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Sample records for intensive short-term dynamic

  1. Implementation of an intensive short-term dynamic treatment program for patients with treatment-resistant disorders in residential care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This protocol presents a systematic residential treatment- and research program aimed at patients who have not responded adequately to previous treatment attempts. Patients included in the program primarily suffer from anxiety and/or depressive disorders and usually from one or more comorbid personality disorders. The treatment program is time-limited (eight weeks) and has its basis in treatment principles specified in intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP). This treatment modality is theoretically well-suited for the handling of various forms of treatment resistance presumably central to these patients’ previous non-response to psychological and psychiatric interventions. Methods/Design The research component of the project entails a naturalistic longitudinal research design which aims at systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of the program. To our knowledge, this is one of the first treatment programs and corresponding research projects that systematically select patients with previous non- or negative response to treatment and subjects them to a broad and comprehensive, but theoretically unified and consistent treatment system. Discussion The present paper introduces the project, describes its theoretical and methodological underpinnings, and discusses possible future implications and contributions of the project. It thereby serves as a comprehensive background reference to future publications from the project. PMID:24438222

  2. Identifying attachment ruptures underlying severe music performance anxiety in a professional musician undertaking an assessment and trial therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Kenny has proposed that severe music performance anxiety that is unresponsive to usual treatments such as cognitive-behaviour therapy may be one manifestation of unresolved attachment ruptures in early life. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy specifically targets early relationship trauma. Accordingly, a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with severely anxious musicians was implemented to assess whether resolution of attachment ruptures resulted in clinically significant relief from music performance anxiety. Volunteer musicians participating in a nationally funded study were screened for MPA severity. Those meeting the critical cut-off score on the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory were offered a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations and rationale for the treatment approach, followed by sections of a verbatim transcript and process analysis of the assessment phase of treatment that comprised a 3-h trial therapy session. The 'case' was a professional orchestral musician (male, aged 55) who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire career, which spanned more than 30 years at the time he presented for treatment following his failure to secure a position at audition. The participant was able to access the pain, rage and grief associated with unresolved attachment ruptures with both parents that demonstrated the likely nexus between early attachment trauma and severe music performance anxiety. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy is a potentially cost-effective treatment for severe music performance anxiety. Further research using designs with higher levels of evidence are required before clinical recommendations can be made for the use of this therapy with this population.

  3. Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for severe music performance anxiety: assessment, process, and outcome of psychotherapy with a professional orchestral musician.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcome of therapy using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) with a professional musician who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire 30-year career. In this paper, we describe the nature of the therapy, the case history of the musician, the first assessment and trial therapy session, and the course and successful outcome of therapy. The patient underwent 10 sessions of ISTDP over a period of 4 months. This paper reports on the first 6 sessions, which were most relevant to the understanding and treatment of the patient's severe music performance anxiety. This case study is the first reported application of ISTDP to a professional musician. We believe that this case study provides initial support that moderate to severe performance anxiety, in at least some cases, has its origins in unresolved complex emotions and defences arising from ruptures to early attachment relationships.

  4. Sustained reduction in health care costs after adjunctive treatment of graded intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy in patients with psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbass, Allan; Bernier, Denise; Kisely, Steve; Town, Joel; Johansson, Robert

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the changes in symptom severity and long-term health care cost after intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with psychotic disorders undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 13 one-hour sessions of graded ISTDP to 38 patients with psychotic disorders. Costs for health care services were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP (baseline) along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Results revealed that health care cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, for both physician costs and hospital costs, and the reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Furthermore, at treatment termination self-reported symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and reduce costs in selected patients with psychotic disorders, and that gains are sustained in long-term follow-up. Future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Telemedicine vs. in-person delivery of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for patients with medically unexplained pain: A 12-month randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chavooshi, Behzad; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Dolatshahee, Behrouz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study examined the effectiveness of telemedicine in providing psychotherapy to patients with medically unexplained pain (MUP) who may not have access to in-person treatment. The impact of Internet-delivered intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ID-ISTDP) was investigated for MUP via video teleconferencing (Skype™). Methods A randomized, controlled trial of ISTDP, an evidence-based intervention for MUP, was conducted to compare delivery modalities on variations in MUP symptoms. Eighty-one participants with MUP were randomized to either ID-ISTDP ( n = 39) or in-person ISTDP ( n = 42). Outcome variables included the Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale and the Quality of Life Inventory. In addition, exploratory analyses were used to examine acceptability, satisfaction and compliance in both conditions. Participants were assessed prior to intervention, immediately following the intervention, and 12 months after. Results In the intention-to-treat analysis, in-person ISTDP participants had significantly lower pain intensity than ID-ISTDP participants, both immediately following the intervention ( d = 0.97) and at the 12-month follow-up ( d = 0.82). Moreover, there were significant decreases in depression, anxiety and stress as well as a greater increase in emotion regulation functioning, mindfulness and quality of life observed in the in-person ISTDP group at the end of the intervention and 12 months after the treatment when compared to the ID-ISTDP group. Participants rated both treatment conditions as equally credible and satisfying. Conclusion ISTDP seems most effective when delivered in person in treating MUP patients with highly comorbid conditions with benefits maintained over 12 months.

  6. Davanloo’s Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychotherapy service: overall effectiveness and association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Town, Joel M.; Abbass, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP), as developed by Habib Davanloo, is an intensive emotion-focused psychodynamic therapy with an explicit focus on handling resistance in treatment. A core assumption in ISTDP is that psychotherapeutic effects are dependent on in-session emotional processing in the form of rise in complex transference feelings that occurs when treatment resistance is challenged. Recent research indicates that an unlocking of the unconscious, a powerful emotional breakthrough achieved at a high rise in complex transference feelings, can potentially enhance ISTDP’s effectiveness. While ISTDP has a growing evidence base, most of the research conducted has used small samples and has tested therapy delivered by expert therapists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the overall effectiveness of ISTDP when delivered in a tertiary psychotherapy service, and to investigate if having an unlocking of the unconscious during therapy predicted enhanced treatment effectiveness. Methods. A total of 412 patients were included in the analyses. The average length of treatment was 10.2 sessions (SD 13.3). Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness and the association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome. A number of control predictors including type of treatment resistance were selected and included in the analyses. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). About half of the patients in the study were treated by therapists in training and the other half by more experienced therapists. Results. Growth curve analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant within-group effects of ISTDP on both the BSI and the IIP. Effect sizes were large (>0.80). Unlocking the unconscious during therapy was associated with significantly larger treatment outcome. The relationship was further moderated by type of treatment

  7. Analog VLSI Circuits for Short-Term Dynamic Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shih-Chii

    2003-12-01

    Short-term dynamical synapses increase the computational power of neuronal networks. These synapses act as additional filters to the inputs of a neuron before the subsequent integration of these signals at its cell body. In this work, we describe a model of depressing and facilitating synapses derived from a hardware circuit implementation. This model is equivalent to theoretical models of short-term synaptic dynamics in network simulations. These circuits have been added to a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. A cortical model of direction-selectivity that uses short-term dynamic synapses has been implemented with this network.

  8. Effects of short-term two weeks low intensity plyometrics combined with dynamic stretching training in improving vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Selvam; Pradhan, Binita

    2014-01-01

    Sport specific training in basketball players should focus on vertical jump height and agility in consistent with demands of the sport. Since plyometrics training improves vertical jump height and agility, it can be useful training strategy to improve the performance of basketball players. A convenience sample of thirty professional basketball players were recruited. Following pre-intervention assessment, interventions using plyometrics training and dynamic stretching protocol was administered on the basketball players. The outcome measures were assessed before the intervention and at the end of first and second week. Statistically significant improvements in vertical jump height (31.68 ± 11.64 to 37.57 ± 16.74; P < 0.012) and agility (16.75 ± 2.49 to 16.51 ± 2.80; P <0.00) were observed between pretest--posttest measures and no changes in muscle girth and isometric muscle strength. The study concludes that short term two weeks plyometrics training combined with dynamic stretching as a useful sport specific training strategy to improve vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players.

  9. Short term dynamics of the debris-covered Miage Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyffe, Catriona; Brock, Ben; Kirkbride, Martin; Mair, Doug; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2016-04-01

    Due to the often inaccessible nature of debris-covered glaciers, studies of their dynamics tend to be restricted to those using remotely sensed data. This paper presents data on the short-term glacier dynamics of the debris-covered Miage Glacier, Western Italian Alps. The glacier velocity was calculated from repeat occupation of up to 22 points using a differential GPS system over two melt seasons. Meteorological, hydrological and water chemistry data were collected over the same time periods, and the nature of the hydrological system was studied using dye tracing, to allow the short term variations in glacier dynamics to be understood in terms of the likely glacial drainage system and its evolution. The highest glacier velocities and the greatest velocity variability was found near to where a cluster of moulins enter the glacier, close to the limit of continuous debris cover. The melt from the clean and dirty ice occasionally led to inputs overcoming the channelized system (both in spring and mid-summer), leading to increased velocities. On the debris-covered lower glacier however velocities were lower and less variable, and significant speed-up was confined to a period when subglacial water was thought to have been transferred subglacially from higher upglacier. The subdued sub-debris melt signal is thought to be the cause of the reduced velocity variability, in spite of the hydrological system beneath this part of the glacier remaining inefficient.

  10. Emulating short-term synaptic dynamics with memristive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdan, Radu; Vasilaki, Eleni; Khiat, Ali; Indiveri, Giacomo; Serb, Alexandru; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic architectures offer great promise for achieving computation capacities beyond conventional Von Neumann machines. The essential elements for achieving this vision are highly scalable synaptic mimics that do not undermine biological fidelity. Here we demonstrate that single solid-state TiO2 memristors can exhibit non-associative plasticity phenomena observed in biological synapses, supported by their metastable memory state transition properties. We show that, contrary to conventional uses of solid-state memory, the existence of rate-limiting volatility is a key feature for capturing short-term synaptic dynamics. We also show how the temporal dynamics of our prototypes can be exploited to implement spatio-temporal computation, demonstrating the memristors full potential for building biophysically realistic neural processing systems.

  11. Emulating short-term synaptic dynamics with memristive devices

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Radu; Vasilaki, Eleni; Khiat, Ali; Indiveri, Giacomo; Serb, Alexandru; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic architectures offer great promise for achieving computation capacities beyond conventional Von Neumann machines. The essential elements for achieving this vision are highly scalable synaptic mimics that do not undermine biological fidelity. Here we demonstrate that single solid-state TiO2 memristors can exhibit non-associative plasticity phenomena observed in biological synapses, supported by their metastable memory state transition properties. We show that, contrary to conventional uses of solid-state memory, the existence of rate-limiting volatility is a key feature for capturing short-term synaptic dynamics. We also show how the temporal dynamics of our prototypes can be exploited to implement spatio-temporal computation, demonstrating the memristors full potential for building biophysically realistic neural processing systems. PMID:26725838

  12. Short-term synaptic depression and stochastic vesicle dynamics reduce and shape neuronal correlations.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Rubin, Jonathan E; Doiron, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Correlated neuronal activity is an important feature in many neural codes, a neural correlate of a variety of cognitive states, as well as a signature of several disease states in the nervous system. The cellular and circuit mechanics of neural correlations is a vibrant area of research. Synapses throughout the cortex exhibit a form of short-term depression where increased presynaptic firing rates deplete neurotransmitter vesicles, which transiently reduces synaptic efficacy. The release and recovery of these vesicles are inherently stochastic, and this stochasticity introduces variability into the conductance elicited by depressing synapses. The impact of spiking and subthreshold membrane dynamics on the transfer of neuronal correlations has been studied intensively, but an investigation of the impact of short-term synaptic depression and stochastic vesicle dynamics on correlation transfer is lacking. We find that short-term synaptic depression and stochastic vesicle dynamics can substantially reduce correlations, shape the timescale over which these correlations occur, and alter the dependence of spiking correlations on firing rate. Our results show that short-term depression and stochastic vesicle dynamics need to be taken into account when modeling correlations in neuronal populations.

  13. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.

  14. A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial Comparing Davanloo Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy as Internet-Delivered Vs Treatment as Usual for Medically Unexplained Pain: A 6-Month Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chavooshi, Behzad; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Dolatshahi, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) can effectively decrease pain intensity and improve quality of life in patients with medically unexplained pain. Understanding that not all patients with medically unexplained pain have access to in-person ISTDP, this study aims to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-delivered ISTDP for individuals with medically unexplained pain using Skype in comparison with treatment as usual. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 patients were randomly allocated into Internet-delivered ISTDP (n = 50) and treatment-as- usual (n = 50) groups. Treatment intervention consisted of 16 weekly, hour-long therapy sessions. The primary outcome was perceived pain assessed using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. The secondary outcome included Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and Quality-of-Life Inventory. Blind assessments were conducted at the baseline, posttreatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. In the intention-to-treat analysis, pain symptoms in the intervention group were significantly reduced (p < 0.001), whereas a reduction was not observed in the treatment as usual group (p = 0.651). Moreover, there were significant decreases in depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as a greater increase in emotion regulation functioning, mindfulness, and quality of life observed in the intervention group 6 months after the treatment compared with the treatment as usual condition. The results of this pilot trial demonstrate that 16 weeks of ISTDP delivered by Skype can significantly improve pain intensity and clinical symptoms of medically unexplained pain. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequential dynamics in visual short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Andrew R. A.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to help bridge across changes in visual input, and yet many studies of VSTM employ static displays. Here we investigate how VSTM copes with sequential input. In particular, we characterize the temporal dynamics of several different components of VSTM performance, including: storage probability, precision, variability in precision, guessing, and swapping. We used a variant of the continuous-report VSTM task developed for static displays, quantifying the contribution of each component with statistical likelihood estimation, as a function of serial position and set size. In Experiments 1 and 2, storage probability did not vary by serial position for small set sizes, but showed a small primacy effect and a robust recency effect for larger set sizes; precision did not vary by serial position or set size. In Experiment 3, the recency effect was shown to reflect an increased likelihood of swapping out items from earlier serial positions and swapping in later items, rather than an increased rate of guessing for earlier items. Indeed, a model that incorporated responding to non-targets provided a better fit to these data than alternative models that did not allow for swapping or that tried to account for variable precision. These findings suggest that VSTM is updated in a first-in-first-out manner, and they bring VSTM research into closer alignment with classical working memory research that focuses on sequential behavior and interference effects. PMID:25228092

  16. Short-Term Dynamical Interactions Among Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Chambers, John E.; DiVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We show that short-term perturbations among massive planets in multiple planet systems can result in radial velocity variations of the central star which differ substantially from velocity variations derived assuming the planets are executing independent Keplerian motions. We discuss two alternate fitting methods which can lead to an improved dynamical description of multiple planet systems. In the first method, the osculating orbital elements are determined via a Levenberg-Marquardt minimization scheme driving an N-body integrator. The second method is an improved analytic model in which orbital elements such as the periods and longitudes of periastron are allowed to vary according to a simple model for resonant interactions between the planets. Both of these methods can potentially determine the true masses for the planets by eliminating the sin(i) degeneracy inherent in fits that assume independent Keplerian motions. As more radial velocity data is accumulated from stars such as GJ876, these methods should allow for unambiguous determination of the planetary masses and relative inclinations.

  17. Short-term high-intensity interval training improves phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following moderate-intensity exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sean C; Slade, Jill M; Meyer, Ronald A

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that high-intensity training improves biochemical markers of oxidative potential in skeletal muscle within a 2-week period. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term high-intensity interval training on the time constant () of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery following moderate-intensity exercise, an in vivo measure of functional oxidative capacity. Seven healthy active subjects (age, 21 +/- 4 years; body mass, 69 +/- 11 kg) performed 6 sessions of 4-6 maximal-effort 30 s cycling intervals within a 2-week period, and 7 subjects (age, 24 +/- 5 years; body mass, 80 +/- 15 kg) served as controls. Prior to and following training, phosphorous-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS; GE 3T Excite System) was used to measure relative changes in high-energy phosphates and intracellular pH of the quadriceps muscles during gated dynamic leg-extension exercise (3 cycles of 90 s exercise and 5 min of rest). A monoexponential model was used to estimate the of PCr recovery. The of PCr recovery after leg-extension exercise was reduced by 14% with high-intensity interval training (pretraining, 43 +/- 14 s vs. post-training, 37 +/- 15 s; p < 0.05) with no change in the control group (44 +/- 12 s vs. 43 +/- 12 s, respectively; p > 0.05). These findings demonstrate that short-term high-intensity interval training is an effective means of increasing functional oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle.

  18. Production of Hybrid Poplar under Short-Term, Intensive Culture in Western Colorado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An irrigated study was conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita for 6 yr to evaluate eight hybrid poplar clones under short-term, intensive culture. The eight clones included in the study were Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii (NM6), P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides (52225, OP367), and...

  19. Current role of short-term intensive insulin strategies in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Weng, Jianping

    2013-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterized by worsening insulin resistance and a decline in β-cell function. Achieving good glycemic control becomes more challenging as β-cell function continues to deteriorate throughout the disease process. The traditional management paradigm emphasizes a stepwise approach, and insulin has generally been reserved as a final armament. However, mounting evidence indicates that short-term intensive insulin therapy used in the early stages of type 2 diabetes could improve β-cell function, resulting in better glucose control and more extended glycemic remission than oral antidiabetic agents. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile were also seen after the early initiation of short-term intensive insulin therapy. Thus, administering short-term intensive insulin therapy to patients with newly diagnosed T2DM has the potential to delay the natural process of this disease, and should be considered when clinicians initiate treatment. Although the early use of insulin is advocated by some guidelines, the optimal time to initiate insulin therapy is not clearly defined or easily recognized, and a pragmatic approach is lacking. Herein we summarize the current understanding of early intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, focusing on its clinical benefit and problems, as well as possible biological mechanisms of action, and discuss our perspective.

  20. Short-term heart rate dynamics of women during labor.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J J; Peña, M A; Echeverría, J C; García, M T; Ortiz, M R; Vargas, C; González-Camarena, R

    2011-01-01

    We studied 10 minutes segments of heartbeat interval fluctuations from 18 young women in labor with normal outcome of pregnancy. Data of each studied case were classified into two distinct groups. One group involving segments where the uterine activity was observable (three or more contractions in ten minutes), and the other group of reference having segments with fewer uterine activity or not presenting contractions at all. For comparison, we also included segments collected during the last trimester of gestation prior to labor from a third group of women. Corresponding RR interval series were analyzed to estimate RR(mean), RMSSD, α(1), α(1(MAG)) and α(1(SIGN)) parameters. No significant differences among groups were identified in RMSSD, α(1) and α(1(MAG)) Nevertheless, α(1(SIGN)) did present significant differences in comparison with the last trimester results (p<0.007), revealing a subtle change in the temporal organization of maternal RR series during labor. Results of these parameters then suggest that during labor, despite preserving a concomitant non-linear influence, the maternal short-term autonomic cardiac regulation behaves with less antagonism.

  1. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (<2h/month, N=12), casual players (4-8h/month, N=10), and experienced players (>15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  2. Short-term, intensive neurodevelopmental treatment program experiences of parents and their children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Evans-Rogers, Debbie L; Sweeney, Jane K; Holden-Huchton, Patricia; Mullens, Pamela A

    2015-01-01

    Parents' perspectives on intervention and functional changes in children were investigated following an intensive neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) program of 1 to 2 weeks (5 consecutive days per week; 2-4 h/d). Thirteen parents and their children (aged 1-17 years) with neuromotor conditions participated in a short-term, intensive program conducted by NDT certified pediatric therapists. A mixed-method design was used: a qualitative phenomenological approach of inquiry for parent perspectives and a pre/posttest quasi-experimental design for weekly intervention changes using Goal Attainment Scaling and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Through interviews, parents reported positive experiences with the intensive NDT program. Child participants demonstrated significant improvements in Goal Attainment Scaling (P < .001) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (P < .001) scores pre- to postintervention. A short-term, intensive NDT program was perceived by parents as beneficial and supported functional improvements. Valued were expert, compassionate therapists; collaboration; objective goals; home programming; and individualized intervention. Scheduling, financial support, and fatigue were difficulties.

  3. Short term oscillations of cosmic ray intensity during the last four solar maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yatendra

    2016-07-01

    Wavelet analysis of hourly cosmic-ray intensity (at Oulu NM and Rome NM) during the last four solar maxima reveals a number of short-term variations with few temporal shifts in the periods. Our study suggests that synodic period and its harmonics shift towards higher side during the maxima periods. However, the shifting in periodicity is absent during the last maxima (1999.84-2001.99) Study also suggests that few quasi oscillations are also appeared with marginal power values. These oscillations may be the higher harmonics of synodic period. Some other oscillations of cosmic ray intensity namely diurnal, semi-diurnal, ~7.0 hr and ~4.2 hr are also appearing in the examined periods. These oscillations may be the higher harmonics of diurnal variations.

  4. Myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Neilan, Tomas G; Ton-Nu, Thanh-Thao; Jassal, Davinder S; Popovic, Zoran B; Douglas, Pamela S; Halpern, Elkan F; Marshall, Jane E; Thomas, James D; Picard, Michael H; Yoerger, Danita M; Wood, Malissa J

    2006-10-01

    We aimed to clarify the myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise among trained athletes. We screened 17 participants in the 2004 World Indoor Rowing Championships before and after a 2000-m sprint. Echocardiography included standard measurements and tissue Doppler-derived strain (epsilon), strain rate, and 2-dimensionally derived speckle-tracking imaging for left ventricular (LV) torsion. LV volumes and ejection fraction were unchanged after exercise. There was a reduction in early and an increase in late diastolic filling velocities and a decrease in the flow propagation velocity. Annular systolic velocities, slope of the systolic acceleration, septal and lateral epsilon, and speckle tracking-derived torsion were increased. The increased LV torsion was a result of increased basal and apical rotation. Right ventricular apical epsilon decreased. In conclusion, maximal intensity short-duration exercise was associated with attenuation of LV diastolic function, augmentation of LV systolic function, and a reduction in apical right ventricular contractility.

  5. Effects of High Intensity White Noise on Short-Term Memory for Position in a List and Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daee, Safar; Wilding, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Seven experiments are described investigating the effecy of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. Examines results relative to position learning and sequence learning. (Editor/RK)

  6. Therapist Interventions in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy: Six Expert Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Town, Joel Michael; McCullough, Leigh; Hardy, Gillian E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the profile of verbal response modes utilised in the expert application of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP). One hundred and fifteen randomly selected segments from six treatments of STDP were analysed. Trained raters used a verbal response mode coding system to examine the individual speaking turns of an expert…

  7. Short-term foraging dynamics of cattle grazing swards with different canopy structures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main objective of the present experiment was to describe the sward canopy structure of 3 different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pastures and relate them to the short-term herbage intake rate and foraging dynamics by steers. Differences in canopy structure were created by using 3 different establ...

  8. Short-term dynamics of second-growth mixed mesophytic forest strata in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Cynthia C. Huebner; Steven L. Stephenson; Harold S. Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2007-01-01

    The short-term dynamics of mixed mesophytic forest strata in West Virginia were examined using similarity analysis and linear correlation of shared ordination space. The overstory tree, understory tree, shrub/vine, and herb strata were stable over a six year interval, whereas the tree seedling and sapling strata were unstable. All strata but the shrub/vine and tree...

  9. Short-term intensive family therapy for adolescent eating disorders: 30-month outcome.

    PubMed

    Marzola, Enrica; Knatz, Stephanie; Murray, Stuart B; Rockwell, Roxanne; Boutelle, Kerri; Eisler, Ivan; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-05-01

    Family therapy approaches have generated impressive empirical evidence in the treatment of adolescent eating disorders (EDs). However, the paucity of specialist treatment providers limits treatment uptake; therefore, our group developed the intensive family therapy (IFT)-a 5-day treatment based on the principles of family-based therapy for EDs. We retrospectively examined the long-term efficacy of IFT in both single-family (S-IFT) and multi-family (M-IFT) settings evaluating 74 eating disordered adolescents who underwent IFT at the University of California, San Diego, between 2006 and 2013. Full remission was defined as normal weight (≥ 95% of expected for sex, age, and height), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) global score within 1 SD of norms, and absence of binge-purging behaviours. Partial remission was defined as weight ≥ 85% of expected or ≥ 95% but with elevated EDE-Q global score and presence of binge-purging symptoms (<1/week). Over a mean follow-up period of 30 months, 87.8% of participants achieved either full (60.8%) or partial remission (27%), while 12.2% reported a poor outcome, with both S-IFT and M-IFT showing comparable outcomes. Short-term, intensive treatments may be cost-effective and clinically useful where access to regular specialist treatment is limited.

  10. A comparison of two short-term intensive physical activity interventions: methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increases in chronic illness due to sedentary lifestyles and poor metabolic fitness have led to numerous intervention strategies to promote physical activity (PA). This paper describes the methodological strategies of two short-term PA interventions. Outcome measures reported are PA adherence and compliance rates during the intervention and at 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Methods The 40-day interventions were: a pedometer-based walking program (n = 251) and a group-based intensive program (n = 148). There was also an active control group (n = 135). Intervention subjects were prescribed PA each day and required to record all activity sessions (pedometer steps or energy expenditure from heart rate monitors). Results Compliance (≥ 150 min/wk PA) was highest post-intervention (81.1% and 64.5% for the group and pedometer subjects, respectively) and then progressively decreased across the 12-month follow-up period (final compliance rates were 53.5% and 46.6%, respectively) although they remained significantly higher than pre-intervention rates (zero %). There was significantly higher adherence to 6 months (75.0% and 64.9%), and compliance to 3 months (64.9% and 51.0%), for group versus pedometer subjects. The active control group maintained the highest adherence and compliance rates across the study. Conclusions The group-based program resulted in higher adherence and compliance rates post-intervention although both types of interventions showed long-term effectiveness to increase activity patterns. PMID:22136578

  11. Short-term variations of the galactic cosmic ray intensity - 1964-1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical analysis of time variations in ground-level nucleonic cosmic-ray intensity for the interval from 1964 to 1967 is presented which incorporates synoptic observations of the solar white-light corona as well as indices of photospheric and chromospheric activity. Correlation analysis of solar activity and short-term modulation reveals that all indices vary significantly on time scales near the solar rotation period and that the correlation function exhibits a quasi-sinusoidal variation that maximizes near zero lag. It is found that 27-day variations of the indices were most pronounced in 1966-1967, that recurrent cosmic-ray depressions occurred in conjunction with observed solar-wind disturbances, and that two categories of interplanetary disturbance are sufficient to account for the large recurrent cosmic-ray depressions in 1966-1967. It is suggested that flare-generated shocks were the main source of these recurrent cosmic-ray variations and that the contribution of corotating cosmic-ray disturbances to the observed recurrent modulation was probably very small. This hypothesis is tested against the correlation functions of solar and cosmic-ray indices.

  12. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    PubMed

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  13. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (p< 0.001), without a training*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT.

  14. Limitless capacity: a dynamic object-oriented approach to short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John; Jones, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems – ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally – that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes. PMID:25852610

  15. A Study of Linguistic, Perceptual, and Pedagogical Change in a Short-Term Intensive Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Karen

    This study investigates linguistic, perceptual, and pedagogical change (LPPC) in a short-term, study abroad English immersion program. It proposes the LPPC Interactive Model of second language acquisition based on Gardner's 1985 socioeducational model and Woods' 1996 beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge (BAK) structure. The framework is applied in a…

  16. Exploiting short-term memory in soft body dynamics as a computational resource.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Li, T; Hauser, H; Pfeifer, R

    2014-11-06

    Soft materials are not only highly deformable, but they also possess rich and diverse body dynamics. Soft body dynamics exhibit a variety of properties, including nonlinearity, elasticity and potentially infinitely many degrees of freedom. Here, we demonstrate that such soft body dynamics can be employed to conduct certain types of computation. Using body dynamics generated from a soft silicone arm, we show that they can be exploited to emulate functions that require memory and to embed robust closed-loop control into the arm. Our results suggest that soft body dynamics have a short-term memory and can serve as a computational resource. This finding paves the way towards exploiting passive body dynamics for control of a large class of underactuated systems. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploiting short-term memory in soft body dynamics as a computational resource

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, K.; Li, T.; Hauser, H.; Pfeifer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Soft materials are not only highly deformable, but they also possess rich and diverse body dynamics. Soft body dynamics exhibit a variety of properties, including nonlinearity, elasticity and potentially infinitely many degrees of freedom. Here, we demonstrate that such soft body dynamics can be employed to conduct certain types of computation. Using body dynamics generated from a soft silicone arm, we show that they can be exploited to emulate functions that require memory and to embed robust closed-loop control into the arm. Our results suggest that soft body dynamics have a short-term memory and can serve as a computational resource. This finding paves the way towards exploiting passive body dynamics for control of a large class of underactuated systems. PMID:25185579

  18. Short-Term Plasticity of a Thalamocortical Pathway Dynamically Modulated by Behavioral State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A.; Connors, Barry W.

    1996-04-01

    The neocortex receives information about the environment and the rest of the brain through pathways from the thalamus. These pathways have frequency-dependent properties that can strongly influence their effect on the neocortex. In 1943 Morison and Dempsey described "augmenting responses," a form of short-term plasticity in some thalamocortical pathways that is triggered by 8- to 15-hertz activation. Results from anesthetized rats showed that the augmenting response is initiated by pyramidal cells in layer V. The augmenting response was also observed in awake, unrestrained animals and was found to be dynamically modulated by their behavioral state.

  19. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  20. Development of novel short-term heating angioplasty: thermal denaturation dynamics of collagen in artery wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, N.; Tokunaga, H.; Katou, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Arai, T.

    2009-02-01

    We have studied to develop the new thermal angioplasty methodology, photo-thermo dynamic balloon angioplasty (PTDBA), which provides artery dilatation with short-term (<15s) and uniform heating through the balloon by the combination of the efficient laser driven heat generation and fluid perfusion. Thermal denaturation degree of the collagen in artery media may be the important factor to attain sufficient artery dilatation for the PTDBA. In order to predict the optimum heating condition i.e. the balloon temperature and heating duration, we investigated the thermal denaturation dynamics of artery collagen in ex vivo. The extracted fresh porcine carotid artery was used. The temperature-dependent light scattering property and mechanical property of the artery specimen were simultaneously measured during artery temperature rising by specially made setup to assess the denaturation of arterial collagen. The change rate of the backscattered light intensity from the artery specimen; I(T)/I0 with 633nm was measured to evaluate the artery scattering property change with the thermal denaturation. The artery specimen was heated from 25°C to 80°C with constant temperature rising rate of 3°C/min. The measured I(T)/I0 was suddenly increased over 48°C. This boundary temperature might be the initiation temperature of the arterial collagen denaturation. We defined the variation of the I(T)/I0 as the collagen denaturation ratio, and calculated the reactive enthalpy by the chemical equilibrium theory. Since the calculated enthalpy was similar to the enthalpy in literature report, the variety of I(T)/I0 during the temperature rising might be attributed to the collagen conformational change due to the denaturation. In terms of the artery internal force measurement, the artery force was decreased with increasing of the artery temperature up to 65°C (i.e. softening), and increased over 65°C (i.e. shrinkage). We confirmed that the changes of the backscattered light (at 633nm in

  1. Intensive short-term dynamic sex therapy: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Zutter, Anne-Marie

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a model of rapid intervention in clinical sexology. The approach uses a method developed by Davanloo, which consists of first identifying and clarifying the defense mechanisms at work and then placing them under pressure. This pressure provokes a heightened anxiety, an intensification of the defense mechanisms, and the development of an intrapsychic crisis disclosing painful emotions linked to past traumas and intrapsychic conflicts. Such stimulation of the unconscious can bring about somatic and sexual symptoms that reveal links between physical and psychic elements. The approach provides rapid access to painful emotions underlying sexual symptoms and allows the therapist to identify appropriate areas and levels of therapeutic intervention. This method helps to translate psychic and sexual realities in a simple, rapid, and efficient manner. It provides opportunities for awareness and comprehension to the therapist and the patient.

  2. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Methods Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. Results HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (P<0.05). The relative increases were 4.1 ± 3.6 and 4.0 ± 3.7 W·kg−1 for Ppeak and Pmean respectively. These findings demonstrated the beneficial effect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. Conclusions As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises. PMID:23342221

  3. Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: Evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  4. Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles.

  5. Short-term intensive insulin therapy at diagnosis in type 2 diabetes: plan for filling the gaps.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jianping; Retnakaran, Ravi; Ariachery C, Ammini; Ji, Linong; Meneghini, Luigi; Yang, Wenying; Woo, Jeong-Taek

    2015-09-01

    Short-term intensive insulin therapy is unique amongst therapies for type 2 diabetes because it offers the potential to preserve and improve beta-cell function without additional pharmacological treatment. On the basis of clinical experience and the promising results of a series of studies in newly diagnosed patients, mostly in Asian populations, an expert workshop was convened to assess the available evidence and the potential application of short-term intensive insulin therapy should it be advocated for inclusion in clinical practice. Participants included primary care physicians and endocrinologists. We endorse the concept of short-term intensive insulin therapy as an option for some patients with type 2 diabetes at the time of diagnosis and have identified the following six areas where additional knowledge could help clarify optimal use in clinical practice: (1) generalizability to primary care, (2) target population and biomarkers, (3) follow-up treatment, (4) education of patients and providers, (5) relevance of ethnicity, and (6) health economics.

  6. A dynamic marker of very short-term heartbeat under pathological states via network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Feng-Zhen; Wang, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Chuan; Yan, Fang-Rong

    2014-09-01

    We developed a novel network to probe pathological states with the aid of heartbeat time series, by regarding each vector in the embedding phase space as one node of the network and using a permutation-based measure to determine links between nodes. The entropy of the degree distribution (E_{{DD}}) of the network shows a general and significant reduction under pathological conditions, even when there are only ultra short-term heartbeats (\\approx 50\\text{ beats}) available. The reduction of E_{{DD}} is possibly a dynamic marker of cardiac disorders. Our results reveal that a comparatively strong “memory” should usually exist in the healthy cardiovascular system whereas it dramatically declines when a cardiac disease is arising. The proposed method shows great promise in screening cardiac diseases and monitoring dynamic changes of the autonomic nervous system. Besides, as a universal method for analyzing the time series, the proposed approach seems to be promising also for other research disciplines.

  7. Short Term Gains, Long Term Pains: How Cues About State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore human learning in a dynamic decision-making task which places short- and long-term rewards in conflict. Our goal in these studies was to evaluate how people’s mental representation of a task affects their ability to discover an optimal decision strategy. We find that perceptual cues that readily align with the underlying state of the task environment help people overcome the impulsive appeal of short-term rewards. Our experimental manipulations, predictions, and analyses are motivated by current work in reinforcement learning which details how learners value delayed outcomes in sequential tasks and the importance that “state” identification plays in effective learning. PMID:19427635

  8. Task set induces dynamic reallocation of resources in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Sheremata, Summer L; Shomstein, Sarah

    2017-01-03

    Successful interaction with the environment requires the ability to flexibly allocate resources to different locations in the visual field. Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) resources are distributed asymmetrically across the visual field based upon task demands. Here, we propose that context, rather than the stimulus itself, determines asymmetrical distribution of VSTM resources. To test whether context modulates the reallocation of resources to the right visual field, task set, defined by memory-load, was manipulated to influence visual short-term memory performance. Performance was measured for single-feature objects embedded within predominantly single- or two-feature memory blocks. Therefore, context was varied to determine whether task set directly predicts changes in visual field biases. In accord with the dynamic reallocation of resources hypothesis, task set, rather than aspects of the physical stimulus, drove improvements in performance in the right- visual field. Our results show, for the first time, that preparation for upcoming memory demands directly determines how resources are allocated across the visual field.

  9. [Assimilation of problematic experiences: a case study on short-term dynamic psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Meystre, Claudia; Kramer, Ueli; de Roten, Yves; Michel, Luc; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The assimilation model is a qualitative and integrative approach that enables to study change processes that occur in psychotherapy. According to Stiles, this model conceives the individual's personality as constituent of different voices; the concept of voice is used to describe traces left by past experiences. During the psychotherapy, we can observe the progressive integration of the problematic voices into the patient's personality. We applied the assimilation model to a 34-session-long case of an effective short-term dynamic psychotherapy. We've chosen eight sessions we transcribed and analyzed by establishing points of contact between the case and the theory. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the evolution of the main voices in the patient.

  10. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may be explained by discrepancies in exercise protocols, dosing, and subjects' training status and habitual caffeine intake found across studies. The primary aim of this review is to critically examine studies that have tested caffeine's ability to augment performance during exercise dependent on nonoxidative metabolism such as sprinting, team sports, and resistance training. A review of the literature revealed 29 studies that measured alterations in short-term performance after caffeine ingestion. Each study was critically analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro score was 7.76 +/- 0.87. Eleven of 17 studies revealed significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion, yet these effects were more common in elite athletes who do not regularly ingest caffeine. Six of 11 studies revealed significant benefits of caffeine for resistance training. Some studies show decreased performance with caffeine ingestion when repeated bouts are completed. The exact mechanism explaining the ergogenic effect of caffeine for short-term exercise is unknown.

  11. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o2max) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved (P < 0.05) cycling performance by 5 ± 1%. Protein oxidation was unaltered on day 12, while resting SAPK/JNK phosphorylation was reduced (P < 0.05), suggesting a reduction in cellular stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended (P < 0.10) to increase resting protein content of manganese superoxide dismutase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), while mRNA expression of MuRF-1 was elevated (P < 0.05). Following training (day 12), the acute exercise-induced transcriptional response of TNF-α, NF-κB, MuRF-1, and PGC1α was attenuated (P < 0.05) compared with day 1 Collectively, these data suggest that short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity. PMID:26834874

  13. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna

    2015-11-22

    Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity.

  14. Effect of Short-Term, High-Intensity Exercise on Anaerobic Threshold in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.

    This study investigated the effects of a six-week, high-intensity cycling program on anaerobic threshold (AT) in ten women. Subjects trained four days a week using high-intensity interval-type cycle exercises. Workouts included six 4-minute intervals cycling at 85 percent maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max), separated by 3-minute intervals of…

  15. Constraints on Dynamic Triggering from very Short term Microearthquake Aftershocks at Parkfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampuero, J.; Rubin, A.

    2004-12-01

    The study of microearthquakes helps bridge the gap between laboratory experiments and data from large earthquakes, the two disparate scales that have contributed so far to our understanding of earthquake physics. Although they are frequent, microearthquakes are difficult to analyse. Applying high precision relocation techniques, Rubin and Gillard (2000) observed a pronounced asymmetry in the spatial distribution of the earliest and nearest aftershocks of microearthquakes along the San Andreas fault (they occur more often to the NW of the mainshock). It was suggested that this could be related to the velocity contrast across the fault. Preferred directivity of dynamic rupture pulses running along a bimaterial interface (to the SE in the case of the SAF) is expected on theoretical grounds. Our numerical simulations of crack-like rupture on such interfaces show a pronounced asymmetry of the stress histories beyond the rupture ends, and suggest two possible mechanisms for the observed asymmetry: First, that it results from an asymmmetry in the static stress field following arrest of the mainshock (closer to failure to the NW), or second, that it is due to a short-duration tensile pulse that propagates to the SE, which could reduce the number of aftershocks to the SE by dynamic triggering of any nucleation site close enough to failure to have otherwise produced an aftershock. To distinguish betwen these mechanisms we need observations of dynamic triggering in microseismicity. For small events triggered at a distance of some mainshock radii, triggering time scales are so short that seismograms of both events overlap. To detect the occurrence of compound events and very short term aftershocks in the HRSN Parkfield archived waveforms we have developed an automated search algorithm based on empirical Green's function (EGF) deconvolution. Optimal EGFs are first selected by the coherency of the cross-component convolution with respect to the target event. Then Landweber

  16. Exploring corrective experiences in a successful case of short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Myrna L; Sutherland, Olga; Sandler, Steven; Kortz, Laura; Bernardi, Shaina; Lee, Hsin-Hua; Drozd, Agata

    2012-09-01

    The concept of corrective emotional experience, originally formulated by psychoanalysts Alexander and French (1946), has been redefined by contemporary researchers to be theoretically nonspecific, that is, as "coming to understand or experience an event or relationship in a different or unexpected way" (Castonguay & Hill, 2011). Using postsession questionnaires, videotapes, and posttermination interviews, we explored whether (and how) a corrective experience occurred in a successful case of short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP; Davanloo, 1980). A 35-year-old woman suffering severe panic attacks was seen for 31 sessions by an experienced STDP therapist. The questionnaires and interviews focused on (a) perceived intrapsychic and interpersonal changes, and (b) how these changes came about. At termination, the client reported complete symptom relief, greater self-acceptance, improved relationships, and more emotional flexibility. Her corrective experience was evident in the qualitative themes, which showed that she came to understand and affectively experience her relationships with both parents differently. Moreover, the themes reflected both STDP-specific (e.g., confrontation of defenses) and nonspecific (e.g., rapport, acceptance) mechanisms of change. Conversation analysis (Sacks, 1995) of what the client described as "the 'gentle shove' of questions that make me see what I have been trying to ignore since childhood" showed, on a microlinguistic level, how she overcame resistance to strong emotional experience and expression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Patient affect experiencing following therapist interventions in short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Town, Joel M; Hardy, Gillian E; McCullough, Leigh; Stride, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between therapist interventions and patient affect responses in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP). The Affect Experiencing subscale from the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) was adapted to measure individual immediate affect experiencing (I-AES) responses in relation to therapist interventions coded within the preceding speaking turn, using the Psychotherapy Interaction Coding (PIC) system. A hierarchical linear modelling procedure was used to assess the change in affect experiencing and the relationship between affect experiencing and therapist interventions within and across segments of therapy. Process data was taken from six STDP cases; in total 24 hours of video-taped sessions were examined. Therapist interventions were found to account for a statistically significant amount of variance in immediate affect experiencing. Higher levels of immediate affect experiencing followed the therapist's use of Confrontation, Clarification and Support compared to Questions, Self-disclosure and Information interventions. Therapist Confrontation interventions that attempted to direct pressure towards either the visceral experience of affect or a patient's defences against feelings led to the highest levels of immediate affect experiencing. The type of therapist intervention accounts for a small but significant amount of the variation observed in a patient's immediate emotional arousal. Empirical findings support clinical theory in STDP that suggests strategic verbal responses promote the achievement of this specific therapeutic objective.

  18. Short-term dynamics of evaporative enrichment of xylem water in woody stems: implications for ecohydrology.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gómez, Paula; Serrano, Luis; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2017-04-01

    In ecohydrology, it is generally assumed that xylem water reflects the water source used by plants. Several studies have reported isotopic enrichment within woody tissues, particularly during dormancy periods or after long periods of inactivity. However, little is known about the short-term dynamics of this process. Here we assessed the magnitude and dynamics of xylem isotopic enrichment in suberized twigs of pines and oaks. We performed a series of laboratory experiments, in which we monitored hourly changes in water content and isotopic composition under two contrasting scenarios of sap flow restriction. First, we simulated the effect of extreme hydraulic failure by excising twigs to restrict sap flow, while sealing the wounds to ensure that water loss took place only through the leaves or bark, as would be the case for evaporation in attached stems. Second, we studied the effect of reduced leaf transpiration by darkening with aluminium foil all the leaves of healthy, well-watered saplings growing in pot conditions. We found evidence of fast evaporative enrichment in metabolically active stems, as a consequence of a temporal decline in sap flow rates, and not necessarily linked to a traceable decline in stem water content. The excision experiments showed significant isotopic changes (~+1‰ in oxygen) appearing in <1 h. Similarly, the pot experiment showed a progressive increase in isotope composition (up to +8‰ in oxygen in a 3-day cycle) when the leaves were covered, and a rapid recovery to initial values when sap flow rates were re-established. We conclude that evaporative enrichment of xylem water in stems is a highly dynamic process that may have significant effects even during short periods of restricted water flow. This has important implications for the study of plant water uptake, as well as for ecosystem- and global-scale hydrological models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  19. Short-term acoustic forecasting via artificial neural networks for neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Young, Jason; Macke, Christopher J; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2012-11-01

    Noise levels in hospitals, especially neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), have become of great concern for hospital designers. This paper details an artificial neural network (ANN) approach to forecasting the sound loads in NICUs. The ANN is used to learn the relationship between past, present, and future noise levels. By training the ANN with data specific to the location and device used to measure the sound, the ANN is able to produce reasonable predictions of noise levels in the NICU. Best case results show average absolute errors of 5.06 ± 4.04% when used to predict the noise levels one hour ahead, which correspond to 2.53 dBA ± 2.02 dBA. The ANN has the tendency to overpredict during periods of stability and underpredict during large transients. This forecasting algorithm could be of use in any application where prediction and prevention of harmful noise levels are of the utmost concern.

  20. Short-term high intensity plyometric training program improves strength, power and agility in male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 - 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer.

  1. Short-Term High Intensity Plyometric Training Program Improves Strength, Power and Agility in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 – 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer. PMID:23717351

  2. Processes driving short-term temporal dynamics of small mammal distribution in human-disturbed environments.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Julie; Pothier, David; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    As the impact of anthropogenic activities intensifies worldwide, an increasing proportion of landscape is converted to early successional stages every year. To understand and anticipate the global effects of the human footprint on wildlife, assessing short-term changes in animal populations in response to disturbance events is becoming increasingly important. We used isodar habitat selection theory to reveal the consequences of timber harvesting on the ecological processes that control the distribution dynamics of a small mammal, the red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi). The abundance of voles was estimated in pairs of cut and uncut forest stands, prior to logging and up to 2 years afterwards. A week after logging, voles did not display any preference between cut and uncut stands, and a non-significant isodar indicated that their distribution was not driven by density-dependent habitat selection. One month after harvesting, however, juvenile abundance increased in cut stands, whereas the highest proportions of reproductive females were observed in uncut stands. This distribution pattern appears to result from interference competition, with juveniles moving into cuts where there was weaker competition with adults. In fact, the emergence of source-sink dynamics between uncut and cut stands, driven by interference competition, could explain why the abundance of red-backed voles became lower in cut (the sink) than uncut (the source) stands 1-2 years after logging. Our study demonstrates that the influences of density-dependent habitat selection and interference competition in shaping animal distribution can vary frequently, and for several months, following anthropogenic disturbance.

