involve: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnet with a weaker electromagnet, in order to increase the plasma density near the outlet aperture. The SNS test stand will then be used to verify simulations of this approach that indicate significant improvements in H- output current and efficiency, where lower RF power will allow higher duty factor, longer source lifetime, and/or better reliability.

  5. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  6. Effects of neutrino mixing on high-energy cosmic neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, H.; Jeżabek, M.; Yasuda, O.

    2000-11-01

    Several cosmologically distant astrophysical sources may produce high-energy cosmic neutrinos (E >=106 GeV) of all flavors above the atmospheric neutrino background. We study the effects of vacuum neutrino mixing in the three flavor framework on this cosmic neutrino flux. We also consider the effects of possible mixing between the three active neutrinos and the (fourth) sterile neutrino with or without big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints and estimate the resulting final high-energy cosmic neutrino flux ratios on Earth compatible with currently existing different neutrino oscillation hints in a model independent way. Further, we discuss the case where the intrinsic cosmic neutrino flux does not have the standard ratio.

  7. Brighter H/sup -/ source for the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Stipp, V.; DeWitt, A.; Madsen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Further increases in the beam intensity of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory required the replacement of the H/sup -/ source with a higher current source. A magnetron ion source of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) design was adapted with a grooved cathode to provide a stable 40 to 50 mA of beam operating at 30 Hz for up to a 90 ..mu..s pulse duration. Problems of space charge blowup due to the lack of neutralization of the H/sup -/ beam were solved by injecting additional gs into the 20 keV transport system. The source has recently been installed in the machine and the available input to the accelerator has more than doubled.

  8. Using Intensive Variables to Constrain Magma Source Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. R.; Russell, J. K.

    2006-05-01

    In the modern world of petrology, magma source region characterization is commonly the realm of trace element and isotopic geochemistry. However, major element analyses of rocks representing magmatic compositions can also be used to constrain source region charactertistics, which enhance the results of isotopic and trace element studies. We show examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province (NCVP), in the Canadian Cordillera, where estimations of thermodynamic intensive variables are used to resolve different source regions for mafic alkaline magmas. We have taken a non-traditional approach to using the compositions of three groups of mafic, alkaline rocks to characterize the source regions of magmas erupted in the NCVP. Based on measured Fe2O3 and FeO in rocks from different locations, the Atlin volcanic district (AVD), the Fort Selkirk volcanic complex (FSVC), the West Tuya volcanic field, (WTVF), we have estimated oxygen fugacities (fO2) for the source regions of magmas based on the model of Kress and Carmichael (1991) and the computational package MELTS/pMelts (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002). We also have used Melts/pMelts to estimate liquidus conditions for the compositions represented by the samples as well as activities of major element components. The results of our calculations are useful for distinguishing between three presumably different magma series: alkaline basalts, basanites, and nephelinites (Francis and Ludden, 1990; 1995). Calculated intensive variables (fO2, activities SiO2, KAlSiO4, Na2SiO3) show clear separation of the samples into two groups: i) nephelinites and ii) basanites/alkaline basalts. The separation is especially evident on plots of log fO2 versus activity SiO2. The source region for nephelinitic magmas in the AVD is up to 2 log units more oxidized than that for the basanites/basalts as well as having a distinctly lower range of activities of SiO2. Accepting that our assumptions about the magmas

  9. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3-4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters {{sin}}2{θ }12, {{Δ }}{m}212, and | {{Δ }}{m}{ee}2| to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ˜5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ˜2000 all-flavor neutrino-proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and for exploring novel phenomena such as collective neutrino oscillations

  10. Neutrino Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamyshkov, Yuri; Handler, Thomas

    2016-10-24

    The neutrino group of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was involved from 05/01/2013 to 04/30/2015 in the neutrino physics research funded by DOE-HEP grant DE-SC0009861. Contributions were made to the Double Chooz nuclear reactor experiment in France where second detector was commissioned during this period and final series of measurements has been started. Although Double Chooz was smaller experimental effort than competitive Daya Bay and RENO experiments, its several advantages make it valuable for understanding of systematic errors in measurements of neutrino oscillations. Double Chooz was the first experiment among competing three that produced initial result for neutrino angle θ13 measurement, giving other experiments the chance to improve measured value statistically. Graduate student Ben Rybolt defended his PhD thesis on the results of Double Chooz experiment in 2015. UT group has fulfilled all the construction and analysis commitments to Double Chooz experiment, and has withdrawn from the collaboration by the end of the mentioned period to start another experiment. Larger effort of UT neutrino group during this period was devoted to the participation in another DOE-HEP project - NOvA experiment. The 14,000-ton "FAR" neutrino detector was commissioned in northern Minnesota in 2014 together with 300-ton "NEAR" detector located at Fermilab. Following that, the physics measurement program has started when Fermilab accelerator complex produced the high-intensity neutrino beam propagating through Earth to detector in MInnessota. UT group contributed to NOvA detector construction and developments in several aspects. Our Research Associate Athanasios Hatzikoutelis was managing (Level 3 manager) the construction of the Detector Control System. This work was successfully accomplished in time with the commissioning of the detectors. Group was involved in the development of the on-line software and study of the signatures of the cosmic ray backgrounds

  11. Cosmic Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2008-02-01

    I recall the place of neutrinos in the electroweak theory and summarize what we know about neutrino mass and flavor change. I next review the essential characteristics expected for relic neutrinos and survey what we can say about the neutrino contribution to the dark matter of the Universe. Then I discuss the standard-model interactions of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, paying attention to the consequences of neutrino oscillations, and illustrate a few topics of interest to neutrino observatories. I conclude with short comments on the remote possibility of detecting relic neutrinos through annihilations of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos at the Z resonance.

  12. Increased collection efficiency of LIFI high intensity electrodeless light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidi, Abdeslam; DeVincentis, Marc; Duelli, Markus; Gilliard, Richard

    2008-02-01

    Recently, RF driven electrodeless high intensity light sources have been implemented successfully in the projection display systems for HDTV and videowall applications. This paper presents advances made in the RF waveguide and electric field concentrator structures with the purpose of reducing effective arc size and increasing light collection. In addition, new optical designs are described that further improve system efficiency. The results of this work demonstrate that projection system light throughput is increased relative to previous implementations and performance is optimized for home theater and other front projector applications that maintain multi-year lifetime without re-lamping, complete spectral range, fast start times and high levels of dynamic contrast due to dimming flexibility in the light source system.

  13. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, T.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of the neutrino rest mass plays an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. This topic is currently being addressed by two complementary approaches in laboratory experiments. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments probe whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine an effective neutrino mass value. Single beta decay experiments such as KATRIN and MARE investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Owing to neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass parameter appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β-spectroscopy close to the T 2 end-point with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/ c 2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino rest mass.

  14. Neutrinos from neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    A calculation of the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars is presented. The calculation is used to determine the number of point sources detectable at the sensitivity threshold of a proposed deep underwater muon and neutrino detector array. The detector array would have a point source detection threshold of about 100 eV/sq cm-sec. Analysis of neutrino luminosities and the number of detectable sources suggests that the deep underwater detector may make a few discoveries. In particular, a suspected neutron star in the Cyg X-3 source seems a promising target for the deep underwater array.

  15. GALAXY MERGERS AS A SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS, NEUTRINOS, AND GAMMA RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2014-07-20

    We investigate the shock acceleration of particles in massive galaxy mergers or collisions, and show that cosmic rays (CRs) can be accelerated up to the second knee energy ∼0.1-1 EeV and possibly beyond, with a hard spectral index of Γ ≈ 2. Such CRs lose their energy via hadronuclear interactions within a dynamical timescale of the merger shock, producing gamma rays and neutrinos as a by-product. If ∼10% of the shock dissipated energy goes into CR acceleration, some local merging galaxies will produce gamma-ray counterparts detectable by the Cherenkov Telescope Array. Also, based on the concordance cosmology, where a good fraction of the massive galaxies experience a major merger in a cosmological timescale, the neutrino counterparts can constitute ∼20%-60% of the isotropic background detected by IceCube.

  16. Solar atmosphere neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P.D.; /Fermilab

    2007-02-01

    The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations on the solar atmosphere neutrino fluxes observable at Earth. We find that peculiar matter oscillation effects in the Sun do exist, but are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ''vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23}).

  17. Paradoxes of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2009-08-15

    Despite the theory of neutrino oscillations being rather old, some of its basic issues are still being debated in the literature. We discuss a number of such issues, including the relevance of the 'same energy' and 'same momentum' assumptions, the role of quantum-mechanical uncertainty relations in neutrino oscillations, the dependence of the coherence and localization conditions that ensure the observability of neutrino oscillations on neutrino energy and momentum uncertainties, the question of (in)dependence of the oscillation probabilities on the neutrino production and detection processes, and the applicability limits of the stationary-source approximation. We also develop a novel approach to calculation of the oscillation probability in the wave-packet approach, based on the summation/integration conventions different from the standard one, which allows a new insight into the 'same energy' vs. 'same momentum' problem. We also discuss a number of apparently paradoxical features of the theory of neutrino oscillations.

  18. Neutrino Oscillations with Reactor Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Anatael

    2007-06-01

    Prospect measurements of neutrino oscillations with reactor neutrinos are reviewed in this document. The following items are described: neutrinos oscillations status, reactor neutrino experimental strategy, impact of uncertainties on the neutrino oscillation sensitivity and, finally, the experiments in the field. This is the synthesis of the talk delivered during the NOW2006 conference at Otranto (Italy) during September 2006.

  19. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  20. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10(11) cm(-3) and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 pi mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  1. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  2. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-10-01

    An intense and efficient excitation source for blue-green lasers useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and a newly designed dense-plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense UV photons (200 to 300 nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400 nm). During the current project period, the successful enhancement of blue-green laser output of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 dye through the spectral conversion of the HCP pumping light has been achieved with a converter dye BBQ. The factor of enhancement in the blue-green laser output energy of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 is almost 73%. This enhancement will definitely be helpful in achieving the direct high power blue-green laser (> 1 MW) with the existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense-plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the optimization of the DPF device as the UV pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as function of argon or argon-deuterium fill gas pressure. Finally, the blue-green dye laser (LD490) has been pumped with the DPF device for preliminary tests. Experimental results with the DPF device show that the velocity of the current sheath follows the inverse relation of sq st. of pressure as expected. The blue-green dye (LD490) laser output exceeded 3.1 m at the best cavity tuning of laser system. This corresponds to 3J/1 cu cm laser energy extraction.

  3. ANTARES deep sea neutrino telescope results

    SciTech Connect

    Mangano, Salvatore; Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ANTARES experiment is currently the largest underwater neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. It is taking high quality data since 2007. Its main scientific goal is to search for high energy neutrinos that are expected from the acceleration of cosmic rays from astrophysical sources. This contribution reviews the status of the detector and presents several analyses carried out on atmospheric muons and neutrinos. For example it shows the results from the measurement of atmospheric muon neutrino spectrum and of atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters as well as searches for neutrinos from steady cosmic point-like sources, for neutrinos from gamma ray bursts and for relativistic magnetic monopoles.

  4. Using neutrinos as a probe of the strong interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Neutrino scattering experiments have been studying QCD for over 30 years. From the Gargamelle experiments in the early 70's, through the subsequent bubble chamber and electronic detector experiments in the 80's and 90's, neutrino scattering experiments have steadily accumulated increasing statistics and minimized their systematic errors. While the most recent study of QCD with neutrinos is from the TeVatron neutrino beam (the NuTeV experiment with results presented by Martin Tzanov at this Workshop), near-future studies will shift to the Main Injector based NuMI facility also at Fermilab. The NuMI Facility at Fermilab provides an extremely intense beam of neutrinos making it an ideal place for high statistics (anti)neutrino-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiments. The MINERvA experiment at Fermilab is a collaboration of elementary-particle and nuclear physicists planning to use a fully active fine-grained solid scintillator detector to measure absolute exclusive cross-sections and nuclear effects in v - A interactions as well as a systematic study of the resonance-DIS transition region and DIS with an emphasis on the extraction of high-xBj parton distribution functions. Further in the future an intense proton source, the Fermilab Proton Driver, will increase neutrino interaction rates by a further factor of 5-20.

  5. Core-collapse supernova neutrinos and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gava, J.; Volpe, C.

    2008-08-29

    Core-collapse supernovae are powerful neutrino sources. The observation of a future (extra-)galactic supernova explosion or of the relic supernova neutrinos might provide important information on the supernova dynamics, on the supernova formation rate and on neutrino properties. One might learn more about unknown neutrino properties either from indirect effects in the supernova (e.g. on the explosion or on in the r-process) or from modifications of the neutrino time or energy distributions in a detector on Earth. Here we will discuss in particular possible effects of CP violation in the lepton sector. We will also mention the interest of future neutrino-nucleus interaction measurements for the precise knowledge of supernova neutrino detector response to electron neutrinos.

  6. Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Anton, G; Archinger, M; Argüelles, C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blot, S; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Burgman, A; Carver, T; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Cross, R; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Del Pino Rosendo, E; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dujmovic, H; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Eller, P; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Flis, S; Fösig, C-C; Franckowiak, A; Friedman, E; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Giang, W; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Haack, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hansmann, T; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katz, U; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kim, M; Kintscher, T; Kiryluk, J; Kittler, T; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Krüger, C; Kunnen, J; Kunwar, S; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lauber, F; Lennarz, D; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mancina, S; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meier, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moulai, M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke Pollmann, A; Olivas, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Pérez de Los Heros, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relethford, B; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Rysewyk, D; Sabbatini, L; Sanchez Herrera, S E; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schimp, M; Schlunder, P; Schmidt, T; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Tenholt, F; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Rossem, M; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Weiss, M J; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wickmann, S; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wills, L; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woolsey, E; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-12-09

    We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10^{9}  GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high- energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5×10^{5}  GeV to above 10^{11}  GeV. Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6±0.3)×10^{6}  GeV, the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7±2.0)×10^{5}  GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6σ. The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at >99% CL because of the limited deposited energy and the nonobservation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having a cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and γ-ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models. These limits on the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux models are the most stringent to date.

  7. HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON

    SciTech Connect

    Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

  8. Coherent Cherenkov radiation as an intense THz source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleko, V.; Karataev, P.; Konkov, A.; Kruchinin, K.; Naumenko, G.; Potylitsyn, A.; Vaughan, T.

    2016-07-01

    Diffraction and Cherenkov radiation of relativistic electrons from a dielectric target has been proposed as mechanism for production of intense terahertz (THz) radiation. The use of an extremely short high-energy electron beam of a 4th generation light source (X-ray free electron laser) appears to be very promising. A moderate power from the electron beam can be extracted and converted into THz radiation with nearly zero absorption losses. The initial experiment on THz observation will be performed at CLARA/VELA FEL test facility in the UK to demonstrate the principle to a wider community and to develop the radiator prototype. In this paper, we present our theoretical predictions (based on the approach of polarization currents), which provides the basis for interpreting the future experimental measurements. We will also present our hardware design and discuss a plan of the future experiment.

  9. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1986-10-01

    An intense and efficient source for blue green laser useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, the hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and the dense plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200 to 400nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400nm). As a result of optimization of the DPF light at 355nm, the blue green dye (LD490) laser output exceeding 4mJ was obtained at the best cavity tunning of the laser system. With the HCP pumped system a significant enhancement of the blue green laser outputs with dye LD490 and coumarin 503 has been achieved through the spectrum conversion of the pumping light by mixing a converter dye BBQ. The maximum increase of laser output with the dye mixture of LD490+BBQ and coumarin 503+BBQ was greater than 80%. In addition, the untunned near UV lasers were also obtained. The near UV laser output energy of P-terphenyl dye was 0.5mJ at lambda sub C=337nm with the bandwidth of 3n m for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2microsec.

  10. Equivalent sources method for supersonic intensity of arbitrarily shaped geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, Nicolas P.; Williams, Earl G.; Herdic, Peter C.

    2015-07-01

    Supersonic acoustic intensity is utilized to locate radiating regions on a complex vibrating structure. The supersonic intensity is obtained by a special process that removes the evanescent waves from the near-field acoustical holography measurement. The filtering process is well understood for separable geometries, but unfortunately, there are few results for arbitrarily shaped objects. This work proposes a methodology based on a stable invertible representation of the radiated power operator. The power operator is approximated numerically by the equivalent source formulation and the appropriate complete spectral basis is employed to form the stable invertible operator. The operator is formed with the most efficient radiation modes and these modes are utilized to obtain the supersonic solution for the near-field holographic problem. This concept is tested using numerically generated data in a spherical geometry and the results are validated with the spherical harmonic, supersonic filter. Finally, a vibrating ship-hull structure provides a physical example for application and validation of the proposed methodology in a more complex geometry.

  11. Seasonal Variations in Solar High-Energy Neutrino Flux and Their Probable Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivin, Yu. R.; Obridko, V. N.

    2000-11-01

    Cyclic variations of the solar neutrino flux (Homestake detector data) have been analyzed both from season to season and within different seasons and were compared with the corresponding variations of the large-scale deep-layer solar magnetic field. The analysis revealed a seasonal variation of the flux in the last twenty years with extremes at equinox epochs. The mechanism of this variation can be due to the asymmetry in magnitudes or to the twisting of the large-scale magnetic fields in the southern and northern hemispheres of the Sun in the flux modulation region.

  12. Development of pyroelectric neutron source for calibration of neutrino and dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Ionidi, V. Y.; Gromov, M. B.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Klyuyev, A. S.; Kubankin, A. S.; Oleinik, A. N.; Shchagin, A. V.; Vokhmyanina, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    The laboratory experimental setup for development of pyroelectric neutron generator for calibration of neutrino and dark matter detectors for direct search of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) has been developed. The setup allows providing and controlling the neutrons generation process realized during d-d nuclear fusion. It is shown that the neutrons with energy 2.45 MeV can be generated starting from a level of electric potential generated by pyroelectric crystal about 30 kV, in contrast to the typical neutron tubes which need the applied outer high voltage level about 100 kV.

  13. Prospect for Relic Neutrino Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2006-03-01

    Neutrinos from the Big Bang are theoretically expected to be the most abundant particles in the Universe after the photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Unlike the relic photons, relic neutrinos have not so far been observed. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (CνB) is the oldest relic from the Big Bang, produced a few seconds after the Bang itself. Due to their impact in cosmology, relic neutrinos may be revealed indirectly in the near future through cosmological observations. In this talk we concentrate on other proposals, made in the last 30 years, to try to detect the CνB directly, either in laboratory searches (through tiny accelerations they produce on macroscopic targets) or through astrophysical observations (looking for absorption dips in the flux of Ultra-High Energy (UHE) neutrinos, due to the annihilation of these neutrinos with relic neutrinos at the Z-resonance). We concentrate mainly on the first possibility. We show that, given present bounds on neutrino masses, lepton number in the Universe and gravitational clustering of neutrinos, all expected laboratory effects of relic neutrinos are far from observability, awaiting future technological advances to reach the necessary sensitivity. The problem for astrophysical searches is that sources of UHE neutrinos at the extreme energies required may not exist. If they do exist, we could reveal the existence, and possibly the mass spectrum, of relic neutrinos, with detectors of UHE neutrinos (such as ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE and SalSA).

  14. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Peccei, R. D.

    1999-10-25

    These lectures describe some aspects of the physics of massive neutrinos. After a brief introduction of neutrinos in the Standard Model, I discuss possible patterns for their masses. In particular, I show how the presence of a large Majorana mass term for the right-handed neutrinos can engender tiny neutrino masses for the observed neutrinos. If neutrinos have mass, different flavors of neutrinos can oscillate into one another. To analyze this phenomena, I develop the relevant formalism for neutrino oscillations, both in vacuum and in matter. After reviewing the existing (negative) evidence for neutrino masses coming from direct searches, I discuss evidence for, and hints of, neutrino oscillations in the atmosphere, the sun, and at accelerators. Some of the theoretical implications of these results are emphasized. I close these lectures by briefly outlining future experiments which will shed further light on atmospheric, accelerator and solar neutrino oscillations. A pedagogical discussion of Dirac and Majorana masses is contained in an appendix.

