Science.gov

Sample records for intentional islanding transition

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  2. 75 FR 13131 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Sale of Plum Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Sale of Plum Island... Agency, announces its Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare an EIS for the anticipated sale of Plum Island..., Boston, MA 02222. All comments received by GSA in response to the Plum Island NEPA process,...

  3. 75 FR 3956 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Transit Improvements in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Transit Improvements in the Eastside Transit Corridor Phase 2, Eastern Portion of Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental...

  4. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  5. 15. Staten Island Rapid Transit Bridge. Linden, Union Co., NJ. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Staten Island Rapid Transit Bridge. Linden, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 16.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  6. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  7. A Robust Load Shedding Strategy for Microgrid Islanding Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources. It can operate in either gridconnected mode to exchange energy with the main grid or run autonomously as an island in emergency mode. However, the transition of microgrid from grid-connected mode to islanded mode is usually associated with excessive load (or generation), which should be shed (or spilled). Under this condition, this paper proposes an robust load shedding strategy for microgrid islanding transition, which takes into account the uncertainties of renewable generation in the microgrid and guarantees the balance between load and generation after islanding. A robust optimization model is formulated to minimize the total operation cost, including fuel cost and penalty for load shedding. The proposed robust load shedding strategy works as a backup plan and updates at a prescribed interval. It assures a feasible operating point after islanding given the uncertainty of renewable generation. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a simulated microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a battery, two distributed generators (DGs), a critical load and a interruptible load. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm.

  8. Epidemiological transition in Easter Island (1914-1996).

    PubMed

    García-Moro, C.; Hernández, M.; Moral, P.; González-Martín, A.

    2000-05-01

    This study describes the mortality patterns during the present century (1914-1996) and investigates the epidemiological transition in a single community, Easter Island (Rapanui), the geographically most isolated inhabited island. Mortality patterns were reconstructed from civil records and included deaths of all island residents. The mean annual number of deaths is 9.3. A steady decline in the mortality rate linked to rapid modernization is the most relevant general trait. Although a small mortality crisis was detected in 9 years of the period studied, there was no significant seasonality in the deaths, possibly due to little climatic variation. The most serious sanitary problem was leprosy, endemic on the island from the end of the 19(th) century. Sanitary improvements, on one hand, and the effective breakdown of isolation, on the other, brought about the eradication of leprosy and the beginning of an epidemiological transition. In the latter years of the study, there was an increasing prevalence of degenerative diseases, connected, in part, with changes in the age structure of the population caused by the decline of mortality. A correspondence analysis shows the relationships between causes of death and age, and makes clear the different incidence of disease by age. The infant mortality rates were lower than in the Chilean population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:371-381, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. 76 FR 69119 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker Classification: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Part 103 RIN 1615-AB76 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker... inadvertently deleted in a September 7, 2011, final rule entitled Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands... the final rule Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker...

  10. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  11. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    PubMed

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  12. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  13. 78 FR 70318 - Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice... Act (NEPA) documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). We provided this notice in... conservation plan (CCP) and NEPA documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge NWR, West Feliciana...

  14. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  15. 78 FR 38796 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Increased Transit Service to King of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Service to King of Prussia, PA AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Section 4(f) Evaluation for increased transit service to King of... the Radisson Hotel at the Valley Forge Casino Resort, South Ballroom, 1160 First Avenue, King...

  16. Statistical mechanics of protein structural transitions: Insights from the island model

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The so-called island model of protein structural transition holds that hydrophobic interactions are the key to both the folding and function of proteins. Herein, the genesis and statistical mechanical basis of the island model of transitions are reviewed, by presenting the results of simulations of such transitions. Elucidating the physicochemical mechanism of protein structural formation is the foundation for understanding the hierarchical structure of life at the microscopic level. Based on the results obtained to date using the island model, remaining problems and future work in the field of protein structures are discussed, referencing Professor Saitô’s views on the hierarchic structure of science.

  17. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  18. Shape transition of endotaxial islands growth from kinetically constrained to equilibrium regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Tok, Engsoon; Foo, Yonglim

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} islands will grow into Ge(0 0 1) substrate at temperatures from 350 to 675 °C. • Shape transition occurred from kinetically constrained to equilibrium regime. • All endotaxial islands can be clarified into two types. • The mechanisms of endotaxial growth and shape transition have been rationalized. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of Fe grown on Ge(0 0 1) substrates has been conducted at elevated temperatures, ranging from 350 to 675 °C. All iron germinide islands, with the same Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} phase, grow into the Ge substrate with the same epitaxial relationship. Shape transition occurs from small square islands (low temperatures), to elongated orthogonal islands or orthogonal nanowires (intermediate temperatures), and then finally to large square orthogonal islands (high temperatures). According to both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations, all islands can be defined as either type-I or type-II. Type-I islands usually form at kinetically constrained growth regimes, like truncated pyramids. Type-II islands usually appear at equilibrium growth regimes forming a dome-like shape. Based on a simple semi-quantitative model, type-II islands have a lower total energy per volume than type-I, which is considered as the dominant mechanism for this type of shape transition. Moreover, this study not only elucidates details of endotaxial growth in the Fe–Ge system, but also suggests the possibility of controlled fabrication of temperature-dependent nanostructures, especially in materials with dissimilar crystal structures.

  19. Frictional transition from superlubric islands to pinned monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierno, Matteo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Paolicelli, Guido; di Bona, Alessandro; Valeri, Sergio; Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-08-01

    The inertial sliding of physisorbed submonolayer islands on crystal surfaces contains unexpected information on the exceptionally smooth sliding state associated with incommensurate superlubricity and on the mechanisms of its disappearance. Here, in a joint quartz crystal microbalance and molecular dynamics simulation case study of Xe on Cu(111), we show how superlubricity emerges in the large size limit of naturally incommensurate Xe islands. As coverage approaches a full monolayer, theory also predicts an abrupt adhesion-driven two-dimensional density compression on the order of several per cent, implying a hysteretic jump from superlubric free islands to a pressurized commensurate immobile monolayer. This scenario is fully supported by the quartz crystal microbalance data, which show remarkably large slip times with increasing submonolayer coverage, signalling superlubricity, followed by a dramatic drop to zero for the dense commensurate monolayer. Careful analysis of this variety of island sliding phenomena will be essential in future applications of friction at crystal/adsorbate interfaces.

  20. Frictional transition from superlubric islands to pinned monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pierno, Matteo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Paolicelli, Guido; di Bona, Alessandro; Valeri, Sergio; Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-08-01

    The inertial sliding of physisorbed submonolayer islands on crystal surfaces contains unexpected information on the exceptionally smooth sliding state associated with incommensurate superlubricity and on the mechanisms of its disappearance. Here, in a joint quartz crystal microbalance and molecular dynamics simulation case study of Xe on Cu(111), we show how superlubricity emerges in the large size limit of naturally incommensurate Xe islands. As coverage approaches a full monolayer, theory also predicts an abrupt adhesion-driven two-dimensional density compression on the order of several per cent, implying a hysteretic jump from superlubric free islands to a pressurized commensurate immobile monolayer. This scenario is fully supported by the quartz crystal microbalance data, which show remarkably large slip times with increasing submonolayer coverage, signalling superlubricity, followed by a dramatic drop to zero for the dense commensurate monolayer. Careful analysis of this variety of island sliding phenomena will be essential in future applications of friction at crystal/adsorbate interfaces.

  1. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  4. Sociocultural Perspectives on Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, Valerie N.; Sauvao, Le'Autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research investigating children's transition to primary school from Pacific early childhood centers in New Zealand. Key issues emerging from the review include continuity of Pacific Islands languages and culture between home, early childhood center, and school; home-school partnership; teachers' and parents' expectations regarding…

  5. Crystallographich phase transition and island height selection in In/Si(111) growth

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Hupalo, M.; Ji, M.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Tringides, M. C.

    2008-06-03

    In/Si(111) has been studied with spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscope, and first-principles total energy calculations to identify its growth morphology at low temperatures. Of the different substrate interfaces used, only In growth on Si(111)- Pb-{alpha}-{radical}3 x {radical}3 has resulted in uniform height fcc (111) four-layer islands. A transition to the bulk bct (101) oriented islands is favored at higher temperatures T>250K and/or larger coverages {Theta} > 5ML. These results suggest two stabilizing effects for the preferred morphologies, i.e., quantum size effects and orientation dependent surface and interface energies. These stabilizing effects are supported from first-principles calculations.

  6. 76 FR 207 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Transit Improvements to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... scoping meetings or they may be sent to Mr. Steve Hands, Strategic Planning and Policy, Chicago Transit... times, improving access to job markets, responding to shifts in travel demand, better utilizing...

  7. 78 FR 16257 - Notice of Intent To Prepare the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Joint Military...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ...: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section (102)(2)(c) of the..., Pacific (MARFORPAC), as the Executive Agent designated by the U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM), announces its..., and U.S. training relationships with allied nations. MARFORPAC, as the Executive Agent, has...

  8. Comprehensive transit plan for the Virgin Islands. Technical report. Final report, September 1987-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.F.; Schwenk, J.C.; Levinson, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    The report contains a description of the elements and recommendations of a transportation study of the islands of St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John in the U.S. Virgin Island archipelago. St. Thomas transit recommendations included the purchase of new buses, the construction of new maintenance facilities, a substantial increase in service levels, and an open competition for management and operation of the service. For St. Croix, a subsidized taxivan service was recommended on a trial basis on three routes; highway recommendations included an increase in roadway capacity along the Charlotte Amalie waterfront and reconstruction of critical intersections. Traffic engineering improvements, and the implementation of a paid on-street parking program were recommended for St. Thomas. Reconstruction of major intersections, several turning movement enhancements, construction of the long-proposed Christiansted bypass, the expression of off-street parking lots in Christiansted, and on-street parking management changes were recommended for St. Croix. The study endorsed current Department of Public Works plans to rehabilitate sections of major roadways on St. John. Of an institutional nature, it was recommended that a new governmental instrumentality be created to oversee mass transportation (including ferries), parking, and taxi services. Several possible sources of added revenue were discussed as potential means of providing the funding for the needed improvements.

  9. MBE Growth of InN/GaN(0001) and Shape Transitions of InN islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongge; Xie, Maohai; Liu, Ying; Ng, Y. F.

    2003-03-01

    Plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxial growth of InN on GaN(0001) is investigated. Both layer-by-layer and Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth modes are observed under different growth windows. Strain relaxation is studied by real-time recording of the in-plane lattice spacing evolutions on RHEED pattern, which suggest a gradual relaxation of the strain in InN film commenced during the first bilayer (BL) deposition and almost completed after 2-4 BLs. For SK growth, 3D islanding initiates after the strain has mostly been relieved, presumably by dislocations. Based on statistical analysis, the shape transitions of 3D islands are firstly observed in the III-nitrides system. The InN islands transform gradually from pyramids to platelets with increasing of In flux. Under In-rich growth condition, the reverse trend of island shape evolution dependence on volume size, compared with Equilibrium Crystal Shape (ECS) theory, is induced by the Indium self-surfactant effects, in which Indium adlayer on the top surface of InN islands will depress the thermodynamic driving force for the vertical growth of 3D islands. Lateral growth of 3D islands is not only the result of kinetic process but also favored by thermodynamics while Indium self-surfactant exist.

  10. Neotectonics and basin development at a continental/island arc transition in the Western Alaska Peninsula shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A transition in shelf structure occurs between the eastern Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutians. In the east, compressive structures striking parallel to the margin characterize the outer shelf off of Kodiak, Chirikov, and Semidi Islands. Further to the west, multichannel seismic (MSC) data exhibit a systematic transition in style of deformation and orientation of recently active structures in the shelf region of the Shumagin and Sanak Islands. In this area, deformation near the trench slope break is manifested by drapelike folds and normal faults striking parallel to the margin. In contrast, further west between the Shumagin and Sanak Island, MCS profiles for the shelf region reveal basement-involved extensional structures transverse to the margin that have controlled the development of the Sanak and East Sanak Basis. These fault bounded basins have hanging wall sequences with syndepositional rotational displacements over normal faults, indicating a protracted history of extensional faulting and basin subsidence. Present displacement is indicated by the effects of many of the faults upon the uppermost basin and shelf strata, which in some cases offset the sea floor. The aforementioned systematic change in shelf structure of the Alaska Peninsula is coincident with an arcward shift in bathymetric contours of the trench and slope. This transition zone, from margin-parallel compressive structures in the east, to margin-transverse extensional structures in the west, coincides with the continental to island arc transition in the North American plate that reflects the ancient Beringian margin of western Alaska.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Saint Martin/Sint Maarten

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the northeast Caribbean island Saint Martin. The island is divided between two nations, France in the north (Saint-Martin) and the Netherlands in the south (Sint Maarten).

  12. Macrobenthic molluscs from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition in Lesvos Island (Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoubas, Drosos; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Katsiaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes an occurence dataset, also including numerical abundance and biomass data, pertaining to the macrobenthic molluscan assemblages from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition. The study system was the soft-substrate benthoscape of the area of the Kalloni solar saltworks (Lesvos Island, Greece). Specifically, the study area extended from the infralittoral zone of the inner Kalloni Gulf (marine habitat) to the bottoms of the first two evaporation ponds of the Kalloni solar saltworks (lagoonal habitat). Bottom sediment samples (3 replicates) were collected with a Van Veen grab sampler (0.1 m2) at four sampling sites, along a 1.5 km long line transect that spanned the marine - lagoonal environmental transition. A total of four surveys were carried out seasonally in 2004.  A total of 39,345 molluscan individuals were sorted out of the sediment samples and were identified to 71 species, belonging to the Gastropoda (36), Bivalvia (34) and Scaphopoda (1) classes. Numerical abundance and wet biomass (with shells) data are included in the dataset. New information The dataset described in the present paper partially fills a significant gap in the scientific literature: Because ecological research of coastal lagoons has seldom explicitly considered the marine - lagoonal habitats interface, there are no openly accessible datasets pertaining to the particular structural component of the transitional waters benthoscapes of the Mediterranean Sea. Such datasets could prove valuable in the research of the structure and functioning of transitional waters benthoscapes. The present dataset is available as a supplementary file (Suppl. material 1) and can also be accessed at http://ipt.medobis.eu/resource?r=kalloni_saltworks_phd. PMID:27932914

  13. A combined paleomagnetic/dating investigation of the upper Jaramillo transition from a volcanic section at Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Guillou, H.; Laj, C.; Carracedo, J. C.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Wandres, C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Nomade, S.

    2014-11-01

    A coupled paleomagnetic/dating investigation has been conducted on a sequence of 25 successive lava flows, emplaced during the upper transition of the Jaramillo subchron in Tenerife, Canary Islands. This sequence is located along the western wall of the Güímar collapse scar, in the south central part of the island. Nine flows distributed throughout this sequence were dated using unspiked K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar methods. They bracket the section between 1009±22 ka and 971±21 ka (2σ). A first group of 8 flows at the bottom of the sequence is characterized by normal polarity with paleointensity values of the order of present-day field intensity in the Canary Islands. The virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) of these 8 flows describe a short loop at high latitudes. Seven overlying flows are transitional in directions and dated between 991±14 ka and 1002±11 ka consistently with published ages of the upper Jaramillo reversal. This second group of flows is characterized by low paleointensity values (around 8-12 μT) that are less than 30% of the present dipole value in Tenerife. The VGPs of the first two transitional flows lie over northeastern Pacific whereas the five following transitional flows have all negative inclinations and their VGPs lie initially over East Antarctica, then describe a northward loop almost reaching New Zealand. The final group of ten flows yield intensities varying between 20 and 35 μT and VGPs close to the southern pole with two of them describing a small amplitude second loop to southeastern Pacific. Assuming a constant extrusion rate as a very first approximation, the distribution of the obtained ages suggests a duration of 7.6±5.6 ka for the transitional interval. The obtained transitional positions of VGPs are consistent with the path reported for the same reversal from North Atlantic sediments but are different from the only other volcanic record from Tahiti. The intensity low characterizing the transitional interval remains the best tie

  14. 78 FR 49600 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Virginia Beach Transit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... service from the eastern terminus of Norfolk's existing Light Rail Transit (LRT) system, ``The Tide,'' at... Light Rail Transit System Final EIS. This document looked at an 18-mile transit system connecting... relevant information that has been developed over the last several years since the 2009 Supplemental...

  15. A Neogene geomagnetic polarity transition record from lavas of the Canary Islands, Spain: episodic volcanism and/or metastable transitional fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Soler, Vicente; Renne, Paul R.; Elmaleh, Agnès

    2003-08-01

    We present results from a study of a partial magnetic polarity transition record from a 9.7 Ma 40Ar/39Ar dated volcanic section on the island of Gomera (Canary Islands, Spain). The record provides results that bear on the debate over whether long-term persistent features of field behaviour exist during transitions. The sampled section, containing more than 20 flows, begins after the onset of the transition. The nine lowermost flows in the section, which are all transitional, yield virtually identical directions and similar low paleointensities. Following the recovery of virtual geomagnetic pole positions (VGPs) to near the spin axis, paleointensities progress to very high values. Transitional directions lay due west, reflecting the presence of a non-zonal intermediate field. VGPs for these flows cluster in the west Atlantic, which according to Hoffman would correspond to a zone of fastest P-wave propagation in the lower mantle and to a radial flux centre of the present-day non-dipole field. Hoffman had noted a similar occurrence at two other locations. He found that in a select set of volcanic records VGPs tended to group over two areas (Australia and South America), which also corresponded to fast P-wave and non-dipole field anomalies. Given the discontinuous and irregular character typical of volcanic sequences, it is natural to question whether these clusters are merely artefacts of episodic volcanism or actually reflect standstills of the reversing field. We address this question for our record by comparing chemical and magnetomineralogic characteristics of the flows. We find that all of the transitional flows have very similar chemical and rock magnetic properties. Furthermore, these flows differ significantly from the overlying reverse flows, which give distinctly different values and much greater flow-to-flow variation. From this we conclude that the packet of transitional flows was derived from the same source and had erupted over a relatively short period

  16. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  17. Spontaneous transition of core radial electric field driven by magnetic islands in the H-1NF heliac

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Blackwell, B. D.; Howard, J.; Harris, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental observation of spontaneous transition of the core radial electric field to a large positive value (E(r) similar to 5 kV m(-1)), with a strong electric-field shear (similar to 700 kV m(-2)) in a low temperature (T(e) similar to 10 eV) radio frequency generated argon plasma in the H-1NF heliac stellarator. The transition, which seems to be driven by a spontaneous excitation of m = 2 magnetic islands near the core, is associated with a localized increase in the plasma density and excitation of coherent low frequency (similar to 3 kHz) oscillations possibly due to unstable E(r) shear driven modes. Evidence suggests development of the core electron-root scenario, which previously has been observed only at high temperature electron cyclotron heated plasmas.

  18. Shape transitions and island nucleation for Si/Ge molecular beam epitaxy on stripe-patterned Si (001) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sanduijav, B.; Chen, G.; Springholz, G.; Matei, D.

    2009-09-15

    Si and Ge growth on the stripe patterned Si (001) substrates is studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. During Si buffer growth, the stripe morphology rapidly evolves from multifaceted ''U'' to ''V''-shaped forms. This involves successive transitions between different low energy (11n) side facets, where n continuously decreases from n=3 to 20. Ge growth on such stripes induces the formation of a pronounced side wall ripple structure when the Ge thickness exceeds three monolayers. This ripple structure consists of alternating (105) microfacets oriented perpendicularly to the stripes. Depending of the side wall geometry, Ge nanoislands subsequently nucleate either on the side walls or at the bottom of grooves. The latter only occurs for ''V''-shaped stripes, where the side wall ripples extend all the way from the top to the bottom of the grooves, allowing efficient downward mass transport. For multifaceted ''U'' stripes, the side wall ripples are interrupted by steeper side wall segments such that mounds and subsequently, pyramids and domes grow on the side walls instead of at the bottom of the grooves. The island shapes strongly depend on their position on the pattern topography, which also affects the critical coverage for island nucleation as well as for the transition from pyramids to domes. The mechanisms for nucleation at different positions are clarified by detailed analysis and the role of kinetic as well as energetic factors identified.

  19. Workforce Development for Communities in Crisis and Transition: A Case Study of the Windward Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, L. Alfons

    The Windward Islands (Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) have taken several approaches to educate the work force and prepare for the technology-driven society of the future. These approaches include government initiatives, such as the governments' commitment to primary education and more recently to secondary…

  20. Causal Networks or Causal Islands? The Representation of Mechanisms and the Transitivity of Causal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel G. B.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge--an interconnected causal "network," where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms--causal "islands"--such that events in different…

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Antigua and Barbuda; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Antigua and Barbuda, an independent nation in the Leeward Islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Antigua and Barbuda’s utility rates are approximately $0.37 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which is above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Trinidad and Tobago; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island nation located off the coast of Venezuela. Trinidad and Tobago’s electricity rates are some of the lowest in the Caribbean at approximately $0.04 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), well below the regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  3. Diverging Patterns of Union Transition among Cohabitors by Race-Ethnicity and Education: Trends and Marital Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan; Raley, R. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The rise of cohabitation in family process among American young adults and declining rates of marriage among cohabitors are considered by some scholars as evidence for the importance of society-wide ideational shifts propelling recent changes in family. With data on two cohabiting cohorts from the NSFG 1995 and 2006–10, the current study finds that marriage rates among cohabitors have declined steeply among those with no college degree, resulting in growing educational disparities over time. Moreover, there are no differences in marital intentions by education (or race-ethnicity) among recent cohabitors. We discuss how findings of this study speak to the changes in the dynamics of social stratification system in the United States and suggest that institutional and material constraints are at least as important as ideational accounts in understanding family change and family behavior of contemporary young adults. PMID:27306763

  4. Transition from superlubrically sliding islands to pinned monolayer, demonstrated in Xe/Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio; Trieste Nanofriction Team

    A molecular dynamics simulation case study of Xe on Cu(111) reveals unexpected information on the exceptionally smooth sliding state associated with incommensurate superlubricity which is argued to emerge in the large size limit of naturally incommensurate Xe islands. As coverage approaches a full monolayer, theory predicts an abrupt adhesion-driven two-dimensional density compression on the order of several per cent, implying a hysteretic jump from superlubric free islands to a pressurized sqrt()x sqrt()commensurate (and pinned, and therefore immobile) monolayer. These results match with recent quartz crystal microbalance data which show remarkably large slip times with increasing submonolayer coverage, signalling superlubricity, followed by a dramatic drop to zero for the dense commensurate monolayer. Careful analysis of this variety of island sliding phenomena should be essential in future applications of friction at crystal/adsorbate interfaces. Matching experimental work by M. Pierno, L. Bruschi, G. Mistura, G. Paolicelli, A. di Bona, S. Valeri. Supported by ERC Advanced Grant N. 320796 - MODPHYSFRICT.

  5. Exploring HIV-testing intentions in young Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women as it relates to acculturation, theory of gender and power (TGP), and the AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM).

    PubMed

    Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population.

  6. Transition of Mount Etna lavas from a mantle-plume to an island-arc magmatic source.

    PubMed

    Schiano, P; Clocchiatti, R; Ottolini, L; Busà, T

    2001-08-30

    Mount Etna lies near the boundary between two regions that exhibit significantly different types of volcanism. To the north, volcanism in the Aeolian island arc is thought to be related to subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. On Sicily itself, however, no chemical or seismological evidence of subduction-related volcanism exists, and so it is thought that the volcanism-including that on Mount Etna itself-stems from the upwelling of mantle material, associated with various surface tectonic processes. But the paucity of geological evidence regarding the primary composition of magma from Mount Etna means that its source characteristics remain controversial. Here we characterize the trace-element composition of a series of lavas emitted by Mount Etna over the past 500 kyr and preserved as melt inclusions inside olivine phenocrysts. We show that the compositional change in primary magmas from Mount Etna reflects a progressive transition from a predominantly mantle-plume source to one with a greater contribution from island-arc (subduction-related) basalts. We suggest that this is associated with southward migration of the Ionian slab, which is becoming juxtaposed with a mantle plume beneath Sicily. This implies that the volcanism of Mount Etna has become more calc-alkaline, and hence more explosive, during its evolution.