  3. Bovine colostrum supplementation's lack of effect on immune variables during short-term intense exercise in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Carol, Arnoud; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; Mensink, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of bovine colostrum to attenuate postexercise decline in immune function. The authors evaluated the time course of a number of immune variables after short-term intense exercise in 9 male athletes after 10 d of supplementation with either colostrum or skim-milk powder. To increase the stress on the immune system subjects performed a glycogen-depletion trial the evening before the endurance trial (90 min at 50% Wmax). Blood samples were taken before the glycogen-depletion trial, before and after the endurance trial, and the next morning, ~22 hr after cessation of the exercise. Plasma cortisol levels increased over time, reaching the highest level directly after exercise, and were still elevated ~22 hr after exercise compared with baseline values (p < .001). Neutrophil cell count was increased after exercise and dropped below starting values 22 hr after exercise (time effect p < .001). Circulating immunoglobulins did not change over time. A significant time effect was seen for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1-receptor agonist, and C-reactive protein, with levels being higher directly after exercise (p < .05). Other cytokines (interferon-γ, IL-1a, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-a) did not show a time effect. No differences were seen between colostrum and skim-milk powder in any of the investigated variables. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that intense exercise affects several variables of the immune system. Colostrum did not alter any of the postexercise immune variables compared with skim-milk powder, suggesting no role for bovine colostrum supplementation in preventing postexercise immune suppression after short-term intense exercise.

  4. Readmission To Intensive Care Unit After Coronary Bypass Operations in the Short Term.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Funda; Polat, Adil; Yektaş, Abdülkadir; Erentuğ, Vedat; Alagöl, Ayşin

    2014-08-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) readmissions after coronary bypass (CABG) operations occur in a significant number of patients, and the prognosis is poor. We analyzed the risk factors for ICU readmissions after CABG operations. We retrospectively analyzed the prospectively collected data of 679 coronary bypass patients operated in a single institution in order to evaluate the risk factors for readmittance to the ICU with logistic regression analysis. The outcome results of patients readmitted to the ICU (Group R) and others (Group N) were compared. Thirty-six (5.3%) patients were readmitted to the ICU. Postoperative in-hospital mortality and pulmonary and neurologic morbidity occurred in 43 (6.3%), 135 (19.9%), and 46 (6.8%) patients, respectively. The comparison of groups showed that mortality and morbidity were significantly higher in Group R compared to Group N (mortality 16.7% vs. 5.9, p=0.029; pulmonary morbidity 66.7% vs. 17.3%, p=0.0001; neurologic morbidity 38.9% vs. 5.0%, p=0.0001). Features associated with readmission included presence of left ventricular dysfunction preoperatively[odds ratio (OR)=4.1; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-12.5; p=0.013], advanced NYHA Class (OR=5.3; 95% CI=1.3-21.7; p=0.022), pulmonary complications (OR=7.3; 95% CI=2.1-25.5; p=0.002), and neurologic complications (OR=4.6; 95% CI=1.3-16.7; p=0.021). Patients readmitted to the ICU postoperatively have higher rates of mortality and pulmonary and neurologic morbidity after coronary bypass operations. Left ventricular dysfunction, advanced NYHA class, and postoperative pulmonary and neurologic complications are significant risk factors for readmission to the ICU.

  5. Neuromuscular adaptations to short-term high-intensity interval training in female ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Juho-Ville; Piitulainen, Harri; Piirainen, Jarmo M

    2017-03-08

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) related neuromuscular adaptations, changes in force production and on-ice performance were investigated in female ice-hockey players during pre-season. Fourteen Finnish championship level ice hockey players (average age 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2½-week HIIT. Both spinal (H-reflex) and supraspinal (V-wave) neuromuscular responses of the soleus muscle were recorded before and after the training period. Static jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) heights, plantar flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured. In addition, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles activations (electromyography; EMG) were measured during MVC and RFD tests. During on-ice training, skating speed and acceleration tests were performed. Subjects significantly improved their plantarflexion MVC force (11.6 ± 11.2%, p < 0.001), RFD (15.2 ± 15.9%, p < 0.01) and SJ (4.8 ± 7.6%, p < 0.05). Voluntary motor drive to the soleus muscle (V-wave amplitude) increased by 16.0 ± 15.4% (p < 0.01) and co-activation of tibialis anterior muscle during the plantar flexion RFD test was reduced by -18.9 ± 22.2% (p < 0.05). No change was observed in spinal α-motoneuron excitability (H-reflex) during MVC or in on-ice performance. These results indicate that HIIT can be used to improve athletes' capability to produce maximal and explosive forces, likely through enhanced voluntary activation of their muscles and reduced antagonist co-activation. Therefore, HIIT can be recommended in pre-season training to improve neuromuscular performance. However, a longer than 2½-week HIIT period is needed to improve on-ice performance in female ice-hockey players.

  6. Short-term results of intensive physiotherapy in clubfoot deformity treated with the Ponseti method.

    PubMed

    Nilgün, Bek; Suat, Erel; Engin, Simşek İbrahim; Fatma, Uygur; Yakut, Yakut

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to determine the efficacy of the physical therapy program as an adjunct to the Ponseti technique in the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot. This study was carried out with the presumption of a difference in results between the study group who were included in the physiotherapy program and the control group who performed home exercises. Forty affected feet of 29 patients were included in the study. The average ages of the control and study groups were 15.00 ± 21.33 and 20.30 ± 15.78 months, respectively. Passive range of motion of dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion, rear foot varus angle and forefoot adduction angle were measured and the Dimeglio classification system was utilized in order to determine the severity of clubfoot deformity. Reassessments were carried out for the study group at the end of 1 month's therapy and for the control group during the first month follow-up. Comparison of pre- and post-treatment assessment results revealed a difference in terms of recovery, concerning all parameters except passive inversion values in the study group and for all parameters in the control group (P < 0.05). For study and control group comparisons, since deformity severity was higher in the study group an effect size analysis was carried out. The effect size analysis showed that the change in range of motion of dorsiflexion and Dimeglio and decrease of rear foot varus angle was higher in the study group. The results of this study imply that an intensive physiotherapy program may enhance the effectiveness of the Ponseti protocol. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Dynamic modulation of short term synaptic plasticity in the auditory cortex: the role of norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Humberto, Salgado; Francisco, García-Oscos; Lu, Dinh

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is an important modulator of neuronal activity in the auditory cortex. Using patch-clamp recording and a pair pulse protocol on an auditory cortex slice preparation we recently demonstrated that NE affects cortical inhibition in a layer-specific manner, by decreasing apical but increasing basal inhibition onto layer II/III pyramidal cell dendrites. In the present study we used a similar protocol to investigate the dependence of noradrenergic modulation of inhibition on stimulus frequency, using 1s-long train pulses at 5, 10, and 20 Hz. The study was conducted using pharmacologically isolated inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) evoked by electrical stimulation of axons either in layer I (LI-eIPSCs) or in layer II/III (LII/III-eIPSCs). We found that: 1) LI-eIPSC display less synaptic depression than LII/III-eIPSCs at all the frequencies tested, 2) in both type of synapses depression had a presynaptic component which could be altered manipulating [Ca2+]o, 3) NE modestly altered short-term synaptic plasticity at low or intermediate (5–10 Hz) frequencies, but selectively enhanced synaptic facilitation in LI-eIPSCs while increasing synaptic depression of LII/III-eIPSCs in the latest (>250 ms) part of the response, at high stimulation frequency (20 Hz). We speculate that these mechanisms may limit the temporal window for top-down synaptic integration as well as the duration and intensity of stimulus-evoked gamma oscillations triggered by complex auditory stimuli during alertness. PMID:20816739

  8. Effect of herbage depletion on short-term foraging dynamics and diet quality of steers grazing wheat pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two complementary experiments were completed to assess short-term foraging dynamics, diet quality, and ruminal degradation kinetics of herbage consumed by steers with 3 level of herbage depletion. Experiment (Exp.) 1 was a behavioral study in which 3 ruminally cannulated steers were allocated to gra...

  9. Short-term moderate intensive high volume training program provides aerobic endurance benefit in wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Skucas, Kestutis; Pokvytyte, Vaida

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of short-term period, moderate intensity and high volume endurance training on physiological variables in elite wheelchair basketball players. Eight wheelchair basketball players were examined. The subjects participated in a two-week intervention program of mainly two training types: wheelchair basketball and wheelchair driving endurance training. The subjects performed the continuously increasing cycling exercise (CCE) at the constant 60 rpm arm cranking speed at the beginning of the program and after two weeks of the program. The initial workload was 20 W, then the workload was increased by 2 W every 5 seconds until fatigue. The post training of the wheelchair basketball group in the study showed a significant improvement in the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and the peak power output (POpeak). VO2peak increased by 9% from 2.32±0.16 L/min to 2.53±0.2 L/min (P<0.05). POpeak increased by 28% from 141.75±14.23 W, to 181.63±26.3 W (P<0.05). The pre-training and post training test power output (PO [w]), relative power output (PO [w/kg]) increased significantly in all zones of energy production. In conclusion, this study indicated that the wheelchair basketball squad had relatively high levels of aerobic fitness prior to participating in the endurance training program. Nevertheless, the high-volume, moderate-intensity, short-term training program, which evolved over the two-weeks period, resulted in the improvement of the athlete's aerobic endurance. The ventilatory threshold (VT) and the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) are good markers for aerobic capacity of wheelchair athletes.

  10. Short-term high-intensity rehabilitation in radically treated lung cancer: a three-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Lai, Yutian; Zhou, Xudong; Li, Shuangjiang; Su, Jianhua; Yang, Mei; Che, Guowei

    2017-07-01

    The feasibility and practicality of preoperative rehabilitation (PR) programs remains quite controversial in the treatment of lung cancer (LC). This study explored whether a short-term high-intensity rehabilitation program could improve postoperative outcomes compared to those achieved with conventional inspiratory muscle training (IMT). A three-armed randomized controlled trial comparing the two training modalities and routine care was conducted in surgical LC patients. Patient groups received one of three treatment regimens: (I) high-intensity pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) that combined IMT with conventional resistance training (CRT) (combined PR group); (II) conventional PR (single IMT group); or (III) routine preoperative preparation (control group). The primary endpoint was a change in the occurrence of post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) that occurred within 30 days after surgery, while secondary endpoints included changes in length of hospital stay, quality of life (QoL) scores, 6-min walk distance (6-MWD) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). A total of 90 enrolled patients were randomized into three groups with a computer-based 1:1:1 ratio. The intention-to-treat analysis of the study revealed that, compared with the Control Group, the Combined PR Group had a significant increase in (∆)6-MWD (by 32.67 m, P=0.002), (∆)PEF (by 14.3 L/min, P=0.001), (∆)global scores (by 3.7, P=0.035); and a reduced (∆)average total hospital stay (by 3.2 d, P=0.001) and ∆postoperative stay (by 3.6 d, P=0.001). With regard to PPC rate, the Combined PR Group had a somewhat lower PPC severity (grade II-V) compared to the Control Group. This hospital-based short-term program of PR combining high-intensity IMT with CRT was significantly superior to the conventional IMT program, indicating that this approach would be a feasible strategy for treating LC patients, especially those waiting operations with surgery-related risk factors.

  11. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  12. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women. PMID:27774458

  13. Effects of high intensity white noise on short-term memory for position in a list and sequence.

    PubMed

    Daee, S; Wilding, J M

    1977-08-01

    Seven experiments are described investigating the effect of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. The findings were: 1. In a free recall task recall of items decreased at the highest intensity used (85 dB) compared with a quiet and a 75 dB condition. 2. In free recall, recall by category decreased and recall in the original sequence increased in the 75 dB compared with the other two conditions. 3. Recall of the position of words in the list increased as noise intensity increased, but only when the learning of position was incidental, not when it was intentional. It is inferred that the effect is due to direction of attention or change in the learning strategy. 4. Recall of the original sequence (as shown by the ability to give in response to a word from a list the word which had followed it in the original list) was superior in the 75 dB compared with the other two conditions, but only when recall of the second word was required, not when it had to be recognized among all the items from the original list. It is argued that this can be explained if noise intensity affects the strength of traces and hence the interconnexions established between them, on which retrieval depends. The results for position learning are compatible with the theories of Hockey & Hamilton (1970) or Dornic (1973), but the results for sequence learning cannot be explained by either of these theories. A final experiment confirmed a prediction from the above theory that when recalling the original sequence, omissions (recalling no word) will decrease and transpositions (giving the wrong word) will increase as noise level increases.

  14. Munc18-1 is a dynamically regulated PKC target during short-term enhancement of transmitter release

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Özgür; Kochubey, Olexiy; Toonen, Ruud F; Verhage, Matthijs; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Transmitter release at synapses is regulated by preceding neuronal activity, which can give rise to short-term enhancement of release like post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Protein-kinase C (PKC) signaling in the nerve terminal have been widely implicated in the short-term modulation of transmitter release, but the target protein of PKC phosphorylation during short-term enhancement has remained unknown. Here, we use a gene-replacement strategy at the calyx of Held, a large CNS model synapse that expresses robust PTP, to study the molecular mechanisms of PTP. We find that two PKC phosphorylation sites of Munc18-1 are critically important for PTP, which identifies the presynaptic target protein for the action of PKC during PTP. Pharmacological experiments show that a phosphatase normally limits the duration of PTP, and that PTP is initiated by the action of a ‘conventional’ PKC isoform. Thus, a dynamic PKC phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation cycle of Munc18-1 drives short-term enhancement of transmitter release during PTP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01715.001 PMID:24520164

  15. Munc18-1 is a dynamically regulated PKC target during short-term enhancement of transmitter release.

    PubMed

    Genc, Ozgür; Kochubey, Olexiy; Toonen, Ruud F; Verhage, Matthijs; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2014-02-11

    Transmitter release at synapses is regulated by preceding neuronal activity, which can give rise to short-term enhancement of release like post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Protein-kinase C (PKC) signaling in the nerve terminal have been widely implicated in the short-term modulation of transmitter release, but the target protein of PKC phosphorylation during short-term enhancement has remained unknown. Here, we use a gene-replacement strategy at the calyx of Held, a large CNS model synapse that expresses robust PTP, to study the molecular mechanisms of PTP. We find that two PKC phosphorylation sites of Munc18-1 are critically important for PTP, which identifies the presynaptic target protein for the action of PKC during PTP. Pharmacological experiments show that a phosphatase normally limits the duration of PTP, and that PTP is initiated by the action of a 'conventional' PKC isoform. Thus, a dynamic PKC phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation cycle of Munc18-1 drives short-term enhancement of transmitter release during PTP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01715.001.

  16. Short-term high-intensity interval exercise training attenuates oxidative stress responses and improves antioxidant status in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Bogdanis, G C; Stavrinou, P; Fatouros, I G; Philippou, A; Chatzinikolaou, A; Draganidis, D; Ermidis, G; Maridaki, M

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant status indices caused by a 3-week high-intensity interval training (HIT) regimen. Eight physically active males performed three HIT sessions/week over 3 weeks. Each session included four to six 30-s bouts of high-intensity cycling separated by 4 min of recovery. Before training, acute exercise elevated protein carbonyls (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and creatine kinase (CK), which peaked 24h post-exercise (252 ± 30%, 135 ± 17%, 10 ± 2%, 85 ± 14% and 36 ± 13%, above baseline, respectively; p<0.01), while catalase activity (CAT) peaked 30 min post-exercise (56 ± 18% above baseline; p<0.01). Training attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress markers (PC by 13.3 ± 3.7%; TBARS by 7.2 ± 2.7%, p<0.01) and CK activity, despite the fact that total work done was 10.9 ± 3.6% greater in the post- compared with the pre-training exercise test. Training also induced a marked elevation of antioxidant status indices (TAC by 38.4 ± 7.2%; CAT by 26.2 ± 10.1%; GPX by 3.0 ± 0.6%, p<0.01). Short-term HIT attenuates oxidative stress and up-regulates antioxidant activity after only nine training sessions totaling 22 min of high intensity exercise, further supporting its positive effect not only on physical conditioning but also on health promotion.

  17. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of an intensive short-term diet and exercise intervention: comparison between normal-weight and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanah, Ali; Angadi, Siddhartha S.; Barnard, R. James

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention programs currently emphasize weight loss secondary to obesity as the primary determinant of phenotypic changes. We examined whether the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention program differ in normal-weight versus overweight/obese children. Nineteen overweight/obese (O; BMI = 33.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 14 normal-weight (N; BMI = 19.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) children participated in a 2-wk program consisting of an ad libitum high-fiber, low-fat diet and daily exercise (2–2.5 h). Fasting serum samples were taken pre- and postintervention for determination of lipids, glucose homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines. Only the O group lost weight (3.9%) but remained overweight/obese (32.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Both groups exhibited significant intervention-induced decreases (P < 0.05) in serum insulin (N: 52.5% vs. O: 28.1%; between groups, P = 0.38), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (N: 53.1% vs. O: 28.4%, P = 0.43), leptin (N: 69.3% vs. O: 44.1%, P = 0.10), amylin (N: 28.7% vs. O: 26.1%, P = 0.80), resistin (N: 40.0% vs. O: 35.1%, P = 0.99), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (N: 30.8% vs. O: 25.6%, P = 0.59), IL-6 (N: 58.8% vs. O: 48.5%, P = 0.78), IL-8 (N: 46.0% vs. O: 42.2%, P = 0.49), and TNFα (N: 45.8% vs. O: 40.8%, P = 0.99). No associations between indices of weight change and phenotypic changes were noted. A short-term, intensive lifestyle modification program is effective in ameliorating metabolic risk factors in N and O children. These results suggest that obesity per se was not the primary driver of the phenotypes noted and that dietary intake and physical inactivity induce the phenotypic abnormalities. These data may have implications for the weight loss-independent management of cardiometabolic risk in pediatric populations. PMID:23883675

  19. Quantification of compensatory processes of postnatal hypoxia in newborn piglets applying short-term nonlinear dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Newborn mammals suffering from moderate hypoxia during or after birth are able to compensate a transitory lack of oxygen by adapting their vital functions. Exposure to hypoxia leads to an increase in the sympathetic tone causing cardio-respiratory response, peripheral vasoconstriction and vasodilatation in privileged organs like the heart and brain. However, there is only limited information available about the time and intensity changes of the underlying complex processes controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Methods In this study an animal model involving seven piglets was used to examine an induced state of circulatory redistribution caused by moderate oxygen deficit. In addition to the main focus on the complex dynamics occurring during sustained normocapnic hypoxia, the development of autonomic regulation after induced reoxygenation had been analysed. For this purpose, we first introduced a new algorithm to prove stationary conditions in short-term time series. Then we investigated a multitude of indices from heart rate and blood pressure variability and from bivariate interactions, also analysing respiration signals, to quantify the complexity of vegetative oscillations influenced by hypoxia. Results The results demonstrated that normocapnic hypoxia causes an initial increase in cardiovascular complexity and variability, which decreases during moderate hypoxia lasting one hour (p < 0.004). After reoxygenation, cardiovascular complexity parameters returned to pre-hypoxic values (p < 0.003), however not respiratory-related complexity parameters. Conclusions In conclusion, indices from linear and nonlinear dynamics reflect considerable temporal changes of complexity in autonomous cardio-respiratory regulation due to normocapnic hypoxia shortly after birth. These findings might be suitable for non-invasive clinical monitoring of hypoxia-induced changes of autonomic regulation in newborn humans. PMID:21967770

  20. Short-term gains, long-term pains: how cues about state aid learning in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Gureckis, Todd M; Love, Bradley C

    2009-12-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore human learning in a dynamic decision making task which places short- and long-term rewards in conflict. Our goal in these studies was to evaluate how people's mental representation of a task affects their ability to discover an optimal decision strategy. We find that perceptual cues that readily align with the underlying state of the task environment help people overcome the impulsive appeal of short-term rewards. Our experimental manipulations, predictions, and analyses are motivated by current work in reinforcement learning which details how learners value delayed outcomes in sequential tasks and the importance that "state" identification plays in effective learning.

  1. Consecutive ultra-short-term heart rate variability to track dynamic changes in autonomic nervous system during and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Yao, Ruijie; Yin, Gezhen; Li, Jin

    2017-06-22

    Quantitative measurement of the dynamic changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) during and after exercise has great significance in clinical, sports training and other fields. A consecutive ultra-short-term (30 s, UST) heart rate variability (HRV) method was proposed to track the exercise-induced autonomic control of heart rate (HR). Twenty-three healthy young men participated in the study. The first four stages of the Modified Bruce Protocol (S0-S3) were performed. Six HRV indices, i.e. HF (power of high frequency ranged from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz), LF (power of low frequency ranged from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz), LF/HF, SD1 and SD2 of Poincaré plot, and SD2/SD1, over 30 s were calculated every 5 s over 3 min RR time series during, as well as after, exercise. The results showed that during exercise, SD1, SD2, HF and LF dropped down quickly and tended to stabilize. Particularly, SD1 and HF showed a slight upward trend in the lower three stages while the declining time of SD2 in S3 lasted longer than the other stages. SD2/SD1 increased rapidly first and then decreased slowly. The values of SD2/SD1 in S3 remained higher than those in the other stages. After exercise, SD1, SD2, HF and LF kept increasing first and then declined slowly or fluctuated with decaying amplitudes. SD2/SD1 increased initially, then decreased and fluctuated slightly. Compared with the indices in frequency domain, the Poincaré indices were more sensitive and accurate in UST measurement of ANS during exercise. The results demonstrated that the UST method could characterize the dynamic changing tendency of ANS during and after exercise and quantify the differences of changes in ANS induced by exercise with different intensities. In particular, the vagal branch functioned dominantly in controlling HR in S0 but the effect of the sympathetic branch on HR enhanced with the increase of exercise intensity. In addition, the transient changes of ANS related with the sudden onset of exercise could also be

  2. Short-term dynamics of indoor and outdoor endotoxin exposure: Case of Santiago, Chile, 2012.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Heyer, Johanna; Palma, Wilfredo; Edwards, Ana María; Muñoz, Marcelo; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Montoya, Lupita D

    2016-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor endotoxin in PM2.5 was measured for the very first time in Santiago, Chile, in spring 2012. Average endotoxin concentrations were 0.099 and 0.094 [EU/m(3)] for indoor (N=44) and outdoor (N=41) samples, respectively; the indoor-outdoor correlation (log-transformed concentrations) was low: R=-0.06, 95% CI: (-0.35 to 0.24), likely owing to outdoor spatial variability. A linear regression model explained 68% of variability in outdoor endotoxins, using as predictors elemental carbon (a proxy of traffic emissions), chlorine (a tracer of marine air masses reaching the city) and relative humidity (a modulator of surface emissions of dust, vegetation and garbage debris). In this study, for the first time a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was applied to outdoor endotoxin measurements. Wind trajectory analysis identified upwind agricultural sources as contributors to the short-term, outdoor endotoxin variability. Our results confirm an association between combustion particles from traffic and outdoor endotoxin concentrations. For indoor endotoxins, a predictive model was developed but it only explained 44% of endotoxin variability; the significant predictors were tracers of indoor PM2.5 dust (Si, Ca), number of external windows and number of hours with internal doors open. Results suggest that short-term indoor endotoxin variability may be driven by household dust/garbage production and handling. This would explain the modest predictive performance of published models that use answers to household surveys as predictors. One feasible alternative is to increase the sampling period so that household features would arise as significant predictors of long-term airborne endotoxin levels.

  3. Short term prediction of dynamic hydra precipitation activity using a microwave radiometer over Eastern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.

    2015-12-01

    First ever study of the feasibility of ground based radiometric study to predict a very short term based rain precipitation study has been conducted in eastern Himalaya, Darjeeling (27.01°N, 88.15°E, 2200 masl). Short term prediction or nowcasting relates to forecasting convective precipitation for time periods less than a few hours to avoid its effect on agriculture, aviation and lifestyle. Theoretical models involving radiometric predictions are not well understood and lack in temporal and spatial resolution. In this study specific utilization of a microwave Radiometer (Radiometrics Corporation, USA) for online monitoring of precipitable rainfall activity has been observed repeatability of data has been established. Previous few studies have shown the increase of water vapour and corresponding Brightness Temperature, but in mountain climatic conditions over Darjeeling, due to presence of fog 90 % of the year, water vapour monitoring related predictions can lead to false alarms. The measurement of blackbody emission noise in the bands of 23.8 GHz and 31.4 GHz, using a quadratic regression retrieval algorithm is converted to atmospheric parameters like integrated water vapour and liquid water content. It has been found in our study that the liquid water shows significant activity prior to precipitation events even for mild and stratiform rainfall. The alarm can be generated well 20 mins before the commencement of actual rain events even in the upper atmosphere of 6 Kms, measured by a rain radar also operating in 24 Ghz microwave band. Although few rain events were found and reported which do not respond in the microwave liquid water channel. Efforts to identify such rain events and their possible explanation is going on and shall be reported in near future. Such studies are important to predict flash flooding in the Himalayas. Darjeeling owing to its geographical conditions experiences mild to very heavy rain. Such studies help improve aspects of Himalayas as

  4. Population size and selection intensity effects on short-term response for a selection index in Tribolium.

    PubMed

    Campo, J L; Turrado, H

    1997-01-12

    The effects of population size and selection intensity on the short-term response to selection were investigated in an experiment with Tribolium, using a two-trait empirical selection index for pupal and adult weights. Twenty lines were selected following a factorial design of five population sizes (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 pairs of parents) and four selection intensities (20, 25, 33, and 50%), with three replicates. For each replicate, an unselected control with 16 pairs of parents was produced. There were four generations of selection per line. Selection response was significant in all lines with the 20% selection intensity and/or the 16-pair population size. Selection intensity and population size were significant effects and there was significant interaction between them. Higher selection intensities produced more overall significant response to selection (20% > (25% = 33%) > 50%); this significance was also found for the 16-pair population size. There was an overall significant difference among population sizes, with the larger population sizes giving more response than the smaller sizes (16-pair = 8-pair = 4-pair) > (2-pair = 1-pair); this significance was also found for the 20% selection intensity. There was a good agreement between observed and expected responses, except for the 50% selection intensity and/or 1-pair population size; expected values in generation 1 overestimated observed values. The realized heritability was similar in all lines. With equal and high numbers of individuals scored, it was better to choose a high selection intensity than a large population size. The results show that the effect of population size cannot be ignored, even in short-term selection response; the main influence of population size is through selection differential. RESUMEN: Los efectos del tamaño de población y la intensidad de selección sobre la respuesta a corto plazo para un índice de selección en Tribolium Los efectos del tamaño de población y la intensidad de

  5. Medial superior olivary neurons receive surprisingly few excitatory and inhibitory inputs with balanced strength and short-term dynamics.

    PubMed

    Couchman, Kiri; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2010-12-15

    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) process microsecond interaural time differences, the major cue for localizing low-frequency sounds, by comparing the relative arrival time of binaural, glutamatergic excitatory inputs. This coincidence detection mechanism is additionally shaped by highly specialized glycinergic inhibition. Traditionally, it is assumed that the binaural inputs are conveyed by many independent fibers, but such an anatomical arrangement may decrease temporal precision. Short-term depression on the other hand might enhance temporal fidelity during ongoing activity. For the first time we show that binaural coincidence detection in MSO neurons may require surprisingly few but strong inputs, challenging long-held assumptions about mammalian coincidence detection. This study exclusively uses adult gerbils for in vitro electrophysiology, single-cell electroporation and immunohistochemistry to characterize the size and short-term plasticity of inputs to the MSO. We find that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the MSO are well balanced both in strength and short-term dynamics, redefining this fastest of all mammalian coincidence detector circuits.

  6. Dynamical downscaling of short-term climate fluctuations: On the benefits of precipitation assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Ana M. B.; Roads, John O.

    2009-06-01

    Regional downscaling has proven useful in adding details to the global solution. However, the parameterized physical processes can systematically deviate the large-scale features in the regional solution. To demonstrate the precipitation assimilation beneficial impact on the dynamical downscaling, a regional spectral model driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project II (NCEP/DOE AMIP-II) Reanalysis was used to downscale the large-scale features over most of North America. The North American Regional Reanalysis provided the 3-hourly precipitation rates that the regional model employed to simulate two opposite extreme climate events: the upper Mississippi River Basin 1988 drought and 1993 floods. In addition to these two cases, the 1990 summer anomalous precipitation over the same area was also investigated. Precipitation assimilation positively influences the dynamical downscaling of these extreme climate events. The regional model when assimilating precipitation was particularly successful in reproducing the observed precipitation patterns over the central United States, where the large-scale circulation affects the precipitation variability. Particularly for the flood year, the intensity and location of the subtropical upper-level westerly jet and its associated transverse circulations were noticeably improved in the regional simulations, where the heavy precipitation core was found. This also suggests that the cumulus convection scheme, in this case the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert parameterization scheme, can cause the large-scale features to drift during the regional simulation, and precipitation assimilation reduces this departure from the global solution. These changes in the upper-level winds were also followed by better characterization of the drought of 1988 as well as the 1990 summer heavy precipitation simulation, in comparison to regional control simulations, where precipitation

  7. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the deterministic Tsodyks–Markram model leads to unpredictable network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Jesus M.; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim; Veltz, Romain; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity strongly affects the neural dynamics of cortical networks. The Tsodyks and Markram (TM) model for short-term synaptic plasticity accurately accounts for a wide range of physiological responses at different types of cortical synapses. Here, we report a route to chaotic behavior via a Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation that dynamically organizes some of the responses in the TM model. In particular, the presence of such a homoclinic bifurcation strongly affects the shape of the trajectories in the phase space and induces highly irregular transient dynamics; indeed, in the vicinity of the Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation, the number of population spikes and their precise timing are unpredictable and highly sensitive to the initial conditions. Such an irregular deterministic dynamics has its counterpart in stochastic/network versions of the TM model: The existence of the Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation generates complex and irregular spiking patterns and—acting as a sort of springboard—facilitates transitions between the down-state and unstable periodic orbits. The interplay between the (deterministic) homoclinic bifurcation and stochastic effects may give rise to some of the complex dynamics observed in neural systems. PMID:24062464

  8. Proteome dynamics and physiological responses to short-term salt stress in Leymus chinensis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jikai; Hu, Guofu; Wang, Mingjun; Zhang, Pan; Qin, Ligang; Shang, Chen; Zhang, Hailing; Zhu, Xiaocen; Qu, Mingnan

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is becoming an increasing threat to global agriculture. In this study, physiological and proteomics analysis were performed using a salt-tolerant grass species, Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis). The aim of this study is to understand the potential mechanism of salt tolerance in L. chinensis that used for crop molecular breeding. A series of short-term (<48 h) NaCl treatments (0 ~ 700 mM) were conducted. Physiological data indicated that the root and leaves growth were inhibited, chlorophyll contents decreased, while hydraulic conductivity, proline, sugar and sucrose were accumulated under salt stress. For proteomic analysis, we obtained 274 differentially expressed proteins in response to NaCl treatments. GO analysis revealed that 44 out of 274 proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism. Our findings suggested that L. chinensis copes with salt stress by stimulating the activities of POD, SOD and CAT enzymes, speeding up the reactions of later steps of citrate cycle, and synthesis of proline and sugar. In agreement with our physiological data, proteomic analysis also showed that salt stress depress the expression of photosystem relevant proteins, Calvin cycle, and chloroplast biosynthesis. PMID:28846722

  9. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M.; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A.; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task’s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100–140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140–180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD.

  10. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M.; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A.; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task’s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100–140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140–180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD. PMID:28186173

  11. Short-term dynamics of culturable bacteria in a soil amended with biotransformed dry olive residue.

    PubMed

    Siles, J A; Pascual, J; González-Menéndez, V; Sampedro, I; García-Romera, I; Bills, G F

    2014-03-01

    Dry olive residue (DOR) transformation by wood decomposing basidiomycetes (e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa) is a possible strategy for eliminating the liabilities related to the use of olive oil industry waste as an organic soil amendment. The effects of organic fertilization with DOR on the culturable soil microbiota are largely unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to measure the short-term effects of DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR on the culturable bacterial soil community, while at the same time documenting the bacterial diversity of an agronomic soil in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The control soil was compared with the same soil treated with DOR and with C. floccosa-transformed DOR for 0, 30 and 60 days. Impact was measured from total viable cells and CFU counts, as well as the isolation and characterization of 900 strains by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and 16S rRNA partial sequencing. The bacterial diversity was distributed between Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Sphingobacteria and Cytophagia. Analysis of the treatments and controls demonstrated that soil amendment with untransformed DOR produced important changes in bacterial density and diversity. However, when C. floccosa-transformed DOR was applied, bacterial proliferation was observed but bacterial diversity was less affected, and the distribution of microorganisms was more similar to the unamended soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Locating Temporal Functional Dynamics of Visual Short-Term Memory Binding using Graph Modular Dirichlet Energy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-02-10

    Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task's transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100-140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140-180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD.

  13. Short-term dynamics of diversity patterns: evidence of continual reassembly within lacustrine small eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Mangot, Jean-François; Domaizon, Isabelle; Taib, Najwa; Marouni, Nemr; Duffaud, Emilie; Bronner, Gisèle; Debroas, Didier

    2013-06-01

    The short-term variation in the community structure of freshwater small eukaryotes (0.2-5 μm) was investigated in a mesotrophic lake every 2-3 days over one summer by coupling three molecular methods: 454 amplicon pyrosequencing, qPCR and TSA-FISH. The pyrosequencing approach unveiled a much more extensive small-eukaryotic diversity (991 OTUs) than has been described previously. The vast majority of the diversity described was represented by rare OTUs (≤ 0.01% of reads) belonging primarily to Cryptomycota, Dikarya and photosynthetic organisms, which were never detected as abundant in any of the samples. The small eukaryote community was characterized by a continual and important reassembly. These rearrangements involved the 20 'core taxa' (≥ 1% of reads), and, were essentially due to a handful of OTUs that were detected in intermediate abundance (0.01-1% of reads) and sporadically in dominant taxa. Putative bacterivorous (Ciliophora and Cercozoa) as well as parasitic and saprotrophic taxa (Perkinsozoa and Cryptomycota) were involved in these changes of diversity. A putative infection of microalgae by a lacustrine perkinsozoan was also reported for the first time in this study. Open questions regarding both the patterns that govern the rapid small eukaryote reassemblies and the possible biogeography of these organisms arise from this study.

  14. Behavior control in the sensorimotor loop with short-term synaptic dynamics induced by self-regulating neurons

    PubMed Central

    Toutounji, Hazem; Pasemann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The behavior and skills of living systems depend on the distributed control provided by specialized and highly recurrent neural networks. Learning and memory in these systems is mediated by a set of adaptation mechanisms, known collectively as neuronal plasticity. Translating principles of recurrent neural control and plasticity to artificial agents has seen major strides, but is usually hampered by the complex interactions between the agent's body and its environment. One of the important standing issues is for the agent to support multiple stable states of behavior, so that its behavioral repertoire matches the requirements imposed by these interactions. The agent also must have the capacity to switch between these states in time scales that are comparable to those by which sensory stimulation varies. Achieving this requires a mechanism of short-term memory that allows the neurocontroller to keep track of the recent history of its input, which finds its biological counterpart in short-term synaptic plasticity. This issue is approached here by deriving synaptic dynamics in recurrent neural networks. Neurons are introduced as self-regulating units with a rich repertoire of dynamics. They exhibit homeostatic properties for certain parameter domains, which result in a set of stable states and the required short-term memory. They can also operate as oscillators, which allow them to surpass the level of activity imposed by their homeostatic operation conditions. Neural systems endowed with the derived synaptic dynamics can be utilized for the neural behavior control of autonomous mobile agents. The resulting behavior depends also on the underlying network structure, which is either engineered or developed by evolutionary techniques. The effectiveness of these self-regulating units is demonstrated by controlling locomotion of a hexapod with 18 degrees of freedom, and obstacle-avoidance of a wheel-driven robot. PMID:24904403

  15. Reconstruction of Holocene short-term thermokarst dynamics in Central Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, M.; Rudaya, N.; Wetterich, S.; Schmidt, J.; Frolova, L.; Strauss, J.; Zielhofer, C.; Fedorov, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reconstruct Holocene thermokarst and alas evolution, their influencing factors and environmental conditions in Central Yakutia. Sediment cores were drilled down to 3-4 m depth and sampled from a large alas basin on the eastside of the Lena River valley; the alas Khara Bulgunnyakh (61.835215°N/130.647431°E). A multiproxy approach was applied to analyze the sedimentological and biogeochemical characteristics. One core drilled in a small pingo was additionally investigated for micropalaeontological proxies (pollen, ostracods, ephippia, diatoms) to determine Holocene environmental and thermokarst lake history and its contribution to alas evolution. Organic material and bulk sediment for selected samples were dated with the AMS method to determine 14C ages for thermokarst deposits and age-depth modeling was done for the pingo core. Our results point to small-scale varying depositional environments and predominantly lateral expansion in the edge region of rapidly growing small thermokarst lakes and basins by thermo-erosional processes during the Holocene. Their coalescence results finally in the development of the Khara Bulgunnyakh alas, which today cover an area of about 1.5 km². Clear evidence for long-lasting and stable lacustrine conditions was not obtained. The results of the 14C dating confirm an extensive deposition of reworked late Pleistocene sediments in peripheral basin zones during thermokarst lake extension, while the basin center is characterized by autochthonous thaw subsidence of Yedoma permafrost. Lacustrine fossil data of the KB7 core confirm lake presence between 6550 and 6350 cal yr BP that rapidly emerged and disappeared during the Holocene climatic optimum. The presented study emphasize that alas and thermokarst lake evolution in the Central Yakutia were limited to short-term phases of forcing climatic conditions that lead to very active thermokarst processes and rapid but locally variable landscape modification

  16. Modeling Long-Term Fluvial Incision : Shall we Care for the Details of Short-Term Fluvial Dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, D.; Davy, P.

    2008-12-01

    Fluvial incision laws used in numerical models of coupled climate, erosion and tectonics systems are mainly based on the family of stream power laws for which the rate of local erosion E is a power function of the topographic slope S and the local mean discharge Q : E = K Qm Sn. The exponents m and n are generally taken as (0.35, 0.7) or (0.5, 1), and K is chosen such that the predicted topographic elevation given the prevailing rates of precipitation and tectonics stay within realistic values. The resulting topographies are reasonably realistic, and the coupled system dynamics behaves somehow as expected : more precipitation induces increased erosion and localization of the deformation. Yet, if we now focus on smaller scale fluvial dynamics (the reach scale), recent advances have suggested that discharge variability, channel width dynamics or sediment flux effects may play a significant role in controlling incision rates. These are not factored in the simple stream power law model. In this work, we study how these short- term details propagate into long-term incision dynamics within the framework of surface/tectonics coupled numerical models. To upscale the short term dynamics to geological timescales, we use a numerical model of a trapezoidal river in which vertical and lateral incision processes are computed from fluid shear stress at a daily timescale, sediment transport and protection effects are factored in, as well as a variable discharge. We show that the stream power law model might still be a valid model but that as soon as realistic effects are included such as a threshold for sediment transport, variable discharge and dynamic width the resulting exponents m and n can be as high as 2 and 4. This high non-linearity has a profound consequence on the sensitivity of fluvial relief to incision rate. We also show that additional complexity does not systematically translates into more non-linear behaviour. For instance, considering only a dynamical width

  17. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    -body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

  18. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Jackson J.; Bartlett, Jonathan D.; Hanson, Erik D.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Bishop, David J.

    2016-01-01

    -body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training. PMID:27857692

  19. Temporal resilience and dynamics of anaerobic methane-oxidizing microbial communities to short-term changes in methane partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasek, S.; Tiantian, Y.; Torres, M. E.; Colwell, F. S.; Wang, F.; Liang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Marine sediments produce tens to hundreds of teragrams of methane annually, which is released from the seabed at thousands of cold seeps distributed globally along continental margins. Around 80-90% of this methane is consumed in shallower sediment layers before reaching the hydrosphere, in a microbially-mediated process known as anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) However, cold seeps appear to exhibit temporal variation in gas flux intensity, and AOM filter efficiency at cold seeps generally decreases with fluid flow rate. To our knowledge, the degree to which temporal heterogeneity in subsurface methane flux stimulates AOM community growth and adaptation to increased methane concentrations has not been investigated. Static high-pressure bioreactors were used to incubate sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) and methanogenic zone sediments underlying a Mediterranean mud volcano gas flare under in situ temperature and pressure at 8 MPa methane. Sulfide production rates of 0.4 μmol/cm3/day in both sediment regimes after 4 months of incubation suggested the resilience of the marine subsurface methane filter may extend well below the SMTZ (40 cm). Similar incubations of SMTZ samples from below a gas flare off Svalbard at saturating (3.8 MPa) and 0.2 MPa methane are being sampled after 1 week, 4 weeks, and 4 months; sulfide production rates of 8-18 nmol/cm3/day were first observed after 4 weeks of incubation. Sediment samples at all specified time points for both sets of incubations were collected for nucleic acid extraction and cell fixation. Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are expected dominant taxa in enriched and non-enriched communities. 16S rDNA community analysis is expected to reveal additional microbial players involved in the short-term adaptation to higher methane partial pressures in the marine subsurface. Increased AOM community activity (RNA/DNA ratio) and copy numbers of methane cycling transcripts (mcr

  20. Short-term predictions by statistical methods in regions of varying dynamical error growth in a chaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, A. K.; Singh, U. P.; Tiwari, A.; Dwivedi, S.; Joshi, M. K.; Tripathi, K. C.

    2015-08-01

    In a nonlinear, chaotic dynamical system, there are typically regions in which an infinitesimal error grows and regions in which it decays. If the observer does not know the evolution law, recourse is taken to non-dynamical methods, which use the past values of the observables to fit an approximate evolution law. This fitting can be local, based on past values in the neighborhood of the present value as in the case of Farmer-Sidorowich (FS) technique, or it can be global, based on all past values, as in the case of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Short-term predictions are then made using the approximate local or global mapping so obtained. In this study, the dependence of statistical prediction errors on dynamical error growth rates is explored using the Lorenz-63 model. The regions of dynamical error growth and error decay are identified by the bred vector growth rates or by the eigenvalues of the symmetric Jacobian matrix. The prediction errors by the FS and ANN techniques in these two regions are compared. It is found that the prediction errors by statistical methods do not depend on the dynamical error growth rate. This suggests that errors using statistical methods are independent of the dynamical situation and the statistical methods may be potentially advantageous over dynamical methods in regions of low dynamical predictability.

  1. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term memory, and prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-09-18

    The broader purpose of this study was to examine the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term retrospective memory and prospective memory. Among a sample of 88 young adult participants, 22 were randomized into one of four different groups: exercise before learning, control group, exercise during learning, and exercise after learning. The retrospective assessments (learning, short-term and long-term memory) were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Long-term memory including a 20-min and 24-hr follow-up assessment. Prospective memory was assessed using a time-based procedure by having participants contact (via phone) the researchers at a follow-up time period. The exercise stimulus included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. High-intensity exercise prior to memory encoding (vs. exercise during memory encoding or consolidation) was effective in enhancing long-term memory (for both 20-min and 24-h follow-up assessments). We did not observe a differential temporal effect of high-intensity exercise on short-term memory (immediate post-memory encoding), learning or prospective memory. The timing of high-intensity exercise may play an important role in facilitating long-term memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Behavioral Type of a Top Predator Drives the Short-Term Dynamic of Intraguild Predation.

    PubMed

    Michalko, Radek; Pekár, Stano

    2017-03-01

    Variation in behavior among individual top predators (i.e., the behavioral type) can strongly shape pest suppression in intraguild predation (IGP). However, the effect of a top predator's behavioral type-namely, foraging aggressiveness (number of killed divided by prey time) and prey choosiness (preference degree for certain prey type)-on the dynamic of IGP may interact with the relative abundances of top predator, mesopredator, and pest. We investigated the influence of the top predator's behavioral type on the dynamic of IGP in a three-species system with a top predator spider, a mesopredator spider, and a psyllid pest using a simulation model. The model parameters were estimated from laboratory experiments and field observations. The top predator's behavioral type altered the food-web dynamics in a context-dependent manner. The system with an aggressive/nonchoosy top predator, without prey preferences between pest and mesopredator, suppressed the pest more when the top predator to mesopredator abundance ratio was high. In contrast, the system with a timid/choosy top predator that preferred the pest to the mesopredator was more effective when the ratio was low. Our results show that the behavioral types and abundances of interacting species need to be considered together when studying food-web dynamics, because they evidently interact. To improve biocontrol efficiency of predators, research on the alteration of their behavioral types is needed.

  3. A Dynamic Model of Reaction Time in a Short-Term Memory Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, John B; Troyer, Rod

    1994-01-01

    Illustrates some of the analytic tools and conventions associated with the construction and evaluation of dynamic models of the processes underlying learning, memory, and development. Describes a study finding that children may exhibit slower disintegration of verbatim memory traces than adults due to interference; however, adults may be more…

  4. Effects of treadmill exercise-intensity on short-term memory in the rats born of the lipopolysaccharide-exposed maternal rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijeong; Sung, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-01-01

    Maternal infection is an important factor causing neonatal brain injury and later developmental disability. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on short-term memory, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rats born of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed maternal rats. The rats were divided into six groups: control group, mild-intensity exercise group, moderate-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed group, maternal LPS-exposed and mild-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed and moderate-intensity exercise group. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The exercise load consisted of running at the speed of 8 m/min for the mild-intensity exercise groups and 14 m/min for moderate-intensity exercise groups. The latency in the step-down avoidance task was deter-mined for the short-term memory. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2′-deoxyuridine was performed to determine hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Western blot analysis was performed for the detection of BDNF and TrkB expression. In the present study, tread-mill exercise improved short-term memory deteriorated by maternal LPS exposure. Treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. Treadmill exercise increased BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. These effects of treadmill exercise were similarly appeared at both mild-intensity and moderate-intensity. PMID:26730379

  5. Modeling short-term dynamics and variability for realistic interactive facial animation.

    PubMed

    Stoiber, Nicolas; Breton, Gaspard; Seguier, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    Modern modeling and rendering techniques have produced nearly photorealistic face models, but truly expressive digital faces also require natural-looking movements. Virtual characters in today's applications often display unrealistic facial expressions. Indeed, facial animation with traditional schemes such as keyframing and motion capture demands expertise. Moreover, the traditional schemes aren't adapted to interactive applications that require the real-time generation of context-dependent movements. A new animation system produces realistic expressive facial motion at interactive speed. The system relies on a set of motion models controlling facial-expression dynamics. The models are fitted on captured motion data and therefore retain the dynamic signature of human facial expressions. They also contain a nondeterministic component that ensures the variety of the long-term visual behavior. This system can efficiently animate any synthetic face. The video illustrates interactive use of a system that generates facial-animation sequences.