  15. Tidal disruption jets of supermassive black holes as hidden sources of cosmic rays: Explaining the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Ruo-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Cosmic ray interactions that produce high-energy neutrinos also inevitably generate high-energy gamma rays, which finally contribute to the diffuse high-energy gamma-ray background after they escape the sources. It was recently found that the high flux of neutrinos at ˜30 TeV detected by IceCube lead to a cumulative gamma-ray flux exceeding the Fermi isotropic gamma-ray background at 10-100 GeV, implying that the neutrinos are produced by hidden sources of cosmic rays, where GeV-TeV gamma rays are not transparent. Here we suggest that relativistic jets in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of supermassive black holes are such hidden sources. We consider the jet propagation in an extended, optically thick envelope around the black hole, which results from the ejected material during the disruption. While powerful jets can break free from the envelope, less powerful jets would be choked inside the envelope. The jets accelerate cosmic rays through internal shocks or reverse shocks and further produce neutrinos via interaction with the surrounding dense photons. All three TDE jets discovered so far are not detected by Fermi/LAT, suggesting that GeV-TeV gamma rays are absorbed in these jets. The cumulative neutrino flux from TDE jets can account for the neutrino flux observed by IceCube at PeV energies and may also account for the higher flux at ˜30 TeV if less powerful, choked jets are present in the majority of TDEs.

  16. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Avanzini, Margherita Buizza; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D’Angelo, Davide; Kerret, Hervé De; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Vladimir Lyashuk,; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Thomas Mueller,; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Jen-Chieh Peng,; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Valery Sinev,; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; Waasen, Stefan van; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Zhi-zhong Xing,; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-02-10

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3–4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters ${\\mathrm{sin}}^{2}{\\theta }_{12}$, ${\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{21}^{2}$, and $| {\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{{ee}}^{2}| $ to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ~5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ~2000 all-flavor neutrino–proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and for exploring

  17. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    DOE PAGES

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; ...

    2016-02-10

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3–4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parametersmore » $${\\mathrm{sin}}^{2}{\\theta }_{12}$$, $${\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{21}^{2}$$, and $$| {\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{{ee}}^{2}| $$ to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ~5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ~2000 all-flavor neutrino–proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and

  18. CosI: Coherent Neutrino Scattering with Cesium Iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Nicole; Collar, Juan; Hossbach, Todd; Orrell, John; Perumpilly, Gopakumar

    2014-03-01

    Coherent neutrino scattering is a process predicted by the standard model of particle physics that has not yet been observed. For low enough energy neutrinos, O (10 MeV , their scattering cross section is predicted to increase with the square of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Several difficulties must be overcome in order to observe coherent neutrino scattering, including finding a high-intensity source of these medium-energy neutrinos, a detector with a low enough threshold, and a low enough background. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a convenient source of medium-energy neutrinos and has the added benefit of a neutrino source with known time structure. CsI(Na) is an inorganic scintillator with a relatively high light yield of 39,000 photons/MeV and its emission spectrum is well matched with commonly used biakali photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Background measurements of a 2 kg CsI(Na) crystal show that these crystals can be grown and encapsulated in a radioclean way.

  19. Neutron and gamma-ray shielding requirements for a below-ground neutrino detector system at the Rutherford Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Childs, R.L.; Wilczynski, J.; Zeitnitz, B.

    1983-03-01

    The neutron and gamma-ray shielding requirements for a proposed neutrino system below the target station at the Rutherford Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) are studied. The present shield below the station consists of 2 meters of iron and 1 meter of concrete, below which is chalk (CaCO/sub 3/). An underground bunker housing the neutrino detector system would require additional shielding consisting of 6 meters of the chalk plus approx. 3 meters of iron to reduce the number of high-energy (> approx. 7 MeV) neutrons and gamma rays entering the detector system to an acceptable level of approx. 1 per day.

  20. Neutrinos from collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyro, F. L.; Romero, G. E.; Peres, O. L. G.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with the gravitational collapse of very massive stars. The central engine of a GRB can collimate relativistic jets that propagate inside the stellar envelope. The shock waves produced when the jet disrupts the stellar surface are capable of accelerating particles up to very high energies. Aims: If the jet has hadronic content, neutrinos will be produced via charged pion decays. The main goal of this work is to estimate the neutrino emission produced in the region close to the surface of the star, taking pion and muon cooling into account, along with subtle effects arising from neutrino production in a highly magnetized medium. Methods: We estimate the maximum energies of the different kinds of particles and solve the coupled transport equations for each species. Once the particle distributions are known, we calculate the intensity of neutrinos. We study the different effects on the neutrinos that can change the relative weight of different flavors. In particular, we consider the effects of neutrino oscillations, and of neutrino spin precession caused by strong magnetic fields. Results: The expected neutrino signals from the shocks in the uncorking regions of Population III events is very weak, but the neutrino signal produced by Wolf-Rayet GRBs with z < 0.5 is not far from the level of the atmospheric background. Conclusions: The IceCube experiment does not have the sensitivity to detect neutrinos from the implosion of the earliest stars, but a number of high-energy neutrinos may be detected from nearby long GRBs. The cumulative signal should be detectable over several years (~10 yr) of integration with the full 86-string configuration.

  1. Neutrino Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lederman, L. M.

    1963-01-09

    The prediction and verification of the neutrino are reviewed, together with the V A theory for its interactions (particularly the difficulties with the apparent existence of two neutrinos and the high energy cross section). The Brookhaven experiment confirming the existence of two neutrinos and the cross section increase with momentum is then described, and future neutrino experiments are considered. (D.C.W.)

  2. Decisive disappearance search at high Δ m2 with monoenergetic muon neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axani, S.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-11-01

    "KPipe" is a proposed experiment which will study muon neutrino disappearance for a sensitive test of the Δ m2˜1 eV2 anomalies, possibly indicative of one or more sterile neutrinos. The experiment is to be located at the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility's spallation neutron source, which represents the world's most intense source of charged kaon decay-at-rest monoenergetic (236 MeV) muon neutrinos. The detector vessel, designed to measure the charged-current interactions of these neutrinos, will be 3 m in diameter and 120 m long, extending radially at a distance of 32 to 152 m from the source. This design allows a sensitive search for νμ disappearance associated with currently favored light sterile neutrino models and features the ability to reconstruct the neutrino oscillation wave within a single, extended detector. The required detector design, technology, and costs are modest. The KPipe measurements will be robust since they depend on a known energy neutrino source with low expected backgrounds. Further, since the measurements rely only on the measured rate of detected events as a function of distance, with no required knowledge of the initial flux and neutrino interaction cross section, the results will be largely free of systematic errors. The experimental sensitivity to oscillations, based on a shape-only analysis of the L /E distribution, will extend an order of magnitude beyond present experimental limits in the relevant high-Δ m2 parameter space.

  3. Search for high-energy neutrinos from GRB130427A with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    ANTARES is the first deep under-sea high-energy astrophysical neutrino telescope, in operation since 2008, in the Northern Hemisphere. In the light of a multi-messenger approach, one of the most ever intense (photon fluence Fγ ≃10-3 erg/cm2) and close (redshift z = 0.34) transient γ-source, GRB130427A, is considered in the ANTARES physics program for a co-incident search for photons and high-energy neutrinos. The first time-dependent analysis on GRBs neutrino emissions has been performed for this source: Konus-Wind parameters of the γ time-dependent spectrum are used to predict the expected neutrino flux from each peak of the burst, through the numerical calculation code NeuCosmA. An extended maximum likelihood ratio search is performed in order to maximize the discovery probability of prompt neutrinos from the burst: at the end, ANTARES sensitivity to this source is evaluated to be E2Φv ∼ 1 -10 GeV/cm2 in the energy range from 2 x 105 GeV to 2 x 107 GeV.

  4. High power 325 MHz vector modulators for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Wildman, David; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    One of the goals of the low energy 60 MeV section of the HINS H{sup -} linac [1] is to demonstrate that a total of {approx}40 RF cavities can be powered by a single 2.5 MW, 325 MHz klystron. This requires individual vector modulators at the input of each RF cavity to independently adjust the amplitude and phase of the RF input signal during the 3.5 ms RF pulse. Two versions of vector modulators have been developed; a 500 kW device for the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a 75 kW modulator for the RF cavities. High power tests showing the vector modulator phase and amplitude responses will be presented.

  5. Theory of neutrino oscillations with entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; Kopp, Joachim; Robertson, R. G. Hamish; Vogel, Petr

    2010-11-01

    We show that, despite appearances, a theoretical approach to neutrino oscillation in which the neutrino and its interaction partners are entangled yields the standard result for the neutrino oscillation wavelength. We also shed some light on the question of why plane-wave approaches to the neutrino oscillation problem can yield the correct oscillation wavelength even though they do not explicitly account for the localization of the neutrino source and the detector.

  6. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  7. Charmonium production at neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, A.A.; Torma, T.

    1999-11-01

    At existing and planned neutrino factories (high energy and high intensity neutrino beam facilities) precision studies of QCD in neutrino-nucleon interactions are a realistic opportunity. We investigate charmonium production in fixed target neutrino experiments. We find that J/{psi} production in neutrino-nucleon collisions is dominated by the color octet {sup 3}S{sub 1} nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) matrix element in a neutral current process, which is not accessible in photoproduction or leptoproduction. Neutrino experiments at a future Muon Collider will acquire a sufficient event rate to accurately measure color octet matrix element contributions. The currently running high energy neutrino experiments NOMAD and NuTeV could also observe several such events. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Operation of the Proto-MPEX High Intensity Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Diem, S. J.; Martin, E. H.; Pesavento, P. V.; Rapp, J.; Ray, H. B.; Shaw, G. C.; Showers, M. A.; Luo, G.-N.

    2015-11-01

    The Prototype Materials Plasma Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear high-intensity rf plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with electron and ion heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz rf power at levels up to 100 kW. Microwaves at 28 GHz (~ 150 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW). Ion cyclotron heating (~ 30 kW) will be via a magnetic beach approach. Plasma diagnostics include Thomson Scattering and a retarding field energy analyzer near the target, while a microwave interferometer and double-Langmuir probes are used to determine plasma parameters elsewhere in the system. Filterscopes are being used to measure D-alpha emission and He line ratios at multiple locations, and IR cameras image the target plates to determine heat deposition. High plasma densities in the helicon region have been produced in He (>3x1019/m3) and D (>1.5x1019/m3) , and operation with on-axis magnetic field strength >1 T has been demonstrated. Details of the experimental results and future plans for studying plasma surface/RF antenna interactions will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  9. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  10. Time-dependent Searches for Point Sources of Neutrinos with the 40-string and 22-string Configurations of IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Denger, T.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Stür, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents four searches for flaring sources of neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction, and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 μs and a year duration from astrophysical sources. Searches that integrate over time are less sensitive to flares because they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and muons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei, soft gamma-ray repeaters, and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. Two searches are "untriggered" in the sense that they look for any possible flare in the entire sky and from a predefined catalog of sources from which photon flares have been recorded. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares from blazars and from a soft gamma-ray repeater. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. The untriggered searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20. The triggered searches also use data taken by the 22-string configuration of IceCube operating between 2007 May 31 and 2008 April 5. The results from all four searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.

  11. SOX: search for short baseline neutrino oscillations with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, M.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffliot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, T.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquàres, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Veyssiére, C.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Borexino detector has convincingly shown its outstanding performances in the low energy regime through its accomplishments in the observation and study of the solar and geo neutrinos. It is then an ideal tool to perform a state of the art source-based experiment for testing the longstanding hypothesis of a fourth sterile neutrino with ~ eV2 mass, as suggested by several anomalies accumulated over the past three decades in source, reactor, and accelerator-based experiments. The SOX project aims at successively deploying two intense radioactive sources, made of Cerium (antineutrino) and Chromium (neutrino), respectively, in a dedicated pit located beneath the detector. The existence of such an ~ eV2 sterile neutrino would then show up as an unambiguous spatial and energy distortion in the count rate of neutrinos interacting within the active detector volume. This article reports on the latest developments about the first phase of the SOX experiment, namely CeSOX, and gives a realistic projection of CeSOX sensitivity to light sterile neutrinos in a simple (3+1) model.

  12. Possibilities for intensity-modulated brachytherapy: technical limitations on the use of non-isotropic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, M. A.

    2002-07-01

    An investigation was undertaken into possible dose conformity advantages and technical limitations of utilizing radially asymmetric internally applied radiation sources for intensity-modulated brachytherapy (IMBT). A feasible form of a source for IMBT would be a linear source with a high-intensity angular region, with some fractional transmission through the remainder of the source, which inhibits the resolution achievable in intensity modulation. Indexed rotation of the source about its axis would provide radial intensity modulation, which could compensate for variations in the spatial relationship between the source position and location of the target edge. Two treatment situations were simulated - one two-dimensional and one three-dimensional - both utilizing a single source (single catheter). The optimal intensity distribution of the source was determined by simulated annealing optimization using a conformality-based objective. The parameters in the optimization included the angular size of the source high-intensity region, and the fractional transmission through the low-intensity part of the source. Results indicate that limitations in source design suggest an optimal high-intensity resolution of approximately π/4 to π/8. The advantages of IMBT are rapidly reduced when fractional transmission through the low-intensity side of the source is increased.

  13. Irradiation effects in beryllium exposed to high energy protons of the NuMI neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksenko, V.; Ammigan, K.; Hartsell, B.; Densham, C.; Hurh, P.; Roberts, S.

    2017-07-01

    A beryllium primary vacuum-to-air beam 'window' of the "Neutrinos at the Main Injector" (NuMI) beamline at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, USA, has been irradiated by 120 GeV protons over 7 years, with a maximum integrated fluence at the window centre of 2.06 1022 p/cm2 corresponding to a radiation damage level of 0.48 dpa. The proton beam is pulsed at 0.5 Hz leading to an instantaneous temperature rise of 40 °C per pulse. The window is cooled by natural convection and is estimated to operate at an average of around 50 °C. The microstructure of this irradiated material was investigated by SEM/EBSD and Atom Probe Tomography, and compared to that of unirradiated regions of the beam window and that of stock material of the same PF-60 grade. Microstructural investigations revealed a highly inhomogeneous distribution of impurity elements in both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. Impurities were mainly localised in precipitates, and as segregations at grain boundary and dislocation lines. Low levels of Fe, Cu, Ni, C and O were also found to be homogeneously distributed in the beryllium matrix. In the irradiated materials, up to 440 appm of Li, derived from transmutation of beryllium was homogeneously distributed in solution in the beryllium matrix.

  14. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    DOE PAGES

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Hernández, Daniel; ...

    2015-03-01

    Neutrino propagation in space–time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  15. Determination of Jet Noise Radiation Patterns and Source Locations using 2-Dimensional Intensity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, S. M.; Allen, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    Contents include the following: (1) Outline Jet Noise extrapolation to far field. (2) Two dimensional sound intensity. (3) Anechoic chamber cold jet test. (4) Results: Intensity levels. Vector maps. Source location centroids. Directivity. and (5) Conclusions.

  16. High-energy Neutrinos from Recent Blazar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In 2015 June, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of 40 for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  17. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  18. The Renaissance of Neutrino Interaction Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Hugh R.

    2009-12-17

    The advent of high intensity neutrino beams for neutrino oscillation experiments has produced a resurgence of interest in neutrino interaction physics. Recent experiments have been revisiting topics not studied since the bubble chamber era, and are exploring many interesting questions at the boundaries of particle and nuclear physics.

  19. The COHERENT collaboration: an effort to observe coherent, elastic, neutral-current neutrino-nucleus scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Grayson; Coherent Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of coherent, neutral-current scattering of neutrinos from nuclei was first proposed by D.Z. Freedman in 1974, who posited that an effort to observe this effect experimentally ``may be an act of hubris'' owing to extreme experimental difficulties. Taking advantage of technologies which have come to maturity and new experience gained in the intervening 40 years, the newly-formed COHERENT collaboration seeks to measure for the first time coherent, elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE ν NS). Using neutrinos created by stopped pions at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, several detector systems will be deployed to limit systematic uncertainties and unambiguously observe the N2 -dependence on the cross section. The current status of the efforts of the collaboration will be addressed, focusing on detector technologies and calibration of these detectors for low-energy nuclear recoils. We will also discuss the longer-term physics goals of the collaboration, including astrophysical implications of the measurements and the use CE ν NS as a probe to search for non-standard neutrino interactions and as a way to measure the weak mixing angle.

  20. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Thanks to compelling evidence that neutrinos can change flavor, we now know that they have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. In these lectures, we explain the physics of neutrino flavor change, both in vacuum and in matter. Then, we describe what the flavor-change data have taught us about neutrinos. Finally, we consider some of the questions raised by the discovery of neutrino mass, explaining why these questions are so interesting, and how they might be answered experimentally.

  1. Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics with the Antares Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurio, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ANTARES detector is currently the largest operating neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. Its scientific target is the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos through measurement of Cherenkov radiation from neutrino-induced charged leptons. Here, an overview of the results of various analyses will be given, in particular for the searches of point-like sources and the opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy.

  2. Conceptual design of a high-intensity positron source for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D.; Eberle, C.C.

    1994-12-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a planned new basic and applied research facility based on a powerful steady-state research reactor that provides neutrons for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The useful neutron flux will be at least five times more than is available in the world`s best existing reactor facility. Construction of the ANS provides a unique opportunity to build a positron spectroscopy facility (PSF) with very-high-intensity beams based on the radioactive decay of a positron-generating isotope. The estimated maximum beam current is 1000 to 5000 times higher than that available at the world`s best existing positron research facility. Such an improvement in beam capability, coupled with complementary detectors, will reduce experiment durations from months to less than one hour while simultaneously improving output resolution. This facility will remove the existing barriers to the routine use of positron-based analytical techniques and will be a giant step toward realization of the full potential of the application of positron spectroscopy to materials science. The ANS PSF is based on a batch cycle process using {sup 64}Cu isotope as the positron emitter and represents the status of the design at the end of last year. Recent work not included in this report, has led to a proposal for placing the laboratory space for the positron experiments outside the ANS containment; however, the design of the positron source is not changed by that relocation. Hydraulic and pneumatic flight tubes transport the source material between the reactor and the positron source where the beam is generated and conditioned. The beam is then transported through a beam pipe to one of several available detectors. The design presented here includes all systems necessary to support the positron source, but the beam pipe and detectors have not been addressed yet.

  3. Ion source for tests of ion behavior in the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Lukic, S.; Bornschein, B.; Drexlin, G.; Glueck, F.; Kazachenko, O.; Zoll, M. C. R.; Schoeppner, M.; Weinheimer, Ch.

    2011-01-15

    An electron-impact ion source based on photoelectron emission was developed for ionization of gases at pressures below 10{sup -4} mbar in an axial magnetic field in the order of 5 T. The ion source applies only dc fields, which makes it suitable for use in the presence of equipment sensitive to radio-frequency (RF) fields. The ion source was successfully tested under varying conditions regarding pressure, magnetic field, and magnetic-field gradient, and the results were studied with the help of simulations. The processes in the ion source are well understood, and possibilities for further optimization of generated ion currents are clarified.

  4. Neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-11-21

    Neutrino oscillations have demonstrated that neutrinos have mass and, by now, oscillation experiments have been able to determine most of the parameters in the leptonic mixing matrix with a very good accuracy. Nevertheless, there are still many open questions in the neutrino sector. As a result, I will briefly discuss some of these questions, pointing out possible experimental avenues to address them.