  7. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  8. Ar/Ar ages from transitionally magnetized lavas on La Palma, Canary Islands, and the geomagnetic instability timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, B. S.; Relle, M. K.; Hoffman, K. A.; Battle, A.; Laj, C.; Guillou, H.; Carracedo, J. C.

    2002-11-01

    A detailed study of 43 lava flows comprising two stratigraphic sequences exposed along the north and south walls of Barranco de los Tilos on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands, reveals a complex, temporally segmented record of geodynamo behavior that contains no less than three distinct geomagnetic events. The Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) reversal is recorded in five transitionally magnetized lava flows from the north (TN) section. The isochrons obtained from three of the lower four M-B lavas are defined by 14 incremental heating experiments that, together with a previous age determination, yielded a weighted mean of 798.4 ± 6.2 ka (all uncertainties ±2σ). In addition, a 780.3 ± 10.3 ka isochron was determined for the overlying transitionally magnetized flow, indicating that it was erupted during a distinctly younger portion of the transition. Near the base of the south (TS) section one finds a sequence of weakly magnetized flows associated with virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) positions in the southwest Indian Ocean between latitudes 56°S and 65°S, suggesting instability of the geomagnetic field beyond that of typical secular variation. 40Ar/39Ar isochrons from three of these flows, defined by 11 separate incremental heating experiments, gave a weighted mean of 822.2 ± 8.7 ka. This anomalous field behavior recorded 24 ± 11 kyr prior to the M-B reversal may coincide with an event featured in several marine sediment records. Directly above two normal polarity flows (40Ar/39Ar isochrons of 751.9 ± 18.1 ka and 675.0 ± 15.7 ka) are nine transitionally magnetized lavas having magnetization directions associated with low to midlatitude VGPs spanning 23°-60°N. These flows are then capped by a single flow possessing normal polarity. Based on 12 incremental heating experiments, 40Ar/39Ar isochrons of five of these nine lavas, along with the uppermost flow, gave a weighted mean age of 580.2 ± 7.8 ka for this period of transitional to normal field behavior. From

  9. The transition from porphyry- to epithermal-style gold mineralization at Ladolam, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea: a reconnaissance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel; Kaminski, Klaus; Uhlig, Stephan; Graupner, Torsten; Herzig, Peter M.; Hunt, Steve

    2002-02-01

    The exceptionally large gold resource at Ladolam (>1,300 metric tons of gold), Lihir Island, resulted from the transition of an early-stage, low-grade porphyry gold system to a low-sulfidation epithermal gold event. This transition was probably triggered by rapid decompression during the partial slope failure of Luise stratovolcano and accompanied by the ingress of seawater. The original porphyry stage is indicated by remnant hydrothermal breccia clasts of strongly biotite-magnetite altered monzodiorite with disseminated pyrite ± chalcopyrite and poorly developed pyrite ± quartz stockwork veins. The breccias are overprinted by biotite-magnetite alteration and their matrix is strongly mineralized with disseminated auriferous pyrite. The breccias are cut by late-stage epithermal quartz-chalcedony-illite-adularia-pyrite veins and associated illite-adularia alteration that locally contain bonanza gold grades of up to 120 g/t. Isotope data suggest a magmatic source of sulfur in the gold-bearing fluids at Ladolam. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00126-001-0230-y

  10. Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiras, F. G.; Arbones, B.; Montero, M. F.; Barton, E. D.; Arístegui, J.

    2016-05-01

    Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production were studied in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone. The region showed strong mesoscale activity, in which upwelling filaments and island eddies interacted to cause significant vertical displacements of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Oligotrophic stations both in the open ocean and within anticyclonic eddies were characterised by low values of integrated chlorophyll (33 ± 4 mg chl a m- 2) and dominance of pico- and nanophytoplankton, while stations associated with filaments and cyclonic eddies showed moderate chl a values (50 ± 17 mg m- 2). Shelf stations affected by upwelling exhibited the highest chl a (112 ± 36 mg m- 2) with microphytoplankton dominance. Photosynthetic variables in the three groups of stations showed similar depth gradients, with maximum photosynthetic rates (PmB) decreasing with depth and maximum quantum yields (ϕm) increasing with depth. However, the increase with depth of ϕm was not so evident in shelf waters where nutrients were not depleted at the surface. Primary production (PP) displayed a coast-ocean gradient similar to that of chl a, with highest values (2.5 ± 1.2 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the eutrophic shelf stations and lowest (0.36 ± 0.11 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the oligotrophic stations. Nevertheless, integrated PP at the oligotrophic stations was not related to integrated chl a concentration but was positively (r = 0.95) correlated to carbon fixation at the DCM and negatively (r = - 0.85) correlated to the depth of the DCM, suggesting that light, and not phytoplankton biomass, was the main factor controlling PP in oligotrophic environments. It is concluded that downward displacements of the DCM, either by convergence fronts or downwelling at the core of anticyclones can significantly reduce PP in the oligotrophic ocean.

  11. In situ x-ray scattering study on the evolution of Ge island morphology and relaxation for low growth rate: Advanced transition to superdomes

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, M.-I.; Holy, V.

    2009-07-15

    The kinetics of the growth of Ge superdomes and their facets on Si(001) surfaces are analyzed as a function of deposited Ge thickness for different growth temperatures and at a low growth rate by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering in combination with in situ grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. At a low growth rate, intermixing is found to be enhanced and superdomes are formed already at lower coverages than previously reported. In addition, we observe that at the dome-to-superdome transition, a large amount of material is transferred into dislocated islands, either by dome coalescence or by anomalous coarsening. Once dislocated islands are formed, island coalescence is a rare event and introduction of dislocations is preferred. The superdome growth is thus stabilized by the insertion of dislocations during growth.

  12. Causal networks or causal islands? The representation of mechanisms and the transitivity of causal judgment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel G. B.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge—an interconnected causal network, where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms—causal islands—such that events in different mechanisms are not thought to be related even when they belong to the same causal chain. To distinguish these possibilities, we used causal transitivity—the inference given A causes B and B causes C that A causes C. Specifically, causal chains schematized as one chunk or mechanism in semantic memory (e.g., exercising, becoming thirsty, drinking water) led to transitive causal judgments. On the other hand, chains schematized as multiple chunks (e.g., having sex, becoming pregnant, becoming nauseous) led to intransitive judgments despite strong intermediate links (Experiments 1–3). Normative accounts of causal intransitivity could not explain these intransitive judgments (Experiments 4–5). PMID:25556901

  13. Environmental magnetism and excursion record of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in marine cores, West Coast South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, F. E.; Wilson, G. S.; Party, Shipboard

    2009-04-01

    Homologous ARM susceptibility (κARM) and magnetic susceptibility (κ) records from u-channel samples of five short cores (TAN0712 cores 14, 15, 17, 23, 27) record the Pleistocene - Holocene transition off the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Cores were collected in water depths ranging from 880-2817 m. Cores 14, 15 and 17 are situated along the north levee of Moeraki Canyon. Cores 15 and 17 are kasten cores that record a relatively homogeneous concentration of single domain (SD) grains. Core 14 is a piston core slightly closer to the edge of Moeraki Canyon. From end of core (EOC) at 3.2 m to 0.75 m, the dominance of κ indicates coarse, multi-domain (MD) magnetic grains; however, low κ units (10-20 cms thick) occur at a mean interval of 0.71 m (n=3). Cores 23 and 27 are situated on the north-west margin of Milford Basin. Variations in magnetic mineral concentration in core 23 occur approximately every 26 cm. Fast Fourier Transform analysis confirms the 26 cm cycle, although it has relatively low spectral power. Core 27 also has a short interval of variable concentration. This variation in 'magnetisability' is inferred to result from fluctuating carbonate concentrations during the glacial period leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three longer piston cores (27, 23, 14) contain a coarse MD interval ranging from 0.35-1 m in thickness, which we infer to represent influx of outwash at the termination of the LGM. Overlying this interval, all five cores display a consistent SD signal inferred to represent hemipelagic sedimentation during the Holocene. Possible geomagnetic excursions are recorded in four of the cores. An inclination transition to 34.2∘ combined with a 180∘ declination transition and NRM intensity low at 0.35-0.39 m in core 17 suggests a true geomagnetic excursion. Core 15 also has inclination shallowing and an intensity low at 0.45 m. An older excursion in core 27 at 2.54-2.69 m and in core 14 at ~2.8 m may correlate. The

  14. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a commonwealth in political union with the United States that is located in the northern Pacific Ocean. CNMI’s electricity rates for residential customers range from $0.19 to $0.33 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  15. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition…

  16. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Asian American and Pacific Islander Students' Transition to College: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Vue, Rican

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine socioeconomic differences in the interpersonal factors that influence college access among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). Data on 1,460 AAPIs from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS: 02/06) were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings suggest that parental…

  18. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Palau; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Palau, an independent island nation geographically located in the Micronesia region. Palau’s residential electricity rates are approximately $0.28 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), more than twice the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Barbados; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Barbados, an independent nation in the Lesser Antilles island chain in the eastern Caribbean. Barbados’ electricity rates are approximately $0.28 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  20. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  1. Intentional Systems, Intentional Stance, and Explanations of Intentional Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    relationship between intentionality and mind date back to the nineteenth century and Brentano, it was Daniel Dennett (Dennett69,78,87) who popularized the...regardless of the intrinsic intentionality of the system itself. Dennett distinguishes three broad "stances" or strategies for explaining and predicting the...observer, Dennett ducks the ontological issues of what really constitutes an intentional system. Intentionality is in the eye of the beholder. 2.3 Orders

  2. A Re-Interpretation of the ‘Two-child Norm’ in Post-Transitional Demographic Systems: Fertility Intentions in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan currently has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world, leading to projections of rapid population ageing and decline. In common with other territories in Pacific Asia, policies designed to support childbearing have recently been introduced. Some optimism for the future success of these policies has been drawn from the fact that the ‘ideal’ number of children stated in Taiwanese surveys is over two. In this way, Taiwan appears to fit the ‘two-child norm’ model identified for Europe and North America. Furthermore, this feature has led commentators to state that Taiwan is not in a ‘low fertility trap’–where positive feedback mechanisms emanating from the normalisation of small families, slow economic growth and ageing/declining population mean attempts to increase fertility become ever less likely to succeed. Using a recent national representative survey, and arguing that ‘intentions’ are a more reliable guide to understanding the circumstances of family formation, this paper explores fertility intentions in Taiwan with a special focus on women at parity one and parity two. This will form the first full-length examination of fertility intentions in Taiwan published in English and one of the few studies of Pacific Asia that reports a micro-level analysis. We argue that using intentions should provide a better ‘barometer’ of attitudes towards childbearing in Taiwan, and that through micro-level analysis, we can better identify the predictors of intentions that could, in turn, provide useful clues both for projections as well as shaping policy responses. While we found some evidence for a ‘two-child norm’ among childless women, this could be an unrealistic ideal. This is supported by the fact that a majority of women with one child do not intend to have another. PMID:26291083

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Guam; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Guam, an island territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. Guam’s electricity rates for residential customers start at $0.21 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.1,2 Like

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Belize; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.

  5. Diverging Patterns of Union Transition Among Cohabitors by Race/Ethnicity and Education: Trends and Marital Intentions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan; Raley, R Kelly

    2016-08-01

    The rise of cohabitation in family process among American young adults and declining rates of marriage among cohabitors are considered by some scholars as evidence for the importance of society-wide ideational shifts propelling recent changes in family. With data on two cohabiting cohorts from the NSFG 1995 and 2006-2010, the current study finds that marriage rates among cohabitors have declined steeply among those with no college degree, resulting in growing educational disparities over time. Moreover, there are no differences in marital intentions by education (or race/ethnicity) among recent cohabitors. We discuss how findings of this study speak to the changes in the dynamics of social stratification system in the United States and suggest that institutional and material constraints are at least as important as ideational accounts in understanding family change and family behavior of contemporary young adults.

  6. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  7. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  8. Coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations of HIMU oceanic island basalts from Mangaia, Cook-Austral islands, suggest an Archean source component in the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Oliver; Arculus, Richard J.; van Westrenen, Wim; Woodhead, Jon D.; Jenner, Frances E.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Yona J.; Wille, Martin; Eggins, Stephen M.

    2013-07-01

    Although it is widely accepted that oceanic island basalts (OIB) sample geochemically distinct mantle reservoirs including recycled oceanic crust, the composition, age, and locus of these reservoirs remain uncertain. OIB with highly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures are grouped as HIMU (high-μ, with μ = 238U/204Pb), and exhibit unique Hf-Nd isotopic characteristics, defined as ΔɛHf, deviant from a terrestrial igneous rock array that includes all other OIB types. Here we combine new Hf isotope data with previous Nd-Pb isotope measurements to assess the coupled, time-integrated Hf-Nd-Pb isotope evolution of the most extreme HIMU location (Mangaia, French Polynesia). In comparison with global MORB and other OIB types, Mangaia samples define a unique trend in coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations (expressed in 207Pb/206Pb vs. ΔɛHf). In a model employing subducted, dehydrated oceanic crust, mixing between present-day depleted MORB mantle (DMM) and small proportions (˜5%) of a HIMU mantle endmember can re-produce the Hf-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of global HIMU basalts (sensu stricto; i.e., without EM-1/EM-2/FOZO components). An age range of 3.5 to <2 Ga is required for HIMU endmember(s) that mix with DMM to account for the observed present-day HIMU isotope compositions, suggesting a range of age distributions rather than a single component in the mantle. Our data suggest that mixing of HIMU mantle endmembers and DMM occurs in the mantle transition zone by entrainment in secondary plumes that rise at the edge of the Pacific Large Low Seismic Velocity Zone (LLSVP). These create either pure HIMU (sensu stricto) or HIMU affected by other enriched mantle endmembers (sensu lato). If correct, this requires isolation of parts of the mantle transition zone for >3 Gyr and implies that OIB chemistry can be used to test geodynamic models.

  9. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).

  10. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  11. Cholorphyll Bloom in the Western Equatorial Pacific During the 1998 El Niño/La Niña Transition: The Role of Kiribati Islands as Seen from Satellite, In-Situ Data, and a High-Resolution Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messié, M.; Radenac, M.-H.; Lefèvre, J.

    2006-07-01

    An uncommon bloom occurred in the western equatorial Pacific near 170°E, during the transition between El Niño and La Niña conditions in 1998. Previous studies attributed this bloom to large-scale wind-driven upwelling and vertical mixing, but they do not explain its particular location that coincided with the presence of small coral atolls: Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. In this study combining satellite and in-situ data with a regional physical model, we assess the impact of Kiribati Islands on the different bloom phases. We show how the islands disrupted the dynamics and the nutrient fields in this region, in such a way that bloom-favorable conditions could be created [1].

  12. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  13. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  14. 78 FR 43964 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Southwest Light...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Southwest Light Rail Transit Extension Project (Formerly Referred to as the Southwest Transitway) AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice...

  15. Unravelling the effusive-explosive transitions and the construction of a volcanic cone from geological data: The example of Monte dei Porri, Salina Island (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, Roberto; Lucchi, Federico; Forni, Francesca; Massaro, Silvia; Tranne, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    The volcanic activity that built up the Monte dei Porri stratocone (Salina Island) was reconstructed using new stratigraphic data, which allowed seven eruption units to be distinguished. Alternating Strombolian/Vulcanian to sub-Plinian/Plinian explosive and effusive activity emplaced fall and pyroclastic density current deposits and lava flows that formed the volcanic cone. The minimum erupted bulk volumes were assessed at 100 × 106 m3 each for EU1, EU2, EU3 and EU6, while that of EU4 is ca. 200 × 106 m3. Rough estimation of EU7 volume yields values around 150 × 106 m3. The calculation of volume was not possible for the EU5 deposits. The magmas that fed the different eruption units of the Monte dei Porri succession range in composition from basalt to andesite, with the exception of dacites erupted in the initial phase of activity. SEM image analyses on coarse ash from the different pyroclastic units suggest that hydromagmatic fragmentation cannot be the cause of the large variations in explosivity observed throughout the stratigraphic succession. Based on the lithic component of pyroclastic deposits and xenolith contents of lava flows, the plumbing system that fed the different eruption units of Monte dei Porri was split into a deep magma storage level (15-20 km) and shallower magma batches (3-5 km). Our calculations indicate that the volumes of erupted material can account for magmatic triggering (injection of new magma) of eruptive units from the shallower feeding system, but they are not sufficient for suggesting magmatic initiation of the eruption units from the deeper feeding system. It is therefore assumed that the eruptions from the deep magma reservoir necessitate a favourable lithostatic stress, likely calling for a reduction of the local tectonic forces. A qualitative model explaining the eruptive style transitions among and within the different eruption units is presented, taking into account the relation between magmatic overpressure and lithostatic

  16. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  17. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  18. 76 FR 55642 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service..., ] Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Western Seed Multiplication, Inc. of Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina, an exclusive license to the cowpea variety described in Plant Variety Protection...

  19. Assessment of Suicidal Intent

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Ramachandran, Arul Saravanan; Periasamy, Kalaivani; Saminathan, Kala

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicidal attempt are an important cause of mortality and denotes severe morbidity among the population. Successful suicide attempt is associated with previous suicide attempts. Identifying factors in suicide attempters will help in formulating a comprehensive response to these issues. Objective: To identify the sub group who are more vulnerable and the factors associated with this group. Setting and Design: A cross sectional observational study of this sub group was carried out. Material and Methods: study was conducted on patients who were referred to the Psychiatry department for attempted suicide. They were assessed to identify those with high suicidal intent and study the factors associated with high suicidal intent. Statistics: Epiinfo by CDC was used to analyze the results. Results: High intent was associated with history of psychiatric illness, history of previous attempts and family history of suicidal attempts. Conclusions: A sub group was identified which had a high intent and possibly higher chance of repeating an attempt. PMID:28031588

  20. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. 76 FR 4988 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Potomac Yard Metrorail Station in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Potomac Yard Metrorail Station in Alexandria, VA AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA)...

  2. 76 FR 64424 - Notice To Rescind Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Metro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Federal Transit Administration Notice To Rescind Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact... Counties, CA AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, DOT. ACTION: Rescind Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and the Metro Gold...

  3. The Embodiment of Intentionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, J. Scott

    Historically, the concept intentionality referred to the apparent directedness of human consciousness. Given experimental psychology's turn-of-the-century shift from consciousness to behavior, intentionality is now treated as the pre-specification of motor output, while consciousness is considered a post-stimulus, attention-attenuated input phenomenon. The present contribution challenges this approach by presenting data that indicate perception to be just as intentional as action. An alternative approach to intentionality and consciousness is then proposed, which conceptualizes organisms as energy-transformation systems that emerged, phylogenetically, via the struggle for available energy. Such systems are able to sustain themselves (i.e., survive) because they are autocatalytic; their transformation states produce products that feed back into the system as fuel. In addition, such systems are embodiments; their internal transformation states constitute encapsulations (i.e., internalizations) of transformation states that used to exist outside of the organism. Given this notion of autocatalytic embodiment, the following points are argued: (1) such systems are inherently intentional (i.e., end-directed), for the only way they can remain intact (i.e., alive) is via the active, continuous offset of perturbation to the autocatalytic transformation states that sustain them, and (2) the 'feels' traditionally referred to as consciousness, derive from the embedded, embodied, end-directed 'of-ness' inherent in all autocatalytic systems.

  4. A Principle of Intentionality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  5. A Principle of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  6. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  7. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    glider is carrying an ADCP to measure profiles of velocity to as deep as 1000 m. The intention is evaluate the efficacy of the “island rule” along the...on the left edge of the section). Velocity is measured by an ADCP mounted on a Spray glider. Note the northward flow on the left side of the section

  8. Thickness of the oceanic crust and the mantle transition zone in the vicinity of the Tristan da Cunha hot spot estimated from ocean-bottom and ocean-island seismometer receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Wolfram; Jokat, Wilfried; Jegen, Marion; Baba, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    According to classical plume theory, the Tristan da Cunha hotspot is thought to have played a major role in the rifting of the South Atlantic margins and the creation of the aseismic Walvis Ridge by impinging at the base of the continental lithosphere shortly before or during the breakup of the South Atlantic margins. However, Tristan da Cunha is enigmatic as it cannot be clearly identified as a hot spot but may also be classified as a more shallow type of anomaly that may actually have been caused by the opening of the South Atlantic. The equivocal character of Tristan da Cunha is largely due to a lack of geophysical and petrological data in this region. We therefore staged a multi-disciplinary geophysical study of the region by acquiring passive marine electromagnetic and seismic data, and bathymetric data within the framework of the SPP1375 South Atlantic Margin Processes and Links with onshore Evolution (SAMPLE) funded by the German Science foundation. The experiment included two ship expeditions onboard the German R/V MARIA S. MERIAN in 2012 and 2013. In our contribution we will present results on the thickness of the oceanic crust in the vicinity of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago derived from ocean-bottom seismometer data. Using the Ps receiver function method we estimate a thickness of 5 to 7 km for the oceanic crust at 17 ocean-bottom stations surrounding the islands in an area where the ocean floor has an age of approximately 10 to 30 Ma (from west to east). This indicates normal to slightly lowered magmatic activity at the mid-ocean ridge during the crust formation. There seems to be no major contribution of a mantle plume to the melting conditions at the ridge, which should cause the formation of thickened oceanic crust. The magmatic activity at the archipelago and surrounding seamounts seems to have only local effects on the crustal thickness. Furthermore, we imaged the mantle transition zone discontinuities analysing receiver functions at the

  9. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  10. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  11. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions until May 2003. The evacuation of the island's residents in 1990 was ... earthquake swarm that suggested the possibility of impending volcanic activity. The Micronesian Megapode is an endangered species of ...

  12. 78 FR 60850 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct... for the Main Hawaiian Islands insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) distinct population... information that may help inform the recovery plan is the False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan and the...

  13. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  14. Decoding intentions from movement kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Andrea; Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Capozzi, Francesca; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    How do we understand the intentions of other people? There has been a longstanding controversy over whether it is possible to understand others’ intentions by simply observing their movements. Here, we show that indeed movement kinematics can form the basis for intention detection. By combining kinematics and psychophysical methods with classification and regression tree (CART) modeling, we found that observers utilized a subset of discriminant kinematic features over the total kinematic pattern in order to detect intention from observation of simple motor acts. Intention discriminability covaried with movement kinematics on a trial-by-trial basis, and was directly related to the expression of discriminative features in the observed movements. These findings demonstrate a definable and measurable relationship between the specific features of observed movements and the ability to discriminate intention, providing quantitative evidence of the significance of movement kinematics for anticipating others’ intentional actions. PMID:27845434

  15. 75 FR 76275 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound AGENCY: Coast... grounds in Long Island Sound. These anchorages are located in Connecticut and New York State waters. This..., particularly deep draft vessels, transiting Long Island Sound or awaiting entry to a port or facility in...

  16. 75 FR 40759 - Initiation of Review of Management Plan/Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    .../Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary; Intent To Prepare Draft...) has initiated a review of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary (HIHWNMS or... Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary will be considered if received on or...

  17. Transitional care coordination in New York City jails: facilitating linkages to care for people with HIV returning home from Rikers Island.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Alison O; Cohen, Louise R; Harriman, Graham; Teixeira, Paul A; Cruzado-Quinones, Jacqueline; Venters, Homer

    2013-10-01

    New York City (NYC) jails are the epicenter of an epidemic that overwhelmingly affects Black and Hispanic men and offer a significant opportunity for public health intervention. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene instituted population based approaches to identify the HIV-infected, initiate discharge planning at jail admission, and facilitate post-release linkages to primary care. Using a caring and supportive 'warm transitions' approach, transitional care services are integral to continuity of care. Since 2010, over three-quarters of known HIV-infected inmates admitted to jails received discharge plans; 74 % of those released were linked to primary care. The EnhanceLink initiative's new Health Liaison, a lynchpin role, facilitated 250 court-led placements in medical alternatives to incarceration. Transitional care coordination programs are critical to facilitate continuity of care for people with chronic health conditions including the HIV-infected returning home from jail and for the public health of the communities to which they return.