  6. Short-term and long-term vital outcomes of cirrhotic patients admitted to an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Filloux, Bruno; Chagneau-Derrode, Carine; Ragot, Stéphanie; Voultoury, Julien; Beauchant, Michel; Silvain, Christine; Robert, René

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate short-term and long-term vital outcomes of cirrhotic patients admitted to a general ICU, to evaluate the prognostic value of severity scores and to identify risk factors associated with death. Observational retrospective single-center epidemiological study. All cirrhotic patients admitted to the ICU were eligible for the study. Clinical data, general ICU severity scores, and liver-specific severity scores were recorded. The mortality rate was analyzed during the stay in ICU, at day 28 and month 6 after admission. Risk factors for death were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. During the study period, 86 cirrhotic patients were admitted to the ICU. The in-ICU, day-28 and month-6 mortality rates were 37, 48, and 60%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, mechanical ventilation, the prothrombin time, and the plasma albumin level on admission were associated with the in-ICU mortality, whereas only the plasma albumin level was associated with the 6-month mortality [odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval (0.70-0.92)]. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was more predictive than liver-specific scores for mortality in the ICU, but not at day 28 or month 6. ICU admission should not be ruled out for patients with complicated cirrhosis. Although common in cirrhotic patients, low plasma albumin level was the only factor independently associated with short-term and long-term mortalities.

  7. Detecting causality from nonlinear dynamics with short-term time series.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huanfei; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    2014-12-12

    Quantifying causality between variables from observed time series data is of great importance in various disciplines but also a challenging task, especially when the observed data are short. Unlike the conventional methods, we find it possible to detect causality only with very short time series data, based on embedding theory of an attractor for nonlinear dynamics. Specifically, we first show that measuring the smoothness of a cross map between two observed variables can be used to detect a causal relation. Then, we provide a very effective algorithm to computationally evaluate the smoothness of the cross map, or "Cross Map Smoothness" (CMS), and thus to infer the causality, which can achieve high accuracy even with very short time series data. Analysis of both mathematical models from various benchmarks and real data from biological systems validates our method.

  8. Detecting Causality from Nonlinear Dynamics with Short-term Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huanfei; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying causality between variables from observed time series data is of great importance in various disciplines but also a challenging task, especially when the observed data are short. Unlike the conventional methods, we find it possible to detect causality only with very short time series data, based on embedding theory of an attractor for nonlinear dynamics. Specifically, we first show that measuring the smoothness of a cross map between two observed variables can be used to detect a causal relation. Then, we provide a very effective algorithm to computationally evaluate the smoothness of the cross map, or “Cross Map Smoothness” (CMS), and thus to infer the causality, which can achieve high accuracy even with very short time series data. Analysis of both mathematical models from various benchmarks and real data from biological systems validates our method. PMID:25501646

  9. Detecting Causality from Nonlinear Dynamics with Short-term Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Huanfei; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying causality between variables from observed time series data is of great importance in various disciplines but also a challenging task, especially when the observed data are short. Unlike the conventional methods, we find it possible to detect causality only with very short time series data, based on embedding theory of an attractor for nonlinear dynamics. Specifically, we first show that measuring the smoothness of a cross map between two observed variables can be used to detect a causal relation. Then, we provide a very effective algorithm to computationally evaluate the smoothness of the cross map, or ``Cross Map Smoothness'' (CMS), and thus to infer the causality, which can achieve high accuracy even with very short time series data. Analysis of both mathematical models from various benchmarks and real data from biological systems validates our method.

  10. "Altered Short-Term Dynamics of Cardio-Respiratory Interaction during Propofol-Induced Yawning".

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chih-Hsiang; Yu, Pei-Yeh; Tu, Pai-Yu; Fan, Kuo-Tung; Luk, Hsiang-Ning; Kao, Tsair

    2012-06-30

    "Cardiac and respiratory oscillations have been shown to interact with each other. This interaction could reflect autonomic nervous system functionality. Propofol-induced yawning during anesthesia induction seems to be associated with sympathetic activation. Presumptively, there is high linearity among interaction of different physiologic system behaviors. Recently, investigators used coherence analysis to quantify the existence and strength of linearity between system signals for study of cardio-respiratory interaction under different physiological conditions. In this investigation, we used a method of time-frequency coherence function to analyze ECG and respiration signals to investigate the linearity of cardio-respiratory dynamics in patients undergoing routine propofol induction procedures for elective surgery. In this prospective, observational clinical study, a total of 84 eligible patients were enrolled. The patients were categorized into yawning and no-yawning groups during propofol induction. During induction, both groups demonstrated significant reduction in high frequency coherence (coh-HF) with simultaneously significant increase in very low frequency coherence (coh-VLF) compared to the pre-induction period. As yawning occurred, the yawning group had more significant changes of cardio-respiratory coherences than the no-yawning group at coh-LF and coh-VLF bands. The yawning group also showed loss of linearity at high frequency band (coh-HF > 0.5) as compared with the pre-induction period, and also showed increases in linearity at low (coh-LF > 0.5) and very low (coh-VLF > 0.5) frequency bands compared with the no-yawning group. Propofol-induced yawning alters cardio-respiratory dynamics with changes of linearity between cardio-vascular and respiratory system behaviors."

  11. The relation between short-term emotion dynamics and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Marlies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Not only how good or bad people feel on average, but also how their feelings fluctuate across time is crucial for psychological health. The last 2 decades have witnessed a surge in research linking various patterns of short-term emotional change to adaptive or maladaptive psychological functioning, often with conflicting results. A meta-analysis was performed to identify consistent relationships between patterns of short-term emotion dynamics-including patterns reflecting emotional variability (measured in terms of within-person standard deviation of emotions across time), emotional instability (measured in terms of the magnitude of consecutive emotional changes), and emotional inertia of emotions over time (measured in terms of autocorrelation)-and relatively stable indicators of psychological well-being or psychopathology. We determined how such relationships are moderated by the type of emotional change, type of psychological well-being or psychopathology involved, valence of the emotion, and methodological factors. A total of 793 effect sizes were identified from 79 articles (N = 11,381) and were subjected to a 3-level meta-analysis. The results confirmed that overall, low psychological well-being co-occurs with more variable (overall ρ̂ = -.178), unstable (overall ρ̂ = -.205), but also more inert (overall ρ̂ = -.151) emotions. These effect sizes were stronger when involving negative compared with positive emotions. Moreover, the results provided evidence for consistency across different types of psychological well-being and psychopathology in their relation with these dynamical patterns, although specificity was also observed. The findings demonstrate that psychological flourishing is characterized by specific patterns of emotional fluctuations across time, and provide insight into what constitutes optimal and suboptimal emotional functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be

  13. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Masia, Lorenzo; Frascarelli, Flaminia; Morasso, Pietro; Di Rosa, Giuseppe; Petrarca, Maurizio; Castelli, Enrico; Cappa, Paolo

    2011-05-21

    It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be related not only to disturbance in

  14. Proteome Dynamics and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Salt Stress in Brassica napus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongjun; Guan, Rongzhan; Chu, Pu; Jiang, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Forty-four protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future. PMID:26691228

  15. Proteome Dynamics and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Salt Stress in Brassica napus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huan; Shao, Mingquan; He, Yongjun; Guan, Rongzhan; Chu, Pu; Jiang, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Forty-four protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future.

  16. Short-term EEG dynamics and neural generators evoked by navigational images

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Axelle; Cevallos, Carlos; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Caharel, Stéphanie; Dan, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The ecological environment offered by virtual reality is primarily supported by visual information. The different image contents and their rhythmic presentation imply specific bottom-up and top-down processing. Because these processes already occur during passive observation we studied the brain responses evoked by the presentation of specific 3D virtual tunnels with respect to 2D checkerboard. For this, we characterized electroencephalograhy dynamics (EEG), the evoked potentials and related neural generators involved in various visual paradigms. Time-frequency analysis showed modulation of alpha-beta oscillations indicating the presence of stronger prediction and after-effects of the 3D-tunnel with respect to the checkerboard. Whatever the presented image, the generators of the P100 were situated bilaterally in the occipital cortex (BA18, BA19) and in the right inferior temporal cortex (BA20). In checkerboard but not 3D-tunnel presentation, the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) was additionally recruited. P200 generators were situated in the temporal cortex (BA21) and the cerebellum (lobule VI/Crus I) specifically for the checkerboard while the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA36) and the cerebellum (lobule IV/V and IX/X) were involved only during the 3D-tunnel presentation. For both type of image, P300 generators were localized in BA37 but also in BA19, the right BA21 and the cerebellar lobule VI for only the checkerboard and the left BA20-BA21 for only the 3D-tunnel. Stronger P300 delta-theta oscillations recorded in this later situation point to a prevalence of the effect of changing direction over the proper visual content of the 3D-tunnel. The parahippocampal gyrus (BA36) implicated in navigation was also identified when the 3D-tunnel was compared to their scrambled versions, highlighting an action-oriented effect linked to navigational content. PMID:28632774

  17. Short-term EEG dynamics and neural generators evoked by navigational images.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Axelle; Cevallos, Carlos; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Caharel, Stéphanie; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The ecological environment offered by virtual reality is primarily supported by visual information. The different image contents and their rhythmic presentation imply specific bottom-up and top-down processing. Because these processes already occur during passive observation we studied the brain responses evoked by the presentation of specific 3D virtual tunnels with respect to 2D checkerboard. For this, we characterized electroencephalograhy dynamics (EEG), the evoked potentials and related neural generators involved in various visual paradigms. Time-frequency analysis showed modulation of alpha-beta oscillations indicating the presence of stronger prediction and after-effects of the 3D-tunnel with respect to the checkerboard. Whatever the presented image, the generators of the P100 were situated bilaterally in the occipital cortex (BA18, BA19) and in the right inferior temporal cortex (BA20). In checkerboard but not 3D-tunnel presentation, the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) was additionally recruited. P200 generators were situated in the temporal cortex (BA21) and the cerebellum (lobule VI/Crus I) specifically for the checkerboard while the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA36) and the cerebellum (lobule IV/V and IX/X) were involved only during the 3D-tunnel presentation. For both type of image, P300 generators were localized in BA37 but also in BA19, the right BA21 and the cerebellar lobule VI for only the checkerboard and the left BA20-BA21 for only the 3D-tunnel. Stronger P300 delta-theta oscillations recorded in this later situation point to a prevalence of the effect of changing direction over the proper visual content of the 3D-tunnel. The parahippocampal gyrus (BA36) implicated in navigation was also identified when the 3D-tunnel was compared to their scrambled versions, highlighting an action-oriented effect linked to navigational content.

  18. Short-term motor learning of dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Geuze, Reint H

    2015-03-01

    To explore the differences in learning a dynamic balance task between children with and without probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) from different cultural backgrounds. Twenty-eight Dutch children with DCD (p-DCD-NL), a similar group of 17 South African children (p-DCD-SA) and 21 Dutch typically developing children (TD-NL) participated in the study. All children performed the Wii Fit protocol. The slope of the learning curve was used to estimate motor learning for each group. The protocol was repeated after six weeks. Level of motor skill was assessed with the Movement ABC-2. No significant difference in motor learning rate was found between p-DCD-NL and p-DCD-SA, but the learning rate of children with p-DCD was slower than the learning rate of TD children. Speed-accuracy trade off, as a way to improve performance by slowing down in the beginning was only seen in the TD children, indicating that TD children and p-DCD children used different strategies. Retention of the level of learned control of the game after six weeks was found in all three groups after six weeks. The learning slope was associated with the level of balance skill for all children. This study provides evidence that children with p-DCD have limitations in motor learning on a complex balance task. In addition, the data do not support the contention that learning in DCD differs depending on cultural background. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The short-term dynamics of social organization in preschool triads.

    PubMed

    McLoyd, V C; Thomas, E A; Warren, D

    1984-06-01

    Sequential dependencies in solitary and interactive states of social organization were examined as a function of age, sex, and type of toy in 12 triads of 3 1/2- and 5-year-old children. Each triad was observed during 2 30-min sessions, one in which objects with highly specific functions (e.g., dolls, trucks) were available, and one in which objects with relatively ambiguous functions (e.g., pipe cleaners, cardboard cylinders) were present. The results indicated that, while old and young triads did not differ in the tendency to initiate triadic interaction when the preceding state was solitary, old triads were more likely than young triads to maintain the triadic state and to shift to that state from the dyadic state. Boy triads were more likely than girl triads to remain in a solitary state and less likely to shift to and remain in a dyadic state, though no sex difference was found in the transition probabilities when the preceding state was triadic. Triads were more likely to remain in a solitary state in the presence of high-specificity toys than in the presence of low-specificity toys. Verbal metacommunication was more frequent among old triads than young triads, and it facilitated maintenance, but not initiation, of interactive states. The distinction between initiation and maintenance tendencies was formalized in a Markov model of the dynamics of social organization, and the parameter estimates yielded by the model were used to provide a simplified description of the "main" effects of age, sex, and type of toy. It is argued that models such as this one are useful in circumventing certain restrictions on the possible interpretations of raw sequential statistics.

  20. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E; Bourne, Jessica E; Voth, Elizabeth; Little, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P < 0.001) and lowered plasma fructosamine (P < 0.05). Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (TLR4) expression was reduced on lymphocytes and monocytes after both HIIT and MICT (P < 0.05) and on neutrophils after MICT (P < 0.01). TLR2 on lymphocytes was reduced after HIIT and MICT (P < 0.05). Plasma inflammatory cytokines were unchanged after training in both groups, but MICT led to a reduction in fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05, 5.9 ± 1.0 vs. 5.6 ± 1.0 mmol/l, pre vs. post). Ten days of either HIIT or MICT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose.

  1. Short-term variations in the dynamics of Bowdoin Glacier in northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minowa, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Shin; Sawagaki, Takanobu; Tsutaki, Shun; Sakakibara, Daiki

    2016-04-01

    Tidewater glaciers in Greenland ice sheet are rapidly retreating by under the influence of changes in ice dynamics. For example, Bowdoin Glacier began rapid retreat in 2008, which was accompanied by significant acceleration near the glacier front. Submarine melting and ice-mélange weakening are suspected as triggering mechanisms of the rapid retreat of tidewater glaciers in the Greenland ice sheet, but details of processes at the ice-ocean interface are poorly understood. To better understand these processes, we measured ice-front position of Bowdoin Glacier in northwestern Greenland and glacier/ice-mélange movement in front of the glacier. The glacier/ice-mélange measurement was performed by processing 3-hourly photographs taken by a time-lapse camera operated over two years since July 2013. We also operated a dual-frequency GPS at 3 km from the calving front to measure ice speed from May to July in 2014 and 2015. The image analysis revealed clear seasonal variations in the ice-front position with an amplitude of ~200 m. Seasonal changes were also observed in ice speed along the center of the glacier (amplitude ~50%). During summer, the ice-front position was relatively stable, but retreated occasionally by large calving events. These events occurred near upwelling of subglacial discharge, where a large submarine melt rate is expected. The glacier began to advance in September approximately when daily mean air temperature dropped below 0°C. The glacier advanced the most in winter when the fjord was covered by ice-mélange. After winter, extended portion of the glacier rapidly disintegrated by a few calving events. Such event coincided with onset of ice-mélange movement in front of the glacier. This movement occurs when air temperature above 0°C and high wind speed were observed, suggesting the calving event was due to decrease in the mechanical support from the ice-mélange. These results indicate both ice-mélange and submarine melting play roles in

  2. Anomalous short-term increases in the galactic cosmic ray intensity: Are they related to the interplanetary magnetic cloud-like structures?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.; Signorini, C.; Storini, M.; Villoresi, G.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-one short-term increases (time duration 24 hours and amplitude up to 5%) in the galactic cosmic ray intensity, occurring inside Forbush decreases events, have been identified over the period 1966 - 1977. These increases are highly anisotropic and occur after the compression region following the shock; the interplanetary medium is characterized by intense ( 10 nT) and higly fluctuating magnetic field B, high velocity, low density and temperature (flare ejecta piston?). These B-fluctuations seem to be ordered variations which could be representative of magnetic clouds. Also the large cosmic ray increase occurring on 17-18 September 1979, belongs to this category of events.

  3. Comparison of methods for editing of ectopic beats in measurements of short-term non-linear heart rate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tarkiainen, Tuula H; Kuusela, Tom A; Tahvanainen, Kari U O; Hartikainen, Juha E K; Tiittanen, Pekka; Timonen, Kirsi L; Vanninen, Esko J

    2007-03-01

    Non-linear heart rate (HR) dynamics characterizes the fractal properties and complexity of the variations in HR. Ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats might introduce a mathematical artefact to the analyses on sinus rhythm. We therefore evaluated the effects of different editing practices for ectopic beats such that 753 40-min ECG recordings were (i) not edited for the ectopic beats, or the ectopic beats were edited with (ii) an interpolation or with (iii) a deletion method before the analyses of non-linear HR dynamics. The non-linear HR dynamics analyses included detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), approximate entropy, symbolic dynamics (SymDyn), fractal dimension and return map (RM). We found that the short-term scaling exponent (alpha1) of DFA, forbidden words of SymDyn and RM were sensitive measurements to the ectopic beats and there were strong correlations between these measurements and the number of ectopic beats. In addition, the unedited ectopic beats significantly lowered the stability of these measurements. However, the editing either with interpolation or deletion method corrected the measurements for the bias caused by the ectopic beats. On the contrary, the entropy measurements were not as sensitive to the ectopic beats. In conclusion, the ectopic beats affect the non-linear HR dynamics of sinus rhythm differently, causing a more marked bias in fractal than in complexity measurements of non-linear HR dynamics. This erroneous effect of ectopic beats can be corrected with a proper editing of these measurements. Therefore, there is an obvious need for standardized editing practices for ectopic beats before the analysis of non-linear HR dynamics.

  4. Lost and found: Short-term dynamics of the flora on 100 small islands in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipunov, Alexey; Volkova, Polina; Abramova, Liudmila; Borisova, Polina

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to uncover factors that influence short-term (decade) flora dynamics and species richness of northern marine islets characterized by poor flora and weak anthropogenic pressure. The study used presence-absence data of vascular plant species on 100 small uprising islets of the Kandalaksha Gulf of White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia). We investigated the influence of islands' attributes on species richness and rates of flora dynamics. Two island types were analyzed separately: younger, stone-like and older, islet-like (which generally are larger and have higher diversity of habitats). Sampled islands were studied via classical biogeographical per island approach and metapopulation per species approach. Stone-like islands had noticeably poorer flora with higher rates of immigration and extinction when compared to those of islet-like islands. The species number for islet-like islands correlated positively with number of habitats, abundance of different habitat types and island area. Species richness of stone-like islands correlated positively only with number of habitat types. Plant species associated with birds, crowberry thickets and coastal rocks were the most stable, and the species of disturbed habitats were significantly less stable. Floristic changes that have occurred have been caused by the massive establishment of new species rather than the extinction of pre-existing taxa. Thus, most of these islands are still in the colonization (assortative) stage. While we found no relationship between island area and species number for stone-like islands, this relationship was seen on islet-like islands.

  5. Is there any influence of personality disorder on the short term intensive group cognitive behavioral therapy of social phobia?

    PubMed

    Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Novak, Tomas; Pohlova, Libuse

    2011-03-01

    The treatment of personality disorder is repeatedly reported as less successful than the treatment of patients without personality disorder. Most clinicians believe that anxiety disorder in tandem with a personality disorder often leads to longer treatment, worsens the prognosis, and thus increases treatment costs. Our study was designed to compare the short-term effectiveness of therapy in patients suffering from social phobia with and without personality disorder. The specific aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a 6 week therapeutic program designed for social phobia (SSRIs and CBT) in patients suffering from social phobia with comorbid personality disorder (17 patients) and social phobia without comorbid personality disorder (18 patients). The patients were regularly assessed in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 using the CGI (Clinical Global Improvement) for severity, LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and in self-assessments BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory) and BDI (Beck Depression Inventory). Patients in both groups improved their scores in most of the assessment instruments used. A combination of CBT and pharmacotherapy proved to be the most effective treatment for patients suffering with social phobia with or without comorbid personality disorder. Treatment efficacy in patients with social phobia without personality disorder was significantly better than in the group with social phobia comorbid with personality disorder for CGI and specific inventory for social phobia - LSAS. The scores on the subjective depression inventory (BDI) also showed significantly greater decrease over the treatment in the group without personality disorder. The treatment effect between groups did not differ in subjective general anxiety scales BAI. Our study showed that patients suffering from social phobia and comorbid personality disorder showed a smaller decrease in specific social phobia symptomatology during treatment compared than patients with social phobia without personality

  6. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E.; Bourne, Jessica E.; Voth, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P < 0.001) and lowered plasma fructosamine (P < 0.05). Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (TLR4) expression was reduced on lymphocytes and monocytes after both HIIT and MICT (P < 0.05) and on neutrophils after MICT (P < 0.01). TLR2 on lymphocytes was reduced after HIIT and MICT (P < 0.05). Plasma inflammatory cytokines were unchanged after training in both groups, but MICT led to a reduction in fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05, 5.9 ± 1.0 vs. 5.6 ± 1.0 mmol/l, pre vs. post). Ten days of either HIIT or MICT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose. PMID:26139217

  7. Functional hoarseness in children: short-term play therapy with family dynamic counseling as therapy of choice.

    PubMed

    Kollbrunner, Jürg; Seifert, Eberhard

    2013-09-01

    Children with nonorganic voice disorders (NVDs) are treated mainly using direct voice therapy techniques such as the accent method or glottal attack changes and indirect methods such as vocal hygiene and voice education. However, both approaches tackle only the symptoms and not etiological factors in the family dynamics and therefore often enjoy little success. The aim of the "Bernese Brief Dynamic Intervention" (BBDI) for children with NVD was to extend the effectiveness of pediatric voice therapies with a psychosomatic concept combining short-term play therapy with the child and family dynamic counseling of the parents. This study compares the therapeutic changes in three groups where different procedures were used, before intervention and 1 year afterward: counseling of parents (one to two consultations; n = 24), Brief Dynamic Intervention on the lines of the BBDI (three to five play therapy sessions with the child plus two to four sessions with the parents; n = 20), and traditional voice therapy (n = 22). A Voice Questionnaire for Parents developed by us with 59 questions to be answered on a four-point Likert scale was used to measure the change. According to the parents' assessment, a significant improvement in voice quality was achieved in all three methods. Counseling of parents (A) appears to have led parents to give their child more latitude, for example, they stopped nagging the child or demanding that he/she should behave strictly by the rules. After BBDI (B), the mothers were more responsive to their children's wishes and the children were more relaxed and their speech became livelier. At home, they called out to them less often at a distance, which probably improved parent-child dialog. Traditional voice therapy (C) seems to have had a positive effect on the children's social competence. BBDI seems to have the deepest, widest, and therefore probably the most enduring therapeutic effect on children with NVD. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation

  8. Experience of affects predicting sense of self and others in short-term dynamic and cognitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Berggraf, Lene; Ulvenes, Pål G; Oktedalen, Tuva; Hoffart, Asle; Stiles, Tore; McCullough, Leigh; Wampold, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined whether levels of activating affects (AA) and inhibitory affects (IA) were related to change toward more compassionate and realistic levels of sense of self (SoS) and sense of others (SoO). The sample included 47 patients diagnosed with cluster C personality disorders, who received 40 sessions of either cognitive therapy or short-term dynamic therapy (see the randomized controlled trial study, Svartberg, Stiles, & Seltzer, 2004). A total of 927 videotaped sessions were rated with the use of the observational instrument, Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. Longitudinal multilevel modeling enabled the examination of both between-person effects and within-person changes in level of AA and IA. Patients with better ability to experience AA at the start of therapy displayed significantly higher SoS and SoO across sessions compared with other patients. Patients who experienced higher levels of IA at the start of therapy displayed lower levels of SoS across sessions. A patient experiencing more AA than usual for him/her self within a session predicted an increased level of SoS and SoO at the next measuring point. There were no different change patterns in the 2 treatment groups. Results suggest that focus within therapy sessions on increasing patients' AA can help facilitate change in SoS and SoO toward more compassionate and realistic quality. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Differential modulation of short-term synaptic dynamics by long-term potentiation at mouse hippocampal mossy fibre synapses.

    PubMed

    Gundlfinger, Anja; Leibold, Christian; Gebert, Katja; Moisel, Marion; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kempter, Richard

    2007-12-15

    Synapses continuously experience short- and long-lasting activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength. Long-term plasticity refers to persistent alterations in synaptic efficacy, whereas short-term plasticity (STP) reflects the instantaneous and reversible modulation of synaptic strength in response to varying presynaptic stimuli. The hippocampal mossy fibre synapse onto CA3 pyramidal cells is known to exhibit both a presynaptic, NMDA receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation (LTP) and a pronounced form of STP. A detailed description of their exact interdependence is, however, lacking. Here, using electrophysiological and computational techniques, we have developed a descriptive model of transmission dynamics to quantify plasticity at the mossy fibre synapse. STP at this synapse is best described by two facilitatory processes acting on time-scales of a few hundred milliseconds and about 10 s. We find that these distinct types of facilitation are differentially influenced by LTP such that the impact of the fast process is weakened as compared to that of the slow process. This attenuation is reflected by a selective decrease of not only the amplitude but also the time constant of the fast facilitation. We henceforth argue that LTP, involving a modulation of parameters determining both amplitude and time course of STP, serves as a mechanism to adapt the mossy fibre synapse to its temporal input.

  10. Boys have better short-term and long-term survival rates after intensive care admissions than girls.

    PubMed

    Johansson Frigyesi, E; Andersson, P; Frigyesi, A

    2017-08-22

    We investigated possible gender differences in paediatric intensive care morbidity-adjusted mortality. In this study, data on all 21 972 paediatric intensive care admissions in Sweden between 2008 and 2015 were analysed regarding morbidity-adjusted survival, using Cox regression, with age, gender and estimated mortality ratio as dependent variables and using the standardised mortality ratio at 90 days after admission. The data were obtained from the Swedish Intensive Care Registry. We found that boys had better overall survival than girls (hazard ratio 0.91 for boys, p = 0.035). In addition, the 90-day survival was also better for boys (standardised mortality ratio 0.85 for boys versus 1.02 for girls, p = 0.0014). The survival advantage was most evident in children less than a year old and for nonsurgical patients. The male advantage was also seen in children admitted with respiratory insufficiency and seizures and was furthermore independent of any concurrent cardiac condition. We did not find any gender difference in the intensity of care or length of stay when corrected for morbidity. This study showed that boys have better outcomes than girls after intensive care admissions. The difference does not seem to be based on inequality of care. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of short-term fatigue, induced by high-intensity exercise, on the profile of the ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Saya; Aizawa, Junya; Shimoda, Manabu; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atushi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fatigue may be an important contributing factor to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled lower limb fatigue, induced by a short-term, high-intensity exercise protocol, on the profile of the ground reaction force during landings from single-leg anterior drop-jumps. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy males, 18 to 24 years old, performed single-leg anterior drop-jumps, from a 20 cm height, under two conditions, ‘fatigue’ and ‘non-fatigue’. Short-term fatigue was induced by high-intensity interval cycling on an ergometer. Effects of fatigue on peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate were evaluated by paired t-test. [Results] Fatigue shortened the time-to-peak duration of the vertical ground reaction force by 10% (non-fatigue, 44.0 ± 16.8 ms; fatigue, 39.6 ± 15.8 ms). Fatigue also yielded a 3.6% lowering in peak vertical ground reaction force and 9.4% increase in loading rate, although these effects were not significant. [Conclusion] The effects of fatigue in reducing time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps may increase the risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in males. PMID:28174454

  12. Effect of short-term fatigue, induced by high-intensity exercise, on the profile of the ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Saya; Aizawa, Junya; Shimoda, Manabu; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atushi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] Fatigue may be an important contributing factor to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled lower limb fatigue, induced by a short-term, high-intensity exercise protocol, on the profile of the ground reaction force during landings from single-leg anterior drop-jumps. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy males, 18 to 24 years old, performed single-leg anterior drop-jumps, from a 20 cm height, under two conditions, 'fatigue' and 'non-fatigue'. Short-term fatigue was induced by high-intensity interval cycling on an ergometer. Effects of fatigue on peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate were evaluated by paired t-test. [Results] Fatigue shortened the time-to-peak duration of the vertical ground reaction force by 10% (non-fatigue, 44.0 ± 16.8 ms; fatigue, 39.6 ± 15.8 ms). Fatigue also yielded a 3.6% lowering in peak vertical ground reaction force and 9.4% increase in loading rate, although these effects were not significant. [Conclusion] The effects of fatigue in reducing time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps may increase the risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in males.

  13. Improvement of gait ability with a short-term intensive gait rehabilitation program using body weight support treadmill training in community dwelling chronic poststroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Naoki; Iizuka, Noboru; Saitou, Hideyuki; Tamaoka, Akira; Yanagi, Hisako

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Most previous studies have shown that body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) can improve gait speed poststroke patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a short-term intensive program using BWSTT among community dwelling poststroke survivors. [Subjects] Eighteen subjects participated in this study. The treatment group was composed of 10 subjects (2 women; 8 men; mean age, 59.1 ± 12.5 years; time since stroke onset, 35.3 ± 33.2 months), whereas the control group was made up of 8 subjects (3 women; 5 men; mean age, 59.8 ± 6.3 years; time since stroke onset, 39.3 ± 27.3 months). [Methods] The treatment group received BWSTT 3 times a week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 times), with each session lasting 20 minutes. The main outcome measures were maximum gait speed on a flat floor, cadence, and step length. [Results] No differences were observed in the baseline clinical data between the 2 groups. The gait speed in the treatment group was significantly improved compared with that in the control by 2-way ANOVA, while the other parameters showed no significant interaction. [Conclusion] These results suggested that short-term intensive gait rehabilitation using BWSTT was useful for improving gait ability among community dwelling poststroke subjects. PMID:25642063

  14. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  15. Monitoring of cadmium influence on ultra short-term growth dynamics of plants using a highly sensitive interferometric technique, SIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Kokge T. K. M.; Kadono, Hirofumi

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium(Cd) is an environmental contaminant heavy metal having high toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Cd on growth dynamics of plants in the order of sub-nanometers, using a novel optical interference technique, named as Statistical Interferometry Technique(SIT). In this study, a special attention is paid to the short-term growth fluctuation in measurements of the in-plane displacement of the leaf. In the experiments, Chinese chives(Allium Tuberosum) were used as samples, and the growth and its nanometric growth fluctuations were measured for Cd exposure. This nanometric fluctuation that was found in our previous study, is an intrinsic property of the plant and is referred to as nanometric intrinsic fluctuations(NIF). The effect of Cd on plant growth fluctuation, i.e., NIF of growth rate was observed for three days continuously by exposing their roots to four CdCl2 concentrations 0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1mM. The standard deviation(SD) of NIF of healthy leaf was 4.0nm/mm sec, and it reduced to 3.1nm/mm sec and 1.8nm/mm sec after 6 hours and 54 hours after exposing to 0.1mM Cd, respectively. For smaller concentration of 0.01mM, less reduction in SD of NIF was confirmed compared to those for 0.1mM. In addition, under 0.001mM, a significant recovery could be observed after a rapid reduction in the first 6 hours. The results imply that NIF can be a measure for heavy metal stress and is sensitive enough to detect the influence of smaller amount of Cd(from 0.001mM to 0.1mM) on plants in a very early stage.

  16. Short-term microbial dynamics in a drinking water plant treating groundwater with occasional high microbial loads.

    PubMed

    Besmer, Michael D; Hammes, Frederik

    2016-12-15

    Short-term fluctuations in bacterial concentrations in drinking water systems, occurring on time scales of hours-to-weeks, are essentially unexplored due to a lack of microbial monitoring tools that allow high frequency measurements. Here, we applied fully automated online flow cytometry to measure the total cell concentrations (TCC) in both raw water (karstic groundwater) and treated water (flocculation - ultrafiltration (UF) - ozonation - granular active carbon (GAC) filtration) during a period of 70 days at high temporal resolution (n > 4000 for both water types). We detected and characterized in considerable detail aperiodic fluctuations in the raw water following regional precipitation, with TCC increasing up to 50-fold from a dry weather baseline of approximately 120 cells μl(-1) to an event peak of > 5000 cells μl(-1). Moreover, we observed the buffering of the treatment plant against these fluctuations, but in addition we recorded a completely unexpected periodic fluctuation of TCC in the treated water after GAC filtration. We concluded that the latter was the result of fluctuating water abstraction from the treatment plant reservoir by two connected water utilities, which resulted in variations in water throughput in the plant. This in turn influenced bacterial detachment and dilution in the GAC filter. This study provides strong evidence of multiple different microbial dynamics occurring in a drinking water treatment system. Given numerous possible sources of natural and operational fluctuations in raw water and drinking water treatment plants, such microbial fluctuations should be expected in many systems. The high-frequency monitoring approach presented herein can improve the understanding and eventual mitigation of such fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  18. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  19. [Short-term efficacy and toxicity of Nimotuzumab combined with simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiming; Xue, Qiang; Chen, Xiaojue; Shi, Jian; Ma, Jianbo; Ji, Bin; Chen, Buyou

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy and toxicity of Nimotuzumab combined with simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in the treatment of locally advanced esophageal carcinoma. Twenty-nine patients with esophageal carcinoma were treated with SIB-IMRT. Planning gross target volume (PGTV) was given at a dose of 60 Gy/2.4 Gy/25 F and planning target volume (PTV) was given at a dose of 50 Gy/2 Gy/25 F. Nimotuzumab was given by intravenous drip at the dose of 200 mg, once a week before radiotherapy. Short-term efficacy and toxicity were evaluated in all patients. All patients completed the treatment successfully. Fourteen of them achieved a complete response (CR, 48.3%), 13 had a partial response (PR, 44.8%), 1 showed stable disease (SD, 3.6%), and 1 showed progressive disease (PD, 3.6%). The overall response rate (CR+ PR) was 93.1%. Most adverse reactions were radioactive esophagitis, radioactive dermatitis and bone marrow suppression (grade 1-2). Only 1 patient developed a slight skin rash. Nimotuzumab combined with SIB-IMRT is a safe and effective modality for locally advanced esophageal cancer. The patient is well tolerated and worthy of further clinical study.

  20. Dexmedetomidine preserves attention/calculation when used for cooperative and short-term intensive care unit sedation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Haley E; Gill, Randeep S; Murakami, Peter N; Thompson, Carol B; Lewin, John J; Mirski, Marek A

    2013-12-01

    Differential effects on cognition were recently demonstrated between dexmedetomidine (DEX) and propofol (PRO) when used for cooperative sedation. Propofol was found to reduce cognition, whereas DEX improved cognition. To further discriminate these effects, we evaluated the effect of PRO vs DEX in selected areas of cognition. This is a post hoc analysis of the Acute Neurologic Intensive Care Unit Sedation Trial and an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, crossover study, comparing the effect of PRO and DEX on cognition measure by the Johns Hopkins Adapted Cognitive Exam (ACE). A linear model analysis accounting for within-patient correlation of measures was used to estimate differences in ACE subscales between drugs. Propofol diminished adjusted scores on all ACE subscales (P < .05), whereas DEX improved adjusted scores selectively for attention/calculation (3.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-5.61; P < .01). The positive and significant difference in ACE scores between agents was present across subscales. Our findings indicate that DEX improved ACE attention/calculation subscale in awake patients receiving cooperative sedation. This is in contrast to the deterioration in all mean ACE subscale scores observed using PRO, suggesting DEX preserved cognitive function with specific preservation of focus and attention and allows for greater cognition compared with PRO across all cognitive domains. © 2013.

  1. Clinical Characteristics and Short-Term Outcomes of HIV Patients Admitted to an African Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nabukenya, Mary; Semogerere, Lameck; Nantume, Cecilia; Clarke, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In high-income countries, improved survival has been documented among intensive care unit (ICU) patients infected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV). There are no data from low-income country ICUs. We sought to identify clinical characteristics and survival outcomes among HIV patients in a low-income country ICU. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study of HIV infected patients admitted to a university teaching hospital ICU in Uganda. Medical records were reviewed. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Statistical significance was predetermined in reference to P < 0.05. Results. There were 101 HIV patients. Average length of ICU stay was 4 days and ICU mortality was 57%. Mortality in non-HIV patients was 28%. Commonest admission diagnoses were Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (58.4%), multiorgan failure (20.8%), and sepsis (20.8%). The mean Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score was 24. At multivariate analysis, APACHE II (OR 1.24 (95% CI: 1.1–1.4, P = 0.01)), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.14 (95% CI: 0.09–0.76, P = 0.01)), and ARDS (OR 4.5 (95% CI: 1.07–16.7, P = 0.04)) had a statistically significant association with mortality. Conclusion. ICU mortality of HIV patients is higher than in higher income settings and the non-HIV population. ARDS, APACHE II, and need for mechanical ventilation are significantly associated with mortality. PMID:27800179

  2. Short-Term Gains, Long-Term Pains: How Cues about State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore…

  3. Cholinergic modulation of local pyramid-interneuron synapses exhibiting divergent short-term dynamics in rat sensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Levy, Robert B; Reyes, Alex D; Aoki, Chiye

    2008-06-18

    Acetylcholine (ACh) influences attention, short-term memory, and sleep/waking transitions, through its modulatory influence on cortical neurons. It has been proposed that behavioral state changes mediated by ACh result from its selective effects on the intrinsic membrane properties of diverse cortical inhibitory interneuron classes. ACh has been widely shown to reduce the strength of excitatory (glutamatergic) synapses. But past studies using extracellular stimulation have not been able to examine the effects of ACh on local cortical connections important for shaping sensory processing. Here, using dual intracellular recording in slices of rat somatosensory cortex, we show that reduction of local excitatory input to inhibitory neurons by ACh is coupled to differences in the underlying short-term synaptic plasticity (STP). In synapses with short-term depression, where successive evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs; >5 Hz) usually diminish in strength (short-term depression), cholinergic agonist (5-10 microM carbachol (CCh)) reduced the amplitude of the first EPSP in an evoked train, but CCh's net effect on subsequent EPSPs rapidly diminished. In synapses where successive EPSPs increased in strength (facilitation), the effect of CCh on later EPSPs in an evoked train became progressively greater. The effect of CCh on both depressing and facilitating synapses was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist, 1-5 microM atropine. It is suggested that selective influence on STP contributes fundamentally to cholinergic "switching" between cortical rhythms that underlie different behavioral states.

  4. Short-Term Gains, Long-Term Pains: How Cues about State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore…

  5. Quantifying short-term dynamics of Parkinson's disease using self-reported symptom data from an Internet social network.

    PubMed

    Little, Max; Wicks, Paul; Vaughan, Timothy; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-24

    fluctuations versus time since diagnosis was modeled by using a gamma generalized linear model. Distributions of ages at diagnosis and UPDRS in the PLM and PD-DOC databases were broadly consistent. The PLM patients were systematically younger than the PD-DOC patients and showed increased symptom severity in the PD off state. The average fluctuation in symptoms (UPDRS Parts I and II) was 2.6 points at the time of diagnosis, rising to 5.9 points 16 years after diagnosis. This fluctuation exceeds the estimated minimal and moderate clinically important differences, respectively. Not all patients conformed to the current clinical picture of gradual, smooth changes: many patients had regimes where symptom severity varied in an unpredictable manner, or underwent large rapid changes in an otherwise more stable progression. This information about short-term PD symptom dynamics contributes new scientific understanding about the disease progression, currently very costly to obtain without self-administered Internet-based reporting. This understanding should have implications for the optimization of clinical trials into new treatments and for the choice of treatment decision timescales.

  6. Short-Term Variations of Cosmic-Ray Intensity During the Recent Deep Solar Minimum and the Previous Four Solar Minima: A Wavelet Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Y. P.; Badruddin

    2015-10-01

    The recent, unusual solar cycle and solar minima between Cycles 23 and 24 have been studied extensively. Wavelet analysis of hourly cosmic-ray intensity during the last five solar minima reveals a number of short-term variations with few temporal shifts in the periods. This study suggests that deviations with a one-solar-rotation period and its harmonics are small during the recent minimum. However, deviations are considerably larger during the other minima. Analysis also demonstrates that the behavior of active regions is nearly the same during the minima of Cycles 19, 20, 21, and 22. The results also suggest that regions outside the streamer stalk are significantly larger in the recent solar minimum as opposed to the other minima.

  7. Short-term efficacy and safety of low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy in erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zi-Jun; Tang, Liang-You; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Liang, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Ruo-Chen; Wang, Yu-Jie; Tang, Yong-Quan; Gao, Rui; Lu, Yi-Ping

    2017-04-06

    The role of low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LI-ESWT) in erectile dysfunction (ED) is not clearly determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of LI-ESWT for ED patients. Relevant studies were searched in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WANFANG and VIP databases. Effective rate in terms of International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EF) and Erectile Hardness Score (EHS) at about 1month after LI-ESWT was extracted from eligible studies for meta-analysis to calculate risk ratio (RR) of effective treatment in ED patients treated by LI-ESWT compared to those receiving sham-treatment. Overall fifteen studies were included in the review, of which four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were for meta-analysis. Effective treatment was 8.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.88-17.78] times more effective in the LI-ESWT group (n=176) than in the sham-treatment group (n=101) at about 1 month after the intervention in terms of EHS, while it was 2.50 (95% CI: 0.74-8.45) times more in the treatment group (n=121) than in the control group (n=89) in terms of IIEF-EF. Nine-week protocol with energy density of 0.09mJ/mm2 and 1500 pluses seemed to have better therapeutic effect than five-week protocol. No significant adverse event was reported. LI-ESWT, as a noninvasive treatment, has potential short-term therapeutic effect on patients with organic ED irrespective of sensitivity to PDE5is. Owing to the limited number and quality of the studies, more large-scale, well-designed and long-term follow-up time studies are needed to confirm our analysis. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  8. A model of order-selectivity based on dynamic changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition produced by short-term synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Goudar, Vishwa

    2014-01-01

    Determining the order of sensory events separated by a few hundred milliseconds is critical to many forms of sensory processing, including vocalization and speech discrimination. Although many experimental studies have recorded from auditory order-sensitive and order-selective neurons, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that universal properties of cortical synapses—short-term synaptic plasticity of excitatory and inhibitory synapses—are well suited for the generation of order-selective neural responses. Using computational models of canonical disynaptic circuits, we show that the dynamic changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition imposed by short-term plasticity lead to the generation of order-selective responses. Parametric analyses predict that among the forms of short-term plasticity expressed at excitatory-to-excitatory, excitatory-to-inhibitory, and inhibitory-to-excitatory synapses, the single most important contributor to order-selectivity is the paired-pulse depression of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs). A topographic model of the auditory cortex that incorporates short-term plasticity accounts for both context-dependent suppression and enhancement in response to paired tones. Together these results provide a framework to account for an important computational problem based on ubiquitous synaptic properties that did not yet have a clearly established computational function. Additionally, these studies suggest that disynaptic circuits represent a fundamental computational unit that is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information. PMID:25339707

  9. Dynamic control of synaptic vesicle replenishment and short-term plasticity by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-Munc13-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lipstein, Noa; Sakaba, Takeshi; Cooper, Benjamin H; Lin, Kun-Han; Strenzke, Nicola; Ashery, Uri; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Taschenberger, Holger; Neher, Erwin; Brose, Nils

    2013-07-10

    Short-term synaptic plasticity, the dynamic alteration of synaptic strength during high-frequency activity, is a fundamental characteristic of all synapses. At the calyx of Held, repetitive activity eventually results in short-term synaptic depression, which is in part due to the gradual exhaustion of releasable synaptic vesicles. This is counterbalanced by Ca(2+)-dependent vesicle replenishment, but the molecular mechanisms of this replenishment are largely unknown. We studied calyces of Held in knockin mice that express a Ca(2+)-Calmodulin insensitive Munc13-1(W464R) variant of the synaptic vesicle priming protein Munc13-1. Calyces of these mice exhibit a slower rate of synaptic vesicle replenishment, aberrant short-term depression and reduced recovery from synaptic depression after high-frequency stimulation. Our data establish Munc13-1 as a major presynaptic target of Ca(2+)-Calmodulin signaling and show that the Ca(2+)-Calmodulin-Munc13-1 complex is a pivotal component of the molecular machinery that determines short-term synaptic plasticity characteristics.

  10. Immediate Identification of Volcanic Eruption Intensity: Promising Test of a New Monitoring System Based on Short-Term Electrostatic Field Variations at the Active Volcano Popocatepetl, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, P.

    2006-12-01

    Experiments by the Physikalisch Vulkanologisches Labor (PVL) in Wuerzburg, Germany, have shown that the intensity of violent volcanic eruptions, occurring when magma undergoes brittle fragmentation, is mirrored within brief electrical charges that can be detected on a short timescale (ms). Laboratory studies and certain explosion experiments offer the opportunity to calibrate the energy release of volcanic eruptions. Based on these results, a new high-precision, low-cost, real-time surveillance system is developed and tested at the active volcano of Popocatepetl, Mexico. This volcano, situated about 60 km southeast of Mexico City, offers excellent testing conditions, erupting regularly and intensively. The system, which detects short-term electrostatic field gradients (dc voltage against local ground), mainly consists of an antenna and a specially- designed amplifier. Depending on eruption intensity, as little as two or three eruptions will provide a sufficient amount of data. Amount, size, and shape of erupted particles give important indications about the physical fragmentation process which formed the pyroclasts, and hence about the type and intensity of the eruption. The evaluation and analysis of the samples collected at the volcano after each documented eruption will be carried out at the PVL. This physics lab, with a specially-designed experimental setup, allows controlled explosion experiments wherein rock from lava or bombs - related to the sampled pyroclasts - will be melted and subsequently brought to explosion. The energy released during these laboratory experiments will be calibrated to Popocatepetl using the ejecta volume of the observed eruptions, allowing a correlation of the actual energy release to the registered electrical field data. The aims of the project are: (1) quantification of individual magma properties of Popocatepetl (2) on-line measurement of mechanical energy release and mass flux and (3) immediate risk assessment of ongoing volcanic

  11. Dynamics of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex at medium frequency and modification by short-term training.