  5. Neutrino phenomenology

    DOE PAGES

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-11-21

    Neutrino oscillations have demonstrated that neutrinos have mass and, by now, oscillation experiments have been able to determine most of the parameters in the leptonic mixing matrix with a very good accuracy. Nevertheless, there are still many open questions in the neutrino sector. As a result, I will briefly discuss some of these questions, pointing out possible experimental avenues to address them.

  6. A Swift X-ray Survey Of The Localization For An Icecube 22-string Candidate Source Of High-energy Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlon, Kyle; Fox, D.

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out an X-ray survey of the region of sky within 30.9‧ of a candidate high-energy (E> 1TeV) neutrino source, which we named IC22 J1013.5+1124, using the Swift satellite's X-ray telescope. This source was identified as the most significant single candidate source in the point-source analy- sis of the IceCube neutrino observatory's 22-string science run (May 2007 to April 2008; Abbasi et al. (2009)). As IC22 J1013.5+1124 represents an excess at the 2.2σ level after accounting for all trials, it is not claimed to represent an astro- nomical source of high-energy neutrinos; moreover, the source is not apparent in deeper observations subsequently taken by IceCube in a 40-string configuration (April 2008 to May 2009; Abbasi et al. (2011)). Nonetheless, given the pioneering nature of the facility, the identification of even a relatively low-confidence candi- date the intriguing possibility of using IceCube, in concert with other observato- ries, to identify and study high-energy astronomical objects. Our survey achieves a median exposure of 4440 s over the target region, with 94% of the region having > 2000 s exposure, and reveals 41 X-ray sources, all with high-likelihood coun- terparts from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging. We present our X-ray catalog, comment on the likely nature of the sources and discuss lessons learnd regarding future analyses of candidate "multimessenger” astronomical sources.

  7. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alysia

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinosμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinose), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  8. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  9. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  10. Multimessenger search for sources of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos: Initial results for LIGO-Virgo and IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Augustus, H.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castaldi, G.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Croce, R. P.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, W.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Horrom, T.; Hoske, D.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karlen, J.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, D. Nanda; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, P. J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Le Roux, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lopez, E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Ma, Y.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; May, G.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Omar, S.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Ramirez, K.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Recchia, S.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S. B.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sankar, S.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schilman, M.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Stops, D.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, J.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Tuennermann, H.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, K.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Wolovick, N.; Worden, J.; Wu, Y.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yoshida, S.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.; IceCube Collaboration*

    2014-11-01

    We report the results of a multimessenger search for coincident signals from the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories and the partially completed IceCube high-energy neutrino detector, including periods of joint operation between 2007-2010. These include parts of the 2005-2007 run and the 2009-2010 run for LIGO-Virgo, and IceCube's observation periods with 22, 59 and 79 strings. We find no significant coincident events, and use the search results to derive upper limits on the rate of joint sources for a range of source emission parameters. For the optimistic assumption of gravitational-wave emission energy of 10-2 M⊙c2 at ˜150 Hz with ˜60 ms duration, and high-energy neutrino emission of 1 051 erg comparable to the isotropic gamma-ray energy of gamma-ray bursts, we limit the source rate below 1.6 ×1 0-2 Mpc-3 yr-1 . We also examine how combining information from gravitational waves and neutrinos will aid discovery in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era.

  11. Research and Development of H Ion Source and LEBT for a Kaon-neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Q.; Staples, J.; Schenkel, T.; Li, D.

    2011-11-23

    A baseline H{sup -} ion source and low energy beam transport system (LEBT) have been identified for Project X. The filament-discharge H{sup -} ion source has been fabricated by D-Pace, Inc. and is now in operation at LBNL. The source is capable of delivering over 10mA of H{sup -} beam in cw operation with normalized 4rms emittances less than 0.7 {pi} mm mrad. A two-solenoid magnetic lens LEBT system has been design. The design has been validated with simulations of beam transport for 5 mA 30 keV H- beams using various simulation codes.

  12. Measuring the activity of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. V. Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 51}Cr is presented.

  13. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  14. Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-10-01

    A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, α), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

  15. Solar neutrinos and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltoni, Michele; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Solar neutrino studies triggered and largely motivated the major developments in neutrino physics in the last 50 years. The theory of neutrino propagation in different media with matter and fields has been elaborated. It includes oscillations in vacuum and matter, resonance flavor conversion and resonance oscillations, spin and spin-flavor precession, etc. LMA MSW has been established as the true solution of the solar neutrino problem. Parameters θ_{12} and Δ m 2 21 have been measured; θ_{13} extracted from the solar data is in agreement with results from reactor experiments. Solar neutrino studies provide a sensitive way to test theory of neutrino oscillations and conversion. Characterized by long baseline, huge fluxes and low energies they are a powerful set-up to search for new physics beyond the standard 3 ν paradigm: new neutrino states, sterile neutrinos, non-standard neutrino interactions, effects of violation of fundamental symmetries, new dynamics of neutrino propagation, probes of space and time. These searches allow us to get stringent, and in some cases unique bounds on new physics. We summarize the results on physics of propagation, neutrino properties and physics beyond the standard model obtained from studies of solar neutrinos.

  16. A Bibliography of Sources for Intensive English Program Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawienowski, Mary F.

    The bibliography presents over 100 citations of papers, articles, and reports on diverse aspects of the administration of intensive English language programs. The works are produced by both individuals and organizations. Citations include basic bibliographic information and a brief annotation. Topics addressed include: specific program profiles…

  17. Search for high energy neutrinos from Seyfert galaxies using IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relethford, Ben; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since its construction began in 2005, The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic kilometer Cherenkov detector buried deep in the geographic South Pole ice, has searched for a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux. In 2013, IceCube observed such a flux deviating at least 5.7 σ above atmospheric backgrounds. However, analyses of promising source candidates such as blazars (a type of radio-loud Active Galactic Nucleus, or AGN) and gamma ray bursts have found no evidence of neutrino emission, placing stringent constraints on their possible contribution to the observed extraterrestrial neutrino flux. This analysis considers a numerous yet comparatively low-intensity type of radio-quiet AGN known as Seyfert galaxies as a new candidate source of high energy astrophysical neutrinos. We obtain a catalog of Seyfert galaxies from the 70 month catalog of high-energy x-ray sources as identified by the BAT detector on the Swift satellite. We simultaneously study these Seyfert galaxies via a stacking analysis, which is particularly well-suited to a source class with high abundance but relatively low-intensity. This analysis will probe for the first time whether Seyfert galaxies contribute significantly to the observed, but so far unresolved astrophysical neutrino flux.

  18. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos in low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2017-03-01

    A thorough account of electromagnetic interactions of massive neutrinos in the theoretical formulation of low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering is given. The formalism of neutrino charge, magnetic, electric, and anapole form factors defined as matrices in the mass basis is employed under the assumption of three-neutrino mixing. The flavor change of neutrinos traveling from the source to the detector is taken into account and the role of the source-detector distance is inspected. The effects of neutrino flavor-transition millicharges and charge radii in the scattering experiments are pointed out.

  19. Consequences of intense intermittent astrophysical radiation sources for terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melott, Adrian

    2011-11-01

    Life on Earth has developed in the context of cosmic radiation backgrounds. This in turn can be a base for comparison with other potential life-bearing planets. Many kinds of strong radiation bursts are possible by astrophysical entities ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself. Many of these present potential hazards to the biosphere: on timescales long compared with human history, the probability of an event intense enough to disrupt life on the land surface or in the oceans becomes large. One of the mechanisms which comes into play even at moderate intensities is the ionization of the Earth's atmosphere, which leads through chemical changes (specifically, depletion of stratospheric ozone) to increased ultraviolet-B flux from the Sun reaching the surface. UVB is extremely hazardous to most life due to its strong absorption by the genetic material DNA and subsequent breaking of chemical bonds. We characterize intensities at the Earth and rates or upper limits on rates. We estimate how often a major extinction-level event is probable given the current state of knowledge. Moderate level events are dominated by the Sun, but the far more severe infrequent events are dominated by gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. So-called ``short-hard'' gamma-ray bursts are a substantial threat, comparable in magnitude to supernovae and greater than that of the higher-luminosity long bursts considered in most past work. Short bursts may come with little or no warning.

  20. Measurement of electron neutrino appearance with the MINOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Joshua Adam Alpern

    2009-05-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. By measuring the neutrino interactions in a detector near the neutrino source and again 735 km away from the production site, it is possible to probe the parameters governing neutrino oscillation. The majority of the vμ oscillate to vτ but a small fraction may oscillate instead to ve. This thesis presents a measurement of the ve appearance rate in the MINOS far detector using the first two years of exposure. Methods for constraining the far detector backgrounds using the near detector measurements is discussed and a technique for estimating the uncertainty on the background and signal selection are developed. A 1.6σ excess over the expected background rate is found providing a hint of ve appearance.

  1. Short-BaseLine Electron Neutrino Disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-08-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

  2. Neutrino Non-standard Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardelli, David; Guzzo, Marcelo

    The quantum neutrino oscillation phenomenon is not perfectly described by the actual standard physics models. Experimental results of different neutrino sources like reactors, accelerators and supernovae, indicate a non-negligible flux error if compared to the predicted theoretical models. This work aims to propose different non-standard neutrino in- teractions and predict LBNE potential in analyze it. That approach could give a better understanding of the quantum neutrino oscillation phenomenon. As an example, we can use the weak leptonic number violation that generate new interactions that is not possible using the Standard Model. This violation is directly related with a change in the Flavor neutrino Hamiltonian and consequently connected with the quantum neutrino oscillation.

  3. Probing Neutrino Hierarchy and Chirality via Wakes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Inman, Derek

    2016-04-08

    The relic neutrinos are expected to acquire a bulk relative velocity with respect to the dark matter at low redshifts, and neutrino wakes are expected to develop downstream of the dark matter halos. We propose a method of measuring the neutrino mass based on this mechanism. This neutrino wake will cause a dipole distortion of the galaxy-galaxy lensing pattern. This effect could be detected by combining upcoming lensing surveys with a low redshift galaxy survey or a 21 cm intensity mapping survey, which can map the neutrino flow field. The data obtained with LSST and Euclid should enable us to make a positive detection if the three neutrino masses are quasidegenerate with each neutrino mass of ∼0.1  eV, and a future high precision 21 cm lensing survey would allow the normal hierarchy and inverted hierarchy cases to be distinguished, and even the right-handed Dirac neutrinos may be detectable.

  4. Probing Neutrino Hierarchy and Chirality via Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Inman, Derek

    2016-04-01

    The relic neutrinos are expected to acquire a bulk relative velocity with respect to the dark matter at low redshifts, and neutrino wakes are expected to develop downstream of the dark matter halos. We propose a method of measuring the neutrino mass based on this mechanism. This neutrino wake will cause a dipole distortion of the galaxy-galaxy lensing pattern. This effect could be detected by combining upcoming lensing surveys with a low redshift galaxy survey or a 21 cm intensity mapping survey, which can map the neutrino flow field. The data obtained with LSST and Euclid should enable us to make a positive detection if the three neutrino masses are quasidegenerate with each neutrino mass of ˜0.1 eV , and a future high precision 21 cm lensing survey would allow the normal hierarchy and inverted hierarchy cases to be distinguished, and even the right-handed Dirac neutrinos may be detectable.

  5. High-intensity tone generation by aeroacoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the production of high-intensity tones by axisymmetric ring cavities. Maximum sound production occurs during an acoustic resonance at Strouhal numbers, which depend only on the local flow velocity independent of cavity location. Values of sound pressure of about 115 dB at 1-m distance can be generated by axisymmetric ring cavities on projectiles moving at a relatively low flight speed equal to 70 m/s. Frequencies in the audible range up to several kilohertz can be generated aeroacoustically. A simple analytical model has been developed to explain the experimental observations.

  6. sin2 θ W estimate and bounds on nonstandard interactions at source and detector in the solar neutrino low-energy regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Amir N.; McKay, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    We explore the implications of the Borexino experiment's real time measurements of the lowest energy part of the neutrino spectrum from the primary pp fusion process up to 0.420 MeV through the 7Be decay at 0.862 MeV to the pep reaction at 1.44 MeV. We exploit the fact that at such low energies, the large mixing angle solution to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein matter effects in the sun are small for 7Be and pep and negligible for pp. Consequently, the neutrinos produced in the sun change their flavor almost entirely through vacuum oscillations during propagation from the sun's surface and through possible nonstandard interactions acting at the solar source and Borexino detector. We combine the different NSI effects at source and detector in a single framework and use the current Borexino data to bound NSI non-universal and flavor-changing parameters at energies below the reach of reactor neutrino experiments. We also study the implication of the current data for the weak-mixing angle at this "low-energy frontier" data from the Borexino experiment, where it is expected to be slightly larger than its value at the Z mass. We find sin2 θ W = 0.224 ± 0.016, the lowest energy-scale estimate to date. Looking to the future, we use projected sensitivities to solar neutrinos in next generation dedicated solar experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments and find a potential factor five improvement in determination of the weak-mixing angle and up to an order of magnitude improvement in probing the NSI parameters space.

  7. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  8. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  9. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Ardid, Miguel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A.; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters. PMID:22666022

  10. Acoustic transmitters for underwater neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Ardid, Miguel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters.

  11. Particle Astrophysics with Cosmic Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheirandish, Ali

    IceCube's discovery of cosmic neutrinos offers a unique view of our universe and provides powerful insights into some of the most energetic and enigmatic objects in the cosmos. Cosmic neutrinos reveal an unobstructed view at wavelengths where the universe is opaque to photons. The existence of the cosmic-neutrino flux has challenged our understanding of the universe. It is somewhat counterintuitive that the most surprising property of the observed flux is its magnitude. An immediate inference from the large neutrino flux observed by IceCube, which is predominantly extragalactic in origin, is that the total energy density of neutrinos in the high-energy universe is similar to that of photons. The matching energy densities of the extragalactic gamma-ray flux detected by Fermi and the high-energy neutrino flux measured by IceCube suggest the possibility of a common origin. Therefore, rather than detecting some exotic sources, it looks more likely that IceCube observes the same universe as astronomers do. The finding implies that a large fraction of the energy in the non-thermal universe originates in hadronic processes, indicating a larger level than previously thought. The focus of this dissertation is on identifying the sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos observed in IceCube. Moreover, with the lack of confirmation to date of any source (type of sources) as the dominant contributor to the observed neutrino flux, we have studied prospects for observing different sources in IceCube by considering both transient and steady sources in the sky. Finally, we introduce new techniques to study the strength of neutrino dark matter interactions with the properties of high-energy cosmic neutrinos.

  12. Intense steady state neutron source. The CNR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.; Moon, R.M.; Gambill, W.R.; Moon, R.M.; Primm, R.T. III; West, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Center for Neutron Research (CNR) has been proposed in response to the needs - neutron flux, spectrum, and experimental facilities - that have been identified through workshops, studies, and discussions by the neutron-scattering, isotope, and materials irradiation research communities. The CNR is a major new experimental facility consisting of a reactor-based steady state neutron source of unprecedented flux, together with extensive facilities and instruments for neutron scattering, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other areas of research.

  13. Particle acceleration studies with intense lasers and advanced light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C. D.; Gray, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; Rusby, D.; McKenna, P.; Ridgers, C. P.; Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Wilson, L.; Green, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    The interaction of lasers with matter is a subject which has progressed rapidly over the last two decades as higher intensity lasers are found to have possible applications in inertial fusion, laboratory astrophysics and ion acceleration for oncology or ultrafast proton probing. All of these applications require a good understanding of laser-electron coupling and fast electron transport in solid targets which has proven difficult to diagnose. Here we present data from an experiment carried out on the Astra Gemini laser system at STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where novel targets and diagnostics illuminate the complex processes at play. An outline of how x-ray free electron lasers may further expand our understanding of such processes will also be described.

  14. A future, intense source of negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefken, Hugh; Stein, Charles

    1994-01-01

    By directly heating lithium hydride in a vacuum, up to 18 micro-A/sq cm of negative hydrogen has been obtained from the crystal lattice. The amount of ion current extracted and analyzed is closely related to the temperature of the sample and to the rate at which the temperature is changed. The ion current appears to be emission limited and saturates with extraction voltage. For a fixed extraction voltage, the ion current could be maximized by placing a grid between the sample surface and the extraction electrode. Electrons accompanying the negative ions were removed by a magnetic trap. A Wein velocity filter was designed and built to provide definitive mass analysis of the extracted ion species. This technique when applied to other alkali hydrides may produce even higher intensity beams possessing low values of emittance.

  15. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  16. The neutrino electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P.K.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.; Bethe, H.A.; Dawson, J.M.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that a wake of electron plasma oscillations can be created by the nonlinear ponderomotive force of an intense neutrino flux. The electrons trapped in the plasma wakefield will be accelerated to high energies. Such processes may be important in supernovas and pulsars. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations. PMID:20431258

  18. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations.

  19. Determining the Intensity of a Point-Like Source Observed on the Background of AN Extended Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornienko, Y. V.; Skuratovskiy, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of determining the time dependence of intensity of a point-like source in case of atmospheric blur is formulated and solved by using the Bayesian statistical approach. A pointlike source is supposed to be observed on the background of an extended source with constant in time though unknown brightness. The equation system for optimal statistical estimation of the sequence of intensity values in observation moments is obtained. The problem is particularly relevant for studying gravitational mirages which appear while observing a quasar through the gravitational field of a far galaxy.

  20. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewan, G. T.

    1992-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector is a 1000 ton heavy water (D2O) Cherenkov detector designed to study neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical sources. The use of heavy water allows both electron neutrinos and all other types of neutrinos to be observed by three complementary reactions. The detector will be sensitive to the electron neutrino flux and energy spectrum shape and to the total neutrino flux irrespective of neutrino type. These measurements will provide information on both vacuum neutrino oscillations and matter-enhanced oscillations, the MSW effect. In the event of a supernova it will be very sensitive to muon and tau neutrinos as well as the electron neutrinos emitted in the initial burst, enabling sensitive mass measurements as well as providing details of the physics of stellar collapse. On behalf of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Collaboration : H.C . Evans, G.T . Ewan, H.W. Lee, J .R . Leslie, J .D. MacArthur, H .-B . Mak, A.B . McDonald, W. McLatchie, B.C . Robertson, B. Sur, P. Skensved (Queen's University) ; C.K . Hargrove, H. Mes, W.F. Davidson, D. Sinclair, 1 . Blevis, M. Shatkay (Centre for Research in Particle Physics) ; E.D. Earle, G.M. Milton, E. Bonvin, (Chalk River Laboratories); J .J . Simpson, P. Jagam, J . Law, J .-X . Wang (University of Guelph); E.D . Hallman, R.U. Haq (Laurentian University); A.L. Carter, D. Kessler, B.R . Hollebone (Carleton University); R. Schubank . C.E . Waltha m (University of British Columbia); R.T. Kouzes, M.M. Lowry, R.M. Key (Princeton University); E.W. Beier, W. Frati, M. Newcomer, R. Van Berg (University of Penn-sylvania), T.J . Bowles, P.J . Doe, S.R . Elliott, M.M. Fowler, R.G.H. Robertson, D.J . Vieira, J .B . Wilhelmy, J .F. Wilker-son, J .M. Wouters (Los Alamos National Laboratory) ; E. Norman, K. Lesko, A. Smith, R. Fulton, R. Stokstad (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), N.W. Tanner, N. JCIILY, P. Trent, J . Barton, D.L . Wark (University of Oxford).