  18. Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2015-02-01

    Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

  19. Marital Intentions and the Stability of First Cohabitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Using Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this article documents the extent to which cohabitors begin their union with intentions to marry (indicated by either being engaged or having definite plans to marry) and how this is related to subsequent cohabitation transitions, building on earlier literature examining expectations.…

  20. Intention Seekers: Conspiracist Ideation and Biased Attributions of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism. PMID:25970175

  1. Predictability of Expressed Career Intent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Faye

    An historical study of officer input from the various Air Force commissioning programs was initiated in 1963. The study was designed to determine the predictability of an Air Force officer's career decision and to evaluate relationships between career intent and demographic, environmental, and attitudinal factors. Career-intention information for…

  2. The intentionality bias and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Pope, A

    2014-01-01

    The "intentionality bias" refers to our automatic tendency to judge other people's actions to be intentional. In this experiment we extended research on this effect in two key ways. First, we developed a novel nonlinguistic task for assessing the intentionality bias. This task used video stimuli of ambiguous movements. Second, we investigated the relationship between the strength of this bias and schizotypy (schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals). Our results showed that the intentionality bias was replicated for the video stimuli and also that this bias is stronger in those individuals scoring higher on the schizotypy rating scales. Overall these findings lend further support for the existence of the intentionality bias. We also discuss the possible relevance of these findings for our understanding of certain symptoms of schizophrenic illness.

  3. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  4. Asymmetric shape transitions of epitaxial quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chaozhen; Spencer, Brian J.

    2016-06-01

    We construct a two-dimensional continuum model to describe the energetics of shape transitions in fully faceted epitaxial quantum dots (strained islands) via minimization of elastic energy and surface energy at fixed volume. The elastic energy of the island is based on a third-order approximation, enabling us to consider shape transitions between pyramids, domes, multifaceted domes and asymmetric intermediate states. The energetics of the shape transitions are determined by numerically calculating the facet lengths that minimize the energy of a given island type of prescribed island volume. By comparing the energy of different island types with the same volume and analysing the energy surface as a function of the island shape parameters, we determine the bifurcation diagram of equilibrium solutions and their stability, as well as the lowest barrier transition pathway for the island shape as a function of increasing volume. The main result is that the shape transition from pyramid to dome to multifaceted dome occurs through sequential nucleation of facets and involves asymmetric metastable transition shapes. We also explicitly determine the effect of corner energy (facet edge energy) on shape transitions and interpret the results in terms of the relative stability of asymmetric island shapes as observed in experiment.

  5. 76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... National Park Service Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire...) for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York. The purpose...

  6. 76 FR 57979 - Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Permit Application for Widening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Littoral Zone Placement Area located east and south of the barrier island. It is anticipated that the... Island Pass Channel to facilitate the transition between the two channel segments. The Corps is... Horn Island Pass to the entrance of the Bayou Casotte Harbor) and maintenance of the channel....

  7. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  8. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making.

  9. Quantifying Barrier Island Recovery Following a Hurricane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, B.; Houser, C.

    2014-12-01

    Barrier islands are dynamic landscapes that are believed to minimize storm impact to mainland communities and also provide important ecological services in the coastal environment. The protection afforded by the island and the services it provides, however, depend on island resiliency in the face of accelerated sea level rise, which is in turn dependent on the rate of island recovery following storm events that may also change in both frequency and magnitude in the future. These changes in frequency may affect even large dunes and their resiliency, resulting in the island transitioning from a high to a low elevation. Previous research has shown that the condition of the foredune depends on the recovery of the nearshore and beach profile and the ability of vegetation to capture aeolian-transported sediment. An inability of the foredune to recover may result in mainland susceptibility to storm energy, inability for ecosystems to recover and thrive, and sediment budget instability. In this study, LiDAR data is used to quantify the rates of dune recovery at Fire Island, NY, the Outer Banks, NC, Santa Rosa Island, FL, and Matagorda Island, TX. Preliminary results indicate foredune recovery varies significantly both alongshore and in the cross-shore, suggesting that barrier island response and recovery to storm events cannot be considered from a strictly two-dimensional (cross-shore) perspective.

  10. Intentional systems: Review of neurodynamics, modeling, and robotics implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, Robert

    2008-03-01

    We present an intentional neurodynamic theory for higher cognition and intelligence. This theory provides a unifying framework for integrating symbolic and subsymbolic methods as complementary aspects of human intelligence. Top-down symbolic approaches benefit from the vast experience with logical reasoning and with high-level knowledge processing in humans. Connectionist methods use bottom-up approach to generate intelligent behavior by mimicking subsymbolic aspects of the operation of brains and nervous systems. Neurophysiological correlates of intentionality and cognition include sequences of oscillatory patterns of mesoscopic neural activity. Oscillatory patterns are viewed as intermittent representations of generalized symbol systems, with which brains compute. These dynamical symbols are not rigid but flexible. They disappear soon after they emerged through spatio-temporal phase transitions. Intentional neurodynamics provides a solution to the notoriously difficult symbol grounding problem. Some examples of implementations of the corresponding dynamic principles are described in this review.

  11. Decoding Intention at Sensorimotor Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Salvaris, Mathew; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a ‘holy grail’ of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered. PMID:24523855

  12. Multiclass Real-Time Intent Recognition of a Powered Lower Limb Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Varol, Huseyin Atakan; Sup, Frank; Goldfarb, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a control architecture and intent recognition approach for the real-time supervisory control of a powered lower limb prosthesis. The approach infers user intent to stand, sit, or walk, by recognizing patterns in prosthesis sensor data in real-time, without the need for instrumentation of the sound-side leg. Specifically, the intent recognizer utilizes time-based features extracted from frames of prosthesis signals, which are subsequently reduced to a lower dimensionality (for computational efficiency). These data are initially used to train intent models, which classify the patterns as standing, sitting, or walking. The trained models are subsequently used to infer the user’s intent in real-time. In addition to describing the generalized control approach, this paper describes the implementation of this approach on a single unilateral transfemoral amputee subject, and demonstrates via experiments the effectiveness of the approach. In the real-time supervisory control experiments, the intent recognizer identified all 90 activity mode transitions, switching the underlying middle level controllers without any perceivable delay by the user. The intent recognizer also identified six activity mode transitions, which were not intended by the user. Due to the intentional overlapping functionality of the middle level controllers, the incorrect classifications neither caused problems in functionality, nor were perceived by the user. PMID:19846361

  13. Intentionality to Learn, in an Academic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulikowich, Jonna M.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: All human activity, beyond the simplest of reflexes or biological reactions, is a manifestation of intentions. When those intentions are directed toward changes in one's understanding or performance, they can be labeled "intentionality to learn". In this article, we overview particular premises about intentionality to learn and…

  14. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  15. 77 FR 20094 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on the Durham-Orange Light Rail (LRT) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on the Durham-Orange Light Rail (LRT) Project, Durham and Orange Counties, NC AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and the...

  16. Beyond human intentions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.

  17. Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199

  18. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  19. Suicide and Mass Urban Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Presents case consultation in which consultants respond to issues of urban planning for mass transit (subway) system and how to maximize prevention of intentional injury within subway stations. Also asks what type of research study should be used and what type of data collected once system is operating. Case is discussed by Morton M. Silverman and…

  20. Models of College Persistence Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald W.

    2010-01-01

    While withdrawal from higher education may be the result of many reasons both within and beyond the control of the student or the institution, the intent of not returning to higher education indicates the acceptance of a permanent disassociation with the pursuit of the higher education endeavor. It is of paramount importance in understanding the…

  1. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  2. Electron acceleration via magnetic island coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, I.; Yumura, T.; Tanaka, K. G.; Fujimoto, M.

    2009-06-01

    Electron acceleration via fast magnetic island coalescence that happens as quick magnetic reconnection triggering (QMRT) proceeds has been studied. We have carried out a three-dimensional full kinetic simulation of the Harris current sheet with a large enough simulation run for two magnetic islands coalescence. Due to the strong inductive electric field associated with the non-linear evolution of the lower-hybrid-drift instability and the magnetic island coalescence process observed in the non-linear stage of the collisionless tearing mode, electrons are significantly accelerated at around the neutral sheet and the subsequent X-line. The accelerated meandering electrons generated by the non-linear evolution of the lower-hybrid-drift instability are resulted in QMRT, and QMRT leads to fast magnetic island coalescence. As a whole, the reconnection triggering and its transition to large-scale structure work as an effective electron accelerator.

  3. 78 FR 8189 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Personal Watercraft Use at Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Personal Watercraft... Statement (EIS) to analyze the impacts of Personal Watercraft (PWC) use at Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Personal Watercraft use emerged at GUIS in the 1980s and was permitted in units of the...

  4. Plasma flows and fluctuations with magnetic islands in the edge plasmas of J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, K. J.; Shi, Y. J.; Hahn, S. H.; Diamond, P. H.; Sun, Y.; Cheng, J.; Liu, H.; Lie, N.; Chen, Z. P.; Ding, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Rao, B.; Leconte, M.; Bak, J. G.; Cheng, Z. F.; Gao, L.; Zhang, X. Q.; Yang, Z. J.; Wang, N. C.; Wang, L.; Jin, W.; Yan, L. W.; Dong, J. Q.; Zhuang, G.; J-TEXT Team

    2015-07-01

    The first comprehensive measurements of plasma flows and fluctuations nearby static magnetic islands driven by resonant magnetic perturbations are presented. These experiments were performed using multiple Langmuir probe arrays on the edge plasmas of the J-TEXT tokamak. Controlled variations of the island size and location are explored. This study aims to understand the interaction between turbulence and magnetic islands, and to elucidate magnetic island effects on edge turbulence and flow intensity profiles, edge electric fields, and thus confinement regime transitions. Turbulence and low frequency flows (LFFs) all drop inside the magnetic island, but increase at its boundary, as island width increases. The geodesic acoustic mode is damped in most of the edge area with magnetic islands. The sign of the radial electric field changes from negative to positive within the islands. The gradient of turbulent stresses vanishes at the island center, and becomes steeper at the boundaries of the islands. The particle transport induced by the turbulence is reduced inside the magnetic islands. The magnetic island effects on flows and turbulence can lead to an increase in LFFs and enhance Reynolds stresses near the last closed flux surface (LCFS). A stronger radial electric field layer can be formed near the LCFS when magnetic islands are present. The results suggest that magnetic islands can be used as a tool to enhance edge turbulence and flows, edge electric fields, and thus to trigger confinement regime transitions.

  5. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  6. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  7. Intentional Mathematics Teaching in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Myoungwhon; Conderman, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Studies and discussions around "good teaching practices" have often identified intentionality as the chief characteristic of outstanding teachers. Intentional teachers are identified as maintaining the habit of informed reflection as they plan, teach, reflect on, and revise the effectiveness of their practices. Intentional teaching strategies are…

  8. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  9. Intention Concepts and Brain-Machine Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (“decode”) the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications. PMID:23162504

  10. Decoding intention: a neuroergonomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Grafton, Scott T; Tipper, Christine M

    2012-01-02

    Decoding the intentions of other people based on non-linguistic cues such as their body movement is a major requirement of many jobs. Whether it is maintaining security at an airport or negotiating with locals in a foreign country, there is a need to maximize the effectiveness of training or real-time performance in this decoding process. This review considers the potential utility of neuroergonomic solutions, and in particular, of electroencephalographic (EEG) methods for augmenting action understanding. Focus is given to body movements and hand-object interactions, where there is a rapid growth in relevant science. The interpretation of EEG-based signals is reinforced by a consideration of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments demonstrating underlying brain mechanisms that support goal oriented action. While no EEG method is currently implemented as a practical application for enhancing the understanding of unspoken intentions, there are a number of promising approaches that merit further development.

  11. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  12. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  13. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  15. Poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayer island growth.

    PubMed

    Rundqvist, Jonas; Hoh, Jan H; Haviland, David B

    2005-03-29

    Here, we report a study of the morphology and growth dynamics of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the amide containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) thiol (CH3O(CH2CH2O)17NHCO(CH2)2SH) on atomically flat Au(111) surfaces. SAM growth from a 20 muM ethanolic solution reveals island growth through three distinct steps: island nucleation, island growth, and coalescence. The coalescence-step, filling voids in the SAM, is by far slowest. The fine structure study reveals dendritic island formation, an observation which can be explained by attractive intermolecular interactions and surface diffusion-limited aggregation. We have also observed a change in the island height, which peaks during the island growth phase. This height change can be associated with a molecular conformational transition.

  16. Slow motion increases perceived intent

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Burns, Zachary C.; Converse, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor’s intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in “slow motion.” Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  17. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  18. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Predictable evolution toward flightlessness in volant island birds

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natalie A.; Steadman, David W.; Witt, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Birds are prolific colonists of islands, where they readily evolve distinct forms. Identifying predictable, directional patterns of evolutionary change in island birds, however, has proved challenging. The “island rule” predicts that island species evolve toward intermediate sizes, but its general applicability to birds is questionable. However, convergent evolution has clearly occurred in the island bird lineages that have undergone transitions to secondary flightlessness, a process involving drastic reduction of the flight muscles and enlargement of the hindlimbs. Here, we investigated whether volant island bird populations tend to change shape in a way that converges subtly on the flightless form. We found that island bird species have evolved smaller flight muscles than their continental relatives. Furthermore, in 366 populations of Caribbean and Pacific birds, smaller flight muscles and longer legs evolved in response to increasing insularity and, strikingly, the scarcity of avian and mammalian predators. On smaller islands with fewer predators, birds exhibited shifts in investment from forelimbs to hindlimbs that were qualitatively similar to anatomical rearrangements observed in flightless birds. These findings suggest that island bird populations tend to evolve on a trajectory toward flightlessness, even if most remain volant. This pattern was consistent across nine families and four orders that vary in lifestyle, foraging behavior, flight style, and body size. These predictable shifts in avian morphology may reduce the physical capacity for escape via flight and diminish the potential for small-island taxa to diversify via dispersal. PMID:27071105

  20. Control of paleoshorelines by trench forebulge uplift, Loyalty Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Unlike most tropical Pacific islands, which lie along island arcs or hotspot chains, the Loyalty Islands between New Caledonia and Vanuatu owe their existence and morphology to the uplift of pre-existing atolls on the flexural forebulge of the New Hebrides Trench. The configuration and topography of each island is a function of distance from the crest of the uplifted forebulge. Both Maré and Lifou are fully emergent paleoatolls upon which ancient barrier reefs form highstanding annular ridges that enclose interior plateaus representing paleolagoon floors, whereas the partially emergent Ouvea paleoatoll rim flanks a drowned remnant lagoon. Emergent paleoshoreline features exposed by island uplift include paleoreef flats constructed as ancient fringing reefs built to past low tide levels and emergent tidal notches incised at past high tide levels. Present paleoshoreline elevations record uplift rates of the islands since last-interglacial and mid-Holocene highstands in global and regional sea levels, respectively, and paleoreef stratigraphy reflects net Quaternary island emergence. The empirical uplift rates vary in harmony with theoretical uplift rates inferred from the different positions of the islands in transit across the trench forebulge at the trench subduction rate. The Loyalty Islands provide a case study of island environments controlled primarily by neotectonics.

  1. Predictable evolution toward flightlessness in volant island birds.

    PubMed

    Wright, Natalie A; Steadman, David W; Witt, Christopher C

    2016-04-26

    Birds are prolific colonists of islands, where they readily evolve distinct forms. Identifying predictable, directional patterns of evolutionary change in island birds, however, has proved challenging. The "island rule" predicts that island species evolve toward intermediate sizes, but its general applicability to birds is questionable. However, convergent evolution has clearly occurred in the island bird lineages that have undergone transitions to secondary flightlessness, a process involving drastic reduction of the flight muscles and enlargement of the hindlimbs. Here, we investigated whether volant island bird populations tend to change shape in a way that converges subtly on the flightless form. We found that island bird species have evolved smaller flight muscles than their continental relatives. Furthermore, in 366 populations of Caribbean and Pacific birds, smaller flight muscles and longer legs evolved in response to increasing insularity and, strikingly, the scarcity of avian and mammalian predators. On smaller islands with fewer predators, birds exhibited shifts in investment from forelimbs to hindlimbs that were qualitatively similar to anatomical rearrangements observed in flightless birds. These findings suggest that island bird populations tend to evolve on a trajectory toward flightlessness, even if most remain volant. This pattern was consistent across nine families and four orders that vary in lifestyle, foraging behavior, flight style, and body size. These predictable shifts in avian morphology may reduce the physical capacity for escape via flight and diminish the potential for small-island taxa to diversify via dispersal.

  2. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  3. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, Eli M.; Blanchard, Benjamin; Guénard, Benoit; John Fasi;  Evan P. Economo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies) in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp.), Guadalcanal (107 spp.), Malaita (70 spp.), Santa Isabel (68 spp.), and Rennell (66 spp.). Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago’s ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity. PMID:23653494

  4. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Eli M; Blanchard, Benjamin; Guénard, Benoit; John Fasi; Evan P Economo

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies) in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp.), Guadalcanal (107 spp.), Malaita (70 spp.), Santa Isabel (68 spp.), and Rennell (66 spp.). Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago's ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of PV Inverter Anti-Islanding with Grid Support Functions in Multi-Inverter Island Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Anderson; Nelson, Austin; Miller, Brian; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Bell, Frances; McCarty, Michael

    2016-07-01

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1.) In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2.) The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness. Crucially, the multi-inverter anti-islanding tests described in this report examine scenarios with multiple inverters connected to multiple different points on the grid. While this so-called 'solar subdivision' scenario has been examined to some extent through simulation, this is the first known work to test it using hardware inverters. This was accomplished through the use of power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) simulation, which allows the hardware inverters to be connected to a real-time transient simulation of an electric power system that can be easily reconfigured to test various distribution circuit scenarios. The anti-islanding test design was a modified version of the unintentional islanding test in IEEE Standard 1547.1, which creates a balanced, resonant island with the intent of creating a highly challenging condition for island detection. Three common, commercially available single-phase PV inverters from three different manufacturers were tested. The first part of this work examined each inverter individually using a series of pure hardware resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) resonant load

  6. 75 FR 9188 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Everglades Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Everglades Restoration Transition Plan--Phase 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DOD. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The Jacksonville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers... currently regulates operations for Central & South Florida (C&SF) project features in the south Dade...

  7. 46 CFR 182.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION General Provisions § 182.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems,...

  8. 46 CFR 182.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION General Provisions § 182.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems,...

  9. 46 CFR 119.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems steering apparatus, and associated...

  10. 46 CFR 119.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems steering apparatus, and associated...

  11. 46 CFR 182.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION General Provisions § 182.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems,...

  12. 46 CFR 182.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION General Provisions § 182.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems,...

  13. 46 CFR 182.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION General Provisions § 182.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems,...

  14. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  15. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  16. Thermodynamic model of coherent island formation on vicinal substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu Sun, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Yanguang; Ren, Xiaomin

    2014-04-28

    A thermodynamic model has been proposed to address the formation of coherent island on the vicinal substrate. The morphological transition from square based island to elongated based one with various substrate misorientations is described. The initial stage of nucleation and growth process of islands in Stranski–Krastanow system is studied by taking into account the elastic deformations and the change of energy in the case of two-dimensional growth mode. The theoretical analysis shows the minimum nucleation barrier of island is on the decrease with increment of substrate misorientation, which means the nucleation of island on vicinal substrate is more favorable than that on flat substrate. By using the fitting data of experimental results done by Persichetti et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 036104 (2010) and Phys. Rev. B 82, 121309(R) (2010)], we provide a meaningful explanation of the experimental observations.

  17. Lattice-Boltzmann simulation of coalescence-driven island coarsening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basagaoglu, H.; Green, C.T.; Meakin, P.; McCoy, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The first-order phase separation in a thin fluid film was simulated using a two-dimensional lattice-Boltzman model (LBM) with fluid-fluid interactions. The effects of the domain size on the intermediate asymptotic island size distribution were also discussed. It was observed that the overall process is dominated by coalescence which is independent of island mass. The results show that the combined effects of growth, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening control the phase transition process in the LBM simulations.

  18. 77 FR 33239 - Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental... Park Service (NPS) is initiating the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for...

  19. The Simultaneity of Beginning Teachers' Practical Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Teachers use their practical intentions--their in-the-moment goals and concerns--to craft their spontaneous classroom decisions. This research study explored the content of (and relationship between) beginning teachers' practical intentions by asking six student teachers in mathematics to participate in a stimulated recall interview of their…

  20. Authorial Intent in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the disjunction between, on the one hand, critical theory's critique of the privileging of authorial intent in protocols of textual interpretation, and, on the other hand, continued obeisance to authorial intent in composition textbooks and pedagogy. By unpacking the implications of this disjunction, I show the limitations…

  1. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  2. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  3. Counselor Intentionality and Effective Helping. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, John J.

    This digest on counselor intentionality notes that the counseling profession has historically searched for characteristics and behaviors that contribute to successful helping relationships. It identifies one such characteristic, the counselor's level and degree of intentionality, as relating to the notion that successful counselors select their…

  4. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  5. 46 CFR 189.35-3 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intent. 189.35-3 Section 189.35-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Weight Handling Gear § 189.35-3 Intent. (a) In recognition of the special nature of...

  6. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  7. 29 CFR 1690.105 - Policy intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy intent. 1690.105 Section 1690.105 Labor Regulations... COORDINATION OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ISSUANCES General § 1690.105 Policy intent. These procedures will govern the conduct of such agencies in the development of uniform standards, guidelines and policies...

  8. 36 CFR 68.1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR'S STANDARDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES § 68.1 Intent. The intent of this part is to set forth standards for the treatment of historic properties containing standards...

  9. Entrepreneurship Education: Workshops and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from participants in an entrepreneurship education workshop series, the author examined the series' impact and tested a model of entrepreneurial intentions incorporating social and psychological factors. He found that entrepreneurial disposition and workshop participation significantly influenced intentions, exposure to role…

  10. Students' Behavioural Intentions towards Peers with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Lysaght, Rosemary; Burge, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the behavioural intentions of high school students towards individuals with intellectual disabilities and individuals with physical disabilities and (ii) to explore reasons for these behavioural intentions. Materials and methods: A sample of 319 Grade 9 and Grade 12 students in Ontario,…

  11. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  12. Product Characteristics and Internet Shopping Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce and online marketing focuses on an empirical study that investigated differences between Internet shopping intentions for products categorized by cost and tangibility. Highlights include hypotheses; respondent characteristics; results that showed that intentions to shop using the Internet differ by tangibility of…

  13. Mind-Wandering With and Without Intention.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-08-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of research examining mind-wandering, but most of this research has not considered the potential importance of distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. However, a recent series of papers have demonstrated that mind-wandering reported in empirical investigations frequently occurs with and without intention, and, more crucially, that intentional and unintentional mind-wandering are dissociable. This emerging literature suggests that, to increase clarity in the literature, there is a need to reconsider the bulk of the mind-wandering literature with an eye toward deconvolving these two different cognitive experiences. In this review we highlight recent trends in investigations of the intentionality of mind-wandering, and we outline a novel theoretical framework regarding the mechanisms underlying intentional and unintentional mind-wandering.

  14. [Burnout, work characteristics and retirement intentions].

    PubMed

    Leenders, M V E; Henkens, K

    2010-06-01

    We investigated whether there is a relationship between burnout and work characteristics and retirement intentions from older workers. Data were taken from a survey held among Dutch older workers (50+) and their spouses (N=2,892). The results show that high workload, heavy physical work, and lack of challenge are related to burnout. No effect, however, was found for competence. Besides the effect of burnout, retirement intentions are related to the level of marital quality. Older workers who report a higher level of marital quality report a stronger intention to retire. Burnout and retirement intentions are related, but appear to be two different processes. While burnout can generally be explained by the work environment, nonwork related factors enhance our understanding of retirement intentions. This study shows that actual retirement is often preceded by feelings of burnout, in particular a mental detachment from work and feelings of exhaustion.