    PubMed

    Shelhamer, M; Roberts, D C; Zee, D S

    2000-01-01

    We study here the effect of a short-term training paradigm on the gain and phase of the human translational VOR (the linear VOR: LVOR). Subjects were exposed to lateral sinusoidal translations on a sled, at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration. With subjects tracking a remembered target at 1.2 m, the LVOR (slow-phase) under these conditions typically has a phase lead or lag, and a gain that falls short of compensatory. To induce short-term adaptation (training), we presented an earth-fixed visual scene at 1.2 m during sinusoidal translation (x 1 viewing) for 20 minutes, so as to drive the LVOR toward compensatory phase and gain. We examined both the slow-phase and the saccadic responses to these stimuli. Testing after training showed changes in slow-component gain and phase which were mostly but not always in the compensatory direction. These changes were more consistent in naive subjects than in subjects who had previous LVOR experience. Changes in gain were seen with step as well as sinusoidal test stimuli; gain changes were not correlated with vergence changes. There was a strong correlation between gain changes and phase changes across subjects. Fast phases (catch-up saccades) formed a large component of the LVOR under our testing conditions (approximately 30% of the changes in gain but not in phase due to training.

  12. Dynamics of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex at medium frequency and modification by short-term training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.; Roberts, D. C.; Zee, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    We study here the effect of a short-term training paradigm on the gain and phase of the human translational VOR (the linear VOR: LVOR). Subjects were exposed to lateral sinusoidal translations on a sled, at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration. With subjects tracking a remembered target at 1.2 m, the LVOR (slow-phase) under these conditions typically has a phase lead or lag, and a gain that falls short of compensatory. To induce short-term adaptation (training), we presented an earth-fixed visual scene at 1.2 m during sinusoidal translation (x 1 viewing) for 20 minutes, so as to drive the LVOR toward compensatory phase and gain. We examined both the slow-phase and the saccadic responses to these stimuli. Testing after training showed changes in slow-component gain and phase which were mostly but not always in the compensatory direction. These changes were more consistent in naive subjects than in subjects who had previous LVOR experience. Changes in gain were seen with step as well as sinusoidal test stimuli; gain changes were not correlated with vergence changes. There was a strong correlation between gain changes and phase changes across subjects. Fast phases (catch-up saccades) formed a large component of the LVOR under our testing conditions (approximately 30% of the changes in gain but not in phase due to training.

  13. Dynamics of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex at medium frequency and modification by short-term training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.; Roberts, D. C.; Zee, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    We study here the effect of a short-term training paradigm on the gain and phase of the human translational VOR (the linear VOR: LVOR). Subjects were exposed to lateral sinusoidal translations on a sled, at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration. With subjects tracking a remembered target at 1.2 m, the LVOR (slow-phase) under these conditions typically has a phase lead or lag, and a gain that falls short of compensatory. To induce short-term adaptation (training), we presented an earth-fixed visual scene at 1.2 m during sinusoidal translation (x 1 viewing) for 20 minutes, so as to drive the LVOR toward compensatory phase and gain. We examined both the slow-phase and the saccadic responses to these stimuli. Testing after training showed changes in slow-component gain and phase which were mostly but not always in the compensatory direction. These changes were more consistent in naive subjects than in subjects who had previous LVOR experience. Changes in gain were seen with step as well as sinusoidal test stimuli; gain changes were not correlated with vergence changes. There was a strong correlation between gain changes and phase changes across subjects. Fast phases (catch-up saccades) formed a large component of the LVOR under our testing conditions (approximately 30% of the changes in gain but not in phase due to training.

  14. Short-term interval training at both lower and higher intensities in the severe exercise domain result in improvements in [Formula: see text] on-kinetics.

    PubMed

    Turnes, Tiago; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; de Oliveira Cruz, Rogério Santos; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; Pereira, Kayo Leonardo; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Although high-intensity interval training (HIT) seems to promote greater improvements in aerobic parameters than continuous training, the influence of exercise intensity on [Formula: see text] on-kinetics remains under investigation. After an incremental test, twenty-one recreationally trained cyclists performed several time-to-exhaustion tests to determine critical power (CP), and the highest intensity (I HIGH), and the lowest exercise duration (T LOW) at which [Formula: see text] is attained during constant exercise. Subjects also completed a series of step transitions to moderate- and heavy-intensity work rates to determine pulmonary [Formula: see text] on-kinetics. Surface electromyography (EMG) of vastus lateralis muscle and blood lactate accumulation (∆BLC) was measured during heavy exercise. Subjects were assigned to one of two 4-week work-matched training groups: the lower [105 % CP: n = 11; 4 × 5 min at 105 % CP (218 ± 39 W), 1 min recovery] or the upper [I HIGH: n = 10; 8 × 100 % I HIGH (355 ± 60 W), 1:2 work:recovery ratio] intensity of the severe exercise domain. The two interventions were similarly effective in reducing the phase II [Formula: see text] time constant during moderate (105 % CP: 34 ± 13 to 25 ± 8 s; I HIGH: 31 ± 9 to 23 ± 6 s) and heavy exercise (105 % CP: 25 ± 7 to 18 ± 5 s; I HIGH: 27 ± 7 to 16 ± 5 s) and in reducing the amplitude of [Formula: see text] slow component, EMG amplitude, and ∆BLC during heavy exercise. In conclusion, the short-term adjustments in response to step transitions to moderate and heavy exercise were independent of training intensity within the severe exercise domain.

  15. Impact of Short-Term Acidification on Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacterial Community Dynamics in Soilless Cultivation Media

    PubMed Central

    Levkovitch, Irit; Negreanu, Yael; Dowd, Scot; Frenk, Sammy; Silber, Avner

    2012-01-01

    Soilless medium-based horticulture systems are highly prevalent due to their capacity to optimize growth of high-cash crops. However, these systems are highly dynamic and more sensitive to physiochemical and pH perturbations than traditional soil-based systems, especially during nitrification associated with ammonia-based fertilization. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nitrification-generated acidification on ammonia oxidation rates and nitrifying bacterial community dynamics in soilless growth media. To achieve this goal, perlite soilless growth medium from a commercial bell pepper greenhouse was incubated with ammonium in bench-scale microcosm experiments. Initial quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers were significantly more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing archaea, and therefore, research focused on this group. Ammonia oxidation rates were highest between 0 and 9 days, when pH values dropped from 7.4 to 4.9. Pyrosequencing of betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing amoA gene fragments indicated that r-strategist-like Nitrosomonas was the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacterial genus during this period, seemingly due to the high ammonium concentration and optimal growth conditions in the soilless media. Reduction of pH to levels below 4.8 resulted in a significant decrease in both ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, with increased relative abundance of the r-strategist-like Nitrosospira. Nitrite oxidizers (Nitrospira and Nitrobacter) were on the whole more abundant and less sensitive to acidification than ammonia oxidizers. This study demonstrates that nitrification and nitrifying bacterial community dynamics in high-N-load intensive soilless growth media may be significantly different from those in in-terra agricultural systems. PMID:22773643

  16. Short-term effect of low-intensity, pulsed, electromagnetic fields on gait characteristics in older adults with low bone mineral density: a pilot randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Andrea; Giovale, Massimo; Ponte, Marco; Fratoni, Francesco; Tortorolo, Umberto; De Vincentiis, Armando; Bianchi, Gerolamo

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the short-term effects of a 10-min exposure to low-intensity, pulsed, electromagnetic fields (PEF) on gait characteristics in older adults with low bone mineral density. In a single-center, double-blind, randomized-controlled trial, community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 70 years were randomized (3:2 ratio) to receive a 10-min treatment with PEF (mean intensity 1.5 mW) or placebo. The following gait parameters were assessed at baseline and just after the intervention/placebo with the GAITRite Portable Walkway system: self-selected gait speed (cm/s), stride length (cm), support base (cm) and double support phase (s). In the intervention group (25 patients), both self-selected gait speed and stride length increased significantly from baseline, whereas the double support phase decreased. In the placebo group, all gait parameters except for support base remained unchanged. The mean percent increase (± standard deviation) of self-selected gait speed was significantly (P = 0.010) greater in the intervention group (20.1 ± 15.6) compared with the placebo group (10.5 ± 13.1), whereas no significant difference in the mean percent variation of the other parameters was found between the two groups. During the intervention, no adverse event was observed. A similar proportion of patients in the two groups reported one fall in the 30 days after the intervention/placebo. This is the first randomized-controlled trial showing the potential beneficial effects of PEF on gait characteristics in older adults. Further phase III randomized trials are warranted to establish their potential benefits (e.g. fall prevention) on fall-related health outcomes in elderly patients. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. The intriguing effects of time to glycemic goal in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes after short-term intensive insulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Xu, Mingtong; Lin, Xiuhong; Tang, Juying; Qi, Yiqin; Wan, Yan; Pan, Xiaofang; Chen, Xiaoyun; Ren, Meng; Yan, Li

    2016-08-31

    Short-term intensive insulin therapy is effective for type 2 diabetes because it offers the potential to achieve excellent glycemic control and improve β-cell function. We observed that the time to glycemic goal (TGG) was adjustable. Original data of 138 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients received intensive insulin therapy by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for 2-3 weeks were retrospectively collected. Subjects underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) pre and post treatment. The glycemic goal was achieved within 6 (4-8) days. Patients were divided into two groups by TGG above (TGG-slow) and below (TGG-fast) the median value. Patients in both groups had significantly better glycemic control. Compared with TGG-fast, TGG-slow required a few more total insulin and performed more improvement of HOMA-β and IVGTT-AUCIns, but less improvement of HOMA-IR and QUICKI. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that TGG was always an explanatory variable for the changes (HOMA-β, IVGTT-AUCIns, HOMA-IR and QUICKI). The hypoglycemia prevalence was lower in TGG-slow (1.48% vs. 3.40%, P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that individuals in TGG-slow had a lower risk of hypoglycemia (adjusted OR, 0.700; 95% CI, 0.567-0.864; P<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed that the ratio of the incremental insulin to glucose responses over the first 30 min during OGTT (ΔIns30/ΔG30), average insulin dose before achieving targets, initial insulin dose and LDL-c were independent predictors for TGG. It is intriguing to hypothesize that patients with fast time to glycemic goal benefit more in improving insulin sensitivity, but patients with slow time benefit more in improving β-cell function and reducing the risk of hypoglycemia.

  18. Aminotransferase levels in relation to short-term use of acetaminophen four grams daily in postoperative cardiothoracic patients in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, S J G M; Van Gulik, L; Van Dongen, E P A; Bruins, P; Tibboel, D; Knibbe, C A J

    2011-11-01

    A volunteer study suggested that taking paracetamol 4 g daily could result in elevated alanine aminotransferase plasma levels in a substantial proportion of healthy volunteers. The safety of this dose of paracetamol for acute postoperative pain remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the incidence of alanine aminotransferase elevations after short-term use of paracetamol 4 g daily, as part of the standard pain management protocol, for 93 consecutive patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Alanine aminotransferase levels and other liver function tests were measured preoperatively as baseline and once daily after surgery during the intensive care unit stay. Preoperative alanine aminotransferase levels of more than one time the upper limit of normal (ULN >40 U/l) was observed in 11% (n=10) of the patients but none of these baseline alanine aminotransferase levels exceeded three times the ULN (>3 x ULN). The average daily dose of paracetamol administered was 50 mg/kg (SD=16) after surgery. Postoperative alanine aminotransferase levels of >1 x ULN was observed in 17% (n=16), and 4% (n=4) exceeded >3 x ULN The other liver function tests of the latter four patients, including aspartate aminotransferase (range 173 to 5590 U/l), gamma-glutamyltransferase (range 56 to 103 U/l), lactate dehydrogenase (range 376 to 3518 U/l) and the International Normalised Ratio (range 2.0 to 6.6), were all abnormal. These four patients all had right ventricular failure or cardiogenic shock during the postoperative period which could explain the significant rises in alanine aminotransferase after surgery. In conclusion, the incidence of significant alanine aminotransferase elevations after using daily paracetamol as an analgesic agent for cardiac surgery, at a dose of 4 g per day, was low and mostly due to complications after surgery. Our results, albeit still very limited, provided some reassurance about the safety of paracetamol 4 g daily, as a supplementary analgesic agent for

  19. Dynamical Behavior of Discrete Bubble and Heat Transfer of Nucleate Pool Boiling in Short-Term Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2012-07-01

    Boiling in microgravity is an increasing significant subject of investigation. Motivation for the study comes not only from many potential space applications due to its high efficiency to transfer high heat flux with liquid-vapor phase change, but also from powerful platform of microgravity to reveal the mechanism of heat transfer underneath the phenomenon of boiling. In the present paper, the growth of a discrete bubble during nucleate pool boiling and heat transfer in short-term microgravity is studied experimentally utilizing the drop tower Beijing. A P-doped N-type square silicon chip with the dimensions of 10x10x0.5 mm ^{3} was used as the heater. Two 0.25-mm diameters copper wires for power supply was soldered to the side surfaces of the chip at the opposite ends. The normal resistant of the chip is 75 Ω. The chip was heated by using Joule effect. A D.C. power supply of constant current was used to input energy to the heater element. A 0.12-mm diameter, T-type thermocouple adhered on the centre of the backside of the chip was used for the measurement of wall temperature, while two other T-type thermocouples were used for the bulk liquid temperature. FC-72 was used as working fluid. The concentration of air was determined by using Henry law as 0.0046 moles gas/mole liquid. The pressure and the bulk liquid temperature in the boiling chamber were nominally 102.0 kPa and 12.0 °C, respectively. The shapes of the bubbles were recorded using a high speed camera at a speed of 250 fps with a shutter speed of 1/2000 s. Based on the image manipulation, the effective diameter of the discrete bubble is obtained. The experiments were conducted utilizing the drop tower Beijing, which can provide a short-term microgravity condition. The residual gravity of 10 ^{-2 ... -3} g _{0} can be maintained throughout the short duration of 3.6 s. To avoid the influence of natural convection in normal gravity environment, the heating switched on at the release of the drop capsule

  20. Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

  1. Dynamics of cyanobacterial bloom formation during short-term hydrodynamic fluctuation in a large shallow, eutrophic, and wind-exposed Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingfeng; Qin, Boqiang; Zhu, Guangwei; Luo, Liancong; Ding, Yanqing; Bian, Geya

    2013-12-01

    Short-term hydrodynamic fluctuations caused by extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide because of global climate change, and such fluctuations can strongly influence cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, the cyanobacterial bloom disappearance and reappearance in Lake Taihu, China, in response to short-term hydrodynamic fluctuations, was investigated by field sampling, long-term ecological records, high-frequency sensors and MODIS satellite images. The horizontal drift caused by the dominant easterly wind during the phytoplankton growth season was mainly responsible for cyanobacterial biomass accumulation in the western and northern regions of the lake and subsequent bloom formation over relatively long time scales. The cyanobacterial bloom changed slowly under calm or gentle wind conditions. In contrast, the short-term bloom events within a day were mainly caused by entrainment and disentrainment of cyanobacterial colonies by wind-induced hydrodynamics. Observation of a westerly event in Lake Taihu revealed that when the 30 min mean wind speed (flow speed) exceeded the threshold value of 6 m/s (5.7 cm/s), cyanobacteria in colonies were entrained by the wind-induced hydrodynamics. Subsequently, the vertical migration of cyanobacterial colonies was controlled by hydrodynamics, resulting in thorough mixing of algal biomass throughout the water depth and the eventual disappearance of surface blooms. Moreover, the intense mixing can also increase the chance for forming larger and more cyanobacterial colonies, namely, aggregation. Subsequently, when the hydrodynamics became weak, the cyanobacterial colonies continuously float upward without effective buoyancy regulation, and cause cyanobacterial bloom explosive expansion after the westerly. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that the strong wind happening frequently during April and October can be an important cause of the formation and expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu.

  2. Short-term light and leaf photosynthetic dynamics affect estimates of daily understory photosynthesis in four tree species.

    PubMed

    Naumburg, Elke; Ellsworth, David S

    2002-04-01

    Instantaneous measurements of photosynthesis are often implicitly or explicitly scaled to longer time frames to provide an understanding of plant performance in a given environment. For plants growing in a forest understory, results from photosynthetic light response curves in conjunction with diurnal light data are frequently extrapolated to daily photosynthesis (A(day)), ignoring dynamic photosynthetic responses to light. In this study, we evaluated the importance of two factors on A(day) estimates: dynamic physiological responses to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD); and time-resolution of the PPFD data used for modeling. We used a dynamic photosynthesis model to investigate how these factors interact with species-specific photosynthetic traits, forest type, and sky conditions to affect the accuracy of A(day) predictions. Increasing time-averaging of PPFD significantly increased the relative overestimation of A(day) similarly for all study species because of the nonlinear response of photosynthesis to PPFD (15% with 5-min PPFD means). Depending on the light environment characteristics and species-specific dynamic responses to PPFD, understory tree A(day) can be overestimated by 6-42% for the study species by ignoring these dynamics. Although these overestimates decrease under cloudy conditions where direct sunlight and consequently understory sunfleck radiation is reduced, they are still significant. Within a species, overestimation of A(day) as a result of ignoring dynamic responses was highly dependent on daily sunfleck PPFD and the frequency and irradiance of sunflecks. Overall, large overestimates of A(day) in understory trees may cause misleading inferences concerning species growth and competition in forest understories with < 2% full sunlight. We conclude that comparisons of A(day) among co-occurring understory species in deep shade will be enhanced by consideration of sunflecks by using high-resolution PPFD data and understanding the

  3. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  4. The Effects of Hearing Aid Compression Parameters on the Short-Term Dynamic Range of Continuous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Rebecca L. Warner; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantitatively model the independent and interactive effects of compression ratio, number of compression channels, and release time on the dynamic range of continuous speech. Method: A CD of the Rainbow Passage (J. E. Bernthal & N. W. Bankson, 1993) was used. The hearing aid was a…

  5. The Effects of Hearing Aid Compression Parameters on the Short-Term Dynamic Range of Continuous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Rebecca L. Warner; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantitatively model the independent and interactive effects of compression ratio, number of compression channels, and release time on the dynamic range of continuous speech. Method: A CD of the Rainbow Passage (J. E. Bernthal & N. W. Bankson, 1993) was used. The hearing aid was a…

  6. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  7. Factors influencing short-term outcomes for older patients accessing emergency departments after a fall: The role of fall dynamics.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Caterina; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Debiasi, Eugenio; Pedrotti, Martina; La Guardia, Mario; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe; March, Albert

    2017-09-13

    While the relevance of falls in raising the risk of fractures, hospitalization and disability in older age is well recognized, the factors influencing the onset of fractures and the need for ward admission after a fall have yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated which factors and fall dynamics were mainly associated with fall-related injuries and hospitalization among elderly persons accessing the Emergency Department (ED) following a fall. The study involved 2144 older subjects who accessed the ED after a fall. Data on the fall´s nature and related injuries, ward admissions, history of falls, dementia, and medical therapies were examined for all patients. Considering dynamics, we distinguished accidental falls (due to interaction with environmental hazards while in motion) and falls from standing (secondary to syncope, lipothymia, drop attack, or vertigo). The overall prevalence of fractures in our population did not differ significantly with advancing age, though hip fractures were more common in the oldest, and upper limb fractures in the youngest patients. Falls from standing were associated with polypharmacy and with higher ward admission rate despite a lower fractures´ prevalence than accidental falls. The chances of fall-related fractures were more than fourfold as high for accidental dynamics (OR=4.05, 95%CI:3.10-5.29, p<0.0001). Ward admission was associated with polypharmacy, dementia, anticoagulants´ use and fall-related fractures (OR=6.84, 95%CI:5.45-8.58, p<0.0001), while it correlated inversely with accidental fall dynamics. Outcomes of falls in older age depend not only on any fall-related injuries, but also on factors such as polypharmacy, cognitive status and fall dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Does a short-term increase in testosterone affect the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression? - An approach using an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study hormonal effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Villavicencio, Camila P; Apfelbeck, Beate

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we describe an approach based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study short-term effects of hormones on behavior. The control of territorial aggression has been traditionally linked to testosterone. Males of some vertebrate species show an increase in testosterone during territorial interactions and implantation studies suggest that such an increase in testosterone enhances the intensity and persistence of aggression. Here, we tested whether a short-term maximum release of testosterone - based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope - affects the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression in male black redstarts, a bird species in which testosterone does not increase during territorial encounters. An injection with gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) induced a physiological peak in plasma testosterone that was specific for each individual (=individual reactive scope). However, such short-term surges in an individual's testosterone concentration did not affect the intensity or persistence of aggression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated (1) that a species that naturally does not increase testosterone during male-male encounters would not benefit from such an increase in terms of being more aggressive, (2) that behavioral studies using GnRH-injections represent a promising approach to study species differences in androgen responsiveness, and (3) that injections of releasing or tropic hormones in general may be a suitable approach to study short-term influences of hormones on behavior. These injections effectively mimic the potential short-term changes in hormones that can occur in the real life of individuals and enable us to study the effects of hormonal changes on behavior or other traits within an ecological and evolutionary framework.

  9. Kinematic and dynamic processes for the control of pointing movements in humans revealed by short-term exposure to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Papaxanthis, C; Pozzo, T; McIntyre, J

    2005-01-01

    The generation of accurate motor commands requires implicit knowledge of both limb and environmental dynamics. The action of gravity on moving limb segments must be taken into account within the motor command, and may affect the limb trajectory chosen to accomplish a given motor task. Exactly how the CNS deals with these gravitoinertial forces remains an open question. Does the CNS measure gravitational forces directly, or are they accommodated in the motor plan by way of internal models of physical laws? In this study five male subjects participated. We measured kinematic and dynamic parameters of upward and downward arm movements executed at two different speeds, in both normal Earth gravity and in the weightless conditions of parabolic flight. Exposure to microgravity affected velocity profiles for both directions and speeds. The shape of velocity profiles (the ratio of maximum to mean velocity) and movement duration both showed transient perturbations initially in microgravity, but returned to normal gravity values with practice in 0 x g. Differences in relative time to peak velocity between upward versus downward movements, persisted for all trial performed in weightlessness. These differences in kinematic profiles and in the torque profiles used to produce them, diminished, however, with practice in 0 x g. These findings lead to the conclusion that the CNS explicitly represents gravitational and inertial forces in the internal models used to generate and execute arm movements. Furthermore, the results suggest that the CNS adapts motor plans to novel environments on different time scales; dynamics adapt first to reproduce standard kinematics, and then kinematics patterns are adapted to optimize dynamics.

  10. On the relationship between time-series studies, dynamic population studies, and estimating loss of life due to short-term exposure to environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Richard T; Dewanji, Anup; Dominici, Francesca; Goldberg, Mark S; Cohen, Aaron; Krewski, Daniel

    2003-07-01

    There is a growing concern that short-term exposure to combustion-related air pollution is associated with increased risk of death. This finding is based largely on time-series studies that estimate associations between daily variations in ambient air pollution concentrations and in the number of nonaccidental deaths within a community. Because these results are not based on cohort or dynamic population designs, where individuals are followed in time, it has been suggested that estimates of effect from these time-series studies cannot be used to determine the amount of life lost because of short-term exposures. We show that results from time-series studies are equivalent to estimates obtained from a dynamic population when each individual's survival experience can be summarized as the daily number of deaths. This occurs when the following conditions are satisfied: a) the environmental covariates vary in time and not between individuals; b) on any given day, the probability of death is small; c) on any given day and after adjusting for known risk factors for mortality such age, sex, smoking habits, and environmental exposures, each subject of the at-risk population has the same probability of death; d) environmental covariates have a common effect on mortality of all members of at-risk population; and e) the averages of individual risk factors, such as smoking habits, over the at-risk population vary smoothly with time. Under these conditions, the association between temporal variation in the environmental covariates and the survival experience of members of the dynamic population can be estimated by regressing the daily number of deaths on the daily value of the environmental covariates, as is done in time-series mortality studies. Issues in extrapolating risk estimates based on time-series studies in one population to estimate the amount of life lost in another population are also discussed.

  11. Short-term forecasting of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias based on symbolic dynamics and finite-time growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Ziehmann, Christine; Kurths, Jürgen; Meyerfeldt, Udo; Schirdewan, Alexander; Voss, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT-VF) as fatal cardiac arrhythmias are the main factors triggering sudden cardiac death. The objective of this study is to find early signs of sustained VT-VF in patients with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). These devices are able to safeguard patients by returning their hearts to a normal rhythm via strong defibrillatory shocks; additionally, they store the 1000 beat-to-beat intervals immediately before the onset of a life-threatening arrhythmia. We study these 1000 beat-to-beat intervals of 17 chronic heart failure ICD patients before the onset of a life-threatening arrhythmia and at a control time, i.e., without a VT-VF event. To characterize these rather short data sets, we calculate heart rate variability parameters from the time and frequency domain, from symbolic dynamics as well as the finite-time growth rates. We find that neither the time nor the frequency domain parameters show significant differences between the VT-VF and the control time series. However, two parameters from symbolic dynamics as well as the finite-time growth rates discriminate significantly both groups. These findings could be of importance in algorithms for next generation ICD's to improve the diagnostics and therapy of VT-VF.

  12. Short-term withdrawal from developmental exposure to cocaine activates the glucocorticoid receptor and alters spine dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caffino, Lucia; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Malpighi, Chiara; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Although glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) contribute to the action of cocaine, their role following developmental exposure to the psychostimulant is still unknown. To address this issue, we exposed adolescent male rats to cocaine (20mg/kg/day) from post-natal day (PND) 28 to PND 42 and sacrificed them at PND 45 or 90. We studied the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region that is still developing during adolescence. In PND 45 rats we found enhanced GR transcription and translation as well as increased trafficking toward the nucleus of the receptor, with no alteration in plasma corticosterone levels. We also showed reduced expression of the GR co-chaperone FKBP51, that normally keeps the receptor in the cytoplasm, and increased expression of Src1, which cooperates in the activation of GR transcriptional activity, revealing that short withdrawal alters the finely tuned mechanisms regulating GR action. Since activation of GRs regulate dendritic spine morphology, we next investigated spine dynamics in cocaine-withdrawn rats. We found that PSD95, cofilin and F-actin, molecules regulating spine actin network, are reduced in the mPFC of PND 45 rats suggesting reduced spine density, confirmed by confocal imaging. Further, formation of filopodia, i.e. the inactive spines, is enhanced suggesting the formation of non-functional spines. Of note, no changes were found in molecules related to GR machinery or spine dynamics following long-term abstinence, i.e. in adult rats (PND 90). These findings demonstrate that short withdrawal promotes plastic changes in the developing brain via the dysregulation of the GR system and alterations in the spine network.

  13. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: interrater reliability and sensitivity to change in short-term dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-12-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP, but further operational definitions have led to a theoretically neutral assessment device, making it applicable to other treatment modalities as well. Videotapes from a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of STDP and CT for patients with Cluster C personality disorders were rated by independent raters, typically at Sessions 6 and 36. The results indicated good to excellent interrater reliability, as well as adequate sensitivity to change in theoretically expected ways, in both STDP and CT. The results lend further support to the psychometric soundness of the ATOS and show promise for its use when comparing STDP and CT.

  14. Short-Term Prediction of Traffic Rate Interval Router Using Hybrid Training of Dynamic Synapse Neural Network Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, M.; Teshnehlab, M.; Zokaie, S.; Zakermoshfegh, M.

    In this study, a hybrid learning algorithm for training the Dynamic Synapse Neural Network (DSNN) to high accurate prediction of congestion in TCP computer networks is introduced. The idea behind this technique is to inform the TCP transmitters of congestion before it happens and to make transmitters decrease their data sending rate to a level which does not overflow the routers buffer. Traffic rate data are available in the format of time series and these real data are used to train and predict the future traffic rate condition. Hybrid learning algorithm aims to solve main problems of the Gradient Descent (GD) based method for the optimization of the DSNN, which are instability, local minima and the problem of generalization of trained network to the test data. In this method, Adaptable Weighted Particle Swarm Optimization (AWPSO) as a global optimizer is used to optimize the parameters of synaptic plasticity and the GD algorithm is used to optimize the weighted parameters of DSNN. As AWPSO is a derivative free optimization technique, a simpler method for the train of DSNN is achieved. Also the results are compared to GD algorithm.

  15. Short-term effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on breathing pattern: an interventional study in adult intensive care patients

    PubMed Central

    Haberthür, Christoph; Guttmann, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated patients to increase pulmonary volume and improve gas exchange. However, in clinical practice and with respect to adult, ventilator-dependent patients, little is known about the short-term effects of PEEP on breathing patterns. Methods In 30 tracheally intubated, spontaneously breathing patients, we sequentially applied PEEP to the trachea at 0, 5 and 10 cmH2O, and then again at 5 cmH2O for 30 s each, using the automatic tube compensation mode. Results Increases in PEEP were strongly associated with drops in minute ventilation (P < 0.0001) and respiratory rate (P < 0.0001). For respiratory rate, a 1 cmH2O change in PEEP in either direction resulted in a change in rate of 0.4 breaths/min. The effects were exclusively due to changes in expiratory time. Effects began to manifest during the first breath and became fully established in the second breath for each PEEP level. Identical responses were found when PEEP levels were applied for 10 or 60 s. Post hoc analysis revealed a similar but stronger response in patients with impaired respiratory system compliance. Conclusion In tracheally intubated, spontaneously breathing adult patients, the level of PEEP significantly influences the resting short-term breathing pattern by selectively affecting expiratory time. These findings are best explained by the Hering–Breuer inflation/deflation reflex. PMID:16137354

  16. Speciation and long- and short-term molecular-level dynamics of soil organic sulfur studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes; de Zarruk, Katrin Knoth; Dathe, Julia; Kinyangi, James; Liang, Biqing; Machado, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We investigated speciation, oxidative state changes, and long- and short-term molecular-level dynamics of organic S after 365 d of aerobic incubation with and without the addition of sugarcane residue using XANES spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected from the upper 15 cm of undisturbed grasslands since 1880, from undisturbed grasslands since 1931, and from cultivated fields since 1880 in the western United States. We found three distinct groups of organosulfur compounds in these grassland-derived soils: (i) strongly reduced (S to S) organic S that encompasses thiols, monosulfides, disulfides, polysulfides, and thiophenes; (ii) organic S in intermediate oxidation (S to S) states, which include sulfoxides and sulfonates; and (iii) strongly oxidized (S) organic S, which comprises ester-SO-S. The first two groups represent S directly linked to C and accounted for 80% of the total organic S detected by XANES from the undisturbed soils. Aerobic incubation without the addition of sugarcane residue led to a 21% decline in organanosulfur compounds directly linked to C and to up to an 82% increase inorganic S directly bonded to O. Among the C-bonded S compounds, low-valence thiols, sulfides, thiophenic S, and intermediate-valence sulfoxide S seem to be highly susceptible to microbial attack and may represent the most reactive components of organic S pool in these grassland soils. Sulfonate S exhibited a much lower short-term reactivity. The incorporation of sugarcane residue resulted in an increase in organosulfur compounds directly bonded to C at the early stage of incubation. However, similar to soils incubated without residue addition, the proportion of organic S directly linked to C continued to decline with increasing duration of aerobic incubation, whereas the proportion of organic S directly bonded to O showed a steady rise. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  17. Speciation and Long- and Short-term Molecular-level Dynamics of Soil Organic Sulfur Studied by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D Solomon; J Lehmann; K Knoth de Zarruk; J Dathe; J Kinyangi; B Liang; S Machado

    2011-12-31

    We investigated speciation, oxidative state changes, and long- and short-term molecular-level dynamics of organic S after 365 d of aerobic incubation with and without the addition of sugarcane residue using XANES spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected from the upper 15 cm of undisturbed grasslands since 1880, from undisturbed grasslands since 1931, and from cultivated fields since 1880 in the western United States. We found three distinct groups of organosulfur compounds in these grassland-derived soils: (i) strongly reduced (S{sup 0} to S{sup 1+}) organic S that encompasses thiols, monosulfides, disulfides, polysulfides, and thiophenes; (ii) organic S in intermediate oxidation (S{sup 2+} to S{sup 5+}) states, which include sulfoxides and sulfonates; and (iii) strongly oxidized (S{sup 6+}) organic S, which comprises ester-SO{sub 4}-S. The first two groups represent S directly linked to C and accounted for 80% of the total organic S detected by XANES from the undisturbed soils. Aerobic incubation without the addition of sugarcane residue led to a 21% decline in organanosulfur compounds directly linked to C and to up to an 82% increase inorganic S directly bonded to O. Among the C-bonded S compounds, low-valence thiols, sulfides, thiophenic S, and intermediate-valence sulfoxide S seem to be highly susceptible to microbial attack and may represent the most reactive components of organic S pool in these grassland soils. Sulfonate S exhibited a much lower short-term reactivity. The incorporation of sugarcane residue resulted in an increase in organosulfur compounds directly bonded to C at the early stage of incubation. However, similar to soils incubated without residue addition, the proportion of organic S directly linked to C continued to decline with increasing duration of aerobic incubation, whereas the proportion of organic S directly bonded to O showed a steady rise.

  18. Determination of Root Exudates in a Steril Continuous Flow Culture. II. Short-Term and Long-Term Variations of Exudation Intensity 1

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Martin; Wilms, Werner; Scheffer, Fritz

    1968-01-01

    The exudate production of alfalfa under the conditions of the sterile flow culture was quantitatively measured. In the first 40 days 3.10−3 μmoles amino-N, 2.5 μequivalents of organic acids and approximately 10−4 μmoles of reducing sugars were liberated per plant and per day into the percolating nutrient solution. The amino acid concentration in the outflow varies according to a daily periodicity. The exudation of a colored substance also shows daily periodical variations. This pattern is different from the pattern of the amino acid exudation, however, and directly coupled to shoot illumination. Short-term 2,4-dinitrophenol additions to the nutrient lower the liberation of amino acids into the percolating solution. Images PMID:16656967

  19. G-Protein/β-Arrestin-Linked Fluctuating Network of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors for Predicting Drug Efficacy and Bias Using Short-Term Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Osamu; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Yamada, Atsushi; Okazaki, Susumu; Yamazaki, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and bias of signal transduction induced by a drug at a target protein are closely associated with the benefits and side effects of the drug. In particular, partial agonist activity and G-protein/β-arrestin-biased agonist activity for the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, the family with the most target proteins of launched drugs, are key issues in drug discovery. However, designing GPCR drugs with appropriate efficacy and bias is challenging because the dynamic mechanism of signal transduction induced by ligand—receptor interactions is complicated. Here, we identified the G-protein/β-arrestin-linked fluctuating network, which initiates large-scale conformational changes, using sub-microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) with a diverse collection of ligands and correlation analysis of their G protein/β-arrestin efficacy. The G-protein-linked fluctuating network extends from the ligand-binding site to the G-protein-binding site through the connector region, and the β-arrestin-linked fluctuating network consists of the NPxxY motif and adjacent regions. We confirmed that the averaged values of fluctuation in the fluctuating network detected are good quantitative indexes for explaining G protein/β-arrestin efficacy. These results indicate that short-term MD simulation is a practical method to predict the efficacy and bias of any compound for GPCRs. PMID:27187591

  20. Short-term metabolome dynamics and carbon, electron, and ATP balances in chemostat-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D following a glucose pulse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; van Dam, Jan; Schipper, Dick; Kresnowati, M T A Penia; Proell, Angela M; Ras, Cor; van Winden, Wouter A; van Gulik, Walter M; Heijnen, Joseph J

    2006-05-01

    The in vivo kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D was evaluated during a 300-second transient period after applying a glucose pulse to an aerobic, carbon-limited chemostat culture. We quantified the responses of extracellular metabolites, intracellular intermediates in primary metabolism, intracellular free amino acids, and in vivo rates of O(2) uptake and CO(2) evolution. With these measurements, dynamic carbon, electron, and ATP balances were set up to identify major carbon, electron, and energy sinks during the postpulse period. There were three distinct metabolic phases during this time. In phase I (0 to 50 seconds after the pulse), the carbon/electron balances closed up to 85%. The accumulation of glycolytic and storage compounds accounted for 60% of the consumed glucose, caused an energy depletion, and may have led to a temporary decrease in the anabolic flux. In phase II (50 to 150 seconds), the fermentative metabolism gradually became the most important carbon/electron sink. In phase III (150 to 300 seconds), 29% of the carbon uptake was not identified in the measurements, and the ATP balance had a large surplus. These results indicate an increase in the anabolic flux, which is consistent with macroscopic balances of extracellular fluxes and the observed increase in CO(2) evolution associated with nonfermentative metabolism. The identified metabolic processes involving major carbon, electron, and energy sinks must be taken into account in in vivo kinetic models based on short-term dynamic metabolome responses.

  1. Short-Term Metabolome Dynamics and Carbon, Electron, and ATP Balances in Chemostat-Grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D following a Glucose Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; van Dam, Jan; Schipper, Dick; Kresnowati, M. T. A. Penia; Proell, Angela M.; Ras, Cor; van Winden, Wouter A.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Heijnen, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The in vivo kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D was evaluated during a 300-second transient period after applying a glucose pulse to an aerobic, carbon-limited chemostat culture. We quantified the responses of extracellular metabolites, intracellular intermediates in primary metabolism, intracellular free amino acids, and in vivo rates of O2 uptake and CO2 evolution. With these measurements, dynamic carbon, electron, and ATP balances were set up to identify major carbon, electron, and energy sinks during the postpulse period. There were three distinct metabolic phases during this time. In phase I (0 to 50 seconds after the pulse), the carbon/electron balances closed up to 85%. The accumulation of glycolytic and storage compounds accounted for 60% of the consumed glucose, caused an energy depletion, and may have led to a temporary decrease in the anabolic flux. In phase II (50 to 150 seconds), the fermentative metabolism gradually became the most important carbon/electron sink. In phase III (150 to 300 seconds), 29% of the carbon uptake was not identified in the measurements, and the ATP balance had a large surplus. These results indicate an increase in the anabolic flux, which is consistent with macroscopic balances of extracellular fluxes and the observed increase in CO2 evolution associated with nonfermentative metabolism. The identified metabolic processes involving major carbon, electron, and energy sinks must be taken into account in in vivo kinetic models based on short-term dynamic metabolome responses. PMID:16672504

  2. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  3. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  4. Diverse Short-Term Dynamics of Inhibitory Synapses Converging on Striatal Projection Neurons: Differential Changes in a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Valdez, Marco A.; Lopez-Huerta, Violeta Gisselle; Galarraga, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Most neurons in the striatum are projection neurons (SPNs) which make synapses with each other within distances of approximately 100 µm. About 5% of striatal neurons are GABAergic interneurons whose axons expand hundreds of microns. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STSP) between fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and SPNs and between SPNs has been described with electrophysiological and optogenetic techniques. It is difficult to obtain pair recordings from some classes of interneurons and due to limitations of actual techniques, no other types of STSP have been described on SPNs. Diverse STSPs may reflect differences in presynaptic release machineries. Therefore, we focused the present work on answering two questions: Are there different identifiable classes of STSP between GABAergic synapses on SPNs? And, if so, are synapses exhibiting different classes of STSP differentially affected by dopamine depletion? Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings on SPNs revealed three classes of STSPs: depressing, facilitating, and biphasic (facilitating-depressing), in response to stimulation trains at 20 Hz, in a constant ionic environment. We then used the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rodent model of Parkinson's disease to show that synapses with different STSPs are differentially affected by dopamine depletion. We propose a general model of STSP that fits all the dynamics found in our recordings. PMID:26167304

  5. A method for a short-term forecast of the absorbed dose accumulation dynamics on the international space station based on radiation monitoring system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Many papers are devoted to the prediction of radiation conditions on board of a spacecraft (Pichkhadze et al., 2004; Khamidullina et al., 2008; 2012), and a number of software systems for corresponding calculations have been developed: the US information system CREME96 (https://creme.isde.vander-bilt.edu/); European SPENVIS (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/intro.php); Russian SEREIS (Kuznetsov et al., 2001; Model' kosmosa, 2007) and COSRAD (http://cosrad.sinp.msu.ru/manual.html; Kuznetsov et al., 2011) based on the models of the radiation environment in near-Earth space (Bashkirov et al., 1998; Nymmik, 2004; Model' kosmosa, 2007; Kuznetsov et al., 2011). In this paper we propose a simple calculation algorithm of short-term (for a few days) forecasting of dynamics of the radiation dose on the International Space Station (ISS) in radiation environment undisturbed by solar proton events. This algorithm does not use radiation environment models and detailed ballistic calculations, while it uses data of the onboard radiation monitoring system (RMS) and empirical relations, obtained for ISS orbital motion.

  6. The physiological effects of low-intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on short-term recovery from supra-maximal exercise bouts in male triathletes.

    PubMed

    Malone, J K; Coughlan, G F; Crowe, L; Gissane, G C; Caulfield, B

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of NMES on blood lactate (BLa) and performance parameters in trained male triathletes. On three separate days, 13 trained male triathletes performed six 30 s Wingate tests (30 WanT) on a cycle ergometer. Each session consisted of performing 3 × 30 WanT (bouts 1-3) followed by a randomly assigned 30 min recovery intervention of either: (i) passive (seated), (ii) active (cycling at 30% VO(2 max)) or (iii) NMES (1 Hz/500 μs-ON:OFF 2:6 s). The 3 × 30 WanT bouts were then repeated (bouts 4-6) and compared to bouts 1-3 for peak power (PP), mean power (MP) and fatigue index (FI). BLa and heart rate (HR) were recorded at designated time points throughout. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc test. BLa decreased significantly faster during the active recovery intervention (P < 0.001), however, there were no significant differences between interventions for PP (P = 0.217), MP (P = 0.477) and FI (P = 0.234) when the post intervention bouts (4-6) where compared to the pre intervention bouts (1-3). NMES during recovery was not more effective than active or passive recovery for improving subsequent performance. Despite BLa clearing at a significantly faster rate for the active recovery intervention, PP, MP or FI did not improve significantly compared to NMES and passive. In conclusion, NMES does not appear to be more effective than traditional methods for enhancing short-term recovery from supra-maximal exercise bouts in trained male triathletes.

  7. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  8. The Relationship between Intensity and Breadth of After-School Program Participation and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken; Diffily, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…

  9. The Relationship between Intensity and Breadth of After-School Program Participation and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken; Diffily, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…

  10. Effects of short-term administration of verapamil on left ventricular relaxation and filling dynamics measured by a combined hemodynamic-ultrasonic technique in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    TenCate, F J; Serruys, P W; Mey, S; Roelandt, J

    1983-12-01

    The effects of short-term administration of verapamil on left ventricular isovolumetric relaxation and early and late diastolic filling dynamics were studied in 10 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by a combined hemodynamic-ultrasonic technique. Left ventricular pressures (recorded with high-fidelity micromanometers) were determined simultaneously with M mode echocardiography. After 10 mg of verapamil was given intravenously (2 mg/min), left ventricular contractility and systolic pressure dropped significantly (p less than .05). Left ventricular dP/dt fell from 1947 +/- 544 to 1489 +/- 334 mm Hg/sec, maximal velocity of the contractile element at zero load fell from 50 +/- 17 to 42 +/- 15 1/sec, peak velocity contraction of the contractile element fell from 37 +/- 10 1/sec to 29 +/- 10 1/sec (p less than .05), and left ventricular systolic pressure fell from 149 +/- 30 to 127 +/- 22 mm Hg. Left ventricular negative dP/dt increased from 1770 +/- 479 to 1477 +/- 377 mm Hg/sec (p less than .05), and the time constant of isovolumetric pressure decay was prolonged from 48 +/- 9 to 64 +/- 15 msec (p less than .05). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure rose from 21 +/- 7 to 23 +/- 6 mm Hg (p less than .05). The time constant of isovolumetric pressure decay was calculated in three different ways, but none of these measurements was influenced by verapamil. Time of isovolumetric relaxation, duration of rapid ventricular filling, and peak rate of left ventricular lengthening were not significantly influenced by verapamil and remained highly abnormal. In contrast, peak rate of left ventricular posterior wall thinning declined further after verapamil from 2.9 +/- 1.2 to 2.4 +/- 1.4 1/sec (p less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Short-term temporal variation in sporulation dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and physico-chemical edaphic properties of wheat rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Vipin; Meghvansi, M.K.; Siddiqui, Sazada

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pattern of short-term temporal variation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and physico-chemical edaphic properties of some wheat growing areas of the Bundelkhand region, Central India. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected every month from December 2007 to May 2008 from four wheat growing sites around Jhansi (Bundelkhand region). AM fungal root colonization, sporulation and physico-chemical edaphic properties during this period were determined and compared to evaluate the dynamics of response of wheat towards the AMF along crop maturation. Maximum AMF root colonization recorded was 54.3% indicating that AMF, particularly in low phosphorus (P) soils, can be important even in case of less responsive crop like wheat. In the two out of four sites studied, the AMF spore density increased with the increase in soil temperature. Absence of this type of pattern in remaining two sites indicated that site-specific environmental and agricultural conditions may affect the degree of wheat response to AMF. It also suggested that AMF communities inhabiting agroecosystems may exhibit considerable temporal sporulation patterns. The maximum AMF colonization was observed during February–March 2008, whereas maximum AMF sporulation was noticed during March–April 2008. Statistically significant negative correlation of AMF spore density with pH, organic carbon (OC) and available P was observed in the one of the sites studied. Overall assessment of the data indicated that season and location significantly affected the interaction of AM fungi with winter wheat necessitating the further need to understand the ecology of AMF populations with reference to specific host species under different micro-climatic conditions of Bundelkhand region. PMID:23961131

  12. Short-term dynamics and partitioning of newly assimilated carbon in the foliage of adult beech and pine are driven by seasonal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalme, Dorine; Priault, Pierrick; Gérant, Dominique; Dannoura, Masako; Maillard, Pascale; Plain, Caroline; Epron, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation is a key process determining C cycling in forest ecosystems. However, the mechanisms underlying the annual patterns of C partitioning in trees, influenced by tree phenology and environmental conditions, are not well identified yet. This study aimed to characterize the short-term dynamics and partitioning of newly assimilated carbon in the foliage of adult European beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and maritime pines (Pinus pinaster) across the seasons. We hypothesized that residence times of recently assimilated C in C compounds should change according to the seasons and that seasonal pattern should differ between deciduous and evergreen tree species, since they have different phenology. 13CO2 pulse-labelling experiments were performed in situ at different dates corresponding to different phenological stages. In beech leaves and pine needles, C contents, isotopic compositions, and 13C dynamics parameters were determined in total organic matter (bulk foliage), in polar fraction (PF, including soluble sugars, amino acids, organic acids) and in starch. For both species and at each phenological stage, 13C amount in bulk foliage decreased following a two-pool exponential model, highlighting the partitioning of newly assimilated C between 'mobile' and 'stable' pools. The relative proportion of the stable pool was maximal in beech leaves in May, when leaves were still growing and could incorporate newly assimilated C in structural C compounds. Young pine needles were still receiving C from previous-year needles in June (two months after budburst) although they are already photosynthesizing, acting as a strong C sink. In summer, short mean residence times of 13C (MRT) in foliage of both tree species reflected the fast respiration and exportation of recent photosynthates to support the whole tree C demand (e.g., supplying perennial organ growth). At the end of the growing season, pre-senescing beech leaves were supplying 13C to perennial organs, whereas

  13. Effect of short-term high-intensity interval training vs. continuous training on O2 uptake kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    McKay, Bryon R; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M

    2009-07-01

    The early time course of adaptation of pulmonary O(2) uptake (Vo(2)(p)) (reflecting muscle O(2) consumption) and muscle deoxygenation kinetics (reflecting the rate of O(2) extraction) were examined during high-intensity interval (HIT) and lower-intensity continuous endurance (END) training. Twelve male volunteers underwent eight sessions of either HIT (8-12 x 1-min intervals at 120% maximal O(2) uptake separated by 1 min of rest) or END (90-120 min at 65% maximal O(2) uptake). Subjects completed step transitions to a moderate-intensity work rate ( approximately 90% estimated lactate threshold) on five occasions throughout training, and ramp incremental and constant-load performance tests were conducted at pre-, mid-, and posttraining periods. Vo(2)(p) was measured breath-by-breath by mass spectrometry and volume turbine. Deoxygenation (change in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration; Delta[HHb]) of the vastus lateralis muscle was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy. The fundamental phase II time constants for Vo(2)(p) (tauVo(2)) and deoxygenation kinetics {effective time constant, tau' = (time delay + tau), Delta[HHb]} during moderate-intensity exercise were estimated using nonlinear least-squares regression techniques. The tauVo(2) was reduced by approximately 20% (P < 0.05) after only two training sessions and by approximately 40% (P < 0.05) after eight training sessions (i.e., posttraining), with no differences between HIT and END. The tau'Delta[HHb] ( approximately 20 s) did not change over the course of eight training sessions. These data suggest that faster activation of muscle O(2) utilization is an early adaptive response to both HIT and lower-intensity END training. That Delta[HHb] kinetics (a measure of fractional O(2) extraction) did not change despite faster Vo(2)(p) kinetics suggests that faster kinetics of muscle O(2) utilization were accompanied by adaptations in local muscle (microvascular) blood flow and O(2) delivery, resulting in a similar

  14. Short-term, light- to moderate-intensity exercise training improves leg muscle strength in the oldest old: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Serra-Rexach, José A; Bustamante-Ara, Natalia; Hierro Villarán, Margarita; González Gil, Pedro; Sanz Ibáñez, Maria J; Blanco Sanz, Nekane; Ortega Santamaría, Victor; Gutiérrez Sanz, Natalia; Marín Prada, Ana B; Gallardo, Cristian; Rodríguez Romo, Gabriel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-04-01

    To assess the effects of an 8-week exercise training program with a special focus on light- to moderate-intensity resistance exercises (30-70% of one repetition maximum, 1RM) and a subsequent 4-week training cessation period (detraining) on muscle strength and functional capacity in participants aged 90 and older. Randomized controlled trial performed during March to September 2009. Geriatric nursing home. Forty nonagenarians (90-97) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group (16 women and 4 men per group). Eight-week muscle strength exercise intervention focused on lower limb strength exercises of light to moderate intensity. 1RM leg press. handgrip strength, 8-m walk test, 4-step stairs test, Timed Up and Go test, and number of falls. A significant group by time interaction effect (P=.02) was observed only for the 1RM leg press. In the intervention group, 1RM leg press increased significantly with training by 10.6 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=4.1-17.1 kg; P=.01]. Except for the mean group number of falls, which were 1.2 falls fewer per participant in the intervention group (95% CI=0.0-3.0; P=.03), no significant training effect on the secondary outcome measures was found. Exercise training, even of short duration and light to moderate intensity, can increase muscle strength while decreasing fall risk in nonagenarians. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Short-term energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents future scenarios of quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and prices for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes previous estimate errors, compares recent scenarios with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics of the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook: Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The scenario period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1990 through the fourth quarter of 1991. Some data for the third quarter of 1990 are preliminary EIA estimates of actual data (for example, some petroleum estimates are based on statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are derived from internal model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, some electricity demand estimates are based on recent weather data). 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Solar induced long- and short-term variations of the cosmic ray intensity in the past, and predictions and opportunities for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, K. G.; McDonald, F. B.; Beer, J.