  1. Turbulence generation through intense localized sources of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqui, Agustin; Donzis, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms to generate turbulence in controlled conditions have been studied for nearly a century. Most common methods include passive and active grids with a focus on incompressible turbulence. However, little attention has been given to compressible flows, and even less to hypersonic flows, where phenomena such as thermal non-equilibrium can be present. Using intense energy from lasers, extreme molecule velocities can be generated from photo-dissociation. This creates strong localized changes in both the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the flow, which may perturb the flow in a way similar to an active grid to generate turbulence in hypersonic flows. A large database of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the feasibility of such an approach. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics is used to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Local measures of enstrophy and dissipation are studied to diagnose the main mechanisms for energy exchange. As commonly done in compressible flows, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Further results for cases that assimilate laboratory conditions will be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of AFOSR.

  2. A time-dependent search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Silvia

    2017-03-01

    Astrophysical point-like neutrino sources, like Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), are one of the main targets for neutrino telescopes, since they are among the best candidates for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) acceleration. From the interaction between the accelerated protons and the intense radiation fields of the source jet, charged mesons are produced, which then decay into neutrinos. The methods and the results of a search for high-energy neutrinos in spatial and temporal correlation with the detected gamma-ray emission are presented for four bright GRBs observed between 2008 and 2013: a time-dependent analysis, optimised for each flare of the selected bursts, is performed to predict detailed neutrino spectra. The internal shock scenario of the fireball model is investigated, relying on the neutrino spectra computed through the numerical code NeuCosmA. The analysis is optimized on a per burst basis, through the maximization of the signal discovery probability. Since no events in ANTARES data passed the optimised cuts, 90% C.L. upper limits are derived on the expected neutrino fluences.

  3. Physics of Intense Electron Current Sources for Helicity Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, E. T.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    DC helicity injection (HI) for non-solenoidal ST startup requires sources of current at the tokamak edge. Since the rate of HI scales with injection voltage, understanding of the physics setting injector impedance is necessary for a predictive model of the HI rate and subsequent growth of Ip. In Pegasus, arc plasma sources are used for current injection. They operate immersed in tokamak edge plasma, and are biased at ~1-2 kV with respect to the vessel to draw current densities J ~ 1 kA/cm2 from an arc plasma cathode. Prior to tokamak formation, impedance data manifests two regimes, one at low current (< 1 kA) with I ~V 3 / 2 , and a higher current mode where I ~V 1 / 2 holds. The impedance in the I ~V 3 / 2 regime is consistent with an electrostatic double layer. Current in the I ~V 1 / 2 regime is linear in arc gas fueling rate, suggesting a space-charge limit set by nedge. In the presence of tokamak plasmas, voltage oscillations of the order 100s of volts are measured during MHD relaxation activity. These fluctuations occur at the characteristic frequencies of the n = 1 and n = 0 MHD activity observed on magnetic probes, and are suggestive of dynamic activity found in LHI simulations in NIMROD. Advanced injector design techniques have allowed higher voltage operation. These include staged shielding to prevent external arcing, and shaped cathodes, which minimize the onset and material damage due to cathode spot formation. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  4. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  5. Performance Characteristics Of An Intensity Modulated Advanced X-Ray Source (IMAXS) For Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Brown, Craig; Condron, Cathie; Ingle, Mike; Christensen, Phil A.; Johnson, William A.; Owen, Roger D.; Ross, Randy

    2011-06-01

    X-ray cargo inspection systems for the detection and verification of threats and contraband must address stringent, competitive performance requirements. High x-ray intensity is needed to penetrate dense cargo, while low intensity is desirable to minimize the radiation footprint, i.e. the size of the controlled area, required shielding and the dose to personnel. In a collaborative effort between HESCO/PTSE Inc., XScell Corp., Stangenes Industries, Inc. and Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., an Intensity Modulated Advanced X-ray Source (IMAXS) was designed and produced. Cargo inspection systems utilizing such a source have been projected to achieve up to 2 inches steel-equivalent greater penetration capability, while on average producing the same or smaller radiation footprint as present fixed-intensity sources. Alternatively, the design can be used to obtain the same penetration capability as with conventional sources, but reducing the radiation footprint by about a factor of three. The key idea is to anticipate the needed intensity for each x-ray pulse by evaluating signal strength in the cargo inspection system detector array for the previous pulse. The IMAXS is therefore capable of changing intensity from one pulse to the next by an electronic signal provided by electronics inside the cargo inspection system detector array, which determine the required source intensity for the next pulse. We report on the completion of a 9 MV S-band (2998 MHz) IMAXS source and comment on its performance.

  6. Nonstandard neutrino-neutrino refractive effects in dense neutrino gases

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /CERN /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the effects of nonstandard four-fermion neutrino-neutrino interactions on the flavor evolution of dense neutrino gases. We find that in the regions where the neutrino-neutrino refractive index leads to collective flavor oscillations, the presence of new neutrino interactions can produce flavor equilibration in both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. In realistic supernova environments, these effects are significant if the nonstandard neutrino-neutrino interaction strength is comparable to the one expected in the standard case, dominating the ordinary matter potential. However, very small nonstandard neutrino-neutrino couplings are enough to trigger the usual collective neutrino flavor transformations in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, even if the mixing angle vanishes exactly.

  7. Note: Design and initial results of a multi-pulsed intense electron beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, L. Zhang, H.; Yang, A.; Shen, Y.; Wang, W.; Wen, L.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; Zhang, L.; Deng, J.

    2014-06-15

    A multi-pulsed intense electron beam source is introduced, including the design and the initial experimental results. The source can generate a burst of three pulses of intense electron beams with energy of 2–3 MeV and beam intensities of around 2.5 kA. An inductive adder is chosen to generate the pulsed diode voltages and a dispenser cathode is chosen to emit electron beams. The test results indicate that the design of the source is reliable. The multi-pulsed diode voltage is up to 2.5 MV and the beam intensities are more than 2 kA at the exit of the source with small variation.

  8. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2009-04-29

    There is considerable interest in the use of muon beams to create either an intense source of decay neutrinos aimed at a detector located 3000-7500 km away (a Neutrino Factory), or a Muon Collider that produces high-luminosity collisions at the energy frontier. R&D aimed at producing these facilities has been under way for more than 10 years. This paper will review experimental results from MuCool, MERIT, and MICE and indicate the extent to which they will provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of the key technologies required for a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. Progress in constructing components for the MICE experiment will also be described.

  9. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source progress report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne`s ZING-P and ZING-P` prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and ``in press`` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

  10. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source progress report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schriesheim, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne's ZING-P and ZING-P' prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and in press'' articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

  11. Sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to a neutrino flux from the Fermi bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Coniglione, R.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope data has provided evidence for a high-intensity emission of high-energy gamma rays with a E{sup −2} spectrum from two large bubbles above and below the Galactic Center. Hadronic mechanisms were proposed for this gamma-ray emission making the Fermi bubbles promising source candidates of high-energy neutrino emission. In this work preliminary simulation results regarding the detectability of high-energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles with the future multi-km{sup 3} neutrino telescope KM3NeT are presented.

  12. Signal and background in the underwater neutrino telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.

    2007-05-01

    At the bottom of the Mediterranean, the neutrino telescope ANTARES is being constructed. Its purpose is to detect cosmic neutrinos, which can yield information on distant and energetic processes that cannot be obtained from the more traditional study of light or charged particles. ANTARES searches for neutrinos by detecting the light they produce in interactions with the surrounding rock or water. Since neutrinos only interact weakly, very few of them will be observed in ANTARES, and distinguishing a neutrino signal from the background is a big challenge. Two major sources of optical background are the decay of radioactive potassium, which creates a steady background rate of about 30 kHz, and bioluminescence, which gives an additional steady background as well as intense flashes of light. The optical background at the location of ANTARES was studied with a prototype detector. During ninety days, the photon count rate was measured with an accuracy of 10 kHz. The behaviour of the count rate was highly variable. Its characteristics are described, at the timescale of 15 minutes, by the base rate (the steady rate independent of bursts) and the burst rate (the number of bursts per second). These rates show strong fluctuations: the base rate varied from 60 kHz to over 350 kHz, and the burst rate varied between 0 and 0.8 Hz. Base rate and burst rate were correlated, and both were correlated with the speed of the water current. A periodicity of 17.7 hours, the period of inertial waves at the latitude of ANTARES, was observed in the current speed as well as in the bioluminescence. These results suggest that the bioluminescent bursts are caused by macroscopic organisms emitting light in reaction to collisions with the detector. While the trigger algorithm can handle count rates of up to 600 kHz, bioluminescence forms an unpleasant background for the detection of cosmic neutrinos. For future underwater neutrino telescopes, it is recommended to search for a location with less

  13. Tau neutrinos underground: Signals of νμ-->ντ oscillations with extragalactic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sharada Iyer; Reno, Mary Hall; Sarcevic, Ina

    2000-12-01

    The appearance of high energy tau neutrinos due to νμ-->ντ oscillations of extragalactic neutrinos can be observed by measuring the neutrino induced upward hadronic and electromagnetic showers and upward muons. We evaluate quantitatively the tau neutrino regeneration in the Earth for a variety of extragalactic neutrino fluxes. Charged-current interactions of the upward tau neutrinos below and in the detector, and the subsequent tau decay, create muons or hadronic and electromagnetic showers. The background for these events are muon neutrino and electron neutrino charged-current and neutral-current interactions, where in addition to extragalactic neutrinos, we consider atmospheric neutrinos. We find significant signal to background ratios for the hadronic combined with electromagnetic showers with energies above 10-100 TeV initiated by the extragalactic neutrinos. We show that the tau neutrinos from point sources also have the potential for discovery above a 1 TeV threshold. A kilometer-size neutrino telescope has a very good chance of detecting the appearance of tau neutrinos when both muon and hadronic combined with electromagnetic showers are detected.

  14. Neutrino magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves; Mendonça, José Tito

    2016-01-15

    A new neutrino magnetohydrodynamics (NMHD) model is formulated, where the effects of the charged weak current on the electron-ion magnetohydrodynamic fluid are taken into account. The model incorporates in a systematic way the role of the Fermi neutrino weak force in magnetized plasmas. A fast neutrino-driven short wavelengths instability associated with the magnetosonic wave is derived. Such an instability should play a central role in strongly magnetized plasma as occurs in supernovae, where dense neutrino beams also exist. In addition, in the case of nonlinear or high frequency waves, the neutrino coupling is shown to be responsible for breaking the frozen-in magnetic field lines condition even in infinite conductivity plasmas. Simplified and ideal NMHD assumptions were adopted and analyzed in detail.

  15. Recent results of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Rey, Juan José

    2015-07-15

    The latest results from the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope are reported. Limits on a high energy neutrino diffuse flux have been set using for the first time both muon–track and showering events. The results for point sources obtained by ANTARES are also shown. These are the most stringent limits for the southern sky for neutrino energies below 100 TeV. Constraints on the nature of the cluster of neutrino events near the Galactic Centre observed by IceCube are also reported. In particular, ANTARES data excludes a single point–like neutrino source as the origin of this cluster. Looking for neutrinos coming from the Sun or the centre of the Galaxy, very competitive limits are set by the ANTARES data to the flux of neutrinos produced by self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles.

  16. A study of atmospheric neutrinos with the IMB detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losecco, J. M.; Bionta, R. M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C. B.; Casper, D.; Chrysicopoulou, P.; Claus, R.; Cortez, B. G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A sample of 401 contained neutrino interactions collected in the 3300 metric ton fiducial mass IMB detector was used to study neutrino oscillations, geomagnetic modulation of the flux and to search for point sources. The majority of these events are attributed to neutrino interactions. For the most part, these neutrinos are believed to originate as tertiary products of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The neutrinos are a mixture of v sub e and v sub micron.

  17. Use of acoustic intensity measurements in the characterization of jet noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musafir, R. E.; Slama, J. G.; Zindeluk, M.

    The usefulness of two-microphone acoustic-intensity (AI) measurements for characterizing the acoustic field of a jet flow is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical principles and data basis for the simulations are explained, and the intensity patterns generated by the simulation are presented graphically. It is found that the vector information in AI data from the near field are useful in understanding complex sources, but that far-field intensity charts cannot locate separate sources and may be misleading if not analyzed in terms of a sound physical model.

  18. Net effect of many gravitational fields on the intensity of celestial light sources. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cipperly, G.E.

    1982-12-01

    This thesis investigates the lens-like action of the gravitational fields of celestial bodies, which can alter the apparent intensity of more distant sources. Previous work in this area has shown that the chance of an individual body being sufficiently well aligned with a source to cause a very large gravitational intensity change is small. The issue addressed in this study is the possibility of there being a significant total change in the intensity of a source due to the combined effects of the gravitational fields of all celestial bodies, and in particular, the potential impact on intensity distance measurements, that is, determination of the distances of celestial light sources by means of intensity comparisons. It is first shown that the problem can be treated in flat space by associating an appropriate index of refraction with gravitational fields. A wave approach is taken in deriving the total deflection of a ray by the field of a single point mass. A statistical analysis is then performed to determine the expression for the mean total change in the intensity of celestial light sources due to the combined fields of all intervening bodies.

  19. Variable light source with a million-to-one intensity ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. B.

    1964-01-01

    A wide range, variable intensity light source of constant color characteristics has been developed for testing and calibrating photomultiplier tubes. A light attenuator first diffuses light from a constant source, then permits variable attenuation through a series of chambers and adjustable apertures.

  20. Oscillation properties of active and sterile neutrinos and neutrino anomalies at short distances

    SciTech Connect

    Khruschov, V. V. Fomichev, S. V. Titov, O. A.

    2016-09-15

    A generalized phenomenological (3 + 2 + 1) model featuring three active and three sterile neutrinos that is intended for calculating oscillation properties of neutrinos for the case of a normal active neutrino mass hierarchy and a large splitting between the mass of one sterile neutrino and the masses of the other two sterile neutrinos is considered. A new parametrization and a specific form of the general mixing matrix are proposed for active and sterile neutrinos with allowance for possible CP violation in the lepton sector, and test values are chosen for the neutrino masses and mixing parameters. The probabilities for the transitions between different neutrino flavors are calculated, and graphs representing the probabilities for the disappearance of muon neutrinos/antineutrinos and the appearance of electron neutrinos/antineutrinos in a beam of muon neutrinos/antineutrinos versus the distance from the neutrino source for various values of admissible model parameters at neutrino energies not higher than 50 MeV, as well as versus the ratio of this distance to the neutrino energy, are plotted. It is shown that the short-distance accelerator anomaly in neutrino data (LNSD anomaly) can be explained in the case of a specific mixing matrix for active and sterile neutrinos (which belongs to the a{sub 2} type) at the chosen parameter values. The same applies to the short-distance reactor and gallium anomalies. The theoretical results obtained in the present study can be used to interpret and predict the results of ground-based neutrino experiments aimed at searches for sterile neutrinos, as well as to analyze some astrophysical observational data.

  1. PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Lars; Botner, Olga; Carlson, Per; Hulth, Per Olof; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics was held at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden during August 19 24, 2004. Invited to the symposium were around 40 globally leading researchers in the field of neutrino physics, both experimental and theoretical. In addition to these participants, some 30 local researchers and graduate students participated in the symposium. The dominant theme of the lectures was neutrino oscillations, which after several years were recently verified by results from the Super-Kamiokande detector in Kamioka, Japan and the SNO detector in Sudbury, Canada. Discussion focused especially on effects of neutrino oscillations derived from the presence of matter and the fact that three different neutrinos exist. Since neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have mass, this is the first experimental observation that fundamentally deviates from the standard model of particle physics. This is a challenge to both theoretical and experimental physics. The various oscillation parameters will be determined with increased precision in new, specially designed experiments. Theoretical physics is working intensively to insert the knowledge that neutrinos have mass into the theoretical models that describe particle physics. It will probably turn out that the discovery of neutrino oscillations signifies a breakthrough in the description of the very smallest constituents of matter. The lectures provided a very good description of the intensive situation in the field right now. The topics discussed also included mass models for neutrinos, neutrinos in extra dimensions as well as the `seesaw mechanism', which provides a good description of why neutrino masses are so small. Also discussed, besides neutrino oscillations, was the new field of neutrino astronomy. Among the questions that neutrino astronomy hopes to answer are what the dark matter in the Universe consists of and where cosmic radiation at extremely high energies comes from. For this purpose, large neutrino

  2. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P. D.

    2006-11-01

    The Sun is a source of high-energy neutrinos (E(greater-or-similar sign)10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged vacuum oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23})

  3. Solar Neutrinos with Exotic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, João

    The possibility of unconventional neutrino scattering in the Sun via flavor changing neutral currents as a possible source of the solar neutrino deficit is investigated. If the effect is really significant, a resonant process will occur. Taking into account the neutrino deficit reported by the solar neutrino experiments (Kamiokande II, SAGE Gallex), one finds Δ2m21 = (0.6-1.4) × 10-5 eV2 with no vacuum mixing and 0.16 ≤ fex ≤ 0.34 where fex is the lepton violating coupling. Our understanding of the neutrino phenomenon in the Sun may be improved through accuracy improvements in experiments measuring νee- elastic scattering or others searching for exotic lepton decays.

  4. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-06-18

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams ({nu} factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both {+-} {mu}. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider.

  5. Determining X-ray source intensity and confidence bounds in crowded fields

    SciTech Connect

    Primini, F. A.; Kashyap, V. L.

    2014-11-20

    We present a rigorous description of the general problem of aperture photometry in high-energy astrophysics photon-count images, in which the statistical noise model is Poisson, not Gaussian. We compute the full posterior probability density function for the expected source intensity for various cases of interest, including the important cases in which both source and background apertures contain contributions from the source, and when multiple source apertures partially overlap. A Bayesian approach offers the advantages of allowing one to (1) include explicit prior information on source intensities, (2) propagate posterior distributions as priors for future observations, and (3) use Poisson likelihoods, making the treatment valid in the low-counts regime. Elements of this approach have been implemented in the Chandra Source Catalog.

  6. Accelerator systems and instrumentation for the NuMI neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zwaska, Robert Miles

    2005-12-01

    The neutrinos at the main injector (NuMI) neutrino beam facility began operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in 2005. NuMI produces an intense, muon-neutrino beam to a number of experiments. Foremost of these experiments is MINOS-the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search-that uses two neutrino detectors in the beam, one at Fermilab and one in northern Minnesota, to investigate the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  7. Conceptual design of an intense positron source based on an LIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Ji-Dong; Yang, Zhen; Dong, Pan; Shi, Jin-Shui

    2012-04-01

    Accelerator based positron sources are widely used due to their high intensity. Most of these accelerators are RF accelerators. An LIA (linear induction accelerator) is a kind of high current pulsed accelerator used for radiography. A conceptual design of an intense pulsed positron source based on an LIA is presented in the paper. One advantage of an LIA is its pulsed power being higher than conventional accelerators, which means a higher amount of primary electrons for positron generations per pulse. Another advantage of an LIA is that it is very suitable to decelerate the positron bunch generated by bremsstrahlung pair process due to its ability to adjustably shape the voltage pulse. By implementing LIA cavities to decelerate the positron bunch before it is moderated, the positron yield could be greatly increased. These features may make the LIA based positron source become a high intensity pulsed positron source.

  8. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B.

    1990-12-31

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  9. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  10. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  11. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  12. Physics with a High Intensity Proton Source at Fermilab: Project X Golden Book

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, Jeffrey; Asner, David; Bigi, Ikaros; Bryman, Douglas; Buras, Andrzej; Carena, Marcela Carosi, Roberto; Christian, Dave; Conrad, Janet; Diwan, Milind; Dukes, Craig; /Virginia U. /Fermilab

    2008-02-03

    . We have already begun to see the enlargement of the Standard Model in the leptonic sector. Neutrino masses and mixing angles, which in the early 1990's were unknown, must now be incorporated into our full description of nature. In a minimal scenario of Majorana masses and mixings amongst the three known left-handed neutrinos, we see a strong hint of a new and very large mass scale, possibly associated with grand unification or the scale of quantum gravity, the Planck mass. We are not yet sure what the proper description of neutrino masses and mixing angles will be. Experiments may reveal additional unexpected particles coupled to the neutrino sector. New phenomena, such as leptonic CP-violation, will be major focal points of our expanding understanding of the lepton sector. There is much to be done with experiment to attack the issues that neutrinos now present. Already, developments in neutrino physics and the possibility of a novel source of CP-violation in the lepton sector have spawned hopes that the cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry may be explained through leptogenesis. Neutrino physics, together with the search for new energy frontier physics, offers the possibility of experimental handles on the questions of dark matter and dark energy. Without the discovery of new particles in accelerator experiments, the telescope-based cosmological observations of the early universe would remain unexplained puzzles. The process of understanding the laws of physics in greater detail through accelerator-based high energy physics will potentially have incisive impact on our understanding of dark matter and dark energy. Precision flavor physics in both the quark and the lepton sectors offers a window on the sensitive entanglement of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics with rare processes, through quantum loop effects involving known or new states. Flavor physics offers sensitive indirect probes and may be the first place to reveal additional key components of the post

  13. Equation of state and neutrino opacity of dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of matter at densities similar to nuclear density plays an important role in core collapse supernova. In this talk I discuss aspects of the equation of state and weak interactions at high density. I highlight its relation to the temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission from the newly born neutron star born in the aftermath of a core-collapse supernova. I will briefly comment on how this will impact r-process nucleosynthesis. The hot and dense neutron star (proto-neutron star) born in the aftermath of a core collapse supernova provides a promising environment for r-process nucleosynthesis. The intense temperatures and neutrino fluxes in the vicinity of the proto-neutron star is expected to result in a high entropy neutron-rich wind necessary for successful r-process nucleosynthesis. Although theoretical efforts to simulate core collapse supernova have not been able to provide a mechanism for robust explosions, several key features of the supernova dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star are well understood. Large scale numerical simulations of supernova and neutron star evolution are now being pursued by several groups. Simulating core collapse supernova is challenging because it involves coupled multi-dimensional hydrodynamics and neutrino transport. The neutrinos play a key role since they are the dominant source of energy transport. It is expected that refinements in neutrino transport and better treatment of multi-dimensional effects are needed to understand the explosion mechanism. The temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission which is emitted from the proto-neutron star is an independent diagnostic of supernova explosion dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star. To accurately predict the ambient conditions just outside the newly born neutron star for the first 10-20 s, we will need to understand both the explosion mechanism and neutrino emission. In this talk I will discuss micro

  14. Constraints and tests of the OPERA superluminal neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Peng-Fei; Yu, Zhao-Huan; Yuan, Qiang

    2011-12-09

    The superluminal neutrinos detected by OPERA indicate Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) of the neutrino sector at the order of 10(-5). We study the implications of the result in this work. We find that such a large LIV implied by OPERA data will make the neutrino production process π → μ + ν(μ) kinematically forbidden for a neutrino energy greater than about 5 GeV. The OPERA detection of neutrinos at 40 GeV can constrain the LIV parameter to be smaller than 3×10(-7). Furthermore, the neutrino decay in the LIV framework will modify the neutrino spectrum greatly. The atmospheric neutrino spectrum measured by the IceCube Collaboration can constrain the LIV parameter to the level of 10(-12). The future detection of astrophysical neutrinos of galactic sources is expected to be able to give an even stronger constraint on the LIV parameter of neutrinos.

  15. Neutrino '88. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneps, J.; Kafka, T.; Mann, W. A.; Nath, P.

    Contents: 1. Neutrino mass. 2. Neutrino oscillations. 3. Double beta decay. 4. Solar neutrinos. 5. Neutrinos from supernovae. 6. Neutrino interactions at accelerators. 7. New detectors for neutrino processes. 8. Neutrino interactions at accelerators II. 9. W, Z, and the standard model. 10. "Fred Reines at 70" Fest. 11. Nucleon decay, the standard model, and beyond. 12. Neutrinos: Earth, atmosphere, Sun, and galaxies. 13. Dark matter and cosmology. 14. Theoretical topics. 15. Future prospects.

  16. COHERENT at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate; Coherent Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, provides an intense isotropic flux of neutrinos in the few tens-of-MeV range, with a sharply-pulsed timing structure which is beneficial for background rejection. This talk will describe aspects of COHERENT, the experimental program underway to measure CEvNS (Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering) using low-energy nuclear recoil detectors.

  17. Beam commission of the high intensity proton source developed at INFN-LNS for the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Miraglia, A.; Leonardi, O.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Mascali, D.; Mazzaglia, M.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Calabrese, G.; Caruso, A.; Chines, F.; Gallo, G.; Longhitano, A.; Manno, G.; Marletta, S.; Maugeri, A.; Passarello, S.; Pastore, G.; Seminara, A.; Spartà, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2017-07-01

    At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) started in November 2016. Beam stability at high current intensity is one of the most important parameter for the first steps of the ongoing commissioning. Promising results were obtained since the first source start with a 6 mm diameter extraction hole. The increase of the extraction hole to 8 mm allowed improving PS-ESS performances and obtaining the values required by the ESS accelerator. In this work, extracted beam current characteristics together with Doppler shift and emittance measurements are presented, as well as the description of the next phases before the installation at ESS in Lund.

  18. High-energy neutrino astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaruli, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Neutrino astronomy, conceptually conceived four decades ago, has entered an exciting phase for providing results on the quest for the sources of the observed highest energy particles. IceCube and ANTARES are now completed and are scanning in space and time possible signals of high energy neutrinos indicating the existence of such sources. DeepCore, inside IceCube, is a playground for vetoed neutrino measurement with better potential below 1 TeV. A larger and denser detector is now being discussed. ARA, now in test phase, will be composed by radio stations that could cover up to ~ 100 km2 and aims at the highest energy region of cosmogenic neutrinos. The non observation of cosmic events is on one side a source of disappointment, on the other it represents by itself an important result. If seen in the context of a multi-messenger science, the combination of photon and cosmic ray experiment results brings invaluable information. The experimental upper bounds of the cubic-kilometer telescope IceCube are now below the theoretical upper bounds for extragalactic fluxes of neutrinos from optically thin sources. These are responsible for accelerating the extragalactic cosmic rays. Such limits constrain the role of gamma-ray bursts, described by the fireball picture, as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Neutrino telescopes are exciting running multi-task experiments that produce astrophysics and particle physics results some of which have been illustrated at this conference and are summarized in this report.

  19. Neutrino physics, superbeams and the neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Boris Kayser

    2003-10-14

    We summarize what has been learned about the neutrino mass spectrum and neutrino mixing, identify interesting open questions that can be answered by accelerator neutrino facilities of the future, and discuss the importance and physics of answering them.

  20. Mixed Source Interrogation of Steel Shielded Special Nuclear Material Using an Intense Pulsed Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C.; Clemett, C. D.; Campbell, B.; Martin, P. N.; Threadgold, J.; O'Malley, J.

    This paper explores the benefits of using a mixed photon and neutron radiation source for active detection of special nuclear material. More than fifty irradiations were performed using an 8 MV electron accelerator employing and induction voltage adder (IVA). The experiments used a high atomic number converter to produce a Bremsstrahlung photon spectrum which was then used to create a neutron source via a nuclear interaction with heavy water (deuterium oxide, D2O). This mixed particle source was used to irradiate a depleted uranium (DU) sample, inducing fission in the sample. Several thicknesses of steel shielding were tested in order to compare the performance of the mixed photon and neutron source to a Bremsstrahlung-only source. An array of detectors were fielded to record both photons and neutrons emitted by the fission reactions. A correlation between steel shielding and a detection figure-of-merit can be seen in all cases where the Bremsstrahlung-only source was used. The same relationship for the mixed photon-neutron source is less consistent. The data collected from the fielded detectors is compared to MCNP6 calculations and good agreement is found.

  1. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, Wick C.; Holstein, Barry R.

    2000-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutrino physics are presented at a level appropriate for integration into elementary courses on quantum mechanics and/or modern physics. (c) 2000 American Association of Physics Teachers.

  2. Neutrino-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2016-05-01

    Neutrino-atom scattering provides a sensitive tool for probing nonstandard interactions of massive neutrinos in laboratory measurements. The ionization channel of this collision process plays an important role in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments. We discuss some theoretical aspects of atomic ionization by massive neutrinos. We also outline possible manifestations of neutrino electromagnetic properties in coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  3. Sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.

    2016-06-21

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  4. Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  5. Intensity distribution of the x ray source for the AXAF VETA-I mirror test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Ping; Kellogg, Edwin M.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Shao, Yibo; Fulton, M. Ann

    1992-01-01

    The X-ray generator for the AXAF VETA-I mirror test is an electron impact X-ray source with various anode materials. The source sizes of different anodes and their intensity distributions were measured with a pinhole camera before the VETA-I test. The pinhole camera consists of a 30 micrometers diameter pinhole for imaging the source and a Microchannel Plate Imaging Detector with 25 micrometers FWHM spatial resolution for detecting and recording the image. The camera has a magnification factor of 8.79, which enables measuring the detailed spatial structure of the source. The spot size, the intensity distribution, and the flux level of each source were measured with different operating parameters. During the VETA-I test, microscope pictures were taken for each used anode immediately after it was brought out of the source chamber. The source sizes and the intensity distribution structures are clearly shown in the pictures. They are compared and agree with the results from the pinhole camera measurements. This paper presents the results of the above measurements. The results show that under operating conditions characteristic of the VETA-I test, all the source sizes have a FWHM of less than 0.45 mm. For a source of this size at 528 meters away, the angular size to VETA is less than 0.17 arcsec which is small compared to the on ground VETA angular resolution (0.5 arcsec, required and 0.22 arcsec, measured). Even so, the results show the intensity distributions of the sources have complicated structures. These results were crucial for the VETA data analysis and for obtaining the on ground and predicted in orbit VETA Point Response Function.

  6. A Device for Search of Gamma-Radiation Intensive Sources at the Radiation Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Klyuchnykov, A; Kochnev, N; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2005-08-08

    The procedure designed for measuring angular distributions of gamma radiation and for search of gamma radiation intensive sources is described. It is based on application of the original multidetector device ShD-1, for measuring an angular distribution in a complete solid angle (4 pi). The calibration results and data on the angular distributions of intensity of gamma radiation at the roof of Chornobyl NPP ''Shelter'' are presented.

  7. Rainfall intensity and phosphorus source effects on phosphorus transport in surface runoff from soil trays.

    PubMed

    Shigaki, Francirose; Sharpley, Andrew; Prochnow, Luis Ignacio

    2007-02-01

    Phosphorus runoff from agricultural fields amended with mineral fertilizers and manures has been linked to freshwater eutrophication. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different rainfall intensities and P sources differing in water soluble P (WSP) concentration on P transport in runoff from soil trays packed with a Berks loam and grassed with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Triple superphosphate (TSP; 79% WSP), low-grade super single phosphate (LGSSP; 50% WSP), North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP; 0.5% WSP) and swine manure (SM; 70% WSP), were broadcast (100 kg total P ha-1) and rainfall applied at 25, 50 and 75 mm h-1 1, 7, 21, and 56 days after P source application. The concentration of dissolved reactive (DRP), particulate (PP), and total P (TP) was significantly (P<0.01) greater in runoff with a rainfall intensity of 75 than 25 mm h-1 for all P sources. Further, runoff DRP increased as P source WSP increased, with runoff from a 50 mm h-1 rain 1 day after source application having a DRP concentration of 0.25 mg L-1 for NCRP and 28.21 mg L-1 for TSP. In contrast, the proportion of runoff TP as PP was greater with low (39% PP for NCRP) than high WSP sources (4% PP for TSP) averaged for all rainfall intensities. The increased PP transport is attributed to the detachment and transport of undissolved P source particles during runoff. These results show that P source water solubility and rainfall intensity can influence P transport in runoff, which is important in evaluating the long-term risks of P source application on P transport in surface runoff.

  8. Utilizing Gas Filled Cavities for the Generation of an Intense Muon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys; Neuffer, David V.

    2015-05-01

    A key requirement for designing intense muon sources is operating rf cavities in multi-tesla magnetic fields. Recently, a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated that an rf cavity filed with high pressure hydrogen gas could meet this goal. In this study, rigorous simulation is used to design and evaluate the performance of an intense muon source with gas filled cavities. We present a new lattice design and compare our results with conventional schemes. We detail the influence of gas pressure on the muon production rate.

  9. Utilizing gas-filled cavities for the generation of an intense muon source

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys; Neuffer, David V.

    2015-05-03

    A key requirement for designing intense muon sources is operating rf cavities in multi-tesla magnetic fields. Recently, a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated that an rf cavity filed with high pressure hydrogen gas could meet this goal. In this study, rigorous simulation is used to design and evaluate the performance of an intense muon source with gas filled cavities. We present a new lattice design and compare our results with conventional schemes. We detail the influence of gas pressure on the muon production rate.

  10. [Method to measure spectrum intensity from laser plasma soft X-ray source].

    PubMed

    Ni, Qi-liang; Gong, Yan; Chen, Bo; Cao, Jian-lin

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method to detect and measure spectrum intensity from a laser plasma soft X-ray source. A Channel Electron Multiplier (CEM) and a calibrated silicon photodiode were used as detectors in this method, the former is a nonstandard detector and the latter is a standard one. Charge-sensitive preamplifiers were used for measuring total charges generated by detectors, and a monochromator with high resolution was employed as the spectrometer. The formulae to calculate spectrum intensity from laser plasma soft X-ray source was given, based on the known grating efficiency of the monochromator, CEM's gain and responsivity of the silicon photodiode to photons.

  11. Active-sterile neutrino transformation and r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, G. C.

    2000-12-01

    The type II supernova is considered as a candidate site for the production of heavy elements. Since the supernova produces an intense neutrino flux, neutrino scattering processes will impact element formation. We examine active-sterile neutrino conversion in this environment and find that it may help to produce the requisite neutron-to-seed ratio for synthesis of the r-process elements. .

  12. Measurements of the distribution of sound source intensities in turbulent jets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosche, F.-R.; Jones, J. H.; Wilhold, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    The spatial distribution of sound source intensities in jets is determined from the sound radiated into the acoustic far field by means of a concave mirror-microphone system. The mirror forms an image of the sound sources in a region far enough from the jet so that near field pressure fluctuations can be neglected. The sound intensity in the image is thus closely related to the strength of the actual sound sources in the jet. Results of measurements with jets of Mach numbers 0.7 to 1.9 emanating from circular nozzles and from slot nozzle-flap combinations demonstrate the influence of Mach number and of other parameters upon the sound source distribution.

  13. Experimental evaluation of high-intensity ultrasound source system using acoustic waveguide for calibration of hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Shigeru; Morishita, Takeshi; Uchida, Takeyoshi; Takeuchi, Shinichi

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the use of high-intensity ultrasound equipment has increased in both medical and industrial fields. Consequently, we proposed a high-intensity ultrasound source system using a cylindrical acoustic waveguide for the development of an ultrasound source for the absolute calibration of the receiving sensitivity of hydrophones. We fabricated the experimental ultrasound source system using the cylindrical acoustic waveguide with particular considerations of the material selection and cutting methods to be used. The measured spatial distribution of acoustic pressure generated by our fabricated ultrasound source almost coincides with the results obtained by numerical simulation. In particular, the measured and simulated -6 dB main beam widths agreed within 15%. The linearity was measured using ultrasound waveforms with applied peak-to-peak voltages within the linear range of the power amplifier. Nonlinear phenomena were observed for the measured acoustic pressures of about 130 kPa or more.

  14. Preparation of intense 68Ga positron sources by electrocodeposition of 68GeCu 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, T. A.; Skalsey, M.; Sweetman, E.; Newman, D. E.; Molen, A. Vander

    1983-02-01

    Investigation of a new, high efficiency technique for the preparation of laboratory sources of 68Ga by electrocodeposition of 68GeCu 3 from dilute alkaline cyanide baths is reported. Procedures are described which have resulted in stable and aherent plates of millicurie intensity. The specific activity of the material is shown to be a critical factor in producing thin (⩽1 mg/cm 2) sources while achieving plating efficiencies in excess of 75%.

  15. An unusual source of Burkholderia cepacia outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, B; Sriram, A; Shetty, S; Doshi, R; Varior, R

    2016-12-01

    During a two-month period, seven preterm infants in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were found to have sepsis with Burkholderia cepacia demonstrated by blood culture. A complete environmental investigation was conducted to identify the source of infection. Caffeine citrate was found to be the source of this organism. The offending drug was immediately withdrawn from the NICU and the hospital pharmacy, and local authorities were informed. All seven babies were discharged with no infection-related morbidities.

  16. The Antares Undersea Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghinolfi, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Neutrino astronomy is a very promising field of investigation representing a complementary source of information with respect to photon-astronomy. ANTARES, operating off the French Mediterranean coast, is the worlds largest operational underwater neutrino telescope. In these proceedings, in addition to a short detector description, the results of recent analysis will be discussed. The ANTARES project is an important physics experiment but also represents a bench mark for a future large detector of the km3 scale.

  17. Northern Red Oak Seedling Growth Varies by Light Intensity and Seed Source

    Treesearch

    Charles E. McGee

    1968-01-01

    Northern red oak seedlings from each of three seed sources were subjected for one growing season to one of four intensities of light: full light, 70 percent light, 37 percent light, and 8 percent light. Seedlings grown in the open were taller than those grown in the shade and had more, generally heavier leaves. Height and leaf growth decreased as the amount of light...

  18. Towards the construction of a high-intensity source of totally polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotorev, M.

    1990-05-01

    A scheme for construction of an intense source of totally polarized electrons is suggested with the parameters: 15 A current, 2 ns time duration and 180 Hz repetition rate. Such a polarized gun could be used at the SLAC Linear Collider.

  19. Public Data Set: Impedance of an Intense Plasma-Cathode Electron Source for Tokamak Plasma Startup

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hinson, Edward T. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:000000019713140X); Barr, Jayson L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177685931); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Perry, Justin M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000171228609)

    2016-05-31

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in E.T. Hinson et al., 'Impedance of an Intense Plasma-Cathode Electron Source for Tokamak Plasma Startup,' Physics of Plasmas 23, 052515 (2016).

  20. High intensity laser-plasma sources of ions—physics and future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krushelnick, K.; Clark, E. L.; Beg, F. N.; Dangor, A. E.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P. A.; Wei, M.; Zepf, M.

    2005-12-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with plasmas is an efficient source of megaelectronvolt ions. Recent observations of the production of directional energetic ion 'beams' from the front and rear surfaces of thin foil targets upon irradiation by intense laser pulses have prompted a renewed interest into research in this area. In addition, other recent observations have shown that high energy ions can be observed from intense laser interaction with low density plasma as a result of ponderomotive shock acceleration. The source characteristics and acceleration mechanisms for these ions have been extensively investigated, and there have also been a number of proposed applications for these ion beams, such as for injectors into subsequent conventional acceleration stages, for medicine, for probing of dense plasmas and for inertial confinement fusion experiments.

  1. Is the ultra-high energy cosmic-ray excess observed by the telescope array correlated with IceCube neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Fujii, Toshihiro; Linden, Tim; Olinto, Angela V.

    2014-10-20

    The Telescope Array (TA) has observed a statistically significant excess in cosmic rays with energies above 57 EeV in a region of approximately 1150 deg{sup 2} centered on coordinates R.A. = 146.7, decl. = 43.2. We note that the location of this excess correlates with 2 of the 28 extraterrestrial neutrinos recently observed by IceCube. The overlap between the two IceCube neutrinos and the TA excess is statistically significant at the 2σ level. Furthermore, the spectrum and intensity of the IceCube neutrinos is consistent with a single source which would also produce the TA excess. Finally, we discuss possible source classes with the correct characteristics to explain the cosmic-ray and neutrino fluxes with a single source.

  2. Neutrino Oscillations and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, David

    2001-04-01

    When the existence of the neutrino was almost apologetically first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli it was intended to explain the mysterious apparent absence of energy and momentum in beta decay. 70 years later the neutrino has indeed solved that mystery, but it has generated still more of its own. Are neutrinos massive? Is it possible to create a neutrino with its spin in the same direction as its momentum? What fraction of the mass of the Universe is made up of neutrinos? Are the flavour labels which we put on neutrinos, like electron and muon, really fixed or can they change? Why does no experiment see the predicted flux of neutrinos from the Sun? Why do there appear to be roughly equal numbers of muon and electron neutrinos created in our atmosphere, rather than the 2:1 ratio we would expect? Many of these questions were coupled when Bruno Pontecorvo first suggested that the shortfall in solar neutrino measurements were caused by neutrino oscillations - neutrinos spontaneously changing flavour as they travel from the Sun. 30 years later we still await definitive proof of that conjecture, and providing that proof is the reason for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The talk will discuss the current state of neutrino oscillations studies, and show how the unique capabilities of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory can provide definitive proof of whether neutrino oscillations are the long-sought answer to the solar neutrino problem.

  3. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborra, Irene; Ando, Shin'ichiro E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays, assuming that the leading mechanism for the neutrino production is lepto-hadronic. To this purpose, we include hadronic, radiative and adiabatic cooling effects and discuss their relevance for long- (including high- and low-luminosity) and short-duration GRBs. The expected diffuse neutrino background is derived, by requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions of the long and short GRBs. Although dedicated stacking searches have been unsuccessful up to now, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few % to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, assuming that the latter has a diffuse origin. Gamma-ray bursts, especially low-luminosity ones, could however be the main sources of the IceCube high-energy neutrino flux in the PeV range. While high-luminosity and low-luminosity GRBs have comparable intensities, the contribution from the short-duration component is significantly smaller. Our findings confirm the most-recent IceCube results on the GRB searches and suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect high-energy neutrinos from high-luminosity GRBs in the near future.

  4. Probing neutrino flavor transition mechanism with ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che

    2014-02-01

    Observation of ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos and identification of their flavors have been proposed for future neutrino telescopes. The flavor ratio of astrophysical neutrinos observed on the Earth depends on both the initial flavor ratio at the source and flavor transitions taking place during propagations of these neutrinos. The flavor transition mechanisms are well classified with our model-independent parametrization. We find that a new parameter R ≡ϕe/(ϕμ+ϕτ) can probe directly the flavor transition in the framework of our model-independent parametrization, without the assumption of the νμ-ντ symmetry. A few flavor-transition models are employed to test our parametrization with this new observable. The observational constraints on flavor transition mechanisms by the new observable are discussed through our model-independent parametrization.

  5. AGS SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY ACCELERATOR AND TARGET SYSTEM DESIGN (NEUTRINO WORKING GROUP REPORT-II).

    SciTech Connect

    DIWAN,M.; MARCIANO,W.; WENG,W.; RAPARIA,D.

    2003-04-21

    This document describes the design of the accelerator and target systems for the AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility. Under the direction of the Associate Laboratory Director Tom Kirk, BNL has established a Neutrino Working Group to explore the scientific case and facility requirements for a very long baseline neutrino experiment. Results of a study of the physics merit and detector performance was published in BNL-69395 in October 2002, where it was shown that a wide-band neutrino beam generated by a 1 MW proton beam from the AGS, coupled with a half megaton water Cerenkov detector located deep underground in the former Homestake mine in South Dakota would be able to measure the complete set of neutrino oscillation parameters: (1) precise determination of the oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 32}; (2) detection of the oscillation of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub e} and measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13}; (3) measurement of {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} sin 2{theta}{sub 12} in a {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance mode, independent of the value of {theta}{sub 13}; (4) verification of matter enhancement and the sign of {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}; and (5) determination of the CP-violation parameter {delta}{sub CP} in the neutrino sector. This report details the performance requirements and conceptual design of the accelerator and the target systems for the production of a neutrino beam by a 1.0 MW proton beam from the AGS. The major components of this facility include a new 1.2 GeV superconducting linac, ramping the AGS at 2.5 Hz, and the new target station for 1.0 MW beam. It also calls for moderate increase, about 30%, of the AGS intensity per pulse. Special care is taken to account for all sources of proton beam loss plus shielding and collimation of stray beam halo particles to ensure equipment reliability and personal safety. A preliminary cost estimate and schedule for the accelerator upgrade and target system are also

  6. OCT imaging with temporal dispersion induced intense and short coherence laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Suman K.; le Gall, Stephen; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-10-01

    Lower coherence length and higher intensity are two indispensable requirements on the light source for high resolution and large penetration depth OCT imaging. While tremendous interest is being paid on engineering various laser sources to enlarge their bandwidth and hence lowering the coherence length, here we demonstrate another approach by employing strong temporal dispersion onto the existing laser source. Cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) cells with suitable dispersive slope at the edge of 1-D organic photonic band gap have been designed to provide maximum reduction in coherence volume while maintaining the intensity higher than 50%. As an example, the coherence length of a multimode He-Ne laser is reduced by more than 730 times.

  7. Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed and the experimental situation on searches for neutrino masses and oscillations is summarized. The solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tri decay experiments and double beta-decay data are considered and cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. The neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy cluster galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation are examined.

  8. Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Beacom, John

    2009-11-14

    Supernovae in our Galaxy probably occur about 3 times per century, though 90% of them are invisible optically because of obscuration by dust. However, present solar neutrino detectors are sensitive to core-collapse supernovae anywhere in our Galaxy, and would detect of order 10,000 events from a supernova at a distance of 10 kpc (roughly the distance to the Galactic center). I will describe how this data can be used to understand the supernova itself, as well as to test the properties of neutrinos.

  9. Cosmology and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2008-12-15

    A brief review for particle physicists on the cosmological impact of neutrinos and on restrictions on neutrino properties from cosmology is given. The paper includes a discussion of upper bounds on neutrino mass and possible ways to relax them, methods to observe the cosmic-neutrino background, bounds on the cosmological lepton asymmetry which are strongly improved by neutrino oscillations, cosmological effects of breaking of the spin-statistics theorem for neutrinos, bounds on mixing parameters of active and possible sterile neutrinos with account of active-neutrino oscillations, bounds on right-handed currents and neutrino magnetic moments, and some more.

  10. Neutrino transition magnetic moments within the non-standard neutrino-nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoulias, D. K.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2015-07-01

    Tensorial non-standard neutrino interactions are studied through a combined analysis of nuclear structure calculations and a sensitivity χ2-type of neutrino events expected to be measured at the COHERENT experiment, recently planned to operate at the Spallation Neutron Source (Oak Ridge). Potential sizeable predictions on transition neutrino magnetic moments and other electromagnetic parameters, such as neutrino milli-charges, are also addressed. The non-standard neutrino-nucleus processes, explored from nuclear physics perspectives within the context of quasi-particle random phase approximation, are exploited in order to estimate the expected number of events originating from vector and tensor exotic interactions for the case of reactor neutrinos, studied with TEXONO and GEMMA neutrino detectors.

  11. The solar neutrino problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renxin; Luo, Xianhan

    1995-12-01

    The solar neutrino problem (SNP) is reviewed on the bases of neutrino physics, solar neutrino detection and standard solar model. It is interesting that the detected neutrino flux values of different solar neutrino detectors are lower than the values calculated by SMM in different degree. The studies on SNP in particle physics and in astrophysics are also discussed respectively.

  12. Neutrino footprint in large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, Carlos Peña; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-03-01

    Recent constrains on the sum of neutrino masses inferred by analyzing cosmological data, show that detecting a non-zero neutrino mass is within reach of forthcoming cosmological surveys. Such a measurement will imply a direct determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale. Physically, the measurement relies on constraining the shape of the matter power spectrum below the neutrino free streaming scale: massive neutrinos erase power at these scales. However, detection of a lack of small-scale power from cosmological data could also be due to a host of other effects. It is therefore of paramount importance to validate neutrinos as the source of power suppression at small scales. We show that, independent on hierarchy, neutrinos always show a footprint on large, linear scales; the exact location and properties are fully specified by the measured power suppression (an astrophysical measurement) and atmospheric neutrinos mass splitting (a neutrino oscillation experiment measurement). This feature cannot be easily mimicked by systematic uncertainties in the cosmological data analysis or modifications in the cosmological model. Therefore the measurement of such a feature, up to 1% relative change in the power spectrum for extreme differences in the mass eigenstates mass ratios, is a smoking gun for confirming the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale from cosmological observations. It also demonstrates the synergy between astrophysics and particle physics experiments.

  13. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  14. Constraining astrophysical neutrino flavor composition from leptonic unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xun-Jie; He, Hong-Jian; Rodejohann, Werner E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-12-01

    The recent IceCube observation of ultra-high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has begun the era of neutrino astronomy. In this work, using the unitarity of leptonic mixing matrix, we derive nontrivial unitarity constraints on the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos detected by IceCube. Applying leptonic unitarity triangles, we deduce these unitarity bounds from geometrical conditions, such as triangular inequalities. These new bounds generally hold for three flavor neutrinos, and are independent of any experimental input or the pattern of lepton mixing. We apply our unitarity bounds to derive general constraints on the flavor compositions for three types of astrophysical neutrino sources (and their general mixture), and compare them with the IceCube measurements. Furthermore, we prove that for any sources without ν{sub τ} neutrinos, a detected ν{sub μ} flux ratio < 1/4 will require the initial flavor composition with more ν{sub e} neutrinos than ν{sub μ} neutrinos.

  15. Neutrino detection systematics in the two detector phase of the Double Chooz experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazan, H.; Navas-Nicolás, D.

    2017-09-01

    Being an intense and pure source of low energy electron antineutrinos, nuclear reactors are one of the most powerful tools to investigate neutrino oscillations. The Double Chooz experiment aims for a precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 using a two detector configuration with a liquid scintillator target volume read by photomultipliers. The antineutrino detection efficiency systematic uncertainty is the dominant component in the normalization uncertainty affecting the final precision on the θ 13 measurement.The collected data from the near detector since January 2015 will profit from improved detection systematic uncertainties thanks to the cancellation of correlated contributions between both detectors.

  16. Neutrino Physics with the IceCube Detector

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Kiryluk, Joanna; Kiryluk, Joanna

    2008-06-11

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino telescope under construction at the South Pole.The primary goal is to discover astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos.We describe the detector and present results on atmospheric muon neutrinos from2006 data collected with nine detector strings.

  17. Neutrino masses and solar neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1992-11-01

    It has been pointed out by Bahcall and Bethe and others that all solar neutrino data can be explained by MSW oscillations with m({nu}{sub {mu}}) {approximately} 10{sup {minus}3} eV consistent with ideas grand unified theories (GUTS). There is a second possibility consistent with GUTS ideas with m({nu}{sub {tau}}) {approximately} 10{sup {minus}2} eV and m({nu} {sub {mu}}) {approximately} 10 {sup {minus}4} eV. The two cases can be distinguished by a measurement of the solar neutrinos from {sup {tau}}Be.

  18. Supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    John Beacom

    2003-01-23

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, {nu} + p {yields} {nu} + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T{sub p} {approx_equal} 2E{sub {nu}}{sup 2}/M{sub p}, and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from {bar {nu}}{sub e} + p {yields} e{sup +} + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy release and temperature of {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}, {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, and {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}. The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos.

  19. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, Thomas; Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The ANTARES detector, located in the deep sea 40 km off the French coast, is the largest neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere. It consists of an array of 885 photomultipliers detecting the Cherenkov light induced by charged leptons created in neutrino interactions in and around the detector. The main goal of ANTARES is to search for astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range. This comprises searches for a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux and for fluxes from possible galactic and extragalactic sources of neutrinos. The search program also includes multi-messenger analyses based on time and/or space coincidences with other cosmic probes. The ANTARES detector is sensitive to a wide range of other phenomena, from atmospheric neutrino oscillations to dark matter annihilation or potential exotics such as nuclearites and magnetic monopoles.

  20. Annual modulation of cosmic relic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdi, Benjamin R.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Spitz, Joshua; Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2014-08-01

    The cosmic neutrino background (CνB), produced about one second after the big bang, permeates the Universe today. New technological advancements make neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (NCB) a clear path forward towards the detection of the CνB. We show that gravitational focusing by the Sun causes the expected neutrino capture rate to modulate annually. The amplitude and phase of the modulation depend on the phase-space distribution of the local neutrino background, which is perturbed by structure formation. These results also apply to searches for sterile neutrinos at NCB experiments. Gravitational focusing is the only source of modulation for neutrino capture experiments, in contrast to dark-matter direct-detection searches where the Earth's time-dependent velocity relative to the Sun also plays a role.

  1. High Energy X-Ray Source Generation by Short Pulse High Intensity Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H-S; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Phillips, T W; Goldsack, T; Clark, E; Eagleton, R; Edwards, R

    2003-09-02

    We are studying the feasibility of utilizing K{alpha} x-ray sources in the range of 20 to 100 keV as a backlighters for imaging various stages of implosions and high areal density planar samples driven by the NIF laser facility. The hard x-ray K{alpha} sources are created by relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after a radiation by short pulse high intensity lasers. In order to understand K{alpha} source characteristics such as production efficiency and brightness as a function of laser parameters, we have performed experiments using the 10 J, 100 fs JanUSP laser. We utilized single-photon counting spectroscopy and x-ray imaging diagnostics to characterize the K{alpha} source. We find that the K{alpha} conversion efficiency from the laser energy at 22 keV is {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4}.

  2. On the measurement of intensity correlations from laboratory and astronomical sources with SPADs and SNSPDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Edward; Mauskopf, Philip; Pilyavsky, Genady; Sinclair, Adrian; Smith, Nathan; Bryan, Sean; Mani, Hamdi; Morozov, Dmitry; Berggren, Karl; Zhu, Di; Smirnov, Konstantin; Vakhtomin, Yuriy

    2016-08-01

    We describe the performance of detector modules containing silicon single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) and superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) to be used for intensity interferometry. The SPADs are mounted in fiber-coupled and free-space coupled packages. The SNSPDs are mounted in a small liquid helium cryostat coupled to single mode fiber optic cables which pass through a hermetic feed-through. The detectors are read out with microwave amplifiers and FPGA-based coincidence electronics. We present progress on measurements of intensity correlations from incoherent sources including gas-discharge lamps and stars with these detectors. From the measured laboratory performance of the correlation system, we estimate the sensitivity to intensity correlations from stars using commercial telescopes and larger existing research telescopes.

  3. Galactic and extragalactic high energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Shapiro, M. M.; Silberberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources are made using the generic relationship between secondary gammas and neutrinos and using recent cosmic gamma-ray satellite observations. A quantitative estimate of the observability above the atmospheric background of 1-10 TeV neutrinos from the inner Galaxy for a DUMAND type detector is then given.

  4. Neutrino astronomy and gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eli

    2007-05-15

    The construction of large-volume detectors of high energy, greater than 1TeV, neutrinos is mainly driven by the search for extragalactic neutrino sources. The existence of such sources is implied by the observations of ultra-high-energy, greater than or equal to 1019eV, cosmic rays, the origin of which is a mystery. In this lecture, I briefly discuss the expected extragalactic neutrino signal and the current state of the experimental efforts. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are probably sources of both high-energy protons and neutrinos, is discussed in some detail. The detection of the predicted GRB neutrino signal, which may become possible in the coming few years, will allow one to identify the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and to resolve open questions related to the underlying physics of GRB models. Moreover, detection of GRB neutrinos will allow one to test for neutrino properties (e.g. flavour oscillations and coupling to gravity) with an accuracy many orders of magnitude better than is currently possible.

  5. Improvement of beam emittance of the CEA high intensity proton source SILHI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, R.; Beauvais, P.-Y.; Ferdinand, R.; Leroy, P.-A.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.

    1999-06-01

    The emittance of the intense proton beam extracted by the source SILHI at Commisariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)-Saclay is a key parameter for the design of the IPHI Project RFQ. This parameter has a relevant role even for the design of an intense proton source for the TRASCO project of Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The tests performed in the framework of CEA-INFN collaboration have been mainly devoted to a 75 mA beam emittance investigation injecting different gases in the beam line. The results show that the rms normalized emittance decreases up to a factor 3 while the beam losses induced by recombination are contained within 5%. Normalized emittance in r-r' plane of about 0.1 π min mrad have been obtained using Ar and Kr.

  6. Development of terminal hair following skin lesion treatments with an intense pulsed light source.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Spiros P; Kontoes, Paraskevas P

    2002-01-01

    Laser and other light sources have been used to treat vascular and pigmented skin lesions and to remove tattoos and unwanted hair, with varying degrees of success and various side effects. It has not yet been reported that hair growth can occur as a side effect of such treatments. In this paper two cases are presented, one port wine stain and one tattoo, that were each treated several times with an intense pulsed light source (IPLS) for removal. Terminal hair, not present before treatment, partially developed in treated areas of both lesions. Local inflammatory reactions are believed to trigger such outcomes.

  7. Design of an Intense Muon Source with a Carbon and Mercury Target

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys; Berg, J. Scott; Neuffer, David; Ding, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  8. Design of an intense muon source with a carbon and mercury target

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, D.; Berg, J. S.; Neuffer, D.; Ding, X.

    2015-05-03

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  9. Neutrino magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL ); Senjanovic, G. . Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1990-01-01

    We review attempts to achieve a large neutrino magnetic moment ({mu}{sub {nu}} {le} 10{sup {minus}11}{mu}{sub B}), while keeping neutrino light or massless. The application to the solar neutrino puzzle is discussed. 24 refs.

  10. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kenzo

    2000-12-01

    The present status of neutrino oscillation experiments and prospects of forthcoming experiments are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino and solar neutrino observations. .

  11. Pigmentary disorders in Asian skin: treatment with laser and intense pulsed light sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, J Y; Chan, H H

    2006-10-01

    The development of selective photothermolysis has enabled removal of targets such as melanin. Both lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources have been used in the treatment of pigmented lesions, however careful selection is important to ensure success. This is especially true in darker skinned individuals where the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is high. The advent of the Q-switched laser, IPL, and now fractional photothermolysis (Fraxel, Reliant Technologies) offers a variety of ways to treat epidermal and dermal pigmentary disorders.

  12. Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-11-01

    Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is recognized as a situation with emotional strain, uncertainty, and fear of losing the patient. In such stressful situations, it is hope that can promote psychological stability in the patient's family members. Related literature revealed that sources of hope in this situation have still not been discussed well in studies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sources of hope from the perspective of families of ICU patients in Iran. In this qualitative study that was carried out adopting the conventional qualitative content analysis approach, 19 family members of 13 patients hospitalized in the ICU from three teaching hospitals were selected, through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using conventional content analysis, through the process of data reduction and condensation, coding, and also generating categories and subcategories. Analysis of the data revealed sources of hope in families of ICU patients. These sources appeared as two main categories- internal sources and external sources. The internal sources had two subcategories consisting of 'religious-spirituality beliefs' and 'positive attitude'. The external sources had four subcategories consisting of healthcare professionals' interactions, empathy of families and friends, patient's condition, and participation in care. The results of this study showed the sources of hope in the families of the patients in the ICU. These sources, as moderating factors, could reduce physical and psychological damages caused to the families. In the present study, the categorizations of the participants' in-depth experience could develop a new horizon for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, on the sources of hope, based on culture.

  13. Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is recognized as a situation with emotional strain, uncertainty, and fear of losing the patient. In such stressful situations, it is hope that can promote psychological stability in the patient's family members. Related literature revealed that sources of hope in this situation have still not been discussed well in studies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sources of hope from the perspective of families of ICU patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study that was carried out adopting the conventional qualitative content analysis approach, 19 family members of 13 patients hospitalized in the ICU from three teaching hospitals were selected, through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using conventional content analysis, through the process of data reduction and condensation, coding, and also generating categories and subcategories. Results: Analysis of the data revealed sources of hope in families of ICU patients. These sources appeared as two main categories- internal sources and external sources. The internal sources had two subcategories consisting of ’religious-spirituality beliefs’ and ’positive attitude’. The external sources had four subcategories consisting of healthcare professionals’ interactions, empathy of families and friends, patient's condition, and participation in care. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the sources of hope in the families of the patients in the ICU. These sources, as moderating factors, could reduce physical and psychological damages caused to the families. In the present study, the categorizations of the participants’ in-depth experience could develop a new horizon for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, on the sources of hope, based on culture. PMID:25558262

  14. Coherent Scattering Investigations at the Spallation Neutron Source: a Snowmass White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Akimov, D.; Bernstein, A.; BarbeauP.,; Barton, P. J.; Bolozdynya, A.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Cavanna, F.; Cianciolo, Vince; Collar, J.; Cooper, R. J.; Dean, D. J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Etenko, A.; Fields, N.; Foxe, M.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fomin, N.; Gallmeier, F.; Garishvili, I.; Gerling, M.; Green, M.; Greene, Geoffrey; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hix, R.; Hogan, D.; Hornback, D.; Jovanovic, I.; Hossbach, T.; Iverson, Erik B; Klein, S. R.; Khromov, A.; Link, J.; Louis, W.; Lu, W.; Mauger, C.; Marleau, P.; Markoff, D.; Martin, R. D.; Mueller, Paul Edward; Newby, J.; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Penttila, Seppo; Patton, K.; Poon, A. W.; Radford, David C; Reyna, D.; Ray, H.; Scholberg, K.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Tayloe, R.; Vetter, K.; Virtue, C.; Wilkerson, J.; Yoo, J.; Yu, Chang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, provides an intense flux of neutrinos in the few tens-of-MeV range, with a sharply-pulsed timing structure that is beneficial for background rejection. In this white paper, we describe how the SNS source can be used for a measurement of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS), and the physics reach of different phases of such an experimental program (CSI: Coherent Scattering Investigations at the SNS).

  15. Impact of source segregation intensity of solid waste on fuel consumption and collection costs.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    Fuel consumption and collection costs of solid waste were evaluated by the aid of a simulation model for a given collection area of a medium-sized Italian city. Using the model it is possible to calculate time, collected waste and fuel consumption for a given waste collection route. Starting from the data for the current waste collection scenario with a Source Segregated (SS) intensity of 25%, all the main model error evaluated was ⩽1.2. SS intensity scenarios of 25%, 30%, 35% and 52% were simulated. Results showed an increase in the average fuel consumed by the collection vehicles that went from about 3.3L/tonne for 25% SS intensity to about 3.8L/tonne for a SS intensity of 52%. Direct collection costs, including crews and vehicle purchase, ranged from about 40€/tonne to about 70€/tonne, respectively, for 25% and 52% SS intensity. The increase in fuel consumption and collection costs depends on the density of the waste collected, on the collection vehicle compaction ratio and on the waste collection vehicle utilization factor (WCVUF). In particular a reduction of about 50% of the WCVUF can lead to an average increase of about 80% in fuel consumption and 100% in collection costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ORLaND - Oak Ridge Laboratory for Neutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    2001-06-01

    The proposed Oak Ridge Laboratory for Neutrino Detectors (ORLaND), to be located adjacent to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), is described. ORLaND will take advantage of the fact that the SNS will be the world's best intermediate-energy pulsed neutrino source in the world. A broad range of neutrino measurements is contemplated by means of a number of detectors, including the large CoNDOR detector. Specifics of neutrino oscillation investigations, and of the possible impact of certain neutrino measurements on our understanding of supernova explosions, are discussed.

  17. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  18. NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

  19. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  20. Neutrino mass from triton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2006-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino flavor oscillation in different fields and by many different experiments we believe that neutrinos have non-vanishing masses in contrast to their current description within the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the absolute values of the neutrino masses, which are as important for particle physics as they are for cosmology and astrophysics, cannot be determined by oscillation experiments alone. There are a few ways to determine the neutrino mass scale, but the only model-independent method is the investigation of the electron energy spectrum of a β decay near its endpoint with tritium being the ideal isotope for the classical spectrometer set-up. The tritium β decay experiments at Mainz and Troitsk have recently been finished. At Mainz all relevant systematic uncertainties have been investigated by dedicated experiments yielding an upper limit of m(ν)<2.3eV/c (90% C.L.). The new Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will enhance the sensitivity on the neutrino mass by an ultra-precise measurement of the tritium β decay spectrum near the endpoint by another order of magnitude down to 0.2 eV/c2 by using a very strong windowless gaseous molecular tritium source and a huge ultra-high resolution electrostatic spectrometer of MAC-E-Filter type. The recent achievements in test experiments show, that this very challenging experiment is feasible.

  1. X-ray intensity and source size characterizations for the 25 kV upgraded Manson source at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Loisel, G. Lake, P.; Gard, P.; Dunham, G.; Nielsen-Weber, L.; Wu, M.; Norris, E.

    2016-11-15

    At Sandia National Laboratories, the x-ray generator Manson source model 5 was upgraded from 10 to 25 kV. The purpose of the upgrade is to drive higher characteristics photon energies with higher throughput. In this work we present characterization studies for the source size and the x-ray intensity when varying the source voltage for a series of K-, L-, and M-shell lines emitted from Al, Y, and Au elements composing the anode. We used a 2-pinhole camera to measure the source size and an energy dispersive detector to monitor the spectral content and intensity of the x-ray source. As the voltage increases, the source size is significantly reduced and line intensity is increased for the three materials. We can take advantage of the smaller source size and higher source throughput to effectively calibrate the suite of Z Pulsed Power Facility crystal spectrometers.

  2. X-ray intensity and source size characterizations for the 25 kV upgraded Manson source at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, G.; Lake, P.; Gard, P.; Dunham, G.; Nielsen-Weber, L.; Wu, M.; Norris, E.

    2016-11-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories, the x-ray generator Manson source model 5 was upgraded from 10 to 25 kV. The purpose of the upgrade is to drive higher characteristics photon energies with higher throughput. In this work we present characterization studies for the source size and the x-ray intensity when varying the source voltage for a series of K-, L-, and M-shell lines emitted from Al, Y, and Au elements composing the anode. We used a 2-pinhole camera to measure the source size and an energy dispersive detector to monitor the spectral content and intensity of the x-ray source. As the voltage increases, the source size is significantly reduced and line intensity is increased for the three materials. We can take advantage of the smaller source size and higher source throughput to effectively calibrate the suite of Z Pulsed Power Facility crystal spectrometers.

  3. X-ray intensity and source size characterizations for the 25 kV upgraded Manson source at Sandia National Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Loisel, G; Lake, P; Gard, P; Dunham, G; Nielsen-Weber, L; Wu, M; Norris, E

    2016-11-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories, the x-ray generator Manson source model 5 was upgraded from 10 to 25 kV. The purpose of the upgrade is to drive higher characteristics photon energies with higher throughput. In this work we present characterization studies for the source size and the x-ray intensity when varying the source voltage for a series of K-, L-, and M-shell lines emitted from Al, Y, and Au elements composing the anode. We used a 2-pinhole camera to measure the source size and an energy dispersive detector to monitor the spectral content and intensity of the x-ray source. As the voltage increases, the source size is significantly reduced and line intensity is increased for the three materials. We can take advantage of the smaller source size and higher source throughput to effectively calibrate the suite of Z Pulsed Power Facility crystal spectrometers.

  4. A high sensitivity search for electron anti-neutrinos from the sun and other sources at Kamland

    SciTech Connect

    Eguchi, K.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Hanada, H.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, K.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Kawashima, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Koseki, Y.; Maeda, T.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, M.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, T.; Ogawa, H.; Owada, K.; Piquemal, F.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tada, K.; Tajima, O.; Takayama, T.; Tamae, K.; Watanabe, H.; Busenitz, J.; Djurcic, Z.; McKinny, K.; Mei, D.-M.; Piepke, A.; Yakushev, E.; Berger, B.E.; Chan, Y.D.; Decowski, M.P.; Dwyer, D.A.; Freedman, S.J.; Fu, Y.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Goldman, J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lesko, K.T.; Luk, K.-B.; Murayama, H.; Nygren, D.R.; Okada, C.E.; Poon, A.W.P.; Steiner, H.M.; Winslow, L.A.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R.D.; Tipton, B.; Vogel, P.; Lane, C.E.; Miletic, T.; Gorham, P.W.; Guillian, G.; Learned, J.G.; Maricic, J.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Dazeley, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Svoboda, R.; Dieterle, B.D.; DiMauro, M.; Detwiler, J.; Gratta, G.; Ishii, K.; Tolich, N.; Uchida, Y.; Batygov, M.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kanyshkov, Y.; Kozlov, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Gould, C.R.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Messimore, J.A.; Nakamura, K.; Rohm, R.M.; Tornow, W.; Young, A.R.; Chen, M-J.; Wang, Y-F.

    2003-10-21

    Data corresponding to a KamLAND detector exposure of 0.28 kton-year has been used to search for {bar {nu}}{sub e}'s in the energy range 8.3 MeV < E{sup {bar {nu}}{sub e}} < 14.8 MeV. No candidates were found for an expected background of 1.1 {+-} 0.4 events. This result can be used to obtain a limit on {bar {nu}}{sub e} fluxes of any origin. Assuming that all {bar {nu}}{sub e} flux has its origin in the Sun and has the characteristic {sup 8}B solar {nu}{sub e} energy spectrum, we obtain an upper limit of 3.7 x 10{sup 2} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (90 percent C.L.) on the {bar {nu}}{sub e} flux. We interpret this limit, corresponding to 2.8 x 10{sup -4} of the Standard Solar Model {sup 8}B {nu}{sub e} flux, in the framework of spin-flavor precession and neutrino decay models.

  5. A tunable, linac based, intense, broad-band THz source forpump-probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerge, J.; Adolphsen, C.; Corbett, J.; Dolgashev, V.; Durr, H.; Fazio, M.; Fisher, A.; Frisch, J.; Gaffney, K.; Guehr, M.; Hastings, J.; Hettel, B.; Hoffmann, M.; Hogan, M.; Holtkamp, N.; Huang, X.; Huang, Z.; Kirchmann, P.; LaRue, J.; Limborg, C.; Lindenberg, A.; Loos, H.; Maxwell, T.; Nilsson, A.; Raubenheimer, T.; Reis, D.; Ross, M.; Shen, Z. -X.; Stupakov, G.; Tantawi, S.; Tian, K.; Wu, Z.; Xiang, D.; Yakimenko, V.

    2015-02-02

    We propose an intense THz source with tunable frequency and bandwidth that can directly interact with the degrees of freedom that determine the properties of materials and thus provides a new tool for controlling and directing these ultrafast processes as well as aiding synthesis of new materials with new functional properties. This THz source will broadly impact our understanding of dynamical processes in matter at the atomic-scale and in real time. Established optical pumping schemes using femtosecond visible frequency laser pulses for excitation are extended into the THz frequency regime thereby enabling resonant excitation of bonds in correlated solid state materials (phonon pumping), to drive low energy electronic excitations, to trigger surface chemistry reactions, and to all-optically bias a material with ultrashort electric fields or magnetic fields. A linac-based THz source can supply stand-alone experiments with peak intensities two orders of magnitude stronger than existing laser-based sources, but when coupled with atomic-scale sensitive femtosecond x-ray probes it opens a new frontier in ultrafast science with broad applications to correlated materials, interfacial and liquid phase chemistry, and materials in extreme conditions.

  6. Electrophysiological Source Imaging of Brain Networks Perturbed by Low-intensity Transcranial Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Sohrabpour, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) has been introduced as a noninvasive neuromodulation technique with good spatial selectivity. We report an experimental investigation to detect noninvasive electrophysiological response induced by low-intensity tFUS in an in vivo animal model, and perform electrophysiological source imaging (ESI) of tFUS-induced brain activity from noninvasive scalp EEG recordings. Methods A single ultrasound transducer was used to generate low-intensity tFUS (Ispta<1 mW/cm2) and induce brain activation at multiple selected sites in an in vivo rat model. Up to 16 scalp electrodes were used to record tFUS-induced EEG. Event related potentials (ERPs) were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatial domains. Current source distributions were estimated by ESI to reconstruct spatio-temporal distributions of brain activation induced by tFUS. Results Neuronal activation was observed following low-intensity tFUS, as correlated to tFUS intensity and sonication duration. ESI revealed initial focal activation in cortical area corresponding to tFUS stimulation site, and the activation propagating to surrounding areas over time. Conclusion The present results demonstrate the feasibility of noninvasively recording brain electrophysiological response in vivo following low-intensity tFUS stimulation, and the feasibility of imaging spatio-temporal distributions of brain activation as induced by tFUS in vivo. Significance The present approach may lead to a new means of imaging brain activity using tFUS perturbation and a closed-loop ESI-guided tFUS neuromodulation modality. PMID:27448335

  7. High intensity polarized atomic beam source for polarized internal storage ring targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemenz, P.

    1989-05-01

    In collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) für Kernphysik in Heidelberg and the University of Marburg we presently design and construct a high intensity polarized atomic beam source. It is intended to deliver 1*1017 atoms/sec in one hyperfine state into a storage cell for FILTEX. FILTEX is an abbreviation for FILTer EXperiment aiming to polarize storage ring beams. The structure and the vacuum chambers of this source are completed and installed at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring (TSR). Vacuum pumps, gauges etc. are mounted and partly connected to a logical operation system. When atomic beam nozzle and skimmer geometries and distances as well as the nozzle temperature are optimized, the final geometrical arrangement or our new hybrid sixpole magnets will be decided and the whole source should be completed by the end of 1989.

  8. Determination of the distribution of sound source intensities in subsonic and supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damkevala, R. J.; Norman, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Equations relating crossed beam space-time correlations to the sound source strength per unit length of an idealized jet are presented and applied to actual measurements in unheated jets at M = 0.71 and M = 1.0. The infrared crossed beam system was assembled and checked out. The prediction of the system's insensitivity to temperature fluctuations when set at 4.31 microns with a 0.08 micron bandpass was checked. Relative intensity profiles of density fluctuations for jets at M = 0.71, 1.0 and 1.94 were measured. These profiles differ considerably from velocity fluctuation profiles measured by other investigators with hotwires. The convection speeds also differ. Finally, the sound source strengths per unit length are obtained at various axial distances for the subsonic and sonic jet. The sonic jet shows peak source strength at an axial distance of six diameters.

  9. Intense Plasma Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz Probe Science with Ultrafast Lasers for Solid State Physics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-25

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0029 Intense Plasma-Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High - Field THz probe science with ultrafast lasers for Solid State Physics...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14.  ABSTRACT Project finished successfully 15.  SUBJECT TERMS High - Field THz probe, INTENSE PLASMA-WAVEGUIDE TERAHERTZ SOURCES, Solid State...an existing high energy laser system, has been applied to the study of intense terahertz radiation generated in gaseous plasmas in purpose

  10. Solar neutrinos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonesi, O.

    1993-12-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress made in the field of solar-neutrino physics with the results of the last-generation experiments together with the new perspectives suggested by the future projects. An elementary introduction to energy production mechanisms and stellar models is given. Neutrino properties and oscillations are discussed with particular interest in matter effects. Present experiments and future projects are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the compelling background and low-statistics problems. Finally, presently available results from running experiments are discussed, in the framework of the SNP. Some conclusions on the possibilities of the new proposed projects to actually slove the problem are also given.

  11. Diffuse neutrino emissions from the Southern sky and Mediterranean neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Astrophysical high-energy neutrinos offer an extremely interesting window of observation on our Universe. Cosmic neutrinos are probes for extreme events happening nearby the most powerful astrophysical objects. Direct information on the behaviour of cosmic ray sources is provided by neutrinos: since they are weakly interacting neutral particles, barely changing their information load over cosmic distance, the detection of neutrinos from the interaction of primary cosmic rays close to their acceleration site could allow the identification of their sources and of their production and acceleration mechanisms. Compelling evidence for the existence of an astrophysical flux of neutrinos above some tens of TeV has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Some features of the energy and declination distributions of the IceCube signal hint at a North/South asymmetry of the measured neutrino flux, which could be related to the presence of the bulk of our Galaxy in the Southern hemisphere. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, operating in the Mediterranean Sea since 2007, offers the best sensitivity to muon neutrinos below 100TeV in this part of the sky. This allows the detector to focus on the neutrino flux produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions in the bulk of the Milky Way. Studies on possible neutrino signals using ANTARES data collected are reported in this paper, as well as the prospects for the next-generation neutrino telescope, KM3NeT/ARCA, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea. In particular, ANTARES can already test the propagation mechanisms of cosmic rays in the Milky Way by constraining the contribution from the Galactic Plane to the total neutrino flux observed by IceCube. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector will then allow the detailed study of galactic neutrino fluxes.

  12. A High-Intensity, RF Plasma-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Lohwasser, R.; Reed, C.A.; Zhang, T.

    1999-03-02

    A high-intensity, plasma-sputter negative-ion source based on the use of RF power for plasma generation has been developed that can be operated in either pulsed or dc modes. The source utilizes a high-Q, self-igniting, inductively coupled antenna system, operating at 80 MHz that has been optimized to generate Cs-seeded plasmas at low pressures (typically, <1 mTorr for Xe). The source is equipped with a 19-mm diameter spherical-sector cathode machined from the desired material. To date, the source has been utilized to generate dc negative-ion beams from a variety of species, including: C{sup {minus}}(610 {micro}A); F{sup {minus}}(100 {micro}A); Si{sup {minus}}(500 {micro}A); S{sup {minus}}(500 {micro}A); P{sup {minus}}(125 {micro}A); Cl{sup {minus}}(200 {micro}A); Ni{sup {minus}}(150 {micro}A); Cu{sup {minus}}(230 {micro}A); Ge{sup {minus}}(125 {micro}A); As{sup {minus}}(100 {micro}A); Se{sup {minus}}(200 {micro}A); Ag{sup {minus}}(70 {micro}A); Pt{sup {minus}}(125 {micro}A); Au{sup {minus}}(250 {micro}A). The normalized emittance {var_epsilon}{sub n} of the source at the 80% contour is: {var_epsilon}{sub n} = 7.5 mm.mrad.(MeV){sup 1/2}. The design principles of the source, operational parameters, ion optics, emittance and intensities for a number of negative-ion species will be presented in this report.

  13. Tsunami Source Identification on the 1867 Tsunami Event Based on the Impact Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    The 1867 Keelung tsunami event has drawn significant attention from people in Taiwan. Not only because the location was very close to the 3 nuclear power plants which are only about 20km away from the Taipei city but also because of the ambiguous on the tsunami sources. This event is unique in terms of many aspects. First, it was documented on many literatures with many languages and with similar descriptions. Second, the tsunami deposit was discovered recently. Based on the literatures, earthquake, 7-meter tsunami height, volcanic smoke, and oceanic smoke were observed. Previous studies concluded that this tsunami was generated by an earthquake with a magnitude around Mw7.0 along the Shanchiao Fault. However, numerical results showed that even a Mw 8.0 earthquake was not able to generate a 7-meter tsunami. Considering the steep bathymetry and intense volcanic activities along the Keelung coast, one reasonable hypothesis is that different types of tsunami sources were existed, such as the submarine landslide or volcanic eruption. In order to confirm this scenario, last year we proposed the Tsunami Reverse Tracing Method (TRTM) to find the possible locations of the tsunami sources. This method helped us ruling out the impossible far-field tsunami sources. However, the near-field sources are still remain unclear. This year, we further developed a new method named 'Impact Intensity Analysis' (IIA). In the IIA method, the study area is divided into a sequence of tsunami sources, and the numerical simulations of each source is conducted by COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model) tsunami model. After that, the resulting wave height from each source to the study site is collected and plotted. This method successfully helped us to identify the impact factor from the near-field potential sources. The IIA result (Fig. 1) shows that the 1867 tsunami event was a multi-source event. A mild tsunami was trigged by a Mw7.0 earthquake, and then followed by the submarine

  14. Resource Letter ANP-1: Advances in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Maury C.

    2016-12-01

    Three of the twelve fundamental fermions in particle physics are neutrinos. It was long thought that neutrinos might be massless, but we now know through the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations that neutrinos have mass. This resource letter will cover the history of the growth in our knowledge about neutrinos since they were first proposed in the 1930s, and also covers some up the upcoming experiments which will further our understanding of neutrino properties. Results from experiments are described that use various sources of neutrinos including nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, accelerators, and supernovae. In this resource letter, the resources that can be used to trace the past, present, and anticipated future advances in neutrino physics are reviewed.

  15. Low-energy neutral-current neutrino scattering on nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.; Wambach, J.

    2011-12-16

    Inelastic cross-sections of neutral current neutrino scattering on the {sup 40}Ar isotope, detector-medium of the ongoing ICARUS experiment, are computed in the context of the quasi-particle random phase approximation by utilizing realistic two-nucleon forces. ICARUS is a multipurpose neutrino physics experiment that includes in its objectives low-energy neutrino detection. The incoming neutrino energy range adopted in our calculations ({epsilon}{sub {nu}}{<=}100 MeV), covers the laboratory low-energy beta-beam-neutrinos and pion-muon stopped neutrino-beams operating or planned to be conducted at future neutron spallation sources. One of the main goals of these neutrino beams is to measure neutrino-nucleus cross sections at low-energies.

  16. RED-100 detector for the first observation of the elastic coherent neutrino scattering off xenon nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D. Yu; Berdnikova, A. K.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Burenkov, A. A.; Efremenko, Yu V.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Etenko, A. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Khromov, A. V.; Konovalov, A. M.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kozlova, E. S.; Kumpan, A. V.; Krakhmalova, T. D.; Melikyan, Yu A.; Naumov, P. P.; Rudik, D. G.; Shafigullin, R. R.; Shakirov, A. V.; Simakov, G. E.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Tobolkin, A. A.; Tolstukhin, I. A.

    2016-02-01

    The RED-100 (Russian Emission Detector) is being constructed for the experiment to search for elastic coherent neutrino scattering off atomic nuclei. This fundamental process was predicted several decades ago by the Standard Model of electroweak interactions but has not been discovered yet. The RED-100 is a two-phase emission xenon detector containing ∼200 kg of the liquid Xe (∼ 100 kg of that is in a fiducial volume). One of the possible sites to carry out the experiment is the SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA. SNS is the world's most intense pulsed source of neutrinos and unique place to study neutrino properties. The energy spectrum of neutrinos produced at the SNS extends up to ∼ 50 MeV and satisfies coherence condition. These neutrinos give kinetic energies of Xe recoils up to a few tens of keV where the response of nuclear recoils is well-known from neutron calibrations of dark matter detectors. The detector will be deployed in the basement under the experimental hall at a distance of ∼30 meters from the SNS target. The expected signal and background (neutron and gamma) are estimated for this specific location. The detector details, current status and future plans are provided.

  17. Neutrino and cosmic-ray release from gamma-ray bursts: Time-dependent simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, Katsuaki; Mészáros, Peter E-mail: nnp@psu.edu

    2014-04-10

    We revisit the neutrino and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) production from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with time-dependent simulations for the proton-induced cascades. This method can generate self-consistent photon, neutrino, and escaped neutron spectra. To obtain the integrated background spectra, we take into account the distributions of the burst luminosity and pulse duration timescale. A benchmark case with standard GRB luminosity function, a bulk Lorentz factor Γ = 300, and a proton to gamma-ray luminosity fraction f{sub p} = 10 is consistent with both the neutrino upper limits and the observed UHECR intensity at ∼10{sup 20} eV, while requiring a different type of UHECR source at the ankle. For the benchmark case, the GRBs in the bright end of the luminosity function, which contribute most of the neutrinos, have their photon spectrum substantially distorted by secondary photons. Such bright GRBs are few in number, and reducing their f{sub p} eliminates the distortion and reduces the neutrino production. Even if we neglect the contribution of the brightest GRBs, the UHECR production rate at energies corresponding to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit is almost unchanged. These nominal GRB models, especially with L {sub iso} ≲ 10{sup 53} erg s{sup –1}, appear to meet the current constraints as far as being candidate UHECR sources above the ankle energy.

  18. Prospects for neutrino spin coherence in supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, James Y.; Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-03-01

    We present neutrino bulb model simulations of Majorana neutrino coherent spin transformation (i.e., neutrino-antineutrino transformation), coupled to neutrino flavor evolution, for conditions corresponding to the neutronization burst epoch of an oxygen-neon-magnesium core collapse supernova. Significant neutrino spin transformation in, for example, the neutronization burst could alter the fluences of neutrinos and antineutrinos in a way which is potentially detectable for a Galactic core collapse supernova. Our calculations for the first time incorporate geometric dilution in the spin evolution of the neutrinos and combine two-flavor and three-flavor evolution with spin mixing physics. We find that significant spin transformations can occur, but only with a large neutrino luminosity and an electron fraction (Ye) profile which facilitates adiabatic conditions for the spin-channel resonance. Using our adopted parameters of neutrino energy spectra, luminosity, density and Ye profiles, our calculations require an unrealistically large neutrino rest mass to sustain the spin transformation. It is an open question whether examining different density profiles or incorporating other sources of nonlinear feedback, such as Ye feedback, could mitigate this need. We find that spin transformations are not sensitive to the flavor structure of neutrinos; i.e., the spin transformations occur regardless of whether we simulate two- or three-flavor transformations. In the two-flavor case, spin transformations were insensitive to the choice of solar or atmospheric mass-squared splitting as well as the choice of the Majorana phase. Importantly, our three-flavor simulations, as well as our two-flavor simulations done with the atmospheric mass-squared splitting, show that the inclusion of spin degrees of freedom can significantly and qualitatively alter neutrino flavor evolution.

  19. Effects of laryngoscope handle light source on the light intensity from disposable laryngoscope blades.

    PubMed

    Milne, A D; Brousseau, P A; Brousseau, C A

    2014-12-01

    A bench-top study was performed to assess the effects of different laryngoscope handles on the light intensity delivered from disposable metal or plastic laryngoscope blades. The light intensity from both the handle light sources themselves and the combined handle and laryngoscope blade sets was measured using a custom-designed testing system and light meter. Five samples of each disposable blade type were tested and compared with a standard re-usable stainless steel blade using three different handle/light sources (Vital Signs LED, Heine 2.5 V Xenon and 3.5 V Xenon). The light intensity delivered by the disposable blades ranged from 790 to 3846 lux for the different handle types. Overall, the 3.5 V Heine handle delivered the highest light output (p < 0.007) in comparison with the other handles. For the disposable blades, the overall light output was significantly higher from the plastic than the metal blades (p < 0.001).

  20. The Fermilab main injector neutrino program

    SciTech Connect

    Morfin, Jorge G.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The NuMI Facility at Fermilab provides an extremely intense beam of neutrinos making it an ideal place for the study of neutrino oscillations as well as high statistics (anti)neutrino-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiments. The MINOS neutrino oscillation {nu}{mu} disappearance experiment is currently taking data and has published first results. The NO{nu}A {nu}e appearance experiment is planning to begin taking data at the start of the next decade. For the study of neutrino scattering, the MINER{nu}A experiment at Fermilab is a collaboration of elementary-particle and nuclear physicists planning to use a fully active fine-grained solid scintillator detector. The overall goals of the experiment are to measure absolute exclusive cross-sections, nuclear effects in {nu} - A interactions, a systematic study of the resonance-DIS transition region and the high-xBj - low Q2 DIS region.

  1. Neutrino decay and solar neutrino seasonal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoreti, R.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the possibility of solar neutrino decay as a sub-leading effect on their propagation between production and detection. Using current oscillation data, we set a new lower bound to the ν2 neutrino lifetime at τ2 /m2 ≥ 7.2 ×10-4s .eV-1 at 99% C.L. Also, we show how seasonal variations in the solar neutrino data can give interesting additional information about neutrino lifetime.

  2. Recent Results of the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bonis, Giulia; ANTARES Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of cosmic neutrinos of astrophysical origin by IceCube has started a new chapter in the field of Neutrino Astronomy. Noticeably, a small accumulation of events in the region near the Galactic Centre has been observed: a telescope in the Mediterranean Sea constitutes a great opportunity for the physics quest, since it offers a perfect complementarity to IceCube and, in particular, a better visibility of the Galactic Centre. ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss Environmental RESearch) is the first operational Cherenkov neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea and the largest neutrino detector in the Northern hemisphere, covering an area of about 0.1 km2; located 40 km offshore Toulon, France, at a depth of 2475 m, it has been completed in June 2008 and it is currently taking data. It consists of a tri-dimensional array of 885 photo-multipliers tubes (PMTs), distributed in 12 lines. ANTARES has recently performed a search for an excess of high energy neutrinos in the direction of the Galactic Centre, close to the accumulation of the IceCube events, assuming both the hypotheses of a point-like and an extended neutrino source. The results of this search will be discussed in this contribution, together with other recent achievements of the experiment, as the search for point-like sources, the results on the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrino signal and the search for neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles. ANTARES offers a first view of the Neutrino Sky from the Northern hemisphere; its successful operation and its promising results make more compelling the expectations for KM3NeT, the next generation neutrino experiment in the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  4. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  5. Sources of distress for physicians and nurses working in Swiss neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabine D; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Hendriks, Manya J; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Streuli, Jürg C; Berger, Thomas M; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; On Behalf Of The Swiss Neonatal End-Of-Life Study Group

    2017-08-14

    Medical personnel working in intensive care often face difficult ethical dilemmas. These may represent important sources of distress and may lead to a diminished self-perceived quality of care and eventually to burnout. The aim of this study was to identify work-related sources of distress and to assess symptoms of burnout among physicians and nurses working in Swiss neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). In summer 2015, we conducted an anonymous online survey comprising 140 questions about difficult ethical decisions concerning extremely preterm infants. Of these 140 questions, 12 questions related to sources of distress and 10 to burnout. All physicians and nurses (n = 552) working in the nine NICUs in Switzerland were invited to participate. The response rate was 72% (398). The aspects of work most commonly identified as sources of distress were: lack of regular staff meetings, lack of time for routine discussion of difficult cases, lack of psychological support for the NICU staff and families, and missing transmission of important information within the caregiver team. Differences between physicians' and nurses' perceptions became apparent: for example, nurses were more dissatisfied with the quality of the decision-making process. Different perceptions were also noted between staff in the German- and French- speaking parts of Switzerland: for example, respondents from the French part rated lack of regular staff meetings as being more problematic. On the other hand, personnel in the French part were more satisfied with their accomplishments in the job. On average, low levels of burnout symptoms were revealed, and only 6% of respondents answered that the work-related burden often affected their private life. Perceived sources of distress in Swiss NICUs were similar to those in ICU studies. Despite rare symptoms of burnout, communication measures such as regular staff meetings and psychological support to prevent distress were clearly requested.

  6. Parental Sources of Support and Guidance When Making Difficult Decisions in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Vanessa N; Carroll, Karen W; Faerber, Jennifer A; Walter, Jennifer K; Morrison, Wynne E; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-02-01

    To assess sources of support and guidance on which parents rely when making difficult decisions in the pediatric intensive care unit and to evaluate associations of sources of support and guidance to anxiety, depression, and positive and negative affect. This was a prospective cohort study of 86 English-speaking parents of 75 children in the pediatric intensive care unit at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia who were hospitalized greater than 72 hours. Parents completed standardized instruments and a novel sources of support and guidance assessment. Most parents chose physicians, nurses, friends, and extended family as their main sources of support and guidance when making a difficult decision. Descriptive analysis revealed a broad distribution for the sources of support and guidance items related to spirituality. Parents tended to fall into 1 of 2 groups when we used latent class analysis: the more-spiritual group (n = 47; 55%) highly ranked "what my child wants" (P = .023), spouses (P = .002), support groups (P = .003), church community (P < .001), spiritual leader (P < .001), higher power (P < .001), and prayer (P < .001) compared with the less-spiritual group (n = 39; 45%). The more-spiritual parents had greater positive affect scores (P = .005). Less-spiritual parents had greater depression scores (P = .043). Parents rely most on physicians, nurses, and friends and extended family when making difficult decisions for their critically ill child. Respondents tended to fall into 1 of 2 groups where the more-spiritual respondents were associated with greater positive affect and may be more resistant to depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intense inverse compton {gamma}-ray source from Duke storage ring FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-12-31

    We suggest using FEL intracavity power in the Duke storage ring fortrays production via Inverse Compton Backscattering (ICB). The OK-4 FEL driven by the Duke storage ring will tens of watts of average lasing power in the UV/VUV range. Average intracavity power will be in kilowatt range and can be used to pump ICB source. The {gamma}-rays with maximum energy from 40 MeV to 200 MeV with intensity of 0.1-5 10{sup 10}{gamma} per second can be generated. In this paper we present expected parameters of {gamma}-ray beam parameters including its intensity and distribution. We discuss influence of e-beam parameters on collimated {gamma}-rays spectrum and optimization of photon-electron interaction point.

  8. A milk pump as a source for spreading Acinetobacter baumannii in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Engür, Defne; Çakmak, Bilin Çetinkaya; Türkmen, Münevver Kaynak; Telli, Murat; Eyigör, Mete; Güzünler, Melike

    2014-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that has emerged as a troublesome pathogen causing institutional outbreaks. Environmental contamination is a distinctive characteristic of this microorganism, which brings a further difficulty in infection control. During A. baumannii outbreaks in intensive care units, a common contaminated object can be found as a reservoir. Finding out this source by epidemiological investigations is of particular importance in order to develop effective interventions. We describe an outbreak of A. baumannii and the results of epidemiological investigations in a neonatal intensive care unit. The outbreak strain was isolated from the outer surface of a breastmilk pump. We have successfully controlled the outbreak by careful reviewing of our milk collection process.

  9. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2015-07-01

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  10. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations: View from North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  11. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2015-07-15

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  12. Tsunami source parameters estimated from slip distribution and their relation to tsunami intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakova, Anna; Nosov, Mikhail; Kolesov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the level of tsunami hazard on the basis of earthquake moment magnitude often fails. The most important reason for this is that tsunamis are related to earthquakes in a complex and ambiguous way. In order to reveal a measure of tsunamigenic potential of an earthquake that would be better than moment magnitude of earthquake we introduce a set of tsunami source parameters that can be calculated from co-seismic ocean-bottom deformation and bathymetry. We consider more than two hundred ocean-bottom earthquakes (1923-2014) those for which detailed slip distribution data (Finite Fault Model) are available on USGS, UCSB, Caltech, and eQuake-RC sites. Making use of the Okada formulae the vector fields of co-seismic deformation of ocean bottom are estimated from the slip distribution data. Taking into account bathymetry (GEBCO_08) we determine tsunami source parameters such as double amplitude of bottom deformation, displaced water volume, potential energy of initial elevation, etc. The tsunami source parameters are examined as a function of earthquake moment magnitude. The contribution of horisontal component of ocean bottom deformation to tsunami generation is investigated. We analyse the Soloviev-Imamura tsunami intensity as a function of tsunami source parameters. The possibility of usage of tsunami source parameters instead of moment magnitude in tsunami warning is discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 14-05-31295

  13. Long Baseline Neutrino Beams and Large Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Samios,N.P.

    2008-10-27

    It is amazing to acknowledge that in roughly 70 years from when the existence of the neutrino was postulated, we are now contemplating investigating the mysteries of this particle (or particles) requiring and utilizing detectors of 300 ktons , distances of 1,000-2,000 kilometers, beam intensities of megawatts and underground depth of 5,000 feet. This evolution has evolved slowly, from the experimental discovery of the neutrino in 1956, to the demonstration that there were two neutrinos in 1962 and three and only three by 1991. The great excitement occurred in the 2000's coming from the study of solar and atmospheric neutrinos in which neutrinos were observed to oscillate and therefore have mass. Although the absolute mass of any of the neutrinos has yet to be determined (the upper limit is less than I electron volt) the difference in this square of these masses has been measured, yielding a value of (2.3 {+-} .2) 10{sup -3} ev{sup 2} for atmospheric neutrinos and (7.6 {+-} .2) 10{sup -5} ev{sup 2} for solar neutrinos. In addition their mixing angles were found to be 45{sup o} for atmospheric neutrinos and 34{sup o} for solar neutrinos. This present state of knowledge on neutrinos is pictorially displayed in Fig. 1. Of course, mixing between flavors had already been observed in the quark sector as exemplified by the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Meskawa Matrix. It was therefore natural to extend this formalism to the lepton sector involving unitary 3 x 3 matrices and one CP violating phase. This is shown in Fig. 2 for the two sectors, quark and leptons including the Jarlskog invariant (J).

  14. Study of Neutrino Interactions in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Richa

    2014-01-01

    MINOS stands for Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. It is a long baseline experiment located in the USA and is composed of two detectors. The Near Detector is at Fermilab, 1 km from the source of neutrinos. The Far Detector is in Minnesota at a distance of 735 km from the source. Both detectors are steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations by comparing the neutrino energy spectrum at the Far Detector with that obtained from a prediction based on the spectrum at the Near Detector. The primary aim of MINOS is to measure the atmospheric oscillation parameters Δm2 32 and θ23. CPT symmetry requires that these parameters should be same for neutrinos and antineutrinos. Di erences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations would be an indication of new physics beyond the neutrino-Standard Model ( SM). Additionally, violation of Lorentz or CPT symmetry could also give rise to oscillations di erent from that expected from the SM predictions, such as neutrino to antineutrino transitions.

  15. Uncertainties and biases of source masses derived from fits of integrated fluxes or image intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men'shchikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Fitting spectral distributions of total fluxes or image intensities are two standard methods for estimating the masses of starless cores and protostellar envelopes. These mass estimates, which are the main source and basis of our knowledge of the origin and evolution of self-gravitating cores and protostars, are uncertain. It is important to clearly understand sources of statistical and systematic errors stemming from the methods and minimize the errors. In this model-based study, a grid of radiative transfer models of starless cores and protostellar envelopes was computed and their total fluxes and image intensities were fitted to derive the model masses. To investigate intrinsic effects related to the physical objects, all observational complications were explicitly ignored. Known true values of the numerical models allow assessment of the qualities of the methods and fitting models, as well as the effects of nonuniform temperatures, far-infrared opacity slope, selected subsets of wavelengths, background subtraction, and angular resolutions. The method of fitting intensities gives more accurate masses for more resolved objects than the method of fitting fluxes. With the latter, a fitting model that assumes optically thin emission gives much better results than the one allowing substantial optical depths. Temperature excesses within the objects above the mass-averaged values skew their spectral shapes towards shorter wavelengths, leading to masses underestimated typically by factors 2-5. With a fixed opacity slope deviating from the true value by a factor of 1.2, masses are inaccurate within a factor of 2. The most accurate masses are estimated by fitting just two or three of the longest wavelength measurements. Conventional algorithm of background subtraction is a likely source of large systematic errors. The absolute values of masses of the unresolved