  15. Third birth intentions and uncertainty in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Wang, H

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the 1995 Canadian General Society Survey (GSS-95), we study the intention to have a third child among a sample of women and men who have already had two children (N = 505). Our results show that 15 per cent of the respondents intend to have a third child. Nearly 20 per cent of the respondents are uncertain about their fertility intentions. We found that the same factors that predict intentions also predict uncertainty, and that the effects of these predictors are remarkably similar. In particular, intentions and uncertainty generally decline with age, but increase with regular church attendance, remarriage, and being Catholic. Unlike earlier studies, we found that the sex of previous children has virtually no impact on third-birth intentions or uncertainty.

  16. Challenges for Transitioning Science Research to Space Weather Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2013-01-01

    Effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. The effort to transition scientific knowledge to a useful application is not a research nor is it operations, but an activity that connects two. Successful transitioning must be an intentional effort with a clear goal and measureable outcome. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  17. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  18. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... an obstacle to the westerly winds, and wake patterns in the cloud layers are visible downstream of the island's location. In the lower left ... the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by cumulus clouds, and a spiral cloud pattern associated with an atmospheric ...

  19. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  20. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  1. Implementation Intentions and Colorectal Screening

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine M.; Epp, Aaron; James, Aimee; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Geana, Mugur; Born, Wendi; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Shellhorn, Jeremy; Hester, Christina M.; LeMaster, Joseph; Buckles, Daniel; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations experience disproportionate colorectal cancer (CRC) burden and poorer survival. Novel behavioral strategies are needed to improve screening rates in these groups. Purpose To test a theoretically based “implementation intentions” intervention for improving CRC screening among unscreened adults in urban safety-net clinics. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting/participants Adults (N=470) aged ≥50 years, due for CRC screening, from urban safety-net clinics were recruited. Intervention The intervention (conducted in 2009–2011) was delivered via touchscreen computers that tailored informational messages to decisional stage and screening barriers. The computer then randomized participants to generic health information on diet and exercise (Comparison group) or “implementation intentions” questions and planning (Experimental group) specific to the CRC screening test chosen (fecal immunochemical test or colonoscopy). Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was completion of CRC screening at 26 weeks based on test reports (analysis conducted in 2012–2013). Results The study population had a mean age of 57 years, and was 42% non-Hispanic African American, 28% non-Hispanic white, and 27% Hispanic. Those receiving the implementation intentions–based intervention had higher odds (AOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.23, 2.73) of completing CRC screening than the Comparison group. Those with higher self-efficacy for screening (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03, 2.39), history of asthma (AOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.26, 3.84), no history of diabetes (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.21, 2.86), and reporting they had never heard that “cutting on cancer” makes it spread (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.16, 2.72) were more likely to complete CRC screening. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that programs incorporating an implementation intentions approach can contribute to successful completion of CRC screening even among very low-income and

  2. Intention estimation in brain-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Joline M.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Kao, Jonathan C.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. The objective of this work was to quantitatively investigate the mechanisms underlying the performance gains of the recently reported ‘recalibrated feedback intention-trained Kalman Filter’ (ReFIT-KF). Approach. This was accomplished by designing variants of the ReFIT-KF algorithm and evaluating training and online data to understand the neural basis of this improvement. We focused on assessing the contribution of two training set innovations of the ReFIT-KF algorithm: intention estimation and the two-stage training paradigm. Main results. Within the two-stage training paradigm, we found that intention estimation independently increased target acquisition rates by 37% and 59%, respectively, across two monkeys implanted with multiunit intracortical arrays. Intention estimation improved performance by enhancing the tuning properties and the mutual information between the kinematic and neural training data. Furthermore, intention estimation led to fewer shifts in channel tuning between the training set and online control, suggesting that less adaptation was required during online control. Retraining the decoder with online BMI training data also reduced shifts in tuning, suggesting a benefit of training a decoder in the same behavioral context; however, retraining also led to slower online decode velocities. Finally, we demonstrated that one- and two-stage training paradigms performed comparably when intention estimation is applied. Significance. These findings highlight the utility of intention estimation in reducing the need for adaptive strategies and improving the online performance of BMIs, helping to guide future BMI design decisions.

  3. RTGs on Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassoulas, John; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Transit, the US Navy's Navigation Satellite System was conceived at the Applied Physics Laboratory in 1957 by observing the Doppler shift while tracking Sputnik I. As spacecraft development proceeded there was concern about the ability of batteries to maintain the hermetic seal over a 5-year operational life requirement; therefore, alternate energy sources were investigated. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) concept was pursued and resulted in the launch of SNAP 3s, providing partial power on both Transit 4A and 4B. SNAP 9s provided full power on three Transit 5BNs. All launches occurred in the early 1960s. When the U.S. conducted the high altitude nuclear test from Johnson Island, several spacecraft were lost due to artificial enhancement of charged particles in the Earth's magnetosphere resulting in rapid degradation of solar cell power production. This led to the decision to have both an RTG and Solar cell/battery design for Transit power systems; hence, a new RTG design, with a separable heat source and radiative coupling to the thermoelectric elements, was flown on TRIAD. This pioneering effort provided the impetus for future RTGs on interplanetary spacecraft. This paper describes the origin and purpose of the Transit program and provides details on the five satellites in that program that were powered by the first American RTGs used in space. The rationale and some of the challenges inherent in that use are also described.

  4. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  5. Dengue transmission in the small-island setting: investigations from the Caribbean island of Grenada.

    PubMed

    Schiøler, Karin L; Macpherson, Calum N

    2009-08-01

    The Caribbean region has experienced a major surge in dengue activity in recent decades. Yet, for many, and especially the smaller islands, the true extent and general epidemiology of dengue transmission remains unclear because of inadequate systems of surveillance and reporting. We established an active surveillance system supported by laboratory-based diagnosis on the small island of Grenada, from January 2001 through June 2002. The surveillance data provided evidence of three distinct modes of disease dynamics in the form of low endemic, pre-epidemic, and overt epidemic transmission of mostly benign dengue fever. A shift in serotype activity and modal age was evident during the noted transition, with the more densely populated south end of the island presenting the focus of transmission.

  6. Soils and vegetation of Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halvorson, William L.; Fenn, Dennis B.; Allardice, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The multifaceted development of an erosion surface on Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, has led to this study of the relationship between soils and vegetation. A dry Mediterranean climate and past attempts at farming and introductions of alien species have led to vegetative degradation accompanied by both gully and surface erosion. Soil and vegetation analyses show this erosion to be in a location of transition. The soils are Typic Chromoxererts (Vertisol Order) with high clay, salinity, and sodium contents. The vegetation is ecotonal in nature, grading from a principally alien annual grassland with Avena fatua and Atriplex semibaccata to a shrub community dominated by the native Suaeda californica. Management toward revegetation and stabilization of this island ecosystem will be difficult with high clay, saline-sodic soils and disturbed vegetation.

  7. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  8. A Locomotion Intent Prediction System Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baojun; Zheng, Enhao; Wang, Qining

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion intent prediction is essential for the control of powered lower-limb prostheses to realize smooth locomotion transitions. In this research, we develop a multi-sensor fusion based locomotion intent prediction system, which can recognize current locomotion mode and detect locomotion transitions in advance. Seven able-bodied subjects were recruited for this research. Signals from two foot pressure insoles and three inertial measurement units (one on the thigh, one on the shank and the other on the foot) are measured. A two-level recognition strategy is used for the recognition with linear discriminate classifier. Six kinds of locomotion modes and ten kinds of locomotion transitions are tested in this study. Recognition accuracy during steady locomotion periods (i.e., no locomotion transitions) is 99.71% ± 0.05% for seven able-bodied subjects. During locomotion transition periods, all the transitions are correctly detected and most of them can be detected before transiting to new locomotion modes. No significant deterioration in recognition performance is observed in the following five hours after the system is trained, and small number of experiment trials are required to train reliable classifiers. PMID:25014097

  9. Transition from ultra-enriched to ultra-depleted primary MORB melts in a single volcanic suite (Macquarie Island, SW Pacific): Implications for mantle source, melting process and plumbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Anika; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Everard, John L.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.

    2016-07-01

    Compositional diversity of basalts forming the oceanic floor is attributed to a variety of factors such as mantle heterogeneities, melting conditions, mixing of individual melt batches, as well as fractionation and assimilation processes during magma ascent and emplacement. In this study the compositional range and origin of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) is approached by petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Miocene Macquarie Island ophiolite, an uplifted part of the Macquarie Ridge at the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates. In this study, earlier results on the enriched to ultra-enriched (La/Sm 1.4-7.9), isotopically homogeneous basaltic glasses are complemented by the compositions of olivine-phyric rocks, principal phenocrystic minerals and Cr-spinel hosted melt inclusions. Studied olivine, clinopyroxene and Cr-spinel phenocrysts are among the most primitive known for MORB (85-91 mol% forsterite in olivine, 81-91 Mg# in clinopyroxene, and 66-77 Mg# and 34-60 Cr# in spinel) and represent primary and near-primary compositions of their parental melts. Geochemical characteristics of the liquids parental to clinopyroxene (La/Sm 0.8-6.3) and Cr-spinel (La/Sm 0.4-5) partly overlap with those of the basaltic glasses, but also strongly advocate the role of depleted to ultra-depleted primary melts in the origin of the Macquarie Island porphyritic rocks. The trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts and the systematics of rare-earth elements in glasses, melt inclusions, and clinopyroxene provide evidence for a peridotitic composition of the source mantle. Our data supports the mechanism of fractional "dynamic" melting of a single mantle peridotite producing individual partial melt batches with continuously changing compositions from ultra-enriched towards ultra-depleted. The incipient enriched melt batches, represented by basaltic glasses in this study, may erupt without significant modification, whereas consecutively derived

  10. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall be... agency that the person intentionally— (a) Affixed a label bearing a “Made in America” inscription, or...

  11. Intentional Communication: Computationally Easy or Difficult?

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Iris; Kwisthout, Johan; Blokpoel, Mark; Szymanik, Jakub; Wareham, Todd; Toni, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Human intentional communication is marked by its flexibility and context sensitivity. Hypothesized brain mechanisms can provide convincing and complete explanations of the human capacity for intentional communication only insofar as they can match the computational power required for displaying that capacity. It is thus of importance for cognitive neuroscience to know how computationally complex intentional communication actually is. Though the subject of considerable debate, the computational complexity of communication remains so far unknown. In this paper we defend the position that the computational complexity of communication is not a constant, as some views of communication seem to hold, but rather a function of situational factors. We present a methodology for studying and characterizing the computational complexity of communication under different situational constraints. We illustrate our methodology for a model of the problems solved by receivers and senders during a communicative exchange. This approach opens the way to a principled identification of putative model parameters that control cognitive processes supporting intentional communication. PMID:21747765

  12. 46 CFR 120.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Provisions § 120.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of electrical equipment and systems including power sources, lighting, motors, miscellaneous equipment,...

  13. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  14. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  15. "Treasure Island" and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riach, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the sense of rupture or difference inherent in children's literature between the author or adult and the reader or child, as they concern Robert Louis Stevenson's novel "Treasure Island." (TB)

  16. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Heat Island Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  18. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  19. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5,...

  20. Validity and Usefulness of Enlistment Intention Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    individual services. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ajzen , Icek , and Martin Fishbein, Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ...the Educational Assistance Test Program, RAND, R-2935-MRAL, September 1982. Fishbein, Martin, and Icek Ajzen , Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior...point in the future (e.g., Fishbein and Ajzen , 1975). This view assumes that an intention represents an individual’s attempt to summarize the influences

  1. Exploring U.S. men's birth intentions.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Kost, Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    While recently there have been renewed interest in women's childbearing intentions, the authors sought to bring needed research attention to understanding men's childbearing intentions. Nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was used to examine pregnancy intentions and happiness for all births reported by men in the 5 years preceding the interview. We used bivariate statistical tests of associations between intention status, happiness about the pregnancy, and fathers' demographic characteristics, including joint race/ethnicity and union status subgroups. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios of a birth being intended, estimated separately by father's union status at birth. Using comparable data and measures from the male and female NSFG surveys, we tested for gender differences intentions and happiness, and examined the sensitivity of our results to potential underreporting of births by men. Nearly four out of ten of births to men were reported as unintended, with significant variation by men's demographic traits. Non-marital childbearing was more likely to be intended among Hispanic and black men. Sixty-two percent of births received a 10 on the happiness scale. Happiness about the pregnancy varied significantly by intention status. Men were significantly happier than women about the pregnancies, with no significant difference in intention status. Potential underreporting of births by men had little impact on these patterns. This study brings needed focus to men's childbearing intentions and improves our understanding of the context of their role as fathers. Men need to be included in strategies to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  2. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  3. Mosquito Survey, Island of Rota (Mariana Islands)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    and has also been collected from Tinfan, The adult of Aedes albopictus a severe pest and it is considered to be an important vector of dengue fever . Bionomic...evidence of local The introduction of Aedes albopictus has brought an acknowledged vector of dengue fever to the island. This is potentially...distance away from human habitation. The adults are ready biters. Medical importance: Vector of dengue fever . 2. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse

  4. Development of the Work Intention Inventory Short-Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim; Zigarmi, Drea

    2015-01-01

    The Work Intention Inventory (WII: Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, & Diehl, 2012) was designed to assess five measures of work intention. Measuring employee intentions is important to consider when evaluating outcomes associated with employee engagement or work passion as research indicates intentions are strong predictors of behavior. Following…

  5. Analysis of using EMG and mechanical sensors to enhance intent recognition in powered lower limb prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. J.; Kuiken, T. A.; Hargrove, L. J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of electromyography (EMG) data, in combination with a diverse array of mechanical sensors, to locomotion mode intent recognition in transfemoral amputees using powered prostheses. Additionally, we determined the effect of adding time history information using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) for both the mechanical and EMG sensors. Approach. EMG signals from the residual limbs of amputees have been proposed to enhance pattern recognition-based intent recognition systems for powered lower limb prostheses, but mechanical sensors on the prosthesis—such as inertial measurement units, position and velocity sensors, and load cells—may be just as useful. EMG and mechanical sensor data were collected from 8 transfemoral amputees using a powered knee/ankle prosthesis over basic locomotion modes such as walking, slopes and stairs. An offline study was conducted to determine the benefit of different sensor sets for predicting intent. Main results. EMG information was not as accurate alone as mechanical sensor information (p < 0.05) for any classification strategy. However, EMG in combination with the mechanical sensor data did significantly reduce intent recognition errors (p < 0.05) both for transitions between locomotion modes and steady-state locomotion. The sensor time history (DBN) classifier significantly reduced error rates compared to a linear discriminant classifier for steady-state steps, without increasing the transitional error, for both EMG and mechanical sensors. Combining EMG and mechanical sensor data with sensor time history reduced the average transitional error from 18.4% to 12.2% and the average steady-state error from 3.8% to 1.0% when classifying level-ground walking, ramps, and stairs in eight transfemoral amputee subjects. Significance. These results suggest that a neural interface in combination with time history methods for locomotion mode classification can enhance intent

  6. Work transitions.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Nadya A; Bynner, John

    2008-01-01

    Individuals make choices in, and adjust to, a world of work that is often a moving target. Because work is so central to human functioning, and transitions in and out of work can have major mental health repercussions, the authors argue that applied psychologists in health services need to understand those transitions. This article focuses on the different types of transition throughout a person's working life and the resources needed at different stages to ensure the success of these transitions. The authors start by examining the roles of capability and adaptability in supporting and facilitating adjustment to work transitions and their relation to identity development. They then examine the role of social and institutional contexts in shaping work transitions and their outcomes. The authors focus on voluntary versus involuntary transitions and then broaden the lens in discussing the policy implications of research on work transitions.

  7. The multiuniverse transition in superfluid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkov, Yury

    2013-10-01

    The symmetry-breaking phase transitions of the universe and of superfluid 3He may lead to the formation of different states with different order parameters. In both cases the energy potential below the transition temperature has a complicated multidimensional profile with many local minima and saddle points, which correspond to different states. Consequently, not only topological defects, but also islands of different metastable states can be created. Using 3He we can analyse the properties and experimental consequences of such transitions and, in particular, the first-order phase transition between the two low symmetry states.

  8. The multiuniverse transition in superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Bunkov, Yury

    2013-10-09

    The symmetry-breaking phase transitions of the universe and of superfluid (3)He may lead to the formation of different states with different order parameters. In both cases the energy potential below the transition temperature has a complicated multidimensional profile with many local minima and saddle points, which correspond to different states. Consequently, not only topological defects, but also islands of different metastable states can be created. Using (3)He we can analyse the properties and experimental consequences of such transitions and, in particular, the first-order phase transition between the two low symmetry states.

  9. An intent recognition strategy for transfemoral amputee ambulation across different locomotion modes.

    PubMed

    Young, Aaron J; Simon, Ann; Hargrove, Levi J

    2013-01-01

    Powered lower limb prostheses, capable of multiple locomotion modes, are being developed for transfemoral amputees. Current devices do not seamlessly transition between modes such as level walking, stairs and slopes. The purpose of this study was to develop an intent recognition system and test its performance across five different modes. A Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) was used for classification of neural and mechanical signals while four amputees completed a circuit containing level-walking, ramp ascent, ramp descent, stair ascent and stair descent. Our results indicate that transitional and steady-state stair steps had a high recognition rate (>99%), while ramp steps were significantly more difficult to classify (p<0.01) (13.7% error on transition steps and 1.3% on steady-state steps). With all five modes trained into the same system, the transitional error rate was 11.3%. Transitional error could be reduced by 31% by training the ramp ascent mode as level walking, and 92% by training both ramp ascent and descent as level walking. This is a viable solution when the level-walking mode can accommodate ramp modes which is currently the case with the ramp ascent. The high recognition rates for recognizing stairs shown in this study demonstrates the potential for an intent recognition system using neural information to allow amputees to naturally transition between locomotion modes on powered prostheses.

  10. In situ investigation of the island nucleation of Ge on Si(001) using x-ray scattering methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schuelli, T. U.; Richard, M.-I.; Renaud, G.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Wintersberger, E.; Bauer, G.

    2006-10-02

    The growth of Ge on Si(001) is investigated in situ at 500 and 600 deg. C, combining grazing incidence diffraction, multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction, and small angle scattering. This allows probing simultaneously the island shape, strain state, composition, and the transition from wetting layer to island growth. At 500 deg. C no intermixing occurs. The wetting layer is found to decrease by one atomic layer at the onset of island nucleation. At 600 deg. C interdiffusion plays an important role in strain relaxation leading to a more stable wetting layer. Small angle scattering yields the island morphology and shows the transition from pyramids to multifacetted domes.

  11. Current Tectonics of Northern Vancouver Island, Southern Queen Charlotte Islands and the Adjacent Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabine, H.; Mazzotti, S.; Hyndman, R. D.

    2009-05-01

    The area south of the Queen Charlotte Islands and north of Vancouver Island is characterized by the transition from the Cascadia subduction zone to the Queen Charlotte transform fault zone. The tectonic setting involves the Pacific, North American, Juan de Fuca, and Explorer plates, and the Winona block, as well as the Queen Charlotte and Revere-Dellwood-Wilson faults, Explorer ridge, Nootka fault, and Cascadia subduction zone. On the basis of GPS campaign data from 1993 to 2008 we derive a crustal velocity field for North Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. This velocity data is the basis for interpretation of the tectonics of the transition from the convergent to transform boundaries. Our GPS data show significant shear velocities in the Bella Coola region, ~250 km inland from the Queen Charlotte fault, although there is no seismic activity in the area. We use geodynamic models to better understand the discrepancy between the GPS data and the seismic data. We use the GPS velocities to determine whether the measured deformation rates of northernmost Vancouver Island, related to its interaction with the Explorer Plate and possibly the Queen Charlotte transform margin, are transient or permanent. Geodynamic models are used to find out if deformation in the region including North Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, and the adjacent mainland (Coast Shear Zone) is transient or long-term. To constrain the model, we use the rheology and structure of the region, with reasonable values for elastic thickness and viscosity. Two end-member models describing how the Pacific/North America plate convergence is accommodated off the Queen Charlotte Islands have been developed by others. They assume either internal crustal shortening or underthrusting of the Pacific plate. With the new GPS data we can further investigate which model explains the tectonic situation more appropriately. An earlier model strongly suggests an underthrusting fault fully locked down to 14

  12. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will

  13. Accelerating the College and Career Readiness of Rhode Island's Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Rhode Island is in the process of transitioning to new English language arts and mathematics standards that will better prepare students to be successful in college and their careers. Time, effort, and resources must be dedicated to effective implementation in order to realize the promise of these new common core state standards. This paper…

  14. Ecosystem restoration on the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halvorson, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Restoration of natural habitat has become increasingly important over the last three decades in the United States, first as mitigation for development (especially in wetlands), and more recently in natural areas. This latter restoration has come about as land managing agencies have seen the need to reverse the impact of past land uses and agencies like the National Park Service have taken on the responsibility for less-than-pristine lands. Restorations have typically been carried out with little prior study and with no follow-up monitoring. On the Channel Islands, the need for restoration is great, but the desire is to base this restoration on sound ecological understanding. By conducting surveys, implementing long-term research and monitoring, and by conducting population and community dynamics research, the necessary data is obtained to arrive at such an understanding. Once management actions have been taken to effect restoration, monitoring is used to determine the success of those actions. The intention is to gain enough of an understanding of the islands' ecosystems that we can manage to restore, not just populations of native plants and animals, but also the processes of a naturally functioning ecosystem. ?? International Scientific Publications, New Delhi.

  15. Crust and Mantle Structure Beneath the Samoan Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, J. M.; Courtier, A. M.; Jackson, M. G.; Lekic, V.; Hart, S. R.; Collins, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We used teleseismic receiver functions to map the seismic structure under the Samoan Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. We acquired seismograms for the permanent seismic station, AFI, and for five temporary stations located across the island chain from the Samoan Lithospheric Integrated Seismic Experiment (SLISE). We used multiple-taper correlation and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms to calculate receiver functions for events with epicentral distance of 30° to 95° and examined the results in a frequency range of 1.0 - 5.0 Hz for crustal structure and 0.1 - 2.0 Hz for mantle structure. We identify complex crustal layering, including the interface between volcanic rocks and the ocean crust and a substantial underplated layer beneath the normal ocean crust. We find that the crust thins with decreasing age across the Samoan Islands and correlates with previous observations from gravity data (Workman, 2005). We additionally identify a velocity increase in the range of 50-100 km depth, potentially the Hales discontinuity. Deeper in the mantle, we observe transition zone thickness of 245-250 km across the island chain, which is within the margin of error for globally observed transition zone thickness. When migrated with IASP, transition zone discontinuity depths do appear deeper beneath the youngest island, indicating slower velocities and/or deeper discontinuity depths relative to the older islands in the system. We will provide improved constraints on transition zone discontinuity depths from ScS reverberations for all stations, and will place the crust and mantle results into a multi-disciplinary context, with comparisons to geochemical and surface observations. Workman, R., 2005. Geochemical characterization of endmember mantle components, Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, http://dspace.mit/edu/handle/1721.1/33721.

  16. Momentum Trumps Intention: Failed Intentions toward Higher Education of Low-Wage Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Francine M.; Ta, Phuong H.

    2015-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined the effects of explicit intention, as described in Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, on preschool teachers' success in enrolling in college. In the first study, 88 low-wage female teachers and teachers' aides who represented 85 child care centers were surveyed about their intentions to pursue college…

  17. Supporting Sustainable Food Consumption: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Aligns Intentions and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Loy, Laura S; Wieber, Frank; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    With growing awareness that sustainable consumption is important for quality of life on earth, many individuals intend to act more sustainably. In this regard, interest in reducing meat consumption is on the rise. However, people often do not translate intentions into actual behavior change. To address this intention-behavior gap, we tested the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Here, people identify and imagine a desired future and current obstacles standing in its way. They address the obstacles with if-then plans specifying when, where, and how to act differently. In a 5-week randomized controlled experimental study, we compared an information + MCII intervention with an information-only control intervention. As hypothesized, only MCII participants' intention of reducing their meat consumption was predictive of their actual reduction, while no correspondence between intention and behavior change was found for control participants. Participants with a moderate to strong intention to reduce their meat consumption reduced it more in the MCII than in the control condition. Thus, MCII helped to narrow the intention-behavior gap and supported behavior change for those holding moderate and strong respective intentions.