    2009-12-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide data from the past 10,000 years, and the instrumental cosmic ray data since 1936 provide detailed information on the possible consequences of the present long and deep solar minimum. Furthermore, the cosmic ray transport equation has been used to estimate the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) throughout the past 10,000 years. This paper presents a series of figures that document the behavior of both the cosmic radiation and the IMF at Earth in the past. In particular, the 11-year cycles in both quantities for the past 600 years are displayed; and estimates given of the cosmic ray spectrum at Earth for situations that history tells us may occur in the near future. Over the longer term, a minimum of the Hallstatt cycle (2200 yr periodicity) of solar activity occurred ~500 years ago and the Sun is now on a steadily rising plane of activity. The historic record shows that the cosmic ray intensity has decreased extremely rapidly after earlier prolonged deep minima and this suggests rapid and large changes in the heliospheric conditions that we may see replicated. The paper will also display data from the deep, isolated solar minimum of 1956 that exhibited unusual low energy cosmic ray fluxes, and a highly anomalous cosmic ray gradient in the inner heliosphere. Paleo-cosmic ray evidence will also be displayed of an episode of intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events in the interval of reduced solar activity, 1892-1900, that may possibly be repeated. If the present long, deep solar minimum is a precursor to a “Grand Minimum” such as the Dalton minimum, it will provide a much improved insight into the spectrum of the cosmic radiation in interstellar space, and to the cosmic ray modulation process in the heliosphere. With this in mind, the paper suggests key measurements, and speculates on experimental conditions that may be markedly different from those encountered in the instrumental era.

  17. Effects of in-season short-term aerobic and high-intensity interval training program on repeated sprint ability and jump performance in handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Schwesig, René; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl S; Chamari, Karim; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed S

    2016-11-16

    This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Thirty participants (age 17.0 ± 1.2 years, body mass 81.1 ± 3.4 kg, height 1.82± 0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), a squat (SJ) and a countermovement jump test (CMJ), as well as a repeated sprint ability test (RSA). From this, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, reached at the end of the Yo-Yo IR1), jumping ability, best time in a single sprint trial (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and the performance decrement (RSAdec) during all sprints were calculated. Later, subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n=15) performing their normal training schedule (5 weekly sessions of ~90 min of handball training) or an experimental group (EG; n=15). The EG performed two 30 min sessions per week of high-intensity aerobic exercises at 100-130% of MAS in addition to their normal training schedule. Demonstrated a significant improvement in MAS (d=4.1), RSAbest (d=1.9), RSATT (d=1.5) and RSAdec (d=2.3) after the training period. Also, significant interaction effects (time x group) were found for all parameters as the EG significantly improved performances in all tests after training. The greatest interaction effects were observed in MAS (2=0.811) and CMJ (2=0.759). No relevant changes in test performances were found in the CG (mean d=-0.02). These results indicate that individually speed controlled aerobic and interval training is effective for improving specific handball performance.

  18. Treatment of subtrochanteric fractures. A comparison of the Gamma nail and the dynamic hip screw: short-term outcome in 58 patients

    PubMed Central

    Saarenpää, I.; Heikkinen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this non-randomised prospective study was to evaluate the short-term outcome of Gamma nail and dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation in the treatment of subtrochanteric hip fractures due to low-energy trauma in the elderly. All of the 1,624 femoral hip fractures in 1,511 patients of the Oulu Hospital, aged over 49 years, were prospectively registered from 1991−1999 using special forms. Seventy-three (4.5%) of the fractures were subtrochanteric. After exclusions, 58 patients constituted the final study group. Of these, 43 were treated with Gamma nails and 15 with DHS. Background factors before the fracture, complications, reoperations and functional parameters at 4 months were recorded using standardised forms. Intraoperative and hospital data were collected from patient records. The Seinsheimer fracture types IIIA, IIC and V were the most common fracture patterns when the Seinsheimer classification system was used, and Fielding II and AO 31A3.3, respectively, were the most common types in the Fielding and AO classification system. There were four (9%) intraoperative complications in the Gamma nail group as compared to none in the DHS group. On the other hand, postoperative complications were more common in the DHS group (27%) than in the Gamma nail group (7%). We recognised a correlation between certain fracture types and the likelihood of typical intra- or postoperative complications or difficulties with both devices: In Gamma nailing, difficulty in closed reduction as well as the rate of open reduction and the use of supplementary fixation were most frequent in the Seinsheimer IIC fractures. It is also noticeable that all of the postoperative device failures and fracture displacements of the DHS group occurred in the Seinsheimer type IIIA category. Detailed fracture classification is essential for the choice of the fixation device, and the present study confirms the presumption that, despite the perioperative problems associated with Gamma nailing, this

  19. Quantification of submarine groundwater discharge and its short-term dynamics by linking time-variant end-member mixing analysis and isotope mass balancing (222-Rn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, Eric; Knöller, Kay; Stollberg, Reiner; Scholten, Jan; Rocha, Carlos; Weiß, Holger; Schubert, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) plays a crucial role for the water quality of coastal waters due to associated fluxes of nutrients, organic compounds and/or heavy-metals. Thus, the quantification of SGD is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of coastal water bodies with regard to groundwater pollution as well as for understanding the matter cycles of the connected water bodies. Here, we present a scientific approach for quantifying discharge of fresh groundwater (GWf) and recirculated seawater (SWrec), including its short-term temporal dynamics, into the tide-affected Knysna estuary, South Africa. For a time-variant end-member mixing analysis we conducted time-series observations of radon (222Rn) and salinity within the estuary over two tidal cycles in combination with estimates of the related end-members for seawater, river water, GWf and SWrec. The mixing analysis was treated as constrained optimization problem for finding an end-member mixing ratio that simultaneously fits the observed data for radon and salinity best for every time-step. Uncertainty of each mixing ratio was quantified by Monte Carlo simulations of the optimization procedure considering uncertainty in end-member characterization. Results reveal the highest GWf and SWrec fraction in the estuary during peak low tide with averages of 0.8 % and 1.4 %, respectively. Further, we calculated a radon mass balance that revealed a daily radon flux of 4.8 * 108 Bq into the estuary equivalent to a GWf discharge of 29.000 m3/d (9.000-59.000 m3/d for 25th-75th percentile range) and a SWrec discharge of 80.000 m3/d (45.000-130.000 m3/d for 25th-75th percentile range). The uncertainty of SGD reflects the end-member uncertainty, i.e. the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater composition. The presented approach allows the calculation of mixing ratios of multiple uncertain end-members for time-series measurements of multiple parameters. Linking these results with a tracer mass balance allows conversion

  20. A stepwise approach to the etiologic diagnosis of pleural effusion in respiratory intensive care unit and short-term evaluation of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chinchkar, Nilesh J; Talwar, Deepak; Jain, Sushil K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pleural effusions in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) are associated with diseases of varied etiologies and often carry a grave prognosis. This prospective study was conducted to establish an etiologic diagnosis in a series of such patients before starting treatment. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive patients, diagnosed with pleural effusion on admission or during their stay in RICU, were further investigated by a two-step approach. (1) Etiologic diagnosis was established by sequential clinical history and findings on physical examination, laboratory tests, chest radiograph, CECT/HRCT/PET-CT and pleural fluid analysis. (2) Patients who remained undiagnosed were subjected to fiber-optic bronchoscopy, video-assisted thoracoscopic pleural biopsy, and histopathology. Results: Etiologic diagnosis of pleural effusion was established in 44 (88%) Metastases (24%); para-pneumonia (22%); congestive cardiac failure (18%); tuberculosis (14%); hemothorax (4%); trapped lung, renal failure, and liver cirrhosis (2% each). Six patients (12%) remained undiagnosed, as the final diagnostic thoracoscopic biopsy could not be performed in five and tissue histopathology findings were inconclusive in one. Out of the 50 patients, 10 died in the hospital; 2 left against medical advice; and 2 were referred to oncology center for further treatment. The remaining 36 patients were clinically stabilized and discharged. During a 3-month follow-up, eight of them were re-hospitalized, of which four died. Conclusions: Pleural effusion in RICU carries a high risk of mortality. Etiologic diagnosis can be established in most cases. PMID:25814793

  1. Pharmacokinetic study of the relative bioavailability and bioequivalence after oral intensive or repeated short term treatment with two polyamino acid formulations.

    PubMed

    Matera, M; Castana, R; Insirello, L; Leonardi, G

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied the relative bioequivalence and bioavailability of two oral polyamino-acid formulations (packet and flacon), based on 4 amino acids (L-glutamine, L-phosphoserine, L-phosphothreonine and L-arginine) in association with vitamin B12 (Bio-logos, Sigma Tau Pharma S.A). Open-trial testing was carried out after intensive treatment and on the attainment of sustained levels. 50 healthy volunteers (27 males, 23 females), ranging in age from 23 to 32 years, were included in the study. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of the various active ingredients was examined at a haematic level. Possible undesirable side-effects, resulting from treatment, were also examined during the study. The mean pharmacokinetic constants considered (Ke1, Cmax and t1/2) generated an almost overlapping AUC (area under the curves) for all homologous components contained in both pharmaceutical forms. This indicates almost complete bioequivalence. The mean index for the rate of relative bioavailability was, in fact, estimated to be 106.3 +/- 12.4%. Repeated treatment did not appear to disturb the absorption mechanisms of the active ingredients contained in either of the two formulations examined, maintaining the relative bioavailability relationship within a negligible range, with a statistically non-significant difference (Student's t test for coupled data). A few episodes, characterized by slight increases in excitability, were reported for both preparations in two patients (4%).

  2. Characterization of the nature of photosynthetic recovery of wheat seedlings from short-term dark heat exposures and analysis of the mode of acclimation to different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Kreslavski, Vladimir; Tatarinzev, Nikolai; Shabnova, Nadezhda; Semenova, Galina; Kosobryukhov, Anatoli

    2008-10-09

    The nature of photosynthetic recovery was investigated in 10-d-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Moskovskaya-35) seedlings exposed to temperatures of 40 and 42 degrees C for 20 min and to temperature 42 degrees C for 40 min in the dark. The aftereffect of heat treatment was monitored by growing the heat-treated plants in low/moderate/high light at 20 degrees C for 72h. The net photosynthetic rates (P(N)) and the fluorescence ratios F(v)/F(m) were evaluated in intact primary leaves and the rates of cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation were measured in the isolated thylakoids. At least two temporally separated steps were identified in the path of recovery from heat stress at 40 and 42 degrees C in the plants growing in high and moderate/high light, respectively. Both photochemical activity of the photosystem II (PSII) and the activity of CO(2) assimilation system were lowered during the first step in comparison with the corresponding activities immediately after heat treatment. During the second step, the photosynthetic activities completely or partly recovered. Recovery from heat stress at 40 degrees C was accompanied by an appreciably higher rate of cyclic photophosphorylation in comparison with control non-heated seedlings. In pre-heated seedlings, the tolerance of the PSII to photoinhibition was higher than in non-treated ones. The mode of acclimation to different light intensities after heat exposures is analyzed.

  3. The Effect of a Short-Term High-Intensity Circuit Training Program on Work Capacity, Body Composition, and Blood Profiles in Sedentary Obese Men: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Matthew B.; Pearcey, Gregory E. P.; Cahill, Farrell; McCarthy, Heather; Stratton, Shane B. D.; Noftall, Jennifer C.; Buckle, Steven; Basset, Fabien A.; Sun, Guang; Button, Duane C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how a high-intensity circuit-training (HICT) program affects key physiological health markers in sedentary obese men. Eight obese (body fat percentage >26%) males completed a four-week HICT program, consisting of three 30-minute exercise sessions per week, for a total of 6 hours of exercise. Participants' heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rating of perceived exertion, total work (TW), and time to completion were measured each exercise session, body composition was measured before and after HICT, and fasting blood samples were measured before throughout, and after HICT program. Blood sample measurements included total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Statistical significance was set to P < 0.05. Data analyses revealed significant (P < 0.05) improvements in resting HR (16% decrease), systolic BP (5.5% decrease), TW (50.7%), fat tissue percentage (3.6%), lean muscle tissue percentage (2%), cholesterol (13%), triacylglycerol (37%), and insulin (18%) levels from before to after HICT program. Overall, sedentary obese males experienced a significant improvement in biochemical, physical, and body composition characteristics from a HICT program that was only 6 hours of the total exercise. PMID:24707476

  4. Lifelong exercise, but not short-term high-intensity interval training, increases GDF11, a marker of successful aging: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D

    2017-07-01

    Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated (r = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Preoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost combined with Capecitabine in locally advanced rectal cancer: short-term results of a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Lupattelli, Marco; Matrone, Fabio; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Osti, Mattia; Macchia, Gabriella; Palazzari, Elisa; Nicosia, Luca; Navarria, Federico; Chiloiro, Giuditta; Valentini, Vincenzo; Aristei, Cynthia; De Paoli, Antonino

    2017-08-22

    Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) in combination with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (CT) is the standard of care in patients with locally advanced, T3-T4 N0-2, rectal cancer (LARC). Given the correlation between RT dose-tumor response and the prognostic role of the tumor regression grade (TRG), treatment intensification represents an area of active investigation. The aim of the study was to analyze the role of RT dose-intensification in the preoperative treatment of LARC in terms of feasibility, efficacy and toxicity. We retrospectively analyzed patients with LARC treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) at five Italian radiation oncology centers. Concurrent Capecitabine was administered. Treatment response was evaluated in terms of disease down-staging and TRG. Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the CTC-AE 4.0 scale. A total of 76 patients were identified for this analysis. A dose of 45 Gy was prescribed to the entire mesorectum and pelvic lymph nodes with a median SIB dose of 54 Gy (range 52.5-57.5) to the tumor and corresponding mesorectum. Overall, 74/76 (97.4%) patients completed the planned RT, whereas 64/76 (84.2%) patients completed the prescribed CT. Eight (10.5%) patients developed grade 3-4 acute toxicity. Overall, 72/76 patients underwent surgery. The tumor and nodal down-staging was documented in 51 (70.8%) and 43 (67%) patients, respectively. Twenty (27.8%) patients obtained a pathologic complete response. Surgical morbidity was reported in 13/72 patients (18.1%). Although retrospective in design, this study indicates that IMRT-SIB with a dose range of 52.5-57.5 Gy (median 54 Gy) and concomitant Capecitabine appears feasible, well tolerated and effective in terms of disease down-staging and pathological complete response. Long-term toxicity and the impact on disease control and patient survival will be evaluated with a longer follow-up time. NA.

  6. Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar; de Godoi, Vanessa; Mancalossi, José Luis; Rossi, Rafael Paolo; De Marchi, Thiago; Parente, Márcio; Grosselli, Douglas; Generosi, Rafael Abeche; Basso, Maira; Frigo, Lucio; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2011-07-01

    In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers related to skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with six male young futsal athletes. They were treated with CWIT (5°C of temperature [SD ±1°]), active LEDT (69 LEDs with wavelengths 660/850 nm, 10/30 mW of output power, 30 s of irradiation time per point, and 41.7 J of total energy irradiated per point, total of ten points irradiated) or an identical placebo LEDT 5 min after each of three Wingate cycle tests. Pre-exercise, post-exercise, and post-treatment measurements were taken of blood lactate levels, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. There were no significant differences in the work performed during the three Wingate tests (p > 0.05). All biochemical parameters increased from baseline values (p < 0.05) after the three exercise tests, but only active LEDT decreased blood lactate levels (p = 0.0065) and CK activity (p = 0.0044) significantly after treatment. There were no significant differences in CRP values after treatments. We concluded that treating the leg muscles with LEDT 5 min after the Wingate cycle test seemed to inhibit the expected post-exercise increase in blood lactate levels and CK activity. This suggests that LEDT has better potential than 5 min of CWIT for improving short-term post-exercise recovery.

  7. Short-term synaptic plasticity, simulation of nerve terminal dynamics, and the effects of protein kinase C activation in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Darrin H; Capogna, Marco; Thompson, Scott M

    2002-01-01

    Phorbol esters are hypothesised to produce a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent increase in the probability of transmitter release via two mechanisms: facilitation of vesicle fusion or increases in synaptic vesicle number and replenishment. We used a combination of electrophysiology and computer simulation to distinguish these possibilities. We constructed a stochastic model of the presynaptic contacts between a pair of hippocampal pyramidal cells that used biologically realistic processes and was constrained by electrophysiological data. The model reproduced faithfully several forms of short-term synaptic plasticity, including short-term synaptic depression (STD), and allowed us to manipulate several experimentally inaccessible processes. Simulation of an increase in the size of the readily releasable vesicle pool and the time of vesicle replenishment decreased STD, whereas simulation of a facilitation of vesicle fusion downstream of Ca2+ influx enhanced STD. Because activation of protein kinase C with phorbol ester enhanced STD of EPSCs in rat hippocampal slice cultures, we conclude that an increase in the sensitivity of the release process for Ca2+ underlies the potentiation of neurotransmitter release by PKC. PMID:12042358

  8. Differential responses of short-term soil respiration dynamics to the experimental addition of nitrogen and water in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yuchun; Liu, Xinchao; Dong, Yunshe; Peng, Qin; He, Yating; Sun, Liangjie; Jia, Junqiang; Cao, Congcong

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of simulated rainfall and increasing N supply of different levels on CO2 pulse emission from typical Inner Mongolian steppe soil using the static opaque chamber technique, respectively in a dry June and a rainy August. The treatments included NH4NO3 additions at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g N/(m(2)·year) with or without water. Immediately after the experimental simulated rainfall events, the CO2 effluxes in the watering plots without N addition (WCK) increased greatly and reached the maximum value at 2 hr. However, the efflux level reverted to the background level within 48 hr. The cumulative CO2 effluxes in the soil rang ed from 5.60 to 6.49 g C/m(2) over 48 hr after a single water application, thus showing an increase of approximately 148.64% and 48.36% in the effluxes during both observation periods. By contrast, the addition of different N levels without water addition did not result in a significant change in soil respiration in the short term. Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the interaction between water and N addition were insignificant in short-term soil CO2 effluxes in the soil. The cumulative soil CO2 fluxes of different treatments over 48 hr accounted for approximately 5.34% to 6.91% and 2.36% to 2.93% of annual C emission in both experimental periods. These results stress the need for improving the sampling frequency after rainfall in future studies to ensure more accurate evaluation of the grassland C emission contribution.

  9. Spatial and temporal dynamics of heavy metal pollution and source identification in sediment cores from the short-term flooding riparian wetlands in a Chinese delta.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-12-01

    Sediment samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm along a 350-m sampling belt in a short-term-flooding riparian wetland in the Yellow River Delta of China in three sampling seasons. Contents of heavy metals were determined to investigate their spatial and temporal distributions, sources and ecotoxities. Our results showed that As contents in the top 20 cm sediments increased before decreasing along the sampling belt in summer, whereas they kept stable before increasing in fall and spring. Cd contents increased along the sampling belt in three sampling seasons, whereas Ni and Cr generally exhibited a decreasing tendency. Comparatively, Cu, Pb and Zn consistently increased at the first 50 m distance and then decreased before increasing from the distance of 150 m in summer and fall and increased to the maximum at the distance of 250 m and then showed a decrease in spring. Two "hotspots" of heavy metal accumulation in sediment cores along the belt were observed at the distance from 50 to 100 m in summer and at the distance from 200 to 300 m in spring. Most of sediment samples contained higher heavy metals in excess of threshold effect levels except for Zn and Pb in three sampling seasons and the values of toxic units in more than 30% of sediment samples exceeded 4 in summer. As, Ni and Cr had relatively higher contribution to the values of toxic units compared with other heavy metals in three sampling seasons. Multivariance analysis showed that As and Cd might originate from the same source and Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni might derive from another similar source. Cd was significantly correlated with salinity (p < 0.01) and pH (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, these heavy metals were also significantly correlated with other properties such as S, Al, TP, SOM and Silt + Clay.

  10. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases.

  11. Association of running manner with bacterial community dynamics in a partial short-term nitrifying bioreactor for treatment of piggery wastewater with high ammonia content.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei-Li; Huang, Qiang; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-12-01

    Optimization of running parameters in a bioreactor requires detailed understanding of microbial community dynamics during the startup and running periods. Using a novel piggery wastewater treatment system termed "UASB + SHARON + ANAMMOX" constructed in our laboratory, we investigated microbial community dynamics using the Illumina MiSeq method, taking activated sludge samples at ~2-week intervals during a ~300-day period. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were further investigated by quantification of AOB amoA genes and construction of gene clone libraries. Major changes in bacterial community composition and dynamics occurred when running manner was changed from continuous flow manner (CFM) to sequencing batch manner (SBM), and when effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for practical treatment of real piggery wastewater was used as influent; differences among these three experimental groups were significant (R (2)  = 0.94, p < 0.01). When running manner was changed from CFM to SBM, relative abundance of the genus Nitrospira decreased sharply from 18.1 % on day 116 to 1.5 % on day 130, and to undetectable level thereafter. Relative abundance of the genus Nitrosomonas increased from ~0.67 % during the CFM period to 8.0 % by day 220, and thereafter decreased to a near-constant ~1.6 %. Environmental factors such as load ammonia, effluent ammonia, effluent nitrite, UASB effluent, pH, and DO levels collectively drove bacterial community dynamics and contributed to maintenance of effluent NH4 (+)-N/NO2 (-)-N ratio ~1. Theses results might provide useful clues for the control of the startup processes and maintaining high efficiency of such bioreactors.

  12. Response of microbial community structure and function to short-term biochar amendment in an intensively managed bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantation soil: Effect of particle size and addition rate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; Li, Songhao; Liang, Chenfei; Xu, Qiufang; Li, Yongchun; Qin, Hua; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2017-01-01

    Biochar incorporated into soil has been known to affect soil nutrient availability and act as a habitat for microorganisms, both of which could be related to its particle size. However, little is known about the effect of particle size on soil microbial community structure and function. To investigate short-term soil microbial responses to biochar addition having varying particle sizes and addition rates, we established a laboratory incubation study. Biochar produced via pyrolysis of bamboo was ground into three particle sizes (diameter size<0.05mm (fine), 0.05-1.0mm (medium) and 1.0-2.0mm (coarse)) and amended at rates of 0% (control), 3% and 9% (w/w) in an intensively managed bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantation soil. The results showed that the fine particle biochar resulted in significantly higher soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), available potassium (K) concentrations than the medium and coarse particle sizes. The fine-sized biochar also induced significantly higher total microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) concentrations by 60.28% and 88.94% than the medium and coarse particles regardless of addition rate, respectively. Redundancy analysis suggested that the microbial community structures were largely dependent of particle size, and that improved soil properties were key factors shaping them. The cumulative CO2 emissions from biochar-amended soils were 2-56% lower than the control and sharply decreased with increasing addition rates and particle sizes. Activities of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, peroxidase and dehydrogenase decreased by ranging from 7% to 47% in biochar-amended soils over the control, indicating that biochar addition reduced enzyme activities involved carbon cycling capacity. Our results suggest that biochar addition can affect microbial population abundances, community structure and enzyme activities, that these effects are particle size and rate dependent. The fine particle

  13. Short-term intensive psychodynamic group therapy versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in day treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Suszek, Hubert; Holas, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Tomasz; Lorentzen, Steinar; Kokoszka, Andrzej

    2015-07-29

    Psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapies are frequently applied in day hospitals for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Yet there is not enough evidence as to their effectiveness in this environment; this study addresses this gap. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of these two kinds of day treatment care consisting of intensive, short-term group psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for patients with anxiety disorders and/or comorbid depressive or personality disorders. Our objectives are to: 1) show the effectiveness of each treatment in a day-care setting relative to the wait-list control group; 2) demonstrate the relative short- and long-term effectiveness of the two active treatments; 3) carry out a preliminary examination of the predictors and moderators of treatment response; 4) carry out a preliminary examination of the mediators of therapeutic change; and 5) compare the impact of both methods of treatment on the outcome of the measures used in this study. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 199 patients with anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive and/or personality disorders will be assigned to one of three conditions: 1) psychodynamic group therapy; 2) cognitive-behavioral group therapy; or 3) wait-list control group. The therapy will last 12 weeks. Both treatments will be manualized (the manuals will address comorbidity). Primary outcome measures will include self-reported symptoms of anxiety, observer-rated symptoms of anxiety, global improvement, and recovery rate. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of pathological personality traits, depression, self-esteem, defense mechanisms, beliefs about self and others, interpersonal problems, object relations, parental bonding, meta-cognition, and quality of life. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at six months following

  14. Short-term dynamics of intertidal microphytobenthic biomass. Mathematical modelling [La dynamique a court terme de la biomasse du microphytobenthos intertidal. Formalisation mathematique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guarini, J.-M.; Gros, P.; Blanchard, G.F.; Bacher, C.

    1999-01-01

    We formulate a deterministic mathematical model to describe the dynamics of the microphytobenthos of intertidal mudflats. It is 'minimal' because it only takes into account the essential processes governing the functioning of the system: the autotrophic production, the active upward and downward migrations of epipelic microalgae, the saturation of the mud surface by a biofilm of diatoms and the global net loss rates of biomass. According to the photic environment of the benthic diatoms inhabiting intertidal mudflats, and to their migration rhythm, the model is composed of two sub-systems of ordinary differential equations; they describe the simultaneous evolution of the biomass 'S' concentrated in the mud surface biofilm - the photic layer - and of the biomass 'F' diluted in the topmost centimetre of the mud - the aphotic layer. Qualitatively, the model solutions agree fairly well with the in situ observed dynamics of the S + F biomass. The study of the mathematical properties of the model, under some simplifying assumptions, shows the convergence of solutions to a stable cyclic equilibrium, whatever the frequencies of the physical synchronizers of the production. The sensitivity analysis reveals the necessity of a better knowledge of the processes of biomass losses, which so far are uncertain, and may further vary in space and time.

  15. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  16. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System.

    PubMed

    Garcés-Ruiz, Mónica; Calonne-Salmon, Maryline; Plouznikoff, Katia; Misson, Coralie; Navarrete-Mier, Micaela; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi) uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h) from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h) as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  17. Effect of volcano ash additions on nutrient concentrations, bloom dynamics and community metabolism in a short-term experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Volcano ash deposition is now considered as an important source of inorganic bioavailable iron which can relieve Fe-limitation in the ocean. As volcano ash also releases PO4, a experiment was performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea to test whether volcano ash deposition can affect nutrient dynamics and bloom development in a P-limited system. In a 54h experiment, it was shown that the development of a phytoplankton bloom was not enhanced or even repressed by ash additions of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas higher ash concentrations (200 mg l-1) induced a phytoplankton bloom as indicated by elevated Chlorophyll-a levels. Concurrently, net community production (NCP) and gross primary production (GPP) were enhanced at T24h at the highest ash additions. The metabolic balance was roughly neutral at low or no ash additions, but shifted towards phototrophy at the highest ash additions. The data on inorganic nutrient development and release estimates from ash material assays suggest relieving of P-limitation concomitant with NO3 and silicate use from ash. The concentration of TEP increased with increasing ash levels. The abundances of the heterotrophic compartment (bacteria, viruses and ciliates) also indicated dose-dependent responses. Our data suggest that heterotrophs won the competition for inorganic nutrients at ash levels of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas phytoplankton won at levels of 200 mg l-1. Overall, our experiments point to a strong potential of volcano ash deposition as forcing factor for nutrient dynamics and the activity of microbial plankton in a P-limited system.

  18. Short-Term International Experiences and Teacher Language Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbon, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    This research study had as its focus the impact of a short-term international experience on teacher language awareness (TLA). In-country intensive immersion experiences were considered beneficial for language teacher professional development. This project examined the Australian teachers' perceptions of their teaching and home-stay experiences…

  19. Short-term dynamics of the carbon isotope composition of CO2 emitted from a wheat agroecosystem--physiological and environmental controls.

    PubMed

    Kodama, N; Ferrio, J P; Brüggemann, N; Gessler, A

    2011-01-01

    Understanding environmental and physiological controls of the variations in δ(13) C of CO(2) respired (δ(13) C(R)) from different compartments of an ecosystem is important for separation of CO(2) fluxes and to assess coupling between assimilation and respiration. In a wheat field, over 3 days we characterised the temporal dynamics of δ(13) C(R) from shoots and roots, from the soil and from the whole agroecosystem. To evaluate the basis of potential variations in δ(13) C(R), we also measured δ(13) C in different organic matter pools, as well as meteorological and gas exchange parameters. We observed strong diel variations up to ca. 6% in shoot, root and soil δ(13) C(R), but not in δ(13) C of the putative organic substrates for respiration, which varied by not more than ca. 1% within 24 h. Whole ecosystem-respired CO(2) was least depleted in (13) C in the afternoon and most negative in the early morning. We assume that temporally variable respiratory carbon isotope fractionation and changes in fluxes through metabolic pathways, rather than photosynthetic carbon isotope fractionation, governs the δ(13) C of respired CO(2) at the diel scale, and thus provides insights into the metabolic processes related to respiration under field conditions. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. {sup 90}Y-{sup 90}Sr disequilibrium in surface waters : investigating short-term particle dynamics by using a novel isotope pair.

    SciTech Connect

    Orlandini, K. A.; Bowling, J. W.; Pinder, J. E.; Penrose, W. R.; Environmental Research; Procter and Gamble; Colorado State Univ.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of the disequilibrium between {sup 90}Sr (t{sub 1/2}=29.1 yr) and its particle-reactive daughter {sup 90}Y (t{sub 1/2}=64 h) to estimate particle removal rates and settling velocities in the epilimnion of a freshwater lake during varying conditions of stratification caused by seasonal changes. The estimated rates of removal obtained from the {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y disequilibrium showed good agreement with (a) measured rates of mass removal obtained from settling particle fluxes in sediment traps and the inventories of suspended material and (b) independently obtained removal coefficients for the scavenging behavior of two different isotopes of particle-reactive plutonium, present in the water column because of different processes. Because 90Sr is widespread and readily measurable in freshwater systems as a result of fallout from nuclear weapons testing, the {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y disequilibrium is a potentially valuable resource for examining particle dynamics in surface waters.

  1. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels.

  2. Effect of 14 weeks of extreme drought on short-term carbon and lipid dynamics in a temperate grassland and heathland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, K.; Jentsch, A.; Glaser, B.; Wiesenberg, G. L.

    2016-12-01

    Global climate change will lead to extended drought periods, which will severely influence temperate plant-soil system. Despite various responses of the plant-soil system on drought have been proven, it still remains largely unknown, to which extent drought influences carbon (C) and lipid dynamics in plants and their translocation and turnover in soil. To explore the effect of severe drought in the plant-soil system, we focused on a field experiment where model grassland and heathland ecosystems were exposed to 14 weeks spring to summer drought in 2011 in the EVENT-I experiment conducted in Bayreuth, Germany. We applied a sequential 13CO2 pulses-chase labelling during the whole experimental drought period. Plant and soil samples were analysed for their stable C isotope and lipid composition. The uptake of 13C decreased with increasing drought duration and was absent for most plant species after 9 weeks of drought. Due to subsequent transport processes, the time lag of maximum 13C was observed in roots two weeks after the corresponding label, which was even longer for soils. Incorporation of labelled 13C in shoots and translocation to roots and soil was observed throughout the first 9 weeks of the drought and became strongly limited, thereafter. However, this sustainable C uptake and translocation of C towards soil exceeded a period of 1000-year extreme drought (6 weeks) by 50%. During the initial drought period (weeks 0 - 2) the total lipid extract (TLE) content decreased in shoots, roots and soils most likely due to increased production of sugars and other primary biosynthesis products during initial drought stress. During later stages of the drought (especially weeks 8 and 9), the TLE content increased, indicating the higher productivity of protective lipids during extreme drought. Surprisingly, the lipid molecular composition did not significantly change, whereas productivity of protective lipids seems the preferential mechanism to regulate drought stress within

  3. A Low-Intensity Mobile Health Intervention With and Without Health Counseling for Persons With Type 2 Diabetes, Part 1: Baseline and Short-Term Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Norwegian Part of RENEWING HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Arsand, Eirik; Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Ribu, Lis

    2014-12-11

    Self-management support for people with type 2 diabetes is essential in diabetes care. Thus, mobile health technology with or without low-intensity theory-based health counseling could become an important tool for promoting self-management. The aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of technology-supported self-management using the Few Touch Application (FTA) diabetes diary with or without health counseling improved glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, self-management, behavioral change, and health-related quality of life, and to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants after 4 months. A 3-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted in Norway during 2011-2013. In the 2 intervention groups, participants were given a mobile phone for 1 year, which provided access to the FTA diary, a self-help tool that recorded 5 elements: blood glucose, food habits, physical activity, personal goal setting, and a look-up system for diabetes information. One of the intervention groups was also offered theory-based health counseling with a specialist diabetes nurse by telephone for 4 months from baseline. Both intervention groups and the control group were provided usual care according to the national guidelines. Adults with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥7.1% were included (N=151). There were 3 assessment points: baseline, 4 months, and 1 year. We report the short-term findings after 4 months. HbA1c was the primary outcome and the secondary outcomes were self-management (Health Education Impact Questionnaire, heiQ), behavioral change (diet and physical activity), and health-related quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire). The data were analyzed using univariate methods (ANOVA), multivariate linear, and logistic regression. Data were analyzed from 124 individuals (attrition rate was 18%). The groups were well balanced at baseline. There were no differences in HbA1c between groups after 4 months, but there was a decline in all

  4. A Low-Intensity Mobile Health Intervention With and Without Health Counseling for Persons With Type 2 Diabetes, Part 1: Baseline and Short-Term Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Norwegian Part of RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Årsand, Eirik; Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Ribu, Lis

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-management support for people with type 2 diabetes is essential in diabetes care. Thus, mobile health technology with or without low-intensity theory-based health counseling could become an important tool for promoting self-management. Objectives The aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of technology-supported self-management using the Few Touch Application (FTA) diabetes diary with or without health counseling improved glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, self-management, behavioral change, and health-related quality of life, and to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants after 4 months. Methods A 3-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted in Norway during 2011-2013. In the 2 intervention groups, participants were given a mobile phone for 1 year, which provided access to the FTA diary, a self-help tool that recorded 5 elements: blood glucose, food habits, physical activity, personal goal setting, and a look-up system for diabetes information. One of the intervention groups was also offered theory-based health counseling with a specialist diabetes nurse by telephone for 4 months from baseline. Both intervention groups and the control group were provided usual care according to the national guidelines. Adults with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥7.1% were included (N=151). There were 3 assessment points: baseline, 4 months, and 1 year. We report the short-term findings after 4 months. HbA1c was the primary outcome and the secondary outcomes were self-management (Health Education Impact Questionnaire, heiQ), behavioral change (diet and physical activity), and health-related quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire). The data were analyzed using univariate methods (ANOVA), multivariate linear, and logistic regression. Results Data were analyzed from 124 individuals (attrition rate was 18%). The groups were well balanced at baseline. There were no differences in HbA1c between groups after 4

  5. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  6. Short-term memory for scenes with affective content.

    PubMed

    Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo

    2005-03-18

    The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: higher arousal results in faster accumulation. Valence has a more interesting effect: while a picture is being viewed, information from positive and neutral scenes accumulates in memory at a constant rate, whereas information from negative scenes is encoded slowly at first, then increasingly faster. We provide evidence showing that neither differences in low-level image properties nor differences in the ability to apprehend the meaning of images at short exposures can account for the observed results, and propose that the effects are specific to the short-term memory mechanism. We interpret this pattern of results to mean that information accumulation in short-term memory is a controlled process, whose gain is modulated by valence and arousal acting as endogenous attentional cues.

  7. Short-term energy outlook: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, C.; Paxson, D.; Reznek, A. P.; Chu, C.; Sitzer, S.; Gamson, N.; Childress, J. P.; Paul, S.; Weigel, H.; Sutton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Detailed discussions of forecasting methodology and analytical topics concerning short-term energy markets are presented. Major assumptions necessary to make the energy forecasts are also discussed. Supplementary analyses of topics related to short-term energy forecasting are also given. The discussions relate to the forecasts prepared using the short term integrated forecasting system. This set of computer models uses data from various sources to develop energy supply and demand balances. Econmetric models used to predict the demand for petroleum products, natural gas, coal, and electricity are discussed. Price prediction models are also discussed. The role of oil inventories in world oil markets is reviewed. Various relationship between weather patterns and energy consumption are discussed.

  8. Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

  9. Longitudinal T1 relaxation rate (R1) captures changes in short-term Mn exposure in welders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mechelle M; Flynn, Michael R; Lee, Eun-Young; Van Buren, Scott; Van Buren, Eric; Du, Guangwei; Fry, Rebecca C; Herring, Amy H; Kong, Lan; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrated recently that the T1 relaxation rate (R1) captured short-term Mn exposure in welders with chronic, relatively low exposure levels in a cross-sectional study. In the current study, we used a longitudinal design to examine whether R1 values reflect the short-term dynamics of Mn exposure. Twenty-nine welders were evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Occupational questionnaires estimated short-term welding exposure using welding hours in the 90days prior to each study visit (HrsW90). In addition, blood Mn levels, the pallidal index (PI; globus pallidus T1-weighted intensity (T1WI)/frontal white matter T1WI), and R1 values in brain regions of interest (ROIs) were determined as Mn biomarkers at each visit. Associations between changes in estimated welding exposure and changes in purported Mn biomarkers were assessed by Spearman's correlations with adjustment for age and baseline R1, HrsW90, and blood Mn values. Changes in welding hours (HrsW90: the short-term welding exposure estimate), was associated significantly with changes in R1 values in the putamen (r=0.541, p=0.005), caudate (R=0.453, p=0.023), globus pallidus (R=0.430, p=0.032), amygdala (R=0.461, p=0.020), and hippocampus (R=0.447, p=0.025), but not with changes in blood Mn levels or the PI. Changes in R1 values correlated with changes in the short-term welding exposure estimate, but not with more traditional measures of Mn exposure (blood Mn levels or PI). These results suggest that R1 may serve as a useful marker to capture the short-term dynamics in Mn brain accumulation related to welding exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatiotemporal discrimination in neural networks with short-term synaptic plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Miller, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Cells in recurrently connected neural networks exhibit bistability, which allows for stimulus information to persist in a circuit even after stimulus offset, i.e. short-term memory. However, such a system does not have enough hysteresis to encode temporal information about the stimuli. The biophysically described phenomenon of synaptic depression decreases synaptic transmission strengths due to increased presynaptic activity. This short-term reduction in synaptic strengths can destabilize attractor states in excitatory recurrent neural networks, causing the network to move along stimulus dependent dynamical trajectories. Such a network can successfully separate amplitudes and durations of stimuli from the number of successive stimuli. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7:59., and so provides a strong candidate network for the encoding of spatiotemporal information. Here we explicitly demonstrate the capability of a recurrent neural network with short-term synaptic depression to discriminate between the temporal sequences in which spatial stimuli are presented.

  11. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  12. Intercultural Learning on Short-Term Sojourns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic case study of advanced second language (L2) students from Hong Kong who took part in a short-term sojourn in England after 14 weeks of preparation. While abroad, they lived with a host family, took literary/cultural studies courses, visited cultural sites, participated in debriefing sessions, and conducted…

  13. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

  14. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  15. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  16. Outcome Research on Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Preliminary Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Scott Allyn

    This paper reviews the empirical research on short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STDP). It begins with a brief history of STDP, identifying current developers and researchers of STDP and listing commonalities among various short-term dynamic psychotherapies. In this review, research is grouped broadly into two categories: controlled…

  17. Research about Short- Term Production Capacity Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    bi-xi, Zhang; jing, Song; xiu-li, Yu

    Under the circumstances of uncertain fluctuation of market demand, the degree of matching between production capacity and customers demand can affect the cost, the efficiency and the profits of an enterprise. Choosing the appropriate production capacity level is an important task for decision makers. The paper analyzes the characters of the short-term demand variation, the matching between the capacity and the demand, and its influence on the enterprise. Supposing the short-term demand varies seasonally, and the objective is minimum the loss of mismatch between the production capacity and market demand.Then,short-term production capacity decision model has been developed.Based on the model, this paper has probed into the mismatching loss of three strategies: fixed capacity strategy, subsection adjustment capacity strategy and dynamic adjustment capacity strategy,and an optimal capacity strategy is provided. By fixing the capacity-demand mismatching loss and changing the capacity adjustment rate, this paper also studies the sensitivity of the capacity strategy. The result shows that, firstly, as the capacity adjustment rate is less than a certain numerical value, the dynamic adjustment capacity is the optimal choice; secondly, as the capacity adjustment rate exceeds a certain numerical value, the optimal one is fixed capacity strategy; finally, as the rate falls in some specific area, the optimal one is subsection adjustment capacity strategy. One practical example is provided to prove the model's validity.

  18. Short-term solar activity forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie-Zhen, C.; Ai-Di, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A method of forecasting the level of activity of every active region on the surface of the Sun within one to three days is proposed in order to estimate the possibility of the occurrence of ionospheric disturbances and proton events. The forecasting method is a probability process based on statistics. In many of the cases, the accuracy in predicting the short term solar activity was in the range of 70%, although there were many false alarms.

  19. The economics of short-term leasing.

    PubMed

    Flath, D

    1980-04-01

    Short-term leasing is an everyday occurrence. Tax savings cannot account for the ubiquity of leasing by temporary users. Monopoly explanations are inconsistent with concurrent leasing and selling markets for perfect substitutes. Leasing economizes upon the costs of detecting, assuring, and maintaining quality, costs of search, and costs of risk-bearing. This view is based on standard economic reasoning and has numerous specific implications.

  20. Short-term memory: a brief commentary.

    PubMed

    Shiffrin, R M

    1993-03-01

    Over the years, a metatheoretical view of short-term memory has developed. This view, closely related to the "modal" model from the 1960s, is supported by an increasing base of neurophysiological data, and a wide variety of empirical findings. It treats short-term memory as (1) the temporary, above threshold, activation of neural structures (related in not-too-well-specified ways to various recency effects); (2) a work space for carrying out virtually all cognitive operations involved in human cognition; and (3) the source of capacity limitations, accounting for certain memory limitations and most attentional limitations. The main problem with this view is the fact that it encompasses virtually everything that we are concerned with in human cognition--a successful model would almost be a general model of cognition, something the field has not yet approached. This situation is not grounds for despair. Progress is being made on many fronts, notwithstanding the fact that the most successful models are focused on specific task domains. Recent advances include an increasing awareness of the necessity for detailed models of short-term retrieval, a theme reflected in a number of articles in the present collection.

  1. Reduced volume but increased training intensity elevates muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha1-subunit and NHE1 expression as well as short-term work capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Thomassen, Martin; Kolding, Helle; Gunnarsson, Thomas; Wendell, Jesper; Rostgaard, Thomas; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Krustrup, Peter; Nybo, Lars; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2008-03-01

    The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in work capacity in endurance-trained runners after a change from endurance to sprint training. Fifteen runners were assigned to either a sprint training (ST, n = 8) or a control (CON, n = 7) group. ST replaced their normal training by 30-s sprint runs three to four times a week, whereas CON continued the endurance training (approximately 45 km/wk). After the 4-wk sprint period, the expression of the muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha1-subunit and Na+/H+-exchanger isoform 1 was 29 and 30% higher (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, plasma K+ concentration was reduced (P < 0.05) during repeated intense running. In ST, performance in a 30-s sprint test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, and two supramaximal exhaustive runs was improved (P < 0.05) by 7, 19, 27, and 19%, respectively, after the sprint training period, whereas pulmonary maximum oxygen uptake and 10-k time were unchanged. No changes in CON were observed. The present data suggest a role of the Na+-K+ pump in the control of K+ homeostasis and in the development of fatigue during repeated high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, performance during intense exercise can be improved and endurance performance maintained even with a reduction in training volume if the intensity of training is very high.

  2. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Short Term Exogenic Climate Change Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel

    Several short term exogenic forcings affecting Earth's climate are but recently identified. Lunar nutation periodicity has implications for numerical meteorological prediction. Abrupt shifts in solar wind bulk velocity, particle density, and polarity exhibit correlation with terrestrial hemispheric vorticity changes, cyclonic strengthening and the intensification of baroclinic disturbances. Galactic Cosmic ray induced tropospheric ionization modifies cloud microphysics, and modulates the global electric circuit. This dissertation is constructed around three research questions: (1): What are the biweekly declination effects of lunar gravitation upon the troposphere? (2): How do United States severe weather reports correlate with heliospheric current sheet crossings? and (3): How does cloud cover spatially and temporally vary with galactic cosmic rays? Study 1 findings show spatial consistency concerning lunar declination extremes upon Rossby longwaves. Due to the influence of Rossby longwaves on synoptic scale circulation, our results could theoretically extend numerical meteorological forecasting. Study 2 results indicate a preference for violent tornadoes to occur prior to a HCS crossing. Violent tornadoes (EF3+) are 10% more probable to occur near, and 4% less probable immediately after a HCS crossing. The distribution of hail and damaging wind reports do not mirror this pattern. Polarity is critical for the effect. Study 3 results confirm anticorrelation between solar flux and low-level marine-layer cloud cover, but indicate substantial regional variability between cloud cover altitude and GCRs. Ultimately, this dissertation serves to extend short term meteorological forecasting, enhance climatological modeling and through analysis of severe violent weather and heliospheric events, protect property and save lives.

  5. Short-term risk forecasts of heavy rainfall.

    PubMed

    Schmid, W; Mecklenburg, S; Joss, J

    2002-01-01

    Methodologies for risk forecasts of severe weather hardly exist on the scale of nowcasting (0-3 hours). Here we discuss short-term risk forecasts of heavy precipitation associated with local thunderstorms. We use COTREC/RainCast: a procedure to extrapolate radar images into the near future. An error density function is defined using the estimated error of location of the extrapolated radar patterns. The radar forecast is folded ("smeared") with the density function, leading to a probability distribution of radar intensities. An algorithm to convert the radar intensities into values of precipitation intensity provides the desired probability (or risk) of heavy rainfall at any position within the considered window in space and time. We discuss, as an example, a flood event from summer 2000.

  6. Short-term muscle power during growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Doré, Eric

    2002-01-01

    During growth and maturation, the study of very brief high-intensity exercise has not received the same attention from researchers as, for instance, aerobic function. In anaerobic tasks or sports events such as sprint cycling, jumping or running, the children's performance is distinctly lower than that of adults. This partly reflects children's lesser ability to generate mechanical energy from chemical energy sources during short-term intensive activity. For many years, various attempts have been made to quantify the anaerobic energy yield in maximal-intensity exercise, but many assumptions have had to be made with respect to mechanical efficiency, lactate turnover, dilution space for lactate, and so on. During childhood and adolescence, direct measurements of the rate or capacity of anaerobic pathways for energy turnover presents several ethical and methodological difficulties. Thus, rather than measure energy supply, paediatric exercise scientists have concentrated on measuring short-term muscle power (STMP) by means of standardised tests. Previously, investigators have used various protocols such as short-term cycling power tests, vertical jump tests or running tests. Cycling ergometer tests are the most common. There is, however, no ideal test, and so it is important to acknowledge the limitations of each test. Progress has been made in assessing instantaneous cycling STMP from a single exercise bout. Several investigators have reported STMP increases with age and have suggested that late pubertal period may accentuate anaerobic glycolysis. Mass-related STMP was shown to increase dramatically during childhood and adolescence, whereas the corresponding increase in peak blood lactate was considerably lower. The latter results support the hypothesis that the difference observed between children and adolescents during STMP testing is more related to neuromuscular factors, hormonal factors and improved motor coordination, rather than being an indicator of reduced

  7. [Effects of a recreational general physical activity program with short term and moderate intensity of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive patients over 50 years old].

    PubMed

    Torija Archilla, Ana; Pérez González, Javier; Sarmiento Ramírez, Álvaro; Fernández Sánchez, Enrique; González Ruiz, Josué Rubén; Guisado Barrilao, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of a recreational general physical activity program with moderate intensity and short duration on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors (BMI, cholesterol, Rest Heart Rate, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides) in hypertensive patients older than 50years. Non-randomised pre-post design, quasi-experimental study. Íllora, Granada, Spain. A total of 60 subjects aged 50-75years taking part in the Health Hypertensive Program in the Medical Centre were selected. A recreational general physical activity program, mainly aerobic capacity, of 4weeks duration, 3days/week, and an intensity of 45-55% HR Reserve. SBP, DBP, HR, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, TG, and Glucose. Statistically significant decreases (P<.05) were observed in BMI (-0.51%; 95%CI: 30.26 to 31.93units), HR (-5.57beats/min; 95%CI: 68.76 to 71.73beats/min), SBP (-14.82mmHg; 95%CI: 131.57 to 137.52mmHg), DBP (-5.33mmHg; 95%CI: 78.94 to 83.68mmHg), Glucose (-7.63mg/dL; 95%CI: 125.06 to 153.73mg/dL) and REGICOR risk (-20.46%; 95%CI: 5.45 to 6.90%). Statistically significant increases were observed in HDL (+2.82mg/dl; 95%CI: 46.78 to 52.11mmHg), and TG (+8.27mg/dl; 95%CI: 133.89 to 152.60mg/dL). Men had a wider variation in HR and DBP, and women in SBP (P<.05). Subjects with baseline SBP≥160mmHg experienced greater declines in HR, SBP, DBP, Glucose and TG (-10.67beats/min, -31mmHg, -8.27mmHg, -10.86mg/dL, and 34.66mg/dL, respectively) than those with an initial SBP<160mmHg, where there was an increase in HDL and a decrease in LDL. After this program, improvements in BP and other cardiovascular risk factors were obtained in hypertensive subjects over 50years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Short-Term, Intensive Antifolate Treatment (with Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine) and Antibiotics Followed by Long-Term, Secondary Antifolate Prophylaxis on the Rate of Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Piotr K.; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Basiak, Wojciech; Świtaj, Karolina; Żarnowska-Prymek, Hanna; Olszyńska-Krowicka, Maria; Kajfasz, Piotr; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of intensive antifolate treatment, followed by secondary antifolate prophylaxis (A-SP) on the recurrence rate of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TRC). To investigate whether there are any other factors potentially predisposing for recurrence. Material and Methods A total of 637 medical records of TRC patients, who had been treated in the years 1994–2013 were reviewed. All patients were treated with pyrimethamine /sulfadoxine one 25mg/500mg tablet daily (P/S 25/500mg) for 21 days with a double loading dose for the first two days. From Day 2 the patients also received prednisone at a starting dose of 40mg and spiramycine 3 million IU three times daily, given for 10 days followed by azithromycin 500mg once daily for another 6 days. The analysis of the recurrence rate involved 352 patients who had completed 6-month secondary prophylaxis (P/S one 25 mg/500mg tablet twice a week). Results When secondary antifolate prophylaxis (A-SP) was instituted immediately after the treatment for TRC, the probability of 3-year recurrence–free survival after the first course of A-SP was 90.9%. A recurrence was most likely approximately 3.5 years after the first treatment. A univariate Cox regression model demonstrated that a risk for recurrence was 2.82 times higher (p = 0.02) in patients with retinal scars. In the multivariate analysis, the risk for recurrence was 2.41 higher (p = 0.06). In patients with haemorrhagic lesions the risk for recurrence was lower, aRR = 0.17 (approaching borderline statistical significance p = 0.08). Conclusions With the institution of A-SP of immediately after the intensive treatment for TRC, i.e. when a reactivation was most likely, there was no recurrence during A-SP. Following A-SP the recurrence rates were low and recurrence-free periods tended to be longer. The treatment regimen employed had a beneficial effect on the recurrence interval as it reduced and delayed the highest probability of recurrence. PMID:27542116

  9. The Impact of Short-Term, Intensive Antifolate Treatment (with Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine) and Antibiotics Followed by Long-Term, Secondary Antifolate Prophylaxis on the Rate of Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Piotr K; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Basiak, Wojciech; Świtaj, Karolina; Żarnowska-Prymek, Hanna; Olszyńska-Krowicka, Maria; Kajfasz, Piotr; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    To assess the impact of intensive antifolate treatment, followed by secondary antifolate prophylaxis (A-SP) on the recurrence rate of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TRC). To investigate whether there are any other factors potentially predisposing for recurrence. A total of 637 medical records of TRC patients, who had been treated in the years 1994-2013 were reviewed. All patients were treated with pyrimethamine /sulfadoxine one 25mg/500mg tablet daily (P/S 25/500mg) for 21 days with a double loading dose for the first two days. From Day 2 the patients also received prednisone at a starting dose of 40mg and spiramycine 3 million IU three times daily, given for 10 days followed by azithromycin 500mg once daily for another 6 days. The analysis of the recurrence rate involved 352 patients who had completed 6-month secondary prophylaxis (P/S one 25 mg/500mg tablet twice a week). When secondary antifolate prophylaxis (A-SP) was instituted immediately after the treatment for TRC, the probability of 3-year recurrence-free survival after the first course of A-SP was 90.9%. A recurrence was most likely approximately 3.5 years after the first treatment. A univariate Cox regression model demonstrated that a risk for recurrence was 2.82 times higher (p = 0.02) in patients with retinal scars. In the multivariate analysis, the risk for recurrence was 2.41 higher (p = 0.06). In patients with haemorrhagic lesions the risk for recurrence was lower, aRR = 0.17 (approaching borderline statistical significance p = 0.08). With the institution of A-SP of immediately after the intensive treatment for TRC, i.e. when a reactivation was most likely, there was no recurrence during A-SP. Following A-SP the recurrence rates were low and recurrence-free periods tended to be longer. The treatment regimen employed had a beneficial effect on the recurrence interval as it reduced and delayed the highest probability of recurrence.

  10. Writing and overwriting short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    An integrative account of short-term memory is based on data from pigeons trained to report the majority color in a sequence of lights. Performance showed strong recency effects, was invariant over changes in the interstimulus interval, and improved with increases in the intertrial interval. A compound model of binomial variance around geometrically decreasing memory described the data; a logit transformation rendered it isomorphic with other memory models. The model was generalized for variance in the parameters, where it was shown that averaging exponential and power functions from individuals or items with different decay rates generates new functions that are hyperbolic in time and in log time, respectively. The compound model provides a unified treatment of both the accrual and the dissipation of memory and is consistent with data from various experiments, including the choose-short bias in delayed recall, multielement stimuli, and Rubin and Wenzel’s (1996) meta-analyses of forgetting. PMID:11340865

  11. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  12. Vitreon, a short-term vitreoretinal tamponade.

    PubMed Central

    Blinder, K J; Peyman, G A; Desai, U R; Nelson, N C; Alturki, W; Paris, C L

    1992-01-01

    This investigation of the liquid perfluorocarbon, perfluorophenanthrene (Vitreon), establishes its safety and efficacy as a short-term vitreoretinal tamponade. We utilised Vitreon as an intraoperative tool and postoperative vitreoretinal tamponade in 16 patients. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (six), giant retinal tear (four), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (three), retinal detachment with keratoprosthesis (two), and submacular and vitreous haemorrhage (one) were successfully repaired. Vitreon was left in the eye and removed 5 days to 4 weeks postoperatively. Complications encountered included proliferative PVR (five), limited peripheral retinal detachment (three), macular pucker (two) cataract (three), hypotony (two), excessive fibrin reaction (one), and elevated intraocular pressure (one). At the latest evaluation, all retinas are attached with a follow-up of 1.25 to 12 months (mean 6.8 months). PMID:1420054

  13. Short Term Forecasting of Cloud and Precipitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    economical procedure for Cartesian interpolation and display of reflectivity factor data in three-dimensional space. J. Appl. Meteorol. 18:661-670. 3...C4 r 1 0 0 s.. C-CMC C zc @0i -9 Cr- a* CD f- 0c Lq CC! Y C Lq CL LO 0 - M c C# CL C- V- Lei i a; C- cc Li co p1 CL C N~ CV mCq L 64 LIn c a;fi OLn fr...Short Term Forecasting of Cloud and Precipitation, AFGL-TR-85-0343. AD A169744. 3. Mohr, C.G. and Vaughan, R. (1979) An economical procedure for

  14. Short-term geomorphological evolution of proglacial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Heckmann, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Proglacial systems are amongst the most rapidly changing landscapes on Earth, as glacier mass loss, permafrost degradation and more episodes of intense rainfall progress with climate change. This review addresses the urgent need to quantitatively define proglacial systems not only in terms of spatial extent but also in terms of functional processes. It firstly provides a critical appraisal of prevailing conceptual models of proglacial systems, and uses this to justify compiling data on rates of landform change in terms of planform, horizontal motion, elevation changes and sediment budgets. These data permit us to produce novel summary conceptual diagrams that consider proglacial landscape evolution in terms of a balance of longitudinal and lateral water and sediment fluxes. Throughout, we give examples of newly emerging datasets and data processing methods because these have the potential to assist with the issues of: (i) a lack of knowledge of proglacial systems within high-mountain, arctic and polar regions, (ii) considerable inter- and intra-catchment variability in the geomorphology and functioning of proglacial systems, (iii) problems with the magnitude of short-term geomorphological changes being at the threshold of detection, (iv) separating short-term variability from longer-term trends, and (v) of the representativeness of plot-scale field measurements for regionalisation and for upscaling. We consider that understanding of future climate change effects on proglacial systems requires holistic process-based modelling to explicitly consider feedbacks and linkages, especially between hillslope and valley-floor components. Such modelling must be informed by a new generation of repeated distributed topographic surveys to detect and quantify short-term geomorphological changes.

  15. Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164324.html Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury But ... of endurance are also tough on the kidneys. "Marathon runners demonstrate transient or reverse short-term kidney ...

  16. Short-term memory of motor network performance via activity-dependent potentiation of Na+/K+ pump function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Sillar, Keith T

    2012-03-20

    Brain networks memorize previous performance to adjust their output in light of past experience. These activity-dependent modifications generally result from changes in synaptic strengths or ionic conductances, and ion pumps have only rarely been demonstrated to play a dynamic role. Locomotor behavior is produced by central pattern generator (CPG) networks and modified by sensory and descending signals to allow for changes in movement frequency, intensity, and duration, but whether or how the CPG networks recall recent activity is largely unknown. In Xenopus frog tadpoles, swim bout duration correlates linearly with interswim interval, suggesting that the locomotor network retains a short-term memory of previous output. We discovered an ultraslow, minute-long afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) in network neurons following locomotor episodes. The usAHP is mediated by an activity- and sodium spike-dependent enhancement of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump function. By integrating spike frequency over time and linking the membrane potential of spinal neurons to network performance, the usAHP plays a dynamic role in short-term motor memory. Because Na(+)/K(+) pumps are ubiquitously expressed in neurons of all animals and because sodium spikes inevitably accompany network activity, the usAHP may represent a phylogenetically conserved but largely overlooked mechanism for short-term memory of neural network function.

  17. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  18. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  19. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  20. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Tobinaga, Welcy Cassiano; Abelenda, Vera Lucia Barros; de Sá, Paula Morisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2 ± 1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3 ± 437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p = 0.004), heart rate (p = 0.003), and respiratory rate (p = 0.004) and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.002). However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p > 0.05). Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731. PMID:27672453

  1. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  2. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Short-term Drought Prediction in India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Medium range soil moisture drought forecast helps in decision making in the field of agriculture and water resources management. Part of skills in medium range drought forecast comes from precipitation. Proper evaluation and correction of precipitation forecast may improve drought predictions. Here, we evaluate skills of ensemble mean precipitation forecast from Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for medium range drought predictions over India. Climatological mean (CLIM) of historic data (OBS) are used as reference forecast to evaluate GEFS precipitation forecast. Analysis was conducted based on forecast initiated on 1st and 15th dates of each month for lead up to 7-days. Correlation and RMSE were used to estimate skill scores of accumulated GEFS precipitation forecast from lead 1 to 7-days. Volumetric indices based on the 2X2 contingency table were used to check missed and falsely predicted historic volume of daily precipitation from GEFS in different regions and at different thresholds. GEFS showed improvement in correlation of 0.44 over CLIM during the monsoon season and 0.55 during the winter season. Lower RMSE was showed by GEFS than CLIM. Ratio of RMSE in GEFS and CLIM comes out as 0.82 and 0.4 (perfect skill is at zero) during the monsoon and winter season, respectively. We finally used corrected GEFS forecast to derive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which was used to develop short-term forecast of hydrologic and agricultural (soil moisture) droughts in India.

  4. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.

  5. Short-term extractability of sulfadiazine after application to soils.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tanja; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Focks, Andreas; Siemens, Jan; Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The long-term environmental fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soils is determined by a reversible sequestration into a residual fraction and an irreversible formation of non-extractable residues (NER), which can be described as first-order rate processes. However, the concentration dynamics of the resulting fractions of SDZ in soil show an unexplained rapid reduction of extractability during the first 24 h. We therefore investigated the short-term extractability of SDZ in two different soils under different SDZ application procedures over 24 h: with and without manure, for air-dried and for moist soils. In all batches, we observed an instantaneous loss of extractability on a time scale of minutes as well as kinetically determined sequestration and NER formation over 24 h. Data evaluation with a simple kinetic model led to the conclusion that application with manure accelerated the short-term formation of NER, whereas sequestration was very similar for all batches.

  6. Short-term carbon dynamics in a temperate heathland upon six years of exposure to elevated CO2 concentration, drought and warming: Evidence from an in-situ 13CO2 pulse-chase experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambus, P.; Reinsch, S.; Sárossy, Z.; Egsgaard, H.; Jakobsen, I.; Michelsen, A.; Schmidt, I.; Nielsen, P.

    2013-12-01

    An in-situ 13CO2 pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heathland (8 oC MAT, 610 mm MAP) to study the impact on short-term carbon (C) allocation as affected by elevated CO2 concentration (+120 ppm), prolonged summer droughts (ca. -43 mm) and warming (+1 oC). The study was carried out six years after the climate treatments were initiated and took place in the early growing season in May in vegetation dominated by grasses, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa. Newly assimilated C (13C from the pulse-label) was traced into vegetation, soil and soil microorganisms and belowground respiration 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in different microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Climate treatments did not affect microorganism abundance in soil or rhizosphere fractions in terms of total PLFA-C concentration. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy), but did not affect the abundance of decomposers (fungi and actinomycetes) in rhizosphere fractions. Drought favored the bacterial community in rhizosphere fractions whereas warming reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (19:0cy) and changed the actinomycetes community (10Me16:0, 10Me18:0). Fastest and highest utilization of recently assimilated C was observed in rhizosphere associated gram-negative bacteria followed by gram-positive bacteria. The utilization of recently assimilated C by the microbial community was faster under elevated CO2 conditions compared to ambient. The 13C assimilation by green plant tissue and translocation to roots was significantly reduced by the extended summer drought. Under elevated CO2 conditions we observed an increased amount of 13C in the litter fraction. The assimilation of 13C by vegetation was not changed when the climate factors were applied in combination. The total amount of

  7. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  9. Acute hyperglycemia associated with short-term use of atypical antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Liao, T Vivian; Phan, Stephanie V

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disturbances associated with long-term use of antipsychotic medications has been widely reported in the literature. The use of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) has gained popularity due to a lower potential for adverse effects compared with conventional antipsychotics. However, current studies evaluating safety and efficacy of antipsychotics in the ICU setting do not include metabolic parameters as a potential adverse effect that requires monitoring. It is thought that long-term adverse effects of antipsychotics may be out of context for the intensive care setting. A literature review was conducted to investigate the prevalence of acute hyperglycemia associated with short-term use of antipsychotics, with the purpose of reviewing evidence that hyperglycemia may occur even with short-term use of atypical antipsychotics. A MEDLINE search for acute hyperglycemia from short-term use of antipsychotics resulted in studies involving animal models and healthy volunteers. These studies indicate that acute hyperglycemia may occur after short-term treatment. A review of the literature shows preliminary evidence to suggest that atypical antipsychotics impact glucose sensitivity and induce insulin resistance even after a single dose. Although no studies have been conducted evaluating the impact of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients from the short-term use of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of delirium, the potential to affect clinical outcomes exist and warrants further research in this area.

  10. Short-term Mobility and Increased Partnership Concurrency among Men in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Cassels, Susan; Manhart, Lisa; Jenness, Samuel M.; Morris, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration has long been understood as an underlying factor for HIV transmission, and sexual partner concurrency has been increasingly studied as an important component of HIV transmission dynamics. However, less work has examined the role of short-term mobility in sexual partner concurrency using a network approach. Short-term mobility may be a risk for HIV for the migrant’s partner as well either through the partner’s risk behaviors while the migrant is away, such as the partner having additional partners, or via exposure to the return migrant. Methods Using data from the 2010–11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, weighted generalized linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between short-term mobility and partnership concurrency at the individual and partnership levels. Results At the individual level, we find strong evidence of an association between short-term mobility and concurrency. Men who traveled were more likely to have concurrent partnerships compared to men who did not travel and the relationship was non-linear: each trip was associated with a 2% higher probability of concurrency, with a diminishing risk at 60 trips (p<0.001). At the partnership level, short-term mobility by the male only or both partners was associated with male concurrency. Couples in which the female only traveled exhibited less male concurrency. Conclusions Short-term mobility has the ability to impact population-level transmission dynamics by facilitating partnership concurrency and thus onward HIV transmission. Short-term migrants may be an important population to target for HIV testing, treatment, or social and behavioral interventions to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:23824635

  11. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  12. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  13. Three Models for Short-Term Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel; Brasher, Niel; Fee, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 250,000 U.S. college students participate in study abroad programs each year. A growing proportion of students are participating in short-term study abroad programs. Despite the large number of students in these programs, there are relatively few articles that describe how to start or manage a short-term, business-related, study abroad…

  14. A Short-Term Delivery Model for Counseling Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, J. Eugene

    The author discusses a short-term delivery model which forms the essential mode of operation at the counseling center at Rhode Island College. He prefaces his discription of the model by indicating that not all clients, problems or counselors are amenable to this short-term approach. There are three steps or elements in the delivery model: 1)…

  15. Short-Term Training--Where the Action Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George R.

    In order to address major permanent changes in the economic structure and workforce of its community, Chemeketa Community College (CCC) in Oregon has made a commitment to initiate as many short-term training programs as its resources permit. Short-term training, which takes less time than regular one-year certificate or two-year associate degree…

  16. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  17. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  18. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  19. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans AGENCY: National Credit Union... federal credit unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative...

  20. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  1. Understanding the Function of Visual Short-Term Memory: Transsaccadic Memory, Object Correspondence, and Gaze Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Richard, Ashleigh M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has received intensive study over the past decade, with research focused on VSTM capacity and representational format. Yet, the function of VSTM in human cognition is not well understood. Here, the authors demonstrate that VSTM plays an important role in the control of saccadic eye movements. Intelligent human…

  2. Understanding the Function of Visual Short-Term Memory: Transsaccadic Memory, Object Correspondence, and Gaze Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Richard, Ashleigh M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has received intensive study over the past decade, with research focused on VSTM capacity and representational format. Yet, the function of VSTM in human cognition is not well understood. Here, the authors demonstrate that VSTM plays an important role in the control of saccadic eye movements. Intelligent human…

  3. The Quantum Opportunity Program Demonstration: Implementation and Short-Term Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Myles; Schirm, Allen; Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria

    This report summarizes short-term impacts of the Quantum Opportunity Program (QOP) demonstration, which helped at-risk high school-age youth graduate and enroll in postsecondary education or training. QOP involved intensive case management and mentoring emphasizing after school supplemental academic education, developmental activities, and…

  4. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings. PMID:22232656

  5. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    PubMed

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  6. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  7. Short-Term Summer Inundation as a Measure to Counteract Acidification in Rich Fens

    PubMed Central

    Mettrop, Ivan S.; Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke M.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2015-01-01

    In regions with intensive agriculture, water level fluctuation in wetlands has generally become constricted within narrow limits. Water authorities are, however, considering the re-establishment of fluctuating water levels as a management tool in biodiverse, base-rich fens (‘rich fens’). This includes temporary inundation with surface water from ditches, which may play an important role in counteracting acidification in order to conserve and restore biodiversity. Inundation may result in an increased acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) for two reasons: infiltration of base-rich inundation water into peat soils, and microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to test whether short-term (2 weeks) summer inundation is more effective than short-term winter inundation to restore the ANC in the upper 10 cm of non-floating peat soils, and to explain potential differences. Large-scale field experiments were conducted for five years in base-rich fens and Sphagnum-dominated poor fens. Winter inundation did not result in increased porewater ANC, because infiltration was inhibited in the waterlogged peat and evapotranspiration rates were relatively low. Also, low temperatures limit microbial alkalinity generation. In summer, however, when temperature and evapotranspiration rates are higher, inundation resulted in increased porewater Ca and HCO3- concentrations, but only in areas with characteristic rich fen bryophytes. This increase was not only due to stronger infiltration into the soil, but also to higher microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, porewater ANC did not increase in Sphagnum-plots as a result of the ability of Sphagnum spp. to acidify their environment. In both rich and poor fens, flooding-induced P-mobilization remained sufficiently low to safeguard P-limited vegetation. NO3- and NH4+ dynamics showed no considerable changes either. In conclusion, short-term summer inundation

  8. Short-Term Summer Inundation as a Measure to Counteract Acidification in Rich Fens.

    PubMed

    Mettrop, Ivan S; Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke M; Lamers, Leon P M

    2015-01-01

    In regions with intensive agriculture, water level fluctuation in wetlands has generally become constricted within narrow limits. Water authorities are, however, considering the re-establishment of fluctuating water levels as a management tool in biodiverse, base-rich fens ('rich fens'). This includes temporary inundation with surface water from ditches, which may play an important role in counteracting acidification in order to conserve and restore biodiversity. Inundation may result in an increased acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) for two reasons: infiltration of base-rich inundation water into peat soils, and microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to test whether short-term (2 weeks) summer inundation is more effective than short-term winter inundation to restore the ANC in the upper 10 cm of non-floating peat soils, and to explain potential differences. Large-scale field experiments were conducted for five years in base-rich fens and Sphagnum-dominated poor fens. Winter inundation did not result in increased porewater ANC, because infiltration was inhibited in the waterlogged peat and evapotranspiration rates were relatively low. Also, low temperatures limit microbial alkalinity generation. In summer, however, when temperature and evapotranspiration rates are higher, inundation resulted in increased porewater Ca and HCO3- concentrations, but only in areas with characteristic rich fen bryophytes. This increase was not only due to stronger infiltration into the soil, but also to higher microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, porewater ANC did not increase in Sphagnum-plots as a result of the ability of Sphagnum spp. to acidify their environment. In both rich and poor fens, flooding-induced P-mobilization remained sufficiently low to safeguard P-limited vegetation. NO3(-) and NH4(+) dynamics showed no considerable changes either. In conclusion, short-term summer inundation

  9. Short-term EEG spectral pattern as a single event in EEG phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Al A; Fingelkurts, An A

    2010-09-08

    Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a "static" picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term spectra of various types in accordance with the number of types of EEG stationary segments instead of using averaged power spectrum for the whole EEG. It is suggested that the various perceptual and cognitive operations associated with a mental or behavioural condition constitute a single distinguishable neurophysiological state with a distinct and reliable spectral pattern. In this case, one type of short-term spectral pattern may be considered as a single event in EEG phenomenology. To support this assumption the following issues are considered in detail: (a) the relations between local EEG short-term spectral pattern of particular type and the actual state of the neurons in underlying network and a volume conduction; (b) relationship between morphology of EEG short-term spectral pattern and the state of the underlying neurodynamical system i.e. neuronal assembly; (c) relation of different spectral pattern components to a distinct physiological mechanism; (d) relation of different spectral pattern components to different functional significance; (e) developmental changes of spectral pattern components; (f) heredity of the variance in the individual spectral pattern and its components; (g) intra-individual stability of the sets of EEG short-term spectral patterns and their percent ratio; (h) discrete dynamics of EEG short-term spectral patterns. Functional relevance (consistency) of EEG short-term spectral patterns in accordance with the changes of brain functional state

  10. Short-Term EEG Spectral Pattern as a Single Event in EEG Phenomenology

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Al. A; Fingelkurts, An. A

    2010-01-01

    Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a “static” picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term spectra of various types in accordance with the number of types of EEG stationary segments instead of using averaged power spectrum for the whole EEG. It is suggested that the various perceptual and cognitive operations associated with a mental or behavioural condition constitute a single distinguishable neurophysiological state with a distinct and reliable spectral pattern. In this case, one type of short-term spectral pattern may be considered as a single event in EEG phenomenology. To support this assumption the following issues are considered in detail: (a) the relations between local EEG short-term spectral pattern of particular type and the actual state of the neurons in underlying network and a volume conduction; (b) relationship between morphology of EEG short-term spectral pattern and the state of the underlying neurodynamical system i.e. neuronal assembly; (c) relation of different spectral pattern components to a distinct physiological mechanism; (d) relation of different spectral pattern components to different functional significance; (e) developmental changes of spectral pattern components; (f) heredity of the variance in the individual spectral pattern and its components; (g) intra-individual stability of the sets of EEG short-term spectral patterns and their percent ratio; (h) discrete dynamics of EEG short-term spectral patterns. Functional relevance (consistency) of EEG short-term spectral patterns in accordance with the changes of brain functional state

  11. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2014-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, with special attention to questions of capacity and how—or whether—short-term memory can be separated from long-term memory. Second, we ask how the components of that architecture enact processes of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Third, we describe the debate over the reason about forgetting from short-term memory, whether interference or decay is the cause. We close with a conceptual model tracing the representation of a single item through a short-term memory task, describing the biological mechanisms that might support psychological processes on a moment-by-moment basis as an item is encoded, maintained over a delay with some forgetting, and ultimately retrieved. PMID:17854286

  12. Short-term cosmetic orthodontics for general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Maini, A

    2013-01-01

    The demand for cosmetic dental treatments in the UK has grown dramatically in the last decade possibly due to increased public awareness of new techniques coupled with greater media attention for celebrities following smile enhancement treatments. In view of this, the aim of this article and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference and Exhibition is to provide an overview of short-term cosmetic orthodontics for general dental practitioners. The presentation will cover the differences between short-term cosmetic orthodontics and comprehensive orthodontic treatment, and explain how using short-term orthodontics can be an effective tool to deliver minimally invasive cosmetic dentistry.

  13. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  14. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  15. Short-Term Musical Training and Pyschoacoustical Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Chandni; Mohamed, Hijas; Kumar, Ajith U.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of short-term perceptual training of music on some psycho-acoustical measures. The study was carried out in three phases. In first the phase pre-training evaluation was done which included raga identification and various psycho acoustical tests. Psycho-acoustical tests included measurement of differential limen of frequency and intensity, duration discrimination, gap detection, modulation detection, backward masking and duration pattern test. In the second phase, auditory perceptual training was given for raga identification and in the third phase post- training evaluation was done though same tests as mentioned in pre-training phase. A total of 10 normal hearing adults (7 males, 3 females) in the age range of 18-25 years participated in the study. The results revealed that all the subjects performed significantly better on raga identification after training. However; there was no significant difference in psycho-acoustical measures in pre and post-training. PMID:26557354

  16. Economic efficiency of short-term versus long-term water rights buyouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production...

  17. A Short Term Therapy Approach to Processing Trauma: Art Therapy and Bilateral Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Tally

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a dynamic, short-term art therapy approach that has been developed for the treatment of trauma related disorders. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol with alternating tactile and auditory bilateral stimulation, associations are rapidly brought to conscious awareness and expressed in…

  18. Operationalizing the assessment and management of violence risk in the short-term.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael; Logan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Assessing risk of violence in the short term is crucial for managing and preventing violence, especially in institutions such as psychiatric units and prisons. Despite a lack of consensus on the definition of "short term", a number of recent tools and guidelines have been developed to aid short-term clinical decision-making. Whereas the supporting evidence for the new tools is impressive, limitations remain in terms of the focus on prediction, limited consideration of strengths, and poor integration with formulation and risk management. The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a brief clinical guide for the dynamic assessment of risks, strengths and treatability. It focuses on short-term risks and the characteristics of the individual that, if changed, might lead to an increase or decrease in risk. The START has the potential to operationalize the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach in order to inform the evaluation of multiple risk domains relevant to everyday psychiatric clinical practice. However, explicit guidance on integrating risk assessment, formulation and management is limited in the START and this paper describes the SPJ approach, reviews recent developments in approaches to risk, and considers how the START can be used to inform SPJ approaches and link risk assessment, formulation, and management. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Do nonlinearities play a significant role in short term, beat-to-beat variability?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, H. G.; Mukkamala, R.; Moody, G. B.; Mark, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies of short-term beat-to-beat variability in cardiovascular signals have not resolved the debate about the completeness of linear analysis techniques. This aim of this paper is to evaluate further the role of nonlinearities in short-term, beat-to-beat variability. We compared linear autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and nonlinear neural network (NN) models for predicting instantaneous heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (BP) from past HR and BP. To evaluate these models, we used HR and BP time series from the MIMIC database. Experimental results indicate that NN-based nonlinearities do not play a significant role and suggest that ARMA linear analysis techniques provide adequate characterization of the system dynamics responsible for generating short-term, beat-to-beat variability.

  20. Do nonlinearities play a significant role in short term, beat-to-beat variability?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, H. G.; Mukkamala, R.; Moody, G. B.; Mark, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies of short-term beat-to-beat variability in cardiovascular signals have not resolved the debate about the completeness of linear analysis techniques. This aim of this paper is to evaluate further the role of nonlinearities in short-term, beat-to-beat variability. We compared linear autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and nonlinear neural network (NN) models for predicting instantaneous heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (BP) from past HR and BP. To evaluate these models, we used HR and BP time series from the MIMIC database. Experimental results indicate that NN-based nonlinearities do not play a significant role and suggest that ARMA linear analysis techniques provide adequate characterization of the system dynamics responsible for generating short-term, beat-to-beat variability.

  1. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  2. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  3. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in subparts D, E, F and H of this part, except wireless video assist devices, may be operated on a... notification provision shall not apply where an unanticipated need for immediate short-term mobile station...

  4. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  5. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  6. Optimal fuzzy inference for short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hidenori

    1996-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimal fuzzy inference method for short-term load forecasting. The proposed method constructs an optimal structure of the simplified fuzzy inference that minimizes model errors and the number of the membership functions to grasp nonlinear behavior of power system short-term loads. The model is identified by simulated annealing and the steepest descent method. The proposed method is demonstrated in examples.

  7. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, M.J.; Furman, J.; Ryan, C.; Durrant, J.; Kern, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  8. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for existing models of memory decay and interference. PMID:19271849

  9. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  10. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  11. Short-term information processing, long-term responses: Insights by mathematical modeling of signal transduction. Early activation dynamics of key signaling mediators can be predictive for cell fate decisions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Annette; Klingmüller, Ursula; Schilling, Marcel

    2012-07-01

    How do cells interpret information from their environment and translate it into specific cell fate decisions? We propose that cell fate is already encoded in early signaling events and thus can be predicted from defined signal properties. Specifically, we hypothesize that the time integral of activated key signaling molecules can be correlated to cellular behavior such as proliferation or differentiation. The identification of these decisive key signal mediators and their connection to cell fate is facilitated by mathematical modeling. A possible mechanistic linkage between signaling dynamics and cellular function is the directed control of gene regulatory networks by defined signals. Targeted experiments in combination with mathematical modeling can increase our understanding of how cells process information and realize distinct cell fates. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Role of Satellite Rainfall Information in Improving Understanding of the Dynamical Link Between the Tropics and Extratropics Prospects of Improved Forecasts of Weather and Short-Term Climate Variability on Sub-Seasonal Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2002-01-01

    The tropics and extratropics are two dynamically distinct regimes. The coupling between these two regimes often defies simple analytical treatment. Progress in understanding of the dynamical interaction between the tropics and extratropics relies on better observational descriptions to guide theoretical development. However, global analyses currently contain significant errors in primary hydrological variables such as precipitation, evaporation, moisture, and clouds, especially in the tropics. Tropical analyses have been shown to be sensitive to parameterized precipitation processes, which are less than perfect, leading to order-one discrepancies between estimates produced by different data assimilation systems. One strategy for improvement is to assimilate rainfall observations to constrain the analysis and reduce uncertainties in variables physically linked to precipitation. At the Data Assimilation Office at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, we have been exploring the use of tropical rain rates derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I) instruments in global data assimilation. Results show that assimilating these data improves not only rainfall and moisture fields but also related climate parameters such as clouds and radiation, as well as the large-scale circulation and short-range forecasts. These studies suggest that assimilation of microwave rainfall observations from space has the potential to significantly improve the quality of 4-D assimilated datasets for climate investigations (Hou et al. 2001). In the next few years, there will be a gradual increase in microwave rain products available from operational and research satellites, culminating to a target constellation of 9 satellites to provide global rain measurements every 3 hours with the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission in 2007. Continued improvements in assimilation methodology, rainfall error estimates, and model

  13. Role of Satellite Rainfall Information in Improving Understanding of the Dynamical Link Between the Tropics and Extratropics Prospects of Improved Forecasts of Weather and Short-Term Climate Variability on Sub-Seasonal Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2002-01-01

    The tropics and extratropics are two dynamically distinct regimes. The coupling between these two regimes often defies simple analytical treatment. Progress in understanding of the dynamical interaction between the tropics and extratropics relies on better observational descriptions to guide theoretical development. However, global analyses currently contain significant errors in primary hydrological variables such as precipitation, evaporation, moisture, and clouds, especially in the tropics. Tropical analyses have been shown to be sensitive to parameterized precipitation processes, which are less than perfect, leading to order-one discrepancies between estimates produced by different data assimilation systems. One strategy for improvement is to assimilate rainfall observations to constrain the analysis and reduce uncertainties in variables physically linked to precipitation. At the Data Assimilation Office at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, we have been exploring the use of tropical rain rates derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I) instruments in global data assimilation. Results show that assimilating these data improves not only rainfall and moisture fields but also related climate parameters such as clouds and radiation, as well as the large-scale circulation and short-range forecasts. These studies suggest that assimilation of microwave rainfall observations from space has the potential to significantly improve the quality of 4-D assimilated datasets for climate investigations (Hou et al. 2001). In the next few years, there will be a gradual increase in microwave rain products available from operational and research satellites, culminating to a target constellation of 9 satellites to provide global rain measurements every 3 hours with the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission in 2007. Continued improvements in assimilation methodology, rainfall error estimates, and model

  14. The investigation of short-term variations of Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation with the large radio interferometer GMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Kota; Misawa, Hiroaki; Bhardwaj, Anil; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Doi, Akihiro; Kondo, Tetsuro; Morioka, Akira

    The goal of this research is to investigate physical processes of short term variations of Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation (JSR) which is important for revealing the origin of relativistic electrons at Jupiter's Radiation Belt (JRB). JSR has been frequently observed by radio interferometers and single dish radio telescopes to understand characteristics of the spatial distribution and variations inferring dynamics and energetics of the relativistic electrons. Observations with radio interferometers have showed JSR source structure (Dunn et al., 2003, etc), and contributed to modeling of JRB (Garrett et al., 2005, etc). On the other hand, observations of total intensity of JSR with a single dish radio telescope have revealed characteristics of time variable phenomena. The time variations are indispensable parameters giving clues to understand particle source and/or loss processes which characterize the formation of JRB. Recently, Miyoshi et al. (1999) and Bolton et al. (2002) confirmed the existence of short term (days to weeks) variations in JSR. The detection of short term variations makes a great impact on the study on JRB because it has been believed for a long time that the strong internal magnetic field and rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Jupiter protect the JRB region from solar wind variations and magnetospheric disturbances as theoretically suggested by de Pater and Goertz (1994). So far we have made the JSR observations to investigate the short term variations of mainly several hundreds MHz JSR which is emitted by low energy particles (< 10MeV) and has been observed systematically only few times (Miyoshi et al., 1999, Misawa et al., 2005, etc). The latter observation suggested that the short term variation is a general feature at low frequencies. Therefore, it is essential to study its detailed characteristics and the causalities. Theoretically expected physical processes which are responsible for the short term variation are enhanced radial diffusion

  15. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  16. Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, Lubomir; Zaekov, Nikolay; Bozhkov, Borislav; Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    2017-03-01

    The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1), 22 days later (2) and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement), in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3).The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

  17. Intranasal ketorolac: for short-term pain management.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2012-06-01

    Ketorolac is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of NSAIDs, and has been available in several formulations for some time, for the treatment of pain. Intranasal ketorolac has recently become available. Intranasal ketorolac was effective in providing short-term relief from postoperative pain in four well designed, phase II or III trials. In the two phase III trials, a single intranasal dose of ketorolac 31.5 mg, with or without backup analgesia, was associated with significantly higher 6-hour summed post-treatment pain intensity difference scores (primary endpoint) than placebo in adult patients with acute pain following major surgery, including abdominal and orthopaedic surgery. Intranasal ketorolac 31.5 mg up to three or four times daily for ≤5 days also had an opioid-sparing effect in these trials, with significantly less morphine used among ketorolac than among placebo recipients over the first 48 hours of treatment. Moreover, a greater proportion of ketorolac recipients experienced analgesia onset within 1 and 1.5 hours but not 2 hours than placebo recipients, indicating a more rapid onset with intranasal ketorolac. In adult patients with acute pain following major surgery, intranasal ketorolac 31.5 mg three or four times daily for ≤5 days was generally well tolerated. Most adverse events in clinical trials were considered to be of mild severity and transient in nature, with those in the phase III trials generally being characteristic of common events following major abdominal surgery and morphine administration.

  18. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts using Doppler Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerman, Beth

    With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the upwind side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, radial wind velocity measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps, scanning up to 10 kilometers away. This region consisted of complex terrain, with the scans made between mountains. The dataset was utilized for techniques being studied for short-term forecasting of wind power by correlating changes in energy content and of turbulence intensity by tracking spatial variance, in the wind ahead of a wind farm. A ramp event was also captured and its propagation was tracked. Orthogonal horizontal wind vectors were retrieved from the radial velocity using a sector Velocity Azimuth Display method. Streamlines were plotted to determine the potential sites for a correlation of upstream wind speed with wind speed at downstream locations near the wind farm. A "virtual wind turbine" was "placed" in locations along the streamline by using the time-series velocity data at the location as the input to a modeled wind turbine, to determine the extractable energy content at that location. The relationship between this time-dependent energy content upstream and near the wind farm was studied. By correlating the energy content with each upstream location based on a time shift estimated according to advection at the mean wind speed, several fits were evaluated. A prediction of the downstream energy content was produced by shifting the power output in time and applying the best-fit function. This method made predictions of the power near the wind farm several minutes in advance. Predictions were also made up to an hour in advance for a large ramp event. The Magnitude Absolute Error and Standard Deviation are presented for the predictions based on each selected upstream location.

  19. Short-Term Variability on the Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenan, B.; Petrie, B.; Harrison, G.; Oakey, N.; Strain, P.

    2002-12-01

    The traditional view of the production cycle on the continental shelf of Nova Scotia features a spring bloom followed by a period of low production and a less intense fall bloom. The annual cycle of primary productivity thus has a large, low frequency component. However, there is increasing evidence that the production cycle has significant variability on shorter time scales. Physical, chemical and biological variability on the Scotian Shelf is examined on a daily to weekly timescale. This is accomplished through the use of a newly developed mooring platform (SeaHorse) that uses surface wave energy to enable the instrument to climb down the mooring wire and then float upwards while sampling the water column. This provides bi-hourly profiles of temperature, salinity, pressure and chlorophyll at one location over month-long periods. Results from the three-week deployment in October 2000 indicate a subsurface chlorophyll maximum below the pycnocline during the first part of the time series. An event occurred in mid-October during which the temperature, salinity and density iso-surfaces rose approximately 25 m. During this event, a small bloom, with peak chlorophyll concentrations of about 2 mg m-3 and duration of several days, began as nutrients were brought into the upper part of the water column by upwelling-favorable winds. SeaWiFS ocean color satellite images were valuable in providing a spatial context for chlorophyll concentrations, however, the lack of temporal resolution due to poor quality images means that this data set provided limited information for short-term chlorophyll variability. Gradient Richardson Numbers were estimated for 2 m vertical bins using SeaHorse CTD data and nearby ADCP current measurements. A trend of decreasing Ri in the ocean mixed layer with increasing surface wind stress is suggested.

  20. Models for short term malaria prediction in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Briët, Olivier JT; Vounatsou, Penelope; Gunawardena, Dissanayake M; Galappaththy, Gawrie NL; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient allocation of resources for malaria control. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models with seasonal components, and seasonal multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were compared on monthly time series of district malaria cases for their ability to predict the number of malaria cases one to four months ahead. The addition of covariates such as the number of malaria cases in neighbouring districts or rainfall were assessed for their ability to improve prediction of selected (seasonal) ARIMA models. Results The best model for forecasting and the forecasting error varied strongly among the districts. The addition of rainfall as a covariate improved prediction of selected (seasonal) ARIMA models modestly in some districts but worsened prediction in other districts. Improvement by adding rainfall was more frequent at larger forecasting horizons. Conclusion Heterogeneity of patterns of malaria in Sri Lanka requires regionally specific prediction models. Prediction error was large at a minimum of 22% (for one of the districts) for one month ahead predictions. The modest improvement made in short term prediction by adding rainfall as a covariate to these prediction models may not be sufficient to merit investing in a forecasting system for which rainfall data are routinely processed. PMID:18460204

  1. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury. PMID:23874280

  2. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789

  4. Asymmetric features of short-term blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    Prolongations of cardiac cycles have a significantly larger contribution to short-term heart rate variability than shortenings--this is called heart rate asymmetry. Our aim is to establish the existence of blood pressure asymmetry phenomenon, which has not been done so far. We used 30-min resting continuous recordings of finger pressure waveforms from 227 healthy young volunteers (19-31 years old; 97 female), and performed Poincaré plot analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to quantify the effect. Median contribution of SBP increases (C(i)) to short-term blood pressure variability was 52.8% (inter-quartile range: 50.9-55.1%) and median number of SBP increases (N(i)) was 48.8% (inter-quartile range: 47.2-50.1%). The C(i)>50% was found in 82% (P<0.0001; binomial test) and N(i)<50% in 75% (P<0.0001) of the subjects. Although SBP increases are significantly less abundant than reductions, their contribution to short-term blood pressure variability is significantly larger, which means that short-term blood pressure variability is asymmetric. SBP increases and reductions have unequal contribution to short-term blood pressure variability at supine rest in young healthy people. As this asymmetric behavior of blood pressure variability is present in most of the healthy studied people at rest, it can be concluded that blood pressure asymmetry is a physiological phenomenon.

  5. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  6. Short-term (-)-hydroxycitrate ingestion increases fat oxidation during exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Ryu, Sungpil; Ohishi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Itaru; Tomi, Hironori; Suh, Heajung; Lee, Woong-Ki; Kwon, Taedong

    2002-04-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitrate (HCA) is known to inhibit increasing malonyl CoA concentration during endurance exercise. Furthermore, a short-term administration of HCA enhances endurance exercise performance in mice. Therefore we investigated the short-term administration of HCA on the exercise performance of athletes. Subjects were administered 250 mg of HCA or placebo as a control (CON) for 5 d, after each time performing cycle ergometer exercise at 60% VO2max for 60 min followed by 80% VO2max until exhaustion. Blood was collected and expired gas samples analyzed at rest and every 15 min. The respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in the HCA trial than in the CON trial (p < 0.05). Fat oxidation was significantly increased by short-term administration of HCA, and carbohydrate oxidation was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) during exercise, presumably resulting in increasing the cycle ergometer exercise time to exhaustion after 1 h of 60% VO2max exercise (p < 0.05). These results suggest that a short-term administration of HCA enhances endurance performance with increasing fat oxidation, which spares glycogen utilization during moderate intensity exercise in athletes.

  7. Short-Term Resilience Processes in the Family

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review naturalistic studies of short-term processes that appear to promote resilience in children in the context of everyday family life and argue that warm and supportive family interactions foster resilience through their cumulative impact on children’s emotional and physiological stress response systems. In the short-term, these family interactions promote the experience and expression of positive emotion and healthy patterns of diurnal cortisol. Over time, these internal resources – a propensity to experience positive emotion and a well-functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system –enhance a child’s capacity to avoid, or limit, the deleterious effects of adversity. This article highlights naturalistic research methods that are well suited to the study of these short-term resilience processes and points to clinical applications of our conceptual and methodological approach. PMID:26246651

  8. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook.

  9. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  10. Probabilistic inference of short-term synaptic plasticity in neocortical microcircuits

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Rui P.; Sjöström, P. Jesper; van Rossum, Mark C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity is highly diverse across brain area, cortical layer, cell type, and developmental stage. Since short-term plasticity (STP) strongly shapes neural dynamics, this diversity suggests a specific and essential role in neural information processing. Therefore, a correct characterization of short-term synaptic plasticity is an important step towards understanding and modeling neural systems. Phenomenological models have been developed, but they are usually fitted to experimental data using least-mean-square methods. We demonstrate that for typical synaptic dynamics such fitting may give unreliable results. As a solution, we introduce a Bayesian formulation, which yields the posterior distribution over the model parameters given the data. First, we show that common STP protocols yield broad distributions over some model parameters. Using our result we propose a experimental protocol to more accurately determine synaptic dynamics parameters. Next, we infer the model parameters using experimental data from three different neocortical excitatory connection types. This reveals connection-specific distributions, which we use to classify synaptic dynamics. Our approach to demarcate connection-specific synaptic dynamics is an important improvement on the state of the art and reveals novel features from existing data. PMID:23761760

  11. Short-term tocolytics for preterm delivery - current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Haas, David M; Benjamin, Tara; Sawyer, Renata; Quinney, Sara K

    2014-01-01

    Administration of short-term tocolytic agents can prolong pregnancy for women in preterm labor. Prolonging pregnancy has many benefits because it allows for other proven interventions, such as antenatal corticosteroid administration, to be accomplished. This review provides an overview of currently utilized tocolytic agents and the evidence demonstrating their efficacy for prolonging pregnancy by at least 48 hours. General pharmacological principles for the clinician regarding drugs in pregnancy are also briefly discussed. In general, while the choice of the best first-line short-term tocolytic drug is not clear, it is evident that use of these agents has a clear place in current obstetric therapeutics.

  12. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  13. [Impulsiveness Among Short-Term Prisoners with Antisocial Personality Disorder].

    PubMed

    Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Short-term water consumption dynamics in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; ElíAs, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    Time series analysis of water consumption patterns has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. For many municipalities such efforts offer a means for developing potentially useful planning tools. Because data requirements are not extensive, model development is feasible for markets where information is limited. The work at hand examines the applicability of such a tool in El Paso, Texas, a growing metropolitan economy located in a semiarid region. Sample data are from January 1994 through December 2002. In addition to estimating a linear transfer function equation of water consumption in this city the model is subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests.

  15. Integration and segregation of large-scale brain networks during short-term task automatization

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Betzel, Richard F.; Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; Richiardi, Jonas; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is organized into large-scale functional networks that can flexibly reconfigure their connectivity patterns, supporting both rapid adaptive control and long-term learning processes. However, it has remained unclear how short-term network dynamics support the rapid transformation of instructions into fluent behaviour. Comparing fMRI data of a learning sample (N=70) with a control sample (N=67), we find that increasingly efficient task processing during short-term practice is associated with a reorganization of large-scale network interactions. Practice-related efficiency gains are facilitated by enhanced coupling between the cingulo-opercular network and the dorsal attention network. Simultaneously, short-term task automatization is accompanied by decreasing activation of the fronto-parietal network, indicating a release of high-level cognitive control, and a segregation of the default mode network from task-related networks. These findings suggest that short-term task automatization is enabled by the brain's ability to rapidly reconfigure its large-scale network organization involving complementary integration and segregation processes. PMID:27808095

  16. Short-Term Therapy: A Shift in Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhriman, Addie

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Steenbarger on science-practice integration in brief counseling and therapy. Considers three dimensions that emerge from the integrated analysis presented in Steenbarger's article: catalysis, involvement, and time. Discusses each of these three characteristics as they are related specifically to a short-term format.…

  17. Relation between Intelligence and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ronald L.; Sandberg, Tor

    1977-01-01

    Intelligence and short-term memory correlations in children were measured using probed serial recall of supraspan digit lists. Results showed the predictive power of intelligence to range from a maximum in the case of recall for recency items to practically zero in the case of primacy items. (Author/MV)

  18. Improving the Short-Term Prediction of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Aspirational Goal 3 of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s Research Prioritization Task Force is to predict who is at risk for attempting suicide in the near future. Despite decades of research devoted to the study of risk and protective factors for suicide and suicidal behavior, surprisingly little is known about the short-term prediction of these behaviors. In this paper, we propose several questions that, if answered, could improve the identification of short-term, or imminent, risk for suicidal behavior. First, what factors predict the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts? Second, what factors are particularly strong predictors of making this transition over the next hours, days, or weeks? Third, what are the most important objective markers of short-term risk for suicidal behavior? And fourth, what method of combining information about risk and protective factors yields the best prediction? We propose that the next generation of research on the assessment and prediction of suicidal behavior should shift, from cross-sectional studies of bivariate risk and protective factors, to prospective studies aimed at identifying multivariate, short-term prediction indices, examining methods of synthesizing this information, and testing the ability to predict and prevent suicidal events. PMID:25145736

  19. Validation of a Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay is an in vivo assay conducted with fathead minnows and is designed to detect changes in spawning, gross morphology, histopathology, and specific biochemical endpoints that reflect disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...

  20. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  1. Facilitation and Distraction in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John William; Kail, Robert V., Jr.

    Children's short-term memory was studied under two experimental conditions: one in which recall was expected to be facilitated because of the provision of a study period, and one in which a distracting task was imposed that was expected to interfere with recall. Forty subjects at each of two age levels, 7 and 11 years, were tested in a…

  2. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  3. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  4. Guidelines for designing short-term bird monitoring projects

    Treesearch

    Jonathan Bart

    2005-01-01

    The Coordinated Bird Monitoring Program (Bart and Ralph, this volume) program is helping biologists around the country design short-term monitoring projects for birds. We have found that addressing a series of questions (table 1), in a systematic way, helps insure that projects are well planned. The process is being used by several States and...

  5. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  6. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  7. Short Term Skill Training. Alternative Approaches. Information Series No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Russell

    Short term skill training programs are those programs, usually one year or less, designed to train, retrain, or upgrade the skills of workers. Such programs provide an opportunity for postsecondary vocational institutions to respond to the human resource needs of their communities. A number of important policy issues are involved in the provision…

  8. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  9. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  10. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  11. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  12. A SHORT-TERM TERMINAL COURSE FOR POTENTIAL DROPOUTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANGEMI, JOSEPH P.

    STUDENTS IDENTIFIED AS "HARD-CORE" FUTURE DROPOUTS BY COUNSELORS, TEACHERS, AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS SHOULD BE GROUPED TOGETHER FOR A COMPREHENSIVE, SHORT-TERM COURSE. SOME OF THE REALISTIC OBJECTIVES OF A TERMINAL PROGRAM FOR POTENTIAL DROPOUTS ARE--TO PREPARE STUDENTS WHO ARE DROPPING OUT OF SCHOOL FOR IMMEDIATE EMPLOYMENT, TO…

  13. 77 FR 61229 - Short-Term Investment Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... resilience of STIFs to credit and liquidity events while not unduly restricting a bank's ability to invest... liquidity or valuation stress. \\29\\ See Interagency Policy on Banks/Thrifts Providing Financial Support to... revises the requirements imposed on national banks pursuant to the OCC's short-term investment fund...

  14. A DAPHNIA MAGNA SHORT-TERM SURVIVAL AND GROWTH TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the change in acceptable test temperatures for invertebrate toxicity tests from <20oC to 25oC, it is now possible to use Daphnia magna for short-term chronic testing. When cultured at 25oC the dry weight of <24 hr old D. magna ranges from 7 to 15 g depending upon nutrition,...

  15. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  16. Short-term forecasting tools for agricultural nutrient management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The advent of real time/short term farm management tools is motivated by the need to protect water quality above and beyond the general guidance offered by existing nutrient management plans. Advances in high performance computing and hydrologic/climate modeling have enabled rapid dissemination of ...

  17. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  18. Valuing Short-Term Study Abroad in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Chung-Ping A.; Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Gallo, Andres; Michelman, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad courses often claim to provide a unique experience for students, but it is not clear how the value translates into a dollar amount. The paper uses the contingent valuation method to assess participating students' pre- and post-trip perceived dollar value of their study abroad courses at an AACSB accredited business school.…

  19. Climax spent fuel dosimetry. Short term exposure, 8 March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Quam, W.; DeVore, T.

    1984-06-01

    The second short-term exposure (performed 8 March 1983) in Hole CFH3 at the Climax Spent Fuel Test site is described. These short-term (1 hour long) exposures are intended to provide an independent measurement of the exposure rate at the wall and the 0.51-m and 0.66-m locations. Only CaF{sub 2} TLD`s were used in the second short-term exposure. Harshaw chips were cut to 0.32 x 0.18 x 0.09 cm size and aged by several exposure/readout/bakeout cycles until all odd chips were weeded out and the remaining chips exhibited stable sensitivities. Exposure at Climax was done by removing the existing long-term dosimetry strings and inserting identical strings using the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s in the stainless steel holders. The first short-term exposure produced absorbed doses as high as {similar_to}000 rads-LiF. The linearity corrections determined for the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s at these exposure levels were {similar_to}2%. The present post-exposure calibration method used calibration doses very close to those encountered in the field.

  20. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  1. Writing Better Goals and Short-Term Objectives or Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; Marchand-Martella, Nancy; Martella, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides strategies for writing precise goals and short-term objectives or benchmarks as part of individualized education programs (IEPs). Guidelines and examples address: definitions, reasons for clarity and precision, individual parts of goals and objectives, inclusion of time factors in objectives and benchmarks, number of…

  2. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans.

  3. Short-Term Therapy: A Shift in Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhriman, Addie

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Steenbarger on science-practice integration in brief counseling and therapy. Considers three dimensions that emerge from the integrated analysis presented in Steenbarger's article: catalysis, involvement, and time. Discusses each of these three characteristics as they are related specifically to a short-term format.…

  4. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The Precategorical Nature of Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…

  6. Short-Term Effects of Televised Aggression on Children's Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Recently collected data appear to warrant advancing some tentative conslusions concerning the short-term effects of violence in television on children: 1) children are exposed to a substantial amount of violent content on television, and they can remember and learn from such exposure; 2) correlational studies have disclosed a regular association…

  7. Validation of a Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay is an in vivo assay conducted with fathead minnows and is designed to detect changes in spawning, gross morphology, histopathology, and specific biochemical endpoints that reflect disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...

  8. Assurance of Learning in Short-Term, Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Mary L.; Gullekson, Nicole L.; McCambridge, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Business students are increasingly seeking international experience in short-term, study abroad programs to enhance their intercultural knowledge, intercultural communication skills, and global perspectives to be more competitive in the global arena. Intuitively, universities initiating these programs and the students sojourning abroad believe in…

  9. The Precategorical Nature of Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…

  10. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoqian; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2014-03-19

    One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation.

  11. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  12. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  13. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  14. Selenium deficiency, reversible cardiomyopathy and short-term intravenous feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J. B.; Jones, H. W.; Gordon, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Crohn's disease receiving short-term postoperative parenteral nutrition supplemented with trace elements who nevertheless became selenium deficient with evidence of a cardiomyopathy. This was fully reversible with oral selenium supplementation. Current parenteral feeding regimes may not contain enough selenium for malnourished patients. PMID:8183763

  15. Regularization in Short-Term Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew; Bylsma, Lauren M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that short-term memory for serial order can be influenced by background knowledge concerning regularities of sequential structure. Specifically, it has been shown that recall is superior for sequences that fit well with familiar sequencing constraints. The authors report a corresponding effect pertaining to serial…

  16. The Challenge of Short-Term Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Stoecker, Randy; Martin, Amy; Seblonka, Kristy; Hilgendorf, Amy; Nellis, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of interviews with staff from 64 community organizations regarding their experiences with service-learners. One of the themes that emerged from the interviews focused on concerns related to short-term service-learning commitments that last a semester or less. We explore the challenges presented to community groups…

  17. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  18. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  19. Relation between Intelligence and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ronald L.; Sandberg, Tor

    1977-01-01

    Intelligence and short-term memory correlations in children were measured using probed serial recall of supraspan digit lists. Results showed the predictive power of intelligence to range from a maximum in the case of recall for recency items to practically zero in the case of primacy items. (Author/MV)

  20. Short-term storage options for fresh-market onions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet onions have proven to be an excellent spring specialty crop in southeastern Oklahoma. Growers are interested in fuel-efficient methods of short term storage (up to 6 months) to lengthen market windows and enhance returns. Onions were seeded in high tunnels in November of 2005, transplanted to...

  1. Short-Term Memory for Auditory Sequences and Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Thomas G.; Payne, M. Carr, Jr.

    A study investigated connections between reading difficulties and short term memory processes in order to explore the psychological basis for some individual differences in reading comprehension skills. Drawing on previous research indicating that poor readers were inferior to normal ones in judging whether two patterns of long and short tones…

  2. Enhanced Visual Short-Term Memory for Angry Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Wu, Chia-Yun; Linden, David E. J.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    Although some views of face perception posit independent processing of face identity and expression, recent studies suggest interactive processing of these 2 domains. The authors examined expression-identity interactions in visual short-term memory (VSTM) by assessing recognition performance in a VSTM task in which face identity was relevant and…

  3. A DAPHNIA MAGNA SHORT-TERM SURVIVAL AND GROWTH TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the change in acceptable test temperatures for invertebrate toxicity tests from <20oC to 25oC, it is now possible to use Daphnia magna for short-term chronic testing. When cultured at 25oC the dry weight of <24 hr old D. magna ranges from 7 to 15 g depending upon nutrition,...

  4. Emotive-reconstruction psychotherapy: a short-term cognitive approach.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J K; Cometa, M S

    1977-04-01

    Emotive-Reconstructive Therapy, a recently developed therapeutic modality deriving from cognitive theory, may be a promising short-term approach to psychopathology. Combining the use of imagery with selective hyperventilation, a therapist induces patients to reexperience past events, and subsequently to radically reconstrue themselves and significant others in a personally satisfying direction.

  5. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  6. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  7. Short term synaptic depression imposes a frequency dependent filter on synaptic information transfer.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Rubin, Jonathan; Doiron, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of synaptic neurotransmitter vesicles induces a form of short term depression in synapses throughout the nervous system. This plasticity affects how synapses filter presynaptic spike trains. The filtering properties of short term depression are often studied using a deterministic synapse model that predicts the mean synaptic response to a presynaptic spike train, but ignores variability introduced by the probabilistic nature of vesicle release and stochasticity in synaptic recovery time. We show that this additional variability has important consequences for the synaptic filtering of presynaptic information. In particular, a synapse model with stochastic vesicle dynamics suppresses information encoded at lower frequencies more than information encoded at higher frequencies, while a model that ignores this stochasticity transfers information encoded at any frequency equally well. This distinction between the two models persists even when large numbers of synaptic contacts are considered. Our study provides strong evidence that the stochastic nature neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics must be considered when analyzing the information flow across a synapse.

  8. Short-term change detection for UAV video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    In the last years, there has been an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. An important application in this context is change detection in UAV video data. Here we address short-term change detection, in which the time between observations ranges from several minutes to a few hours. We distinguish this task from video motion detection (shorter time scale) and from long-term change detection, based on time series of still images taken between several days, weeks, or even years. Examples for relevant changes we are looking for are recently parked or moved vehicles. As a pre-requisite, a precise image-to-image registration is needed. Images are selected on the basis of the geo-coordinates of the sensor's footprint and with respect to a certain minimal overlap. The automatic imagebased fine-registration adjusts the image pair to a common geometry by using a robust matching approach to handle outliers. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed length of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. To detect changes in image pairs we analyzed image differencing, local image correlation, and a transformation-based approach (multivariate alteration detection). As input we used color and gradient magnitude images. To cope with local misalignment of image structures we extended the approaches by a local neighborhood search. The algorithms are applied to several examples covering both urban and rural scenes. The local neighborhood search in combination with intensity and gradient magnitude differencing clearly improved the results. Extended image differencing performed better than both the correlation based approach and the multivariate alternation detection. The algorithms are adapted to be used in semi-automatic workflows for the ABUL video exploitation system of Fraunhofer

  9. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  10. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  11. Short-term variability on mesozooplankton community in a shallow mixed estuary (Bahía Blanca, Argentina): Influence of tidal cycles and local winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, María C.; Piccolo, María C.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.

    2012-10-01

    The short-term dynamics of zooplankton in coastal ecosystems are strongly influenced by physical processes such as tides, riverine runoff and winds. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes of the representative taxa within mesozooplankton in relation to the semidiurnal tidal cycles. Also, we evaluated the influence of local winds on this short-term variability. Sampling was carried out bimonthly from December 2004 to April 2006 in a fixed point located in the inner zone of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. Mesozooplankton samples were taken by pumps during 14-h tidal cycles at 3-h intervals, from surface and bottom. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity as well as water samples to determine suspended particulate matter were acquired at each sampling date. All data concerning winds were obtained from a meteorological station and water level was recorded with a tide gauge. Holoplankton dominated numerically on meroplankton and adventitious fraction. Concerning holoplanktonic abundance, the highest values were attained by the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora americana. Meroplankton occurred mainly as barnacle larvae while benthic harpacticoids and Corophium sp. dominated the adventitious component. Semidiurnal tide was the main influence on the A. tonsa variability. However, noticeable differences in the abundance pattern as function of wind intensity were detected. Meroplankton abundance did not show a clear variation along the tidal cycle. Distributional pattern of harpacticoids seemed to be mainly modulated by velocity asymmetries in the tidal currents, in the same way as suspended particulate matter. However, the Corophium sp. distribution indicated probable behavioural responses associated with tides. The obtained results show how variable the mesozooplankton community structure can be over short-term time scales in mesotidal temperate estuaries. This variability should be taken into account for any zooplankton monitoring

  12. Influence of short-term changes in solar activity on baric field perturbations in the stratosphere and troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabis, I. P.; Troshichev, O. A.

    2000-06-01

    Influence of short-term changes in solar activity on baric (pressure) field perturbations is studied using such characteristics as the Sazonov index (IS), describing the intensity of meridional transfer, the Blinova index (IB), describing the intensity of zonal transfer, and `vorticity area index' (VAI) describing the tropospheric cyclonic perturbations. The epoch superposition method is used to reveal effects of the solar central meridian (CM) passage of active regions, the Forbush decreases (FD) in galactic cosmic rays, and the solar proton (SP) events. The results of the analysis show that influence of short-term changes in the solar activity on baric field perturbations is the most evident in the stratosphere (30 mbar-level). The meridional circulation in case of the FD and SP events begin to increase about 5-7 days before the key date, reaches maximum nearby the key date and decays after the key date. The meridional circulation in case of the solar CM passage of active regions starts to increase after the key date and reaches the maximum by 5-6 days. Fluctuations of baric field within periods of 5-7 days typical of meridional and zonal transfers in troposphere (500 mbar-level) are evidently connected with internal dynamics of the atmosphere, not with the effects of solar activity. VAI characterizing cyclonic activity in the troposphere, shows the striking correspondence to changes of the meridional circulation in the stratosphere. Comparison of changes in the stratospheric perturbations with behavior of the UV irradiance in course of the FD and SP events show their full correspondence at the initial stage of these processes. The conclusion is made that growth of baric perturbations observed in the stratosphere in associations with the FD and SP events before the key date is caused by the solar UV irradiance increase, whereas decay of the baric perturbations after the key date is related to direct influence of the solar energetic corpuscular fluxes on the

  13. The psychotomimetic effects of short-term sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Oliver J; Brady, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    People experiencing sensory deprivation often report perceptual disturbances such as hallucinations, especially over extended periods of time. However, there is little evidence concerning short-term sensory deprivation and whether its effects differ depending on the individual concerned, and in particular their proneness to psychosis. This study explored whether perceptual disturbances could be elicited by a brief period of complete isolation from sound and vision in both highly hallucination prone and nonhallucination prone groups. Greater psychotomimetic experiences taking the form of perceptual disturbances, paranoia, and anhedonia were found across both groups when under sensory deprivation. In addition, hallucination-prone individuals experienced more perceptual disturbances when placed in short-term sensory deprivation than nonprone individuals. This result is discussed in terms of difficulties in source monitoring as a possible mechanism involved in proneness to hallucinations.

  14. Effects of sleep deprivation on short-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Polzella, D J

    1975-03-01

    A probe-recognition short-term memory paradigm was used to inquire into the precise effects of sleep deprivation on human memory. It was found that recognition performance, as measured by d', was generally impaired for each subjects after 24 hr of sleep deprivation. While d' was shown to decrease exponentially as the number of items intervening between the target and the probe increased, this decay rate was not affected by sleep loss. In addition there was confirmation of a previously observed increase in the positive skewness of reaction times after wakefulness. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that sleep deprivation increases the occurrence of lapses, periods of lowered reactive capacity, which prevent the encoding of items in short-term memory.

  15. Modality differences in short-term memory for rhythms.

    PubMed

    Collier, G L; Logan, G

    2000-06-01

    Prior research has established that performance in short-term memory tasks using auditory rhythmic stimuli is frequently superior to that in tasks using visual stimuli. In five experiments, the reasons for this were explored further. In a same-different task, pairs of brief rhythms were presented in which each rhythm was visual or auditory, resulting in two same-modality conditions and two cross-modality conditions. Three different rates of presentation were used. The results supported the temporal advantage of the auditory modality in short-term memory, which was quite robust at the quickest presentation rates. This advantage tended to decay as the presentation rate was slowed down, consistent with the view that, with time, the temporal patterns were being recoded into a more generic form.

  16. Visual dot interaction with short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Etindele Sosso, Faustin Armel

    2017-06-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning. The findings also suggested the interplay between primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity. The properties inside a visual target shape the perception and affect the basic encoding. Using visual cortex, it may be possible to train the memory and improve the recovery of people with cognitive disabilities or memory deficit.

  17. Item repetition in short-term memory: Ranschburg repeated.

    PubMed

    Henson, R N

    1998-09-01

    In serial recall from short-term memory, repeated items are recalled well when close together (repetition facilitation), but not when far apart (repetition inhibition; the Ranschburg effect). These effects were re-examined with a new scoring scheme that addresses the possibility that repetitions are distinct tokens in memory. Repetition facilitation and repetition inhibition proved robust, and were shown to interact with the temporal grouping of items (Experiment 1), which affected the probability of detecting repetition (Experiments 2A and 2B). It is argued that detection of a repetition is necessary for repetition facilitation, attributable to the tagging of immediate repetition, whereas the failure to detect or remember a repetition results in repetition inhibition, attributable to an automatic suppression of previous responses and a bias against guessing repeated items (Experiment 3). The findings are discussed in relation to models of short-term memory and the phenomenon of repetition blindness.

  18. Short term UV line profile variation in 59 Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Doazan, V.; Peters, G. J.; Willis, A.; Snow, T. P.; Aitken, D.; Barker, P. K.; Bolton, C. T.; Henrichs, H.; Kitchen, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The International ultraviolet Explorer high dispersion spectra of 59 Cyg obtained as part of the long term monitoring program have shown that noticeable variation can occur in C 5 and N 5 on timescales 3 hours t24 to 28 hours. In order to begin to resolve whether these changes occur continuously or sporadically, 48 hours were devoted to monitoring this star in January 1982. The January spectra show no short term variation, which may be consistent with sporadic rather than continuous variation.

  19. The perils and promise of short-term healthcare missions.

    PubMed

    Seager, Greg; Seager, Candi; Tazelaar, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Short-term healthcare missions have the potential to help and, sadly, also to harm. Pharmacy driven missions where the focus is on medication distribution can lead to disastrous consequences when standards of care are not followed; respecting best practices can help ensure better outcomes for recipients of care. Focusing on health education through community health fairs can be a more effective and safe way to impact the health of developing communities.

  20. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-02-14

    Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, "Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training." The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum. The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably. The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad.

  1. Short-term synchronization of intercostal motoneurone activity.

    PubMed

    Sears, T A; Stagg, D

    1976-12-01

    1. The hypothesis is advanced that the joint occurrence of unitary excitatory post-synaptic potentials e.p.s.p.s) evoked in motoneurones by branches of common stem pre-synaptic fibres causes short-term synchronization of their discharge during the rising phases of the unitary e.p.s.p.s. 2. This hypothesis was tested using the pre- and post-stimulus time (PPST) histogram to detect synchronized firing among groups of intercostal motoneurones discharging in response to their natural synaptic drives. 3. Motor nerve action potentials were recorded monophasically from nerve filaments of the external intercostal muscles of anaesthetized, paralysed cats maintained on artificial ventilation. 4. Computer methods were used to measure peak spike amplitude, spike amplitude, spike interval and filament identification for simultaneous recordings from four filaments. The spike amplitude histograms were derived for each filament and groups of spikes were selected for analysis. 5. With spikes of one group designated as 'stimuli' (occurring at zero time) and those of a second as 'response' the PPST histogram was computed with different time bin widths. 6. With bin widths of 100 and 10 msec the central respiratory periodicity was apparent in the PPST histogram. With 1.0 msec bins the PPST histogram showed a narrow central peak extending to +/- 3.0 msec at its base. This 'short-term synchronization' supports the hypothesis of joint firing due to common presynaptic connectivity. 7. It was shown that detection of short-term synchronization was critically dependent on a sufficient quantity of data but that provided a simple criterion of adequate counts per bin in the PPST histogram was met, short-term synchronization could be detected between intercostal motoneurones of the same and adjacent segments.

  2. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  3. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, “Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.” The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum. Results The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably. Conclusions The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad. PMID:23410089

  4. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  5. Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

  6. Short-Term Planning and Forecasting for Petroleum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    the past sales data from the Norfolk DFSP is used to construct seasonality indices. Finally, the budgeL/ saleg relationship is combined with the...to construct seasonality indices. Finally, the budget/sales relationship is combined with the seasonality indices to provide a new forecasting model...governing the short-term wholesale bulk petroleum inventory 11 management will be reviewed through the Petroleum-Oils- Lubricants (POL) chain -of-command. B

  7. Short-term changes in beach morphology on Louisiana coast

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, L.D.

    1988-09-01

    A study of the short-term response of seven shoreline segments between the Sabine River and Sandy Point is based on data from a three-year coastal erosion monitoring project. Seventy-eight beach-profile transects were surveyed quarterly between December 1985 and March 1988 to determine their patterns and rates of shoreline change. Efforts were made to characterize straight and curved shorelines as well as those that have been artificially stabilized.

  8. Electricity price short-term forecasting using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Szkuta, B.R.; Sanabria, L.A.; Dillon, T.S.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the System Marginal Price (SMP) short-term forecasting implementation using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) computing technique. The described approach uses the three-layered ANN paradigm with back-propagation. The retrospective SMP real-world data, acquired from the deregulated Victorian power system, was used for training and testing the ANN. The results presented in this paper confirm considerable value of the ANN based approach in forecasting the SMP.

  9. Self-tuning of neural circuits through short-term synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Sussillo, David; Toyoizumi, Taro; Maass, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    Numerous experimental data show that cortical networks of neurons are not silent in the absence of external inputs, but rather maintain a low spontaneous firing activity. This aspect of cortical networks is likely to be important for their computational function, but is hard to reproduce in models of cortical circuits of neurons because the low-activity regime is inherently unstable. Here we show-through theoretical analysis and extensive computer simulations-that short-term synaptic plasticity endows models of cortical circuits with a remarkable stability in the low-activity regime. This short-term plasticity works as a homeostatic mechanism that stabilizes the overall activity level in spite of drastic changes in external inputs and internal circuit properties, while preserving reliable transient responses to signals. The contribution of synaptic dynamics to this stability can be predicted on the basis of general principles from control theory.

  10. Predicting Time Series from Short-Term High-Dimensional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Huanfei; Zhou, Tianshou; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    The prediction of future values of time series is a challenging task in many fields. In particular, making prediction based on short-term data is believed to be difficult. Here, we propose a method to predict systems' low-dimensional dynamics from high-dimensional but short-term data. Intuitively, it can be considered as a transformation from the inter-variable information of the observed high-dimensional data into the corresponding low-dimensional but long-term data, thereby equivalent to prediction of time series data. Technically, this method can be viewed as an inverse implementation of delayed embedding reconstruction. Both methods and algorithms are developed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result, benchmark examples and real-world problems from various fields are studied.

  11. Day-Ahead Short-Term Forecasting Electricity Load via Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamitov, R. N.; Gritsay, A. S.; Tyunkov, D. A.; E Sinitsin, G.

    2017-04-01

    The method of short-term forecasting of a power consumption which can be applied to short-term forecasting of power consumption is offered. The offered model is based on sinusoidal function for the description of day and night cycles of power consumption. Function coefficients - the period and amplitude are set up is adaptive, considering dynamics of power consumption with use of an artificial neural network. The presented results are tested on real retrospective data of power supply company. The offered method can be especially useful if there are no opportunities of collection of interval indications of metering devices of consumers, and the power supply company operates with electrical supply points. The offered method can be used by any power supply company upon purchase of the electric power in the wholesale market. For this purpose, it is necessary to receive coefficients of approximation of sinusoidal function and to have retrospective data on power consumption on an interval not less than one year.

  12. Low-Complexity Discriminative Feature Selection From EEG Before and After Short-Term Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Behzadfar, Neda; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad P; Badie, Kambiz

    2016-10-01

    A reliable and unobtrusive quantification of changes in cortical activity during short-term memory task can be used to evaluate the efficacy of interfaces and to provide real-time user-state information. In this article, we investigate changes in electroencephalogram signals in short-term memory with respect to the baseline activity. The electroencephalogram signals have been analyzed using 9 linear and nonlinear/dynamic measures. We applied statistical Wilcoxon examination and Davis-Bouldian criterion to select optimal discriminative features. The results show that among the features, the permutation entropy significantly increased in frontal lobe and the occipital second lower alpha band activity decreased during memory task. These 2 features reflect the same mental task; however, their correlation with memory task varies in different intervals. In conclusion, it is suggested that the combination of the 2 features would improve the performance of memory based neurofeedback systems. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2016.

  13. Short-term memory in networks of dissociated cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Dranias, Mark R; Ju, Han; Rajaram, Ezhilarasan; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2013-01-30

    Short-term memory refers to the ability to store small amounts of stimulus-specific information for a short period of time. It is supported by both fading and hidden memory processes. Fading memory relies on recurrent activity patterns in a neuronal network, whereas hidden memory is encoded using synaptic mechanisms, such as facilitation, which persist even when neurons fall silent. We have used a novel computational and optogenetic approach to investigate whether these same memory processes hypothesized to support pattern recognition and short-term memory in vivo, exist in vitro. Electrophysiological activity was recorded from primary cultures of dissociated rat cortical neurons plated on multielectrode arrays. Cultures were transfected with ChannelRhodopsin-2 and optically stimulated using random dot stimuli. The pattern of neuronal activity resulting from this stimulation was analyzed using classification algorithms that enabled the identification of stimulus-specific memories. Fading memories for different stimuli, encoded in ongoing neural activity, persisted and could be distinguished from each other for as long as 1 s after stimulation was terminated. Hidden memories were detected by altered responses of neurons to additional stimulation, and this effect persisted longer than 1 s. Interestingly, network bursts seem to eliminate hidden memories. These results are similar to those that have been reported from similar experiments in vivo and demonstrate that mechanisms of information processing and short-term memory can be studied using cultured neuronal networks, thereby setting the stage for therapeutic applications using this platform.

  14. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  15. Short-term intraocular tamponade with perfluorocarbon heavy liquid.

    PubMed

    Drury, Brett; Bourke, Robert D

    2011-05-01

    Inferior retinal detachment pathology can be difficult to manage due to inadequate tamponade with low specific gravity tamponade agents and the propensity for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We report the efficacy and adverse effects associated with the use of perfluorocarbon heavy liquid as a short-term tamponade in managing such pathologies. Retrospective analysis of 17 eyes treated with short-term perfluoro-n-octane tamponade for complex inferior retinal pathology, including inferior detachment and PVR. Mean follow-up time was 14 months and mean tamponade duration was 7 days. Reattachment of the retina during the study period was achieved with a single set of operations in 13/17 (76%) eyes, with four eyes requiring a subsequent set of vitreoretinal operations. Postoperative visual acuity (VA) was equal to or better than preoperative VA in 14 (82%) of 17 eyes. Complications arising during the follow-up period included superior redetachment, atrophic macular changes, minor macular haemorrhage, cataract, elevated intraocular pressure, corneal defects, PVR, epiretinal membrane and retained perfluorocarbon heavy liquid. One case of intraocular inflammation occurred >6 months after removal of perfluoro-n-octane tamponade. Short-term perfluoro-n-octane tamponade achieved a stable reattachment rate of 76% when used to manage challenging retinal pathologies.

  16. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-03-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure.

  17. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-06

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    The digit span is one of the most widely used memory tests in clinical and experimental neuropsychology for reliably measuring short-term memory capacity. In the forward version, sequences of digits of increasing length have to be reproduced in the order in which they are presented, whereas in the backward version items must be reproduced in the reversed order. Here, we assessed whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) increases the memory span for digits of young and midlife adults. Imperceptibly weak electrical currents in the alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), theta (5 Hz), and gamma (40 Hz) range, as well as a sham stimulation, were delivered over the left posterior parietal cortex, a cortical region thought to sustain maintenance processes in short-term memory through oscillatory brain activity in the beta range. We showed a frequency-specific effect of beta-tACS that robustly increased the forward memory span of young, but not middle-aged, healthy individuals. The effect correlated with age: the younger the subjects, the greater the benefit arising from parietal beta stimulation. Our results provide evidence of a short-term memory capacity improvement in young adults by online frequency-specific tACS application. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure. PMID:26926885

  20. Plant Growth under Natural Light Conditions Provides Highly Flexible Short-Term Acclimation Properties toward High Light Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Tobias; Paul, Suman; Melzer, Michael; Dörmann, Peter; Jahns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Efficient acclimation to different growth light intensities is essential for plant fitness. So far, most studies on light acclimation have been conducted with plants grown under different constant light regimes, but more recent work indicated that acclimation to fluctuating light or field conditions may result in different physiological properties of plants. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was grown under three different constant light intensities (LL: 25 μmol photons m−2 s−1; NL: 100 μmol photons m−2 s−1; HL: 500 μmol photons m−2 s−1) and under natural fluctuating light (NatL) conditions. We performed a thorough characterization of the morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties focusing on photo-protective mechanisms. Our analyses corroborated the known properties of LL, NL, and HL plants. NatL plants, however, were found to combine characteristics of both LL and HL grown plants, leading to efficient and unique light utilization capacities. Strikingly, the high energy dissipation capacity of NatL plants correlated with increased dynamics of thylakoid membrane reorganization upon short-term acclimation to excess light. We conclude that the thylakoid membrane organization and particularly the light-dependent and reversible unstacking of grana membranes likely represent key factors that provide the basis for the high acclimation capacity of NatL grown plants to rapidly changing light intensities. PMID:28515734

  1. A simple tropical atmosphere model of relevance to short-term climate variations

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Wang; Tianming Li )

    1993-01-15

    This tropical atmosphere model is suitable for modeling the annual cycle and short-term climate fluctuations in sole response to the thermal forcing from the underlying surface, especially the ocean surface. The present model consists of a well-mixed planetary boundary layer and a free troposphere represented by the gravest baroclinic mode. The model dynamics involves active interactions between the boundary-layer flow driven by the momentum forcing associated with sea surface temperature (SST) gradient and the free tropospheric flow stimulated by diabatic heating controlled by the thermal effects of SST. This process is essential for modeling Pacific basinwide low-level circulations. The convective heating is parameterized by a SST-dependent conditional heating scheme based upon the proposition that the potential convective instability increases with SST in a nonlinear fashion. The precipitation pattern and intensity, the trade winds and associated subtropical highs, and the near-equatorial trough can be simulated. The thermal contrast between oceans and continents has a profound influence on the circulation near landmasses. Changes in land surface temperature do not exert significant influence on remote oceanic regions. Both the ITCZ and SPCZ primarily originate from the inhomogeneity of ocean surface thermal conditions. The continents of South and North America contribute to the formation of these oceanic convergence zones through indirect boundary effects that support coastal upwelling changing the SST distribution. The diagnosis of observed surface wind and pressure fields indicates that the nonlinear advection of momentum is generally negligible in the boundary-layer momentum balance. The large SST gradients in the supbtropics play an important role in forcing rotational and cross-isobaric winds. 41 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Psychological vulnerability to daily stressors in old age: Results of short-term longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver Karl; Diehl, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    A growing numbers of intensive longitudinal studies examine the short-term variability of behavior in response to daily stressors. Collectively, these studies address the vulnerability for stress-related emotional burden as assessed in terms of the intraindividual association between daily stressors and negative affect (NA). This article provides a brief overview of the relevant research on so-called affective reactivity to daily stressors and focuses on findings on development of age-related stressor reactivity across the adult lifespan. Two theoretical propositions have been put forward. Firstly, it has been postulated that aging should be associated with increased affective reactivity, i.e. it has been assumed that the vulnerability in terms of physiological stress reactivity increases across the adult life span and, thus, a higher stress-induced emotional reactivity should result with increasing age. Secondly, it has been argued that due to the continued development of emotional self-regulation skills, there should be an age-related decrease in stress reactivity and, hence, an increased resilience. Findings on age differences in NA reactivity to daily stressors, however, have been inconsistent. A possible explanation for the inconsistent findings may lie in the fact that the postulated dynamics of increased vulnerability or resilience imply different time-related reactions to stressors. In particular, the activation and effectiveness of emotional self-regulation strategies increase with increasing time intervals from the stressors. This leads to the conclusion that with increasing age the resilience for longer periods of stress and accumulated stress should increase. Results from our own research support this hypothesis, where older adults reacted to multiple stressors in a more adaptive way than younger adults.

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  5. Short-term and circadian rhythms in the behaviour of the vole, Microtus agrestis (L.).

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Ulrich

    1976-09-01

    The activity behaviour of the vole, Microtus agrestis, has been recorded in order to investigate the relationship between short-term rhythm and circadian rhythm. A simple device was developed, allowing separate monitoring of the time spent in or outside the nest, wheel-running, eating and drinking. Under natural light conditions during summer, a distinct differentiation between a short term rhythm of eating and drinking during the day-time and a circadian rhythm of wheel-running during the night was observed. The short-term rhythm depends closely on metabolic demands (hunger, thirst, excretion). Control of these demands by an endogenous oscillation could not be substantiated. The circadian rhythm of wheel-running activity is, however, controlled by an endogenous oscillation, synchronized by light conditions. It is subjected to seasonal variations. a) The threshold of light intensity below which wheel-running occurs is lowest during summer (<0.5 lx) and is higher during spring and autum (> 5 lx). b) Wheel-running is controlled by a circadian oscillation during summer only whereas it is an integrated part of the short-term rhythm during spring and autumn (experiments during the winter have not yet been performed). Experiments gave evidence that the properties of the cage can deeply influence the amount and pattern of wheel-running activity. It is concluded that wheel-running reflects a certain level of excitation, which may be caused by different behavioural intentions. The seasonal changes of the control of wheel-running activity are discussed with respect to this assumption. The relevancy of locomotor activity patterns as usually recorded in the laboratory to reveal the physiological and ecological significance of endogenously controlled behavioural patterns is discussed.

  6. Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM): Application of the PSTAR method to a residence in Fredericksburg, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, K.; Burch, J.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Lekov, A.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes a project to assess the thermal quality of a residential building based on short-term tests during which a small number of data channels are measured. The project is called Short- Term Energy Monitoring (STEM). Analysis of the data provides extrapolation to long-term performance. The test protocol and analysis are based on a unified method for building simulations and short-term testing called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance is best satisfied in the least squares sense; hence, the name PSTAR. The mathematical formulation of PSTAR is detailed in earlier reports. This report describes the short-term tests and data analysis performed using the PSTAR method on a residential building in Fredricksburg, Virginia. The results demonstrate the ability of the PSTAR method to provide a realistically complex thermal model of a building, and determine from short-term tests the statics as well as the dynamics of a building, including solar dynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Short-term learning induces white matter plasticity in the fornix.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Shir; Tavor, Ido; Tzur Moryosef, Shimrit; Assaf, Yaniv

    2013-07-31

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly extended the exploration of neuroplasticity in behaving animals and humans. Imaging studies recently uncovered structural changes that occur in gray and white matter, mainly after long-term training. A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study showed that training in a car racing game for 2 h induces changes in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyri. However, the effect of short-term training on the white matter microstructure is unknown. Here we investigated the influence of short learning tasks on structural plasticity in the white matter, and specifically in the fornix, in humans and rats. Human subjects performed a 2 h spatial learning task, and rats underwent training for 1 d in a Morris water maze. Between tasks, subjects were scanned with DTI, a diffusion MRI framework sensitive to tissue microstructure. Using tract-based spatial statistics, we found changes in diffusivity indices in both humans and rats. In both species, changes in diffusion in the fornix were correlated with diffusion changes in the hippocampus, as well as with behavioral measures of improvement in the learning tasks. These results, which provide the first indication of short-term white matter plasticity in the human brain, suggest that the adult brain white matter preserves dynamic characteristics and can be modified by short-term learning experiences. The extent of change in white matter was correlated with their extent in gray matter, suggesting that all components of the neural network are capable of rapid remodeling in response to cognitive experiences.

  8. Evolutionarily conserved differences in pallial and thalamic short-term synaptic plasticity in striatum

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Jesper; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas; Robertson, Brita; Silberberg, Gilad; Grillner, Sten

    2013-01-01

    The striatum of the basal ganglia is conserved throughout the vertebrate phylum. Tracing studies in lamprey have shown that its afferent inputs are organized in a manner similar to that of mammals. The main inputs arise from the thalamus (Th) and lateral pallium (LPal; the homologue of cortex) that represents the two principal excitatory glutamatergic inputs in mammals. The aim here was to characterize the pharmacology and synaptic dynamics of afferent fibres from the LPal and Th onto identified striatal neurons to understand the processing taking place in the lamprey striatum. We used whole-cell current-clamp recordings in acute slices of striatum with preserved fibres from the Th and LPal, as well as tract tracing and immunohistochemistry. We show that the Th and LPal produce monosynaptic excitatory glutamatergic input through NMDA and AMPA receptors. The synaptic input from the LPal displayed short-term facilitation, unlike the Th input that instead displayed strong short-term synaptic depression. There was also an activity-dependent recruitment of intrastriatal oligosynaptic inhibition from both inputs. These results indicate that the two principal inputs undergo different activity-dependent short-term synaptic plasticity in the lamprey striatum. The difference observed between Th and LPal (cortical) input is also observed in mammals, suggesting a conserved trait throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:23148315

  9. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Influencing Short-term Synaptic Plasticity in the Avian Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jason Tait; Quinones, Karla; Otto-Meyer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Defined as reduced neural responses during high rates of activity, synaptic depression is a form of short-term plasticity important for the temporal filtering of sound. In the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM), an auditory brainstem structure, mechanisms regulating short-term synaptic depression include pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors. Using varied paired-pulse stimulus intervals, we found that the time course of synaptic depression lasts up to four seconds at late-developing NM synapses. Synaptic depression was largely reliant on exogenous Ca2+-dependent probability of presynaptic neurotransmitter release, and to a lesser extent, on the desensitization of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor (AMPA-R). Interestingly, although extrasynaptic glutamate clearance did not play a significant role in regulating synaptic depression, blocking glutamate clearance at early-developing synapses altered synaptic dynamics, changing responses from depression to facilitation. These results suggest a developmental shift in the relative reliance on pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors in regulating short-term synaptic plasticity in NM. PMID:26527054

  11. Quantifying impacts of short-term plasticity on neuronal information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Pat; Cowan, Anna I.; Stricker, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Short-term changes in efficacy have been postulated to enhance the ability of synapses to transmit information between neurons, and within neuronal networks. Even at the level of connections between single neurons, direct confirmation of this simple conjecture has proven elusive. By combining paired-cell recordings, realistic synaptic modeling, and information theory, we provide evidence that short-term plasticity can not only improve, but also reduce information transfer between neurons. We focus on a concrete example in rat neocortex, but our results may generalize to other systems. When information is contained in the timings of individual spikes, we find that facilitation, depression, and recovery affect information transmission in proportion to their impacts upon the probability of neurotransmitter release. When information is instead conveyed by mean spike rate only, the influences of short-term plasticity critically depend on the range of spike frequencies that the target network can distinguish (its effective dynamic range). Our results suggest that to efficiently transmit information, the brain must match synaptic type, coding strategy, and network connectivity during development and behavior.