  18. Supporting Sustainable Food Consumption: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Aligns Intentions and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Laura S.; Wieber, Frank; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    With growing awareness that sustainable consumption is important for quality of life on earth, many individuals intend to act more sustainably. In this regard, interest in reducing meat consumption is on the rise. However, people often do not translate intentions into actual behavior change. To address this intention-behavior gap, we tested the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Here, people identify and imagine a desired future and current obstacles standing in its way. They address the obstacles with if-then plans specifying when, where, and how to act differently. In a 5-week randomized controlled experimental study, we compared an information + MCII intervention with an information-only control intervention. As hypothesized, only MCII participants’ intention of reducing their meat consumption was predictive of their actual reduction, while no correspondence between intention and behavior change was found for control participants. Participants with a moderate to strong intention to reduce their meat consumption reduced it more in the MCII than in the control condition. Thus, MCII helped to narrow the intention-behavior gap and supported behavior change for those holding moderate and strong respective intentions. PMID:27199840

  19. The potential for sea-level-rise-induced barrier island loss: Insights from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Laura J.; Patsch, Kiki; List, Jeffrey H.; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2014-01-01

    As sea level rises and hurricanes become more intense, barrier islands around the world become increasingly vulnerable to conversion from self-sustaining migrating landforms to submerging or subaqueous sand bodies. To explore the mechanism by which such state changes occur and to assess the factors leading to island disintegration, we develop a suite of numerical simulations for the Chandeleur Islands in Louisiana, U.S.A., which appear to be on the verge of this transition. Our results suggest that the Chandeleurs are likely poised to change state, leading to their demise, within decades depending on future storm history. Contributing factors include high rates of relative sea level rise, limited sediment supply, muddy substrate, current island position relative to former Mississippi River distributary channels, and the effects of changes in island morphology on sediment transport pathways. Although deltaic barrier islands are most sensitive to disintegration because of their muddy substrate, the importance of relative sea level rise rate in determining the timing of threshold crossing suggests that the conceptual models for deltaic barrier island formation and disintegration may apply more broadly in the future.

  20. Social Identity and the Transition to Entrepreneurship: The Role of Group Identification with Workplace Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Goethner, Maximilian; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Cantner, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    What role does social identity play in the transition from employed work to entrepreneurship? It was expected that social identity affects the cognitive processes that, according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), underlie the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Focusing on academic scientists' intentions to commercialize research…

  1. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  2. Implementation intentions, perfectionism, and goal progress: perhaps the road to hell is paved with good intentions.

    PubMed

    Powers, Theodore A; Koestner, Richard; Topciu, Raluca A

    2005-07-01

    Two studies explored whether perfectionism moderates the impact of implementation intentions on goal progress. Study 1 used an implementation intention manipulation to examine the effects of these plans in interaction with perfectionism on the progress of New Year's resolutions. Study 2 added a repeated implementation intention condition and monitored affect and monthly goal progress. The results of both studies revealed a significant backfire effect of the implementation intentions on goal progress for participants high on a particular dimension of perfectionism (socially prescribed perfectionism). These perfectionists reported doing significantly worse at reaching their personal goals when they were asked to formulate implementation intentions than when they completed a control exercise. There also was evidence that implementation planning aroused negative affect for socially prescribed perfectionists. These results are the first to suggest that implementation planning may be contra-indicated for individuals with self-critical tendencies.

  3. The readiness potential reflects intentional binding

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Han-Gue; Wittmann, Marc; Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    When a voluntary action is causally linked with a sensory outcome, the action and its consequent effect are perceived as being closer together in time. This effect is called intentional binding. Although many experiments were conducted on this phenomenon, the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. While intentional binding is specific to voluntary action, we presumed that preconscious brain activity (the readiness potential, RP), which occurs before an action is made, might play an important role in this binding effect. In this study, the brain dynamics were recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) and analyzed in single-trials in order to estimate whether intentional binding is correlated with the early neural processes. Moreover, we were interested in different behavioral performance between meditators and non-meditators since meditators are expected to be able to keep attention more consistently on a task. Thus, we performed the intentional binding paradigm with 20 mindfulness meditators and compared them to matched controls. Although, we did not observe a group effect on either behavioral data or EEG recordings, we found that self-initiated movements following ongoing negative deflections of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) result in a stronger binding effect compared to positive potentials, especially regarding the perceived time of the consequent effect. Our results provide the first direct evidence that the early neural activity within the range of SCPs affects perceived time of a sensory outcome that is caused by intentional action. PMID:24959135

  4. The Mixed Plate: A Field Experience on the Cultural and Environmental Diversity of the Big Island of Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.; Fujimoto-Strait, Ava R.

    2017-01-01

    The intent of this paper was to outline a field endeavor that encourages increased insight into important geographic themes pertaining to the Big Island of Hawai'i. Student participants in this field course come away with an enhanced comprehension and appreciation of the benefits associated with learning to incorporate geographical perspectives as…

  5. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  6. Geohydrology of Enewetak Atoll islands and reefs

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-05-06

    Extensive tidal studies in island wells and the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll have shown that island ground water dynamics are controlled by a layered aquifer system. The surface aquifer of unconsolidated Holocene material extends to a depth of approximately 15 m, and has a hydraulic conductivity K = 60 m/day. From 15 to 60 m (approximate lagoon depth) the reef structure consists of successive layers of altered Pleistocene materials, with bulk permeability substantially higher than that of the surface aquifer. Because of wave set-up over the windward reef and the limited pass area for outflow at the south end of the atoll, lagoon tides rise in phase with the ocean tides but fall later than the ocean water level. This results in a net lagoon-to-ocean head which can act as the driving force for outflow through the permeable Pleistocene aquifer. This model suggests that fresh water, nutrients or radioactive contaminants found in island ground water or reef interstitial water may be discharged primarily into the ocean rather than the lagoon. Atoll island fresh water resources are controlled by recharge, seawater dilution due to vertical tidal mixing between the surface and deeper aquifers, and by loss due to entrainment by the outflowing water in the deeper aquifers. Estimated lagoon-ot-ocean transit times through the deep aquifer are on the order of a few years, which corresponds well to the freshwater residence time estimates based on inventory and recharge. Islands in close proximity to reef channels have more fresh ground water than others, which is consistent with a locally reduced hydraulic gradient and slower flow through the Pleistocene aquifers.

  7. Self-Organizing Systems Show Apparent Intentionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschacher, Wolfganfg; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre; Haken, Hermann

    Cognitive science is frequently confronted with mind-body issues—is there a way by which the mentalist and the physical approaches to cognition can be integrated? Can the intentional attributes of mind be understood in physical terms? We propose that synergetics, the theory of nonlinear complex systems, offers steps towards a possible solution to this notorious problem. In particular, we claim that an essential property of self-organized pattern formation lies in its functionality, i.e. the ability to respond and adapt 'meaningfully' to environmental constraints. Patterns become functional because they consume the gradients that caused their evolution, and, in addition, they consume them in the most efficient manner. This makes synergetic pattern formation appear 'intentional'. Therefore, we suggest that self-organization phenomena may be considered basic explanations of the adaptive, intentional, and purposive behavior of many complex systems, in particular cognitive systems.

  8. Latino Immigrants’ Intentions to Seek Depression Care

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role that illness perceptions, attitudes toward depression treatments, and subjective norms played in Latino immigrants’ intentions to seek depression care. Ninety-five Latino immigrant patients were presented a vignette depicting an individual with major depression and interviewed about their intentions to seek care if confronted with a similar situation. Patients’ preferences were to rely on informal sources of care first, and then turn to formal sources to cope with depression. Findings showed Latinos immigrants’ help-seeking intentions for depression were a function of their views of depression, attitudes toward their doctors’ interpersonal skills, and social norms related to seeking professional care after controlling for demographics, health insurance status, acculturation, clinical characteristics, perceived barriers to care, and past service use. PMID:17535121

  9. The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Fregel, Rosa; Pestano, Jose; Arnay, Matilde; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, Jose M; González, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands. PMID:19337312

  10. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  11. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  12. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  13. Rate of thermal transitions in kagome spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liashko, S. Y.; Uzdin, V. M.; Jónsson, H.

    2016-08-01

    The rate of thermal transitions in a kagome spin ice element is calculated using harmonic transition state theory for magnetic systems. Each element consists of six prolate magnetic islands. Minimum energy paths on the multidimensional energy surface are found to estimate activation energy. Vibrational frequencies are also calculated to estimate the rate of the various transitions. An overall transition rate between equivalent ground states is calculated by using the stationary state approximation including all possible transition paths. The resulting transition rate is in a good agreement with experimentally measured lifetime.

  14. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

  15. Differences between intentional and non-intentional burns in India: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Mangai

    2014-08-01

    Non-intentional and deliberate burns in India and other developing countries present particular challenges of prevention and treatment. This exploratory study sought improved understanding of burns in order to inform treatment and prevention. It gathered data in 2011/2012 on burns from the hospital registry (N=768) of a government hospital in India and from interviews with women patients (N=60) admitted to the burns ward. Analysis indicated that: (1) the conditions that facilitate intentional and non-intentional burns are similar, but intentional burns involve additional contributory factors; (2) a high proportion of patients subjected to burns are young women in domestic situations; and (3) a higher proportion of their TBSA was burned, with consequent higher mortality than for men. It was concluded that: (1) Haddon's matrix and the situational crime prevention framework of criminology assist in understanding the etiology of intentional burns and in identifying preventive measures; (2) social service and criminal justice agencies have important roles in dealing with victims of intentional burns during and after treatment; (3) full account should be taken of gender-related physical, psychological and family factors in planning treatment; and (4) maintaining careful records of burns cases is vital for estimating the prevalence and incidence of intentional injuries.

  16. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    PubMed Central

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J. Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention–behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (“If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!”). It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  17. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  18. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  19. Prince Edward Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  20. Magnetic-island formation

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

  1. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  2. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  3. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  5. Intention or Experience? Predictors of Continued Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGirolamo, Ann; Thompson, Nancy; Martorell, Reynaldo; Fein, Sara; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of breastfeeding, many women do not breastfeed their infants or stop breastfeeding early. This study examines the effects of prenatal intention and initial breastfeeding experiences on breast-feeding initiation and duration among 1,665 U.S. women completing questionnaires on infant feeding practices. Outcomes included no…

  6. Awareness, Knowledge and Intentions for Postgraduate Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university administrators, academics and marketers expend time and financial resources promoting postgraduate study options, yet scant scholarly research has addressed students' attraction to postgraduate study. This study examines awareness and knowledge of, and intentions to pursue postgraduate study from the perspective of current…

  7. Using Mobile Learning: Determinates Impacting Behavioral Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factors or determinates that impact the behavioral intention of students to use mobile learning (m-learning) technology. These determinates include performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and self-management of learning, all mediated by age, gender, or both. Regression coefficients showed strong and significant…

  8. Understanding Gender, Creativity, and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ronda Marie; Sardeshmukh, Shruti R.; Combs, Gwendolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the complex relationships between gender and entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two study design where the second study is a constructive replication of the first study. The first study uses a cross-sectional design, while the second uses a design where data…

  9. The "Kind Intentions Program": Educator Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannock, Michelle T.

    2009-01-01

    The "Kind Intentions Program" (KIP) was developed in a childcare facility in an effort to encourage children to engage in kind acts. In addition to support for displays of kindness, the programme encourages children to engage in perspective taking skills as they observe the actions of those around them. This study involved the identification of…

  10. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.

  11. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

  12. Cognitive Aging: Activity Patterns and Maintenance Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, K. J.; Gilhooly, M. L.; Phillips, L. H.; Harvey, D.; Murray, A.; Hanlon, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between cognitive functioning in older people and (1) levels of mental, physical and social activities, and (2) intentions regarding maintenance of cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 145) were 70-91 years of age, varied in health status and socio-economic backgrounds. Current cognitive functioning was…

  13. Intentionality in a Creative Art Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluigi, Dina Zoe

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights inadequacies of a creative arts curriculum that claimed to have been informed by postmodern theories, without careful consideration of how these might or should impact on teaching and learning interactions. In particular, the relationship between intentionality and interpretation addressed in this case study is of concern for…

  14. Verbal Imitation Is Based on Intention Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Over, Harriet; Gattis, Merideth

    2010-01-01

    Using an elicited imitation paradigm, we investigated whether young children imitate the communicative intentions behind speech. Previous research using elicited imitation has shown that children tend to correct ungrammatical sentences. This finding is usually interpreted as evidence that children, like adults, remember and reproduce the gist of…

  15. The Effect of Context on Communicative Intent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lougeay-Mottinger, Janice; And Others

    This study examined the effect of various intervention contexts on the ability of young children (ages 3 and 4 years) with language impairments to effectively direct communications to a partner and to vary communicative intentions. The six children in the study were either nonverbal or in the early stages of developing verbal communication and all…

  16. Making Connections: Intentional Teaching for Integrative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Bettie, Ed.; Kilcommins, Shane, Ed.; Ryan, Tony, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In this volume the authors document examples of programmes/courses/activities that are designed intentionally to build students' capacity to be integrative thinkers and learners. In doing so they try to analyse and name the learning that is taking place, and so make it visible to the reader. The work is intended as a resource for all those…

  17. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  18. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  19. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  20. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  1. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  2. Good Intentions, Bad Advice for Bilingual Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlin, Rebecca; Paneque, Oneyda M.

    2006-01-01

    Quite often, educators tell families of children who are learning English as a second language to speak only English, and not their native language, at home. Although these educators may have good intentions, the authors argue that the educators' advice to families is misguided and stems from misunderstandings about the nature of bilingualism and…

  3. Cultural diversity: the intention of nursing.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John; Archibald, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Nursing in the United States has expressed its intention of being a professional discipline that is culturally diverse. However, after examining the progress in this area, it is evident that nursing's movement toward cultural diversity has been slow and episodic. This article addresses cultural diversity progress in nursing and explores behaviors and actions that could enhance the cultural diversity of nursing.

  4. Entrepreneurial Intention among Nigerian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Aliyu Dahiru; Aliyu, Sirajo; Ahmed, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurial intention (EI) is one of the major contributing factors to the formation, growth and development of entrepreneurship. It promotes self reliance and brings about initiatives. Entrepreneurship on the other hand, has been considered as an engine of growth for economic growth and development of developed and emerging economies.…

  5. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  6. Moving to the Center: Disorientation and Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja; Niemczyk, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Maja Wilson and Michael Niemczyk advocate turning away from mandated writing toward learning environments that honor the messy, inner life of the writer. They explain the importance of disorientation in that it unsettles but nurtures the emerging intention of student writers, and they stress the need to return our attention to the heart and center…

  7. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  8. Bullying Behaviour, Intentions and Classroom Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryce, Sarah; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    Anti-bullying commitment across school communities is seen as crucial to the effectiveness of interventions. This exploratory study used a mixed-methods design to investigate bullying behaviour, intentions and aspects of the classroom ecology within the context of an anti-bullying initiative that was launched with a declaration of commitment.…

  9. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  10. Counselor Intentions in Individual and Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Kivlighan, Mary Clayton

    2004-01-01

    Despite equivalent outcomes, group and individual treatments appear to differ in the therapeutic processes, specifically therapist activity and client impacts. Building on this literature, the authors examined differences in therapist-identified intentions in group and individual treatments. On the basis of I. D. Yalom's (1995) writings,…

  11. Attribution of Hostile Intent in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Barbara S.; Altrocchi, John

    1969-01-01

    Presents a selective literary analysis, including Melville, Shakespeare, J. P. Donleavy, Truman Capote, Dostoevsky, Emily Bronte, Ken Kesey and John Knowles, that attempts to show which types of people attribute hostile intent to which other types of people under which conditions. (MB)

  12. Internships in SMEs and Career Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The literature on internships (also placements) emphasises their importance in career development, even seeing them as a launch pad for graduate careers. Indeed, universities use internships to enable students to develop a range of skills and to help clarify and refine employment intentions and career goals. Traditionally, most internships have…

  13. Intentional change, intrinsic motivations, and goal generation.

    PubMed

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Moderato, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Wilson et al. draw our attention to the problem of a science of intentional change. We stress the connection between their approach and existing paradigms for learning and goal generation that have been developed in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and psychology. These paradigms outline the structural principles of a domain-general and teleologically open agent.

  14. 46 CFR 183.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Provisions § 183.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of electrical equipment and systems including power sources, lighting,...

  15. 46 CFR 183.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Provisions § 183.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of electrical equipment and systems including power sources, lighting,...

  16. Description of deaths on Easter Island, 2000-2012 period.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Eduardo Francisco; Saint-Pierre, Gustavo Enrique; Yaikin, Pabla Javiera; Meier, Martina Jose

    2014-01-01

    Easter Island is a small island of 180 km2, located 3,800 km from the Chilean coast and one of the most isolated inhabited places in the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, it has been undergoing an epidemiological transition in relation to the causes of death, from a predominance of infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular ailments and cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the causes of death to Easter Island between 2000 and 2012, so the statistical records of Hanga Roa Hospital and death certificates were reviewed. The period under review of 13 years there was a total of 252 deaths, an average to 19.3 deaths per year. The most frequent causes of death found in the general population of Easter Island were cardiovascular diseases (25.4%), followed by neoplasms (23.4%), accidents (18.6%). Related to Rapa Nui people, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases (both 26.7%) predominate, while in the population without belonging to the ethnic group the main causes were traumatic (25%) and cardiovascular (22.2%). Comparing the leading causes of death of Easter Island with mainland Chile, it can be seen how they resemble. Taking the island death profile, it is necessary to work on public health strategies aimed to this, considering that some of the causes are completely preventable.

  17. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  18. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. Understanding entrepreneurial intent in late adolescence: the role of intentional self-regulation and innovation.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, G John; Weiner, Michelle; Agans, Jennifer P; Mueller, Megan K; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship represents a form of adaptive developmental regulation through which both entrepreneurs and their ecologies benefit. We describe entrepreneurship from the perspective of relational developmental systems theory, and examine the joint role of personal attributes, contextual attributes, and characteristics of person-context relationships in predicting entrepreneurial intent in a sample 3,461 college students enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States (60 % female; 61 % European American). Specifically, we tested whether personal characteristics (i.e., gender, intentional self-regulation skills, innovation orientation) and contextual factors (i.e., entrepreneurial parents) predicted college students' intentions to pursue an entrepreneurial career. Our findings suggest that self-regulation, innovation orientation, and having entrepreneurial role models (i.e., parents) predict entrepreneurial intent. Limitations and future directions for the study of youth entrepreneurship are discussed.

  20. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception

    PubMed Central

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T.; Malone, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand’s perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications. PMID:24403815

  1. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception.

    PubMed

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T; Malone, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand's perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications.

  2. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: the Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 gm(-2)year(-1) of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may exist.

  3. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  4. 40 CFR 1508.22 - Notice of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of intent. 1508.22 Section 1508.22 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.22 Notice of intent. Notice of intent means a notice that an environmental impact statement will be...

  5. A Cross-Cultural Approach to Understanding Entrepreneurial Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriano, Juan A.; Gorgievski, Marjan; Laguna, Mariola; Stephan, Ute; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2012-01-01

    The current research aims to shed light on the role of culture in the formation of career intentions. It draws on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen), which has been widely employed to predict intentions, including entrepreneurial career intentions, but past research has almost exclusively been conducted in "Western" countries.…

  6. Cues to Intention: The Role of Movement Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Castiello, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    Body movement provides a rich source of cues about other people's goals and intentions. In the present research, we investigate how well people can distinguish between different social intentions on the basis of movement information. Participants observed a model reaching toward and grasping a wooden block with the intent to cooperate with a…

  7. 29 CFR 825.311 - Intent to return to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intent to return to work. 825.311 Section 825.311 Labor... Intent to return to work. (a) An employer may require an employee on FMLA leave to report periodically on the employee's status and intent to return to work. The employer's policy regarding such reports...

  8. 8 CFR 1003.105 - Notice of Intent to Discipline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of Intent to Discipline. 1003.105... and Procedures § 1003.105 Notice of Intent to Discipline. (a) Issuance of Notice to practitioner. (1... subject of the preliminary inquiry a Notice of Intent to Discipline. Service of this notice will be...

  9. The Effects of Alcohol on Intentions to Drink and Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Tara K.; And Others

    If people in a normal, baseline state are asked about certain behaviors, such as drinking and driving, they are likely to report negative intentions; however, the context within which intentions are assessed may significantly affect the relationship among attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Male undergraduates who completed a questionnaire about…

  10. Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Entremont, Barbara; Yazbek, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an experimenter demonstrated either an "intentional" and an "accidental" action or two "intentional" actions on the same toy [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello ("1998a") "Infant Behavior and Development, 21," 315-330]. CWA tended…

  11. 8 CFR 334.11 - Declaration of intention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATURALIZATION § 334.11 Declaration of intention. (a) Application. Any person who is a lawful permanent resident over 18 years of age may file an application for a declaration of intention to become a citizen of the... filed on Form N-300. (b) Approval. If approved, the application for the declaration of intention, page...

  12. A Review of "Suicidal Intent" within the Existing Suicide Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasley, Joseph P.; Ghosh, Biswadip; Huggins, Joseph; Bell, Missy R.; Adler, Lawrence E.; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

    2008-01-01

    The results of a systematic literature review that investigated suicide intent are presented. Of the 44 relevant articles identified, 17 investigated the relationships between various suicide risk factors and suicide intent and 25 publications investigated the relationships between suicide intent and various suicide outcomes. Despite recent…

  13. 76 FR 58047 - Notice of Intent to Grant Exclusive License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Intent to Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of intent to grant partially exclusive license. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i). NASA hereby gives notice of its intent to grant...

  14. Transition metals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals such as Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu) are essential for plant cell development. At the same time, due their capability to generate hydroxyl radicals they can be potentially toxic to plant metabolism. Recent works on hydroxyl-radical activation of ion transporters suggest that hydroxyl radicals generated by transition metals could play an important role in plant growth and adaptation to imbalanced environments. In this mini-review, the relation between transition metals uptake and utilization and oxidative stress-activated ion transport in plant cells is analyzed, and a new model depicting both apoplastic and cytosolic mode of ROS signaling to plasma membrane transporters is suggested. PMID:23333964

  15. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  16. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  17. Exam Preparation: The Influence of Action Control, Procrastination and Examination Experience on Students' Goal Intention and Implementation Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the intention-behavior-gap analysis in relation to exam preparation I examined whether intention--subdivided into goal and implementation intention--is influenced directly by the determinants action control, procrastination and examination experience which is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior and…

  18. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall...

  19. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors

    PubMed Central

    Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the U.S. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors’ substance use disorder impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors’ work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20947285

  20. Automatic recognition of malicious intent indicators.

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, D. J.; Yee, Mark L.; Giron, Casey; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Hung D.; Koch, Mark William

    2010-09-01

    A major goal of next-generation physical protection systems is to extend defenses far beyond the usual outer-perimeter-fence boundaries surrounding protected facilities. Mitigation of nuisance alarms is among the highest priorities. A solution to this problem is to create a robust capability to Automatically Recognize Malicious Indicators of intruders. In extended defense applications, it is not enough to distinguish humans from all other potential alarm sources as human activity can be a common occurrence outside perimeter boundaries. Our approach is unique in that it employs a stimulus to determine a malicious intent indicator for the intruder. The intruder's response to the stimulus can be used in an automatic reasoning system to decide the intruder's intent.

  1. Intentional parenthood: responsibilities in surrogate motherhood.

    PubMed

    Van Zyl, Liezl

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a number of writers dealing with questions over parenthood that arise in the context of reproductive technologies and surrogate motherhood, have appealed to the notion of "intentional parenthood". Basing their argument on liberal values such as individual autonomy, the freedom to enter contracts, the right to privacy, and individual self-fulfilment, they argue that contractually stated intentions, rather than genetic or gestational relationships, should form the basis of parental rights. Against this I argue that parental rights do not derive from contractual agreements, but are based in their obligations towards the child. I then examine the nature of the obligations that the various parties have towards the child both pre- and postnatally.

  2. Cooper pair islanding model of insulating nanohoneycomb films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollen, S. M.; Rudisaile, E.; Shainline, J.; Xu, J. M.; Valles, J. M., Jr.

    2012-02-01

    Nanohoneycomb (NHC) amorphous Bi thin films, made by thermal evaporation onto substrates that contain a nanometer-scale array of holes and regular surface height variations, exhibit an insulating phase of localized Cooper pairs. Recently, we described how thickness variations induced by the substrate height variations can give rise to superconducting island formation.ootnotetextHollen et. al., Phys. Rev. B, 84(6), August 2011. This work is supported by the AAUW, the NSF through Grant No. DMR-0605797 and No. DMR-0907357, by the AFRL, and by the ONR. Here, we will present an extension of this analysis to suggest how the island sizes evolve through the magnetic field-driven superconductor-insulator transition. Using this islanding picture, we will discuss the applicability of a granular array model to explain the appearance and behavior of the CPI phase in these films. Finally, we will discuss recent experimental tests of this proposal for thickness-undulation-driven Cooper pair localization.

  3. Migration transition in small Northern and Eastern Caribbean states.

    PubMed

    Mcelroy, J L; De Albuquerque, K

    1988-01-01

    1 area of intra-Caribbean migration that has been overlooked is the "migration transition"--the transformation of rapidly modernizing societies from net labor exporters to net labor importers. This article assembles 8 case studies to 1) briefly present a spectrum of migration experiences in the Caribbean, 2) uncover some transitions under way, 3) pinpoint the forces that underlie the migration transition, and 4) point out some of the more important policy implications of labor migration reversals. The 8 island societies sampled for illustration purposes include 1) the Bahamas and the US Virgin Islands as post-migration transition societies (Zelinsky's advanced society), 2) the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands as undergoing transition (Zelinsky's late transitional society), and 3) Anguilla, St. Kitts-Nevis, Turks and Caicos, and Montserrat as premigration transition societies (Zelinsky's early transitional society). Population data for the islands were derived primarily from the West Indian censuses and government statistics. These 8 historical sketches reveal certain commonalities. All are at various stages in a long-term economic restructuring to displace traditional staple crops with more income elastic, high value export services. In such societies, population growth and progress along the migration transition is an increasing function of this kind of successful export substitution. In addition, along the migration and economic transitions, such insular economies exhibit a relatively large public sector (20-30% of all activity), declining unemployment, increasing fiscal autonomy, and are committed to a development strategy remarkably similar to the "successful" model of the Bahamas and the US Virgin Islands. Cursory evidence suggests that, because of intersectoral competition for land and labor, there is an inverse relationship between farm effort/manufacturing employment and tourism intensity. This review suggests that small islands undergoing

  4. Machine Understanding of Human Implicit Intention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-18

    Cognitive Neurodynamics , Hokkaido, Japan, June 2011, Hokkaido, Japan (Plenary Talk) - Soo-Young Lee, Implicit Intention Recognition and Hierarchical...subject’s response with the accuracy of about 80% by SVM. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Brain Science and Engineering; Cognitive Neuroscience; Human-Computer...oscillations have been related to a variety of functions such as perception, cognition , sleep, etc. For a long time, researchers have found the sensory and

  5. Environmental Impact Assessments: Congressional Intent Versus Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Sprankle U.S. Department of Energy Faculty Research Advisor Dr. Robert Copaken The Industrial College of the Armed Forces National Defense...Impact Assessments: Congressional Intent Versus Application Kenneth A. Sprankle U.S. Department of Energy Faculty Research Advisor Dr. Robert Copaken The...before them. This conference generated a flood of legislation. Then, in February, 1969, Representative John Dingell (D-MI) introduced H.R.6750 (later

  6. Measuring intention in language learning: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mei-Hsia; Tseng, Wen-Ta

    2011-06-01

    Intention in language learning has not been studied effectively in research on second language (L2) learning. The goal is to fill this gap by designing and testing a measure of L2 learning intention. The scale was differentiated into two distinct but correlated components, goal intention and implementation intention, within the L2 context. The two intention scales were examined for reliability and validity using a series of standard psychometric procedures. A confirmatory factor model was then constructed and tested with a sample of 333 senior high school and college students. The results showed that a modified model had good psychometric characteristics and reasonable fit to the data.

  7. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  8. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  9. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  10. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  11. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  12. Nutrition communication: consumer perceptions and predicting intentions.

    PubMed

    Dean, Moira; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Shepherd, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Health claims on food products, which aim at informing the public about the health benefits of the product, represent one type of nutrition communication; the use of these is regulated by the European Union. This paper provides an overview of the research on health claims, including consumers' perceptions of such claims and their intention to buy products that carry health-related claims. This is followed by a discussion on the results from some recent studies investigating public perceptions and willingness to use products with health claims. In these studies, claims are presented in the form of messages of different lengths, types, framing, with and without qualifying words and symbols. They also investigate how perceptions and intentions are affected by individual needs and product characteristics. Results show that adding health claims to products does increase their perceived healthiness. Claim structure was found to make a difference to perceptions, but its influence depended on the level of relevance, familiarity and individuals' need for information. Further, the type of health benefit proposed and the base product used also affected perceptions of healthiness. The paper concludes that while healthiness perceptions relating to products with health claims may vary between men and women, old and young and between countries, the main factor influencing perceived healthiness and intention to buy a product with health claim is personal relevance.

  13. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galápagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Victor; Donlan, C Josh; Campbell, Karl J; Lavoie, Christian; Cruz, Felipe

    2011-05-11

    Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short-term, and is being

  14. Spontaneous healing and growth of locked magnetic island chains in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.

    2012-11-15

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that locked magnetic island chains in stellarator plasmas spontaneously heal under certain conditions, and spontaneously grow under others. A formalism initially developed to study magnetic island dynamics in tokamak plasmas is employed to investigate this phenomenon. It is found that island healing/growth transitions can be caused either by a breakdown in torque balance in the vicinity of the island chain, or by an imbalance between the various terms in the island width evolution equation. The scaling of the healing/growth thresholds with the standard dimensionless plasma parameters {beta}, {nu}{sub *}, and {rho}{sub *} is determined. In accordance with the experimental data, it is found that island healing generally occurs at high {beta} and low {nu}{sub *}, and island growth at low {beta} and high {nu}{sub *}. In further agreement, it is found that island healing is accompanied an ion poloidal velocity shift in the electron diamagnetic direction, and island growth by a velocity shift in the ion diamagnetic direction. Finally, it is found that there is considerable hysteresis in the healing/growth cycle, as is also seen experimentally.

  15. Spatial localization of resistive drift wave structure in tokamak edge plasmas with an embedded magnetic island

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shilin; Qu, Hongpeng; Li, Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2014-10-15

    Resistive drift wave instability is investigated numerically in tokamak edge plasma confined by sheared slab magnetic field geometry with an embedded magnetic island. The focus is on the structural characteristics of eigenmode inside the island, where the density profile tends to be flattened. A transition of the dominant eigenmode occurs around a critical island width w{sub c}. For thin islands with a width below w{sub c}, two global long wavelength eigenmodes with approximately the same growth rate but different eigenfrequency are excited, which are stabilized by the magnetic island through two-dimensional mode coupling in both x and y (corresponding to radial and poloidal in tokamak) directions. On the other hand, a short wavelength eigenmode, which is destabilized by thick islands with a width above w{sub c}, dominates the edge fluctuation, showing a prominent structural localization in the region between the X-point and the O-point of the magnetic island. The main destabilization mechanism is identified as the mode coupling in the y direction, which is similar to the so-called toroidal coupling in tokamak plasmas. These three eigenmodes may coexist in the drift wave fluctuation for the island with a width around w{sub c}. It is demonstrated that the structural localization results mainly from the quasilinear flattening of density profile inside the magnetic island.

  16. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  17. A Cognitive-Social Model of Fertility Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, Christine A.; Morgan, S. Philip

    2014-01-01

    We examine the use and value of fertility intentions against the backdrop of theory and research in the cognitive and social sciences. First, we draw on recent brain and cognition research to contextualize fertility intentions within a broader set of conscious and unconscious mechanisms that contribute to mental function. Next, we integrate this research with social theory. Our conceptualizations suggest that people do not necessarily have fertility intentions; they form them only when prompted by specific situations. Intention formation draws on the current situation and on schemas of childbearing and parenthood learned through previous experience, imbued by affect, and organized by self-representation. Using this conceptualization, we review apparently discordant knowledge about the value of fertility intentions in predicting fertility. Our analysis extends and deepens existing explanations for the weak predictive validity of fertility intentions at the individual level and provides a social-cognitive explanation for why intentions predict as well as they do. When focusing on the predictive power of intentions at the aggregate level, our conceptualizations lead us to focus on how social structures frustrate or facilitate intentions and how the structural environment contributes to the formation of reported intentions in the first place. Our analysis suggests that existing measures of fertility intentions are useful but to varying extents and in many cases despite their failure to capture what they seek to measure. PMID:25132695

  18. Transparency of intentions decreases privacy concerns in ubiquitous surveillance.

    PubMed

    Oulasvirta, Antti; Suomalainen, Tiia; Hamari, Juho; Lampinen, Airi; Karvonen, Kristiina

    2014-10-01

    An online experiment (n=1,897) was carried out to understand how data disclosure practices in ubiquitous surveillance affect users' privacy concerns. Information about the identity and intentions of a data collector was manipulated in hypothetical surveillance scenarios. Privacy concerns were found to differ across the scenarios and moderated by knowledge about the collector's identity and intentions. Knowledge about intentions exhibited a stronger effect. When no information about intentions was disclosed, the respondents postulated negative intentions. A positive effect was found for disclosing neutral intentions of an organization or unknown data collector, but not for a private data collector. The findings underline the importance of disclosing intentions of data use to users in an easily understandable manner.

  19. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  20. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  1. Scaling properties of rainfall and desert dust in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñate, I.; Martín-González, J. M.; Rodríguez, G.; Cianca, A.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation and desert dust event occurrence time series measured in the Canary Islands region are examined with the primary intention of exploring their scaling characteristics as well as their spatial variability in terms of the island's topography and geographical orientation. In particular, the desert dust intrusion regime in the islands is studied in terms of its relationship with visibility. Analysis of dust and rainfall events over the archipelago exhibits distributions in time that obey power laws. Results show that the rain process presents a high clustering and irregular pattern on short timescales and a more scattered structure for long ones. In contrast, dustiness presents a more uniform and dense structure and, consequently, a more persistent behaviour on short timescales. It was observed that the fractal dimension of rainfall events shows an important spatial variability, which increases with altitude, as well as towards northern latitudes and western longitudes.

  2. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  3. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  4. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  5. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  7. Growth morphology and thermal stability of metal islands on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Hupalo, Myron; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Lu, Wen-Cai; Thiel, Patricia A.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Tringides, Michael C.

    2012-08-01

    We performed an experiment to study the thermal stability of metal on graphene. We show that Fe, Gd, Dy, and Eu on graphene exhibit island growth morphology. The 3D islands of Fe, Gd, and Dy show a small decrease in island density and an increase in the height/width aspect ratio upon thermal annealing. By contrast, coarsening of Eu islands to a close flat film is observed after annealing to 365 K. By investigating the fundamental interactions (i.e., adsorption energies and diffusion barriers) between the metal adatoms and graphene using ab initio calculations, we predict that most of the 3d and group 10 transition metals, noble metals, as well as rare earth metals on graphene should exhibit a 3D growth mode as observed in experiment. Most of the metal nanostructures on graphene should also be stable against aggregation. The 3D morphology and strong thermal stability of Fe, Co, Ni, Pt, and Gd islands on graphene can serve as good candidates for surface-supported catalysis applications.

  8. Experiencing the Transition from an Apprenticeship to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dismore, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    It is the intention of the UK government to enhance progression routes for apprentices to higher education. However, little research has been carried out into why former apprentices pursue higher education or the experiences of this transition. This paper seeks to redress this gap by reporting three case studies of former apprentices who had…

  9. Transition for Teenagers with Intellectual Disability: Carers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Watson, Joanna; Barrett, Mary; Raju, Bala; Burton, Tracey; Forte, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Teenagers with intellectual disabilities (ID) have significantly more health problems than the rest of the population and many encounter difficulties accessing the services they need during the transition from children's to adult services. A multidisciplinary, interagency study was carried out in one area of the UK with the intent to estimate the…

  10. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  11. The submental island flap.

    PubMed

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  12. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  13. Rain on small tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  14. Geomorphology of Two Seamounts Offshore Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    comprise a transitional to mildly alkaline basalt -hawiite- mugearite-benmoreite-trachyte-rhyolite series lava flows, trachytic domes, scoria cones...age from 1.2 Ma to 0.56 Ma, mafic volcanic rocks range from 0.47 Ma to 0.12 Ma, and basaltic dikes are 0.80 Ma [11]. There have been no historic...hundred million years [28]. The isotopic combinations for Ascension Island are also significantly distinct from MAR basalt samples and 40

  15. Pacific Islanders' Concerns: The Tongan Family in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funaki, Inoke F.

    Three areas of concern relative to Tongan Americans' acculturation to the United States are the focus of this paper. First, Tongan Americans believe that a high school education is sufficient. Although Tongan families come to the United States in the name of education, once they are here their objectives change. Seeing that high school graduates…

  16. Immediate effects of plain packaging health warnings on quitting intention and potential mediators: Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Natalie; Eid, Michael; Schüz, Benjamin; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the immediate, everyday impact of health warnings on cigarette packages on potential smoking cessation mediators and to test for differences in immediate reactions to branded and plain tobacco packaging during the transition phase when plain packs where first introduced in Australia. Two Ecological Momentary Assessment studies tested whether smokers report higher risk appraisals, self-efficacy, and quitting intentions immediately after seeing a warning compared to random times of the day (Study 1), and whether smoking from plain packs results in higher quitting intention, risk appraisal, and self-efficacy than smoking from branded packs (Study 2). There was no immediate increase in self-efficacy, risk appraisal, or intention after encountering health warnings, and no differences in cognitions when using plain compared with branded packs. Moreover, cognitions were not different when warnings were encountered in proximity to smoking compared to nonsmoking events. However, self-efficacy and risk appraisal were significantly associated with quitting intention. Current health warnings do not seem to have an immediate impact on important predictors of quitting intention and might benefit from including messages that place a stronger focus on increasing smokers' confidence that they can quit. Replication of the results with larger sample and cluster sizes is warranted.

  17. A United Methodist approach to end-of-life decisions: intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions.

    PubMed

    Thobaben, James R

    1997-12-01

    The position of the United Methodist Church on end-of-life decisions is best described as intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions or both. The paper analyzes the official position of the denomination and then considers the actions of a U.M.C. bishop who served as a foreman for a trial of Dr. Jack Kevorkian. In an effort to find some common ground within an increasingly divided denomination, the work concludes with a consideration of the work of John Wesley and his approach to human death.

  18. Nuclear power beyond Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.

    1980-05-01

    At the Three Mile Island-2 Reactor accident in March, 1979, there was concern expressed over a chemical explosion that might rupture the containment vessel and release radioactive material. The absolute worst possible event that could take place at a nuclear power plant would be a melt-down that breached the containment vessel and allowed radioactive material to escape, but this absolute worst possible case would create less cost and loss of life than many natural disasters. When the anti-nukes talk about a nuclear power plant devastating an area the size of Pennsylvania or California, and leaving a vast wasteland for 10,000 years, they are being grossly dishonest, for even at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where we exploded weapons with the intent of massive destruction, the area has been completely restored and repopulated. The only major threat from nuclear power plant accidents is radiation. The average radiation dose received by every American each year is 170 millirems-130 from natural radiation and 40 millirems from man-made sources. A summary of the risks encountered from the combustion of coal, watching TV, diagnostic x-rays, dams collapsing, etc. making the risk level from nuclear radiation much smaller than most secular activities, is given.

  19. The Case for an Integrated Approach to Transition Programmes at South Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dallin George

    2016-01-01

    This paper advocates an integrated approach to transition programmes at South Africa's higher education institutions through drawing on the US literature on the first-year student experience and specific reference to behavioural interaction theory. The case for developing intentional and vertically integrated transition programmes is tied to: the…

  20. Presidential Transitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-09

    Podesta for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, “Presidential Transition Guidance,” Nov. 13, 2000. 89 U.S. General Services Administration...2000, presidential election, White House Chief of Staff John Podesta issued a November 13, 2000, memorandum to executive branch agencies stating that

  1. Tessellations & Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes two sixth-grade lessons on the work of M. C. Escher: (1) the first lesson instructs students on tessellations, or tiles that interlock in a repeated pattern; (2) the second lesson explores Escher's drawings of transitions from two- to three-dimensional space. (DSK)

  2. VIM: A Platform for Violent Intent Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Schryver, Jack C.; Whitney, Paul D.; Augustenborg, Elsa C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-03-31

    Radical and contentious political/religious activism may or may not evolve into violent behavior depending on contextual factors related to social, political, cultural and infrastructural conditions. Significant theoretical advances have been made in understanding these contextual factors and the import of their interrelations. However, there has been relative little progress in the development of processes and capabilities which leverage such theoretical advances to automate the anticipatory analysis of violent intent. In this paper, we describe a framework which implements such processes and capabilities, and discuss the implications of using the resulting system to assess the emergence of radicalization leading to violence.

  3. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  4. Evolution of strain and composition of Ge islands on Si (001) grown by molecular beam epitaxy during postgrowth annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, R. K.; Das, S.; Majumdar, S.; Das, K.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S. K.

    2008-06-01

    Self-assembled Ge islands have been grown using a Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism on Si (001) substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. We performed time varying annealing experiments at a representative temperature of 650 deg. C to study the shape and size evolution of islands for a relatively high Ge coverage. Islands are found to coarsen due to heat treatment via structural and compositional changes through continuous strain relaxation. Different island morphologies, namely, 'pyramids', 'transitional domes', and 'domes' are found during the annealing sequence. The dominant coarsening mechanisms for the temporal evolution of islands of as-grown and annealed samples are explained by the comprehensive analysis of Rutherford back scattering, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. A correlation of the morphological evolution with the composition and strain relaxation of grown islands is presented.

  5. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  6. Furnishing hypnotic instructions with implementation intentions enhances hypnotic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Pfau, Florian; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Forming implementation intentions has been consistently shown to be a powerful self-regulatory strategy. As the self-regulation of thoughts is important for the experience of involuntariness in the hypnotic context, investigating the effectiveness of implementation intentions on the suppression of thoughts was the focus of the present study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (hypnotic instruction plus implementation intention, hypnotic instruction, implementation intention, and control condition). Results showed that participants who received information included in the "Carleton Skill Training Program" and in addition formed implementation intentions improved their hypnotic responsiveness as compared to all of the other three groups on measures of objective responding and involuntary responding. Thus, in line with the nonstate or cognitive social-psychological view of hypnosis stating that an individual's hypnotic suggestibility is not dispositional but modifiable, our results suggest that hypnotic responsiveness can be heightened by furnishing hypnotic instructions with ad hoc implementation intentions.

  7. Political and Military Intention Estimation: A Taxonometric Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    23 Intention Estimation: Should it be done? ......... 24 Intention Estimation and The Ultra Syndrome . . . . . . . 33 Intention...8217•Nforzheimew provided advice -on ources iP the literature of intelligence and the intelligence Community. Ms6 Linda Orlooki assisted i collecting...been termed "tThe Ultra Syndrome . Intontlon E.sthnxition antd Tho Ultra 5; ndrorna You ;alw;%ys annunwv that the military and intolllgencc people have

  8. A Framework for Intentional Cultural Change

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony; Embry, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for a pragmatic science of cultural evolution. It is now possible for behavioral science to systematically influence the further evolution of cultural practices. As this science develops, it may become possible to prevent many of the problems affecting human wellbeing. By cultural practices, we refer to everything that humans do, above and beyond instinctual or unconditioned behaviors: not only art and literature, but also agriculture, manufacturing, recreation, war making, childrearing, science—everything. We can analyze cultural practices usefully in terms of the incidence and prevalence of individual behavior and group and organization actions. An effective science of intentional cultural evolution must guide efforts to influence the incidence and prevalence of individuals’ behaviors and the actions of groups and organizations. In this paper, we briefly sketch advances in scientific understanding of the influences on individual behavior. Then we describe principles that could guide efforts to influence groups and organizations. Finally, we discuss legitimate concerns about the use and misuse of a science for intentional cultural change. PMID:24363988

  9. Deciding as Intentional Action: Control over Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of deciding. I note that this problem might motivate a non-actional view of deciding—a view that decisions are not actions, but are instead passive events of intention acquisition. For without an understanding of how an agent might exercise control over what is decided at the moment of deciding, we lack a good reason for maintaining commitment to an actional view of deciding. However, I then offer the required account of how agents exercise control over decisions at the moment of deciding. Crucial to this account is an understanding of the relation of practical deliberation to deciding, an understanding of skilled deliberative activity, and the role of attention in the mental action of deciding. PMID:26321765

  10. Geodetic implications on block formation and geodynamic domains in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; García, A.; Kraus, S.

    2016-01-01

    The South Shetland Islands archipelago is dynamically complex due to its tectonic surroundings. Most islands are part of a formerly active volcanic arc, although Deception, Penguin and Bridgeman Islands, as well as several submarine volcanoes, are characterized by active back-arc volcanism. Geodetic benchmarks were deployed and the movement of the lithosphere to which they were fixed measured to provide geodynamic insight for the South Shetland Islands, Bransfield Basin and Antarctic Peninsula area based on surface deformation. These benchmarks' data add spatial and temporal coverage to previous results. The results reveal two different geodynamic patterns, each confined to a distinct part of the South Shetland Islands archipelago. The inferred absolute horizontal velocity vectors for the benchmarks in the northeastern part of the archipelago are consistent with the opening of the Bransfield Basin, while benchmark vectors in the southwestern part of the archipelago are similar to those of the benchmarks on the Antarctic Peninsula. In between, Snow, Deception and Livingston Islands represent a transition zone. In this area, the horizontal velocity vectors relative to the Antarctic plate shift northeastwards from N to NW. Furthermore, the South Shetland Islands benchmarks, except for that at Gibbs (Elephant) Islands, indicate subsidence, which might be a consequence of the slab roll-back at the South Shetland Trench. In contrast, the uplift revealed by the Antarctic Peninsula benchmarks suggests glacial isostatic adjustment after the Larson B ice-shelf breakup.

  11. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  12. Choosing personhood: intentionality and the theory of nursing as caring.

    PubMed

    Schoenhofer, Savina O

    2002-07-01

    Drawing on a story of a nursing situation for practical context, this article explores the meaning of intentionality within the theoretical context of Nursing as Caring. May's definition of intentionality as the structure that gives meaning to experience is interwoven with the concepts of the theory of Nursing as Caring to explore the topic. Mayeroff's concepts of hope and commitment contribute to an understanding of intentionality in relation to Nursing as Caring. The major thesis of this article, that intentionality is consistently choosing personhood as a way of life and the aim of nursing, is demonstrated in the practice situation.

  13. Forecasting behavioral response to a repository from stated intent data

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.; Kunreuther, H.; Morwitz, V.

    1991-12-31

    To forecast repository-induced behavior from surveys of behavioral intention, we develop a model of the relation between stated intent and actual propensity. This model relies heavily on the notion of a latent true intent score. We also consider a number of factors that cause true intent to be, on average, a biased indicator of propensity. The forecasting strategy is applied to a survey of convention planners to estimate the proportion of conventions that Las Vegas would lose following various repository scenarios at the Yucca Mountain site.