  12. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Shannon J.; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S.; Seasholtz, Audrey F.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. PMID:23835143

  13. Frequency-selective augmenting responses by short-term synaptic depression in cat neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Houweling, Arthur R; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor; Grenier, François; Steriade, Mircea; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2002-01-01

    Thalamic stimulation at frequencies between 5 and 15 Hz elicits incremental or ‘augmenting’ cortical responses. Augmenting responses can also be evoked in cortical slices and isolated cortical slabs in vivo. Here we show that a realistic network model of cortical pyramidal cells and interneurones including short-term plasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synapses replicates the main features of augmenting responses as obtained in isolated slabs in vivo. Repetitive stimulation of synaptic inputs at frequencies around 10 Hz produced postsynaptic potentials that grew in size and carried an increasing number of action potentials resulting from the depression of inhibitory synaptic currents. Frequency selectivity was obtained through the relatively weak depression of inhibitory synapses at low frequencies, and strong depression of excitatory synapses together with activation of a calcium-activated potassium current at high frequencies. This network resonance is a consequence of short-term synaptic plasticity in a network of neurones without intrinsic resonances. These results suggest that short-term plasticity of cortical synapses could shape the dynamics of synchronized oscillations in the brain. PMID:12122156

  14. Ecological interpretation of short-term toxicity results: Development of a population model for Arbacia

    SciTech Connect

    Munns, W.R. Jr.; Nacci, D.E.; Walker, H.A.; Johnston, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    The Arbacia punctulata fertilization and larval development tests are used extensively in regulatory and research programs to evaluate toxicity associated with contaminants in aqueous media. These short-term assays are inexpensive, easy to use, and provide information regarding the effects of environmental contaminants on critical life history stages of the sea urchin. Despite substantial consideration of the precision of assay methods, and a clear understanding of the statistical significance of treatment differences, an appreciation of the ecological significance of treatment effects is lacking. To address this problem, a stage classified population projection model was developed to relate short-term test endpoints to potential effects at the population level. The model was applied to evaluate population-level effects using short-term toxicity data obtained in an estuarine ecological risk assessment conducted for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. The model also was used to examine which test endpoints provide useful information relative to population growth dynamics. Population modeling approaches can be extremely valuable in extrapolating single species toxicity information to higher level ecological endpoints and for identifying appropriate measurement endpoints during toxicity test development.

  15. Dynamic atomic contributions to infrared intensities of fundamental bands.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arnaldo F; Richter, Wagner E; Bassi, Adalberto B M S; Bruns, Roy E

    2015-11-11

    Dynamic atomic intensity contributions to fundamental infrared intensities are defined as the scalar products of dipole moment derivative vectors for atomic displacements and the total dipole derivative vector of the normal mode. Intensities of functional group vibrations of the fluorochloromethanes can be estimated within 6.5 km mol(-1) by displacing only the functional group atoms rather than all the atoms in the molecules. The asymmetric CF2 stretching intensity, calculated to be 126.5 km mol(-1) higher than the symmetric one, is accounted for by an 81.7 km mol(-1) difference owing to the carbon atom displacement and 40.6 km mol(-1) for both fluorine displacements. Within the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) model differences in atomic polarizations are found to be the most important for explaining the difference in these carbon dynamic intensity contributions. Carbon atom displacements almost completely account for the differences in the symmetric and asymmetric CCl2 stretching intensities of dichloromethane, 103.9 of the total calculated value of 105.2 km mol(-1). Contrary to that found for the CF2 vibrations intramolecular charge transfer provoked by the carbon atom displacement almost exclusively explains this difference. The very similar intensity values of the symmetric and asymmetric CH2 stretching intensities in CH2F2 arise from nearly equal carbon and hydrogen atom contributions for these vibrations. All atomic contributions to the intensities for these vibrations in CH2Cl2 are very small. Sums of dynamic contributions of the individual intensities for all vibrational modes of the molecule are shown to be equal to mass weighted atomic effective charges that can be determined from atomic polar tensors evaluated from experimental infrared intensities and frequencies. Dynamic contributions for individual intensities can also be determined solely from experimental data.

  16. Short-Term Heart Rate Variability—Influence of Gender and Age in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Heitmann, Andreas; Peters, Annette; Perz, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, short-term heart rate variability (HRV) describing complex variations of beat-to-beat interval series that are mainly controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been increasingly analyzed to assess the ANS activity in different diseases and under various conditions. In contrast to long-term HRV analysis, short-term investigations (<30 min) provide a test result almost immediately. Thus, short-term HRV analysis is suitable for ambulatory care, patient monitoring and all those applications where the result is urgently needed. In a previous study, we could show significant variations of 5-min HRV indices according to age in almost all domains (linear and nonlinear) in 1906 healthy subjects from the KORA S4 cohort. Based on the same group of subjects, general gender-related influences on HRV indices are to be determined in this study. Short-term 5-min HRV indices from linear time and frequency domain and from nonlinear methods (compression entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, traditional and segmented Poincaré plot analysis, irreversibility analysis, symbolic dynamics, correlation and mutual information analysis) were determined from 782 females and 1124 males. First, we examined the gender differences in two age clusters (25–49 years and 50–74 years). Secondly, we investigated the gender-specific development of HRV indices in five age decade categories, namely for ages 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–74 years. In this study, significant modifications of the indices according to gender could be obtained, especially in the frequency domain and correlation analyses. Furthermore, there were significant modifications according to age in nearly all of the domains. The gender differences disappeared within the last two age decades and the age dependencies disappeared in the last decade. To summarize gender and age influences need to be considered when performing HRV studies even if these influences only partly differ. PMID

  17. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Power system very short-term load prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Johnson, J.M.; Whitney, P.

    1997-02-01

    A fundamental objective of a power-system operating and control scheme is to maintain a match between the system`s overall real-power load and generation. To accurately maintain this match, modern energy management systems require estimates of the future total system load. Several strategies and tools are available for estimating system load. Nearly all of these estimate the future load in 1-hour steps over several hours (or time frames very close to this). While hourly load estimates are very useful for many operation and control decisions, more accurate estimates at closer intervals would also be valuable. This is especially true for emerging Area Generation Control (AGC) strategies such as look-ahead AGC. For these short-term estimation applications, future load estimates out to several minutes at intervals of 1 to 5 minutes are required. The currently emerging operation and control strategies being developed by the BPA are dependent on accurate very short-term load estimates. To meet this need, the BPA commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Montana Tech (an affiliate of the University of Montana) to develop an accurate load prediction algorithm and computer codes that automatically update and can reliably perform in a closed-loop controller for the BPA system. The requirements include accurate load estimation in 5-minute steps out to 2 hours. This report presents the results of this effort and includes: a methodology and algorithms for short-term load prediction that incorporates information from a general hourly forecaster; specific algorithm parameters for implementing the predictor in the BPA system; performance and sensitivity studies of the algorithms on BPA-supplied data; an algorithm for filtering power system load samples as a precursor to inputting into the predictor; and FORTRAN 77 subroutines for implementing the algorithms.

  19. Emergency presentation of cancer and short-term mortality

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, S; Elliss-Brookes, L; Shelton, J; Ives, A; Greenslade, M; Vernon, S; Morris, E J A; Richards, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The short-term survival following a cancer diagnosis in England is lower than that in comparable countries, with the difference in excess mortality primarily occurring in the months immediately after diagnosis. We assess the impact of emergency presentation (EP) on the excess mortality in England over the course of the year following diagnosis. Methods: All colorectal and cervical cancers presenting in England and all breast, lung, and prostate cancers in the East of England in 2006–2008 are included. The variation in the likelihood of EP with age, stage, sex, co-morbidity, and income deprivation is modelled. The excess mortality over 0–1, 1–3, 3–6, and 6–12 months after diagnosis and its dependence on these case-mix factors and presentation route is then examined. Results: More advanced stage and older age are predictive of EP, as to a lesser extent are co-morbidity, higher income deprivation, and female sex. In the first month after diagnosis, we observe case-mix-adjusted excess mortality rate ratios of 7.5 (cervical), 5.9 (colorectal), 11.7 (breast ), 4.0 (lung), and 20.8 (prostate) for EP compared with non-EP. Conclusion: Individuals who present as an emergency experience high short-term mortality in all cancer types examined compared with non-EPs. This is partly a case-mix effect but EP remains predictive of short-term mortality even when age, stage, and co-morbidity are accounted for. PMID:24045658

  20. Short-term memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-15

    Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  2. Prolonged mechanical and physiological changes in the upper extremity following short-term simulated power hand tool use.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Amrish O; Sesto, Mary E; Block, Walter F; Radwin, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated in-vivo changes in upper limb dynamic mechanical properties and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters following short-term power hand tool operation. Previous studies have found reduction in mechanical properties following short-term power tool usage at long build-up times. This study advances that work by having participants operate a simulated pistol grip power hand tool and evaluating changes in mechanical properties, strength, discomfort level and MRI prior to tool operation and daily for 3 d after tool operation. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to operate a simulated power hand tool for either a high peak reaction force of 123 N (peak torque=8 Nm, build-up time=250 ms) or at a low peak reaction force of 5 N (peak torque=2 Nm, build-up time=50 ms). Subjects operated the tool for 60 min at the rate of six times per min. A reduction in stiffness (27%, p<0.05) was observed 24 h after tool operation for the high force group and this change persisted (26%, p<0.05) up to 72 h after tool operation. Similar changes were not observed for the low force group. No changes were observed in mass moment of inertia, damping, isometric strength and damping for either group (p>0.05). There was a signal intensity increase (12%, CI 19%, 5.06%) in the supinator muscle MRI for both groups 24 h after tool operation but only the high force group remained elevated (10%, CI 13.7%, 0.06%) 72 h after tool operation. Persistent short-term changes in mechanical and MRI parameters at high force levels could indicate increased strain on the upper limb and may negatively affect ability to react during rapid forceful loading of the upper limb. This research can ultimately lead to better ergonomic interventions through quantitative power hand tool design guidelines and work practices based on understanding the damaging effects of exposure to specific levels of reaction force, build-up time and repetition, as well as providing new outcome measures for

  3. SWIFT2: Software for continuous ensemble short-term streamflow forecasting for use in research and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraud, Jean-Michel; Bennett, James C.; Bridgart, Robert; Robertson, David E.

    2016-04-01

    Research undertaken through the Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA) has laid the foundations for continuous deterministic and ensemble short-term forecasting services. One output of this research is the software Short-term Water Information Forecasting Tools version 2 (SWIFT2). SWIFT2 is developed for use in research on short term streamflow forecasting techniques as well as operational forecasting services at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The variety of uses in research and operations requires a modular software system whose components can be arranged in applications that are fit for each particular purpose, without unnecessary software duplication. SWIFT2 modelling structures consist of sub-areas of hydrologic models, nodes and links with in-stream routing and reservoirs. While this modelling structure is customary, SWIFT2 is built from the ground up for computational and data intensive applications such as ensemble forecasts necessary for the estimation of the uncertainty in forecasts. Support for parallel computation on multiple processors or on a compute cluster is a primary use case. A convention is defined to store large multi-dimensional forecasting data and its metadata using the netCDF library. SWIFT2 is written in modern C++ with state of the art software engineering techniques and practices. A salient technical feature is a well-defined application programming interface (API) to facilitate access from different applications and technologies. SWIFT2 is already seamlessly accessible on Windows and Linux via packages in R, Python, Matlab and .NET languages such as C# and F#. Command line or graphical front-end applications are also feasible. This poster gives an overview of the technology stack, and illustrates the resulting features of SWIFT2 for users. Research and operational uses share the same common core C++ modelling shell for consistency, but augmented by different software modules suitable for each context. The

  4. Short term variations in Jupiter's synchrotron radiation derived from VLA data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.

    2011-12-01

    Jupiter's synchrotron radiation (JSR) is the emission from relativistic electrons in the strong magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere, and it is the most effective prove for remote sensing of Jupiter's radiation belt from the Earth. Although JSR has been thought to be stable for a long time, intensive observations for JSR have made after the collisions of comet P/SL9 to Jupiter in 1994, and these observations revealed short term variations of JSR on time scale of days to weeks. However, the mechanisms which cause the short term variations of total flux density and brightness distribution have not been revealed well. In order to reveal the mechanism of short term variations of JSR more precisely, we have made radio image analysis using the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) archived data of the VLA [*]. Brice and McDonough [1973, Icarus] proposed a scenario for the short term variations: i.e, the solar UV/EUV heating for Jupiter's upper atmosphere drives neutral wind perturbations and then the induced dynamo electric field leads to enhancement of radial diffusion. It is also suggested that induced dynamo electric field produce dawn-dusk electric potential difference, which cause dawn-dusk asymmetry in electron spatial distribution and emission distribution. So far the following results have been indicated for the short term variations. Miyoshi et al. [1999, GRL] showed that a short term variation event at 2.3GHz is well correlate to solar UV/EUV flux variations. Tsuchiya et al. [2010, Adv. Geosci.] showed that JSR at 325MHz and 785MHz have short term variations. These JSR observations confirmed the existence of the short term variation which is caused by solar UV/EUV. However, the effect of solar UV/EUV heating on the spatial distribution of JSR has never been confirmed, so this study is the first attempt to confirm the solar UV/EUV effect on spatial distribution of JSR. We have selected the data observed from 28th Jan. to 5th Feb. 2000 at 327MHz

  5. Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.

  6. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10-26~ 10-27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz~100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  7. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Simmons, M.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh.

  8. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-18

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10{sup −26}∼10{sup −27} are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  9. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Short-term energy outlook. Volume 2. Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-05-01

    Recent changes in forecasting methodology for nonutility distillate fuel oil demand and for the near-term petroleum forecasts are discussed. The accuracy of previous short-term forecasts of most of the major energy sources published in the last 13 issues of the Outlook is evaluated. Macroeconomic and weather assumptions are included in this evaluation. Energy forecasts for 1983 are compared. Structural change in US petroleum consumption, the use of appropriate weather data in energy demand modeling, and petroleum inventories, imports, and refinery runs are discussed.

  11. Short-Term Treatment of Children With Encopresis

    PubMed Central

    FIREMAN, GARY; KOPLEWICZ, HAROLD S.

    1992-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a short-term behavioral treatment of encopresis, 52 encopretic children were evaluated and treated according to a standardized protocol. The treatment was highly effective, with a significant decrease in soiling during the first month (P < 0.01). Of the children who began treatment, 84.6% successfully reached the criterion of 2 consecutive weeks with no soiling accidents in a mean time of 28 days, and 78.8% successfully completed an additional 7-week phaseout period. The evaluations provided rich descriptive information regarding the characteristics of encopretic children. In agreement with the literature, no specific pattern of behavioral pathology was apparent. PMID:22700057

  12. Overwriting and intrusion in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Jones, Jeffery A; Ensor, Tyler M; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Studies of interference in working and short-term memory suggest that irrelevant information may overwrite the contents of memory or intrude into memory. While some previous studies have reported greater interference when irrelevant information is similar to the contents of memory than when it is dissimilar, other studies have reported greater interference for dissimilar distractors than for similar distractors. In the present study, we find the latter effect in a paradigm that uses auditory tones as stimuli. We suggest that the effects of distractor similarity to memory contents are mediated by the type of information held in memory, particularly the complexity or simplicity of information.

  13. Deformability of expanded polystyrene under short-term compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnip, I. J.; Vaitkus, S. I.; Kersulis, V. I.; Veyelis, S. A.

    2007-09-01

    The results obtained in an experimental investigation of deformability of expanded polystyrene (EPS) under short-term compression are presented. The density of EPS varied from 13 to 28 kg/m3. The method of design of experiments was used to determine the elastic modulus and the ultimate strain (corresponding to the end of quasi-linear deformability) under compression stresses operating perpendicularly and parallel to the faces of EPS products. A graphical interpretation of the models is also presented. Based on the experimental data obtained, it was concluded that the expanded polystyrene was homogeneous in mutually perpendicular planes with respect to its deformability in compression.

  14. Short-term memory load and pronunciation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickert, Richard; Hayt, Cathrin

    1988-01-01

    In a test of short-term memory recall, two subjects attempted to recall various lists. For unpracticed subjects, the time it took to read the list is a better predictor of immediate recall than the number of items on the list. For practiced subjects, the two predictors do about equally well. If the items that must be recalled are unfamiliar, it is advantageous to keep the items short to pronounce. On the other hand, if the same items will be encountered over and over again, it is advantageous to make them distinctive, even at the cost of adding to the number of syllables.

  15. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, Stefan; Burkard, Marcel; Renz, Basil; Meyer, Martin; Jancke, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism. PMID:19604352

  16. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Binda, Paola; Lunghi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark) and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements), slow pupil oscillations, "hippus," spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry). This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure) provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  17. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on fecundability.

    PubMed

    Slama, Rémy; Bottagisi, Sébastien; Solansky, Ivo; Lepeule, Johanna; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Sram, Radim

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between air pollution levels and semen characteristics, which might in turn affect a couple's ability to achieve a live birth. Our aim was to characterize short-term effects of atmospheric pollutants on fecundability (the month-specific probability of pregnancy among noncontracepting couples). For a cohort of births between 1994 and 1999 in Teplice (Czech Republic), we averaged fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide levels estimated from a central measurement site over the 60-day period before the end of the first month of unprotected intercourse. We estimated changes in the probability of occurrence of a pregnancy during the first month of unprotected intercourse associated with exposure, using binomial regression and adjusting for maternal behaviors and time trends. Among the 1,916 recruited couples, 486 (25%) conceived during the first month of unprotected intercourse. Each increase of 10 µg/m in PM2.5 levels was associated with an adjusted decrease in fecundability of 22% (95% confidence interval = 6%-35%). NO2 levels were also associated with decreased fecundability. There was no evidence of adverse effects with the other pollutants considered. Biases related to pregnancy planning or temporal trends in air pollution were unlikely to explain the observed associations. In this polluted area, we highlighted short-term decreases in a couple's ability to conceive in association with PM2.5 and NO2 levels assessed in a central monitoring station.

  18. Statistical approaches to short-term electricity forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellova, Andrea

    The study of the short-term forecasting of electricity demand has played a key role in the economic optimization of the electric energy industry and is essential for power systems planning and operation. In electric energy markets, accurate short-term forecasting of electricity demand is necessary mainly for economic operations. Our focus is directed to the question of electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic. Firstly, we describe the current structure and organization of the Czech, as well as the European, electricity market. Secondly, we provide a complex description of the most powerful external factors influencing electricity consumption. The choice of the most appropriate model is conditioned by these electricity demand determining factors. Thirdly, we build up several types of multivariate forecasting models, both linear and nonlinear. These models are, respectively, linear regression models and artificial neural networks. Finally, we compare the forecasting power of both kinds of models using several statistical accuracy measures. Our results suggest that although the electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic is for the considered years rather a nonlinear than a linear problem, for practical purposes simple linear models with nonlinear inputs can be adequate. This is confirmed by the values of the empirical loss function applied to the forecasting results.

  19. Chlorella sorokiniana Extract Improves Short-Term Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Morgese, Maria Grazia; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Francavilla, Matteo; Bove, Maria; Morgano, Lucia; Tucci, Paolo; Trabace, Luigia; Schiavone, Stefania

    2016-09-29

    Increasing evidence shows that eukaryotic microalgae and, in particular, the green microalga Chlorella, can be used as natural sources to obtain a whole variety of compounds, such as omega (ω)-3 and ω-6 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs). Although either beneficial or toxic effects of Chlorella sorokiniana have been mainly attributed to its specific ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs content, the underlying molecular pathways remain to be elucidated yet. Here, we investigate the effects of an acute oral administration of a lipid extract of Chlorella sorokiniana, containing mainly ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs, on cognitive, emotional and social behaviour in rats, analysing possible underlying neurochemical alterations. Our results showed improved short-term memory in Chlorella sorokiniana-treated rats compared to controls, without any differences in exploratory performance, locomotor activity, anxiety profile and depressive-like behaviour. On the other hand, while the social behaviour of Chlorella sorokiniana-treated animals was significantly decreased, no effects on aggressivity were observed. Neurochemical investigations showed region-specific effects, consisting in an elevation of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) content in hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In conclusion, our results point towards a beneficial effect of Chlorella sorokiniana extract on short-term memory, but also highlight the need of caution in the use of this natural supplement due to its possible masked toxic effects.

  20. The short-term effects of merger on hospital operations.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J A; Halpern, M T; Lee, S Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The short-term effects of merger on three areas of hospital operations - scale of activity, personnel/staffing practices, and operating efficiency - is examined. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data obtained from the AHA Annual Surveys (1980-1990) were applied to analyze 92 hospital mergers over the period 1982-1989. STUDY DESIGN: The study employed a multiple time-series design involving a six-year longitudinal assessment of change in hospital operating characteristics before and after merger, and a parallel analysis of change in a randomly selected group of nonmerging hospitals. DATA COLLECTION: Pooled, cross-sectional data files were constructed. Comparisons were evaluated using paired and two-sample t-tests. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: General merger effects occurred primarily in areas related to operating efficiency. Merger resulted in slowing rates of preexisting trends, rather than dramatic improvements in operating practices. CONCLUSIONS: The short-term impact of merger was generally modest but differed by the conditions under which the merger occurred. Specifically, mergers occurring later in the study period and mergers between similarly sized hospitals displayed greater change in operating characteristics than those occurring earlier in the study period and those between hospitals of dissimilar size. Such differences are attributed respectively to increased competitive pressures after PPS and to greater opportunities for consolidation and efficiencies in mergers involving similarly sized hospitals. PMID:8591932

  1. Gaze direction affects visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries were investigated by changing the horizontal position of stimuli that had to be remembered in a visuo-spatial short-term memory task. Observers looked at matrices containing a variable number of filled squares on the left or right side of the screen center. At stimulus offset, participants reproduced the positions of the filled squares in an empty response matrix. Stimulus and response matrices were presented in the same quadrant. We observed that memory performance was better when the matrices were shown on the left side of the screen. We distinguished between recall strategies that relied on visual or non-visual (verbal) cues and found that the effect of gaze position occurred more reliably in participants using visual recall strategies. Overall, the results show that there is a solid enhancement of visuo-spatial short-term memory when observers look to the left. In contrast, vertical position had no influence on performance. We suggest that unilateral gaze to the left activates centers in the right hemisphere contributing to visuo-spatial memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Harrell, P T; Montoya, I D; Preston, K L; Juliano, L M; Gorelick, D A

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N=200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

  4. SHORT-TERM SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING MULTIRESOLUTION PREDICTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Daren; Huang Xin; Hu Qinghua; Zhou Rui; Wang Huaning; Cui Yanmei

    2010-01-20

    Multiresolution predictors of solar flares are constructed by a wavelet transform and sequential feature extraction method. Three predictors-the maximum horizontal gradient, the length of neutral line, and the number of singular points-are extracted from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager longitudinal magnetograms. A maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform is used to decompose the sequence of predictors into four frequency bands. In each band, four sequential features-the maximum, the mean, the standard deviation, and the root mean square-are extracted. The multiresolution predictors in the low-frequency band reflect trends in the evolution of newly emerging fluxes. The multiresolution predictors in the high-frequency band reflect the changing rates in emerging flux regions. The variation of emerging fluxes is decoupled by wavelet transform in different frequency bands. The information amount of these multiresolution predictors is evaluated by the information gain ratio. It is found that the multiresolution predictors in the lowest and highest frequency bands contain the most information. Based on these predictors, a C4.5 decision tree algorithm is used to build the short-term solar flare prediction model. It is found that the performance of the short-term solar flare prediction model based on the multiresolution predictors is greatly improved.

  5. The Optimization of Short-Term Hepatocyte Preservation Before Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Kengo; Inagaki, Akiko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Muneyuki; Yoshida, Satoru; Imura, Takehiro; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Shigehito; Ohashi, Kazuo; Enosawa, Shin; Kamei, Takashi; Unno, Michiaki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Satomi, Susumu; Goto, Masafumi

    2017-07-01

    No optimal methods for short-term hepatocyte preservation have been established. We have recently developed a prominent oxygen-permeable bag (Tohoku Device [TD]) for pancreatic islet culture and transplantation. In this study, we investigated whether TD is also effective for hepatocyte preservation and tried to optimize other conditions. Hepatocytes were preserved in the following conditions, and their outcomes were observed. First, the effectiveness of TD was investigated. Second, hepatocyte medium (HM) and organ preservation solutions with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared. Third, as supplementations, FBS and human serum albumin (HSA) were compared. Fourth, low, room and high temperature were compared. And finally, hepatocytes preserved in various conditions were transplanted into the subrenal capsule space of nonalbumin rats and engrafted areas were assessed. The survival rate of hepatocytes preserved in TD tended to be higher and their viability and function were maintained significantly greater than those of non-TD group. Irrespective of FBS supplementation, the survival rate of HM group was significantly higher than those of organ preservation solution group while viabilities and plating efficiency were similar among them. Although survival rates of groups without FBS were extremely low, results of HSA supplemented group were not inferior to FBS supplemented group. Hepatocytes preserved at high temperature had the worst results. The engrafted area of TD group tended to be higher than those of other groups. TD is effective for short-term hepatocyte preservation. HSA is a useful substitute for FBS, and preserving in HM at low temperature is recommended.

  6. Micro package of short term wireless implantable microfabricated systems.

    PubMed

    Bu, Leping; Cong, Peng; Kuo, Hung-I; Ye, Xuesong; Ko, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Package is a critical part in biomedical implantable systems. Many factors affecting the host body and the life time of implantable systems need to be considered. Package becomes more critical for microfabricated systems with wireless charging and communication. This paper presents the first phase study on micro package techniques for short term (30 to 90 days) implantable systems. A MEMS implantable telemetry model system was designed for packaging evaluation. The transmitter was custom designed and fabricated using MOSIS processes and an external receiver was designed and built for data collection. For short term implantable systems, medical grade silicone outer coating is used for "tissue compatibility"; while multilayer polymeric and nanometer-thin metal or ceramic films were used for inner coatings to provide mechanical strength and to block vapor and moisture penetration. The total coating thickness is less than 0.6 mm. The electrical performances (leakage resistance) of test board and model devices coated with various package materials and processes are evaluated in 40 degrees C saline. This paper presents: the model system; the evaluation methods and analysis of failure modes of polymeric coating on test boards; the solution to the failures and suggested coating techniques of polymeric materials; and the evaluation of model systems packaged with multi-layer coatings in 40 degrees C saline. The expected performance of developed packaging method was verified by experiments. Implantable wireless MEMS system can be packaged with thin multilayer materials to have an expected life time greater than 30 days.

  7. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  8. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  9. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark) and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements), slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry). This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure) provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity. PMID:28163935

  10. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  11. Short-Term Lifestyle Strategies for Sustaining Cognitive Status

    PubMed Central

    Morris, John N.; Steel, Knight; Strout, Kelley A.; Fries, Brant E.; Moore, Alice; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one's status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being. PMID:27891520

  12. Short-term vegetation response following mechanical control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) on the Virgin River, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Dudley, Tom; Lee, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    and species diversity were very low, suggesting that targets of restoring vegetation to pre-invasion conditions were not met. Longer evaluation periods are needed to adequately evaluate how short-term post-treatment patterns translate to long-term patterns of plant community dynamics.

  13. Small mammals as indicators of short-term and long-term disturbance in mixed prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leis, S.A.; Leslie, David M.; Engle, David M.; Fehmi, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance by military maneuvers over short and long time scales may have differential effects on grassland communities. We assessed small mammals as indicators of disturbance by military maneuvers in a mixed prairie in southern Oklahoma USA. We examined sites on two soil series, Foard and Lawton, across a gradient of disturbance intensity. A MANOVA showed that abundance of small mammals was associated (p = 0.03) with short-term (cover of vehicle tracks) disturbance but was not associated (p = 0.12) with long-term (loss of soil organic carbon, SOC) disturbance intensity. At the individual species level, Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) occurred across all levels of disturbance and in both soil types. Only P. maniculatus abundance changed (p < 0.01) with short-term disturbance and increased by about one individual per 5% of additional track-cover. Abundance of P. maniculatus also increased (p = 0.04) by about three individuals per 1% increase in soil carbon. Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse) and Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous harvest mouse) only occurred in single soil types limiting their potential as more general indicators. Abundance of P. maniculatus was positively related to shifts in plant species composition and likely reflected changes in vegetation structure (i.e. litter depth) and forage availability resulting from disturbance. Peromyscus maniculatus may be a useful biological indicator of ecosystem change because it responded predictably to both long-term and short-term disturbance and, when coupled with soil, plant, and disturbance history variables, can reveal land condition trends. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  14. Correlation structures in short-term variabilities of stock indices and exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tomomichi; Small, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Financial data usually show irregular fluctuations and some trends. We investigate whether there are correlation structures in short-term variabilities (irregular fluctuations) among financial data from the viewpoint of deterministic dynamical systems. Our method is based on the small-shuffle surrogate method. The data we use are daily closing price of Standard & Poor's 500 and the volume, and daily foreign exchange rates, Euro/US Dollar (USD), British Pound/USD and Japanese Yen/USD. We found that these data are not independent.

  15. Continuous Timescale Long-Short Term Memory Neural Network for Human Intent Understanding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhibin; Moirangthem, Dennis S; Lee, Minho

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of human intention by observing a series of human actions has been a challenging task. In order to do so, we need to analyze longer sequences of human actions related with intentions and extract the context from the dynamic features. The multiple timescales recurrent neural network (MTRNN) model, which is believed to be a kind of solution, is a useful tool for recording and regenerating a continuous signal for dynamic tasks. However, the conventional MTRNN suffers from the vanishing gradient problem which renders it impossible to be used for longer sequence understanding. To address this problem, we propose a new model named Continuous Timescale Long-Short Term Memory (CTLSTM) in which we inherit the multiple timescales concept into the Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network (RNN) that addresses the vanishing gradient problem. We design an additional recurrent connection in the LSTM cell outputs to produce a time-delay in order to capture the slow context. Our experiments show that the proposed model exhibits better context modeling ability and captures the dynamic features on multiple large dataset classification tasks. The results illustrate that the multiple timescales concept enhances the ability of our model to handle longer sequences related with human intentions and hence proving to be more suitable for complex tasks, such as intention recognition.

  16. Short-term Variability of Extinction by Broadband Stellar Photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Musat, I.C.; Ellingson, R.G.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol optical depth variation over short-term time intervals is determined from broadband observations of stars with a whole sky imager. The main difficulty in such measurements consists of accurately separating the star flux value from the non-stellar diffuse skylight. Using correction method to overcome this difficulty, the monochromatic extinction at the ground due to aerosols is extracted from heterochromatic measurements. A form of closure is achieved by comparison with simultaneous or temporally close measurements with other instruments, and the total error of the method, as a combination of random error of measurements and systematic error of calibration and model, is assessed as being between 2.6 and 3% rms.

  17. The Delicate Analysis of Short-Term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changwei; Zheng, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new method for short-term load forecasting based on the similar day method, correlation coefficient and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to achieve the precision analysis of load variation from three aspects (typical day, correlation coefficient, spectral analysis) and three dimensions (time dimension, industry dimensions, the main factors influencing the load characteristic such as national policies, regional economic, holidays, electricity and so on). First, the branch algorithm one-class-SVM is adopted to selection the typical day. Second, correlation coefficient method is used to obtain the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, which can reflect the influence caused by the customer macro policy and the scale of production to the electricity price. Third, Fourier transform residual error correction model is proposed to reflect the nature of load extracting from the residual error. Finally, simulation result indicates the validity and engineering practicability of the proposed method.

  18. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  19. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. liquid fuels production increased from 7.43 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2008 to 13.75 million b/d in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) expects liquid fuels production to decline to 12.99 million b/d in 2017, mainly as a result of prolonged low oil prices. The liquid fuels production forecast reflects a 1.24 million b/d decline in crude oil production by 2017 that is partially offset by a 450,000 b/d increase in the production of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL)—a group of products including ethane, propane, butane (normal and isobutane), natural gasoline, and refinery olefins. This analysis will discuss the outlook for each of these four HGL streams and related infrastructure projects through 2017.

  20. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. liquid fuels production increased from 7.43 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2008 to 13.75 million b/d in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) expects liquid fuels production to decline to 12.99 million b/d in 2017, mainly as a result of prolonged low oil prices. The liquid fuels production forecast reflects a 1.24 million b/d decline in crude oil production by 2017 that is partially offset by a 450,000 b/d increase in the production of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL)—a group of products including ethane, propane, butane (normal and isobutane), natural gasoline, and refinery olefins. This analysis will discuss the outlook for each of these four HGL streams and related infrastructure projects through 2017.

  1. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  2. Short-term scheduling of reactive power controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Yingyi; Liao Csongming

    1995-05-01

    A two-level approach is presented to solve the problem of optimal short-term (one day) scheduling of reactive power controllers in this paper. The entire problem is decomposed into two levels: the master and the slave levels. The master level deals with minimization of the depreciation cost of compensators and EHV transformer taps in order to reduce the control action for compensators and EHV transformer taps while satisfying operating constraints. The slave level treats minimization of capitalized MW losses while satisfying system security constraints. The slave level also treats OLTCs and determines scheduling of the generator voltages. These two levels interact through linear constraints in the iteration process. A practical 265-bus system, namely Taiwan Power System, are used to serve as a sample to show the applicability of the presented approach.

  3. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  4. Short-term contracts: Descending the career ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    Elizabeth Griffin brings a personal insight to the hurdles that women seeking a scientific career face, arguing that the only gender differences are those of attitude, tradition and style. The policy of employing some but not all academic researchers through short-term contracts is highly divisive, in that it creates a two-tier system not only of opportunities and expectations but also of personal worth and value. Far more women than men are trapped in these career cul-de-sacs, and a seriously large fraction is unable to stay in research until retirement. It is the employment policy that is at fault, not the potential of the researchers or the quality of their research.

  5. Short-term Jovian rotation profiles, 1970-1972.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inge, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a study of the motions of features in Jupiter's atmosphere noted on blue-light photographs from three 25-day periods centered on opposition in 1970, 1971, and 1972. Short-term rotation profiles for these years are obtained which, at certain latitudes, differ significantly from a mean multiple-year profile and from each other. In particular, it is found that in 1970 and 1971 the rotational period was slightly shorter near the edges of the equatorial jet than at its center, while in 1972 it was not. This center-to-edge shear of 1970 and 1971 amounted to about 10 m/sec. In addition, a feature observed in 1972 at 37 N was found to exhibit an abrupt change in period amounting to an increase of 95.1 sec.

  6. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  7. Short-term Cost of Suicides in India

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Gopala Sarma

    2016-01-01

    Background: India is experiencing increasing suicides that have much economic impact. Objective: To calculate the short-term costs of suicide in India. Materials and Methods: All the official data of suicides in India in 2014 formed the base of computation. Both direct and indirect costs were computed basing on market rates and official estimates. Perceived gains were deducted to arrive at the total cost. Results: The contribution of middle age group in the loss was high. Each suicide costs 2.65 L and the total cost of suicide in 2014 amounts to 348842.65 L in the first year. Conclusion: Much suffering and burden on individuals, family, and society can be reduced if adequate treatment facilities for psychiatry patients are made available at affordable rates everywhere. This should be complemented by much needed public education. PMID:28031587

  8. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  9. Long and short term memory in head injured patients.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D N

    1975-12-01

    A group of severely head injured patients were compared with 15 controls on auditory vocal digit span, and on a free recall memory task, enabling short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) to be examined. The free recall curves differed for the two groups suggesting that the head injured patients had an essentially normal STM, but a poor LTM. This was supported by the finding of a significantly lower number of semantic errors (presumably retrieved from LTM) and a normal digit span (STM) in the head injury patients. The severity of the injury as judged by post-traumatic amnesia or the presence of neurological signs at the time of memory testing showed only a weak relationship to the severity of the memory deficit. The presence of a skull fracture was of minor importance in determining the severity of the LTM defect. Patients tested early after the injury were significantly poorer on STM, but not on LTM.

  10. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  11. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ‘working memory’ bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ‘match’ stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. PMID:26541581

  12. Human short-term spatial memory: precision predicts capacity.

    PubMed

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Boujon, Valérie; Ndarugendamwo, Angélique; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Here, we aimed to determine the capacity of human short-term memory for allocentric spatial information in a real-world setting. Young adults were tested on their ability to learn, on a trial-unique basis, and remember over a 1-min interval the location(s) of 1, 3, 5, or 7 illuminating pads, among 23 pads distributed in a 4m×4m arena surrounded by curtains on three sides. Participants had to walk to and touch the pads with their foot to illuminate the goal locations. In contrast to the predictions from classical slot models of working memory capacity limited to a fixed number of items, i.e., Miller's magical number 7 or Cowan's magical number 4, we found that the number of visited locations to find the goals was consistently about 1.6 times the number of goals, whereas the number of correct choices before erring and the number of errorless trials varied with memory load even when memory load was below the hypothetical memory capacity. In contrast to resource models of visual working memory, we found no evidence that memory resources were evenly distributed among unlimited numbers of items to be remembered. Instead, we found that memory for even one individual location was imprecise, and that memory performance for one location could be used to predict memory performance for multiple locations. Our findings are consistent with a theoretical model suggesting that the precision of the memory for individual locations might determine the capacity of human short-term memory for spatial information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific.

  14. Assessment of peak power and short-term work capacity.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Brian R; Rishaug, Peter; Svedahl, Krista

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate conditions for conducting a 30 s Wingate test such as load selection, and the method of starting the test (stationary or flying start). Nine male and four female athletes volunteered to be tested on four laboratory visits. Tests were performed on a modified Monark cycle ergometer (Varberg, Sweden) equipped with force transducers on the friction belt and an optical encoder for velocity measurement. Power was calculated with the moment of inertia (I) of the flywheel taken into consideration. One laboratory visit was used to determine individualized optimal resistance conditions. The other three visits were for performance of one of three Wingate tests: a flying start with 0.834 N x kg(-1) [85 g x kg(-1) body weight (BW)] resistance (FLY-0.8); a stationary start with 0.834 N x kg(-1) BW resistance (ST-0.8), or a stationary start with optimal resistance (ST-OPT). FLY-0.8 gave a lower (P<0.05) value for short-term work capacity [19,986 (827) J] than either ST-OPT [23,014 (1,167) J] or ST-0.8 [22,321 (1075) J]. Peak power output per pedal revolution was lower ( P<0.005) for FLY-0.8 [833 (40) W] than for either ST-0.8 [974 (57) W] or ST-OPT [989 (61) W]. The results of this study demonstrate that higher values for peak power and short-term work capacity are obtained with a test from a stationary start. It is apparently not necessary to use an individualized optimal resistance when I is considered in a Wingate test initiated from a standstill.

  15. Short-term lung function decline in tunnel construction workers.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Bente; Lund, May Brit; Bakke, Berit; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-02-01

    Tunnel construction workers are exposed to particulate and gaseous air contaminants. Previous studies carried out in the 1990s showed that tunnel construction workers were at increased risk of both short-term and long-term lung function decline. Since then, efforts have been made to reduce exposure. The objective of the present study was to investigate if current exposure may still cause short-term lung function impairment. Tunnel workers work 12 days consecutively, and then they are off for 9 days. Ninety tunnel workers and 51 referents were examined with spirometry and questionnaires before their work period started and again 11 days later. Personal exposure to particles and α-quartz in the thoracic aerosol subfraction, elemental carbon and organic carbon, oil mist, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia was assessed on two consecutive days between the two health examinations. The geometric means air concentrations for particulate matter in the thoracic mass aerosol subfraction, α-quartz, oil mist, organic carbon and elemental carbon for all workers were 561, 63, 210, 146 and 35 μg/m(3), respectively. After 11 days of work, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in healthy participants had declined 73 mL (SD 173), p<0.001 in the tunnel workers, compared to 3 mL (SD 21), p=0.9 in the referents. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC) had declined significantly. Declines in FVC and FEV1 were significantly associated with exposure to organic carbon. In spite of reduced levels of exposure in modern tunnelling operations, a negative impact on lung function was still observed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Biocor No- React stentless aortic valve--short-term results.

    PubMed

    Von Oppell, U O; Stemmet, F; Levetan, B; Heijke, S A; Brink, J

    2001-01-01

    Short-term results of the bioprosthetic Biocor No-React composite porcine stentless aortic valve (Biocor Industria e Pesquisas LTDA, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) implanted in patients in whom anticoagulation was thought to be contraindicated or expected to be non-compliant. Retrospective review of 52 consecutive prospective patients in whom this valve was implanted, between September 1994 and May 1998. Average age was 44 +/- 17 years; 75% of patients were operated on for rheumatic heart disease and combined procedures were done in 40% of cases. Early mortality was 5.8%, and related to pre-operative ejection fraction ( P < 0.03), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P < 0.01), and bacterial endocarditis (P < 0.04). On discharge, 84% of survivors were in NYHA class I and 16% in class II. The average postoperative prosthetic valve peak gradient on echocardiography was 19.9 +/- 11 mmHg and was related to pre-operative ejection fraction and smaller valve sizes. Postoperative residual trivial or mild aortic regurgitation was seen in 19 patients (36.6%), resolved on follow-up in 10 cases, and did not correlate with structural deterioration, re-operation, mortality, or widening of the non-coronary sinus. The non-coronary aortic sinus was widened on closure, because of perceived crowding of the adjacent stentless valve commisures, in 52% of cases. This was thought to be related to the use of an oblique as opposed to transverse aortotomy. Patient survival, inclusive of operative deaths, was 88.5%, and event-free survival was 80.0% at 4 years. The short-term results of this stentless aortic valve in a young predominantly third-world population group are acceptable, and appear to be superior to the results for mechanical valves in a similar patient group. We would recommend a transverse aortotomy above the sinotubular ridge to be the more appropriate aortotomy incision when using stentless aortic valves.

  17. Short-term regulation of adiponectin secretion in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Szkudelski, T; Nogowski, L; Szkudelska, K

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin belongs to the group of biologically active substances secreted by adipocytes and referred to as adipokines. Disturbances in its secretion and/or action are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of some metabolic diseases. However, regulation of adiponectin secretion is poorly elucidated. In the present study, short-term regulation of adiponectin secretion in primary rat adipocytes was investigated. Isolated rat adipocytes were incubated in Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 5 mM glucose and insulin alone or in the combination with epinephrine, dibutyryl-cAMP, adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist (DPCPX), palmitate, 2-bromopalmitate or inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport (rotenone). Adipocyte exposure for 2 h to insulin (1-100 nM) significantly increased secretion of adiponectin compared with secretion observed without insulin. Furthermore, secretion of adiponectin from adipocytes incubated with glucose and insulin was reduced by 1 and 2 microM epinephrine, but not by 0.25 and 0.5 microM epinephrine. Under similar conditions, 1 and 2 mM dibutyryl-cAMP substantially diminished secretion of adiponectin, whereas 0.5 mM dibutyryl-cAMP was ineffective. Secretion of adiponectin was found to be effectively decreased by DPCPX. Moreover, adipocyte exposure to rotenone also resulted in a substantial diminution of secretory response of adipocytes incubated for 2 h with glucose and insulin. It was also demonstrated that palmitate and 2-bromopalmitate (0.06-0.5 mM) failed to affect secretion of leptin. The obtained results indicated that in short-term regulation of adiponectin secretion, insulin and epinephrine exert the opposite effects. These effects appeared as early as after 2 h of exposure. Moreover, deprivation of energy or blockade of adenosine action substantially decreased secretion of adiponectin.

  18. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  19. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  20. Short-term outcomes after conventional transthoracic esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Yukiko; Koike, Masahiko; Hattori, Masashi; Iwata, Naoki; Takami, Hideki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kanda, Mitsuro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In our department, we have attempted to reduce the incidence of complications of conventional esophagectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was to report the short-term outcomes of esophagectomy. We reviewed 138 consecutive patients who had undergone subtotal esophagectomy by combined laparotomy via a 12-cm upper abdominal vertical incision combined with right anterior muscle-sparing thoracotomy from August 2010 to August 2014. Most of the cervical para-esophageal lymph node dissection was completed within the thoracic cavity. We performed three-field dissection in patients with tumors in the upper or middle third of the esophagus with clinical lymph node metastases in the superior mediastinum; the others underwent two-field dissection. We performed neck anastomoses in patients undergoing three-field dissection and thoracic anastomoses in those undergoing two-field dissection. Effective postoperative pain management was achieved with a combination of epidural anesthesia and paravertebral block. Postoperative rehabilitation was instituted for early ambulation and recovery. Enteral nutrition via a duodenal feeding tube was administered from postoperative day 2. Median hospital stay after surgery was 15 days (range, 10–129). Rates for both 30-day and in-hospital mortality were 0%. Morbidity rate for all Clavien–Dindo grades was 41.3%, whereas the morbidity rate for Clavien–Dindo grades III and IV was 7.2%. Anastomotic leakage developed in two patients (1.4%), recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 11 (8.0%), and pneumonia in nine (6.5%). Good short-term outcomes, especially regarding anastomotic leaks, were achieved by consistent improvements in surgical techniques, optimization of several operative procedures, and appropriate perioperative management. PMID:27018983