  14. The neural correlates of emotion regulation by implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Glyn P; Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Miles, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Iain D; Hunter, Michael D; Barker, Anthony T; Woodruff, Peter W R; Totterdell, Peter; Lindquist, Kristen A; Farrow, Tom F D

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the neural basis of effortful emotion regulation (ER) but the neural basis of automatic ER has been less comprehensively explored. The present study investigated the neural basis of automatic ER supported by 'implementation intentions'. 40 healthy participants underwent fMRI while viewing emotion-eliciting images and used either a previously-taught effortful ER strategy, in the form of a goal intention (e.g., try to take a detached perspective), or a more automatic ER strategy, in the form of an implementation intention (e.g., "If I see something disgusting, then I will think these are just pixels on the screen!"), to regulate their emotional response. Whereas goal intention ER strategies were associated with activation of brain areas previously reported to be involved in effortful ER (including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), ER strategies based on an implementation intention strategy were associated with activation of right inferior frontal gyrus and ventro-parietal cortex, which may reflect the attentional control processes automatically captured by the cue for action contained within the implementation intention. Goal intentions were also associated with less effective modulation of left amygdala, supporting the increased efficacy of ER under implementation intention instructions, which showed coupling of orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. The findings support previous behavioural studies in suggesting that forming an implementation intention enables people to enact goal-directed responses with less effort and more efficiency.

  15. African American families' expectations and intentions for mental health services.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.

  16. Experimental Studies of Intent Information on Cockpit Traffic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Intent information provides knowledge of another aircraft's current and future trajectory states. Prototype traffic displays were designed for four different levels of intent: No Intent, Rate, Commanded State, and Flight Management System (FMS)-Path. The TCAS Display was used as a baseline and represents the No Intent Level. The Rate, Commanded State, and FMS-Path Displays show increasing levels of intent information using TCAS-like symbology in addition to incorporating a conflict probe and profile view display. An experiment was run on the MIT Part Task Flight Simulator in which eight airline pilots flew five traffic scenarios with each of the four displays. Results show that pilots had fewer separation violations and maneuvered earlier with the three intent displays. Separation violations were reduced when pilots maneuvered earlier. A second experiment was run to compare performance between displaying intent information directly and incorporating it into a conflict probe. A different set of eight airline pilots flew four traffic scenarios with the TCAS and Commanded State Displays with and without the conflict probe. Conflict probes with two minute and long range look-ahead times were tested. Displaying conflict bands or showing intent information directly both led to fewer separation violations and earlier avoidance maneuvers than the base TCAS Display. Performance was similar between the two minute and long range look-ahead conflict probes. Pilots preferred all intent displays over the TCAS Display.

  17. African American Families’ Expectations and Intentions for Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L.; Wiley, Tisha R.A.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Perry, Sylvia P.; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans’ engagement in mental health services. PMID:22791083

  18. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  19. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Effects of island-edge exchange barrier on 2D pattern formation in surfactant-mediated epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dai-mu; Sun, Xia; Wu, Zi-qin

    2001-11-01

    The nucleation and growth of two-dimensional islands in a surfactant-mediated epitaxy system have been studied by computer simulation. To improve the recent results published in the literature, we use a configuration-dependent energy barrier for the exchange process at the island edge in our model. The simulations produce fractal islands at high temperatures or low deposition fluxes and a transition to regular compact islands occurs at lower temperatures or higher fluxes, in good agreement with the recent experimental results. The barrier for the island-edge exchange has quite a strong effect on the island density as a function of temperature and flux. A small change of the island-edge exchange barrier induces a large variation of the island density in the low-temperature or high-flux region. The flux-dependent island density shows a clear scaling-law behaviour in the intermediate-flux region. The scaling exponent increases evidently as the island-edge exchange barrier increases.

  1. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  2. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  3. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

  4. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  5. Eliminating Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barb; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Adults often find themselves transitioning from one activity to another in a short time span. Most of the time, they do not feel they have a lot of control over their schedules, but wish that they could carve out extended time to relax and focus on one project. Picture a group of children in the block area who have spent 15 or 20 minutes building…

  6. Microcomputers and minipopulations: the 1981 Cook Islands census.

    PubMed

    Hayes, G R

    1983-01-01

    majority of the total emigration stream, affecting the sex ratio which increased from 105 in 1976 to 107 in 1981. When combined with birth registration data, the 1981 census results confirm that the fertility transition is well under way in the Cook Islands. This pattern appears to support the argument that family planning programs can bring down fertility independently of significant changes in systems of production. Nevertheless, family planning services alone cannot explain the decline in fertility; women's status has been improving and the circulation of population between the Cook Islands and New Zealand has undoubtedly helped to diffuse modern norms with respect to family size, the deliberate control of conception, and the active participation of women in reproductive decision-making. The general pattern of rapid population decline could have important consequences for the Cook Islands' economy and society and raises questions as to the economic viability of some of these small and remote island communities.

  7. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  8. Prediction of stage transitions in fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Amelie U; Lippke, Sonia; Reuter, Tabea; Schüz, Benjamin; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    Stage theories propose that individuals pass through different stages on their way toward behavior change. The present study examines stage-specific prediction patterns of social-cognitive variables (risk perception, outcome expectancies, perceived self-efficacy, action planning and social support) regarding transitions between the three stages of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA; preintention, intention and action stage). In an online study (n = 494) on fruit and vegetable intake, social-cognitive variables and stages were assessed at baseline and stage transitions 4 weeks later. Transitions between the preintention, intention and action stage were predicted by social-cognitive variables using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Stage-specific prediction patterns emerged for stage progression and stage regression. Outcome expectancies predicted progression from the preintention stage, whereas social support predicted progression to the action stage. Low levels of planning were associated with relapse to the preintention and the intention stage. Self-efficacy emerged as a universal predictor of stage transitions. Findings support not only the usefulness of the stage construct for describing health behavior change but also the validity of the HAPA variables as predictors of stage transitions. Stage-matched interventions targeting the variables identified as stage-specific predictors might support stage progression toward the goal behavior.

  9. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  10. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  11. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  12. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  13. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  14. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  15. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  16. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  17. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  18. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  20. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  1. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  2. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  3. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  4. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during,...

  5. 75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife... conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and... Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs. We started the process through a notice in the...

  6. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  7. The Terceira island (Azores) crustal deformations from GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, A.; Catalão, J.; Fernandes, R.; Miranda, M.; Bastos, L.

    2003-04-01

    Several GPS campaigns performed, for the last few years, in the Azores region have proved the utility of GPS data in the evaluation of the relative motion among the Eurasian, North-American and African plates. The study here presented was developed in the scope of the STAMINA project. This project main intention is the study of the deformation pattern of the area along the Terceira Axis, which is considered nowadays as the most active tectonic area of the Azores region. To achieve that, a dense GPS network was implemented on the Terceira Island in October 2000. The network has 23 stations spread uniformly throughout the island, ten of which had already been implemented on 1999 (1 in 1988) in the scope of the TANGO project. These 10 stations were observed for the first time in 1999 and re-observed in 2000 and 2001. The complete network was observed for the first time in March/April of 2001. GPS data from 2 epochs, 1999 and 2001, were used to evaluate the horizontal deformation of the Island for a period of one and a half year. Both campaigns last for 9 days, each station being observed for at least 3 sessions of 12 to 24 hours. One of the stations, located at the Terceira Astronomic Observatory (TERC), was continuously measured during both campaigns. The data processing was performed using the GAMIT and FONDA software. Data from six IGS/EUREF permanent stations were considered to link the local network to the ITRF97 reference system. Precise orbits from the IGS were used in the GPS data processing. The results exhibit repeatabilities of about 3 mm and 2 mm for both components of the horizontal position, respectively for 1999 and 2001. The resulting estimation of the main strain rates for the Island indicates N, NNE and NE directions for the extension of the Island. However, these results are not yet conclusive due to the poor geometry of the 10 stations network and to the short interval of observation. To establish a more reliable deformation pattern for the Island

  8. Filling in the helper-gap: the intentions of frail older widows.

    PubMed

    Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H

    2005-01-01

    Despite marked interest in continuity of care and transitions experienced by older persons, there is little information available about the intentions of older women regarding changes that occur in their support networks. This article reports the findings of a descriptive phenomenological study of older widows' experience of home care and describes the experiences of 10 women who lost a key helper during the 3-year study. Compared with theories of continuity of care or transition, the findings are in keeping with the focus of nonequilibrium systems theory: bringing order out of disorder. Findings imply the need for holistic nursing interventions with older women who hope to continue living alone for as long as possible.

  9. Intent, Future, Anticipation: A Semiotic, Transdisciplinary Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeckenhoff, Hellmut

    2008-10-01

    Encouraged e.g. by chaos theory and (bio-)semiotics science is trying to attempt a deeper understanding of life. The paradigms of physics alone prove not sufficient to explain f. ex. evolution or phylogenesis and ontogenesis. In complement, research on life systems reassesses paradigmatic models not only for living systems and not only on the strict biological level. The ontological as well as the epistemological base of science in toto is to be reconsidered. Science itself proves a historical and cultural phenomenon and can be seen as shaped by evolution and semiosis. -Living systems are signified by purpose, intent and, necessarily, by the faculty to anticipate e.g. the cyclic changes of their environment. To understand the concepts behind a proposal is developed towards a model set constituting a transdisciplinary approach. It rests e.g. on concepts of systems, evolution, complexity and semiodynamics.

  10. Children's prosocial behavioural intentions towards outgroup members.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Van de Vyver, Julie; Pelletier, Joseph; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-09-01

    When will children decide to help outgroup peers? We examined how intergroup competition, social perspective taking (SPT), and empathy influence children's (5-10 years, N = 287) prosocial intentions towards outgroup members. Study 1 showed that, in a minimal group situation, prosociality was lower in an intergroup competitive than in a non-competitive or interpersonal context. Study 2 revealed that, in a real groups situation involving intergroup competition, prosociality was associated with higher empathy and lower competitive motivation. In a subsequent non-competitive context, there were age differences in the impact of SPT and competitive motivation. With age, relationships strengthened between SPT and prosociality (positively) and between competitiveness and prosociality (negatively). Among older children, there was a carry-over effect whereby feelings of intergroup competitiveness aroused by the intergroup competitive context suppressed outgroup prosociality in the following non-competitive context. Theoretical and practical implications for improving children's intergroup relationships are discussed.

  11. The time course of intentional binding.

    PubMed

    Ruess, Miriam; Thomaschke, Roland; Kiesel, Andrea

    2017-02-09

    Stimuli caused by actions (i.e., effects) are perceived earlier than stimuli not caused by actions. This phenomenon is termed intentional binding (IB) and serves as implicit measure of sense of agency. We investigated the influence of effect delay and temporal predictability on IB, operationalized as the bias to perceive the effect as temporally shifted toward the action. For short delays, IB increased with delay (Experiment 1: 200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms). The initial increase declined for longer delays (Experiment 2: 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms). This extends previous findings showing IB to decrease with increasing delays for delay ranges of 250 ms to 650 ms. Further, the hypothesis that IB, that is, sense of agency, might be maximal for different delays depending on the specific characteristics and context of action and effect, has important implications for human-machine interfaces.

  12. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    large-scale wind field, and the oceanic general circulation in which the island is embedded. First, we plan to address the so- called “island rule...Figure 1). The gliders occupied two lines perpendicular to shore on the east side of the island. In addition to the standard Sea- Bird CTD and...of island wake effects to observe the difference in the eddy field on either side of the island. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS All temperature and

  13. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  14. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  15. Investigating conceptions of intentional action by analyzing participant generated scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Bunge, Andreas; Cohen, Bret R.; Kreilkamp, Barbara A. K.; Troxler, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We describe and report on results of employing a new method for analyzing lay conceptions of intentional and unintentional action. Instead of asking people for their conceptual intuitions with regard to construed scenarios, we asked our participants to come up with their own scenarios and to explain why these are examples of intentional or unintentional actions. By way of content analysis, we extracted contexts and components that people associated with these action types. Our participants associated unintentional actions predominantly with bad outcomes for all persons involved and linked intentional actions more strongly to positive outcomes, especially concerning the agent. People’s conceptions of intentional action seem to involve more aspects than commonly assumed in philosophical models of intentional action that solely stress the importance of intentions, desires, and beliefs. The additional aspects include decisions and thoughts about the action. In addition, we found that the criteria that participants generated for unintentional actions are not a mere inversion of those used in explanations for intentional actions. Associations between involuntariness and unintentional action seem to be stronger than associations between aspects of voluntariness and intentional action. PMID:26594182

  16. Pregnancy Intentions and Parents' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Jessica Houston

    2012-01-01

    Extant research suggests that parents are more depressed than childless adults, yet the role of pregnancy intentions is largely absent from the discussion. Using 2 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (n = 825 women, n = 889 men), the author found that pregnancy intentions are an important consideration for parents'…

  17. 18 CFR 1304.300 - Scope and intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Scope and intent. 1304.300 Section 1304.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF... Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.300 Scope and intent. Any structure built upon land subject to a...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.300 - Scope and intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope and intent. 1304.300 Section 1304.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF... Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.300 Scope and intent. Any structure built upon land subject to a...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.300 - Scope and intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope and intent. 1304.300 Section 1304.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF... Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.300 Scope and intent. Any structure built upon land subject to a...

  20. The Link between Training Satisfaction, Work Engagement and Turnover Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the casual relationship between training satisfaction, work engagement (WE) and turnover intention and the mediating role of WE between training satisfaction and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 409 oil and gas professionals using an email survey…

  1. A Dual-Process Model of Cheating Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Jeremy J.; Hyman, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Although prior pedagogy research indicates significant relationships between several student characteristics and cheating intentions, no research has examined the simultaneous effect of cognition and anticipated emotions on such intentions. To explore the possibility that imagined outcomes--prompted by anticipated emotions--and select cognitive…

  2. The Self-Referring Text: Strategies and Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    This paper discusses self-reference in the text, in order to examine its rhetorical intentions, and the writing strategies it offers an author. Following a brief introduction, the first section deals with definitions, and classifies self-reference "markers." The second section discusses intentions and self-reference, while the third…

  3. Tracing how normative messages may influence physical activity intention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normative messages have been shown to increase intention to do physical activity (PA). We traced how 'positive' and 'negative' normative messages influenced PA intention by comparing constructs of the model of goal-directed behaviour with descriptive norms (MGDB+DN) across control and treatment grou...

  4. Students' Entrepreneurial Intentions: An Inter-Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Mario; Haase, Heiko; Lautenschlager, Arndt

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The central research questions which the paper aims to answer are: What are the entrepreneurial intentions of university students in different European regions? What are the factors that most contribute to entrepreneurial intentions and the potential differences between the regions? Design/methodology/approach: This cross-sectional study…

  5. 16 CFR 1101.25 - Notice of intent to disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of intent to disclose. 1101.25 Section 1101.25 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... Providing Notice and Opportunity To Comment Under Section 6(b)(1) § 1101.25 Notice of intent to disclose....

  6. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Chimpanzees' Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave…

  7. Socialization Preferences and Intentions: Does One Size Fit All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student preferences for socialization tactics and their intentions to be proactive when they begin a new job. We examined the relationship between the Five Factor Model of personality and proactive personality with socialization tactics preferences and proactive behavior intentions in a sample of 243…

  8. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  9. The Intent/Effect Tactic: A Practice of Rhetorical Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Meagan

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship shows that teachers across English studies continue to struggle with discussions of race in their classrooms. In this article, I offer the intent/effect tactic as a tool teachers can use to analyze and respond to racially problematic assertions. By asking students to consider not only intent but also effect, we can help them…

  10. Predictors of Study Abroad Intent, Participation, and College Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Jiali; Jamieson-Drake, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined US undergraduate students' intent to study abroad upon college entry and their actual participation in study abroad during their undergraduate years, correlating the college outcomes of three cohorts to identify trends. The findings show that study abroad intent and participation are interrelated and shaped by an array of…

  11. 7 CFR 3406.21 - Intent to submit a proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Submission of a Teaching or Research Proposal § 3406.21 Intent to submit a proposal. To assist CSREES in... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intent to submit a proposal. 3406.21 Section 3406.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH,...

  12. Whistle-Blowing Intentions of Prospective Teachers: Education Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whistle-blowing intentions of prospective teachers. Firstly, overall ethical awareness of the participants was examined, and then their underlying ethical reasons of whistle-blowing were investigated. Besides, impact on the intention to blow whistle to internal or external parties offering their job guarantee were searched.…

  13. Developing Intentionality and L2 Classroom Task-Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelma, Juup

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends work on "intentionality", from philosophy, psychology and education to an exploration of learners' meaning-making in L2 classroom task-engagement. The paper draws on both phenomenological and folk-psychological perspectives on intentionality, and employs John R. Searle's intrinsic (mental) and derived (observable)…

  14. The Largest Intentional Change During the Past Two Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Allen

    Intentional changes over the past two years in the lives of 45 women and men in Toronto were examined through interviews involving extensive probing and dialogue. The intentional changes turned out to be mostly through self-help. It was largely the person herself or himself who chose, planned, and implemented the change. The person often obtained…

  15. Intentional Forgetting as a Facilitator for Recalling New Product Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Stewart; Lindsey, Charles; Krishnan, H. Shanker

    2006-01-01

    When market changes alter what product attributes are deemed important, consumers may intentionally try to forget old product information in an attempt to remember new product information. In Experiment 1, the authors demonstrated that intentional forgetting of this nature temporarily inhibits retrieval of old product information and leads to a…

  16. 77 FR 31399 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Research Only License. SUMMARY: This notice is issued... to grant an exclusive, research only license in the United States to practice the invention...

  17. 75 FR 20806 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Basin Seed Company, LLC...

  18. 77 FR 36477 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to US Agriseeds of San Luis...

  19. 77 FR 9888 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to North Carolina State...

  20. Intentionality, Morality, and the Incest Taboo in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Paulo; Swiney, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article (Astuti and Bloch, 2015), cognitive anthropologists Astuti and Bloch claim that the Malagasy are ambivalent as to whether considerations of intentionality are relevant to moral judgments concerning incest and its presumed catastrophic consequences: when making moral judgments about those who commit incest, the Malagasy take into account whether the incest is intentional or not, but, when making moral judgments relating to incest’s catastrophic consequences, they do not take intentionality into account. Astuti and Bloch explain the irrelevance of intentionality in terms of incest entailing such a fundamental attack on the transcendental social order that the Malagasy become dumbfounded and leave aside considerations of intentionality. Finally, they claim that a similar dumbfound reaction is what is involved in the moral dumbfounding concerning incest that social psychologist Jonathan Haidt has found in the US. In this article, we argue that (i) Astuti and Bloch are unclear about many aspects of their claims (in particular, about the moral judgments at stake), (ii) they do not provide sufficient evidence that considerations of intentionality are deemed irrelevant to moral judgments relating to incest’s presumed catastrophic consequences (and hence for the claim that the Malagasy are ambivalent), (iii) their hypothesis that conceiving of incest as an attack on the transcendental social renders considerations of intentionality irrelevant lacks coherence, and (iv) the extension of their explanatory account to the moral dumfounding of American students in Haidt’s well-known scenario of intentional incest is unwarranted. PMID:27092099

  1. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  2. Science Student Teachers and Educational Technology: Experience, Intentions, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Rifat

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine science student teachers' experience with educational technology, their intentions for their own use, their intentions for their students' use, and their beliefs in the value of educational technology in science instruction. Four hundred-forty-eight science student teachers of different disciplines…

  3. 18 CFR 1304.200 - Scope and intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope and intent. 1304.200 Section 1304.200 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF... Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.200 Scope and intent. This subpart C applies to residential...

  4. Professional Identity as the Key to Career Change Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khapova, Svetlana N.; Arthur, Michael B.; Wilderom, Celeste P. M.; Svensson, Jorgen S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate career change intention and its predictors among career change seekers interested in a career opportunity in the information technology (IT) industry. Design/methodology/approach: Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to predict career change intention in this group. In addition, we…

  5. 18 CFR 1304.200 - Scope and intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and intent. 1304.200 Section 1304.200 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF... Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.200 Scope and intent. This subpart C applies to residential...

  6. 7 CFR 3405.12 - Intent to submit a proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intent to submit a proposal. 3405.12 Section 3405.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Submission of a Proposal § 3405.12 Intent to submit...

  7. 78 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Audit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Notice of Intent To Audit AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress... intent to audit the 2010, 2011, and 2012 statements of account submitted by Saga Communications, Inc. and.... 37 CFR 380.13(b)(1). As the designated Collective, SoundExchange may conduct a single audit of...

  8. 77 FR 12884 - Notice of Intent To Audit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Notice of Intent To Audit AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress... intent to audit the 2009, 2010, and 2011 statements of account submitted by Digitally Imported, Inc., and... audit of a licensee for any calendar year for the purpose of verifying their royalty payments....

  9. 77 FR 51830 - Notice of Intent To Audit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Notice of Intent To Audit AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress... intent to audit the 2009, 2010, and 2011 statements of account submitted by DKCM, Inc. and Greater Media... the designated Collective, SoundExchange may conduct a single audit of a licensee for any...

  10. Reasoning about Intentions: Counterexamples to Reasons for Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhos, Csongor; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments tested the idea that people distinguish between biconditional, conditional, and enabling intention conditionals by thinking about counterexamples. The experiments examined intention conditionals that contain different types of reasons for actions, such as beliefs, goals, obligations, and social norms, based on a corpus of 48…

  11. Acoustic Differences between Humorous and Sincere Communicative Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the acoustic features of speech discriminate between positive and negative communicative intentions, such as approval and prohibition. Two studies investigated whether acoustic features of speech can discriminate between two positive communicative intentions: humour and sweet-sincerity, where sweet-sincerity involved…

  12. Changes in Student Teachers' Intention to Teach during Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T. Grady; Greiman, Bradley C.; Murphy, T. H.; Ricketts, John C.; Harlin, Julie F.; Briers, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the course of the student teaching experience, a student teacher's intention to teach can increase, decrease, or remain the same. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in student teachers that were representative of each category. Teaching intention of 103 student teachers at four universities in 2005-2006 exhibited little…

  13. 10 CFR 1021.311 - Notice of intent and scoping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of intent and scoping. 1021.311 Section 1021.311 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.311 Notice of intent and scoping. (a) DOE shall publish an NOI...

  14. Implementation Intentions and Test Anxiety: Shielding Academic Performance from Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J.; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    College students whose test anxiety was measured completed a working memory-intensive math exam with televised distractions. Students were provided with implementation intentions (if-then plans; Gollwitzer, 1999) designed to either help them ignore the distractions (i.e., temptation-inhibiting plans) or focus more intently on the math exam (i.e.,…

  15. 25 CFR 83.4 - Filing a letter of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing a letter of intent. 83.4 Section 83.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING THAT AN AMERICAN INDIAN GROUP EXISTS AS AN INDIAN TRIBE § 83.4 Filing a letter of intent. (a) Any...

  16. 25 CFR 83.4 - Filing a letter of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing a letter of intent. 83.4 Section 83.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING THAT AN AMERICAN INDIAN GROUP EXISTS AS AN INDIAN TRIBE § 83.4 Filing a letter of intent. (a) Any...

  17. Beyond Intentions--What Makes a Student Start a Firm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joensuu-Salo, Sanna; Varamäki, Elina; Viljamaa, Anmari

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurial intentions have been extensively studied in student populations, with results suggesting that higher education does not promote formation of entrepreneurial intentions (e.g. Varamäki et al., 2013). However, the gap between intending to start a business and actually doing something to start one remains. The purpose of this…

  18. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was validated…

  19. 33 CFR 154.110 - Letter of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... location of the facility in relation to the associated body of navigable waters. (c) The facility operator...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK General § 154.110 Letter of intent. (a) The facility operator of any facility to which this part applies must submit a letter of intent...

  20. Toddlers Use Speech Disfluencies to Predict Speakers' Referential Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Celeste; White, Katherine S.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to infer the referential intentions of speakers is a crucial part of learning a language. Previous research has uncovered various contextual and social cues that children may use to do this. Here we provide the first evidence that children also use speech disfluencies to infer speaker intention. Disfluencies (e.g. filled pauses "uh"…

  1. 32 CFR 651.22 - Notice of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Notice of intent. 651.22 Section 651.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.22 Notice of intent. A Notice...

  2. 32 CFR 651.22 - Notice of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice of intent. 651.22 Section 651.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.22 Notice of intent. A Notice...

  3. 32 CFR 651.22 - Notice of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Notice of intent. 651.22 Section 651.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.22 Notice of intent. A Notice...

  4. 32 CFR 651.22 - Notice of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice of intent. 651.22 Section 651.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.22 Notice of intent. A Notice...

  5. 32 CFR 651.22 - Notice of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notice of intent. 651.22 Section 651.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.22 Notice of intent. A Notice...

  6. Understanding and sharing intentions: the origins of cultural cognition.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Behne, Tanya; Moll, Henrike

    2005-10-01

    We propose that the crucial difference between human cognition and that of other species is the ability to participate with others in collaborative activities with shared goals and intentions: shared intentionality. Participation in such activities requires not only especially powerful forms of intention reading and cultural learning, but also a unique motivation to share psychological states with others and unique forms of cognitive representation for doing so. The result of participating in these activities is species-unique forms of cultural cognition and evolution, enabling everything from the creation and use of linguistic symbols to the construction of social norms and individual beliefs to the establishment of social institutions. In support of this proposal we argue and present evidence that great apes (and some children with autism) understand the basics of intentional action, but they still do not participate in activities involving joint intentions and attention (shared intentionality). Human children's skills of shared intentionality develop gradually during the first 14 months of life as two ontogenetic pathways intertwine: (1) the general ape line of understanding others as animate, goal-directed, and intentional agents; and (2) a species-unique motivation to share emotions, experience, and activities with other persons. The developmental outcome is children's ability to construct dialogic cognitive representations, which enable them to participate in earnest in the collectivity that is human cognition.

  7. Predicting Enlistment Behavior from Stated Intentions and Demographic Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    researchers could determine how a respondent’s stated purchase intention is related to his actual purchase behavior. To understand the relationship...between purchase intention surveys and this thesis, consider the YATS survey discussed briefly in Chapter I. This study is a key component of the Joint

  8. Change in Children's Understanding of Others' Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Camaioni, Luigia; Colonnesi, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated children's intention understanding using a longitudinal design. Thirty-two Italian children were tested on the "Demonstration of Intention" in the Re-enactment paradigm devised by Meltzoff (1995a), at two ages. Mean age was 12 months at the first session and 15 months at the second session. Previous research by…

  9. Video games and adolescents' intentions to take risks in traffic.

    PubMed

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2008-07-01

    In a sample of 2193 adolescents the impact of racing games and drive'em up games on the intention to engage in risky driving was examined. The results indicated that playing video games is a small predictor of attitudes (standardized total effect of .171), which in turn, predict fun riding intentions (R(2) = .555).

  10. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  11. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  12. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  13. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  14. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  15. Factors Related to Intentions to Report a Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman-Summers, Shirley; Ashworth, Clark D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a study conducted among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White women to: (1) identify the factors related to intention to report/not report a rape to various people; and (2) ascertain the usefulness of Fishbein's model of behavioral intentions, which consists of "perceived outcomes" and "perceived expectations" components,…

  16. 32 CFR 989.17 - Notice of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of intent. 989.17 Section 989.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.17 Notice of intent. The EPF must furnish, through the...

  17. Large-scale societal changes and intentionality - an uneasy marriage.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Péter; Fokas, Nikos

    2014-08-01

    Our commentary focuses on juxtaposing the proposed science of intentional change with facts and concepts pertaining to the level of large populations or changes on a worldwide scale. Although we find a unified evolutionary theory promising, we think that long-term and large-scale, scientifically guided - that is, intentional - social change is not only impossible, but also undesirable.

  18. Computer Modeling of Violent Intent: A Content Analysis Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Mcgrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.

    2014-01-03

    We present a computational approach to modeling the intent of a communication source representing a group or an individual to engage in violent behavior. Our aim is to identify and rank aspects of radical rhetoric that are endogenously related to violent intent to predict the potential for violence as encoded in written or spoken language. We use correlations between contentious rhetoric and the propensity for violent behavior found in documents from radical terrorist and non-terrorist groups and individuals to train and evaluate models of violent intent. We then apply these models to unseen instances of linguistic behavior to detect signs of contention that have a positive correlation with violent intent factors. Of particular interest is the application of violent intent models to social media, such as Twitter, that have proved to serve as effective channels in furthering sociopolitical change.

  19. Mutual intentions as a causal framework for social groups.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Alexander; Dunham, Yarrow

    2017-02-24

    Children's early emerging intuitive theories are specialized for different conceptual domains. Recently attention has turned to children's concepts of social groups, finding that children believe that many social groups mark uniquely social information such as allegiances and obligations. But another critical component of intuitive theories, the causal beliefs that underlie category membership, has received less attention. We propose that children believe membership in these groups is constituted by mutual intentions: i.e., all group members (including the individual) intend for an individual to be a member and all group members (including the individual) have common knowledge of these intentions. Children in a broad age range (4-9) applied a mutual-intentional framework to newly encountered social groups early in development (Experiment 1, 2, 4). Further, they deploy this mutual-intentional framework selectively, withholding it from essentialized social categories such as gender (Experiment 3). Mutual intentionality appears to be a vital aspect of children's naïve sociology.

  20. Two Distinct Moral Mechanisms for Ascribing and Denying Intentionality.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G; Carter, R McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Huettel, Scott A

    2015-12-04

    Philosophers and legal scholars have long theorized about how intentionality serves as a critical input for morality and culpability, but the emerging field of experimental philosophy has revealed a puzzling asymmetry. People judge actions leading to negative consequences as being more intentional than those leading to positive ones. The implications of this asymmetry remain unclear because there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism. Based on converging behavioral and neural evidence, we demonstrate that there is no single underlying mechanism. Instead, two distinct mechanisms together generate the asymmetry. Emotion drives ascriptions of intentionality for negative consequences, while the consideration of statistical norms leads to the denial of intentionality for positive consequences. We employ this novel two-mechanism model to illustrate that morality can paradoxically shape judgments of intentionality. This is consequential for mens rea in legal practice and arguments in moral philosophy pertaining to terror bombing, abortion, and euthanasia among others.

  1. Two Distinct Moral Mechanisms for Ascribing and Denying Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G.; Carter, R. McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Philosophers and legal scholars have long theorized about how intentionality serves as a critical input for morality and culpability, but the emerging field of experimental philosophy has revealed a puzzling asymmetry. People judge actions leading to negative consequences as being more intentional than those leading to positive ones. The implications of this asymmetry remain unclear because there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism. Based on converging behavioral and neural evidence, we demonstrate that there is no single underlying mechanism. Instead, two distinct mechanisms together generate the asymmetry. Emotion drives ascriptions of intentionality for negative consequences, while the consideration of statistical norms leads to the denial of intentionality for positive consequences. We employ this novel two-mechanism model to illustrate that morality can paradoxically shape judgments of intentionality. This is consequential for mens rea in legal practice and arguments in moral philosophy pertaining to terror bombing, abortion, and euthanasia among others. PMID:26634909

  2. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  3. Cue-independent forgetting by intentional suppression - Evidence for inhibition as the mechanism of intentional forgetting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Cao, Zhijun; Zhu, Zijian; Cai, Huaqian; Wu, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    People are able to intentionally forget unwanted memories through voluntary suppression, as revealed by the Think/No-think (TNT) paradigm. However, the nature of intentional forgetting is controversial. Findings that forgetting is independent of retrieval cues suggest that inhibitory control underlies intentional forgetting, but this result is also in line with an interference account. To resolve this controversy, we have directly contrasted the cue-independent characteristic of suppression versus interference. A double-cue paradigm was used, in which two different cues were associated with the same target during initial memory formation. Only one cue-target association received further interference/suppression training. In the test phase, when both cues were used to retrieve the target, we found that interference caused memory impairment that was restricted to the trained cue-target association, while suppression induced forgetting that generalized to the independent cue-target association. Therefore, the effect of suppression differs from that of interference. The cue-independent forgetting by voluntary suppression indicates that the target memory itself is inhibited, providing evidence that the underlying mechanism of suppression-induced forgetting is inhibitory control.

  4. Evaluation of land ecological environment in Zhoushan Islands by remotely sensed impervious surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Pan, Delu; Chen, Jianyu; Chen, Peng; Jia, Yonghong

    2013-10-01

    Coastal islands are located in a transitional environment where land and ocean interact. During the past 20 years, large areas of the natural landscape of Zhoushan islands have been replaced by human features. There is limited research detailing the amount of impervious surface growth in the Zhoushan islands and trends in the land environment using remotely sensed technologies. The purpose of this paper is to assess the influences of anthropogenic activities on land ecological environment in Zhoushan islands based on remotely sensed impervious surfaces. First the impervious surfaces information of 1986, 1995 and 2006 were estimated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, and then an integrated state indicator was built. The results reveal that imperious surfaces areas (ISA) of Zhoushan islands remarkably increased from 19.2 km2 (2.73%) in 1986 to 29.5 km2 (4.20%) in 1995, and to 58.2 km2 (8.27%) in 2006. The average state value for the total area was 0.70, 0.65, and 0.55 respectively for 1986, 1995, and 2006. Of the surrounding islands, the Lujiazhi, Xiaogan, Panzhi, and Cezi suffered the most land disturbance intensity from human activities, followed by the Jintang, Xiushan, and Damao, and the Changbai and Changzhi had the lowest disturbance values. It indicates that the land ecological environment of Zhoushan islands was variously disturbed by growing human activities over time. Further, we found that the topography, island size, spatial location from Zhoushan Island and economic policy had an influence on change of impervious surfaces for each island.

  5. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  6. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  7. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  8. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  9. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  10. 78 FR 78067 - Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration; Public Meeting on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... 16 and 121 Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration; Public... CFR Parts 16 and 121 Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration... Food Against Intentional Adulteration'' to: (1) Inform the public about the rulemaking...

  11. Dynamic nuclear polarization polarizer for sterile use intent.

    PubMed

    Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Leach, Andrew M; Clarke, Neil; Urbahn, John; Anderson, Denise; Skloss, Timothy W

    2011-10-01

    A novel polarizer based on the dissolution-dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) method has been designed, built and tested. The polarizer differs from those previously described by being designed with sterile use intent and being compatible with clinical use. The main features are: (1) an integral, disposable fluid path containing all pharmaceuticals constituting a sterile barrier, (2) a closed-cycle cryogenic system designed to eliminate consumption of liquid cryogens and (3) multi-sample polarization to increase throughput. The fluid path consists of a vial with the agent to be polarized, a pair of concentric inlet and outlet tubes connected to a syringe with dissolution medium and a receiver, respectively. The fluid path can operate at up to 400 K and 2.0 MPa and generates volumes as high as 100 mL. An inline filter removes the amount of electron paramagnetic agent in the final product by more than 100-fold in the case of [1-(13)C]pyruvate. The system uses a sorption pump in conjunction with a conventional cryocooler. The system operates through cycles of pumping to low temperature and regeneration of the sorption pump. The magnet accommodates four samples at the same time. A temperature of less than 1 K was achieved for 68 h (no sample heat loads) with a liquid helium volume of 2.4 L. The regeneration of the liquid helium could be achieved in less than 10 h, and the transition to cold (< 1.2 K) was achieved in less than 90 min. A solid state polarization of 36 ± 4% for [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid was obtained with only 10 mW of microwave power. The loading of a sample adds less than 50 J of heat to the helium bath by introducing the sample over 15 min. The heat load imposed on the helium bath during dissolution was less than 70 J. The measured liquid state polarization was 18 ± 2%.

  12. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  13. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  14. Small population instability and island settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I; Sabath, M D

    1984-03-01

    This study used data from the Marshall Islands to examine the relationship between settlement pattern within an island group to the stability of potential population inhabiting those islands. It was hypothesized that extinction probability (based on island carrying capacity, frequency and amplitude of fluctuation in resources determining carrying capacity, and the net costs of contact and exchange between population units) will determine island settlement patterns, resulting in nonsettlement of islands with low carrying capacities and settlement of all islands with high carrying capacities. The Marshall Island group includes both settled and unsettled islands, and represents a homogeneous culture that has remained unchanged for many generations. The mesophytic index (rainfall x land area), used as an indicator of atoll human carrying capacity, was related to island settlement patterns. No atolls with mesophytic indices exceeding 2000 units were uninhabited, although 4 with values under 2000 units were inhabited, suggesting an overlap zone between inhabitable and uninhabitable islands. Population size and settlement existence were also related. Only 2 of 21 inhabited islands had populations below 100, and none of the uninhabited islands contained more than 78 individuals. These results may be of relevance to earlier atoll colonization patterns. The prerequisites for atoll colonization appear to have been colonizing groups exceeding 80 individuals, contact with an established population source, and a horticultural subsistence mode and maritime technology. It is concluded that small population instability should be considered in terms of the colonization process and settlement pattern of island groups.

  15. In Rhode Island, Building a bRIdge to the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, Rhode Island was in the early stages of refocusing its economic development efforts on transitioning to a knowledge-based economy. This move would require an educated workforce, largely deemed the responsibility of the state's 11 public and private institutions of higher education. For a state with slightly over a million residents and…

  16. 77 FR 64720 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Waterway, mile 311.8, at Oak Island, North Carolina. The contract provides for replacing the fender system... entities: the owners or operators of commercial tug and barge companies, recreational and commercial... on VHF-FM marine band radio channels 13 and 16 one hour in advance of intended transit. (2) All...

  17. The Accountability Illusion: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  18. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  19. Early detection of intentional harm in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Eugenia; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean; Sigman, Mariano; Garcia, María del Carmen; Silva, Walter; Ciraolo, Carlos; Vaucheret, Esteban; Baglivo, Fabricio; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    A decisive element of moral cognition is the detection of harm and its assessment as intentional or unintentional. Moral cognition engages brain networks supporting mentalizing, intentionality, empathic concern and evaluation. These networks rely on the amygdala as a critical hub, likely through frontotemporal connections indexing stimulus salience. We assessed inferences about perceived harm using a paradigm validated through functional magnetic resonance imaging, eye-tracking and electroencephalogram recordings. During the task, we measured local field potentials in three patients with depth electrodes (n = 115) placed in the amygdala and in several frontal, temporal, and parietal locations. Direct electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that intentional harm induces early activity in the amygdala (<200 ms), which--in turn--predicts intention attribution. The amygdala was the only site that systematically discriminated between critical conditions and predicted their classification of events as intentional. Moreover, connectivity analysis showed that intentional harm induced stronger frontotemporal information sharing at early stages. Results support the 'many roads' view of the amygdala and highlight its role in the rapid encoding of intention and salience--critical components of mentalizing and moral evaluation.

  20. Strategic offloading of delayed intentions into the external environment

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Sam J.

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, we often use external artefacts such as diaries to help us remember intended behaviours. In addition, we commonly manipulate our environment, for example by placing reminders in noticeable places. Yet strategic offloading of intentions to the external environment is not typically permitted in laboratory tasks examining memory for delayed intentions. What factors influence our use of such strategies, and what behavioural consequences do they have? This article describes four online experiments (N = 1196) examining a novel web-based task in which participants hold intentions for brief periods, with the option to strategically externalize these intentions by creating a reminder. This task significantly predicted participants' fulfilment of a naturalistic intention embedded within their everyday activities up to one week later (with greater predictive ability than more traditional prospective memory tasks, albeit with weak effect size). Setting external reminders improved performance, and it was more prevalent in older adults. Furthermore, participants set reminders adaptively, based on (a) memory load, and (b) the likelihood of distraction. These results suggest the importance of metacognitive processes in triggering intention offloading, which can increase the probability that intentions are eventually fulfilled. PMID:25404057

  1. Reasoning about intentions: counterexamples to reasons for actions.

    PubMed

    Juhos, Csongor; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments tested the idea that people distinguish between biconditional, conditional, and enabling intention conditionals by thinking about counterexamples. The experiments examined intention conditionals that contain different types of reasons for actions, such as beliefs, goals, obligations, and social norms, based on a corpus of 48 intention conditionals established through an extensive materials test (n = 136). Experiment 1 (n = 19) showed that retrieved alternative reasons suppress the affirmation of the consequent and denial of the antecedent inferences from conditional intentions, whereas retrieved disabling reasons suppress the modus ponens and modus tollens inferences from enabling intentions. Experiment 2 (n = 61) showed that the suppression effects also occur for explicitly provided alternatives and disablers, for a large corpus of 80 intention conditionals. Experiment 3 (n = 60) showed that the suppression effects also occur for unfamiliar content, for which participants cannot rely on prior knowledge or beliefs about probabilities. Experiment 4 (n = 26) showed that participants retrieve alternatives and disablers readily for intentions just as they do for causal conditionals. The implications of the results for alternative accounts based on possibilities and probabilities are discussed.

  2. Strategic offloading of delayed intentions into the external environment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sam J

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, we often use external artefacts such as diaries to help us remember intended behaviours. In addition, we commonly manipulate our environment, for example by placing reminders in noticeable places. Yet strategic offloading of intentions to the external environment is not typically permitted in laboratory tasks examining memory for delayed intentions. What factors influence our use of such strategies, and what behavioural consequences do they have? This article describes four online experiments (N = 1196) examining a novel web-based task in which participants hold intentions for brief periods, with the option to strategically externalize these intentions by creating a reminder. This task significantly predicted participants' fulfilment of a naturalistic intention embedded within their everyday activities up to one week later (with greater predictive ability than more traditional prospective memory tasks, albeit with weak effect size). Setting external reminders improved performance, and it was more prevalent in older adults. Furthermore, participants set reminders adaptively, based on (a) memory load, and (b) the likelihood of distraction. These results suggest the importance of metacognitive processes in triggering intention offloading, which can increase the probability that intentions are eventually fulfilled.

  3. Transitions and Trajectories from Higher Education to Work and Back--A Comparison between Finnish and Portuguese Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Mariana Gaio; Korhonen, Vesa

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that transitions from education to work (and from work to education) can take place several times and occur at different points in an individual's life cycle. This paper's overall intention is to contribute to a deeper understanding of higher education graduates' transitions between education and work shortly after…

  4. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  5. Using gaze patterns to predict task intent in collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Ming; Andrist, Sean; Sauppé, Allison; Mutlu, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    In everyday interactions, humans naturally exhibit behavioral cues, such as gaze and head movements, that signal their intentions while interpreting the behavioral cues of others to predict their intentions. Such intention prediction enables each partner to adapt their behaviors to the intent of others, serving a critical role in joint action where parties work together to achieve a common goal. Among behavioral cues, eye gaze is particularly important in understanding a person's attention and intention. In this work, we seek to quantify how gaze patterns may indicate a person's intention. Our investigation was contextualized in a dyadic sandwich-making scenario in which a “worker” prepared a sandwich by adding ingredients requested by a “customer.” In this context, we investigated the extent to which the customers' gaze cues serve as predictors of which ingredients they intend to request. Predictive features were derived to represent characteristics of the customers' gaze patterns. We developed a support vector machine-based (SVM-based) model that achieved 76% accuracy in predicting the customers' intended requests based solely on gaze features. Moreover, the predictor made correct predictions approximately 1.8 s before the spoken request from the customer. We further analyzed several episodes of interactions from our data to develop a deeper understanding of the scenarios where our predictor succeeded and failed in making correct predictions. These analyses revealed additional gaze patterns that may be leveraged to improve intention prediction. This work highlights gaze cues as a significant resource for understanding human intentions and informs the design of real-time recognizers of user intention for intelligent systems, such as assistive robots and ubiquitous devices, that may enable more complex capabilities and improved user experience. PMID:26257694

  6. Island morphologies in epitaxial growth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe; Leskovar, M.; Rumaner, Lee; Ohuchi, Fumio; Olmstead, Marjorie A.; Ueno, Keiji; Koma, Atsushi

    1996-03-01

    Growth of epitaxial films commonly occurs through the coalescence of individual islands. The morphology of islands has therefore a key importance for the film qualities desired. A uniform layer-by-layer growth of the film is achieved when islands in the first layer coalesce to form a uniform layer before a second layer nucleates; a non-uniform multi-layer growth results from multiple layers successively nucleating on top of each other before the first layer coalesces. We developed a kinetic model based on an analytic solution of the diffusion equation between nucleation events to calculate the evolving island morphology during growth. The morphologies depend on deposition rate, substrate temperature, and activation energies for surface diffusion on the substrate and deposited material. By applying this theory to atomic force microscopy data of GaSe multi-layer islands, we extract a value for the activation energy for Ga diffusion across steps of GaSe. Supported by NSF Grant No. ECS-9209652, DOE Grant No. DE-FG06-94ER45516, and the Japanese New Energy Development Organization.

  7. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  8. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  9. Intentionality, self-reference and anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julià, Pere

    1998-07-01

    The conceptual analysis of anticipation inherits all the difficulties associated with intentionality. These can be reduced to: (1) the unwillingness to recognize the dispositional nature of the organism-environment interaction; (2) a reluctance to treat language and perception as bona fide forms of activity, thus blocking an effective approach to self-reference, among other things; (3) the general tendency to accept the ascriptional mode of research as a way out of these difficulties. The stage is then set for the assimilation of animal and human behavior studies to machine simulation; also, for the unnecessary reductionism and largely speculative physiologizing that go with mind-brain analogies in lieu of a holistic approach to the facts. This paper argues for a naturalistic approach. Anticipation is about "bringing the future into the present" as part of adaptation; it involves special activities of a cognitive nature, sometimes automatic and probably shared with other species, at other times self-generated and only possible due to some unique properties of human language. Anticipation is best conceptualized as a component in self-regulation. An account in terms of "etiology" serves to recast the notion of "context"; the importance of conative factors is stressed. The emphasis is on experimentally determined variables and processes rather than on abstract idealization or post facto reconstruction. Incursion and hyperincursion techniques are discussed in connection with a possible formulation centered on the synergistic influence of environmental and organismic factors.

  10. Intentional Collaboration & Innovation Spaces at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and Innovation (C&I) are extremely popular terms in corporate jargon, and institutions with reputations for creativity often have clever and fun spaces set aside for hatching ideas and developing products or services. In and of themselves, a room full of "collaboration furniture" and electronics can't make C&I happen, any more than oil makes a gas or diesel engine run. As with the engine, though, quality lubrication is a huge factor in the smooth operation, power, and longevity of C&I activity. This paper describes spaces deliberately set up at numerous NASA field centers to support collaborative and creative thinking and processes. (Sometimes support is not so much a matter of doing things to spark discussion as it is removing constraints imposed by traditional settings and making information sharing as easy as possible.) Some spaces are rooms or suites dedicated to C&I, with significant electronic support and/or intentional lack thereof (to emphasize the human element). Others are small, comfortable "roosting places" that invite conversations of opportunity. Descriptions include the sponsoring organization, underlying goals and philosophies, lessons learned, and opportunities to excel. There is discussion about how such areas might interconnect within centers, across NASA, and with external entities using current technology and what tools and approaches may be in our future.

  11. Sunscreen use among recreational cyclists: how intentions predict reported behavior.

    PubMed

    Petty, Kristen N; Knee, C Raymond; Joseph, Aaron K

    2013-03-01

    A nationwide survey measured 927 recreational cyclists' cognitions and perceptions about skin cancer risks, along with sun protection practices and predictors of sunscreen use while cycling. Multiple regressions evaluated associations between perceived costs, rewards, photoaging, self-efficacy and sunscreen use, and potential moderators of the associations between intentions and sunscreen use were examined. Results suggest that when cyclists see the advantages of using sunscreen, are worried about photoaging, and feel efficacious, they have stronger intentions to apply sunscreen before riding. Intentions to use sunscreen while cycling predict reported use of sunscreen, particularly when cyclists perceive sunscreen application as easy and viable.

  12. Induced arousal and orienting tasks as determinants of intentional recall.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, C B

    1992-07-01

    In this study, the author examined the effects of intention to learn, noise, and different types of orienting tasks on short-term and long-term recall for 15 Hindi paired-associates. Intention to learn improved recall, as did encoding of semantic features, and noise impaired both short-term and long-term recall. The analysis of short-term recall scores indicated that there were no significant interactions between these factors, but the analysis of long-term recall scores indicated that there were significant interactions between noise and orienting tasks and between intentionality and orienting tasks.

  13. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  14. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE PAGES

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  15. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  16. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  17. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  18. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-07-21

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands.

  19. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL