Effective quantum dynamics of interacting systems with inhomogeneous coupling
Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Christ, H.; Solano, E.
2007-03-15
We study the quantum dynamics of a single mode (particle) interacting inhomogeneously with a large number of particles and introduce an effective approach to find the accessible Hilbert space, where the dynamics takes place. Two relevant examples are given: the inhomogeneous Tavis-Cummings model (e.g., N atomic qubits coupled to a single cavity mode, or to a motional mode in trapped ions) and the inhomogeneous coupling of an electron spin to N nuclear spins in a quantum dot.
Coupled effects of local movement and global interaction on contagion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Chen, Rong-Da; Qiu, Tian; Shi, Yong-Dong; Zhong, Chen-Yang
2015-10-01
By incorporating segregated spatial domain and individual-based linkage into the SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) model, we propose a generalized epidemic model which can change from the territorial epidemic model to the networked epidemic model. The role of the individual-based linkage between different spatial domains is investigated. As we adjust the timescale parameter τ from 0 to unity, which represents the degree of activation of the individual-based linkage, three regions are found. Within the region of 0 < τ < 0.02, the epidemic is determined by local movement and is sensitive to the timescale τ. Within the region of 0.02 < τ < 0.5, the epidemic is insensitive to the timescale τ. Within the region of 0.5 < τ < 1, the outbreak of the epidemic is determined by the structure of the individual-based linkage. As we keep an eye on the first region, the role of activating the individual-based linkage in the present model is similar to the role of the shortcuts in the two-dimensional small world network. Only activating a small number of the individual-based linkage can prompt the outbreak of the epidemic globally. The role of narrowing segregated spatial domain and reducing mobility in epidemic control is checked. These two measures are found to be conducive to curbing the spread of infectious disease only when the global interaction is suppressed. A log-log relation between the change in the number of infected individuals and the timescale τ is found. By calculating the epidemic threshold and the mean first encounter time, we heuristically analyze the microscopic characteristics of the propagation of the epidemic in the present model.
Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme
2014-05-15
A method for extending traditional plasma transport theories into the strong coupling regime is presented. Like traditional theories, this is based on a binary scattering approximation, but where physics associated with many body correlations is included through the use of an effective interaction potential. The latter is simply related to the pair-distribution function. Modeling many body effects in this manner can extend traditional plasma theory to orders of magnitude stronger coupling. Theoretical predictions are tested against molecular dynamics simulations for electron-ion temperature relaxation as well as diffusion in one component systems. Emphasis is placed on the connection with traditional plasma theory, where it is stressed that the effective potential concept has precedence through the manner in which screening is imposed. The extension to strong coupling requires accounting for correlations in addition to screening. Limitations of this approach in the presence of strong caging are also discussed.
Behnia, Behnoush; Heinrichs, Markus; Bergmann, Wiebke; Jung, Stefanie; Germann, Janine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hartmann, Uwe; Kruger, Tillmann H C
2014-03-01
Knowledge about the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on human sexual behaviors and partner interactions remains limited. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesize that OXT should be able to positively influence parameters of sexual function and couple interactions. Employing a naturalistic setting involving 29 healthy heterosexual couples (n=58 participants), we analyzed the acute effects of intranasally administered OXT (24IU) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm and refractory aspects of sexual behavior together with partner interactions. Data were assessed by psychometric instruments (Acute Sexual Experiences Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale) as well as biomarkers, such as cortisol, α-amylase and heart rate. Intranasal OXT administration did not alter "classical" parameters of sexual function, such as sexual drive, arousal or penile erection and lubrication. However, analysis of variance and a hierarchical linear model (HLM) revealed specific effects related to the orgasmic/post-orgasmic interval as well as parameters of partner interactions. According to HLM analysis, OXT increased the intensity of orgasm, contentment after sexual intercourse and the effect of study participation. According to ANOVA analysis, these effects were more pronounced in men. Men additionally indicated higher levels of sexual satiety after sexual intercourse with OXT administration. Women felt more relaxed and subgroups indicated better abilities to share sexual desires or to empathize with their partners. The effect sizes were small to moderate. Biomarkers indicated moderate psychophysiological activation but were not affected by OXT, gender or method of contraception. Using a naturalistic setting, intranasal OXT administration in couples exerted differential effects on parameters of sexual function and partner interactions. These results warrant further investigations, including subjects with sexual and relationship problems. PMID:24503174
Audus, Debra J; Starr, Francis W; Douglas, Jack F
2016-02-21
The interactions of molecules and particles in solution often involve an interplay between isotropic and highly directional interactions that lead to a mutual coupling of phase separation and self-assembly. This situation arises, for example, in proteins interacting through hydrophobic and charged patch regions on their surface and in nanoparticles with grafted polymer chains, such as DNA. As a minimal model of complex fluids exhibiting this interaction coupling, we investigate spherical particles having an isotropic interaction and a constellation of five attractive patches on the particle's surface. Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field calculations of the phase boundaries of this model depend strongly on the relative strength of the isotropic and patch potentials, where we surprisingly find that analytic mean-field predictions become increasingly accurate as the directional interactions become increasingly predominant. We quantitatively account for this effect by noting that the effective interaction range increases with increasing relative directional to isotropic interaction strength. We also identify thermodynamic transition lines associated with self-assembly, extract the entropy and energy of association, and characterize the resulting cluster properties obtained from simulations using percolation scaling theory and Flory-Stockmayer mean-field theory. We find that the fractal dimension and cluster size distribution are consistent with those of lattice animals, i.e., randomly branched polymers swollen by excluded volume interactions. We also identify a universal functional form for the average molecular weight and a nearly universal functional form for a scaling parameter characterizing the cluster size distribution. Since the formation of branched clusters at equilibrium is a common phenomenon in nature, we detail how our analysis can be used in experimental characterization of such associating fluids. PMID:26896996
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Audus, Debra J.; Starr, Francis W.; Douglas, Jack F.
2016-02-01
The interactions of molecules and particles in solution often involve an interplay between isotropic and highly directional interactions that lead to a mutual coupling of phase separation and self-assembly. This situation arises, for example, in proteins interacting through hydrophobic and charged patch regions on their surface and in nanoparticles with grafted polymer chains, such as DNA. As a minimal model of complex fluids exhibiting this interaction coupling, we investigate spherical particles having an isotropic interaction and a constellation of five attractive patches on the particle's surface. Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field calculations of the phase boundaries of this model depend strongly on the relative strength of the isotropic and patch potentials, where we surprisingly find that analytic mean-field predictions become increasingly accurate as the directional interactions become increasingly predominant. We quantitatively account for this effect by noting that the effective interaction range increases with increasing relative directional to isotropic interaction strength. We also identify thermodynamic transition lines associated with self-assembly, extract the entropy and energy of association, and characterize the resulting cluster properties obtained from simulations using percolation scaling theory and Flory-Stockmayer mean-field theory. We find that the fractal dimension and cluster size distribution are consistent with those of lattice animals, i.e., randomly branched polymers swollen by excluded volume interactions. We also identify a universal functional form for the average molecular weight and a nearly universal functional form for a scaling parameter characterizing the cluster size distribution. Since the formation of branched clusters at equilibrium is a common phenomenon in nature, we detail how our analysis can be used in experimental characterization of such associating fluids.
Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf
2015-05-01
We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivoni, E. R.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Bras, R. L.
2003-12-01
The catchment hydrologic response to rainfall and the evolution of the river basin network and landscape morphology are closely linked phenomena, albeit active over different temporal scales. While the relation between hydrograph shape and catchment form has long been hypothesized, little is yet understood about the evolution of the basin hydrologic response with catchment age or geomorphic condition. Similarly, the long-term morphologic changes and feedbacks associated with a spatially-variable, evolving runoff response are still unknown. Understanding the complex interaction between basin hydrology and geomorphology was an important pursuit during Michael J. Kirkby's scientific career. In this study, we describe the interactive effects and feedbacks between the basin hydrograph (hydrologic response) and shape (geomorphic response) utilizing two state-of-the-art models: the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) and the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS). We first illustrate the changes occurring in the basin hydrograph, variable source area and channel network as the catchment evolves. We then describe how the spatially-explicit hydrologic response from various mechanisms and its associated moisture field directly impacts the erosion and subsequently the basin shape. Quantitative comparisons are then made between a set of interactive and non-interactive simulations for idealized conditions. Our ultimate goal is to highlight the need for coupling distributed simulations of catchment hydrology and geomorphology for investigating the interaction between basin and hydrograph shape.
The Effects of Three Methods of Observation on Couples in Interactional Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carpenter, Linda J.; Merkel, William T.
1988-01-01
Assessed the effects of three different methods of observation of couples (one-way mirror, audio recording, and video recording) on 30 volunteer, nonclinical married couples. Results suggest that types of observation do not produce significantly different effects on nonclinical couples. (Author/ABL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajput, Gagan; Chand, S.; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, K. C.
2010-10-01
In this paper, we present a theoretical study of correlated electronic transport through coupled double quantum dot (DQD) system attached to normal leads, using a generalised two impurity Anderson Hamiltonian in the presence of intra- and inter-dot Coulomb interactions. A generic formulation from which different structures, i.e. series, symmetric as well as asymmetric parallel and T-shape, can be obtained easily, is developed using Keldysh non-equilibrium Green functions method. The occupation numbers and correlators appearing in the formulation have been calculated in a self-consistent manner. A special attention is paid to investigate the ZBM in the differential conductance, which appears, develops and disappears over a particular range of interdot Coulomb interaction, in the configuration of interest. The ZBM is found to result from the renormalization of energy levels induced by the interdot Coulomb interaction and therefore an attempt has been made to understand it within the framework of local density of states. The interdot tunneling is found to enhance the effect of the interdot Coulomb interaction in inducing the ZBM in all the three configurations. Calculations for the T-shape configuration reveal that non-zero value of the interdot tunneling is an essential condition for the appearance of the ZBM in the differential conductance.
Interaction effects on the tunneling of electron-hole pairs in coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrero, Hector M.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.; Ulloa, Sergio E.
2001-03-01
The transit time of carriers is beginning to be an important parameter in the physical operation of semiconductor quantum dot `devices'. In the present work, we study the coherent propagation of electron-hole pairs in coupled self-assembled quantum dots in close proximity. These systems, achieved experimentally in a number of different geometries, have been recently implemented as a novel storage of optical information that may give rise to smart pixel technology in the near future [1]. Here, we apply an effective mass hamiltonian approach and solve numerically the time dependent Schroedinger equation of a system of photo-created electron-hole pairs in the dots. Our approach takes into account both Coulomb interactions and confinement effects. The time evolution is investigated in terms of the structural parameters for typical InAs-GaAs dots. Different initial conditions are considered, reflecting the basic processes that would take place in these experiments. We study the probabilities of finding the electron and hole in either the same or adjacent quantum dot, and study carefully the role of interactions in this behavior. [1] T. Lundstrom, W. Schoenfeld, H. Lee, and P. M. Petroff, Science 286, 2312 (1999).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Li; Zhang, Guo-Feng
2016-08-01
The effects of nuclear field and spin-orbit interaction on dense coding and swap operation are studied in detail for both the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) coupling cases. The conditions for a valid dense coding and under which swap operation is feasible are given.
Fluctuation-induced transport of two coupled particles: Effect of the interparticle interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Rozenbaum, Viktor M.; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen; Trakhtenberg, Leonid I.; Lin, Sheng Hsien
2014-06-01
We consider a system of two coupled particles fluctuating between two states, with different interparticle interaction potentials and particle friction coefficients. An external action drives the interstate transitions that induces reciprocating motion along the internal coordinate x (the interparticle distance). The system moves unidirectionally due to rectification of the internal motion by asymmetric friction fluctuations and thus operates as a dimeric motor that converts input energy into net movement. We focus on how the law of interaction between the particles affects the dimer transport and, in particular, the role of thermal noise in the motion inducing mechanism. It is argued that if the interaction potential behaves at large distances as xα, depending on the value of the exponent α, the thermal noise plays a constructive (α > 2), neutral (α = 2), or destructive (α < 2) role. In the case of α = 1, corresponding piecewise linear potential profiles, an exact solution is obtained and discussed in detail.
Sexual Interaction in Nonclinical Couples.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woody, Jane D.; D'Souza, Henry J.
1997-01-01
Reports on the sexual functioning and interaction of 58 nonclinical heterosexual couples as measured by the Sexual Interaction System Scale (SISS). On all five SISS factors, the nonclinical sample scored significantly better than persons in therapy for sexual dysfunction; they also reported satisfactory relationship adjustment and high levels of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolasiński, K.; Mreńca-Kolasińska, A.; Szafran, B.
2016-01-01
We analyze the effective Landé factor g* and its dependence on the orientation of the external magnetic field for a quantum point contact defined in the two-dimensional electron gas. The paper simulates the experimental procedure for evaluation of the effective Landé factors from the transconductance of a biased device in an external magnetic field. The contributions of the orbital effects of the magnetic field, the electron-electron interaction, and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are studied in low-temperature conditions (0.5 K). The anisotropy of the g* factors for the in-plane magnetic field orientation, which seems counterintuitive from the perspective of the effective SO magnetic field, is explained in an analytical model of the constriction as due to the SO-induced subband mixing. The asymmetry of the transconductance as a function of the gate voltage is obtained in agreement with the experimental data and the results are explained as due to depletion of the electron gas within the quantum point contact constriction and the related reduction of the screening as described within the DFT approach. The results for transconductance and the g* factors obtained are in a good agreement with the experimental data [Martin et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 041303 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.041303].
Bessette, Gregory Carl
2004-09-01
Modeling the response of buried reinforced concrete structures subjected to close-in detonations of conventional high explosives poses a challenge for a number of reasons. Foremost, there is the potential for coupled interaction between the blast and structure. Coupling enters the problem whenever the structure deformation affects the stress state in the neighboring soil, which in turn, affects the loading on the structure. Additional challenges for numerical modeling include handling disparate degrees of material deformation encountered in the structure and surrounding soil, modeling the structure details (e.g., modeling the concrete with embedded reinforcement, jointed connections, etc.), providing adequate mesh resolution, and characterizing the soil response under blast loading. There are numerous numerical approaches for modeling this class of problem (e.g., coupled finite element/smooth particle hydrodynamics, arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian methods, etc.). The focus of this work will be the use of a coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) solution approach. In particular, the development and application of a CEL capability within the Zapotec code is described. Zapotec links two production codes, CTH and Pronto3D. CTH, an Eulerian shock physics code, performs the Eulerian portion of the calculation, while Pronto3D, an explicit finite element code, performs the Lagrangian portion. The two codes are run concurrently with the appropriate portions of a problem solved on their respective computational domains. Zapotec handles the coupling between the two domains. The application of the CEL methodology within Zapotec for modeling coupled blast/structure interaction will be investigated by a series of benchmark calculations. These benchmarks rely on data from the Conventional Weapons Effects Backfill (CONWEB) test series. In these tests, a 15.4-lb pipe-encased C-4 charge was detonated in soil at a 5-foot standoff from a buried test structure. The test structure was composed of a
LiNbO3 electronic structure: Many-body interactions, spin-orbit coupling, and thermal effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riefer, A.; Friedrich, M.; Sanna, S.; Gerstmann, U.; Schindlmayr, Arno; Schmidt, W. G.
2016-02-01
The influence of electronic many-body interactions, spin-orbit coupling, and thermal lattice vibrations on the electronic structure of lithium niobate is calculated from first principles. Self-energy calculations in the G W approximation show that the inclusion of self-consistency in the Green function G and the screened Coulomb potential W opens the band gap far stronger than found in previous G0W0 calculations but slightly overestimates its actual value due to the neglect of excitonic effects in W . A realistic frozen-lattice band gap of about 5.9 eV is obtained by combining hybrid density functional theory with the QS G W0 scheme. The renormalization of the band gap due to electron-phonon coupling, derived here using molecular dynamics as well as density functional perturbation theory, reduces this value by about 0.5 eV at room temperature. Spin-orbit coupling does not noticeably modify the fundamental gap but gives rise to a Rashba-like spin texture in the conduction band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patricola, C. M.; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Montuoro, R.
2012-04-01
The sensitivity of simulated strength, track, and structure of Hurricane Katrina to atmospheric model resolution, cumulus parameterization, and initialization time, as well as mesoscale ocean-atmosphere interactions with and without small-scale ocean-wave effect, are investigated with a fully coupled regional climate model. The atmosphere, ocean, and wave components are represented by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), and Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Uncoupled atmosphere-only simulations with horizontal resolutions of 1, 3, 9, and 27 km show that while the simulated cyclone track is highly sensitive to initialization time, its dependence on model resolution is relatively weak. Using NCEP/CFSR reanalysis as initial and boundary conditions, WRF, even at low resolution, is able to track Katrina accurately for 3 days before it made landfall on August 29, 2005. Katrina's strength, however, is much more difficult to reproduce and exhibits a strong dependence on model resolution. At its lowest resolution (27 km), WRF is only capable of simulating a maximum strength of Category 2 storm. Even at 1 km resolution, the simulated Katrina only reaches Category 4 storm intensity. Further WRF experiments with and without cumulus parameterization reveal minor changes in strength. None of the WRF-only simulations capture the observed rapid intensification of Katrina to Category 5 when it passed over a warm Loop-Current eddy (LCE) in the Gulf of Mexico, suggesting that mesoscale ocean-atmosphere interactions involving LCEs may play a crucial role in Katrina's rapid intensification. Coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations are designed and carried out to investigate hurricane Katrina-LCE interactions with and without considering small-scale ocean wave processes in order to fully understand the dynamical ocean-atmosphere processes in the observed rapid cyclone intensification.
Interactions and thermoelectric effects in a parallel-coupled double quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sierra, Miguel A.; Saiz-Bretín, M.; Domínguez-Adame, F.; Sánchez, David
2016-06-01
We investigate the nonequilibrium transport properties of a double quantum-dot system connected in parallel to two leads, including intradot electron-electron interaction. In the absence of interactions, the system supports a bound state in the continuum. This state is revealed as a Fano antiresonance in the transmission when the energy levels of the dots are detuned. Using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's-function formalism, we find that the occurrence of the Fano antiresonance survives in the presence of Coulomb repulsion. We give precise predictions for the experimental detection of bound states in the continuum. First, we calculate the differential conductance as a function of the applied voltage and the dot level detuning and find that crossing points in the diamond structure are revealed as minima due to the transmission antiresonances. Second, we determine the thermoelectric current in response to an applied temperature bias. In the linear regime, quantum interference gives rise to sharp peaks in the thermoelectric conductance. Remarkably, we find interaction-induced strong current nonlinearities for large thermal gradients that may lead to several nontrivial zeros in the thermocurrent. The latter property is especially attractive for thermoelectric applications.
Zeng, Xianzhong
2004-12-10
Many laser ablation applications such as laser drilling and micromachining generate cavity structures. The study of laser ablation inside a cavity is of both fundamental and practical significance. In this dissertation, cavities with different aspect ratios (depth/diameter) were fabricated in fused silica by laser micromachining. Pulsed laser ablation in the cavities was studied and compared with laser ablation on a flat surface. The formation of laser-induced plasmas in the cavities and the effects of the cavities on the ablation processes were investigated. The temperatures and electron number densities of the resulting laser-induced plasmas in the cavities were determined from spectroscopic measurements. Reflection and confinement effects by the cavity walls and plasma shielding were discussed to explain the increased temperature and electron number density with respect to increasing cavity aspect ratio. The temporal variations of the plasma temperature and electron number density inside the cavity decreased more rapidly than outside the cavity. The effect of laser energy on formation of a plasma inside a cavity was also investigated. Propagation of the shock wave generated during pulsed laser ablation in cavities was measured using laser shadowgraph imaging and compared with laser ablation on a flat surface. It is found that outside the cavity, after about 30 ns the radius of the expanding shock wave was proportional to t2/5, which corresponds to a spherical blast wave. The calculated pressures and temperatures of the shocked air outside of the cavities were higher than those obtained on the flat surface. Lasers with femtosecond pulse duration are receiving much attention for direct fabrication of microstructures due to their capabilities of high-precision ablation with minimal damage to the sample. We have also performed experimental studies of pulsed femtosecond laser ablation on the flat surface of silicon samples and compared results with pulsed nanosecond
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.; Rendell, Alistair P.
1990-01-01
The recently proposed quadratic configuration interaction (QCI) method is compared with the more rigorous coupled cluster (CC) approach for a variety of chemical systems. Some of these systems are well represented by a single-determinant reference function and others are not. The finite order singles and doubles correlation energy, the perturbational triples correlation energy, and a recently devised diagnostic for estimating the importance of multireference effects are considered. The spectroscopic constants of CuH, the equilibrium structure of cis-(NO)2 and the binding energies of Be3, Be4, Mg3, and Mg4 were calculated using both approaches. The diagnostic for estimating multireference character clearly demonstrates that the QCI method becomes less satisfactory than the CC approach as non-dynamical correlation becomes more important, in agreement with a perturbational analysis of the two methods and the numerical estimates of the triple excitation energies they yield. The results for CuH show that the differences between the two methods become more apparent as the chemical systems under investigation becomes more multireference in nature and the QCI results consequently become less reliable. Nonetheless, when the system of interest is dominated by a single reference determinant both QCI and CC give very similar results.
Krishtopenko, S. S.
2015-02-15
The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system.
Interaction function of oscillating coupled neurons
Dodla, Ramana; Wilson, Charles J.
2013-01-01
Large scale simulations of electrically coupled neuronal oscillators often employ the phase coupled oscillator paradigm to understand and predict network behavior. We study the nature of the interaction between such coupled oscillators using weakly coupled oscillator theory. By employing piecewise linear approximations for phase response curves and voltage time courses, and parameterizing their shapes, we compute the interaction function for all such possible shapes and express it in terms of discrete Fourier modes. We find that reasonably good approximation is achieved with four Fourier modes that comprise of both sine and cosine terms. PMID:24229210
Magnetostatic interactions in antiferromagnetically coupled patterned media.
Deng, S; Aung, K O; Piramanayagam, S N; Sbiaa, R
2011-03-01
In an array of closely spaced magnetic islands as in patterned media, magnetostatic interactions play a major role in widening the switching field distribution and reducing the thermal stability. Patterned antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) media provide interesting systems for studying the effect of magnetostatic interactions on the reversal of closely spaced AFC bits in an array, as AFC structure helps to reduce the remanent magnetization (M(r)), leading to reduced magnetostatic interactions. Here, we study the magnetic reversal of single domain-patterned AFC CoCrPt:oxide bilayer system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, by imaging the remanence state of the bits after the application of a magnetic field with magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The influence of magnetostatic fields from the neighboring bits on the switching field distribution (SFD) for an entity in a patterned media is studied by varying the stabilizing layer thickness of the AFC structure and bit spacing. We observe a distinct increase in stability and coercivity with an increase in stabilizing layer thickness for the 40 nm spaced bits. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the AFC structure for reducing magnetostatic interactions in patterned media, such that high thermal stability can be achieved by the reduced M(r), without writability issues. PMID:21449425
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farago, J.; Meyer, H.; Baschnagel, J.; Semenov, A. N.
2012-05-01
A mode-coupling theory (MCT) version (called hMCT thereafter) of a recently presented theory [Farago, Meyer, and Semenov, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.178301 107, 178301 (2011)] is developed to describe the diffusional properties of a tagged polymer in a melt. The hMCT accounts for the effect of viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions (VHIs), that is, a physical mechanism distinct from the density-based MCT (dMCT) described in the first paper of this series. The two versions of the MCT yield two different contributions to the asymptotic behavior of the center-of-mass velocity autocorrelation function (c.m. VAF). We show that in most cases the VHI mechanism is dominant; for long chains and prediffusive times it yields a negative tail ∝-N-1/2t-3/2 for the c.m. VAF. The case of non-momentum-conserving dynamics (Langevin or Monte Carlo) is discussed as well. It generally displays a distinctive behavior with two successive relaxation stages: first -N-1t-5/4 (as in the dMCT approach), then -N-1/2t-3/2. Both the amplitude and the duration of the first t-5/4 stage crucially depend on the Langevin friction parameter γ. All results are also relevant for the early time regime of entangled melts. These slow relaxations of the c.m. VAF, thus account for the anomalous subdiffusive regime of the c.m. mean square displacement widely observed in numerical and experimental works.
Periat, Aurélie; Kohler, Isabelle; Thomas, Aurélien; Nicoli, Raul; Boccard, Julien; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Schappler, Julie; Guillarme, Davy
2016-03-25
Reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is the gold standard technique in bioanalysis. However, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) could represent a viable alternative to RPLC for the analysis of polar and/or ionizable compounds, as it often provides higher MS sensitivity and alternative selectivity. Nevertheless, this technique can be also prone to matrix effects (ME). ME are one of the major issues in quantitative LC-MS bioanalysis. To ensure acceptable method performance (i.e., trueness and precision), a careful evaluation and minimization of ME is required. In the present study, the incidence of ME in HILIC-MS/MS and RPLC-MS/MS was compared for plasma and urine samples using two representative sets of 38 pharmaceutical compounds and 40 doping agents, respectively. The optimal generic chromatographic conditions in terms of selectivity with respect to interfering compounds were established in both chromatographic modes by testing three different stationary phases in each mode with different mobile phase pH. A second step involved the assessment of ME in RPLC and HILIC under the best generic conditions, using the post-extraction addition method. Biological samples were prepared using two different sample pre-treatments, i.e., a non-selective sample clean-up procedure (protein precipitation and simple dilution for plasma and urine samples, respectively) and a selective sample preparation, i.e., solid phase extraction for both matrices. The non-selective pretreatments led to significantly less ME in RPLC vs. HILIC conditions regardless of the matrix. On the contrary, HILIC appeared as a valuable alternative to RPLC for plasma and urine samples treated by a selective sample preparation. Indeed, in the case of selective sample preparation, the compounds influenced by ME were different in HILIC and RPLC, and lower and similar ME occurrence was generally observed in RPLC vs. HILIC for urine and plasma samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-07-01
The effects of strong electrostatic interaction among highly charged dust on multi-dimensional instability of dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma by small- k perturbation expansion method have been investigated. We found that a Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation governs the evolution of obliquely propagating small amplitude DA solitary waves in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The parametric regimes for which the obliquely propagating DA solitary waves become unstable are identified. The basic properties, viz., amplitude, width, instability criterion, and growth rate, of these obliquely propagating DA solitary structures are found to be significantly modified by the effects of different physical strongly coupled dusty plasma parameters. The implications of our results in some space/astrophysical plasmas and some future laboratory experiments are briefly discussed.
Mvogo, Alain; Ben-Bolie, G H; Kofané, T C
2015-06-01
The dynamics of three coupled α-polypeptide chains of a collagen molecule is investigated with the influence of power-law long-range exciton-exciton interactions. The continuum limit of the discrete equations reveal that the collagen dynamics is governed by a set of three coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, whose dispersive coefficient depends on the LRI parameter r. We construct the analytic symmetric and asymmetric (antisymmetric) soliton solutions, which match with the structural features of collagen related with the acupuncture channels. These solutions are used as initial conditions for the numerical simulations of the discrete equations, which reveal a coherent transport of energy in the molecule for r > 3. The results also indicate that the width of the solitons is a decreasing function of r, which help to stabilize the solitons propagating in the molecule. To confirm further the efficiency of energy transport in the molecule, the modulational instability of the system is performed and the numerical simulations show that the energy can flow from one polypeptide chain to another in the form of nonlinear waves. PMID:26117109
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mvogo, Alain; Ben-Bolie, G. H.; Kofané, T. C.
2015-06-01
The dynamics of three coupled α-polypeptide chains of a collagen molecule is investigated with the influence of power-law long-range exciton-exciton interactions. The continuum limit of the discrete equations reveal that the collagen dynamics is governed by a set of three coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, whose dispersive coefficient depends on the LRI parameter r. We construct the analytic symmetric and asymmetric (antisymmetric) soliton solutions, which match with the structural features of collagen related with the acupuncture channels. These solutions are used as initial conditions for the numerical simulations of the discrete equations, which reveal a coherent transport of energy in the molecule for r > 3. The results also indicate that the width of the solitons is a decreasing function of r, which help to stabilize the solitons propagating in the molecule. To confirm further the efficiency of energy transport in the molecule, the modulational instability of the system is performed and the numerical simulations show that the energy can flow from one polypeptide chain to another in the form of nonlinear waves.
Coupling interaction of electromagnetic wave in a groove doublet configuration.
Ding, Lan; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Dong; Wang, Kejia
2010-09-27
Based on the waveguide mode (WGM) method, coupling interaction of electromagnetic wave in a groove doublet configuration is studied. The formulation obtained by WGM method for a single groove [Prog. Electromagn. Res. 18, 1-17 (1998)] is extended to two grooves. By exploring the total scattered field of the configuration, coupling interaction ratios are defined to describe the interaction between grooves quantitatively. Since each groove in this groove doublet configuration is regarded as the basic unit, the effects of coupling interaction on the scattered fields of each groove can be investigated respectively. Numerical results show that an oscillatory behavior of coupling interaction is damped with increasing groove spacing. The incident and scattering angle dependence of coupling interaction is symmetrical when the two grooves are the same. For the case of two subwavelength grooves, the coupling interaction is not sensitive to the incident angle and scattering angle. Although the case of two grooves is discussed for simplicity, the formulation developed in this article can be generalized to arbitrary number of grooves. Moreover, our study offers a simple alternative to investigate and design metallic gratings, compact directional antennas, couplers, and other devices especially in low frequency regime such as THz and microwave domain. PMID:20941004
Strong coupling theory for interacting lattice models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanescu, Tudor D.; Kotliar, Gabriel
2004-11-01
We develop a strong coupling approach for a general lattice problem. We argue that this strong coupling perspective represents the natural framework for a generalization of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The main result of this analysis is twofold: (1) It provides the tools for a unified treatment of any nonlocal contribution to the Hamiltonian. Within our scheme, nonlocal terms such as hopping terms, spin-spin interactions, or nonlocal Coulomb interactions are treated on equal footing. (2) By performing a detailed strong-coupling analysis of a generalized lattice problem, we establish the basis for possible clean and systematic extensions beyond DMFT. To this end, we study the problem using three different perspectives. First, we develop a generalized expansion around the atomic limit in terms of the coupling constants for the nonlocal contributions to the Hamiltonian. By analyzing the diagrammatics associated with this expansion, we establish the equations for a generalized dynamical mean-field theory. Second, we formulate the theory in terms of a generalized strong coupling version of the Baym-Kadanoff functional. Third, following Pairault, Sénéchal, and Tremblay [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5389 (1998)], we present our scheme in the language of a perturbation theory for canonical fermionic and bosonic fields and we establish the interpretation of various strong coupling quantities within a standard perturbative picture.
Song, Sunmi; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Mogle, Jacqueline; Martire, Lynn M
2015-12-01
We examined the effect of daily negative and positive mood on the sleep quality of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients (N = 152) and whether a partner's daily responses to a patient's pain behaviors moderated these associations. Patients and their partners completed a baseline interview and 22 daily diary assessments. After controlling for demographic characteristics, OA severity, comorbidities, medication use, relationship satisfaction, and depressed mood, multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated main effects of negative and positive mood on sleep quality indicators. Mood and partner responses interacted such that high solicitous and punishing responses strengthened the association between negative mood and worse sleep. Further, high solicitous responses increased the degree of association between low positive mood and poor sleep, and empathic responses combined with positive mood were associated with better sleep. Results demonstrate that daily negative and positive mood fluctuations can interact with partner responses to affect sleep quality among older adults with chronic pain. PMID:26143147
Effects of Spin-Orbit Coupling on the Spin-Rotation Interaction in the AsH2 Radical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duxbury, Geoffrey; Alijah, Alexander
2014-06-01
The occurence of predissociation in the electronic spectrum of AsH2 is very dependent upon the magnitude of the spin-orbit coupling parameter of the central atom. Making use of Table 5.6 in "The Spectra and Dynamics of Diatomic Molecules, ELSEVIER" by H. Lefebvre-Brion and R.W. Field, it is possible to appreciate the rapid rate of increase of the spin-orbit constants associated with the heavy central atom in the di-hydrides NH2, PH2 and AsH2. The spin-orbit constants range from 42.7 cm-1 for NH2, to 191.3 cm-1 for PH2, and 1178 cm-1 for AsH2. The effects of spin-orbit coupling may be seen in a plot of the separation of the central RQ0,9 and PQ1,N sub-bands as the value of v2' increases from 0 to 5. As the value of v2' increases beyond 2 the spectrum becomes more and more fuzzy as the effects of predissociation become more obvious. This means that unlike the example of the behaviour of PH2, where the vibronic level pattern can be followed below and above the barrier to linearity, in AsH2 and AsD2 the absorption spectrum becomes completely diffuse below the barrier to linearity in the A 2A1 state. The change in the magnitude of the doublet splittings as v2' increases may be seen in the plots of the doublet splittings showing the spin-uncoupling as a result of the increase of overall rotation. In the absorption spectrum of SbH2, recorded in 1967 by T. Barrow in the Chemistry Department at Sheffield University, all the absorption features showed the effects of predissociation, consistent with a spin-orbit constant of 2834 cm-1 for the central atom of SbH2.
Interaction function of coupled bursting neurons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Shi; Jiadong, Zhang
2016-06-01
The interaction functions of electrically coupled Hindmarsh–Rose (HR) neurons for different firing patterns are investigated in this paper. By applying the phase reduction technique, the phase response curve (PRC) of the spiking neuron and burst phase response curve (BPRC) of the bursting neuron are derived. Then the interaction function of two coupled neurons can be calculated numerically according to the PRC (or BPRC) and the voltage time course of the neurons. Results show that the BPRC is more and more complicated with the increase of the spike number within a burst, and the curve of the interaction function oscillates more and more frequently with it. However, two certain things are unchanged: ϕ = 0, which corresponds to the in-phase synchronization state, is always the stable equilibrium, while the anti-phase synchronization state with ϕ = 0.5 is an unstable equilibrium. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11272065 and 11472061).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Lowe, Douglas; Schultz, David M.; McFiggans, Gordon
2016-05-01
The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) has been used to simulate a region of Brazil heavily influenced by biomass burning. Nested simulations were run at 5 and 1 km horizontal grid spacing for three case studies in September 2012. Simulations were run with and without fire emissions, convective parameterisation on the 5 km domain, and aerosol-radiation interactions in order to explore the differences attributable to the parameterisations and to better understand the aerosol direct effects and cloud responses. Direct aerosol-radiation interactions due to biomass burning aerosol resulted in a net cooling, with an average short-wave direct effect of -4.08 ± 1.53 Wm-2. However, around 21.7 Wm-2 is absorbed by aerosol in the atmospheric column, warming the atmosphere at the aerosol layer height, stabilising the column, inhibiting convection, and reducing cloud cover and precipitation. The changes to clouds due to radiatively absorbing aerosol (traditionally known as the semi-direct effects) increase the net short-wave radiation reaching the surface by reducing cloud cover, producing a secondary warming that counters the direct cooling. However, the magnitude of the semi-direct effect was found to be extremely sensitive to the model resolution and the use of convective parameterisation. Precipitation became organised in isolated convective cells when not using a convective parameterisation on the 5 km domain, reducing both total cloud cover and total precipitation. The SW semi-direct effect varied from 6.06 ± 1.46 with convective parameterisation to 3.61 ± 0.86 Wm-2 without. Convective cells within the 1 km domain are typically smaller but with greater updraft velocity than equivalent cells in the 5 km domain, reducing the proportion of the domain covered by cloud in all scenarios and producing a smaller semi-direct effect. Biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles acted as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), increasing the droplet number
Casimir Interaction from Magnetically Coupled Eddy Currents
Intravaia, Francesco; Henkel, Carsten
2009-09-25
We study the quantum and thermal fluctuations of eddy (Foucault) currents in thick metallic plates. A Casimir interaction between two plates arises from the coupling via quasistatic magnetic fields. As a function of distance, the relevant eddy current modes cross over from a quantum to a thermal regime. These modes alone reproduce previously discussed thermal anomalies of the electromagnetic Casimir interaction between good conductors. In particular, they provide a physical picture for the Casimir entropy whose nonzero value at zero temperature arises from a correlated, glassy state.
ANTENNA-COUPLED LIGHT-MATTER INTERACTIONS
NOVOTNY, LUKAS
2014-01-10
This project is focused on antenna-coupled photon emission from single quantum emitters. The properties of optical antennas are tailored to control different photophysical parameters, such as the excited state lifetime, the saturation intensity, and the quantum yield [3]. Using a single molecule coupled to an optical antenna whose position and properties can be controllably adjusted we established a detailed and quantitative understanding of light-matter interactions in nanoscale environments. We have studied various quantum emitters: single molecules [11], quantum dots [7], rareearth ions [2], and NV centers in diamond [19]. We have systematically studied the interaction of these emitters with optical antennas. The overall objective was to establish a high-level of control over the light-matter interaction. In order to eliminate the coupling to the environment, we have taken a step further and explored the possibility of levitating the quantum emitter in high vacuum. What started as a side-project soon became a main activity in our research program and led us to the demonstration of vacuum trapping and cooling of a nanoscale particle [14].
Interplay of Coulomb interaction and spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bünemann, Jörg; Linneweber, Thorben; Löw, Ute; Anders, Frithjof B.; Gebhard, Florian
2016-07-01
We employ the Gutzwiller variational approach to investigate the interplay of Coulomb interaction and spin-orbit coupling in a three-orbital Hubbard model. Already in the paramagnetic phase we find a substantial renormalization of the spin-orbit coupling that enters the effective single-particle Hamiltonian for the quasiparticles. Only close to half band-filling and for sizable Coulomb interaction do we observe clear signatures of Hund's atomic rules for spin, orbital, and total angular momentum. For a finite local Hund's rule exchange interaction we find a ferromagnetically ordered state. The spin-orbit coupling considerably reduces the size of the ordered moment, it generates a small ordered orbital moment, and it induces a magnetic anisotropy. To investigate the magnetic anisotropy energy, we use an external magnetic field that tilts the magnetic moment away from the easy axis (1 ,1 ,1 ) .
Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2014-03-15
Linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma is theoretically investigated. The normal mode analysis (reductive perturbation method) is employed to investigate the role of ambient/external magnetic field, obliqueness, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature in modifying the properties of linear (nonlinear) dust-acoustic waves propagating in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The effective electrostatic dust-temperature, which arises from strong electrostatic interactions among highly charged dust, is considered as a dynamical variable. The linear dispersion relation (describing the linear propagation characteristics) for the obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves is derived and analyzed. On the other hand, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the nonlinear propagation of the dust-acoustic waves (particularly, propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves) is derived and solved. It is shown that the combined effects of obliqueness, magnitude of the ambient/external magnetic field, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature significantly modify the basic properties of linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic waves. The results of this work are compared with those observed by some laboratory experiments.
Nonlinear interaction of meta-atoms through optical coupling
Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Kapitanova, P. V.; Filonov, D. S.; Belov, P. A.; Powell, D. A.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Lapine, M.; McPhedran, R. C.
2014-01-06
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multi-frequency nonlinear coupling mechanism between split-ring resonators. We engineer the coupling between two microwave resonators through optical interaction, whilst suppressing the direct electromagnetic coupling. This allows for a power-dependent interaction between the otherwise independent resonators, opening interesting opportunities to address applications in signal processing, filtering, directional coupling, and electromagnetic compatibility.
Interaction Patterns of Premarital Couples: Typological Assessment Over Time.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norem, Rosalie H.; Olson, David H.
1983-01-01
Studied interaction styles of premarital couples (N=148) and developed a typology of couple interaction at two points in time before marriage. Results showed only 7 percent of the couples had the same type of interaction at the two testings, supporting the hypothesis that premarital relationships are fluid. (WAS)
Thermosphere-ionosphere coupling - An experiment in interactive modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Roble, Raymond G.
1990-01-01
Using the NCAR thermosphere general circulation model, a series of controlled experiments is performed to investigate the interactive coupling between ionospheric plasma densities and thermospheric neutral winds. The interaction is accomplished by parameterizing the F layer peak height, h(m)F2, in an empirical ionospheric model in terms of the meridional wind, v(south), and by forcing the h(m)F2 and the v(south) parameters to remain mutually coupled in a dynamical calculation. It was found that mutual coupling between forcing and meridional wind is weak during the daytime when the F layer exhibits a broad vertical structure. At night, when the F2 layer is more localized, the neutral dynamical structure is dependent on whether forcing is significantly above or below the altitude (about 275-300 km) at which ion drag effectively competes with viscosity in the neutral momentum balance.
Periat, Aurélie; Kohler, Isabelle; Bugey, Aurélie; Bieri, Stefan; Versace, François; Staub, Christian; Guillarme, Davy
2014-08-22
In this study, the influence of electrospray ionization (ESI) source design on the overall sensitivity achieved in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), was investigated. State-of-the-art triple quadrupole mass analyzers from AB Sciex, Agilent Technologies and Waters equipped with brand specific source geometries were tested with various mobile phase pH on 53 pharmaceutical compounds. The design of the ESI source showed to strongly influence the gain in sensitivity that can be achieved in HILIC compared to RPLC mode. The 6460 Triple Quadrupole LC/MS system from Agilent Technologies was particularly affected by mobile phase settings. Indeed, compared to RPLC conditions, 92% of the compounds had an increased signal-to-noise ratio at a flow rate of 300 μL/min in HILIC mode at pH 6, while this percentage dropped to only 7% at 1000 μL/min and pH 3. In contrast, the influence of flow rate and mobile phase pH on the gain in sensitivity between RPLC and HILIC was found very limited with the API 5000 LC/MS/MS system from AB Sciex, as only 15 to 36% of the tested compounds showed an enhanced sensitivity in HILIC mode. With the Xevo TQ-S instrument from Waters, superior sensitivity in HILIC was noticed for 85% of the compounds with optimal conditions (i.e., pH 3 and 1000 μL/min), whereas at sub-optimal conditions (i.e. pH 6 and 300 μL/min), it represented less than 50%. The gain in sensitivity observed in HILIC was found less significant with the recent LC-MS platforms used in this study than for old-generation instruments. Indeed, the improved ESI sources equipping the recent mass analyzers allow for enhanced evaporation efficiency, mainly for RPLC mobile phases containing high proportion of water and this even at high flow rates. PMID:25017394
RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system
Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J.; Zwicknagl, G.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.
2013-12-04
The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.
Lebedev, V. S. Narits, A. A.
2013-10-15
Ion-pair formation processes are studied in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles possessing small electron affinities. Nonadiabatic transitions from a Rydberg covalent term to an ionic term of a quasi-molecule are considered using the modified Landau-Zener theory supplemented with calculation of survival factors of an anion decaying in the Coulomb field of a positive ion core. Using the technique of irreducible tensor operators and the momentum representation of the wavefunction of a highly excited atom, exact expressions are obtained for transition matrix elements and the ionic-covalent coupling parameter. The approach developed in the paper provides the description beyond the scope of a conventional assumption about a small variation of the wavefunction of the Rydberg atom on the range of electron coordinates determined by the characteristic radius of the wavefunction of the anion. This allows one to correctly consider long-range effects of the interaction between a weakly bound electron and the neutral core of a negative ion in processes under study. It is shown by the example of thermal collisions of Xe(nf) atoms with CH{sub 3}CN molecules that this is very important for a reliable quantitative description of anion formation with a low binding energy. The results are compared with experiments and calculations performed within the framework of a number of approximate methods.
Schuback, Nina; Schallenberg, Christina; Duckham, Carolyn; Maldonado, Maria T.; Tortell, Philippe D.
2015-01-01
Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETRRCII, mol e- mol RCII-1 s-1) increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal – oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETRRCII: CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements. PMID:26171963
Schuback, Nina; Schallenberg, Christina; Duckham, Carolyn; Maldonado, Maria T; Tortell, Philippe D
2015-01-01
Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETR(RCII), mol e- mol RCII(-1) s(-1)) increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal--oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETR(RCII): CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements. PMID:26171963
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Qing; Zhu, Zhong-Hua; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Tan, Lei
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate the single-photon transport in a hybrid atom-optomechanical system embedded with two dipole-coupled two-level atoms, interacting with a single-mode optical waveguide. The transmission amplitudes for the single-photon propagation in such a hybrid system are obtained via a real-space approach. It is shown that the dipole-dipole interaction can significantly change the amplitudes and symmetries of the single-photon spectra. Interestingly, we find that the dipole-dipole interaction plays a similar role as does the positive atom-cavity detuning. In addition, the influence from the atomic dissipation can be weakened by increasing the dipole-dipole interaction.
Interaction of solitons with a string of coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Vijendra; Swami, O. P.; Taneja, S.; Nagar, A. K.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we develop a theory for discrete solitons interaction with a string of coupled quantum dots in view of the local field effects. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equations are used to describe the dynamics of the string. Numerical calculations are carried out and results are analyzed with the help of matlab software. With the help of numerical solutions we demonstrate that in the quantum dots string, Rabi oscillations (RO) are self trapped into stable bright Rabi solitons. The Rabi oscillations in different types of nanostructures have potential applications to the elements of quantum logic and quantum memory.
Wrapping interactions at strong coupling: The giant magnon
Janik, Romuald A.; Lukowski, Tomasz
2007-12-15
We derive generalized Luescher formulas for finite size corrections in a theory with a general dispersion relation. For the AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} superstring these formulas encode leading wrapping interaction effects. We apply the generalized {mu}-term formula to calculate finite size corrections to the dispersion relation of the giant magnon at strong coupling. The result exactly agrees with the classical string computation of Arutyunov, Frolov, and Zamaklar. The agreement involved a Borel resummation of all even loop orders of the BES/BHL dressing factor thus providing a strong consistency check for the choice of the dressing factor.
Magnetosphere-thermosphere coupling - An experiment in interactive modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Harel, Moshe
1989-01-01
The present use of the Rice convection model to investigate the electrodynamic coupling of the thermosphere to the inner magnetosphere encompasses the effects of EUV-driven and convection-driven neutral winds under quasi-equilibrium conditions. Convection-driven winds are included self-consistently and interactively; a steady-state wind parameterization is written analytically in terms of the electrostatic potential, which is in turn included in a closed-loop calculation for the electric potential itself. The simulations conducted show that, as the neutral system approaches a quasi-equilibrium state, the neutral winds play a much more significant role.
Exact Bremsstrahlung and effective couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitev, Vladimir; Pomoni, Elli
2016-06-01
We calculate supersymmetric Wilson loops on the ellipsoid for a large class of mathcal{N} = 2 SCFT using the localization formula of Hama and Hosomichi. From them we extract the radiation emitted by an accelerating heavy probe quark as well as the entanglement entropy following the recent works of Lewkowycz-Maldacena and Fiol-Gerchkovitz-Komargodski. Comparing our results with the mathcal{N} = 4 SYM ones, we obtain interpolating functions f ( g 2) such that a given mathcal{N} = 2 SCFT observable is obtained by replacing in the corresponding mathcal{N} = 4 SYM result the coupling constant by f ( g 2). These "exact effective couplings" encode the finite, relative renormalization between the mathcal{N} = 2 and the mathcal{N} = 4 gluon propagator and they interpolate between the weak and the strong coupling. We discuss the range of their applicability.
Tunable indirect magnetic interaction mediated by spin-orbit coupled electrons in quantum well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yi-Qian; Lyu, Pin
2015-01-01
By taking into account the quantum confinement, we calculated the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) magnetic interaction between two magnetic impurities mediated by electrons with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings in a quantum well. The RKKY magnetic interaction of the present system consists of conventional RKKY magnetic coupling, anisotropic magnetic couplings and Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya magnetic interaction. The above magnetic interactions strongly depend not only on the spin-orbit coupling strength, but also on the confined width and the absolute positions of two localized spins in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the layered structure due to the quantum size effect. It provides a potential way to control the RKKY magnetic interaction and its components in the quantum well with Rashba spin-orbit coupling by both the applied gate voltage and the nanostructure geometry.
Acoustic wave coupled magnetoelectric effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, J. S.; Zhang, N.
2016-07-01
Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. Longitudinal and transversal ME effects of larger than 44 and 6 (V cm-1 Oe-1) were obtained with the waveguide-coupled ME device, respectively. Several resonant points were observed in the range of frequency lower than 47 kHz. Analysis showed that the standing waves in the waveguide were responsible for those resonances. The frequency and size dependence of the ME effects were investigated. A resonant condition about the geometrical size of the waveguide was obtained. Theory and experiments showed the resonant frequencies were closely influenced by the diameter and length of the waveguide. A series of double-peak curves of longitudinal magnetoelectric response were obtained, and their significance was discussed initially.
A Preliminary Investigation of Affective Interaction in Chronic Pain Couples
Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie
2007-01-01
The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic. PMID:17521810
On the coupling between fluid flow and mesh motion in the modelling of fluid structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dettmer, Wulf G.; Perić, Djordje
2008-12-01
Partitioned Newton type solution strategies for the strongly coupled system of equations arising in the computational modelling of fluid solid interaction require the evaluation of various coupling terms. An essential part of all ALE type solution strategies is the fluid mesh motion. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the terms which couple the fluid flow with the fluid mesh motion on the convergence behaviour of the overall solution procedure. We show that the computational efficiency of the simulation of many fluid solid interaction processes, including fluid flow through flexible pipes, can be increased significantly if some of these coupling terms are calculated exactly.
Magnetoelectric effects via pentalinear interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong Jian; Grisolia, M. N.; Yang, Yurong; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bibes, M.; Chen, Xiang Ming; Bellaiche, L.
2015-12-01
Magnetoelectric multiferroic materials, particularly with the perovskite structure, are receiving a lot of attention because of their inherent coupling between electrical polarization and magnetic ordering. However, very few types of direct coupling between polarization and magnetization are known, and it is unclear whether they can be useful to the design of spintronic devices exploiting the control of magnetization by electric fields. For instance, the typical biquadratic coupling only allows changing the magnitude of the magnetization by an electric field, but it does not permit an electric-field-induced switching of the magnetization. Similarly, the so-called Lifshitz invariants allow an electric-field control of complicated magnetic orderings, but not of the magnetization. Here, we report on original direct couplings between polarization and magnetization in epitaxial perovskite films, via the use of first-principles methods and the development of an original Landau-type phenomenological theory. Our results feature pentalinear interactions involving the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic vectors as well as the polar distortions and oxygen octahedral tilting, and permit a number of striking effects. Examples include a continuous electric-field control of the magnetization magnitude and sign, and the discrete switching of the magnetization magnitude. Thus, the high-order, pentalinear couplings demonstrated in this work may open paths towards specific magnetoelectric effects, as well as spintronic and magnonic devices.
String coupling and interactions in type IIB matrix model
Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi
2009-05-15
We investigate the interactions of closed strings in a IIB matrix model. The basic interaction of the closed superstring is realized by the recombination of two intersecting strings. Such interaction is investigated in a IIB matrix model via two-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory in the IR limit. By estimating the probability of the recombination, we identify the string coupling g{sub s} in the IIB matrix model. We confirm that our identification is consistent with matrix string theory.
Controlling interactions between coupled photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Solomon, Glenn; Waks, Edo
2013-03-01
Strongly coupled photonic crystal (PhC) resonator systems provide a promising platform for studying cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) using semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). These device structures enable important applications such as photon blockade, quantum simulation, quantum-optical Josephson interferometer, and quantum phase transition of light. Many of these applications require the ability to accurately tune the resonant frequencies of individual cavities in the array, which provides a method to control their coupling interactions. This tuning method must be sufficiently local to address individual cavities spaced by less than 1 micron spatial separation. Here, we present a method for controlling the coupling interaction of photonic crystal cavity arrays by using a local and reversible photochromic tuning technique. By locally altering the refractive index of the photochromic material all-optically, the coupling interaction between two cavity modes could be modified over a tuning range as large as 700 GHz. By using this technique, we demonstrate the ability to couple photonic crystal cavities with a normal mode splitting of only 31.50 GHz. We further demonstrate that this tuning method can be extended to control the coupling interaction in larger cavity arrays.
Du, Mao-Hua
2015-04-02
We know that native point defects play an important role in carrier transport properties of CH3NH3PbI3. However, the nature of many important defects remains controversial due partly to the conflicting results reported by recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In this Letter, we show that self-interaction error and the neglect of spin–orbit coupling (SOC) in many previous DFT calculations resulted in incorrect positions of valence and conduction band edges, although their difference, which is the band gap, is in good agreement with the experimental value. Moreover, this problem has led to incorrect predictions of defect-level positions. Hybrid density functional calculations,more » which partially correct the self-interaction error and include the SOC, show that, among native point defects (including vacancies, interstitials, and antisites), only the iodine vacancy and its complexes induce deep electron and hole trapping levels inside of the band gap, acting as nonradiative recombination centers.« less
Computational and experimental techniques for coupled acoustic/structure interactions.
Sumali, Anton Hartono; Pierson, Kendall Hugh; Walsh, Timothy Francis; Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn; Reese, Garth M.; Day, David Minot
2004-01-01
This report documents the results obtained during a one-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative aimed at investigating coupled structural acoustic interactions by means of algorithm development and experiment. Finite element acoustic formulations have been developed based on fluid velocity potential and fluid displacement. Domain decomposition and diagonal scaling preconditioners were investigated for parallel implementation. A formulation that includes fluid viscosity and that can simulate both pressure and shear waves in fluid was developed. An acoustic wave tube was built, tested, and shown to be an effective means of testing acoustic loading on simple test structures. The tube is capable of creating a semi-infinite acoustic field due to nonreflecting acoustic termination at one end. In addition, a micro-torsional disk was created and tested for the purposes of investigating acoustic shear wave damping in microstructures, and the slip boundary conditions that occur along the wet interface when the Knudsen number becomes sufficiently large.
Identification of coupling direction: Application to cardiorespiratory interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenblum, Michael G.; Cimponeriu, Laura; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Patzak, Andreas; Mrowka, Ralf
2002-04-01
We consider the problem of experimental detection of directionality of weak coupling between two self-sustained oscillators from bivariate data. We further develop the method introduced by Rosenblum and Pikovsky [Phys. Rev. E 64, 045202 (2001)], suggesting an alternative approach. Next, we consider another framework for identification of directionality, based on the idea of mutual predictability. Our algorithms provide directionality index that shows whether the coupling between the oscillators is unidirectional or bidirectional, and quantifies the asymmetry of bidirectional coupling. We demonstrate the efficiency of three different algorithms in determination of directionality index from short and noisy data. These techniques are then applied to analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction in healthy infants. The results reveal that the direction of coupling between cardiovascular and respiratory systems varies with the age within the first 6 months of life. We find a tendency to change from nearly symmetric bidirectional interaction to nearly unidirectional one (from respiration to the cardiovascular system).
Kwong, Raymond W M; Niyogi, Som
2012-03-01
The present study investigated the mechanisms of intestinal cadmium (Cd) uptake and efflux, using isolated enterocytes of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the experimental model. The apical uptake of free Cd(2+) in the enterocytes was a saturable and high-affinity transport process. Both zinc (Zn(2+)) and iron (Fe(2+)) inhibited cellular Cd(2+) uptake through a competitive interaction, suggesting that Cd(2+) enters enterocytes via both Zn(2+) (e.g., ZIP8) and Fe(2+) (e.g., DMT1) transport pathways. Cellular Cd(2+) uptake increased in the presence of HCO(3)(-), which resembled the function of mammalian ZIP8. Cellular Cd(2+) uptake was unaffected by Ca(2+), indicating that Cd(2+) does not compete with Ca(2+) for apical uptake. Interestingly, Cd uptake was influenced by the presence of l-cysteine, and under the exposure condition where Cd(Cys)(+) was the predominant Cd species, cellular Cd uptake rate increased with the increased concentration of Cd(Cys)(+). The kinetic analysis indicated that the uptake of Cd(Cys)(+) occurs through a low capacity transport mechanism relative to that of free Cd(2+). In addition, Cd efflux from the enterocytes decreased in the presence of an ATPase inhibitor (orthovanadate), suggesting the existence of an ATPase-coupled extrusion process. Overall, our findings provide new mechanistic insights into the intestinal Cd transport in freshwater fish. PMID:21930242
Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials
Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan
2015-07-14
Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials.
Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan
2015-07-01
Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials.
Chaos in generically coupled phase oscillator networks with nonpairwise interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bick, Christian; Ashwin, Peter; Rodrigues, Ana
2016-09-01
The Kuramoto-Sakaguchi system of coupled phase oscillators, where interaction between oscillators is determined by a single harmonic of phase differences of pairs of oscillators, has very simple emergent dynamics in the case of identical oscillators that are globally coupled: there is a variational structure that means the only attractors are full synchrony (in-phase) or splay phase (rotating wave/full asynchrony) oscillations and the bifurcation between these states is highly degenerate. Here we show that nonpairwise coupling—including three and four-way interactions of the oscillator phases—that appears generically at the next order in normal-form based calculations can give rise to complex emergent dynamics in symmetric phase oscillator networks. In particular, we show that chaos can appear in the smallest possible dimension of four coupled phase oscillators for a range of parameter values.
Quark and pion effective couplings from polarization effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braghin, Fábio L.
2016-05-01
A flavor SU(2) effective model for pions and quarks is derived by considering polarization effects departing from the usual quark-quark effective interaction induced by dressed gluon exchange, i.e. a global color model for QCD. For that, the quark field is decomposed into a component that yields light mesons and the quark-antiquark condensate, being integrated out by means of the auxiliary field method, and another component which yields constituent quarks, which is basically a background quark field. Within a long-wavelength and weak quark field expansion (or large quark effective mass expansion) of a quark determinant, the leading terms are found up to the second order in a zero-order derivative expansion, by neglecting vector mesons that are considerably heavier than the pion. Pions are considered in the structureless limit and, besides the chiral invariant terms that reproduce previously derived expressions, symmetry breaking terms are also presented. The leading chiral quark-quark effective couplings are also found corresponding to a NJL and a vector-NJL couplings. All the resulting effective coupling constants and parameters are expressed in terms of the current and constituent quark masses and of the coupling g.
Interaction of acoustic waves generated by coupled plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1990-01-01
When two substructures are coupled, the acoustic field generated by the motion of each of the substructures will interact with the motion of the other substructure. This would be the case of a structure enclosing an acoustic cavity. A technique to model the interaction of the generated sound fields from the two components of a coupled structure, and the influence of this interaction on the vibration of the structural components is presented. Using a mobility power flow approach, each element of the substructure is treated independently both when developing the structural response and when determining the acoustic field generated by this component. The presence of the other substructural components is introduced by assuming these components to be rigid baffles. The excitation of one of the substructures is assumed to be by an incident acoustic wave which is dependent of the motion of the substructure. The sound field generated by the motion of the substructure is included in the solution of the response.
Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Granger, Douglas A; Bontempo, Daniel E
2013-11-01
The study examines whether anxiety or chronic relationship stress alter the way that couple conflict affects cortisol levels for women and men during the transition to parenthood. Saliva samples, assayed for cortisol, were collected before and after couple interaction from 128 heterosexual couples expecting their first child. Confirming prior research, expectant mothers had higher cortisol levels than their spouses, and gestational age was linked to women's cortisol level. Negativity during couple interaction was associated with greater cortisol reactivity for men, but not women. Tests of moderation indicated little relation between negativity and cortisol recovery for individuals with a low level of anxiety or little history of chronic arguing with the partner. However, among individuals with elevated levels of either of these two factors, negativity was linked to less cortisol recovery for men, but more cortisol recovery for women. Consistent results were also found for the relation between low warmth in the couple interaction and both reactivity and recovery for men and women high in anxiety. Future research should examine whether pregnancy is responsible for these different gender patterns, or whether the inhibition of negativity is stressful for women with high levels of risk. PMID:24094282
Effective coupling for open billiards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pichugin, Konstantin; Schanz, Holger; Šeba, Petr
2001-11-01
We derive an explicit expression for the coupling constants of individual eigenstates of a closed billiard that is opened by attaching a waveguide. The Wigner time delay and the resonance positions resulting from the coupling constants are compared to an exact numerical calculation. Deviations can be attributed to evanescent modes in the waveguide and to the finite number of eigenstates taken into account. The influence of the shape of the billiard and of the boundary conditions at the mouth of the waveguide are also discussed. Finally we show that the mean value of the dimensionless coupling constants tends to the critical value when the eigenstates of the billiard follow random-matrix theory.
An interacting dark energy model with nonminimal derivative coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozari, Kourosh; Behrouz, Noushin
2016-09-01
We study cosmological dynamics of an extended gravitational theory that gravity is coupled non-minimally with derivatives of a dark energy component and there is also a phenomenological interaction between the dark energy and dark matter. Depending on the direction of energy flow between the dark sectors, the phenomenological interaction gets two different signs. We show that this feature affects the existence of attractor solution, the rate of growth of perturbations and stability of the solutions. By considering an exponential potential as a self-interaction potential of the scalar field, we obtain accelerated scaling solutions that are attractors and have the potential to alleviate the coincidence problem. While in the absence of the nonminimal derivative coupling there is no attractor solution for phantom field when energy transfers from dark matter to dark energy, we show an attractor solution exists if one considers an explicit nonminimal derivative coupling for phantom field in this case of energy transfer. We treat the cosmological perturbations in this setup with details to show that with phenomenological interaction, perturbations can grow faster than the minimal case.
SynCoPation: Interactive Synthesis-Coupled Sound Propagation.
Rungta, Atul; Schissler, Carl; Mehra, Ravish; Malloy, Chris; Lin, Ming; Manocha, Dinesh
2016-04-01
Recent research in sound simulation has focused on either sound synthesis or sound propagation, and many standalone algorithms have been developed for each domain. We present a novel technique for coupling sound synthesis with sound propagation to automatically generate realistic aural content for virtual environments. Our approach can generate sounds from rigid-bodies based on the vibration modes and radiation coefficients represented by the single-point multipole expansion. We present a mode-adaptive propagation algorithm that uses a perceptual Hankel function approximation technique to achieve interactive runtime performance. The overall approach allows for high degrees of dynamism - it can support dynamic sources, dynamic listeners, and dynamic directivity simultaneously. We have integrated our system with the Unity game engine and demonstrate the effectiveness of this fully-automatic technique for audio content creation in complex indoor and outdoor scenes. We conducted a preliminary, online user-study to evaluate whether our Hankel function approximation causes any perceptible loss of audio quality. The results indicate that the subjects were unable to distinguish between the audio rendered using the approximate function and audio rendered using the full Hankel function in the Cathedral, Tuscany, and the Game benchmarks. PMID:26780813
3D RNA and Functional Interactions from Evolutionary Couplings.
Weinreb, Caleb; Riesselman, Adam J; Ingraham, John B; Gross, Torsten; Sander, Chris; Marks, Debora S
2016-05-01
Non-coding RNAs are ubiquitous, but the discovery of new RNA gene sequences far outpaces the research on the structure and functional interactions of these RNA gene sequences. We mine the evolutionary sequence record to derive precise information about the function and structure of RNAs and RNA-protein complexes. As in protein structure prediction, we use maximum entropy global probability models of sequence co-variation to infer evolutionarily constrained nucleotide-nucleotide interactions within RNA molecules and nucleotide-amino acid interactions in RNA-protein complexes. The predicted contacts allow all-atom blinded 3D structure prediction at good accuracy for several known RNA structures and RNA-protein complexes. For unknown structures, we predict contacts in 160 non-coding RNA families. Beyond 3D structure prediction, evolutionary couplings help identify important functional interactions-e.g., at switch points in riboswitches and at a complex nucleation site in HIV. Aided by increasing sequence accumulation, evolutionary coupling analysis can accelerate the discovery of functional interactions and 3D structures involving RNA. PMID:27087444
Proxemics in Couple Interactions: Rekindling an Old Optic.
Sluzki, Carlos E
2016-03-01
Utilizing as a lens the interpersonal implications of physical interpersonal distances in social contexts (a set of variables present during the professional discourse during the 1960s and 1970s, to then fade away), this article explores interactive process displayed by the protagonic couple in Bela Bartok's opera "Bluebeard Castle," an exercise aimed at underlining the value of maintaining proxemics as an explicit level of observation for clinical practice and interpersonal research. PMID:26558850
McKay, Garrett; Couch, Kylie D; Mezyk, Stephen P; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L
2016-08-01
We studied the formation of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (RI) from dissolved organic matter (DOM). Specifically, we focused on the effects of variable molecular weight and chemical reduction on the optical properties of DOM (absorbance and fluorescence) and the formation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2), DOM triplet excited states ((3)DOM*), and the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). The data are largely evaluated in terms of a charge-transfer (CT) model, but deficiencies in the model to explain the data are pointed out when evident. A total of two sets of samples were studied that were subjected to different treatments; the first set included secondary-treated wastewaters and a wastewater-impacted stream, and the second was a DOM isolate. Treatments included size fractionation and chemical reduction using sodium borohydride. Taken as a whole, the results demonstrate that decreasing molecular weight and borohydride reduction work in opposition regarding quantum efficiencies for (1)O2 and (3)DOM* production but in concert for fluorescence and (•)OH production. The optical and photochemical data provide evidence for a limited role of CT interactions occurring in lower-molecular-weight DOM molecules. In addition, the data suggest that the observed optical and photochemical properties of DOM are a result of multiple populations of chromophores and that their relative contribution is changed by molecular-weight fractionation and borohydride reduction. PMID:27377760
Strongly coupled large N spectrum of two matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction
Cook, Martin N. H.; Rodrigues, Joao P.
2008-09-15
We consider the large N spectrum of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of two Hermitian matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction. In a framework where one of the matrices is treated exactly and the other is treated as a creation operator impurity, the difference equation associated with the Yang-Mills interaction is derived and solved exactly for two impurities. In this case, the full string tension corrected spectrum depends on two momenta. For a specific value of one of these momenta, the spectrum has the same structure as that of giant magnon bound states. States with general number of impurities are also discussed.
Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction and Spiral Order in Spin-orbit Coupled Optical Lattices
Gong, Ming; Qian, Yinyin; Yan, Mi; Scarola, V. W.; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-01-01
We show that the recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupling in ultracold atomic gases can be used to study different types of spin spiral order and resulting multiferroic effects. Spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices can give rise to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin interaction which is essential for spin spiral order. By taking into account spin-orbit coupling and an external Zeeman field, we derive an effective spin model in the Mott insulator regime at half filling and demonstrate that the DM interaction in optical lattices can be made extremely strong with realistic experimental parameters. The rich finite temperature phase diagrams of the effective spin models for fermions and bosons are obtained via classical Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:26014458
The validity of retrospectively reported conflict interactions in couples.
Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Sanford, Keith
2015-04-01
This study investigated the extent to which researchers and clinicians can obtain valid retrospective self-reports of couples' conflict interactions outside a laboratory setting. A distinction was made between relationship attribute variance, regarding a shared perspective of both partners, and informant-specific variance, regarding the unique vantage point of each partner. By examining convergent and divergent associations for each type of variance, this study clarified the risk that responses might be influenced by informant-specific biases related to levels of relationship satisfaction. This study also investigated potential moderators of validity. Participants included both members of 269 married and cohabiting couples (538 individuals) who completed online questionnaires. Results were analyzed using a correlated trait-correlated method minus one model. The total true variance included large components of both shared relationship attribute variance and informant-specific variance. Although the shared component was moderately correlated with relationship satisfaction, the informant-specific component was mostly distinct from satisfaction, suggesting minimal bias. Convergent correlations between partners were strong and mostly unrelated to potential moderating variables, albeit slightly smaller than reported in studies conducted in laboratory settings. The results generally support the validity for retrospective self-reports of conflict interactions, especially when reports are obtained from both members of a couple. PMID:25689089
The nonclassical effects in coupled optomechanical array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wenjun; Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wenzhao; Yousif, Taha; Zhou, Ling
2015-07-01
We investigate a coupled array of ? identical cavity optomechanical systems. By adiabatically eliminating the cavity fields, we derive an effective Hamiltonian of the ? phonon modes coupled via XX form. We show further that the coupled mechanical oscillators can be used to transmit state and the single mode of the oscillator and the two-mode of neighbor oscillators can exhibit squeezing simultaneously. Under the suitable regime of parameters, the phonon blockade is exhibited.
Inflationary magnetogenesis, derivative couplings, and relativistic Van der Waals interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannini, Massimo
2015-08-01
When the gauge fields have derivative couplings to scalars, like in the case of the relativistic theory of Van der Waals (or Casimir-Polder) interactions, conformal invariance is broken but the magnetic and electric susceptibilities are not bound to coincide. We analyze the formation of large-scale magnetic fields in slow-roll inflation and find that they are generated at the level of a few hundredths of a nG and over typical length scales between few Mpc and 100 Mpc. Using a new time parametrization that reduces to conformal time but only for coincident susceptibilities, the gauge action is quantized while the evolution equations of the corresponding mode functions are more easily solvable. The power spectra depend on the normalized rates of variation of the two susceptibilities (or of the corresponding gauge couplings) and on the absolute value of their ratio at the beginning of inflation. We pin down explicit regions in the parameter space where all the physical requirements (i.e., the backreaction constraints, the magnetogenesis bounds and the naturalness of the initial conditions of the scenario) are jointly satisfied. Weakly coupled initial data are favored if the gauge couplings are of the same order at the end of inflation. Duality is systematically used to simplify the analysis of the wide parameter space of the model.
Fractional dynamics of coupled oscillators with long-range interaction
Tarasov, Vasily E.; Zaslavsky, George M.
2006-06-15
We consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled linear and nonlinear oscillators with long-range powerwise interaction. The corresponding term in dynamical equations is proportional to 1/|n-m|{sup {alpha}}{sup +1}. It is shown that the equation of motion in the infrared limit can be transformed into the medium equation with the Riesz fractional derivative of order {alpha}, when 0<{alpha}<2. We consider a few models of coupled oscillators and show how their synchronization can appear as a result of bifurcation, and how the corresponding solutions depend on {alpha}. The presence of a fractional derivative also leads to the occurrence of localized structures. Particular solutions for fractional time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau (or nonlinear Schroedinger) equation are derived. These solutions are interpreted as synchronized states and localized structures of the oscillatory medium.
Snapin interacts with G-protein coupled receptor PKR2.
Song, Jian; Li, Jie; Liu, Hua-die; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yong; Zhou, Xiao-Tao; Li, Jia-Da
2016-01-15
Mutations in Prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2), a G-protein-coupled receptor, have been identified in patients with Kallmann syndrome and/or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, characterized by delayed puberty and infertility. In this study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening by using PKR2 C-terminus (amino acids 333-384) as a bait, and identified Snapin as a novel interaction partner for PKR2. The interaction of Snapin and PKR2 was confirmed in GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation studies. We further demonstrated that two α-helix domains in Snapin are required for the interaction. And the interactive motifs of PKR2 were mapped to YFK (343-345) and HWR (351-353), which shared a similar sequence of two aromatic amino acids followed by a basic amino acid. Disruption of Snapin-PKR2 interaction did not affect PKR2 signaling, but increased the ligand-induced degradation, implying a role of Snapin in the trafficking of PKR2. PMID:26687946
Controllable electron interactions in quantum dots coupled to nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tacla, Alexandre; Cheng, Guanglei; Tomczyk, Michelle; Levy, Jeremy; Daley, Andrew; Pekker, David
We theoretically study transport properties in quantum dot devices proximity coupled to superconducting nanowires. In particular, we investigate the controllable transition from resonant pair tunneling to Andreev bound states, which has been recently observed in nanodevices fabricated at the interface of the oxide heterostructure LaAlO3/SrTiO3. We show that such a transition in transport features can signify a Lifshitz transition, at which electron interactions change from attractive to repulsive. We also discuss an alternate description in terms of magnetic impurities.
Working Effectively and Efficiently with Couples.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lazarus, Arnold A.
2000-01-01
Discusses several myths and underscores some active ingredients of couples counseling. The adjunctive value of bibliotherapy is presented and the interactions among such components as similarity, compatibility, mood, disposition, temperament, and communication are elucidated. Clinical vignettes illustrate several crucial issues and principles.…
Smart sensing of tool/tissue interaction by resistive coupling.
Yoshimoto, Shunsuke; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Imura, Masataka; Oshiro, Osamu; Sato, Kosuke
2013-01-01
A smart sensing of tool-tissue interaction is required to monitor the surgical task without disturbing the tool manipulation. We proposed a new tactile sensing method that enables us to detect the tool-tissue interaction with a simple hardware by resistive coupling. The system consists of two electrodes, a bridge circuit and a differential amplifier for the robust sensing of the contact resistance between the tool and tissue. In order to evaluate the sensing method, we investigated the relationship between the sensor output and the deformation of a wet sponge sample by retraction task. According to the model fitting of the deformation-output profile, we concluded that the proposed sensor provide enough reproducibility in the simple situation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the developed sensor works with a biological sample. PMID:24109765
Magnetic interactions in exchange-coupled yet unbiased IrMn/NiCu bilayers.
Cichelero, R; Harres, A; Sossmeier, K D; Schmidt, J E; Geshev, J
2013-10-23
This paper reports experimental and model magnetization results obtained on exchange-coupled ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (FM/AF) bilayers that show zero net bias. The coercivity of the films, either irradiated with He or implanted with Ge ions at 40 keV, varies significantly with the fluence used. We employed the remanence plots technique in order to estimate the nature of the interactions present and check if there exists a correlation between their type and the coercivity variations. The analysis of the remanence plots through numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation demonstrated that outcomes of interactions within the FM layer could be distinguished from those coming from coupling at the FM/AF interface and that demagnetizing interaction effects could be achieved without the presence of dipolar interactions. Our findings indicate that such experiments could give selective information on modifications caused by a post-deposition treatment in each layer of the film. PMID:24065441
Limits on Higgs boson couplings in Effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, N.; Reid, T.
2016-02-01
We review the Effective Field Theory (EFT) to make projections on physics beyond the Standard Model in the Higgs sector. We provide relations between the non-Standard Model couplings of the Strongly-Interacting Light Higgs (SILH) effective Lagrangian implemented in the eHDecay package and the corresponding terms of the spin-0 Higgs Characterisation model's effective Lagrangian used with the aMC@NLO Monte Carlo generator. Constraints on BSM couplings are determined on the basis of existing experimental limits on Higgs boson width and branching ratios.
Modeling the interaction between two dimensional strongly coupled confined dust clusters
Djebli, M.; Issaad, M.; Rouaiguia, L.
2010-03-15
Numerical simulations based on the Monte Carlo method are conducted to investigate ground-state configurations and phase transitions of strongly coupled dust particles. The interaction between negatively charged dust particles is modeled by three different potentials, namely, Coulomb, Yukawa, and logarithmic. The effect of random charge fluctuation is taken into account for a dominant charging process by particles collection and in the presence of two dimensional parabolic confinement potential. Structural arrangement and phase transition are found to be dependent on the potential interaction and the charge fluctuation. The changes in the melting temperature, when the charge fluctuation is taken into account, are particularly noticeable for systems with particles interacting through logarithmic potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bukač, M.
2016-05-01
We model the interaction between an incompressible, viscous fluid, thin elastic structure and a poroelastic material. The poroelastic material is modeled using the Biot's equations of dynamic poroelasticity. The fluid, elastic structure and the poroelastic material are fully coupled, giving rise to a nonlinear, moving boundary problem with novel energy estimates. We present a modular, loosely coupled scheme where the original problem is split into the fluid sub-problem, elastic structure sub-problem and poroelasticity sub-problem. An energy estimate associated with the stability of the scheme is derived in the case where one of the coupling parameters, β, is equal to zero. We present numerical tests where we investigate the effects of the material properties of the poroelastic medium on the fluid flow. Our findings indicate that the flow patterns highly depend on the storativity of the poroelastic material and cannot be captured by considering fluid-structure interaction only.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Ahmed, M. M. A.; Khalil, E. M.; Obada, A. S.-F.
2016-01-01
We introduce the problem of three types of interaction between an N-level quantum system and a two-level atom where three coupling parameters are involved. The system can be deduced from the Heisenberg chain. The canonical transformation is used to remove two coupling parameters from the system and consequently it is reduced to atom-atom interaction. The wave function is calculated using the evolution operator and hence we have managed to obtain the expectation value of some dynamical operators. During our study of the atomic inversion we noted that the collapses period is shifted up when we take the effect of λ2 into consideration. While it is shifted up and down in the presence of λ3. The atomic angle plays a crucial role for controlling the degree of entanglement. For the variance squeezing we noted that the coupling parameter λ2 shows amounts of squeezing more than the case of λ3. Similar behavior is noted for the entropy squeezing.
Cotunneling Drag Effect in Coulomb-Coupled Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, A. J.; Lim, J. S.; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa; Amasha, S.; Katine, J. A.; Shtrikman, Hadas; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2016-08-01
In Coulomb drag, a current flowing in one conductor can induce a voltage across an adjacent conductor via the Coulomb interaction. The mechanisms yielding drag effects are not always understood, even though drag effects are sufficiently general to be seen in many low-dimensional systems. In this Letter, we observe Coulomb drag in a Coulomb-coupled double quantum dot and, through both experimental and theoretical arguments, identify cotunneling as essential to obtaining a correct qualitative understanding of the drag behavior.
Weighty dynamics: exploring couples' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction.
Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Dailey, René M
2014-01-01
Although romantic couples can use communication to help one another lose weight and maintain weight loss, the effect of weight loss on partner interaction is less understood. However, an examination of the interpersonal context in which partners manage their weight is important to help partners negotiate their weight, their relationship, and the U.S. obesity epidemic. Guided by systems theory, this study explored partners' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction in relationships in which one partner lost weight and the other did not. Through qualitative questionnaires of 42 adults (21 romantic couples), the dyadic investigation revealed that while losing weight resulted in positive interaction for many partners (e.g., engaging in a shared healthy lifestyle), shedding weight also yielded some negative consequences (e.g., non-weight-loss partner criticism). The extent to which partners embraced new weight management rules and patterns largely influenced post-weight-loss communication and behavior. PMID:24156394
Controlled Crystallinity and Fundamental Coupling Interactions in Nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Min
2009-03-01
Metal and semiconductor nanocrystals show many unusual properties and functionalities, and can serve as model system to explore fundamental quantum and classical coupling interactions as well as building blocks of many practical applications. However, because of their small size, these nanoparticles typically exhibit different crystalline properties as compared with their bulk counterpart, and controlling crystallinity (and structural defects) within nanoparticles has posed significant technical challenges. In this talk, I will firstly apply silver metal nanoparticles as an example and present a novel chemical synthetic technique to achieve unprecedented crystallinity control at the nanoscale. This engineering of nanocrystallinity enables manipulation of intrinsic chemical functionalities, physical properties as well as nano-device performance [1]. For example, I will highlight that electron- phonon coupling constant can be significantly reduced by about four times and elastic modulus is increased ˜40% in perfect single crystalline silver nanoparticles as compared with those in disordered twinned nanoparticles. One important application of metal nanoparticles is nanoscale sensors. I will thus demonstrate that performance of nanoparticles based molecular sensing devices can be optimized with three times improvement of figure-of-merit if perfect single crystalline nanoparticles are applied. Lastly, I will present our related studies on semiconductor nanocrystals as well as their hybrid heterostructures. These discussions should offer important implications for our understanding of the fundamental properties at nanoscale and potential applications of metal nanoparticles. [4pt] [1] Yun Tang and Min Ouyang, Nature Materials, 6, 754, 2007.
Effect of nonlinear nonlinear coupling to a pure dephasing model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Li; Zhao, Nan
2015-03-01
We investigate the influence of the nonlinear coupling to the coherence of a pure dephasing model. The total system consists of a qubit and a Bosonic bath, which are coupled by an interaction HI =g1σz ⊗ x +g2σz ⊗x2 with x =1/√{ 2} (a +a†) . It's shown that no matter how small g2 is, the long time behavior of the coherence is significantly changed by the nonlinear coupling for free induction decay (FID), while the effect of g1 can be neglected as long as g1 is much smaller than the enegy splitting of the qubit. In the case that many-pulse dynamical decoupling control is exerted on the qubit, g2 also modulates the oscillation of the coherence. Our results indicate that the nonlinear coupling must be taken into account for long time dynamics.
Decoherence of a single spin coupled to an interacting spin bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ning; Fröhling, Nina; Xing, Xi; Hackmann, Johannes; Nanduri, Arun; Anders, Frithjof B.; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-01-01
Decoherence of a central spin coupled to an interacting spin bath via inhomogeneous Heisenberg coupling is studied by two different approaches, namely an exact equations of motion (EOMs) method and a Chebyshev expansion technique (CET). By assuming a wheel topology of the bath spins with uniform nearest-neighbor X X -type intrabath coupling, we examine the central spin dynamics with the bath prepared in two different types of bath initial conditions. For fully polarized baths in strong magnetic fields, the polarization dynamics of the central spin exhibits a collapse-revival behavior in the intermediate-time regime. Under an antiferromagnetic bath initial condition, the two methods give excellently consistent central spin decoherence dynamics for finite-size baths of N ≤14 bath spins. The decoherence factor is found to drop off abruptly on a short time scale and approach a finite plateau value which depends on the intrabath coupling strength nonmonotonically. In the ultrastrong intrabath coupling regime, the plateau values show an oscillatory behavior depending on whether N /2 is even or odd. The observed results are interpreted qualitatively within the framework of the EOM and perturbation analysis. The effects of anisotropic spin-bath coupling and inhomogeneous intrabath bath couplings are briefly discussed. Possible experimental realization of the model in a modified quantum corral setup is suggested.
Tensor coupling effect on relativistic symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, ShouWan; Li, DongPeng; Guo, JianYou
2016-08-01
The similarity renormalization group is used to transform the Dirac Hamiltonian with tensor coupling into a diagonal form. The upper (lower) diagonal element becomes a Schr¨odinger-like operator with the tensor component separated from the original Hamiltonian. Based on the operator, the tensor effect of the relativistic symmetries is explored with a focus on the single-particle energy contributed by the tensor coupling. The results show that the tensor coupling destroying (improving) the spin (pseudospin) symmetry is mainly attributed to the coupling of the spin-orbit and the tensor term, which plays an opposite role in the single-particle energy for the (pseudo-) spin-aligned and spin-unaligned states and has an important influence on the shell structure and its evolution.
Spin-Orbit Coupling, Strong Interactions, and Topological Character
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickett, Warren E.
In recent years the electronic structure of crystalline solids has come under close scrutiny because of the various types of topological characters that may arise. Most of the work is done at the one-electron (non-interacting) level, and most innovations have arisen from model tight-binding Hamiltonians and their eigenvectors. This talk will focus on a few examples of discoveriesmadecomputationally through DFT studies of actual materials, thus providing a physical realization as the discovery was made. Competition and partnership between strong interactions and spin-orbit coupling will be emphasized. Examples will include (1) the 'semi-Dirac' point Fermi surface phase in VO2 thin films, the first member of a class now called multi Weyl : massive in some direction, massless in other direction; (2) a nodal loop semimetal phase found in computational studies of thin SrVO3 films, realized more recently in NbP etc.; (3) the buckled honeycomb lattice of a (111) bilayer of LaMnO3 encased on LaAlO3, which is a Chern insulator and may be a realization of the Weyl-Mott insulator proposed recently by Morimoto and Nagaosa. Acknowledgments: R. Pentcheva, V. Pardo, K.-W. Lee, S. Gangopadhyay. DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER46111.
Fully coupled resonant-triad interaction in an adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Lee, Sang S.
1992-01-01
The nonlinear resonant-triad interaction, proposed by Raetz (1959), Craik (1971), and others for a Blasius boundary layer, is analyzed here for an adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer. We assume that the adverse pressure gradient is in some sense weak and, therefore, that the instability growth rate is small. This ensures that there is a well-defined critical layer located somewhere within the flow and that the nonlinear interaction is effectively confined to that layer. The initial interaction is of the parametric resonance type, even when the modal amplitudes are all of the same order. This means that the oblique instability waves exhibit faster than exponential growth and that the growth rate of the two-dimensional mode remains linear. However, the interaction and the resulting growth rates become fully coupled, once oblique-mode amplitudes become sufficiently large, but the coupling terms are now quartic, rather than quadratic as in the Craik (1971) analysis. More importantly, however, new nonlinear interactions, which were not present in the Craik-type analyses, now come into play. These interactions eventually have a dominant effect on the instability wave development.
Partition function corrections. [vibration-rotation interaction coupling in diatomic molecules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The vibration-rotation interaction coupling in diatomic molecules is analyzed and first-order expressions for the energy levels are deduced. Corrections to the partition function to account for this coupling are derived. The effects of long-range intermolecular forces due to induced dipole-induced dipole interactions, dipole-induced dipole interactions, charge-dipole interactions, and charge-charge interactions are considered. London's quantized oscillator model of the induced dipole-induced dipole interaction is developed. The partition function including effects of such dispersion forces is derived and is shown to lead to the virial equation of state. For a model combining the hard sphere and long-range attractive type potentials, this is found to lead to the van der Waals equation of state. The equation of state near the critical point is presented in reduced form (thermodynamic variables expressed in units of critical point values). Finally, approximate corrections to the electronic partition functions are derived to account for perturbations of excited electronic states induced by neighboring neutral particles, heavy ions, and fast electron collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajput, Gagan; Kumar, Rajendra; Ajay
2014-09-01
Using non-equilibrium Green's function approach, we study electronic transport through a parallel double quantum dot (DQD) system symmetrically coupled to conventional superconducting leads. Andreev bound states (ABS) and corresponding resonant Cooper pair electron transmission through such a DQD-superconductor tunnel junction around the Fermi energy, a manifestation of Josephson effect, occur due to proximity effect as a result of superconducting order parameter. Interdot tunnel coupling in parallel coupled DQD system and Coulomb interactions regulate the Josephson effect in a very significant manner. Further, it is also found that interdot tunnel coupling has reverse effect on ABS and Cooper pair tunneling in the presence and absence of Coulomb interactions.
Relativistic K-LL Auger spectra in the intermediate-coupling scheme with configuration interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Mark, H.
1980-01-01
Theoretical K-LL Auger spectra from relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater calculations in intermediate coupling with configuration interaction (ICWCI) are considered. Calculated transition rates for 25 elements with Z between 18 and 96, inclusive, are listed and compare well with experimental data. Relativistic effects are found to be important above Z equal to about 35, and ICWCI is necessary to describe the spectra for Z less than about 60.
Pressure effects in multiphase binary diffusion couples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanyam, Dilip; Notis, Michael R.; Goldstein, Joseph I.
1985-04-01
A systematic study has been carried out of the effect of pressure upon growth kinetics of intermediate phases formed in diffusion couples in the binary systems Ni-Al, U-A1, and U-Cu. Even though applied pressures greater than 100 MPa and long times were investigated little or no pressure effect was observed, in disagreement with previous literature reports. The magnitude of observed pressure effects falls within that expected by closure of Kirkendall porosity.
Effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures
Kang, S. P.; Kwon, H. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Shim, J. H.; Won, C.
2015-07-28
We numerically investigated the effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures, such as a helical/cycloidal spin structure and magnetic skyrmion crystal (SkX), which are produced in a magnetic system involving the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We report the existence of a phase transition where the length scale of magnetic structure discontinuously changes, and that there can be a novel magnetic structure around the phase boundary that exhibits double-ordering lengths of magnetic structure. Therefore, the system has multiple ground phases determined by the ratio of interlayer exchange coupling strength and DMI strength. Furthermore, we investigated the critical condition of the external perpendicular field required for the SkX. The critical field is significantly reduced under the effect of interlayer exchange coupling, which can stabilize the SkX without the external field.
Interaction of G protein coupled receptors and cholesterol.
Gimpl, Gerald
2016-09-01
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest receptor superfamily in eukaryotic cells. Owing to their seven transmembrane helices, large parts of these proteins are embedded in the cholesterol-rich plasma membrane bilayer. Thus, GPCRs are always in proximity to cholesterol. Some of them are functionally dependent on the specific presence of cholesterol. Over the last years, enormous progress on receptor structures has been achieved. While lipophilic ligands other than cholesterol have been shown to bind either inside the helix bundle or at the receptor-lipid interface, the binding site of cholesterol was either a single transmembrane helix or a groove between two or more transmembrane helices. A clear preference for one of the two membrane leaflets has not been observed. Not surprisingly, many hydrophobic residues (primarily leucine and isoleucine) were found to be involved in cholesterol binding. In most cases, the rough β-face of cholesterol contacted the transmembrane helix bundle rather than the surrounding lipid matrix. The polar hydroxy group of cholesterol was localized near the water-membrane interface with potential hydrogen bonding to residues in receptor loop regions. Although a canonical motif, designated as CCM site, was detected as a specific cholesterol binding site in case of the β2AR, this site was not found to be occupied by cholesterol in other GPCRs possessing the same motif. Cholesterol-receptor interactions can increase the compactness of the receptor structure and are able to enhance the conformational stability towards active or inactive receptor states. Overall, all current data suggest a high plasticity of cholesterol interaction sites in GPCRs. PMID:27108066
Transition-density-fragment interaction approach for exciton-coupled circular dichroism spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimoto, Kazuhiro J.
2010-09-01
A transition-density-fragment interaction (TDFI) method for exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD) spectra is proposed. The TDFI method was previously developed for excitation-energy transfer, which led to the successful estimation of the electronic coupling energy between donor and accepter molecules in xanthorhodopsin [K. J. Fujimoto and S. Hayashi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 14152 (2009)]. In the present study, the TDFI scheme is extended to the ECCD spectral calculation based on the matrix method and is applied to a dimerized retinal (all-trans N-retinylidene-L-alanine Schiff base) chromophore. Compared with the dipole-dipole and transition charge from ESP methods, TDFI has a much improved description of the electronic coupling. In addition, the matrix method combined with TDFI can reduce the computational costs compared with the full quantum-mechanical calculation. These advantages of the present method make it possible to accurately evaluate the CD Cotton effects observed in experiment.
Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Juntao; Li, Kezheng; Schuster, Christian; Su, Rongbin; Wang, Xuehua; Borges, Ben-Hur V.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Martins, Emiliano R.
2015-12-01
The coupling of light between free space and thin film semiconductors is an essential requirement of modern optoelectronic technology. For monochromatic and single mode devices, high performance grating couplers have been developed that are well understood. For broadband and multimode devices, however, more complex structures, here referred to as “coupling surfaces”, are required, which are often difficult to realise technologically. We identify general design rules based on the Fourier properties of the coupling surface and show how they can be used to determine the spatial resolution required for the coupler’s fabrication. To our knowledge, this question has not been previously addressed, but it is important for the understanding of diffractive nanostructures and their technological realisation. We exemplify our insights with solar cells and UV photodetectors, where high-performance nanostructures that can be realised cost-effectively are essential.
Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures
Li, Juntao; Li, Kezheng; Schuster, Christian; Su, Rongbin; Wang, Xuehua; Borges, Ben-Hur V.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Martins, Emiliano R.
2015-01-01
The coupling of light between free space and thin film semiconductors is an essential requirement of modern optoelectronic technology. For monochromatic and single mode devices, high performance grating couplers have been developed that are well understood. For broadband and multimode devices, however, more complex structures, here referred to as “coupling surfaces”, are required, which are often difficult to realise technologically. We identify general design rules based on the Fourier properties of the coupling surface and show how they can be used to determine the spatial resolution required for the coupler’s fabrication. To our knowledge, this question has not been previously addressed, but it is important for the understanding of diffractive nanostructures and their technological realisation. We exemplify our insights with solar cells and UV photodetectors, where high-performance nanostructures that can be realised cost-effectively are essential. PMID:26678574
Rodrigues, Joao P.; Zaidi, Alia
2010-10-15
We derive a planar sector of the large N nonsupersymmetric background of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of two Hermitian matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction, in terms of the density of eigenvalues of one of the matrices. This background satisfies an implicit nonlinear integral equation, with a perturbative small coupling expansion and a solvable large coupling solution, which is obtained. The energy of system and the expectation value of several correlators are obtained in this strong coupling limit. They are free of infrared divergences.
Strong coupling theory for electron-mediated interactions in double-exchange models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi
2015-07-01
We present a theoretical framework for evaluating effective interactions between localized spins mediated by itinerant electrons in double-exchange models. Performing the expansion with respect to the spin-dependent part of the electron hopping terms, we show a systematic way of constructing the effective spin model in the large Hund's coupling limit. As a benchmark, we examine the accuracy of this method by comparing the results with the numerical solutions for the spin-ice type model on a pyrochlore lattice. We also discuss an extension of the method to the double-exchange models with Heisenberg and X Y localized spins.
Decoherence dynamics of interacting qubits coupled to a bath of local optical phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lone, Muzaffar Qadir; Yarlagadda, S.
2016-04-01
We study decoherence in an interacting qubit system described by infinite range Heisenberg model (IRHM) in a situation where the system is coupled to a bath of local optical phonons. Using perturbation theory in polaron frame of reference, we derive an effective Hamiltonian that is valid in the regime of strong spin-phonon coupling under nonadiabatic conditions. It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian commutes with the IRHM upto leading orders of perturbation and thus has the same eigenstates as the IRHM. Using a quantum master equation with Markovian approximation of dynamical evolution, we show that the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix do not decay in the energy eigen basis of IRHM.
Nap, R J; Szleifer, I
2013-08-01
One of the key challenges in the development of nano carriers for drug delivery and imaging is the design of a system that selectively binds to target cells. A common strategy is to coat the delivery device with specific ligands that bind strongly to overexpressed receptors. However such devices are usually unable to discriminate between receptors found on benign and malignant cells. We demonstrate, theoretically, how one can achieve enhanced binding to target cells by using multiple physical and chemical interactions. We study the effective interactions between a polymer decorated nano micelle or nanoparticle with three types of model lipid membranes that differ in the composition of their outer leaflet. They are: i) lipid membranes with overexpressed receptors, ii) membranes with a given fraction of negatively charged lipids and iii) membranes with both overexpressed receptors and negatively charged lipids. The coating contains a mixtures of two short polymers, one neutral for protection and the other a polybase with a functional end-group to optimize specific binding with the overexpressed receptors and electrostatic interactions with charged lipid head-groups. The strength of the binding for the combined system is much larger than the sum of the independent electrostatic or specific interactions binding. We find a range of distances where the addition of two effective repulsive interactions become an attraction in the combined case. The changes in the strength and shape of the effective interaction are due to the coupling that exists between molecular organization, physical interactions and chemical state, e.g., protonation. The predictions provide guidelines for the design of carrier devices for targeted drug and nanoparticle delivery and give insight in the competing and highly non-additive nature of the different effective interactions in nanoscale systems in constrained environments that are ubiquitous in synthetic and biological systems. PMID:23930222
Receptor-coupled effector systems and their interactions
Wiener, E.C.
1988-01-01
We investigated the modulation of intracellular signal generation by receptor-coupled effector systems in B lymphocytes, and whether these alterations are consistent with the effects of prostaglandins. TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate) and sn-1,2,-dioctanoylglycerol (diC{sub 8}) substitute for lipid derived signals which activate protein kinase C. Pretreating splenocytes from athymic nude mice with 100nM TPA or 5 {mu}M diC{sub 8} potentiated the forskolin-induced increased in cAMP (measured by radioimmunoassay) 2.5 and 3.0 times (respectively), but they decreased the PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP rise 48% and 35% (respectively). Goat anti-mouse IgM, which activates diacylglycerol production, potentiated the forskolin-induced cAMP increase by 76%, but reduced that of PGE{sub 1} by 30%. Rabbit anti-mouse IgG, its F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragment, or goat anti-mouse IGM induced increases in the cytosolic free (Ca{sup 2+}), (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}, which TPA inhibited. In contrast, TPA potential antibody-induced {sup 3}H-thymidine (85x) and {sup 3}H-uridine (30x) uptake in B lymphocytes.
Cotunneling Drag Effect in Coulomb-Coupled Quantum Dots.
Keller, A J; Lim, J S; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa; Amasha, S; Katine, J A; Shtrikman, Hadas; Goldhaber-Gordon, D
2016-08-01
In Coulomb drag, a current flowing in one conductor can induce a voltage across an adjacent conductor via the Coulomb interaction. The mechanisms yielding drag effects are not always understood, even though drag effects are sufficiently general to be seen in many low-dimensional systems. In this Letter, we observe Coulomb drag in a Coulomb-coupled double quantum dot and, through both experimental and theoretical arguments, identify cotunneling as essential to obtaining a correct qualitative understanding of the drag behavior. PMID:27541473
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nap, Rikkert; Szleifer, Igal
2014-03-01
A key challenge in nanomedicine is to design carrier system for drug delivery that selectively binds to target cells without binding to healthy cells. A common strategy is to end-functionalize the polymers coating of the delivery device with specific ligands that bind strongly to overexpressed receptors. Such devices are usually unable to discriminate between receptors found on benign and malignant cells. We demonstrate, theoretically, how one can achieve selective binding to target cells by using multiple physical and chemical interactions. We study the effective interactions between a polymer decorated nanosized micelle or solid nanoparticle with model lipid layers. The polymer coating contains a mixture of two polymers, one neutral for protection and the other a polybase with a functional end-group to optimize specific binding and electrostatic interactions with the charged lipid head-groups found on the lipid surface. The strength of the binding for the combined system is much larger than the sum of the independent electrostatic or specific ligand-receptor binding. The search for optimal binding conditions lead to the finding of a non-additive coupling that exists in systems where chemical equilibrium, molecular organization, and physical interactions are coupled together.
Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna
2011-01-01
Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu-Tian, Cheng; Wei-Wei, Zong; Gen-Long, Ye; Xiao-San, Ma; Jia-Yan, Zhang; Bing, Wang
2016-06-01
We investigate theoretically single photon transport properties in coupled-resonator waveguide coupling with a nanocavity interacting with an external mirror. By using the discrete coordinates approach, transmission and reflection amplitudes of the propagating single photon in the waveguide are obtained. The influence of the coupling strength between the nanocavity and the external mirror on the single photon scattering spectra is discussed. We also extend the results to the waveguide with linear and quadratic form dispersion relations. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11105001 and 61472282, the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 1408085QA22, 1608085MA09, and 1508085MF129.
The competition of particle-vibration coupling and tensor interaction in spherical nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, Anatoli; Litvinova, Elena
2014-09-01
The search for missing terms in the energy density functionals (EDF) is one of the leading directions in the development of nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Tensor force is one of possible candidates. However, despite extensive studies the questions about its effective strength and unambiguous signals still remain open. One of the main experimental benchmarks for the studies of tensor interaction is provided by the data on the single-particle states in the N = 82 and Z = 50 isotopes. The energy splittings of the proton h11 / 2 and g7 / 2 states in the Z = 50 isotopes and neutron 1i13 / 2 and 1h9 / 2 states in the N = 82 isotones are used in the definition of tensor force in the Skyrme DFT. However, in experiment these states are not ``mean-field'' states because of coupling with vibrations. Employing relativistic particle-vibration coupling (PVC) model we show that many features of these splittings can be reproduced when PVC is taken into account. This suggests the competition of PVC and tensor interaction and that tensor interaction should be weaker as compared with previous estimates. The search for missing terms in the energy density functionals (EDF) is one of the leading directions in the development of nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Tensor force is one of possible candidates. However, despite extensive studies the questions about its effective strength and unambiguous signals still remain open. One of the main experimental benchmarks for the studies of tensor interaction is provided by the data on the single-particle states in the N = 82 and Z = 50 isotopes. The energy splittings of the proton h11 / 2 and g7 / 2 states in the Z = 50 isotopes and neutron 1i13 / 2 and 1h9 / 2 states in the N = 82 isotones are used in the definition of tensor force in the Skyrme DFT. However, in experiment these states are not ``mean-field'' states because of coupling with vibrations. Employing relativistic particle-vibration coupling (PVC) model we show that
Effective field theory of quantum gravity coupled to scalar electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibiapina Bevilaqua, L.; Lehum, A. C.; da Silva, A. J.
2016-05-01
In this work, we use the framework of effective field theory to couple Einstein’s gravity to scalar electrodynamics and determine the renormalization of the model through the study of physical processes below Planck scale, a realm where quantum mechanics and general relativity are perfectly compatible. We consider the effective field theory up to dimension six operators, corresponding to processes involving one-graviton exchange. Studying the renormalization group functions, we see that the beta function of the electric charge is positive and possesses no contribution coming from gravitational interaction. Our result indicates that gravitational corrections do not alter the running behavior of the gauge coupling constants, even if massive particles are present.
Du, Mao-Hua
2015-04-02
We know that native point defects play an important role in carrier transport properties of CH3NH3PbI3. However, the nature of many important defects remains controversial due partly to the conflicting results reported by recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In this Letter, we show that self-interaction error and the neglect of spin–orbit coupling (SOC) in many previous DFT calculations resulted in incorrect positions of valence and conduction band edges, although their difference, which is the band gap, is in good agreement with the experimental value. Moreover, this problem has led to incorrect predictions of defect-level positions. Hybrid density functional calculations, which partially correct the self-interaction error and include the SOC, show that, among native point defects (including vacancies, interstitials, and antisites), only the iodine vacancy and its complexes induce deep electron and hole trapping levels inside of the band gap, acting as nonradiative recombination centers.
Earthquake nucleation in a stochastic fault model of globally coupled units with interaction delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasović, Nebojša; Kostić, Srđan; Franović, Igor; Todorović, Kristina
2016-09-01
In present paper we analyze dynamics of fault motion by considering delayed interaction of 100 all-to-all coupled blocks with rate-dependent friction law in presence of random seismic noise. Such a model sufficiently well describes a real fault motion, whose prevailing stochastic nature is implied by surrogate data analysis of available GPS measurements of active fault movement. Interaction of blocks in an analyzed model is studied as a function of time delay, observed both for dynamics of individual faults and phenomenological models. Analyzed model is examined as a system of all-to-all coupled blocks according to typical assumption of compound faults as complex of globally coupled segments. We apply numerical methods to show that there are local bifurcations from equilibrium state to periodic oscillations, with an occurrence of irregular aperiodic behavior when initial conditions are set away from the equilibrium point. Such a behavior indicates a possible existence of a bi-stable dynamical regime, due to effect of the introduced seismic noise or the existence of global attractor. The latter assumption is additionally confirmed by analyzing the corresponding mean-field approximated model. In this bi-stable regime, distribution of event magnitudes follows Gutenberg-Richter power law with satisfying statistical accuracy, including the b-value within the real observed range.
Linear theory of beam-wave interaction in double-slot coupled cavity travelling wave tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang-ming, He; Wen-qiu, Xie; Ji-run, Luo; Min, Zhu; Wei, Guo
2016-03-01
A three-dimensional model of the double-slot coupled cavity slow-wave structure (CCSWS) with a solid round electron beam for the beam-wave interaction is presented. Based on the “cold” dispersion, the “hot” dispersion equation is derived with the Maxwell equations by using the variable separation method and the field-matching method. Through numerical calculations, the effects of the electron beam parameters and the staggered angle between adjacent walls on the linear gain are analyzed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205162).
Microprobe PIXE study of Ni-Ge interactions in lateral diffusion couples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chilukusha, D.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Nemutudi, R.; Habanyama, A.; Comrie, C. M.
2015-11-01
Rutherford backscattering spectrometry on the nuclear microprobe (μRBS) is often used in studies of lateral diffusion couples. RBS requires that the positions of the interacting species on the periodic table are not too close in terms of atomic number and therefore do not produce excessive RBS peak overlap. In order to satisfactorily characterize systems that have atomic numbers which are close, it is necessary to find techniques which can complement μRBS. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) could be applied in the lateral diffusion couple study of a system with relatively close atomic numbers. This was with a view that it may eventually be adopted to study systems where the atomic numbers are too close for RBS analysis. The system studied here was the Ni-Ge binary system. Since RBS is an established technique for studying lateral diffusion couples, we used it as a standard for comparison. The PIXE results showed a maximum error of 12% with reference to the RBS standard. In order to achieve the most effective use of PIXE in lateral diffusion couple studies we recommend the use of the technique in such a way as to obtain depth information and the use of relatively thick sample layers.
Moment coupling in the interaction of atoms and their ions with a 3d-electron shell
Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Capitelli, M.; Laricchiuta, A.
2011-09-15
The moment coupling of an interacting ion and an atom with a 3d-electron shell is analyzed for the ground state of identical atoms and ions where resonant charge exchange proceeds with transition of a 4s-electron. The interaction of the ion charge with the atom quadrupole moment is important for this system along with the exchange interactions and spin-orbit interactions inside an isolated atom and an ion. The quadrupole moment for 3d-atoms in the ground states is evaluated. The hierarchy of interactions in a molecular ion is analyzed depending on ion-atom distances and is compared with the standard Hund scheme. The resonant charge exchange proceeds effectively at separations corresponding to an intermediate case between cases 'a' and 'c' of the Hund coupling scheme.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schreiber, Henry D.; Merkel, Robert C., Jr.; Schreiber, V. Lea; Balazs, G. Bryan
1987-01-01
The mutual interactions via electron exchange of redox couples in glass-forming melts were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A thermodynamic approach for considering the mutual interactions leads to conclusion that the degree of mutual interaction in the melt should be proportional in part to the difference in relative reduction potentials of the interacting redox couples. Experimental studies verify this conclusion for numerous redox couples in several composition/temperature/oxygen fugacity regimes. Geochemical systems simultaneously possess many potentially multivalent elements; the stabilized redox states in the resulting magmas can be explained in part by mutual interactions and by redox buffering through the central Fe(III)- Fe(II) couples in the melts. The significance of these results for basaltic magmas of the earth, moon, and meteorites is addressed.
Ab Initio Coupled-Cluster Approach to Nuclear Structure with Modern Nucleon-Nucleon Interactions
Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, T.; Dean, David Jarvis; Hjorth-Jensen, M.
2010-01-01
We perform coupled-cluster calculations for the doubly magic nuclei ^{4}He, ^{16}O, and ^{40,48}Ca for neutron-rich isotopes of oxygen and fluorine, and employ "bare" and secondary renormalized nucleon-nucleon interactions. For the nucleon-nucleon interaction from chiral effective field theory at order next-to-next-to-next-to leading order, we find that the coupled-cluster approximation including triples corrections binds nuclei within 0.4 MeV per nucleon compared to data. We employ interactions from a resolution-scale dependent similarity renormalization group transformation and assess the validity of power-counting estimates in medium-mass nuclei. We find that the missing contributions due to three-nucleon forces are consistent with these estimates. For the unitary correlator model potential, we find a slow convergence with respect to increasing the size of the model space. For the G-matrix approach, we find a weak dependence of ground-state energies on the starting energy combined with a rather slow convergence with respect to increasing model spaces. We also analyze the center-of-mass problem and present a practical and efficient solution.
Multi-disciplinary coupling effects for integrated design of propulsion systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.
1993-01-01
Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions which govern the accurate response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-disciplinary coupling effects using coupled multi-discipline thermal, structural, and acoustic tailoring; an integrated system of multi-disciplinary simulators; coupled material behavior/fabrication process tailoring; sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator; and coupled materials, structures, fracture, and probabilistic behavior simulator. The results demonstrate that superior designs can be achieved if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated coupled multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Siwei; Liu, Chengbu; Hu, Haiquan; Zhang, Changqiao
2001-12-01
The magnetic coupling interaction for Cu(II) binuclear systems with bridging groups C2O4 2- , C2O2( NH) 2 2- ( cis), C2O2( NH) 2 2- ( trans) and C2S2( NH) 2 2- ( trans) was studied by the broken symmetry (BS) approach within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). The influence of different coordination atoms and geometry on magnetic coupling interaction was theoretically analyzed. Both of the calculated and experimental results were compared. The variation trends of coupling interaction calculated are in agreement with experimental ones.
Comparing Effects of Cluster-Coupled Patterns on Opinion Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yun; Si, Xia-Meng; Zhang, Yan-Chao
2012-07-01
Community structure is another important feature besides small-world and scale-free property of complex networks. Communities can be coupled through specific fixed links between nodes, or occasional encounter behavior. We introduce a model for opinion evolution with multiple cluster-coupled patterns, in which the interconnectivity denotes the coupled degree of communities by fixed links, and encounter frequency controls the coupled degree of communities by encounter behaviors. Considering the complicated cognitive system of people, the CODA (continuous opinions and discrete actions) update rules are used to mimic how people update their decisions after interacting with someone. It is shown that, large interconnectivity and encounter frequency both can promote consensus, reduce competition between communities and propagate some opinion successfully across the whole population. Encounter frequency is better than interconnectivity at facilitating the consensus of decisions. When the degree of social cohesion is same, small interconnectivity has better effects on lessening the competence between communities than small encounter frequency does, while large encounter frequency can make the greater degree of agreement across the whole populations than large interconnectivity can.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentine, P.; Lintner, B. R.; Findell, K. L.; Rochetin, N.; Sobel, A. H.; Anber, U. M.
2014-12-01
We will present two idealized epxeriments/methodologies to investigate local (LoCo) and large-scale (LsCo) coupling between the surface and the atmsophere: the contiental Radiative-Convective Equilibrium (RCE) and the continental Weak Temperature Gradient (WTG). The RCE defines an equilibrium state of coupling between the surafce and the atmosphere isolated from any large-scale dependence, which were investigated within the single column model of the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) coupled to a simple bucket land model. This studies emphasizes the role of low-level cloud and the diurnal cylce of the boundary layer on the final state of the system. In the WTG we investigate the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere during the dry and wet season of the Amazon with the WRF model coupled to the NOAH land-surface model. Large-scale coupling is obtained with the WTG. The dry and wet season demonstrate very fundamental behavior: in the dry season deep convection is generated by radiative cooling in the higher troposhere and is disconnected from the surface. In the wet season the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere is much tighter. We suggest that the WTG is a powerful tool to investigate the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere, which solves two major issues: the limited resolution of convection in GCMs and the lack of large-scale coupling in CRM. Later investigation will look at the effect of deforestation, water table and distance from the ocean.
Coupling Ecology and River Dynamics using a Simplified Interaction Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longjas, A.; Czuba, J. A.; Schwenk, J.; Danesh Yazdi, M.; Hansen, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.
2013-12-01
Quantifying how changes in streamflow and sediment affect riverine life is an important component of river basin management and stream restoration efforts, especially under human and climate-induced changes affecting many basins around the world. In the Midwestern US, drastic changes in mussel populations have been witnessed over the past decade begging quantitative understanding of cause and effect and attribution of these changes to the concurrent changes in streamflow and sediment loads to the rivers. Previous empirical analyses have attempted to explore mussel abundance with habitat associations and bulk hydrologic and geomorphic attributes as predictors but results showed relatively weak relationships and low predictive power. In this work, we developed a process-based model that incorporates water-sediment-mussel interactions using functional relationships and predicts the long-term trends of suspended-sediment, chlorophyll-a and mussel population using a daily streamflow record. We applied the model to the Minnesota River Basin, which has experienced significant changes in precipitation and runoff, increased sediment delivery, and decreasing mussel populations. Our model captures the general dynamics of the system and provides a better predictor of mussel populations than predictions based on geomorphic (e.g. upstream drainage area, slope) and hydraulic variables (e.g. 2-year recurrence interval peak streamflow, depth, width, cross sectional area, velocity, and Froude number) alone. To highlight the utility of our model, we tested possible scenarios that illustrate (1) how climate and land-use change may undermine the resilience of mussel populations and (2) how management efforts can allow mussel populations to recover.
Time Delay Effect in a Living Coupled Oscillator System with the Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takamatsu, Atsuko; Fujii, Teruo; Endo, Isao
2000-08-01
A living coupled oscillator system was constructed by a cell patterning method with a plasmodial slime mold, in which parameters such as coupling strength and distance between the oscillators can be systematically controlled. Rich oscillation phenomena between the two-coupled oscillators, namely, desynchronizing and antiphase/in-phase synchronization were observed according to these parameters. Both experimental and theoretical approaches showed that these phenomena are closely related to the time delay effect in interactions between the oscillators.
Coupling GSM/ALE with ES-FEM-T3 for fluid-deformable structure interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S.; Khoo, B. C.; Liu, G. R.; Xu, G. X.; Chen, L.
2014-11-01
In light of the effectiveness of the edge-based smoothed finite element method (ES-FEM-T3) and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian gradient smoothing method (GSM/ALE) in, respectively, solving the pure solid and fluid flow problems using three-node triangular elements, they are coupled together in the present study to solve the more challenging fluid-deformable structure interaction (FSI) problems based on the weak coupling algorithm. Specifically, the fluid flow is tracked over the moving mesh with the well developed GSM/ALE and the transient response of the solid part is solved by the newly developed explicit ES-FEM-T3. The solutions from these two parts are “linked” together by the carefully formulated FSI coupling conditions on the FSI interface. Detailed procedures are summarized to illustrate the implementations of the GSM/ALE with ES-FEM-T3 in an FSI analysis. Three benchmarks are employed to validate the proposed coupled smoothed method in solving both transient and steady-state FSI problems. The mesh sensitivity analysis is further carried out showing that the results of an FSI system appear more sensitive to the change in the solid mesh as compared to the fluid mesh, thus suggesting a more refined mesh for the solid part. Another significant finding is that the present method can still produce reliable results even on the extremely distorted mesh near the FSI interface. The successful coupling GSM/ALE with ES-FEM-T3 for solving FSI problems serves as a good start for further implementing the family of smoothed methods in solving more complex cross-area problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welsh, Deborah P.; Vickerman, Renee; Rostosky, Sherry S.; Kawaguchi, Myra C.
Researchers have largely neglected adolescents' romantic relationships. To help fill this research gap, some of the discrepancies between adolescent couples' and observers' perceptions of couples' conversations are examined here. Two approaches to interaction analysis were used: the divergent realities paradigm, which explores divergences in…
Do the Naive Know Best? The Predictive Power of Naive Ratings of Couple Interactions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baucom, Katherine J. W.; Baucom, Brian R.; Christensen, Andrew
2012-01-01
We examined the utility of naive ratings of communication patterns and relationship quality in a large sample of distressed couples. Untrained raters assessed 10-min videotaped interactions from 134 distressed couples who participated in both problem-solving and social support discussions at each of 3 time points (pre-therapy, post-therapy, and…
Strong interactive massive particles from a strong coupled theory
Khlopov, Maxim Yu.; Kouvaris, Chris
2008-03-15
Minimal walking technicolor models can provide a nontrivial solution for cosmological dark matter, if the lightest technibaryon is doubly charged. Technibaryon asymmetry generated in the early Universe is related to baryon asymmetry, and it is possible to create an excess of techniparticles with charge (-2). These excessive techniparticles are all captured by {sup 4}He, creating techni-O-helium tOHe atoms, as soon as {sup 4}He is formed in big bang nucleosynthesis. The interaction of techni-O-helium with nuclei opens new paths to the creation of heavy nuclei in big bang nucleosynthesis. Because of the large mass of technibaryons, the tOHe ''atomic'' gas decouples from the baryonic matter and plays the role of dark matter in large scale structure formation, while structures in small scales are suppressed. Nuclear interactions with matter slow down cosmic techni-O-helium in the Earth below the threshold of underground dark matter detectors, thus escaping severe cryogenic dark matter search constraints. On the other hand, these nuclear interactions are not sufficiently strong to exclude this form of strongly interactive massive particles by constraints from the XQC experiment. Experimental tests of this hypothesis are possible in the search for tOHe in balloon-borne experiments (or on the ground) and for its charged techniparticle constituents in cosmic rays and accelerators. The tOHe atoms can cause cold nuclear transformations in matter and might form anomalous isotopes, offering possible ways to exclude (or prove?) their existence.
Unified theory of effective interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayanagi, Kazuo
2016-09-01
We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin-Wigner, and Bloch-Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa-Kuo and the extended Lee-Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.
Self-interacting asymmetric dark matter coupled to a light massive dark photon
Petraki, Kalliopi; Pearce, Lauren; Kusenko, Alexander E-mail: lpearce@ucla.edu
2014-07-01
Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Arvind Kumar
2016-03-01
Motivated by the recent experimental observations on clustering of motor proteins on microtubule filament, we study an open system of two parallel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes under asymmetric coupling conditions, which incorporates the mutual interaction with the surrounding environment through Langmuir Kinetics (LK) in both the lanes. In the modified LK, the attachment and detachment rates depends on the configuration of nearest neighboring sites. We analyse the model within the framework of continuum mean-field theory and the phase diagrams along with density profiles are obtained using boundary layer analysis. The effect of mutual interactions on the phase diagram for two different situations of attachment and detachment (LK) rates is discussed. Under the symmetric LK dynamics, the topological structure of the phase diagram remains similar to the one in without mutual interaction; while for the antisymmetric case, after a certain critical value of attractive/repulsive mutual attraction, significant changes are found in the qualitative nature of phase diagram. Moreover, it is shown that the type of mutual interaction affects the dynamic properties of motor proteins. The theoretical findings are examined by extensive Monte-Carlo simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Dong-Ming
2016-07-01
Using the Green's function technique, we respectively investigate the electron transport properties of two spin components through the system of a T-shaped double quantum dot structure coupled to a Majorana bound state, in which only one quantum dot is connected with two metallic leads. We explore the interplay between the Fano effect and the MBSs for different dot-MBS coupling strength λ, dot-dot coupling strength t, and MBS-MBS coupling strength ɛM in the noninteracting case. Then the Coulomb interaction and magnetic field effect on the conductance spectra are investigated. Our results indicate that G↓(ω) is not affected by the Majorana bound states, but a "0.5" conductance signature occurs in the vicinities of Fermi level of G↑(ω). This robust property persists for a wide range of dot-dot coupling strength and dot-MBS coupling strength, but it can be destroyed by Coulomb interaction in quantum dots. By adjusting the size and direction of magnetic field around the quantum dots, the "0.5" conductance signature damaged by U can be restored. At last, the spin magnetic moments of two dots by applying external magnetic field are also predicted.
Effective interactions between fluid membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Bing-Sui; Podgornik, Rudolf
2015-08-01
A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation and, through the use of a saddle-point approximation, transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero-mode fluctuations of the membranes and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area S , we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the intermembrane separation d as d-2 for d ≪√{S } but crosses over to d-4 scaling for d ≫√{S } , whereas the zero-mode part of the steric potential always scales as d-2. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude σ , which becomes small at low temperatures T and/or large bending stiffnesses κ . Moreover, σ scales as d for d ≪√{S } but saturates at √{kBT S /κ } for d ≫√{S } . In addition, using variational Gaussian theory, we apply our self-consistent treatment to study intermembrane interactions subject to different types of potentials: (i) the Moreira-Netz potential for a pair of strongly charged membranes with an intervening solution of multivalent counterions, (ii) an attractive square well, (iii) the Morse potential, and (iv) a combination of hydration and van der Waals interactions.
Effective interactions between fluid membranes.
Lu, Bing-Sui; Podgornik, Rudolf
2015-08-01
A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation and, through the use of a saddle-point approximation, transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero-mode fluctuations of the membranes and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area S, we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the intermembrane separation d as d-2 for d≪√S but crosses over to d-4 scaling for d≫√S, whereas the zero-mode part of the steric potential always scales as d-2. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude σ, which becomes small at low temperatures T and/or large bending stiffnesses κ. Moreover, σ scales as d for d≪√S but saturates at √kBTS/κ for d≫√S. In addition, using variational Gaussian theory, we apply our self-consistent treatment to study intermembrane interactions subject to different types of potentials: (i) the Moreira-Netz potential for a pair of strongly charged membranes with an intervening solution of multivalent counterions, (ii) an attractive square well, (iii) the Morse potential, and (iv) a combination of hydration and van der Waals interactions. PMID:26382349
Modelling Tropical Cyclones-Ocean interactions: the role of the Atmophere - Ocean coupling frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scoccimarro, Enrico; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Gualdi, Silvio; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio
2016-04-01
The interaction between Tropical Cyclones (TCs) and ocean is a major mechanism responsible for energy exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. TCs affect the thermal and dynamical structure of the ocean, but the magnitude of the impact is still uncertain. Very few CMIP5 models demonstrated ability in representing TCs, mainly due to their horizontal resolution. We aim to improve TCs representation in next CMIPs experiments through the new CMCC-CM2VHR General Circulation Model, having a horizontal resolution of 1/4 degree in both atmospheric and ocean components. The model is capable to represent realistically TCs up to Cat-5 Typhoons. A good representation of the TC-Ocean interaction strongly depends on the coupling frequency between the atmospheric and the ocean components. In this work, we found that a better representation of the negative Sea Surface Temperature - TC induced feedback, through a high (hourly) coupling frequency, ensures the reduction of the TC induced Power Dissipation Index (PDI) bias of one order of magnitude. In addition, a cat-5 storm case study is deeply investigated also in terms of TC effects on the deep ocean.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan
2016-07-01
Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin–orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm‑1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ‑, and their spin–orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).
Semantic Interaction for Visual Analytics: Toward Coupling Cognition and Computation
Endert, Alexander
2014-07-01
The dissertation discussed in this article [1] was written in the midst of an era of digitization. The world is becoming increasingly instrumented with sensors, monitoring, and other methods for generating data describing social, physical, and natural phenomena. Thus, data exist with the potential of being analyzed to uncover, or discover, the phenomena from which it was created. However, as the analytic models leveraged to analyze these data continue to increase in complexity and computational capability, how can visualizations and user interaction methodologies adapt and evolve to continue to foster discovery and sensemaking?
A coupled hidden Markov model for disease interactions.
Sherlock, Chris; Xifara, Tatiana; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Mike
2013-08-01
To investigate interactions between parasite species in a host, a population of field voles was studied longitudinally, with presence or absence of six different parasites measured repeatedly. Although trapping sessions were regular, a different set of voles was caught at each session, leading to incomplete profiles for all subjects. We use a discrete time hidden Markov model for each disease with transition probabilities dependent on covariates via a set of logistic regressions. For each disease the hidden states for each of the other diseases at a given time point form part of the covariate set for the Markov transition probabilities from that time point. This allows us to gauge the influence of each parasite species on the transition probabilities for each of the other parasite species. Inference is performed via a Gibbs sampler, which cycles through each of the diseases, first using an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings step to sample from the conditional posterior of the covariate parameters for that particular disease given the hidden states for all other diseases and then sampling from the hidden states for that disease given the parameters. We find evidence for interactions between several pairs of parasites and of an acquired immune response for two of the parasites. PMID:24223436
Simulating coupled thermal-mechanical interactions in morphing radiators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertagne, Christopher L.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Hartl, Darren J.; Whitcomb, John D.
2015-04-01
Thermal control is an important aspect of every spacecraft. The thermal control system (TCS) must maintain the temperature of all other systems within acceptable limits in spite of changes in environmental conditions or heat loads. Most thermal control systems used in crewed vehicles use a two-fluid-loop architecture in order to achieve the flexibility demanded by the mission. The two-loop architecture provides sufficient performance, but it does so at the cost of additional mass. A recently-proposed radiator concept known as a morphing radiator employs shape memory alloys in order to achieve the performance necessary to use a single-loop TCS architecture. However, modeling the behavior of morphing radiators is challenging due to the presence of a unique and complex thermomechanical coupling. In this work, a partitioned analysis procedure is implemented with existing finite element solvers in order to explore the behavior of a possible shape memory alloy-based morphing radiator in a mission-like thermal environment. The results help confirm the theory of operation and demonstrate the ability of this method to support the design and development of future morphing radiators.
Diamond, Lisa M; Hicks, Angela M; Otter-Henderson, Kimberly D
2011-06-01
Previous research suggests that cardiac vagal regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia, or RSA) provides a physiological substrate for affect regulation, which presumably underlies adaptive interpersonal functioning.The authors tested these associations in the context of daily interactions between 68 cohabiting couples. Participants underwent a laboratory assessment of RSA during rest and also during a series of psychological stressors. Subsequently, they kept daily measures of affect and interaction quality for 21 days. Individual differences in baseline and stress levels of RSA moderated within-person associations between daily affect and the quality of couple interactions. The pattern of results differed for women versus men. Men with lower vagal tone or higher vagal reactivity had stronger associations between daily negative affect and daily negative interactions, and men with higher vagal tone had more positive daily interactions overall. Women with higher vagal tone had stronger associations between daily positive affect and daily positive interactions. PMID:21393615
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Kuei; Qu, Chunlei; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Yongping; Zhang, Chuanwei
Spin-orbit (SO) coupling plays a major role in many important phenomena in condensed matter physics. However, the SO coupling physics in high-spin systems, especially with superfluids, has not been well explored because of the spin half of electrons in solids. In this context, the recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupling in spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) has opened a completely new avenue for exploring SO-coupled high-spin superfluids. Nevertheless, the experiment has only revealed the single-particle physics of the system. Here, we study the effects of interactions between atoms on the ground states and collective excitations of SO-coupled spin-1 BECs in the presence of a spin-tensor potential. We find that ferromagnetic interaction between atoms can induce a stripe phase exhibiting two modulating patterns. We characterize the phase transitions between different phases using the spin-tensor density as well as the collective dipole motion of the BEC. We show that there exists a new type of double maxon-roton structure in the Bogoliubov-excitation spectrum, attributing to the three band minima of the SO-coupled spin-1 BEC. Our work could motivate further theoretical and experimental study along this direction.
Resonant atom-field interaction in large-size coupled-cavity arrays
Ciccarello, Francesco
2011-04-15
We consider an array of coupled cavities with staggered intercavity couplings, where each cavity mode interacts with an atom. In contrast to large-size arrays with uniform hopping rates where the atomic dynamics is known to be frozen in the strong-hopping regime, we show that resonant atom-field dynamics with significant energy exchange can occur in the case of staggered hopping rates even in the thermodynamic limit. This effect arises from the joint emergence of an energy gap in the free photonic dispersion relation and a discrete frequency at the gap's center. The latter corresponds to a bound normal mode stemming solely from the finiteness of the array length. Depending on which cavity is excited, either the atomic dynamics is frozen or a Jaynes-Cummings-like energy exchange is triggered between the bound photonic mode and its atomic analog. As these phenomena are effective with any number of cavities, they are prone to be experimentally observed even in small-size arrays.
Spin-orbit coupling in the strongly interacting Fermi gas: an exact quantum Monte Carlo study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Peter; Shi, Hao; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) plays an essential role in a variety of intriguing condensed matter phenomena, including the quantum Hall effect, and topological insulators and superconductors. The recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of SOC in a tunable, disorder-free system. Motivated by this experimental progress, we present here the first exact numerical results on the two-dimensional, unpolarized, uniform Fermi gas with attractive interactions and Rashba SOC. Using auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo and incorporating recent algorithmic advances, we carry out exact calculations on sufficiently large system sizes to provide accurate results systematically as a function of experimental parameters. We obtain the equation of state, study the spin behavior and momentum distribution, and examine the interplay of SOC and pairing in real and momentum space. Our results help illuminate the rich pairing structure induced by SOC, and provide important guidance to future experimental efforts. Supported by DOE SciDAC and NSF.
Experimental determination of the effective strong coupling constant
Alexandre Deur; Volker Burkert; Jian-Ping Chen; Wolfgang Korsch
2005-09-15
We extract an effective strong coupling constant from low Q2 data on the Bjorken sum. Using sum rules, we establish its Q2-behavior over the complete Q2-range. The result is compared to effective coupling constants extracted from different processes and to calculations based on Schwinger-Dyson equations, hadron spectroscopy or lattice QCD. Although the connection between the experimentally extracted effective coupling constant and the calculations is not clear, the results agree surprisingly well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Yuta; Werner, Philipp; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo
2013-09-01
We study the Holstein-Hubbard model at half filling to explore ordered phases including superconductivity (SC), antiferromagnetism (AF), and charge order (CO) in situations where the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions are strong (comparable to the electronic bandwidth). The model is solved in the dynamical mean-field approximation with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver. We determine the superconducting transition temperature Tc and the SC order parameter and show that the phonon-induced retardation or the strong Coulomb interaction leads to a significant reduction and shift of the Tc dome against the effective electron-electron interaction Ueff given by the Hubbard U reduced by the phonon-mediated attraction in the static limit. This behavior is analyzed by comparison to an effective static model in the polaron representation with a renormalized bandwidth. In addition, we discuss the superconducting gap Δ and 2Δ/Tc to reveal the effect of the retardation and the Coulomb interaction. We also determine the finite-temperature phase diagram including AF and CO. In the moderate-coupling regime, there is a hysteretic region of AF and CO around Ueff=0, while the two phases are separated by a paramagnetic metal in the weak-coupling regime and a paramagnetic insulator in the strong-coupling regime.
Ellis, Benjamin H; Aggarwal, Somil; Chakraborty, Arindam
2016-01-12
Multicomponent systems are defined as chemical systems that require a quantum mechanical description of two or more different types of particles. Non-Born-Oppenheimer electron-nuclear interactions in molecules, electron-hole interactions in electronically excited nanoparticles, and electron-positron interactions are examples of physical systems that require a multicomponent quantum mechanical formalism. The central challenge in the theoretical treatment of multicomponent systems is capturing the many-body correlation effects that exist not only between particles of identical types (electron-electron) but also between particles of different types (electron-nuclear and electron-hole). In this work, the development and implementation of multicomponent coupled-cluster (mcCC) theory for treating particle-particle correlation in multicomponent systems are presented. This method provides a balanced treatment of many-particle correlation effects in a general multicomponent system while maintaining a size-consistent and size-extensive formalism. The coupled-cluster ansatz presented here is an extension of the electronic structure CCSD formulation for multicomponent systems and is defined as |ΨmcCC⟩ = eT1I+T2I+T1II+T2II+T11I,II+T12I,II+T21I,II+T22I,II|0I0II⟩. The cluster amplitudes in the mcCC wave function were obtained by projecting the mcCC Schrödinger equation onto a direct product space of singly and doubly excited states of type I and II particles and then solving the resulting mcCC equations iteratively. These equations were derived using an automated application of the generalized Wick’s theorem and were implemented using a computer-assisted source code generation approach. The applicability of the mcCC method was demonstrated by calculating ground state energies of multicomponent Hooke's atom and positronium hydride systems as well as by calculating exciton and biexciton binding energies in multiexcitonic systems. For each case, the mcCC results were
Topics in HPM (High-Power Microwave) generation, coupling, and interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casey, Kendall F.
1990-01-01
A collection is presented of technical notes on various aspects of high power microwave (HPM) generation, coupling, and interaction. Time and resources did not permit either as detailed an editing job would have been desirable, or recalculation and plotting of the numerical results in a more elegant form. It is to be hoped, however, that this integrated document will prove useful to the community. The selection of topics addressed in the Microwave Notes was influenced by questions which arose at various stages of the author's involvement in HPM-related activities. The subject of pulse radiation from aperture antennas subject to turn-on time errors, for example, arose in the context of a proposed HPM generation scheme. Consideration of the scattering cross-section of a simple dipole and of its dual problem, the effective area of a thin slot, was motivated by the need to understand the penetration of such slot apertures by HPM pulses.
Quantum dissipative effect of one dimension coupled anharmonic oscillator
Sulaiman, A.; Zen, Freddy P.
2015-04-16
Quantum dissipative effect of one dimension coupled anharmonic oscillator is investigated. The systems are two coupled harmonic oscillator with the different masses. The dissipative effect is studied based on the quantum state diffusion formalism. The result show that the anharmonic effect increase the amplitude but the lifetime of the oscillation depend on the damping coefficient and do not depend on the temperature.
Effective Student Learning of Fractions with an Interactive Simulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hensberry, Karina K. R.; Moore, Emily B.; Perkins, Katherine K.
2015-01-01
Computer technology, when coupled with reform-based teaching practices, has been shown to be an effective way to support student learning of mathematics. The quality of the technology itself, as well as how it is used, impacts how much students learn. Interactive simulations are dynamic virtual environments similar to virtual manipulatives that…
Laser-material interactions: A study of laser energy coupling with solids
Shannon, M A
1993-11-01
This study of laser-light interactions with solid materials ranges from low-temperature heating to explosive, plasma-forming reactions. Contained are four works concerning laser-energy coupling: laser (i) heating and (ii) melting monitored using a mirage effect technique, (iii) the mechanical stress-power generated during high-powered laser ablation, and (iv) plasma-shielding. First, a photothermal deflection (PTD) technique is presented for monitoring heat transfer during modulated laser heating of opaque solids that have not undergone phase-change. Of main interest is the physical significance of the shape, magnitude, and phase for the temporal profile of the deflection signal. Considered are the effects that thermophysical properties, boundary conditions, and geometry of the target and optical probe-beam have on the deflection response. PTD is shown to monitor spatial and temporal changes in heat flux leaving the surface due to changes in laser energy coupling. The PTD technique is then extended to detect phase-change at the surface of a solid target. Experimental data shows the onset of melt for indium and tin targets. The conditions for which melt can be detected by PTD is analyzed in terms of geometry, incident power and pulse length, and thermophysical properties of the target and surroundings. Next, monitoring high-powered laser ablation of materials with stress-power is introduced. The motivation for considering stress-power is given, followed by a theoretical discussion of stress-power and how it is determined experimentally. Experiments are presented for the ablation of aluminum targets as a function of energy and intensity. The stress-power response is analyzed for its physical significance. Lastly, the influence of plasma-shielding during high-powered pulsed laser-material interactions is considered. Crater size, emission, and stress-power are measured to determine the role that the gas medium and laser pulse length have on plasma shielding.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Pates, Carl S., III
1994-01-01
A coupled boundary element (BEM)-finite element (FEM) approach is presented to accurately model structure-acoustic interaction systems. The boundary element method is first applied to interior, two and three-dimensional acoustic domains with complex geometry configurations. Boundary element results are very accurate when compared with limited exact solutions. Structure-interaction problems are then analyzed with the coupled FEM-BEM method, where the finite element method models the structure and the boundary element method models the interior acoustic domain. The coupled analysis is compared with exact and experimental results for a simplistic model. Composite panels are analyzed and compared with isotropic results. The coupled method is then extended for random excitation. Random excitation results are compared with uncoupled results for isotropic and composite panels.
Mirroring and beyond: coupled dynamics as a generalized framework for modelling social interactions
Hasson, Uri; Frith, Chris D.
2016-01-01
When people observe one another, behavioural alignment can be detected at many levels, from the physical to the mental. Likewise, when people process the same highly complex stimulus sequences, such as films and stories, alignment is detected in the elicited brain activity. In early sensory areas, shared neural patterns are coupled to the low-level properties of the stimulus (shape, motion, volume, etc.), while in high-order brain areas, shared neural patterns are coupled to high-levels aspects of the stimulus, such as meaning. Successful social interactions require such alignments (both behavioural and neural), as communication cannot occur without shared understanding. However, we need to go beyond simple, symmetric (mirror) alignment once we start interacting. Interactions are dynamic processes, which involve continuous mutual adaptation, development of complementary behaviour and division of labour such as leader–follower roles. Here, we argue that interacting individuals are dynamically coupled rather than simply aligned. This broader framework for understanding interactions can encompass both processes by which behaviour and brain activity mirror each other (neural alignment), and situations in which behaviour and brain activity in one participant are coupled (but not mirrored) to the dynamics in the other participant. To apply these more sophisticated accounts of social interactions to the study of the underlying neural processes we need to develop new experimental paradigms and novel methods of data analysis PMID:27069044
Mirroring and beyond: coupled dynamics as a generalized framework for modelling social interactions.
Hasson, Uri; Frith, Chris D
2016-05-01
When people observe one another, behavioural alignment can be detected at many levels, from the physical to the mental. Likewise, when people process the same highly complex stimulus sequences, such as films and stories, alignment is detected in the elicited brain activity. In early sensory areas, shared neural patterns are coupled to the low-level properties of the stimulus (shape, motion, volume, etc.), while in high-order brain areas, shared neural patterns are coupled to high-levels aspects of the stimulus, such as meaning. Successful social interactions require such alignments (both behavioural and neural), as communication cannot occur without shared understanding. However, we need to go beyond simple, symmetric (mirror) alignment once we start interacting. Interactions are dynamic processes, which involve continuous mutual adaptation, development of complementary behaviour and division of labour such as leader-follower roles. Here, we argue that interacting individuals are dynamically coupled rather than simply aligned. This broader framework for understanding interactions can encompass both processes by which behaviour and brain activity mirror each other (neural alignment), and situations in which behaviour and brain activity in one participant are coupled (but not mirrored) to the dynamics in the other participant. To apply these more sophisticated accounts of social interactions to the study of the underlying neural processes we need to develop new experimental paradigms and novel methods of data analysis. PMID:27069044
Global fits of the dark matter-nucleon effective interactions
Catena, Riccardo; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: paolo.gondolo@utah.edu
2014-09-01
The effective theory of isoscalar dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by heavy spin-one or spin-zero particles depends on 10 coupling constants besides the dark matter particle mass. Here we compare this 11-dimensional effective theory to current observations in a comprehensive statistical analysis of several direct detection experiments, including the recent LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite results. From a multidimensional scan with about 3 million likelihood evaluations, we extract the marginalized posterior probability density functions (a Bayesian approach) and the profile likelihoods (a frequentist approach), as well as the associated credible regions and confidence levels, for each coupling constant vs dark matter mass and for each pair of coupling constants. We compare the Bayesian and frequentist approach in the light of the currently limited amount of data. We find that current direct detection data contain sufficient information to simultaneously constrain not only the familiar spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions, but also the remaining velocity and momentum dependent couplings predicted by the dark matter-nucleon effective theory. For current experiments associated with a null result, we find strong correlations between some pairs of coupling constants. For experiments that claim a signal (i.e., CoGeNT and DAMA), we find that pairs of coupling constants produce degenerate results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yildirim, Taner
2009-05-01
We present a detailed first-principles study of Fe-pnictides with particular emphasis on competing magnetic interactions, structural phase transition, giant magneto-elastic coupling and its effect on phonons. The exchange interactions Ji, j( R) are calculated up to ≈12 Å from two different approaches based on direct spin-flip and infinitesimal spin-rotation. We find that Ji, j( R) has an oscillatory character with an envelop decaying as 1/ R3 along the stripe-direction while it is very short range along the diagonal direction and antiferromagnetic. A brief discussion of the neutron scattering determination of these exchange constants from a single crystal sample with orthorhombic-twinning is given. The lattice parameter dependence of the exchange constants, dJi, j/ da are calculated for a simple spin-Peierls like model to explain the fine details of the tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition. We then discuss giant magneto-elastic effects in these systems. We show that when the Fe-spin is turned off the optimized c-values are shorter than experimental values by 1.4 Å for CaFe 2As 2, by 0.4 Å for BaFe 2As 2, and by 0.13 Å for LaOFeAs. We explain this strange behavior by unraveling surprisingly strong interactions between arsenic ions, the strength of which is controlled by the Fe-spin state through Fe-As hybridization. Reducing the Fe-magnetic moment, weakens the Fe-As bonding, and in turn, increases As-As interactions, causing a giant reduction in the c-axis. These findings also explain why the Fe-moment is so tightly coupled to the As-z position. Finally, we show that Fe-spin is also required to obtain the right phonon energies, in particular As c-polarized and Fe-Fe in-plane modes that have been recently observed by inelastic X-ray and neutron scattering but cannot be explained based on non-magnetic phonon calculations. Since treating iron as magnetic ion always gives much better results than non-magnetic ones and since there is no large c-axis reduction
Spin effects in the weak interaction
Freedman, S.J. Chicago Univ., IL . Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)
1990-01-01
Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.
Response of different regional online coupled models to aerosol-radiation interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forkel, Renate; Balzarini, Alessandra; Brunner, Dominik; Baró, Rocio; Curci, Gabriele; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Jorba, Oriol; Pérez, Juan L.; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Schröder, Wolfram; Tuccella, Paolo; Werhahn, Johannes; Wolke, Ralf; Žabkar, Rahela
2016-04-01
The importance of aerosol-meteorology interactions and their representation in online coupled regional atmospheric chemistry-meteorology models was investigated in COST Action ES1004 (EuMetChem, http://eumetchem.info/). Case study results from different models (COSMO-Muscat, COSMO-ART, and different configurations of WRF-Chem), which were applied for Europe as a coordinated exercise for the year 2010, are analyzed with respect to inter-model variability and the response of the different models to direct and indirect aerosol-radiation interactions. The main focus was on two episodes - the Russian heat wave and wildfires episode in July/August 2010 and a period in October 2010 with enhanced cloud cover and rain and including an of Saharan dust transport to Europe. Looking at physical plausibility the decrease in downward solar radiation and daytime temperature due to the direct aerosol effect is robust for all model configurations. The same holds for the pronounced decrease in cloud water content and increase in solar radiation for cloudy conditions and very low aerosol concentrations that was found for WRF-Chem when aerosol cloud interactions were considered. However, when the differences were tested for statistical significance no significant differences in mean solar radiation and mean temperature between the baseline case and the simulations including the direct and indirect effect from simulated aerosol concentrations were found over Europe for the October episode. Also for the fire episode differences between mean temperature and radiation from the simulations with and without the direct aerosol effect were not significant for the major part of the modelling domain. Only for the region with high fire emissions in Russia, the differences in mean solar radiation and temperature due to the direct effect were found to be significant during the second half of the fire episode - however only for a significance level of 0.1. The few observational data indicate that
The Thirring interaction in the two-dimensional axial-current-pseudoscalar derivative coupling model
Belvedere, L.V. . E-mail: armflavio@if.uff.br
2006-12-15
We reexamine the two-dimensional model of massive fermions interacting with a massless pseudoscalar field via axial-current derivative coupling. The hidden Thirring interaction in the axial-derivative coupling model is exhibited compactly by performing a canonical field transformation on the Bose field algebra and the model is mapped into the Thirring model with an additional vector-current-scalar derivative interaction (Schroer-Thirring model). The Fermi field operator is rewritten in terms of the Mandelstam soliton operator coupled to a free massless scalar field. The charge sectors of the axial-derivative model are mapped into the charge sectors of the massive Thirring model. The complete bosonized version of the model is presented. The bosonized composite operators of the quantum Hamiltonian are obtained as the leading operators in the Wilson short distance expansions.
A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method.
Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2016-06-21
We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4](3-), determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter. PMID:27334156
A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayfutyarova, Elvira R.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2016-06-01
We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4]3-, determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter.
Investigating enhanced atmospheric-sea surface coupling and interactions in the Irish Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maskell, John; Horsburgh, Kevin; Plater, Andy J.
2013-02-01
Enhanced atmospheric-sea surface coupling is investigated in the Irish Sea. The implications for so-called Proudman resonance are considered for a hindcast of an event that produced a significant, pressure-induced storm surge at the port of Liverpool. Time-series of non-dimensional gain along the depression track show resonant enhancement of the pressure-driven residual elevations in the central, deeper region of the Irish Sea when a depression moves at the speed of a shallow water wave (gh0.5). However, in the relatively shallow eastern Irish Sea the wind stress is the dominant surge-generating mechanism. Wind-generated surge magnitude is influenced by the propagation speed of the depression which controls the timing of momentum input with respect to tidal depth variations. Large surges at Liverpool are mostly caused by an almost linear summation of the wind- and pressure-induced surge components when the wind stress acts over low water and/or the rising tide. However, it is possible for the interaction of wind stress and pressure to reduce the total surge when a pressure-induced sea-level increase reduces the effect of the wind stress. The Irish Sea is too small for significant resonant enhancement due to atmospheric-sea surface coupling and surge magnitudes are strongly dependent on the intensity of the depression and the magnitude of the wind stress.
Laguna, Humberto G; Sagar, Robin P; Tempel, David G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2016-01-01
The effects of bath coupling on an interacting two-particle quantum system are studied using tools from information theory. Shannon entropies of the one (reduced) and two-particle distribution functions in position, momentum and separable phase-space are examined. Results show that the presence of the bath leads to a delocalization of the distribution functions in position space, and a localization in momentum space. This can be interpreted as a loss of information in position space and a gain of information in momentum space. The entropy sum of the system, in the presence of a bath, is shown to be dependent on the strength of the interparticle potential and also on the strength of the coupling to the bath. The statistical correlation between the particles, and its dependence on the bath and interparticle potential, is examined using mutual information. A stronger repulsive potential between particles, in the presence of the bath, yields a smaller correlation between the particles positions, and a larger one between their momenta. PMID:26616490
Simulation of coupled sputter-diffusion effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Toussaint, U.; Mutzke, A.; Sugiyama, K.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.
2016-02-01
The simultaneous effects of sputtering, implantation and solid-state diffusion determine the surface profiles of mixed-material systems under ion-bombardment at elevated temperatures due to the enhanced atomic mobility. To simulate the joint processes the Monte Carlo code SDTrimSP for the simulation of the ion-solid interaction has been augmented by a diffusion model for solid-state diffusion. The combined model has been applied to a tungsten-iron system under deuterium bombardment as model system for EUROFER. The simulation results reveal a strong dependence of the surface profile on initial tungsten concentration, ion energy, temperature and fluence but also on the impinging flux, a parameter which is often not appropriately taken into account. For reactor relevant parameters of low-energy (200 eV) deuterium fluxes of {10}21{at} {{{m}}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 at 873 K a tungsten-iron system exhibits an increase of the tungsten surface concentration from initially 1% by a factor of more than 20, which drops at lower fluxes.
Spin-orbit coupled weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic traps.
Hu, Hui; Ramachandhran, B; Pu, Han; Liu, Xia-Ji
2012-01-01
We investigate theoretically the phase diagram of a spin-orbit coupled Bose gas in two-dimensional harmonic traps. We show that at strong spin-orbit coupling the single-particle spectrum decomposes into different manifolds separated by ℏω{⊥}, where ω{⊥} is the trapping frequency. For a weakly interacting gas, quantum states with Skyrmion lattice patterns emerge spontaneously and preserve either parity symmetry or combined parity-time-reversal symmetry. These phases can be readily observed in a spin-orbit coupled gas of ^{87}Rb atoms in a highly oblate trap. PMID:22304247
Global constraints on vector-like WIMP effective interactions
Blennow, Mattias; Coloma, Pilar; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Zaldivar, Bryan
2016-04-07
In this work we combine information from relic abundance, direct detection, cosmic microwave background, positron fraction, gamma rays, and colliders to explore the existing constraints on couplings between Dark Matter and Standard Model constituents when no underlying model or correlation is assumed. For definiteness, we include independent vector-like effective interactions for each Standard Model fermion. Our results show that low Dark Matter masses below 20 GeV are disfavoured at the 3 σ level with respect to higher masses, due to the tension between the relic abundance requirement and upper constraints on the Dark Matter couplings. Lastly, large couplings are typically onlymore » allowed in combinations which avoid effective couplings to the nuclei used in direct detection experiments.« less
Enhancement of Compton scattering by an effective coupling constant
Barbiellini, Bernardo; Nicolini, Piero
2011-08-15
A robust thermodynamic argument shows that a small reduction of the effective coupling constant {alpha} of QED greatly enhances the low-energy Compton-scattering cross section and that the Thomson scattering length is connected to a fundamental scale {lambda}. A discussion provides a possible quantum interpretation of this enormous sensitivity to changes in the effective coupling constant {alpha}.
Coupled effects of chemotaxis and growth on traveling bacterial waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhifeng; Bouwer, Edward J.; Hilpert, Markus
2014-08-01
Traveling bacterial waves are capable of improving contaminant remediation in the subsurface. It is fairly well understood how bacterial chemotaxis and growth separately affect the formation and propagation of such waves. However, their interaction is not well understood. We therefore perform a modeling study to investigate the coupled effects of chemotaxis and growth on bacterial migration, and examine their effects on contaminant remediation. We study the waves by using different initial electron acceptor concentrations for different bacteria and substrate systems. Three types of traveling waves can occur: a chemotactic wave due to the biased movement of chemotactic bacteria resulting from metabolism-generated substrate concentration gradients; a growth/decay/motility wave due to a dynamic equilibrium between bacterial growth, decay and random motility; and an integrated wave due to the interaction between bacterial chemotaxis and growth. Chemotaxis hardly enhances the bacterial propagation if it is too weak to form a chemotactic wave or its wave speed is less than half of the growth/decay/motility wave speed. However, chemotaxis significantly accelerates bacterial propagation once its wave speed exceeds the growth/decay/motility wave speed. When convection occurs, it speeds up the growth/decay/motility wave but slows down or even eliminates the chemotactic wave due to the dispersion. Bacterial survival proves particularly important for bacterial propagation. Therefore we develop a conceptual model to estimate the speed of growth/decay/motility waves.
Coupled effects of chemotaxis and growth on traveling bacterial waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Z.; Hilpert, M.; Bouwer, E. J.
2014-12-01
Traveling bacterial waves are capable of improving contaminant remediation in the subsurface. It is fairly well understood how bacterial chemotaxis and growth separately affect the formation and propagation of such waves. However, their interaction is not well understood. We therefore perform a modeling study to investigate the coupled effects of chemotaxis and growth on bacterial migration, and examine their effects on contaminant remediation. We study the waves by using different initial electron acceptor concentrations for different bacteria and substrate systems. Three types of traveling waves can occur: a chemotactic wave due to the biased movement of chemotactic bacteria resulting from metabolism-generated substrate concentration gradients; a growth/decay/motility wave due to a dynamic equilibrium between bacterial growth, decay and random motility; and an integrated wave due to the interaction between bacterial chemotaxis and growth. Chemotaxis hardly enhances the bacterial propagation if it is too weak to form a chemotactic wave or its wave speed is less than half of the growth/decay/motility wave speed. However, chemotaxis significantly accelerates bacterial propagation once its wave speed exceeds the growth/decay/motility wave speed. When convection occurs, it speeds up the growth/decay/motility wave but slows down or even eliminates the chemotactic wave due to the dispersion. Bacterial survival proves particularly important for bacterial propagation. Therefore we develop a conceptual model to estimate the speed of growth/decay/motility waves.
Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions
Golan, Tomasz; Juszczak, Cezary; Sobczyk, Jan T.
2012-07-01
Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerroni, D.; Fancellu, L.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.
2016-06-01
In this work we propose to study the behavior of a solid elastic object that interacts with a multiphase flow. Fluid structure interaction and multiphase problems are of great interest in engineering and science because of many potential applications. The study of this interaction by coupling a fluid structure interaction (FSI) solver with a multiphase problem could open a large range of possibilities in the investigation of realistic problems. We use a FSI solver based on a monolithic approach, while the two-phase interface advection and reconstruction is computed in the framework of a Volume of Fluid method which is one of the more popular algorithms for two-phase flow problems. The coupling between the FSI and VOF algorithm is efficiently handled with the use of MEDMEM libraries implemented in the computational platform Salome. The numerical results of a dam break problem over a deformable solid are reported in order to show the robustness and stability of this numerical approach.
Evolution of a G protein-coupled receptor response by mutations in regulatory network interactions
Di Roberto, Raphaël B.; Chang, Belinda; Trusina, Ala; Peisajovich, Sergio G.
2016-01-01
All cellular functions depend on the concerted action of multiple proteins organized in complex networks. To understand how selection acts on protein networks, we used the yeast mating receptor Ste2, a pheromone-activated G protein-coupled receptor, as a model system. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste2 is a hub in a network of interactions controlling both signal transduction and signal suppression. Through laboratory evolution, we obtained 21 mutant receptors sensitive to the pheromone of a related yeast species and investigated the molecular mechanisms behind this newfound sensitivity. While some mutants show enhanced binding affinity to the foreign pheromone, others only display weakened interactions with the network's negative regulators. Importantly, the latter changes have a limited impact on overall pathway regulation, despite their considerable effect on sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that a new receptor–ligand pair can evolve through network-altering mutations independently of receptor–ligand binding, and suggest a potential role for such mutations in disease. PMID:27487915
Evolution of a G protein-coupled receptor response by mutations in regulatory network interactions.
Di Roberto, Raphaël B; Chang, Belinda; Trusina, Ala; Peisajovich, Sergio G
2016-01-01
All cellular functions depend on the concerted action of multiple proteins organized in complex networks. To understand how selection acts on protein networks, we used the yeast mating receptor Ste2, a pheromone-activated G protein-coupled receptor, as a model system. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste2 is a hub in a network of interactions controlling both signal transduction and signal suppression. Through laboratory evolution, we obtained 21 mutant receptors sensitive to the pheromone of a related yeast species and investigated the molecular mechanisms behind this newfound sensitivity. While some mutants show enhanced binding affinity to the foreign pheromone, others only display weakened interactions with the network's negative regulators. Importantly, the latter changes have a limited impact on overall pathway regulation, despite their considerable effect on sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that a new receptor-ligand pair can evolve through network-altering mutations independently of receptor-ligand binding, and suggest a potential role for such mutations in disease. PMID:27487915
Brogi, Bharat Bhushan Ahluwalia, P. K.; Chand, Shyam
2015-06-24
Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ε + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donges, J. F.; Schultz, H. C. H.; Marwan, N.; Zou, Y.; Kurths, J.
2011-12-01
Network theory provides various tools for investigating the structural or functional topology of many complex systems found in nature, technology and society. Nevertheless, it has recently been realised that a considerable number of systems of interest should be treated, more appropriately, as interacting networks or networks of networks. Here we introduce a novel graph-theoretical framework for studying the interaction structure between subnetworks embedded within a complex network of networks. This framework allows us to quantify the structural role of single vertices or whole subnetworks with respect to the interaction of a pair of subnetworks on local, mesoscopic and global topological scales. Climate networks have recently been shown to be a powerful tool for the analysis of climatological data. Applying the general framework for studying interacting networks, we introduce coupled climate subnetworks to represent and investigate the topology of statistical relationships between the fields of distinct climatological variables. Using coupled climate subnetworks to investigate the terrestrial atmosphere's three-dimensional geopotential height field uncovers known as well as interesting novel features of the atmosphere's vertical stratification and general circulation. Specifically, the new measure "cross-betweenness" identifies regions which are particularly important for mediating vertical wind field interactions. The promising results obtained by following the coupled climate subnetwork approach present a first step towards an improved understanding of the Earth system and its complex interacting components from a network perspective.
Deep-subwavelength magnetic-coupling-dominant interaction among magnetic localized surface plasmons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile
2016-05-01
Magnetic coupling is generally much weaker than electric Coulomb interaction. This also applies to the well-known magnetic "meta-atoms," or split-ring resonators (SRRs) as originally proposed by Pendry et al. [IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999), 10.1109/22.798002], in which the associated electric dipole moments usually dictate their interaction. As a result, stereometamaterials, a stack of identical SRRs, were found with electric coupling so strong that the dispersion from merely magnetic coupling was overturned. Recently, other workers have proposed a new concept of magnetic localized surface plasmons, supported on metallic spiral structures (MSSs) at a deep-subwavelength scale. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that a stack of these magnetic "meta-atoms" can have dominant magnetic coupling in both of its two configurations. This allows magnetic-coupling-dominant energy transport along a one-dimensional stack of MSSs, as demonstrated with near-field transmission measurement. Our work not only applies this type of magnetic "meta-atom" into metamaterial construction, but also provides possibilities of magnetic metamaterial design in which the electric interaction no longer takes precedence.
Hawke, B.C.
1963-02-26
This patent relates to a releasable coupling connecting a control rod to a control rod drive. This remotely operable coupling mechanism can connect two elements which are laterally and angviarly misaligned, and provides a means for sensing the locked condition of the elements. The coupling utilizes a spherical bayonet joint which is locked against rotation by a ball detent lock. (AEC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leitner, Daniel; Bodner, Gernot; Raoof, Amir
2013-04-01
, but also improve the description of the rooting environment. Until now there have been no attempts to couple root architecture and pore network models. In our work we present a first attempt to join both types of models using the root architecture model of Leitner et al., (2010) and a pore network model presented by Raoof et al. (2010). The two main objectives of coupling both models are: (i) Representing the effect of root induced biopores on flow and transport processes: For this purpose a fixed root architecture created by the root model is superimposed as a secondary root induced pore network to the primary soil network, thus influencing the final pore topology in the network generation. (ii) Representing the influence of pre-existing pores on root branching: Using a given network of (rigid) pores, the root architecture model allocates its root axes into these preexisting pores as preferential growth paths with thereby shape the final root architecture. The main objective of our study is to reveal the potential of using a pore scale description of the plant growth medium for an improved representation of interaction processes at the interface of root and soil. References Raoof, A., Hassanizadeh, S.M. 2010. A New Method for Generating Pore-Network Models. Transp. Porous Med. 81, 391-407. Leitner, D, Klepsch, S., Bodner, G., Schnepf, S. 2010. A dynamic root system growth model based on L-Systems. Tropisms and coupling to nutrient uptake from soil. Plant Soil 332, 177-192.
Approaching the strong coupling limit in single plasmonic nanorods interacting with J-aggregates
Zengin, Gülis; Johansson, Göran; Johansson, Peter; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Käll, Mikael; Shegai, Timur
2013-01-01
We studied scattering and extinction of individual silver nanorods coupled to the J-aggregate form of the cyanine dye TDBC as a function of plasmon – exciton detuning. The measured single particle spectra exhibited a strongly suppressed scattering and extinction rate at wavelengths corresponding to the J-aggregate absorption band, signaling strong interaction between the localized surface plasmon of the metal core and the exciton of the surrounding molecular shell. In the context of strong coupling theory, the observed “transparency dips” correspond to an average vacuum Rabi splitting of the order of 100 meV, which approaches the plasmon dephasing rate and, thereby, the strong coupling limit for the smallest investigated particles. These findings could pave the way towards ultra-strong light-matter interaction on the nanoscale and active plasmonic devices operating at room temperature. PMID:24166360
Cost-Effectiveness of Interactive Courseware.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fletcher, J. D.
What is known about the cost effectiveness of interactive courseware (ICW) is reviewed, and issues that remain are summarized. Effect size is used for reporting the effectiveness of ICW programs. Two ICW media are considered: computer-based instruction and interactive videodisc instruction. Effect sizes for computer-based instruction have been…
Re-visit local coupling correction in the interaction regions of RHIC
Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Liu, C.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Schoefer, V.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Zimmer, C.
2011-11-01
In this article we will re-visit the local coupling correction in the interaction regions (IRs) of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We will review the measurement data of triplet quadrupole rolls, the local coupling correction strengths in the RHIC control system, and the methods for the local coupling correction with local skew quadrupole correctors. Based on the in-turnnel measurement data of triplet roll errors in 2011, we will analytically calculate and simulate IR-bump method to find out the local skew correction strengths and compare them at store and at injection with the Blue and Yellow ring lattices in the 2011 polarized proton (p-p) and Au-Au runs. The vertical dispersion from the triplet roll errors, local and global coupling correction skew quadrupoles, and the vertical dipole correctors are calculated and discussed.
Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma
Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.
2008-09-07
Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.
Experimental determination of the effective strong coupling constant
Alexandre Deur; Volker Burkert; Jian-Ping Chen; Wolfgang Korsch
2007-07-01
We extract an effective strong coupling constant from low Q{sup 2} data on the Bjorken sum. Using sum rules, we establish its Q{sup 2}-behavior over the complete Q{sup 2}-range. The result is compared to effective coupling constants extracted from different processes and to calculations based on Schwinger-Dyson equations, hadron spectroscopy or lattice QCD. Although the connection between the experimentally extracted effective coupling constant and the calculations is not clear, the results agree surprisingly well.
Interaction-induced hopping phase in driven-dissipative coupled photonic microcavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, S. R. K.; Amo, A.; Sagnes, I.; Le Gratiet, L.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J.
2016-06-01
The Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) describes bosons hopping across sites and interacting on-site. Inspired by the success of BHM simulators with atoms in optical lattices, proposals for implementing the BHM with photons in coupled nonlinear cavities have recently emerged. Two coupled semiconductor microcavities constitute a model system where the hopping, interaction and decay of exciton polaritons--mixed light-matter quasiparticles--can be engineered in combination with site-selective coherent driving to implement the driven-dissipative two-site optical BHM. Here we explore the interplay of interference and nonlinearity in this system, in a regime where three distinct density profiles can be observed under identical driving conditions. We demonstrate how the phase acquired by polaritons hopping between cavities can be controlled through polariton-polariton interactions. Our results open new perspectives for synthesizing density-dependent gauge fields using polaritons in two-dimensional multicavity systems.
Interaction-induced hopping phase in driven-dissipative coupled photonic microcavities.
Rodriguez, S R K; Amo, A; Sagnes, I; Le Gratiet, L; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Bloch, J
2016-01-01
The Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) describes bosons hopping across sites and interacting on-site. Inspired by the success of BHM simulators with atoms in optical lattices, proposals for implementing the BHM with photons in coupled nonlinear cavities have recently emerged. Two coupled semiconductor microcavities constitute a model system where the hopping, interaction and decay of exciton polaritons-mixed light-matter quasiparticles-can be engineered in combination with site-selective coherent driving to implement the driven-dissipative two-site optical BHM. Here we explore the interplay of interference and nonlinearity in this system, in a regime where three distinct density profiles can be observed under identical driving conditions. We demonstrate how the phase acquired by polaritons hopping between cavities can be controlled through polariton-polariton interactions. Our results open new perspectives for synthesizing density-dependent gauge fields using polaritons in two-dimensional multicavity systems. PMID:27307038
Interaction-induced hopping phase in driven-dissipative coupled photonic microcavities
Rodriguez, S. R. K.; Amo, A.; Sagnes, I.; Le Gratiet, L.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J.
2016-01-01
The Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) describes bosons hopping across sites and interacting on-site. Inspired by the success of BHM simulators with atoms in optical lattices, proposals for implementing the BHM with photons in coupled nonlinear cavities have recently emerged. Two coupled semiconductor microcavities constitute a model system where the hopping, interaction and decay of exciton polaritons—mixed light-matter quasiparticles—can be engineered in combination with site-selective coherent driving to implement the driven-dissipative two-site optical BHM. Here we explore the interplay of interference and nonlinearity in this system, in a regime where three distinct density profiles can be observed under identical driving conditions. We demonstrate how the phase acquired by polaritons hopping between cavities can be controlled through polariton-polariton interactions. Our results open new perspectives for synthesizing density-dependent gauge fields using polaritons in two-dimensional multicavity systems. PMID:27307038
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.
1996-01-01
A viscous-inviscid interactive coupling method is used for the computation of unsteady transonic flows involving separation and reattachment. A lag-entrainment integral boundary layer method is used with the transonic small disturbance potential equation in the CAP-TSDV (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code. Efficient and robust computations of steady and unsteady separated flows, including steady separation bubbles and self-excited shock-induced oscillations are presented. The buffet onset boundary for the NACA 0012 airfoil is accurately predicted and shown computationally to be a Hopf bifurcation. Shock-induced oscillations are also presented for the 18 percent circular arc airfoil. The oscillation onset boundaries and frequencies are accurately predicted, as is the experimentally observed hysteresis of the oscillations with Mach number. This latter stability boundary is identified as a jump phenomenon. Transonic wing flutter boundaries are also shown for a thin swept wing and for a typical business jet wing, illustrating viscous effects on flutter and the effect of separation onset on the wing response at flutter. Calculations for both wings show limit cycle oscillations at transonic speeds in the vicinity of minimum flutter speed indices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael
2013-04-01
manipulations and visualization in a powerful high level language, and benefiting from an enormous amount of third-party open source R extensions. The possibility to rapidly prototype complex algorithms involving geochemical modelling is in our opinion a huge advantage. A demonstration is given by the successful evaluation of a strategy to reduce the CPU-time needed to perform reactive transport simulations in a sequential coupling scheme. The idea is the "reduction" of the number of actual chemical simulations to perform at every time step, by searching for "duplicates" of each chemical simulations in the grid: such comparison involves typically a huge number of elements (one chemical simulation for grid element for time step) and a quite large number of variables (concentrations and mineral abundances). However, through the straightforward implementation of the prototype algorithm through the R/PHREEQC interface, we found out that the scan is extremely cost-effective in terms of CPU-time and typically allows a relevant speedup for simulations starting from a homogeneous or zone-homogeneous state. This speedup can even greatily exceed that of parallelization in some favorable but not unfrequent case. This feature should therefore be implemented in reactive transport simulators. References [1] Parkhurst D, Appelo C (1999) Users guide to PHREEQC (version 2). Tech. rep, U.S. Geological Survey. [2] Beyer C, Li D, De Lucia M, Kühn M, Bauer S (2012): Modelling CO2-induced fluid-rock interactions in the Altensalzwedel gas reservoir. Part II: coupled reactive transport simulation. Environ. Earth Sci., 67, 2, 573-588. [3] R Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/. [4] Kühn M, Münch U (2012) CLEAN: CO2 Large-Scale Enhanced Gas Recovery. GEOTECHNOLOGIEN Science Report No. 19. Series: Advanced. Technologies in Earth Sciences, 199 p, ISBN 978-3-642-31676-0.
Validation of a 2-D semi-coupled numerical model for fluid-structure-seabed interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jianhong; Jeng, Dongsheng; Wang, Ren; Zhu, Changqi
2013-10-01
A 2-D semi-coupled model PORO-WSSI 2D (also be referred as FSSI-CAS 2D) for the Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction (FSSI) has been developed by employing RANS equations for wave motion in fluid domain, VARANS equations for porous flow in porous structures; and taking the dynamic Biot's equations (known as "u - p" approximation) for soil as the governing equations. The finite difference two-step projection method and the forward time difference method are adopted to solve the RANS, VARANS equations; and the finite element method is adopted to solve the "u - p" approximation. A data exchange port is developed to couple the RANS, VARANS equations and the dynamic Biot's equations together. The analytical solution proposed by Hsu and Jeng (1994) and some experiments conducted in wave flume or geotechnical centrifuge in which various waves involved are used to validate the developed semi-coupled numerical model. The sandy bed involved in these experiments is poro-elastic or poro-elastoplastic. The inclusion of the interaction between fluid, marine structures and poro-elastoplastic seabed foundation is a special point and highlight in this paper, which is essentially different with other previous coupled models The excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experiment data indicates that the developed coupled model is highly reliablefor the FSSI problem.
An effect of change in patient status on marital interaction.
Roman, M; Bauman, G; Borello, J; Meltzer, B; Ehrenberg, D B
1976-06-01
In the treatment of couples and families, even more so than of individuals, therapists invariably are forced to face the problem of assessment of change in the marital or family "system." The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in marital interaction for a special population, that is, in which one member of each married pair had been, but was no longer, a hospitalized psychiatric patient. The primary question we addressed was whether changes in marital interaction could be amply detected and whether these changes could be attributed to the particular role shift that had occurred in one spouse--from "patient" to "nonpatient." Utilizing a technique called Interaction Testing, which the senior authors devised in 1960, we found that such alterations in marital interaction do indeed arise when one member of the couple moves out of a patient role and that our instrument is useful in elucidating the nature of such effects. In addition, it can be expected that a study of this kind will be of theoretical and methodological value in dealing with the general issues of problem-solving interaction in couples and families. The clinical aspect of the study may also be expected to stimulate useful thinking regarding family theapy in hospital settings, patient management, and aftercare. PMID:1026444
DataSpaces: An Interaction and Coordination Framework for Coupled Simulation Workflows
Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott A; Parashar, Manish
2010-01-01
Emerging high-performance distributed computing environments are enabling new end-to-end formulations in science and engineering that involve multiple interacting processes and data-intensive application workflows. For example, current fusion simulation efforts are exploring coupled models and codes that simultaneously simulate separate application processes, such as the core and the edge turbulence, and run on different high performance computing resources. These components need to interact, at runtime, with each other and with services for data monitoring, data analysis and visualization, and data archiving. As a result, they require efficient support for dynamic and flexible couplings and interactions, which remains a challenge. This paper presents Data-Spaces, a flexible interaction and coordination substrate that addresses this challenge. DataSpaces essentially implements a semantically specialized virtual shared space abstraction that can be associatively accessed by all components and services in the application workflow. It enables live data to be extracted from running simulation components, indexes this data online, and then allows it to be monitored, queried and accessed by other components and services via the space using semantically meaningful operators. The underlying data transport is asynchronous, low-overhead and largely memory-to-memory. The design, implementation, and experimental evaluation of DataSpaces using a coupled fusion simulation workflow is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Xin; Forkel, Renate; Sokhi, Ranjeet S.; Suppan, Peter; Baklanov, Alexander; Gauss, Michael; Brunner, Dominik; Barò, Rocìo; Balzarini, Alessandra; Chemel, Charles; Curci, Gabriele; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Im, Ulas; Pérez, Juan L.; Pirovano, Guido; San Jose, Roberto; Schlünzen, K. Heinke; Tsegas, George; Tuccella, Paolo; Werhahn, Johannes; Žabkar, Rahela; Galmarini, Stefano
2015-08-01
This study reviews the top ranked meteorology and chemistry interactions in online coupled models recommended by an experts' survey conducted in COST Action EuMetChem and examines the sensitivity of those interactions during two pollution episodes: the Russian forest fires 25 Jul-15 Aug 2010 and a Saharan dust transport event from 1 Oct to 31 Oct 2010 as a part of the AQMEII phase-2 exercise. Three WRF-Chem model simulations were performed for the forest fire case for a baseline without any aerosol feedback on meteorology, a simulation with aerosol direct effects only and a simulation including both direct and indirect effects. For the dust case study, eight WRF-Chem and one WRF-CMAQ simulations were selected from the set of simulations conducted in the framework of AQMEII. Of these two simulations considered no feedbacks, two included direct effects only and five simulations included both direct and indirect effects. The results from both episodes demonstrate that it is important to include the meteorology and chemistry interactions in online-coupled models. Model evaluations using routine observations collected in AQMEII phase-2 and observations from a station in Moscow show that for the fire case the simulation including only aerosol direct effects has better performance than the simulations with no aerosol feedbacks or including both direct and indirect effects. The normalized mean biases are significantly reduced by 10-20% for PM10 when including aerosol direct effects. The analysis for the dust case confirms that models perform better when including aerosol direct effects, but worse when including both aerosol direct and indirect effects, which suggests that the representation of aerosol indirect effects needs to be improved in the model.
Filadi, Riccardo; Greotti, Elisa; Turacchio, Gabriele; Luini, Alberto; Pozzan, Tullio; Pizzo, Paola
2016-06-01
Communication between organelles plays key roles in cell biology. In particular, physical and functional coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is crucial for regulation of various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here, we demonstrate that Presenilin 2 (PS2), mutations in which underlie familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), promotes ER-mitochondria coupling only in the presence of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). PS2 is not necessary for the antagonistic effect of Mfn2 on organelle coupling, although its abundance can tune it. The two proteins physically interact, whereas their homologues Mfn1 and PS1 are dispensable for this interplay. Moreover, PS2 mutants associated with FAD are more effective than the wild-type form in modulating ER-mitochondria tethering because their binding to Mfn2 in mitochondria-associated membranes is favored. We propose a revised model for ER-mitochondria interaction to account for these findings and discuss possible implications for FAD pathogenesis. PMID:27239030
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, X.; Johnson, T. C.; Hammond, G. E.; Zachara, J. M.
2014-12-01
The hydrological and biogeochemical processes at the groundwater and river water interface are largely controlled by the exchange dynamics between the two water bodies. Accurate characterization of the heterogeneous permeability field at such interface is critical for modeling the bulk flow as well as the biogeochemical processes that are coupled with the flow. Taking advantage of the distinct conductivities in groundwater and rive water, time lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can provide rich spatial and temporal data for characterizing the permeability field, by imaging the change in subsurface electric conductivity driven by river water intrusion and retreat. We installed a large-scale (300 m by 300 m) 3-dimensional ERT array to monitor river water intrusion and retreat through time at a major river corridor, and the 4-dimensional electrical geophysical data is assimilated to invert for the underlying permeability field using ensemble-based algorithms (e.g., ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble smoother). We developed a new high-performance hydrogeophysical code by coupling an ERT imaging code E4D (Johnson et al., 2010) with a site-scale flow and transport code, PFLOTRAN (Hammond et al., 2012). The coupled code provides the key modeling capability of multi-physics processes, parallel efficiency, and multi-realization simulation capability for hydrogeophysical inversion. We assimilated both well-based point measurements of water table and specific conductance and spatially continuous ERT images in a sequential Bayesian way. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of joint hydrogeophysical inversion for large-scale characterization of subsurface properties in the groundwater and river water interaction zone. Our investigation of spatial versus temporal data assimilation strategies have inspired systematic data worth analyses to identify the most valuable data sets for hydrogeophysical inversion. The high performance computing is performed on the Hopper
Khalil, E.M.; Abdalla, M. Sebawe . E-mail: m.sebawe@physics.org; Obada, A.S.-F.
2006-02-15
A modified Jaynes-Cummings model which consists of a two-level atom interacting with two modes of the electromagnetic field is introduced. More precisely we have considered a Hamiltonian model that includes two types of interaction: One is the field-field (frequency converter type) and the other is the atom-field interaction. By invoking a canonical transformation an exact solution of the wave function in the Schroedinger picture is obtained. The result presented in this context is used to discuss the atomic inversion as well as the entropy squeezing and variance squeezing phenomena. We have shown that the existence of the second field coupling parameter reduces the amount of squeezing in all quadratures, while the effect of the detuning parameter would lead to the superstructure phenomenon which becomes more pronounced upon increasing the mean photon numbers, in the states which are taken to be converter states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Zhe-Yan; Wang, Wen-Liang; Li, Ren-Zhong; Xia, Cai-Juan; Li, Lian-Bi
2016-07-01
The CCSD(T) approach based on two-component relativistic effective core potential with spin-orbit interaction just included in coupled cluster iteration is adopted to study the spectroscopic constants of ground states of Kr2, Xe2 and Rn2 dimers. The spectroscopic constants have significant basis set dependence. Extrapolation to the complete basis set limit provides the most accurate values. The spin-orbit interaction hardly affects the spectroscopic constants of Kr2 and Xe2. However, the equilibrium bond length is shortened about 0.013 Å and the dissociation energy is augmented about 18 cm-1 by the spin-orbit interaction for Rn2 in the complete basis set limit.
Holguín-Gallego, Fernando José; Chávez-Calvillo, Rodrigo; García-Revilla, Marco; Francisco, Evelio; Pendás, Ángel Martín; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás
2016-07-15
The electronic energy partition established by the Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) approach is an important method of wavefunction analyses which has yielded valuable insights about different phenomena in physical chemistry. Most of the IQA applications have relied upon approximations, which do not include either dynamical correlation (DC) such as Hartree-Fock (HF) or external DC like CASSCF theory. Recently, DC was included in the IQA method by means of HF/Coupled-Cluster (CC) transition densities (Chávez-Calvillo et al., Comput. Theory Chem. 2015, 1053, 90). Despite the potential utility of this approach, it has a few drawbacks, for example, it is not consistent with the calculation of CC properties different from the total electronic energy. To improve this situation, we have implemented the IQA energy partition based on CC Lagrangian one- and two-electron orbital density matrices. The development presented in this article is tested and illustrated with the H2 , LiH, H2 O, H2 S, N2 , and CO molecules for which the IQA results obtained under the consideration of (i) the CC Lagrangian, (ii) HF/CC transition densities, and (iii) HF are critically analyzed and compared. Additionally, the effect of the DC in the different components of the electronic energy in the formation of the T-shaped (H2 )2 van der Waals cluster and the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution between F(-) and CH3 F is examined. We anticipate that the approach put forward in this article will provide new understandings on subjects in physical chemistry wherein DC plays a crucial role like molecular interactions along with chemical bonding and reactivity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27237084
Electron-phonon interaction effects in tantalum
Al-Lehaibi, A.; Swihart, J.C.; Butler, W.H.; Pinski, F.J.
1987-09-15
The results of calculations for a number of electron-phonon interaction effects for tantalum are presented. The calculations are based on Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker energy bands, Born--von Karman phonons, and the rigid-muffin-tin approximation for the electron-phonon matrix element. The calculated Eliashberg spectral function ..cap alpha../sup 2/F is compared with the earlier tunneling data of Shen and the proximity tunneling data of Wolf et al. The calculated and tunneling transverse-phonon peaks agree well, but the height of the tunneling longitudinal-phonon peak is smaller than the calculated results. The calculated electron-phonon coupling parameter lambda is 0.88, which is larger than the lambda determined from superconducting tunneling and superconducting T/sub c/ measurements, but is slightly smaller than the lambda determined from electronic specific-heat measurements. Calculated phonon linewidths along various symmetry directions are presented. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity due to phonon scattering is calculated in the lowest-order variational approximation and it agrees with experiment. The point-contact spectral function of Kulik, G(..omega..), is determined and compared with ..cap alpha../sup 2/F(..omega..). The agreement between calculated and measured electronic specific heat and high-temperature electrical resistivity gives strong support to the validity of the rigid-muffin-tin approximation for electron-phonon matrix elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Li-Jun; Cao, Jun-Peng; Yang, Wen-Li
2015-10-01
We propose an integrable spin-1/2 Heisenberg model where the exchange couplings and Dzyloshinky-Moriya interactions are dependent on the sites. By employing the quantum inverse scattering method, we obtain the eigenvalues and the Bethe ansatz equation of the system with the periodic boundary condition. Furthermore, we obtain the exact solution and study the boundary effect of the system with the anti-periodic boundary condition via the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz. The operator identities of the transfer matrix at the inhomogeneous points are proved at the operator level. We construct the T-Q relation based on them. From which, we obtain the energy spectrum of the system. The corresponding eigenstates are also constructed. We find an interesting coherence state that is induced by the topological boundary. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174335, 11375141, 11374334, and 11434013) and the National Program for Basic Research of China and the Fund from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation.
Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Maheut, Y; Boutoux, G; Antonelli, L; Nicolaï, Ph; Batani, D; Tikhonchuk, V
2015-10-01
We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure. PMID:26565161
Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colaïtis, A.; Duchateau, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Maheut, Y.; Boutoux, G.; Antonelli, L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Batani, D.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2015-10-01
We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure.
Entanglement Criteria of Two Two-Level Atoms Interacting with Two Coupled Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghshahi, Hamid Reza; Tavassoly, Mohammad Kazem; Faghihi, Mohammad Javad
2015-08-01
In this paper, we study the interaction between two two-level atoms and two coupled modes of a quantized radiation field in the form of parametric frequency converter injecting within an optical cavity enclosed by a medium with Kerr nonlinearity. It is demonstrated that, by applying the Bogoliubov-Valatin canonical transformation, the introduced model is reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Then, under particular initial conditions for the atoms (in a coherent superposition of its ground and upper states) and the fields (in a standard coherent state) which may be prepared, the time evolution of state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. In order to understand the degree of entanglement between subsystems (atom-field and atom-atom), the dynamics of entanglement through different measures, namely, von Neumann reduced entropy, concurrence and negativity is evaluated. In each case, the effects of Kerr nonlinearity and detuning parameter on the above measures are numerically analyzed, in detail. It is illustrated that the amount of entanglement can be tuned by choosing the evolved parameters, appropriately.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatefi, Ehsan
2015-12-01
We evaluate five point world-sheet string theory amplitudes of one transverse scalar field, two world volume gauge fields (and two transverse scalars, a gauge field) in the presence of a closed string Ramond-Ramond vertex operator in its symmetric picture. We carry out all the entire S-matrix elements of five point mixed RR-scalars/gauge fields < C -1 ϕ 0 A -1 A 0>, < C -1 ϕ -1 A 0 A 0>, < C -1 A 0 ϕ -1 ϕ 0> and < C -1 A -1 ϕ 0 ϕ 0> in detail and start comparing all order α' contact interactions and singularities in both transverse and world volume directions. We explore the presence of various new couplings in string theory effective actions and find out their all order α' higher derivative corrections in both type IIA and IIB. Ultimately we make various remarks for the singularities and contact terms whose RR momenta are embedded in transverse directions. α' corrections to some of Myers terms are also addressed.
Interchannel coupling effects in the valence photoionization of SF6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jose, Jobin; Lucchese, Robert; Rescigno, Tom
2014-05-01
The complex Kohn and polyatomic Schwinger variational techniques have been employed to illustrate the interchannel coupling correlation effects in the valence photoionization dynamics of SF6. Partial photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters of six valence subshells (1t1 g, 5t1 u, 1t2 u, 3eg, 1t2 g, 4t1 u) are discussed in the framework of several theoretical and experimental studies. The complex Kohn results are in rather good agreement with experimental results, indicative of the fact that the interchannel coupling effects alter the photoionization dynamics significantly. We find that the dominant effect of interchannel coupling is to reduce the magnitude of shape resonant cross sections near threshold and to induce resonant features in other channels to which resonances are coupled.
Effect of interfacial coupling on rectification in organic spin rectifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Gui-Chao; Zuo, Meng-Ying; Li, Ying; Zhang, Zhao; Ren, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chuan-Kui
2015-07-01
The effect of interfacial coupling on rectification in an organic co-oligomer spin diode is investigated theoretically by considering spin-independent and spin-resolved couplings respectively. In the case of spin-independent coupling, an optimal interfacial coupling strength with a significant enhanced rectification ratio is found, whose value depends on the structural asymmetry of the molecule. In the case of spin-resolved coupling, we found that only the variation of the interfacial coupling with specific spin is effective to modulate the rectification, which is due to the spin-filtering property of the central asymmetric magnetic molecule. A transition of the spin-current rectification between parallel spin-current rectification and antiparallel spin-current rectification may be observed with the variation of the spin-resolved interfacial coupling. The interfacial effect on rectification is further analyzed from the spin-dependent transmission spectrum at different biases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 1374195), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2014AM017), and the Excellent Young Scholars Research Fund of Shandong Normal University, China.
Bertone, G.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Collar, J. I.; Odom, B.
2007-10-12
We study the prospects for detecting weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in a number of phenomenological scenarios, with a detector composed of a target simultaneously sensitive to both spin-dependent and spin-independent couplings, as is the case of COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics). First, we show that sensitivity to both couplings optimizes chances of initial WIMP detection. Second, we demonstrate that, in case of detection, a comparison of the signal on two complementary targets, such as in COUPP CF{sub 3}I and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} bubble chambers, allows a significantly more precise determination of the dark matter axial and scalar couplings. This strategy would provide crucial information on the nature of the WIMPs and possibly allow discrimination between neutralino and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.
Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.
2008-01-01
The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103
Synchronization and plateau splitting of coupled oscillators with long-range power-law interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Huan-Yu; Wu, Kuo-An
2015-12-01
We investigate synchronization and plateau splitting of coupled oscillators on a one-dimensional lattice with long-range interactions that decay over distance as a power law. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the dynamics of systems of coupled oscillators with power-law exponent α ≤1 is identical to that of the all-to-all coupling case. For α >1 , oscillatory behavior of the phase coherence appears as a result of single plateau splitting into multiple plateaus. A coarse-graining method is used to investigate the onset of plateau splitting. We analyze a simple oscillatory state formed by two plateaus in detail and propose a systematic approach to predict the onset of plateau splitting. The prediction of breaking points of plateau splitting is in quantitatively good agreement with numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fatehi, Shervin; Alguire, Ethan; Shao, Yihan; Subotnik, Joseph E.
2011-12-01
We present a method for analytically calculating the derivative couplings between a pair of configuration-interaction-singles (CIS) excited states obtained in an atom-centered basis. Our theory is exact and has been derived using two completely independent approaches: one inspired by the Hellmann-Feynman theorem and the other following from direct differentiation. (The former is new, while the latter is in the spirit of existing approaches in the literature.) Our expression for the derivative couplings incorporates all Pulay effects associated with the use of an atom-centered basis, and the computational cost is minimal, roughly comparable to that of a single CIS energy gradient. We have validated our method against CIS finite-difference results and have applied it to the lowest lying excited states of naphthalene; we find that naphthalene derivative couplings include Pulay contributions sufficient to have a qualitative effect. Going beyond standard problems in analytic gradient theory, we have also constructed a correction, based on perturbative electron-translation factors, for including electronic momentum and eliminating spurious components of the derivative couplings that break translational symmetry. This correction is general and can be applied to any level of electronic structure theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunaga, A.; Abe, M.; Hada, M.; Das, B. P.
2016-04-01
The scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) interaction, which has been predicted between the electrons and nuclei of atoms and molecules, violates parity- (P -) and time- (T -) reversal symmetries. The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) and the S-PS interaction together give rise to an energy shift in paramagnetic polar molecules, which in principle can be measured. The determination of the S-PS interaction constant, ks ,A, for an atom A could be a sensitive probe of physics beyond the standard model. The upper limit for it can be obtained by combining the results of the measured energy shift mentioned above and the accurate quantum chemical calculation of the S-PS coefficient, Ws ,A. In this work, we use a method based on the four-component relativistic coupled-cluster singles and doubles (RCCSD) method to calculate this coefficient for YbF, one of the most promising candidates for the search of the eEDM and the S-PS interaction. We obtain Ws ,Yb=-40.5 (kHz ) with an estimated error of less than 10% for YbF. We also calculate the effective electric field (Eeff), the molecular dipole moment, and the parallel component of the hyperfine coupling constant (A∥) by the RCCSD method. The discrepancies in the results of these calculations with those of accurate measurements are used to estimate the accuracy of our calculation of Ws ,Yb.
Final Report. Coupled simulations of Antarctic Ice-sheet/ocean interactions using POP and CISM
Asay-Davis, Xylar Storm
2015-12-30
The project performed under this award, referred to from here on as CLARION (CoupLed simulations of Antarctic Ice-sheet/Ocean iNteractions), included important advances in two models of ice sheet and ocean interactions. Despite its short duration (one year), the project made significant progress on its three major foci. First, together with collaborator Daniel Martin at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), I developed the POPSICLES coupled ice sheet-ocean model to the point where it could perform a number of pan-Antarctic simulations under various forcing conditions. The results were presented at a number of major conferences and workshops worldwide, and are currently being incorporated into two manuscripts in preparation.
Stability and Chaos of Two Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates with Three-Body Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ya; Hai, Wen-Hua
2005-11-01
We study the dynamics of two Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) tunnel-coupled by a double-well potential. A real three-body interaction term is considered and a two-mode approximation is used to derive two coupled equations, which describe the relative population and relative phase. By solving the equations and analyzing the stability of the system, we find the stable stationary solutions for a constant atomic scattering length. When a periodically time-varying scattering length is applied, Melnikov analysis and numerical calculation demonstrate the existence of chaotic behavior and the dependence of chaos on the three-body interaction parameters. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10275023 and the Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics of China under Grant No. T152504
Uncertainty quantification of effective nuclear interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez, R. Navarro; Amaro, J. E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz
2016-03-01
We give a brief review on the development of phenomenological NN interactions and the corresponding quantification of statistical uncertainties. We look into the uncertainty of effective interactions broadly used in mean field calculations through the Skyrme parameters and effective field theory counterterms by estimating both statistical and systematic uncertainties stemming from the NN interaction. We also comment on the role played by different fitting strategies on the light of recent developments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, Sharmistha; Zhang, Zhao; Teo, Jeffrey
Time reversal symmetric topological superconductors in three spatial dimensions carry gapless surface Majorana fermions. They are robust against any time reversal symmetric single-body perturbation weaker than the bulk energy gap. We mimic the massless surface Majorana's by coupled wire models in two spatial dimensions. We introduce explicit many-body interwire interactions that preserve time reversal symmetry and give energy gaps to all low energy degrees of freedom. The gapping 4-fermion interactions are constructed by interwire Kac-Moody current backscattering and rely on the fractionalization or conformal embedding of the Majorana wires.
Wang, Shu-Wen; Repetti, Rena L
2016-06-01
We examined sex differences in explicitly supportive behavior exchanges between husbands and wives using naturalistic video-recordings of everyday couple interactions inside the home. Thirty dual-earner, middle class, heterosexual couples with school-age children were recorded in their homes over 4 days. Specific instances of face-to-face explicit couple support in the video-recordings were identified, and the support role assumed by each partner (recipient vs. provider), the method of support initiation (solicitations vs. offers), and the type of support (instrumental vs. emotional) in each interaction were coded. Paired samples t tests examined sex differences in husbands' and wives' supportive behavior, and bivariate correlations tested the associations among spouses' support initiation behaviors. Findings counter prior research that has largely found a "support gap" favoring husbands as support recipients. Instead, results indicate that wives received significantly more support of an instrumental nature from husbands (than husbands did from wives), a finding driven by wives' active support-soliciting behavior. Among husbands, a tendency to be the solicitor of support was positively correlated with a tendency to offer support. Within couples, rates of offers of support by 1 spouse were correlated with offers by the partner. Naturalistic observations highlight processes that may not be detected by self-reports or laboratory data, in an ecologically valid context in which social behavior reflects the natural rhythms and pulls of everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27010600
Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Boisson, Tania; Woods, Naomi; Bitman, Rachel; Durbin, C Emily
2014-04-01
This study investigated the associations among depression, relationship quality, and demand/withdraw and demand/submit behavior in couples' conflict interactions. Two 10-min conflict interactions were coded for each couple (N = 97) using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB; Benjamin, 1979a, 1987, 2000a). Depression was assessed categorically (via the presence of depressive disorders) and dimensionally (via symptom reports). Results revealed that relationship quality was negatively associated with demanding behavior, as well as receiving submissive or withdrawing behavior from one's partner. Relationship quality was positively associated with withdrawal. Demanding behavior was positively associated with women's depression symptoms but negatively associated with men's depression symptoms. Sequential analysis revealed couples' behavior was highly stable across time. Initiation of demand/withdraw and demand/submit sequences were negatively associated with partners' relationship adjustment. Female demand/male withdraw was positively associated with men's depression diagnosis. Results underscore the importance of sequential analysis when investigating associations among depression, relationship quality, and couples' interpersonal behavior. PMID:24749515
Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.
1962-05-15
A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)
Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao
1994-01-01
A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.
Effect of spin rotation coupling on spin transport
Chowdhury, Debashree Basu, B.
2013-12-15
We have studied the spin rotation coupling (SRC) as an ingredient to explain different spin-related issues. This special kind of coupling can play the role of a Dresselhaus like coupling in certain conditions. Consequently, one can control the spin splitting, induced by the Dresselhaus like term, which is unusual in a semiconductor heterostructure. Within this framework, we also study the renormalization of the spin-dependent electric field and spin current due to the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation, by taking into account the interband mixing in the rotating system. In this paper we predict the enhancement of the spin-dependent electric field resulting from the renormalized spin rotation coupling. The renormalization factor of the spin electric field is different from that of the SRC or Zeeman coupling. The effect of renormalized SRC on spin current and Berry curvature is also studied. Interestingly, in the presence of this SRC-induced SOC it is possible to describe spin splitting as well as spin galvanic effect in semiconductors. -- Highlights: •Studied effect of spin rotation coupling on the spin electric field, spin current and Berry curvature. •In the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} framework we study the renormalization of spin electric field and spin current. •For an inertial system we have discussed the spin splitting. •Expression for the Berry phase in the inertial system is discussed. •The inertial spin galvanic effect is studied.
A Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2014-01-01
A capability to couple NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the installed coupling software to demonstrate/investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between pressure wave and flexible inhibitor inside reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). First a unified governing equation for both fluid and structure is presented, then an Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is described to satisfy the interfacial continuity requirements. The features of fluid solver, Loci/CHEM and structural solver, CoBi, are discussed before the coupling methodology of the solvers is described. The simulation uses production level CFD LES turbulence model with a grid resolution of 80 million cells. The flexible inhibitor is modeled with full 3D shell elements. Verifications against analytical solutions of structural model under steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic condition of modal analysis show excellent agreements in terms of displacement distribution and eigen modal frequencies. The preliminary coupled result shows that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor.
Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects in armchair graphene nanoribbons
Prabhakar, S.; Melnik, R.; Sebetci, A.
2015-03-30
We study the influence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects on the electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). By utilizing both analytical and numerical schemes, we show that the finite width of the graphene nanoribbon breaks its energy spectrum into an infinite number of bands. By considering the Rashba spin-orbit coupling term as a perturbation, we show that zero energy bands between electron and hole states at Dirac points are lifted into a finite bandgap.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiolerio, Alessandro; Allia, Paolo; Graziano, Mariagrazia
2012-09-01
Physical limitations foreshadow the eventual end to traditional Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) scaling. Therefore, interest has turned to various materials and technologies aimed to succeed to traditional CMOS. Magnetic Quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) are one of these technologies. Working MQCA arrays require very complex techniques and an excellent control on the geometry of the nanomagnets and on the quality of the magnetic thin film, thus limiting the possibility for MQCA of representing a definite solution to cost-effective, high density and low power consumption device demand. Counter-intuitively, moving towards bigger sizes and lighter technologies it is still possible to develop multi-state logic devices, as we demonstrated, whose main advantage is cost-effectiveness. Applications may be seen in low cost logic devices where integration and computational power are not the main issue, eventually using flexible substrates and taking advantage of the intrinsic mechanical toughness of systems where long range interactions do not need wirings. We realized cobalt micrometric MQCA arrays by means of Electron Beam Lithography, exploiting cost-effective processes such as lift-off and RF sputtering that usually are avoided due to their low control on array geometry and film roughness. Information relative to the magnetic configuration of MQCA elements including their eventual magnetic interactions was obtained from Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM) images, enhanced by means of a numerical procedure and presented in differential maps. We report the existence of bi-stable magnetic patterns, as detected by MFM while sampling the z-component of magnetic induction field, arising from dipolar inter-element magnetostatic coupling, able to store and propagate binary information. This is achieved despite the array quality and element magnetic state, which are low and multi-domain, respectively. We discuss in detail shape, inter-element spacing and dot profile
Effects of subducted seamount on interplate coupling and earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, H.; Liu, Y.; Lin, J.
2011-12-01
It has been proposed that large seamounts riding on a subducting plate may play a critical role in controlling the characteristics of earthquakes in a subduction zone, including the maximum sizes of the potential mega-earthquakes. However, the specific relationships between subducted seamounts and megathrust earthquakes are still poorly understood. Here we conduct a numerical investigation of the physical interaction of subducted seamounts with a subduction zone by considering the rate and state friction properties of the subducting interface, and complete stressing cycles of earthquake faults. The seamount is incorporated as additional normal stress into the model. The preliminary results from a 2D Cascadia-like subduction fault model show: (1) The subducted seamount acts as a "barrier" if the seamount is sitting up-dip to the earthquake nucleation zone, regardless of the seamount size. When the seamount is subducted adjacent to the nucleation zone, a higher additional effective normal stress is required to impede ruptures. (2) The higher the additional effective normal stress caused by the seamount is, the larger coseismic slip may be released by a large earthquake when rupturing the whole seismogenic zone in different earthquake cycles, suggesting that the "barrier" seamount also enhances the seismic coupling. (3) The seamount could turn into an "asperity" that initiates seismic ruptures if it is preceded by a deeper and smaller rupture. In addition, the seamount may also cause stress transfer on the fault which leads to earthquakes nucleated in the shallow part of the seismogenic zone. (4) If the seamount is subducted to the nucleation zone, megathrust earthquakes can still occur and will release larger coseismic slip, indicating the enhancement of seismic coupling between the overriding and subducting plates. (5) If it is subducted beneath the seismogenic zone, the seamount had little effects on the characteristics of megathrust earthquakes and the coseismic
The Effect of Water on Crack Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaede, O.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.
2009-04-01
While the mechanical coupling between pore fluid and solid phase is relatively well understood, quantitative studies dealing with chemical-mechanical weakening in geological materials are rare. Many classical poroelastic problems can be addressed with the simple law of effective stress. Experimental studies show that the presence of a chemically active fluid can have effects that exceed the predictions of the law of effective stress. These chemical fluid-rock interactions alter the mechanical properties of the solid phase. Especially chemical-mechanical weakening has important ramifications for many areas of applied geosciences ranging from nuclear waste disposal over reservoir enhancement to fault stability. In this study, we model chemically induced changes of the size of the process zone around a crack tip. The knowledge of the process zone size is used to extend existing effective medium approximations of cracked solids. The stress distribution around a crack leads to a chemical potential gradient. This gradient will be a driver for mass diffusion through the solid phase. As an example, mass diffusion is towards the crack tip for a mode I crack. In this case a chemical reaction, that weakens the solid phase, will increase the size of the process zone around the crack tip. We apply our model to the prominent hydrolytic weakening effect observed in the quartz-water system (Griggs and Blacic, 1965). Hydrolytic weakening is generally attributed to water hydrolyzing the strong Si-O bonds of the quartz crystal. The hydrolysis replaces a Si-O-Si bridge with a relatively weak hydrogen bridge between two silanol groups. This enhances dislocation mobility and hence the yield stress is reduced. The plastic process zone around a crack tip is therefore larger in a wet crystal than in a dry crystal. We calculate the size of the process zone by solving this coupled mechanical-chemical problem with the Finite Element code ABAQUS. We consider single crack, collinear crack and
Exploring the effects of sexual desire discrepancy among married couples.
Willoughby, Brian J; Farero, Adam M; Busby, Dean M
2014-04-01
Previous studies have found associations between the individual discrepancy of desired sexual frequency and actual sexual frequency and relational outcomes among premarital couples. The present study extended this research by using a sample of 1,054 married couples to explore how actor and partner individual sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) scores were associated with relationship satisfaction, stability, communication, and conflict during marriage. All participants took an online survey which assessed both couple sexual dynamics and relationship outcomes. Findings suggested that higher actor individual SDD was generally associated with negative relational outcomes, including lower reported relationship satisfaction, stability, and more reported couple conflict. These effects were found after controlling for background factors, baseline sexual frequency and desire, and couple desire discrepancies. Some partner effects were also found and were generally in the same direction. Marital length did not moderate the effects found although gender moderated associations between individual SDD and reported couple communication. Negative associations between individual SDD and communication were particularly strong when the husband reported high discrepancies between desired and actual sexual frequency. Results suggested that higher individual sexual desire discrepancies among married individuals may undermine relationship well-being. Applications of these findings to a clinical setting are also discussed. PMID:24045904
Yu, Yong; Reed, Robin
2015-01-01
Pre-mRNA splicing is coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We previously showed that U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) associates with RNAP II, and both RNAP II and U1 snRNP are also the most abundant factors associated with the protein fused-in-sarcoma (FUS), which is mutated to cause the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we show that an antisense morpholino that base-pairs to the 5′ end of U1 snRNA blocks splicing in the coupled system and completely disrupts the association between U1 snRNP and both FUS and RNAP II, but has no effect on the association between FUS and RNAP II. Conversely, we found that U1 snRNP does not interact with RNAP II in FUS knockdown extracts. Moreover, using these extracts, we found that FUS must be present during the transcription reaction in order for splicing to occur. Together, our data lead to a model that FUS functions in coupling transcription to splicing via mediating an interaction between RNAP II and U1 snRNP. PMID:26124092
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, An-Fu; Sun, Nian-Chun; Zhou, Xin
1996-01-01
The Phase-dynamical properties of the squeezed vacuum state intensity-couple interacting with the two-level atom in an ideal cavity are studied using the Hermitian phase operator formalism. Exact general expressions for the phase distribution and the associated expectation value and variance of the phase operator have been derived. we have also obtained the analytic results of the phase variance for two special cases-weakly and strongly squeezed vacuum. The results calculated numerically show that squeezing has a significant effect on the phase properties of squeezed vacuum.
Rao, Soniya S; Gejji, Shridhar P
2016-07-21
Noncovalent interactions accompanying phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), and tyrosine (Tyr) amino acids based ionic liquids (AAILs) composed of 1-methyl-3-butyl-imidazole and its methyl-substituted derivative as cations have been analyzed employing the dispersion corrected density functional theory. It has been shown that cation-anion binding in these bioionic ILs is primarily facilitated through hydrogen bonding in addition to lp---π and CH---π interactions those arising from aromatic moieties which can be probed through (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra calculated from the gauge independent atomic orbital method. Characteristic NMR spin-spin coupling constants across hydrogen bonds of ion pair structures viz., Fermi contact, spin-orbit and spin-dipole terms show strong dependence on mutual orientation of cation with the amino acid anion. The spin-spin coupling mechanism transmits spin polarization via electric field effect originating from lp---π interactions whereas the electron delocalization from lone pair on the carbonyl oxygen to antibonding C-H orbital is facilitated by hydrogen bonding. It has been demonstrated that indirect spin-spin coupling constants across the hydrogen bonds correlate linearly with hydrogen bond distances. The binding energies and dissected nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) document mutual reduction of aromaticity of hydrogen bonded ion pairs consequent to localization of π-character. Moreover the nature and type of such noncovalent interactions governing the in-plane and out-of-plane NICS components provide a measure of diatropic and paratropic currents for the aromatic rings of varying size in AAILs. Besides the direction of frequency shifts of characteristic C═O and NH stretching vibrations in the calculated vibrational spectra has been rationalized. PMID:27336283
Magnetic domain wall creep in the presence of an effective interlayer coupling field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metaxas, P. J.; Jamet, J. P.; Ferré, J.; Rodmacq, B.; Dieny, B.; Stamps, R. L.
We investigate thermally activated domain wall creep in a system consisting of two ultrathin Co layers with perpendicular anisotropy coupled antiferromagnetically through a 4 nm thick Pt spacer layer. The field driven dynamics of domain walls in the softer Co layer have been measured while keeping the harder Co layer negatively saturated. The effect of the interlayer interaction on the soft layer is interpreted in terms of an effective coupling field, HJ, which results in an asymmetry between the domain wall speeds measured under positive and negative driving fields. We show that creep theory remains valid to describe the observed wall motion when the effective coupling field is included in the creep velocity law as a component of the total field acting on the wall. Using the resultant modified creep expression, we determine a value for the effective coupling field which is consistent with that measured from the shift of the soft layer's minor hysteresis loop. The net antiferromagnetic coupling is attributed to a combination of RKKY and orange-peel coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, Helena; Olsen, Jeppe; Hättig, Christof; Jørgensen, Poul; Christiansen, Ove; Gauss, Jürgen
1999-08-01
Static and frequency-dependent polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities have been calculated for HF and Ne using full configuration interaction (FCI) and a hierarchy of coupled cluster models: coupled cluster singles (CCS), an approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles model (CC2), coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), an approximate coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples model (CC3), and coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT). A previous study of BH concerning FCI benchmarking has been extended to include CC3 and static CCSDT values. Systematic improvements of the polarizabilities and the hyperpolarizabilities are found going from CCS to CCSD and from CCSD to CC3 or CCSDT. Little or no improvement of the polarizabilities and no improvement of the hyperpolarizabilities are seen when going from CCS to CC2. The CCSD results represent a significant improvement over CCS and CC2 but are again surpassed by the CC3 results which agree very well with the FCI values. The relative error for the static polarizability at the CC3 level is 0.11% for Ne and, respectively, 0.16% and 0.20% for αxx and αzz of HF. For βzzz and βzxx the errors are 0.50% and 1.7%, respectively. Only in the challenging case of BH does CCSDT improve the CC3 values. The dispersion for the polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities is predicted with increasing accuracy in the CCS-CC2-CCSD-CC3 sequence as expected from the increasing accuracy of the electronic excitation energies. For all molecules the effect of orbital relaxation has been investigated for the static properties. The inclusion of orbital relaxation gives results that are somewhat different from the unrelaxed results but are in general no improvement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yue; Luo, Zhuxi; Wang, Ziqiang
2014-07-01
We show that the dipole-dipole coupling between Wannier modes in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is significantly enhanced while the short-range coupling is strongly suppressed. As a result, the dipole-dipole interaction can become the dominant interaction between ultracold alkali Bose atoms. In the long length limit of a cigar-shaped BEC, the resulting effective one-dimensional models possess an effective inverse squared interacting potential, the Calogero-Sutherland potential, which plays a fundamental role in many fields of contemporary physics; but its direct experimental realization has been a challenge for a long time. We propose to realize the Calogero-Sutherland model in ultracold alkali Bose atoms and study the effects of the dipole-dipole interaction.
Qi, Cai; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Li; Yang, Yinke; Kang, Tengfei; Hao, Wenxin; Jin, Gang; Jiang, Taijiao
2014-01-01
The soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins are small and abundant membrane-bound proteins, whose specific interactions mediate membrane fusion during cell fusion or cellular trafficking. In this study, we report the use of a label-free method, called imaging ellipsometer to analyze the interactions among three SNAREs, namely Sec22p, Ykt6p and Sso2p. The SNAREs were immobilized on the silicon wafer and then analyzed in a pairwise mode with microfluidic array, leading us to discover the interactions between Ykt6p and Sso2p, Sec22p and Sso2p. Moreover, by using the real-time function of the imaging ellipsometer, we were able to obtain their association constants (KA) of about 104 M−1. We argue that the use of imaging ellipsometer coupled with microfluidic device will deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion process. PMID:24938428
Gate-tunable indirect exchange interaction in spin-orbit-coupled mesoscopic rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikoofard, H.; Heidari Semiromi, E.
2015-05-01
We study the carrier-mediated exchange interaction, the so-called Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling, between two magnetic impurity moments embedded in a semiconductor mesoscopic ring. We treat the ring in the presence of an Aharonov-Bohm-type magnetic flux and the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (RSOI and DSOI). Energy eigenvalues of the system are obtained within a tight-binding framework and the strength of the indirect exchange interaction vs. RSOI strengths are plotted for different values of DSOI strength. The results show that the type of the impurity magnetic order, ferromagnetic (F) or antiferromagnetic (AF), depends on the RSOI and DSOI strengths. This leads to a full electrical control on the magnetic alignment of the system through, e.g., an external gate voltage.
Effect of acoustic coupling on random and harmonic plate vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frendi, Abdelkader; Robinson, Jay
1993-01-01
The effect of acoustic coupling on random and harmonic plate vibrations is studied using two numerical models. In the coupled model, the plate response is obtained by integration of the nonlinear plate equation coupled with the nonlinear Euler equations for the surrounding acoustic fluid. In the uncoupled model, the nonlinear plate equation with an equivalent linear viscous damping term is integrated to obtain the response of the plate subject to the same excitation field. For a low-level, narrow-band excitation, the two models predict the same plate response spectra. As the excitation level is increased, the response power spectrum predicted by the uncoupled model becomes broader and more shifted towards the high frequencies than that obtained by the coupled model. In addition, the difference in response between the coupled and uncoupled models at high frequencies becomes larger. When a high intensity harmonic excitation is used, causing a nonlinear plate response, both models predict the same frequency content of the response. However, the level of the harmonics and subharmonics are higher for the uncoupled model. Comparisons to earlier experimental and numerical results show that acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the plate response at high excitation levels. Its absence in previous models may explain the discrepancy between predicted and measured responses.
Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff; Harris, Robert E.
2014-01-01
Flexible inhibitors are generally used in solid rocket motors (SRMs) as a means to control the burning of propellant. Vortices generated by the flow of propellant around the flexible inhibitors have been identified as a driving source of instabilities that can lead to thrust oscillations in launch vehicles. Potential coupling between the SRM thrust oscillations and structural vibration modes is an important risk factor in launch vehicle design. As a means to predict and better understand these phenomena, a multidisciplinary simulation capability that couples the NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This capability is crucial to the development of NASA's new space launch system (SLS). This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the coupled software to demonstrate and investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena between pressure waves and flexible inhibitors inside reusable solid rocket motors (RSRMs). The features of the fluid and structural solvers are described in detail, and the coupling methodology and interfacial continuity requirements are then presented in a general Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. The simulations presented herein utilize production level CFD with hybrid RANS/LES turbulence modeling and grid resolution in excess of 80 million cells. The fluid domain in the SRM is discretized using a general mixed polyhedral unstructured mesh, while full 3D shell elements are utilized in the structural domain for the flexible inhibitors. Verifications against analytical solutions for a structural model under a steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic modal analysis show excellent agreement in terms of displacement distribution and eigenmode frequencies. The preliminary coupled results indicate that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor
Fleig, Timo
2005-11-15
This study reports static electric dipole polarizabilities of the group 13 atoms in their lowest J=(1/2),(3/2) states including resolution of the property in the corresponding M{sub J} components. The polarizabilities are obtained by a numerical finite-field technique applying weak external electric fields. Special relativity is accounted for in the four-component Dirac framework. Two large-scale configuration interaction programs which can be applied either including or neglecting spin-dependent terms in the Dirac Hamiltonian, respectively, are used for the treatment of dynamic electron correlation. Coupled cluster calculations are performed for obtaining highly accurate J=(1/2) ground-state polarizabilities and for calibrating the configuration interaction calculations. The heavier atoms show large differences in the properties for different J states, and the effect of spin-orbit coupling is elucidated by separating it off from scalar relativistic contributions. The impact of spin-orbit interaction is also demonstrated for polarizability anisotropy components.
Independent Noise Can Synchronize Interacting Networks of Pulse-Coupled Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riecke, Hermann; Meng, John
Structured networks comprised of subnetwork modules are ubiquitous. Motivated by the observation of rhythms and their interaction in different brain areas, we study a network consisting of two subnetworks of pulse-coupled integrate-fire neurons. Through mutual inhibition the neurons in the individual subnetworks can become synchronized and each subnetwork can exhibit coherent oscillatory dynamics, e.g. an ING-rhythm. In the absence of coupling between the networks the rhythms will in general have different frequencies. We investigate the interaction between these different rhythms. Strikingly, we find that increasing the noise level in the input to the individual neurons can synchronize the rhythms of the two networks, even though the inputs to different neurons are uncorrelated, sharing no common component. A heuristic phase model for the coupled networks shows that this synchronization hinges on the fact that only a fraction of the neurons may spike in a given cycle. Thus, the synchronization of the network rhythms differs qualitatively from that of individual oscillators. Supported by NSF-CMMI 1435358.
A Framework of Computing Multipolar Exchange Interactions in Systems with Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pi, Shu-Ting
We intro duce a theoretical framework for computations of anisotropic multipolar exchange interactions found in many spin-orbit coupled magnetic systems and propose a method to extract these coupling constants using a density functional total energy calculation. This method is develop ed using a multipolar expansion of lo cal density matrices for correlated orbitals that are responsible for magnetic degrees of freedom. Within the mean-field approximation, we show that each coupling constant can b e recovered from a series of total energy calculations via what we call the "pair-flip" technique. This technique flips the relative phase of a pair of multipoles and computes the corresponding total energy cost associated with the given exchange constant. To test it, we apply our method to Uranium Dioxide, which is a system known to have pseudospin J = 1 superexchange induced dipolar, and superexchange plus spin-lattice induced quadrupolar orderings. Our calculation reveals that the superexchange and spin-lattice contributions to the quadrupolar exchange interactions are about the same order with ferro- and antiferro-magnetic contributions, respectively. This highlights a competition rather than a cooperation between them. Our method could be a promising tool to explore magnetic properties of rare-earth compounds and hidden-order materials.
Anisotropic multipolar exchange interactions in systems with strong spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pi, Shu-Ting; Nanguneri, Ravindra; Savrasov, Sergey
2014-07-01
We introduce a theoretical framework for computations of anisotropic multipolar exchange interactions found in many spin-orbit coupled magnetic systems and propose a method to extract these coupling constants using a density functional total energy calculation. This method is developed using a multipolar expansion of local density matrices for correlated orbitals that are responsible for magnetic degrees of freedom. Within the mean-field approximation, we show that each coupling constant can be recovered from a series of total energy calculations via what we call the "pair-flip" technique. This technique flips the relative phase of a pair of multipoles and computes the corresponding total energy cost associated with the given exchange constant. To test it, we apply our method to uranium dioxide, which is a system known to have pseudospin J =1 superexchange induced dipolar, and superexchange plus spin-lattice induced quadrupolar orderings. Our calculation reveals that the superexchange and spin-lattice contributions to the quadrupolar exchange interactions are about the same order with ferro- and antiferromagnetic contributions, respectively. This highlights a competition rather than a cooperation between them. Our method could be a promising tool to explore magnetic properties of rare-earth compounds and hidden-order materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdipour, M.; Shokrollahi, H.; Bahadoran, A.
2014-09-01
Ferromagnetic SrFe12O19-ZnFe2O4 nanostructure composite particles were synthesized by co-precipitation of chloride salts, in different stoichiometric ratios, by addition of sodium hydroxide solution. The resulting precursors were heat treated at temperatures in the range 800-1200°C for 4 h. Exchange interactions of the nanostructure composite particles were studied by use of exchange-coupling theory and plots of magnetic hysteresis. On the basis of exchange-coupling theory, the exchange interaction can be improved by increasing the soft phase content within the hard matrix. As temperature and soft phase ratio increase, the exchange interaction increases because of exchange length enhancement. The modified Brown's equation was also used to analyze the effects of exchange coupling on coercivity.
Novel effects of spin-orbit interaction in interacting electronic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jianmin
Over the last several years there has been a remarkable growth in research activity in the physical properties of mesoscopic systems. Significant results, which were obtained by both theoretical and experimental studies, together with the enormous promise of nano-technology applications, contribute to this interest. In mesoscopic systems, there are 1023 or so electrons with strong Coulomb interaction. The length scale governing the electrons motion is small enough to cause quantization of the energy levels. In this work we study such quantum systems: quantum wires, quantum dots. During the last decade several experimental techniques have been developed for manufacturing both kinds of devices, which are currently an important tool for understanding low dimensions physics. The finite spin-orbit coupling is very natural, and, strictly speaking, unavoidable, in semiconducting quantum wires due to pronounced structural asymmetry inherent in the fabrication process. Thus the interplay between Coulomb interaction and spin-orbit coupling is important to investigate. The magnetic field also plays an important role which breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the Hamiltonian and splits the band of free electrons into two, corresponding to up-spin and down-spin electrons, reducing spin-rotational symmetry of the system from SU(2) to U(1). The dissertation takes account of the effect of the spin-orbit coupling interactions in the properties of mesoscopic systems. The manuscript is divided in four Chapters. In Chapter 1, the field theory in mesoscopic system is introduced. I present the relations between bosonic and fermionic operators in one dimension. These relations are used to bosonize spin 1/2 interaction fermion system. I show how to derive the RG equations around a fixed-point from the Operator Product Expansion (OPE). In Chapter 2, I present analysis of the interacting quantum wire problem in the presence of magnetic field and spin-orbital interaction. I show that an
Effects of Administered Alcohol on Intimate Partner Interactions in a Conflict Resolution Paradigm
Testa, Maria; Crane, Cory A.; Quigley, Brian M.; Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E.
2014-01-01
Objective: Although couples’ alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression and poorer marital functioning, few studies have examined the proximal effects of alcohol on couple interactions. The current experimental study examined the effects of alcohol, administered independently to male and female intimate partners, on positive and negative interaction behaviors within a naturalistic conflict resolution paradigm. Method: Married and cohabiting couples (n = 152) were recruited from the community and each partner randomly assigned to receive either alcohol (target dose: .08 mg/kg) or no alcohol. They engaged in two 15-minute interactions regarding current disagreements in their relationship, one before and one after beverage administration. Videotaped interactions were coded by trained observers using the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System, and positive and negative interaction behaviors were analyzed using the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model. Results: Participants displayed decreased negativity and increased positivity following alcohol consumption when their partners were sober but no differences in negativity or positivity when their partners also consumed alcohol. There were no gender differences. Although participants with a history of perpetrating intimate partner aggression displayed more negativity, prior aggression did not interact with beverage condition. Conclusions: The immediate effects of alcohol consumption on couple interaction behaviors appeared more positive than negative. Contrary to hypotheses, congruent partner drinking had neither particularly positive nor particularly negative effects. These unique findings represent a rare glimpse into the immediate consequences of alcohol consumption on couple interaction and stand in contrast to its delayed or long-term effects. PMID:24650819
Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Tritrophic Interactions
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Plant—herbivore—natural enemy interactions are basic components of nearly all ecosystems, and nitrogen can exert a variety of effects on plants which can significantly alter these interactions. We present a diagram illustrating the various ways that nitrogen can affect three trophic levels and revi...
Effects of Noise on Small Group Interaction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitehead, Jack L.
This study reports an analysis of the effects of moderate levels of noise on task performance of an interacting group. Groups of students first interacted in information-sharing discussions under varying conditions of noise and then responded to an objective test over the shared information and to a series of semantic differential scales designed…
Thermodynamics of interacting cold atomic Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Scott; Alhassid, Yoram; Gilbreth, Christopher
New physics is suggested with the prediction of novel phases in cold atom systems when a synthetic spin-orbit coupling is introduced. In particular, recent studies show that a new type of Bose-Einstein condensate, termed Rashbon-BEC, is formed when a generalized Rashba spin-orbit term is present. The Rashbon-BEC phase can be obtained by tuning the spin-orbit coupling strength even in the case of finite negative scattering length. This stands in contrast to the BCS-BEC crossover in the absence of spin-orbit coupling where a negative scattering length is associated with BCS physics, and its divergence signals the crossover. In our work we apply finite-temperature quantum Monte Carlo methods to a spherical Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-species Fermi gas with contact s-wave interaction in three dimensions. We will discuss the phase diagram for this system, and its crossover behavior from BCS to Rashbon-BEC. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG-0291-ER-40608.
The geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-wires structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafee, Vahdat
2016-03-01
The geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled cylindrical quantum wires system is investigated. The corrected random phase approximation by the zero-temperature static Hubbard correction is employed to calculate dielectric function of the system. The geometry effect on energy transfer rate is studied for statically and dynamically screened electron-electron interaction. Both the linear and nonlinear regimes correspond respectively to weak and strong external field are considered. The calculations show that increasing wire radius increases energy transfer rate in both the static and dynamic screening approximations for electron-electron interactions. Moreover, the same trend is predicted by the calculations for both the linear and nonlinear regimes.
Nater, Urs M.; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus
2013-01-01
Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants’ behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = −49.36, t = −2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men. PMID:22842905
Simulating Topological Effects with Photons in Coupled QED Cavity Arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noh, Changsuk; Angelakis, Dimitris G.
2014-01-01
We provide a pedagogical account of an early proposal realizing fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) using coupled quantum electrodynamics (QED) cavity arrays (CQCAs). We start with a brief introduction on the basics of quantum Hall effects and then review the early proposals in the simulation of spin-models and fractional quantum Hall (FQH) physics with photons in coupled atom-cavity arrays. We calculate the energy gap and the overlap between the ground state of the system and the corresponding Laughlin wavefunction to analyze the FQH physics arising in the system and discuss possibilities to reach the ground state using adiabatic methods used in Cavity QED.
Beyond the rainbow: Effects from pion back-coupling
Fischer, Christian S.; Williams, Richard
2008-10-01
We investigate hadronic unquenching effects in light quarks and mesons. To this end, we take into account the back-coupling of the pion onto the quark propagator within the nonperturbative continuum framework of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE). We improve on a previous approach by explicitly solving both the coupled system of SDEs and BSEs in the complex plane and the normalization problem for Bethe-Salpeter kernels depending on the total momentum of the meson. As a result of our study, we find considerable unquenching effects in the spectrum of light pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, Naoya
The spin-Hall effect is a spin-current version of the usual-Hall effect, and its potential for application may be great. For the efficient application utilizing the spin-Hall effect, an understanding of interaction effects may be helpful because the interaction effects sometimes become remarkable in transport phenomena (e.g., fractional-quantum-Hall effect). However, a lot of theoretical studies neglected the interaction effects, and the interaction effects in the spin-Hall effect had been little understood. To improve this situation, I developed a general formalism for the intrinsic spin-Hall effect including the interaction effects and multiband effects by using the linear-response theory with approximations appropriate for an interacting multiorbital metal (see arXiv:1510.03988). In this talk, I explain how the electron-electron interaction modifies the spin-Hall conductivity and show several new and remarkable interactions effects, new mechanisms of the damping dependence and a crossover of the damping dependence in a clean system and a temperature-dependent correction due to the spin-Coulomb drag. I also show guidelines useful for general formulations of other transport phenomena including the interaction effects and multiband effects.
Azar, Richard Julian Head-Gordon, Martin
2015-05-28
Your correspondents develop and apply fully nonorthogonal, local-reference perturbation theories describing non-covalent interactions. Our formulations are based on a Löwdin partitioning of the similarity-transformed Hamiltonian into a zeroth-order intramonomer piece (taking local CCSD solutions as its zeroth-order eigenfunction) plus a first-order piece coupling the fragments. If considerations are limited to a single molecule, the proposed intermolecular similarity-transformed perturbation theory represents a frozen-orbital variant of the “(2)”-type theories shown to be competitive with CCSD(T) and of similar cost if all terms are retained. Different restrictions on the zeroth- and first-order amplitudes are explored in the context of large-computation tractability and elucidation of non-local effects in the space of singles and doubles. To accurately approximate CCSD intermolecular interaction energies, a quadratically growing number of variables must be included at zeroth-order.
Disentangling running coupling and conformal effects in QCD
Brodsky, S. J.; Gardi, E.; Grunberg, G.; Rathsman, J.
2001-05-01
We investigate the relation between a postulated skeleton expansion and the conformal limit of QCD. We begin by developing some consequences of an Abelian-like skeleton expansion, which allows one to disentangle running-coupling effects from the remaining skeleton coefficients. The latter are by construction renormalon free, and hence hopefully better behaved. We consider a simple ansatz for the expansion, where an observable is written as a sum of integrals over the running coupling. We show that in this framework one can set a unique Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) scale-setting procedure as an approximation to the running-coupling integrals, where the BLM coefficients coincide with the skeleton ones. Alternatively, the running-coupling integrals can be approximated using the effective charge method. We discuss the limitations in disentangling running coupling effects in the absence of a diagrammatic construction of the skeleton expansion. Independently of the assumed skeleton structure we show that BLM coefficients coincide with conformal coefficients defined in the small {beta}{sub 0} (Banks-Zaks) limit where a perturbative infrared fixed point is present. This interpretation of the BLM coefficients should explain their previously observed simplicity and smallness. Numerical examples are critically discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Peng-Fei; Ruan, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Zhong-Bin; Fu, Xin
2015-11-01
The Hong-Strogatz (HS) model of globally coupled phase oscillators with attractive and repulsive interactions reflects the fact that each individual (oscillator) has its own attitude (attractive or repulsive) to the same environment (mean field). Previous studies on HS model focused mainly on the stable states on Ott-Antonsen (OA) manifold. In this paper, the eigenvalues of the Jacobi matrix of each fixed point in HS model are explicitly derived, with the aim to understand the local dynamics around each fixed point. Phase transitions are described according to relative population and coupling strength. Besides, the dynamics off OA manifold is studied. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB057301, the Applied Research Project of Public Welfare Technology of Zhejiang Province under Grant No. 201SC31109 and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M560483
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sim, B. W.; Lim, J. W.
2007-01-01
Predictions of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise, using blade airloads obtained from a coupled aerodynamic and structural methodology, are presented. This methodology uses an iterative, loosely-coupled trim strategy to cycle information between the OVERFLOW-2 (CFD) and CAMRAD-II (CSD) codes. Results are compared to the HART-II baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration conditions. It is shown that this CFD/CSD state-of-the-art approach is able to capture blade airload and noise radiation characteristics associated with BVI. With the exception of the HART-II minimum noise condition, predicted advancing and retreating side BVI for the baseline and minimum vibration conditions agrees favorably with measured data. Although the BVI airloads and noise amplitudes are generally under-predicted, this CFD/CSD methodology provides an overall noteworthy improvement over the lifting line aerodynamics and free-wake models typically used in CSD comprehensive analysis codes.
Coupling interaction between the power coupler and the third harmonic superconducting cavity
Li, Jianjian; Solyak, Nikolay; Wong, Thomas; /IIT, Chicago
2007-06-01
Fermilab has developed a third harmonic superconducting cavity operating at the frequency of 3.9 GHz to improve the beam performance for the FLASH user facility at DESY. It is interesting to investigate the coupling interaction between the SRF cavity and the power coupler with or without beam loading. The coupling of the power coupler to the cavity needs to be determined to minimize the power consumption and guarantee the best performance for a given beam current. In this paper, we build and analyze an equivalent circuit model containing a series of lumped elements to represent the resonant system. An analytic solution of the required power from the generator as a function of the system parameters has also been given based on a vector diagram.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rury, Aaron S.
2016-06-01
This study reports experimental, computational, and theoretical evidence for a previously unobserved coherent phonon-phonon interaction in an organic solid that can be described by the application of Fano's analysis to a case without the presence of a continuum. Using Raman spectroscopy of the hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer material quinhydrone, two peaks appear near 700 cm-1 we assign as phonons whose position and line-shape asymmetry depend on the sample temperature and light scattering excitation energy. Density functional theory calculations find two nearly degenerate phonons possessing frequencies near the values found in experiment that share similar atomic motion out of the aromatic plane of electron donor and acceptor molecules of quinhydrone. Further analytical modeling of the steady-state light scattering process using the Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian and time-dependent perturbation theory motivates assignment of the physical origin of the asymmetric features of each peak's line shape to an interaction between two discrete phonons via nonlinear electron-phonon coupling. In the context of analytical model results, characteristics of the experimental spectra upon 2.33 eV excitation of the Raman scattering process are used to qualify the temperature dependence of the magnitude of this coupling in the valence band of quinhydrone. These results broaden the range of phonon-phonon interactions in materials in general while also highlighting the rich physics and fundamental attributes specific to organic solids that may determine their applicability in next generation electronics and photonics technologies.
Feller, David Peterson, Kirk A.; Davidson, Ernest R.
2014-09-14
A systematic sequence of configuration interaction and coupled cluster calculations were used to describe selected low-lying singlet and triplet vertically excited states of ethylene with the goal of approaching the all electron, full configuration interaction/complete basis set limit. Included among these is the notoriously difficult, mixed valence/Rydberg {sup 1}B{sub 1u} V state. Techniques included complete active space and iterative natural orbital configuration interaction with large reference spaces which led to variational spaces of 1.8 × 10{sup 9} parameters. Care was taken to avoid unintentionally biasing the results due to the widely recognized sensitivity of the V state to the details of the calculation. The lowest vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials to the {sup 2}B{sub 3u} and {sup 2}B{sub 3} states were also determined. In addition, the heat of formation of twisted ethylene {sup 3}A{sub 1} was obtained from large basis set coupled cluster theory calculations including corrections for core/valence, scalar relativistic and higher order correlation recovery.
Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings
Degrande, Céline; Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology , Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve ; Greiner, Nicolas; Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München ; Kilian, Wolfgang; University of Siegen, Fachbereich Physik, D-57068 Siegen ; Mattelaer, Olivier; Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott; Zhang, Cen; Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology , Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve
2013-08-15
We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics.
Tunable terahertz half-wave plate based on hybridization effect in coupled graphene nanodisks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jialong; Zhu, Zhihong; Zhang, Jianfa; Yuan, Xiaodong; Qin, Shiqiao
2016-05-01
We demonstrate a tunable terahertz half-wave plate composed of a periodic array of graphene nanodisk dimers supported on a dielectric spacer backed by a planar gold layer. The polarization conversion phenomena are attributed to the hybridization effect caused by coupling interactions between plasmonic resonances in the graphene nanodisk dimers. By varying the distance between graphene nanodisks, the polarization conversion performance can be controlled. Further, the polarization conversion can be dynamically tuned at different frequencies via electrostatic doping of graphene. Other novel phenomena and applications could be developed from coupled graphene structures in the future.
Target-charge dependence of the breakup coupling effects in the elastic scattering of 8B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kucuk, Y.; Aciksoz, E.
2016-04-01
We perform continuum discretized coupled-channels calculations for the elastic scattering of 8B on different targets to trace where the Coulomb-nuclear breakup coupling effects start to be dominant in the interaction of the proton halo nuclei. We observe a qualitative difference in angular distributions when the charge of the target increases as seen in the case of neutron halos, but the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak begins to disappear clearly at a relatively smaller value of Z T for the proton halos.
Isovector channel of quark-meson-coupling model and its effect on symmetry energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X. B.; Qi, C.; Xu, F. R.
2011-08-01
The non-relativistic approximation of the quark-meson-coupling model has been discussed and compared with the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model which includes spin exchanges. Calculations show that the spin-exchange interaction has important effect on the descriptions of finite nuclei and nuclear matter through the Fock exchange. Also in the quark-meson-coupling model, it is the Fock exchange that leads to a nonlinear density-dependent isovector channel and changes the density-dependent behavior of the symmetry energy.
Metal-metal interactions in weakly coupled mixed-valence E- and Z-diferrocenylethylene complexes.
Chen, Y J; Pan, D S; Chiu, C F; Su, J X; Lin, S J; Kwan, K S
2000-03-01
To study metal-to-metal interactions in mixed-valence states of two weakly coupling ferrocenyl groups assembled in E or Z conformation on an ethylenic double bond, E-1,2-dimethyldiferrocenylethylene (1), Z-1,2-dimethyldi-ferrocenylethylene (2), and 1,2-diferrocenylcyclohexene (3) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Crystals of 1 are triclinic, P1, with a = 7.494(9) A, b = 10.801(3) A, c = 11.971(2) A, alpha = 102.17(2) degrees, beta = 106.12(9) degrees, gamma = 90.42(2) degrees, V = 907.8 A3, and Z = 2. Crystals of 2 are monoclinic, P2(1)/c, with a = 13.601(8) A, b = 11.104(4) A, c = 13.732(1) A, beta = 114.26(7) degrees, V = 1890.8(3) A3, and Z = 4. Crystals of 3 are orthorhombic, P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 5.766(2) A, b = 13.090(1) A, c = 26.695(2) A, V = 2014.9(3) A3, and Z = 4. Intervalence transition spectra (IT) and electrochemical data have been determined and compared with those of diferrocenyl-benzene (para, ortho, and meta). The comproportionation constants in nitrobenzene at 25 degrees C were found to be 490 and 813 for 1 and 3, respectively. That of 2 was not measured because of the fact that 2+ isomerizes rapidly in all solvents tested, yielding nearly a racemic mixture of E and Z conformers. This finding helps to clear the paradoxical phenomenon between experimental results of mixed-valence complexes of E- and Z-1,2-bis(1'-ethyl-1-ferrocenyl)-1,2-dimethylethylene and theories. The stability of the mixed-valence species was discussed in terms of resonance delocalization, Coulomb repulsion energy, inductive effect, magnetic interaction, structural factors, and statistical factor. According to our analysis based on the Hush formalism, the contribution due to Coulomb repulsion energy dominates the overall stability of the mixed-valence state in 1+, 2+, and 3+. Stabilization that arises from resonance delocalization is only minor and contributes less than 4% to the overall stability, even in 3+ where linked Cp rings and the ethylenic plane are
2016-01-01
Summary Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip–sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surface as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young’s modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single- and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip–sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. A multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information. PMID:27335746
Solares, Santiago D.
2016-04-15
Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surfacemore » as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single-and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. As a result, a multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeb, M. Ahsan; Kee, Hae-Young
2012-08-01
There has been a rapidly growing interest in the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and the Hubbard interaction U in correlated materials. A current consensus is that the stronger the SOC, the smaller is the critical interaction Uc required for a spin-orbit Mott insulator, because the atomic SOC splits a band into different total angular momentum bands, narrowing the effective bandwidth. It was further claimed that at large enough SOC, the stronger the SOC, the weaker the Uc, because in general the effective SOC is enhanced with increasing electron-electron interaction strength. Contrary to this expectation, we find that, in orthorhombic perovskite oxides (Pbnm), the stronger the SOC, the bigger the Uc. This originates from a line of Dirac nodes in Jeff=1/2 bands near the Fermi level, inherited from a combination of the lattice structure and a large SOC. Due to this protected line of nodes, there are small hole and electron pockets in SrIrO3, and such a small density of states makes the Hubbard interaction less efficient in building a magnetic insulator. The full phase diagram in U vs SOC is obtained, where nonmagnetic semimetal, magnetic metal, and magnetic insulator are found. Magnetic ordering patterns beyond Uc are also presented. We further discuss implications of our finding in relation to other perovskites such as SrRhO3 and SrRuO3.
Effective Interaction Potentials and Physical Properties of Complex Plasmas
Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Gabdullin, M. T.; Omarbakiyeva, Y. A.
2009-11-10
Microscopic, thermodynamic and transport properties of complex plasmas are investigated on the basis of effective potentials of interparticle interaction. These potentials take into account correlation effects and quantum-mechanical diffraction. Plasma composition, thermodynamic functions of hydrogen and helium plasmas are obtained for a wide region of coupling parameter. Collision processes in partially ionized plasma are considered; some kinetic characteristics such as phase shift, scattering cross section, bremsstrahlung cross section and absorption coefficient are investigated. Dynamic and transport properties of dusty plasma are studied by computer simulation method of the Langevin dynamics.
Plasma interactions and surface/material effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mandel, M.; Chutjian, A.; Hall, W.; Leung, P.; Robinson, P.; Stevens, N. J.
1986-01-01
A discussion on plasma interactions and surface/material effects is summarized. The key issues in this area were: (1) the lack of data on the material properties of common spacecraft surface materials; (2) lack of understanding of the contamination and decontamination processes; and (3) insufficient analytical tools to model synergistic phenomena related to plasma interactions. Without an adequate database of material properties, accurate system performance predictions cannot be made. The interdisciplinary nature of the surface-plasma interactions area makes it difficult to plan and maintain a coherent theoretical and experimental program. The shuttle glow phenomenon is an excellent example of an unanticipated, complex interaction involving synergism between surface and plasma effects. Building an adequate technology base for understanding and predicting surface-plasma interactions will require the coordinated efforts of engineers, chemists, and physicists. An interdisciplinary R and D program should be organized to deal with similar problems that the space systems of the 21st century may encounter.
Soliton interactions and complexes for coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations.
Jiang, Yan; Tian, Bo; Liu, Wen-Jun; Sun, Kun; Li, Min; Wang, Pan
2012-03-01
Under investigation in this paper are the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations, which can be used to govern the optical-soliton propagation and interaction in such optical media as the multimode fibers, fiber arrays, and birefringent fibers. By taking the 3-CNLS equations as an example for the N-CNLS ones (N≥3), we derive the analytic mixed-type two- and three-soliton solutions in more general forms than those obtained in the previous studies with the Hirota method and symbolic computation. With the choice of parameters for those soliton solutions, soliton interactions and complexes are investigated through the asymptotic and graphic analysis. Soliton interactions and complexes with the bound dark solitons in a mode or two modes are observed, including that (i) the two bright solitons display the breatherlike structures while the two dark ones stay parallel, (ii) the two bright and dark solitons all stay parallel, and (iii) the states of the bound solitons change from the breatherlike structures to the parallel one even with the distance between those solitons smaller than that before the interaction with the regular one soliton. Asymptotic analysis is also used to investigate the elastic and inelastic interactions between the bound solitons and the regular one soliton. Furthermore, some discussions are extended to the N-CNLS equations (N>3). Our results might be helpful in such applications as the soliton switch, optical computing, and soliton amplification in the nonlinear optics. PMID:22587200
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergner, G.; Langelage, J.; Philipsen, O.
2015-11-01
We consider a three-dimensional effective theory of Polyakov lines derived previously from lattice Yang-Mills theory and QCD by means of a resummed strong coupling expansion. The effective theory is useful for investigations of the phase structure, with a sign problem mild enough to allow simulations also at finite density. In this work we present a numerical method to determine improved values for the effective couplings directly from correlators of 4d Yang-Mills theory. For values of the gauge coupling up to the vicinity of the phase transition, the dominant short range effective coupling are well described by their corresponding strong coupling series. We provide numerical results also for the longer range interactions, Polyakov lines in higher representations as well as four-point interactions, and discuss the growing significance of non-local contributions as the lattice gets finer. Within this approach the critical Yang-Mills coupling β c is reproduced to better than one percent from a one-coupling effective theory on N τ = 4 lattices while up to five couplings are needed on N τ = 8 for the same accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, J.; Wang, Z.
2013-12-01
Studying urban land-atmospheric interactions by coupling an urban canopy model with a single column atmospheric models Jiyun Song and Zhi-Hua Wang School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, PO Box 875306, Tempe, AZ 85287-5306 Landuse landcover changes in urban area will modify surface energy budgets, turbulent fluxes as well as dynamic and thermodynamic structures of the overlying atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In order to study urban land-atmospheric interactions, we coupled a single column atmospheric model (SCM) to a cutting-edge single layer urban canopy model (SLUCM). Modification of surface parameters such as the fraction of vegetation and engineered pavements, thermal properties of building and pavement materials, and geometrical features of street canyon, etc. in SLUCM dictates the evolution of surface balance of energy, water and momentum. The land surface states then provide lower boundary conditions to the overlying atmosphere, which in turn modulates the modification of ABL structure as well as vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and tracer gases. The coupled SLUCM-SCM model is tested against field measurements of surface layer fluxes as well as profiles of temperature and humidity in the mixed layer under convective conditions. After model test, SLUCM-SCM is used to simulate the effect of changing urban land surface conditions on the evolution of ABL structure and dynamics. Simulation results show that despite the prescribed atmospheric forcing, land surface states impose significant impact on the physics of the overlying vertical atmospheric layer. Overall, this numerical framework provides a useful standalone modeling tool to assess the impacts of urban land surface conditions on the local hydrometeorology through land-atmospheric interactions. It also has potentially far-reaching implications to urban ecohydrological services for cities under future expansion and climate challenges.
Thermoelectric effects in triple quantum dots coupled to a normal and a superconducting leads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Qiang; Li, Zhi-Jian; Nie, Yi-Hang
2016-02-01
The thermoelectric transport properties through laterally coupled triple quantum dots attached to a metal and a superconducting electrodes are investigated theoretically in the linear response regime. We calculate thermoelectric quantities by means of non-equilibrium Green's function, analyze their dependence on the energy gap, interdot coupling and Coulomb interaction, and discuss the effects of quantum interference, Coulomb blockade, Andreev reflection and bipolar effect on these quantities in transport process. Our results show that at low temperature the superconducting electrode suppresses the thermal conductance and enhances the thermopower outside the gap, which favors the improvement of figure of merit. In particular, the enhancement function of tunneling coupling between quantum dots and Coulomb blockade on figure of merit, compared with the system with two normal metal electrodes, is greatly increased due to the existence of the gap.
A Coupled Modeling Approach for Root-Soil Interaction Processes Using DuMuX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, N.; Helmig, R.; Flemisch, B.; Koch, T.
2015-12-01
The water and nutrient uptake of plant roots in soils have a crucial influence on soil physical processes. The interacting processes between plant roots and soil are important for several agricultural problems, for example water management or leaching of pesticides. However, the coupled mechanisms of local soil and root water flow, transport of dissolved substances, root growth, and root uptake are difficult to measure and thus experimental data are rare. Numerical models can be used to understand these complex soil-root systems and help to analyze and interpret experimental measurements. The model approach presented here couples a root system and a soil model. Crucial for this approach is the 1D-3D grid coupling which combines a 1D network grid (root system) with the 3D soil grid. Based on that grid coupling, local processes are defined, for instance the local water uptake of a single root segment. Here, the interface conditions between roots and soil play a major role and we use local grid refinement strategies to better resolve these interface processes. This grid refinement of the 3D soil grid is based on the root network (1D grid) and adapts if root growth occurs. It offers the possibility to describe processes in the soil-plant continuum in a more physical manner avoiding empirical descriptions of root water uptake as a function of bulk matric potential, osmotic potential, root length density, and transpiration rate. Our coupling approach is included into the framework of DuMux, an open-source simulator for flow and transport processes in porous media. This implementation combines biological, chemical and physical processes in soil, inside roots, and at root-soil interfaces, and is contained in a sustainable and consistent framework for the implementation. We will show example simulations describing water flow, solute transport and root growth in a soil-root system.
Hot electron energy coupling in ultra-intense laser matter interaction
Kemp, A J; Sentoku, Y; Tabak, M
2008-04-15
We investigate the hydrodynamic response of plasma gradients during the interaction with ultra-intense energetic laser pulses, using one-dimensional kinetic particle simulations. As energetic laser pulses are capable of compressing the preformed plasma over short times, the coupling efficiency as well as the temperature of hot electrons drop, leading to localized heating near the point of absorption. We describe the cause of this drop, explain the electron spectra and identify the parametric region where strong compression occurs. Finally, we discuss implications for fast ignition and other applications.
Higher Spin Interactions from Conformal Field Theory: The Complete Cubic Couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sleight, Charlotte; Taronna, Massimo
2016-05-01
In this Letter we provide a complete holographic reconstruction of the cubic couplings in the minimal bosonic higher spin theory in (d +1 )-dimensional anti- de Sitter space. For this purpose, we also determine the operator-product expansion coefficients of all single-trace conserved currents in the d -dimensional free scalar O (N ) vector model, and we compute the tree-level three-point Witten diagram amplitudes for a generic cubic interaction of higher spin gauge fields in the metriclike formulation.
Higher Spin Interactions from Conformal Field Theory: The Complete Cubic Couplings.
Sleight, Charlotte; Taronna, Massimo
2016-05-01
In this Letter we provide a complete holographic reconstruction of the cubic couplings in the minimal bosonic higher spin theory in (d+1)-dimensional anti- de Sitter space. For this purpose, we also determine the operator-product expansion coefficients of all single-trace conserved currents in the d-dimensional free scalar O(N) vector model, and we compute the tree-level three-point Witten diagram amplitudes for a generic cubic interaction of higher spin gauge fields in the metriclike formulation. PMID:27203314
Extracting Effective Higgs Couplings in the Golden Channel
Chen, Yi; Vega-Morales, Roberto
2014-04-08
Kinematic distributions in Higgs decays to four charged leptons, the so called ‘golden channel, are a powerful probe of the tensor structure of its couplings to neutral electroweak gauge bosons. In this study we construct the first part of a comprehensive analysis framework designed to maximize the information contained in this channel in order to perform direct extraction of the various possible Higgs couplings. We first complete an earlier analytic calculation of the leading order fully differential cross sections for the golden channel signal and background to include the 4e and 4μ final states with interference between identical final states. We also examine the relative fractions of the different possible combinations of scalar-tensor couplings by integrating the fully differential cross section over all kinematic variables as well as show various doubly differential spectra for both the signal and background. From these analytic expressions we then construct a ‘generator level’ analysis framework based on the maximum likelihood method. Then, we demonstrate the ability of our framework to perform multi-parameter extractions of all the possible effective couplings of a spin-0 scalar to pairs of neutral electroweak gauge bosons including any correlations. Furthermore, this framework provides a powerful method for study of these couplings and can be readily adapted to include the relevant detector and systematic effects which we demonstrate in an accompanying study to follow.
Trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings in effective theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larios, F.; Pérez, M. A.; Tavares-Velasco, G.; Toscano, J. J.
2001-06-01
We list all the lowest dimension effective operators inducing off-shell trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings ZZγ, Zγγ, and ZZZ within the effective Lagrangian approach, both in the linear and nonlinear realizations of SU(2)L × U(1)Y gauge symmetry. In the linear scenario we find that these couplings can be generated only by dimension-8 operators necessarily including the Higgs boson field, whereas in the nonlinear case they are induced by dimension-6 operators. We consider the impact of these couplings on some precision measurements such as the magnetic and electric dipole moments of fermions, as well as the Z boson rare decay Z-->νν¯γ. If the underlying new physics is of a decoupling nature, it is not expected that trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings may affect considerably any of these observables. On the contrary, it is just in the nonlinear scenario where these couplings have the more promising prospects of being perceptible through high precision experiments.
Extracting Effective Higgs Couplings in the Golden Channel
Chen, Yi; Vega-Morales, Roberto
2014-04-08
Kinematic distributions in Higgs decays to four charged leptons, the so called ‘golden channel, are a powerful probe of the tensor structure of its couplings to neutral electroweak gauge bosons. In this study we construct the first part of a comprehensive analysis framework designed to maximize the information contained in this channel in order to perform direct extraction of the various possible Higgs couplings. We first complete an earlier analytic calculation of the leading order fully differential cross sections for the golden channel signal and background to include the 4e and 4μ final states with interference between identical final states.more » We also examine the relative fractions of the different possible combinations of scalar-tensor couplings by integrating the fully differential cross section over all kinematic variables as well as show various doubly differential spectra for both the signal and background. From these analytic expressions we then construct a ‘generator level’ analysis framework based on the maximum likelihood method. Then, we demonstrate the ability of our framework to perform multi-parameter extractions of all the possible effective couplings of a spin-0 scalar to pairs of neutral electroweak gauge bosons including any correlations. Furthermore, this framework provides a powerful method for study of these couplings and can be readily adapted to include the relevant detector and systematic effects which we demonstrate in an accompanying study to follow.« less
Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-08-01
We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to nontrivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling Geff with matter density perturbations under a quasistatic approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility for reducing Geff. In fact, within the parameter space, Geff can be even smaller than the Newton gravitational constant G at the late cosmological epoch, with a peculiar phantom dark energy equation of state (without ghosts). The modifications to the slip parameter η and the evolution of the growth rate f σ8 are discussed as well. Thus, dark energy models in the framework of generalized Proca theories can be observationally distinguished from the Λ CDM model according to both cosmic growth and expansion history. Furthermore, we study the evolution of vector perturbations and show that outside the vector sound horizon the perturbations are nearly frozen and start to decay with oscillations after the horizon entry.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A simple analytical method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was developed to screen for low molecular weight compounds in enzyme treated and untreated Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) stickwater (SW) generated from processing fish meal with po...
Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Borghini, G; Vecchiato, G; He, E J; Roy, A; Cincotti, F; Salinari, S; Mattia, D; He, B; Babiloni, F
2012-01-01
Controlling an aircraft during a flight is a compelling condition, which requires a strict and well coded interaction between the crew. The interaction level between the Captain and the First Officer changes during the flight, ranging from a maximum (during takeoff and landing, as well as in case of a failure of the instrumentation or other emergency situations) to a minimum during quiet mid-flight. In this study, our aim is to investigate the neural correlates of different kinds and levels of interaction between couples of professional crew members by means of the innovative technique called brain hyperscanning, i.e. the simultaneous recording of the hemodynamic or neuroelectrical activity of different human subjects involved in interaction tasks. This approach allows the observation and modeling of the neural signature specifically dependent on the interaction between subjects, and, even more interestingly, of the functional links existing between the brain activities of the subjects interacting together. In this EEG hyperscanning study, different phases of a flight were reproduced in a professional flight simulator, which allowed, on one side, to reproduce the ecological setting of a real flight, and, on the other, to keep under control the different levels of interaction induced in the crew by means of systematic and simulated failures of the aircraft instrumentation. Results of the procedure of linear inverse estimation, together with functional hyperconnectivity estimated by means of Partial Directed Coherence, showed a dense network of connections between the activity in the two brains in the takeoff and landing phases, when the cooperation between the crew is maximal, while conversely no significant links were shown during the phases in which the activity of the two pilots was independent. PMID:23366990
The effect of pinning on drag in coupled one-dimensional channels of particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bairnsfather, C.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.
2011-04-01
We consider a simple model for examining the effects of quenched disorder on drag consisting of particles interacting via a Yukawa potential that are placed in two coupled one-dimensional channels. The particles in one channel are driven and experience a drag from the undriven particles in the second channel. In the absence of pinning, for a finite driving force there is no pinned phase; instead, there are two dynamical regimes of completely coupled or locked flow and partially coupled flow. When pinning is added to one or both channels, we find that a remarkably rich variety of dynamical phases and drag effects arise that can be clearly identified by features in the velocity force curves. The presence of quenched disorder in only the undriven channel can induce a pinned phase in both channels. Above the depinning transition, the drag on the driven particles decreases with increasing pinning strength, and for high enough pinning strength, the particles in the undriven channel reach a reentrant pinned phase which produces a complete decoupling of the channels. We map out the dynamic phase diagrams as a function of pinning strength and the density of pinning in each channel. Our results may be relevant for understanding drag coupling in 1D Wigner crystal phases, and the effects we observe could also be explored using colloids in coupled channels produced with optical arrays, vortices in nanostructured superconductors, or other layered systems where drag effects arise.
Visco-elastic effects in strongly coupled dusty plasmas
Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.
2008-09-07
We report on experimental evidence of visco-elastic effects in a strongly coupled dusty plasma through investigations of the propagation characteristics of low frequency dust acoustic waves and by excitations of transverse shear waves in a DC discharge Argon plasma.
Effects of ionizing radiation on charge-coupled imagers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Killiany, J. M.; Baker, W. D.; Saks, N. S.; Barbe, D. F.
1975-01-01
The effects of ionizing radiation on three different charge coupled imagers have been investigated. Device performance was evaluated as a function of total gamma ray dose. The principal failure mechanisms have been identified for each particular device structure. The clock and bias voltages required for high total dose operation of the devices are presented.
Weakly interacting spinor Bose–Einstein condensates with three-dimensional spin–orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu-Wei, Song; Rui, Sun; Hong, Zhao; Xuan, Wang; Bao-Zhong, Han
2016-04-01
Starting from the Hamiltonian of the second quantization form, the weakly interacting Bose–Einstein condensate with spin–orbit coupling of Weyl type is investigated. It is found that the SU(2) nonsymmetric term, i.e., the spin-dependent interaction, can lift the degeneracy of the ground states with respect to the z component of the total angular momentum J z , casting the ground condensate state into a configuration of zero J z . This ground state density profile can also be affirmed by minimizing the full Gross–Pitaevskii energy functional. The spin texture of the zero J z state indicates that it is a knot structure, whose fundamental group is π 3(M) ≅ π 3(S 2) = Z. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447178).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Ying-Feng; Hsieh, Jo-Ping; Su, Li-Chen; Li, Ying-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Chien
2010-08-01
In this study, we describe a novel method for analyzing protein-protein binding kinetics at ultra-low concentration (1 pg/mL) using a localized surface plasmon coupled fluorescence fiber-optic biosensor (LSPCF-FOB). The association and dissociation rate constants, ka and kd, respectively, for the binding kinetics of the mouse IgG/ anti-mouse IgG interaction have been calculated to be ka = (5.9928+/-3.1540)x106 M-1s-1 and kd = (1.0587+/-0.5572)x10-3 s-1. The theoretical basis of this analytical approach is a rapid-mixing model integrated with a two-compartment model; has been experimentally verified in this study as well. The LSPCF-FOB provides a potentially alternative option for characterizing the interaction of biomolecules at ultra-low concentrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez, F. D.; González, C. E.; Segnorile, H. H.; Zamar, R. C.
2016-02-01
We study the quantum adiabatic decoherence of a multispin array, coupled with an environment of harmonic phonons, in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. We follow the basic formal guidelines of the well-known spin-boson model, since in this framework it is possible to derive the time dependence of the reduced density matrix in the adiabatic time scale, without resorting to coarse-graining procedures. However, instead of considering a set of uncoupled spins interacting individually with the boson field, the observed system in our model is a network of weakly interacting spin pairs; the bath corresponds to lattice phonons, and the system-environment interaction is generated by the variation of the dipole-dipole energy due to correlated shifts of the spin positions, produced by the phonons. We discuss the conditions that the model must meet in order to fit within the adiabatic regime. By identifying the coupling of the dipole-dipole spin interaction with the low-frequency acoustic modes as the source of decoherence, we calculate the decoherence function of the reduced spin density matrix in closed way, and estimate the decoherence rate of a typical element of the reduced density matrix in one- and three-dimensional models of the spin array. Using realistic values for the various parameters of the model we conclude that the dipole-phonon mechanism can be particularly efficient to degrade multispin coherences, when the number of active spins involved in a given coherence is high. The model provides insight into the microscopic irreversible spin dynamics involved in the buildup of quasiequilibrium states and in the coherence leakage during refocusing experiments in nuclear magnetic resonance of crystalline solids.
Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in interacting dark energy models
Olivares, German; Pavon, Diego; Atrio-Barandela, Fernando
2008-05-15
Models with dark energy decaying into dark matter have been proposed in cosmology to solve the coincidence problem. We study the effect of such coupling on the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. The interaction changes the rate of evolution of the metric potentials and the growth rate of matter density perturbations and modifies the integrated Sachs-Wolfe component of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies, enhancing the effect. Cross correlation of galaxy catalogs with cosmic microwave background maps provides a model-independent test to constrain the interaction. We particularize our analysis for a specific interacting model and show that galaxy catalogs with median redshifts z{sub m}=0.1-0.9 can rule out models with an interaction parameter strength of c{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.1 better than 99.95% confidence level. Values of c{sup 2}{<=}0.01 are compatible with the data and may account for the possible discrepancy between the fraction of dark energy derived from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe 3 yr data and the fraction obtained from the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Measuring the fraction of dark energy by these two methods could provide evidence of an interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, T.; Inotani, D.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-05-01
We investigate the formation of rashbon bound states and strong-coupling effects in an ultracold Fermi gas with a spherical spin-orbit interaction, H_so=λ {\\varvec{p}}\\cdot {σ } (where {σ }=(σ _x,σ _y,σ _z) are Pauli matrices). Extending the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink (NSR) to include this spin-orbit coupling, we determine the superfluid phase transition temperature T_c, as functions of the strength of a pairing interaction U_s, as well as the spin-orbit coupling strength λ . Evaluating poles of the NSR particle-particle scattering matrix describing fluctuations in the Cooper channel, we clarify the region where rashbon bound states dominate the superfluid phase transition in the U_s-λ phase diagram. Since the antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction H_so breaks the inversion symmetry of the system, rashbon bound states naturally have not only a spin-singlet and even-parity symmetry, but also a spin-triplet and odd-parity symmetry. Thus, our results would be also useful for the study of this parity-mixing effect in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas.
Couple Interaction and Predicting Vulnerability to Domestic Violence in Uttar Pradesh, India.
Singh, Brijesh P; Singh, Kaushalendra K; Singh, Neha
2014-02-10
Domestic violence, when conducted against women, is a type of gender-based violence that negatively impacts a woman's physical and psychological health, causing insecurity, lack of safety, and loss of health and self-worth. Domestic violence is an important consideration for sexual, reproductive, and child health, as it can affect contraceptive behaviors of couples as well as levels of infant mortality. In the present analysis, an attempt has been made to study the relationship between women's experience of domestic violence and couple interaction after controlling for certain socioeconomic and demographic variables using logistic regression. This study looks at data from the National Family Health Survey-III conducted from 2005 to 2006 in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. Findings reveal that 43% of women suffer from domestic violence in the society as a whole; however, if a couple makes joint decisions in household matters, the prevalence of domestic violence is observed to be 24% less. Education and occupation of women, standard of living, media exposure, and partner's alcoholic behaviors are also found to be possible predictors of domestic violence. PMID:24518665
Exchange interaction and the tunneling induced transparency in coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borges, Halyne; Alcalde, Augusto; Ulloa, Sergio
2014-03-01
Stacked semiconductor quantum dots coupled by tunneling are unique ``quantum molecule'' where it is possible to create a multilevel structure of excitonic states. This structure allows the investigation of quantum interference processes and their control via electric external fields. In this work, we investigate the optical response of a quantum molecule coherently driven by a polarized laser, considering the splitting in excitonic levels caused by isotropic and anisotropic exchange interactions. In our model we consider interdot transitions mediated by the the hole tunneling between states with the same total spin and, between bright and dark exciton states. Using realistic experimental parameters, we demonstrate that the excitonic states coupled by tunneling exhibit an enriched and controllable optical response. Our results show that through the appropriate control of the external electric field and light polarization, the tunneling coupling establishes an efficient destructive quantum interference path that creates a transparency window in the absorption spectra, whenever states of appropriate symmetry are mixed by the hole tunneling. We explore the relevant parameters space that would allows with the experiments. CAPES, INCT-IQ and MWN/CIAM-NSF.
Adhesion effects in contact interaction of solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goryacheva, Irina; Makhovskaya, Yulya
2008-01-01
An approach to solving problems of the interaction of axisymmetric elastic bodies in the presence of adhesion is developed. The different natures of adhesion, i.e. capillary adhesion, or molecular adhesion described by the Lennard-Jones potential are examined. The effect of additional loading of the interacting bodies outside the contact zone is also investigated. The approach is based on the representation of the pressure outside the contact zone arising from adhesion by a step function. The analytical solution is obtained and is used to analyze the influence of the form of the adhesion interaction potential, of the surface energy of interacting bodies or the films covering the bodies, their shapes (parabolic, higher power exponential function), volume of liquid in the meniscus, density of contact spots, of elastic modulus and the Poisson ratio on the characteristics of the interaction of the bodies in the presence of adhesion. To cite this article: I. Goryacheva, Y. Makhovskaya, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).
GGA3 Interacts with a G Protein-Coupled Receptor and Modulates Its Cell Surface Export.
Zhang, Maoxiang; Davis, Jason E; Li, Chunman; Gao, Jie; Huang, Wei; Lambert, Nevin A; Terry, Alvin V; Wu, Guangyu
2016-01-01
Molecular mechanisms governing the anterograde trafficking of nascent G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are poorly understood. Here, we have studied the regulation of cell surface transport of α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs) by GGA3 (Golgi-localized, γ-adaptin ear domain homology, ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3), a multidomain clathrin adaptor protein that sorts cargo proteins at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome/lysosome pathway. By using an inducible system, we demonstrated that GGA3 knockdown significantly inhibited the cell surface expression of newly synthesized α2B-AR without altering overall receptor synthesis and internalization. The receptors were arrested in the TGN. Furthermore, GGA3 knockdown attenuated α2B-AR-mediated signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation and cyclic AMP (cAMP) inhibition. More interestingly, GGA3 physically interacted with α2B-AR, and the interaction sites were identified as the triple Arg motif in the third intracellular loop of the receptor and the acidic motif EDWE in the VHS domain of GGA3. In contrast, α2A-AR did not interact with GGA3 and its cell surface export and signaling were not affected by GGA3 knockdown. These data reveal a novel function of GGA3 in export trafficking of a GPCR that is mediated via a specific interaction with the receptor. PMID:26811329
Mekler, Vladimir; Minakhin, Leonid; Borukhov, Sergei; Mustaev, Arkady; Severinov, Konstantin
2014-01-01
Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) makes extensive contacts with duplex DNA downstream of the transcription bubble in initiation and elongation complexes. We investigated the role of downstream interactions in formation of catalytically competent transcription initiation complex by measuring initiation activity of stable RNAP complexes with model promoter DNA fragments whose downstream ends extend from +3 to +21 relative to the transcription start site at +1. We found that DNA downstream of position +6 does not play a significant role in transcription initiation when RNAP-promoter interactions upstream of the transcription start site are strong and promoter melting region is AT-rich. Further shortening of downstream DNA dramatically reduces efficiency of transcription initiation. The boundary of minimal downstream DNA duplex needed for efficient transcription initiation shifted further away from the catalytic center upon increasing the GC content of promoter melting region or in the presence of bacterial stringent response regulators DksA and ppGpp. These results indicate that the strength of RNAP-downstream DNA interactions has to reach a certain threshold to retain the catalytically competent conformation of the initiation complex and that establishment of contacts between RNAP and downstream DNA can be coupled with promoter melting. The data further suggest that RNAP interactions with DNA immediately downstream of the transcription bubble are particularly important for initiation of transcription. We hypothesize that these active center-proximal contacts stabilize the DNA template strand in the active center cleft and/or position the RNAP clamp domain to allow RNA synthesis. PMID:25311862
Interchannel coupling effects in the valence photoionization of SF6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jose, J.; Lucchese, R. R.; Rescigno, T. N.
2014-05-01
The complex Kohn and polyatomic Schwinger variational techniques have been employed to illustrate the interchannel coupling correlation effects in the valence photoionization dynamics of SF6. Partial photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters of six valence subshells (1t1g, 5t1u, 1t2u, 3eg, 1t2g, 4t1u) are discussed in the framework of several theoretical and experimental studies. The complex Kohn results are in rather good agreement with experimental results, indicative of the fact that the interchannel coupling effects alter the photoionization dynamics significantly. We find that the dominant effect of interchannel coupling is to reduce the magnitude of shape resonant cross sections near the threshold and to induce resonant features in other channels to which resonances are coupled. The long-standing issue concerning ordering of the valence orbitals is addressed and confirmed 4t1u61t2g63eg4(5t1u6+1t2u6) 1t1g6 as the most likely ordering.
Source near-field effects on HPM coupling
King, R.J.; Hudson, H.G.
1988-08-01
This report gives an overview of many of these issues and cites examples. It is part of an on-going effort to investigate all aspects of the phenomenology of HPM interactions with systems. Experimental results are given for near-field coupling into generic test systems. While we do not exhaustively answer all of these questions, certain trends are observed. From these, some general conclusions are drawn to guide the use of HPM simulators for testing full systems. 3 refs., 43 figs., 2 tabs.
PIP2-dependent coupling is prominent in Kv7.1 due to weakened interactions between S4-S5 and S6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasimova, Marina A.; Zaydman, Mark A.; Cui, Jianmin; Tarek, Mounir
2015-01-01
Among critical aspects of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels' functioning is the effective communication between their two composing domains, the voltage sensor (VSD) and the pore. This communication, called coupling, might be transmitted directly through interactions between these domains and, as recently proposed, indirectly through interactions with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a minor lipid of the inner plasma membrane leaflet. Here, we show how the two components of coupling, mediated by protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions, both contribute in the Kv7.1 functioning. On the one hand, using molecular dynamics simulations, we identified a Kv7.1 PIP2 binding site that involves residues playing a key role in PIP2-dependent coupling. On the other hand, combined theoretical and experimental approaches have shown that the direct interaction between the segments of the VSD (S4-S5) and the pore (S6) is weakened by electrostatic repulsion. Finally, we conclude that due to weakened protein-protein interactions, the PIP2-dependent coupling is especially prominent in Kv7.1.
PIP₂-dependent coupling is prominent in Kv7.1 due to weakened interactions between S4-S5 and S6.
Kasimova, Marina A; Zaydman, Mark A; Cui, Jianmin; Tarek, Mounir
2015-01-01
Among critical aspects of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels' functioning is the effective communication between their two composing domains, the voltage sensor (VSD) and the pore. This communication, called coupling, might be transmitted directly through interactions between these domains and, as recently proposed, indirectly through interactions with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP₂), a minor lipid of the inner plasma membrane leaflet. Here, we show how the two components of coupling, mediated by protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions, both contribute in the Kv7.1 functioning. On the one hand, using molecular dynamics simulations, we identified a Kv7.1 PIP₂ binding site that involves residues playing a key role in PIP₂-dependent coupling. On the other hand, combined theoretical and experimental approaches have shown that the direct interaction between the segments of the VSD (S4-S5) and the pore (S6) is weakened by electrostatic repulsion. Finally, we conclude that due to weakened protein-protein interactions, the PIP2-dependent coupling is especially prominent in Kv7.1. PMID:25559286
PIP2-dependent coupling is prominent in Kv7.1 due to weakened interactions between S4-S5 and S6
Kasimova, Marina A.; Zaydman, Mark A.; Cui, Jianmin; Tarek, Mounir
2015-01-01
Among critical aspects of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels' functioning is the effective communication between their two composing domains, the voltage sensor (VSD) and the pore. This communication, called coupling, might be transmitted directly through interactions between these domains and, as recently proposed, indirectly through interactions with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a minor lipid of the inner plasma membrane leaflet. Here, we show how the two components of coupling, mediated by protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions, both contribute in the Kv7.1 functioning. On the one hand, using molecular dynamics simulations, we identified a Kv7.1 PIP2 binding site that involves residues playing a key role in PIP2-dependent coupling. On the other hand, combined theoretical and experimental approaches have shown that the direct interaction between the segments of the VSD (S4–S5) and the pore (S6) is weakened by electrostatic repulsion. Finally, we conclude that due to weakened protein-protein interactions, the PIP2-dependent coupling is especially prominent in Kv7.1. PMID:25559286
Interaction-driven exotic quantum phases in spin-orbit-coupled spin-1 bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pixley, J. H.; Natu, Stefan S.; Spielman, I. B.; Das Sarma, S.
2016-02-01
We study the interplay between large-spin, spin-orbit coupling, and superfluidity for bosons in a two-dimensional optical lattice, focusing on the spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled system recently realized at the Joint Quantum Institute [Campbell et al., arXiv:1501.05984]. We find a rich quantum phase diagram where, in addition to the conventional phases—superfluid and insulator—contained in the spin-1 Bose-Hubbard model, there are new lattice symmetry breaking phases. For weak interactions, the interplay between two length scales, the lattice momentum and the spin-orbit wave vector, induce a phase transition from a uniform superfluid to a phase where bosons simultaneously condense at the center and edge of the Brillouin zone at a nonzero spin-orbit strength. This state is characterized by spin-density-wave order, which arises from the spin-1 nature of the system. Interactions suppress spin-density-wave order, and favor a superfluid only at the Brillouin zone edge. This state has spatially oscillating mean-field order parameters, but a homogeneous density. We show that the spin-density-wave superfluid phase survives in a two-dimensional harmonic trap, and thus establish that our results are directly applicable to experiments on 87Rb,7Li, and 41K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Xiao; Sun, Peide; Song, Yingqi; Wang, Ruyi; Fang, Zhiguo
2010-11-01
Based on the fully coupled activated sludge model (FCASM), the novel model Tubificidae -Fully Coupled Activated Sludge Model-hydraulic (T-FCASM-Hydro), has been developed in our previous work. T-FCASM-Hydro not only describe the interactive system between Tubificidae and functional microorganisms for the sludge reduction and nutrient removal simultaneously, but also considere the interaction between biological and hydraulic field, After calibration and validation of T-FCASM-Hydro at Zhuji Feida-hongyu Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Zhejiang province, T-FCASM-Hydro was applied for determining optimal operating condition in the WWTP. Simulation results showed that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed efficiently, and the efficiency of NH4+-N removal enhanced with increase of DO concentration. At a certain low level of DO concentration in the aerobic stage, shortcut nitrification-denitrification dominated in the process of denitrification in the novel system. However, overhigh agitation (>6 mgṡL-1) could result in the unfavorable feeding behavior of Tubificidae because of the strong flow disturbance, which might lead to low rate of sludge reduction. High sludge reduction rate and high removal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus could be obtained in the new-style oxidation ditch when DO concentration at the aerobic stage with Tubificidae was maintained at 3.6 gṡm-3.
Attractor effects in Preheating after multifield inflation with nonminimal couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sfakianakis, Evangelos; Decross, Matthew; Kaiser, David; Prabhu, Anirudh; Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-03-01
Multifield models of inflation with nonminimal couplings are in excellent agreement with the observational results from Planck. It is thus imperative that the preheating behavior of these models is analyzed, if one wishes to connect any viable inflationary proposal to the hot Big Bang. I will describe the strong single-field attractor behavior that exists during inflation in these models and how it generically persists after the end of inflation, thereby avoiding the ``de-phasing'' that can occur in multifield models. Hence there is efficient transfer of energy from the oscillating inflaton field(s) to coupled fluctuations. A doubly-covariant formalism can be used for studying such resonances and identifing several features of preheating specific to the nonminimal couplings, including effects that arise from the nontrivial field-space manifold. In particular, whereas long-wavelength fluctuations in both the adiabatic and isocurvature directions may be resonantly amplified for small or modest values of the dimensionless nonminimal couplings, one can show suppression of the growth of long-wavelength isocurvature modes in the limit of strong coupling.
Coupled-oscillator theory of dispersion and Casimir-Polder interactions
Berman, P. R.; Ford, G. W.; Milonni, P. W.
2014-10-28
We address the question of the applicability of the argument theorem (of complex variable theory) to the calculation of two distinct energies: (i) the first-order dispersion interaction energy of two separated oscillators, when one of the oscillators is excited initially and (ii) the Casimir-Polder interaction of a ground-state quantum oscillator near a perfectly conducting plane. We show that the argument theorem can be used to obtain the generally accepted equation for the first-order dispersion interaction energy, which is oscillatory and varies as the inverse power of the separation r of the oscillators for separations much greater than an optical wavelength. However, for such separations, the interaction energy cannot be transformed into an integral over the positive imaginary axis. If the argument theorem is used incorrectly to relate the interaction energy to an integral over the positive imaginary axis, the interaction energy is non-oscillatory and varies as r{sup −4}, a result found by several authors. Rather remarkably, this incorrect expression for the dispersion energy actually corresponds to the nonperturbative Casimir-Polder energy for a ground-state quantum oscillator near a perfectly conducting wall, as we show using the so-called “remarkable formula” for the free energy of an oscillator coupled to a heat bath [G. W. Ford, J. T. Lewis, and R. F. O’Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2273 (1985)]. A derivation of that formula from basic results of statistical mechanics and the independent oscillator model of a heat bath is presented.
Shahmansouri, M.; Alinejad, H.
2015-04-15
We give a theoretical investigation on the dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with strong electrostatic interaction between dust grains in the presence of the polarization force (i.e., the force due to the polarized Debye sheath). Adopting a reductive perturbation method, we derived a three-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation that describes the evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic localized waves. The energy integral equation is used to study the existence domains of the localized structures. The analysis provides the localized structure existence region, in terms of the effects of strong interaction between the dust particles and polarization force.
Skin to skin interactions. Does the infant massage improve the couple functioning?
Gnazzo, Antonio; Guerriero, Viviana; Di Folco, Simona; Zavattini, Giulio C.; de Campora, Gaia
2015-01-01
Transition to parenthood is a critical stage of life due to several changes the couple has to handle. A large body of studies described how transition to parenthood can be linked to the onset of depressive symptoms, as well as the perception of a low social support, and an increased stress, representing a risk for the early mother–baby relationship. Infant massage (IM) emerged as a helpful tool to improve maternal skills in interacting with the baby, and leading toward a decreasing of post-partum symptoms. However, a growing body of literature highlights that men also may experience post-partum diseases, representing an additional risk for the development of the baby. To date, no study observed the impact of the IM on both partners. The aim of the current qualitative research is to observe the impact of the IM on a single couple of parents at childbirth. Pre (Time 1) and post-intervention (Time 3) procedure has been established to observe the changes occurring over the time in the couple. In particular, each member of the couple filled out the EPDS, the BDI-II, the MSPSS, and the PSI-SF both at Time 1 and at Time 3. The treatment (Time 2) was represented by the IM training, and lasted 4 weeks. Findings revealed a decrease in depressive symptoms in both partners, as well as an improvement of their perception of stress related to parental role. No changes has been detected with respect to the perception of social support. The IM seems to be a helpful approach to prevent the establishment of pathological conditions in new parents. Although no direct measures on the child were used, the current qualitative data seem to suggest that the IM may represent a valuable tool to prevent the onset of early negative outcomes of the baby. Further investigations and empirical data are needed to improve the knowledge in this field. PMID:26441813
Skin to skin interactions. Does the infant massage improve the couple functioning?
Gnazzo, Antonio; Guerriero, Viviana; Di Folco, Simona; Zavattini, Giulio C; de Campora, Gaia
2015-01-01
Transition to parenthood is a critical stage of life due to several changes the couple has to handle. A large body of studies described how transition to parenthood can be linked to the onset of depressive symptoms, as well as the perception of a low social support, and an increased stress, representing a risk for the early mother-baby relationship. Infant massage (IM) emerged as a helpful tool to improve maternal skills in interacting with the baby, and leading toward a decreasing of post-partum symptoms. However, a growing body of literature highlights that men also may experience post-partum diseases, representing an additional risk for the development of the baby. To date, no study observed the impact of the IM on both partners. The aim of the current qualitative research is to observe the impact of the IM on a single couple of parents at childbirth. Pre (Time 1) and post-intervention (Time 3) procedure has been established to observe the changes occurring over the time in the couple. In particular, each member of the couple filled out the EPDS, the BDI-II, the MSPSS, and the PSI-SF both at Time 1 and at Time 3. The treatment (Time 2) was represented by the IM training, and lasted 4 weeks. Findings revealed a decrease in depressive symptoms in both partners, as well as an improvement of their perception of stress related to parental role. No changes has been detected with respect to the perception of social support. The IM seems to be a helpful approach to prevent the establishment of pathological conditions in new parents. Although no direct measures on the child were used, the current qualitative data seem to suggest that the IM may represent a valuable tool to prevent the onset of early negative outcomes of the baby. Further investigations and empirical data are needed to improve the knowledge in this field. PMID:26441813
Laurent, Heidemarie K; Powers, Sally I; Laws, Holly; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Bent, Eileen; Balaban, Susan
2013-06-13
The way romantic partners behave during conflict is known to relate to stress responses, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, little attention has been paid to interactive effects of partners' behaviors, or to behavior outside of marital relationships. This study examined relations between unmarried partners' negative and positive behaviors during discussion of conflict and their HPA responses, including both main effects and cross-partner interactions. Emerging adult opposite-sex couples (n=199) participated in a 15-minute conflict discussion and afterward rated their behavior on 3 dimensions: conflictual, holding back, and supportive. Seven saliva samples collected before and after the discussion were assayed for cortisol to determine HPA response. Quadratic growth models demonstrated associations between male×female partners' behaviors and cortisol trajectories. Two negative dyadic patterns-mutual conflictual behavior (negative reciprocity); female conflictual/male holding back (demand-withdraw)-and one positive pattern-mutual supportive behavior-were identified. Whereas negative patterns related to lower cortisol and impaired post-discussion recovery for women, the positive pattern related to lower cortisol and better recovery for men. Women's conflictual behavior only predicted problematic cortisol responses if their partner was highly conflictual or holding back; at lower levels of these partner behaviors, the opposite was true. This work demonstrates similar costs of negative reciprocity and demand-withdraw and benefits of supportive conflict dynamics in dating couples as found in marital research, but associations with HPA are gender-specific. Cross-partner interactions suggest that behavior during discussion of conflict should not be categorized as helpful or harmful without considering the other partner's behavior. PMID:23711564
Effective Dynamics of Microorganisms That Interact with Their Own Trail.
Kranz, W Till; Gelimson, Anatolij; Zhao, Kun; Wong, Gerard C L; Golestanian, Ramin
2016-07-15
Like ants, some microorganisms are known to leave trails on surfaces to communicate. We explore how trail-mediated self-interaction could affect the behavior of individual microorganisms when diffusive spreading of the trail is negligible on the time scale of the microorganism using a simple phenomenological model for an actively moving particle and a finite-width trail. The effective dynamics of each microorganism takes on the form of a stochastic integral equation with the trail interaction appearing in the form of short-term memory. For a moderate coupling strength below an emergent critical value, the dynamics exhibits effective diffusion in both orientation and position after a phase of superdiffusive reorientation. We report experimental verification of a seemingly counterintuitive perpendicular alignment mechanism that emerges from the model. PMID:27472143
Effective Dynamics of Microorganisms That Interact with Their Own Trail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kranz, W. Till; Gelimson, Anatolij; Zhao, Kun; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Golestanian, Ramin
2016-07-01
Like ants, some microorganisms are known to leave trails on surfaces to communicate. We explore how trail-mediated self-interaction could affect the behavior of individual microorganisms when diffusive spreading of the trail is negligible on the time scale of the microorganism using a simple phenomenological model for an actively moving particle and a finite-width trail. The effective dynamics of each microorganism takes on the form of a stochastic integral equation with the trail interaction appearing in the form of short-term memory. For a moderate coupling strength below an emergent critical value, the dynamics exhibits effective diffusion in both orientation and position after a phase of superdiffusive reorientation. We report experimental verification of a seemingly counterintuitive perpendicular alignment mechanism that emerges from the model.
Effect of hydrodynamic interactions in confined active suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ezhilan, Barath; Saintillan, David
2014-11-01
The dynamics of biologically active suspensions in confined geometries is investigated by incorporating accurate boundary conditions within the kinetic theory framework [Saintillan and Shelley, Phys. Fluids. (2008)]. Even in the absence of wall hydrodynamic interactions or imposed flow, swimming microorganisms have a tendency to accumulate at confining boundaries due to self-propulsion. Satisfying a zero wall-normal translational flux condition on the active particle probability distribution function captures this effect. Using a moment-closure approximation, analytical expressions for the equilibrium concentration/polarization profiles are derived in the dilute limit. As particle density increases, we expect particle-particle hydrodynamic interactions to become significant and to destabilize these equilibrium distributions. Using a linear stability analysis and 3D finite volume simulation of the equations for the orientational moments, we study in detail the effect of fluid coupling on the stability properties of the equilibrium states in confined active suspensions.
Estimating Interaction Effects With Incomplete Predictor Variables
Enders, Craig K.; Baraldi, Amanda N.; Cham, Heining
2014-01-01
The existing missing data literature does not provide a clear prescription for estimating interaction effects with missing data, particularly when the interaction involves a pair of continuous variables. In this article, we describe maximum likelihood and multiple imputation procedures for this common analysis problem. We outline 3 latent variable model specifications for interaction analyses with missing data. These models apply procedures from the latent variable interaction literature to analyses with a single indicator per construct (e.g., a regression analysis with scale scores). We also discuss multiple imputation for interaction effects, emphasizing an approach that applies standard imputation procedures to the product of 2 raw score predictors. We thoroughly describe the process of probing interaction effects with maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. For both missing data handling techniques, we outline centering and transformation strategies that researchers can implement in popular software packages, and we use a series of real data analyses to illustrate these methods. Finally, we use computer simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques. PMID:24707955
Effect of temperature coupling on ozone depletion prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandra, S.; Butler, D. M.; Stolarski, R. S.
1978-01-01
The effects of chlorine perturbations on both the temperature and the ozone distribution in the stratosphere have been studied using a simplified radiative-photochemical model. The model solves the hydrostatic equation for total density in a self-consistent manner as the temperature is changed. Radiative coupling is found to have a significant effect on both the thermal structure and the ozone distribution, particularly in the 35-50-km region. By increasing the ClX mixing ratio by 5.0 ppbv, the temperature in this region is decreased by 5 to 10 K with a slight increase below 30 km. The local ozone depletion around 40 km due to added ClX is smaller compared with the estimate made by keeping the temperature fixed to the ambient condition. However, the integrated effect of radiative coupling is to increase the calculated column ozone depletion by 15% to 25% in this model.
A dyadic analysis of relationships and health: does couple-level context condition partner effects?
Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L
2014-08-01
Adding to the growing literature explicating the links between romantic relationships and health, this study examined how both couple-level characteristics, particularly union type (e.g., dating, cohabiting, or marriage) and interracial pairing, and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., partner strain and support), predicted young adults' physical and mental health. Using dyadic data from a sample of 249 young, primarily Black couples, we hypothesized and found support for the importance of couple-level context, partner behavior, and their interaction in predicting health. Interracial couples (all Black/non-Black pairings) reported worse health than monoracial Black couples. Union type, however, did not directly predict health but was a significant moderator of partner strain. That is, the negative association between partner strain and self-reported health was stronger for cohabiting and married couples versus their dating counterparts, suggesting that coresidence, more so than marital status, may be important for understanding partner effects on physical health. For psychological distress, however, partner support proved equally beneficial across union types. PMID:25090254
Dark matter coupling to electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons: An effective field theory approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jing-Yuan; Kolb, Edward W.; Wang, Lian-Tao
2013-12-01
If dark matter is a new species of particle produced in the early universe as a cold thermal relic (a weakly-interacting massive particle-WIMP), its present abundance, its scattering with matter in direct-detection experiments, its present-day annihilation signature in indirect-detection experiments, and its production and detection at colliders, depend crucially on the WIMP coupling to standard-model (SM) particles. It is usually assumed that the WIMP couples to the SM sector through its interactions with quarks and leptons. In this paper we explore the possibility that the WIMP coupling to the SM sector is via electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons. In the absence of an ultraviolet-complete particle-physics model, we employ effective field theory to describe the WIMP-SM coupling. We consider both scalars and Dirac fermions as possible dark-matter candidates. Starting with an exhaustive list of operators up to dimension 8, we present detailed calculation of dark-matter annihilations to all possible final states, including γγ, γZ, γh, ZZ, Zh, W+W-, hh, and ffbar, and demonstrate the correlations among them. We compute the mass scale of the effective field theory necessary to obtain the correct dark-matter mass density, and well as the resulting photon line signals.
Kondo effect in a quantum dot side-coupled to a topological superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Minchul; Lim, Jong Soo; López, Rosa
2013-06-01
We investigate the dynamical and transport features of a Kondo dot side coupled to a topological superconductor (TS). The Majorana fermion states (MFSs) formed at the ends of the TS are found to be able to alter the Kondo physics profoundly: For an infinitely long wire where the MFSs do not overlap (ɛm=0) a finite dot-MFS coupling (Γm) reduces the unitary-limit value of the linear conductance by exactly a factor 3/4 in the weak-coupling regime (Γm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, V. B.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Romero, C.
2016-08-01
We propose an experiment for measuring the effective Casimir pressure between two parallel silicon carbide (SiC) plates with aligned nuclear spins. The prospective constraints on an axion-neutron coupling constant for both hadronic and grand unified theory (GUT) axions are calculated using the process of one-axion exchange. For this purpose, a general expression for the additional pressure arising between two polarized plates due to the exchange of one axion between their constituent fermions is derived. We demonstrate that only the polarization component perpendicular to the plates contributes to the pressure. The obtained pressure can be both repulsive and attractive depending on whether the polarizations of both plates are unidirectional or directed in opposite directions. It is shown that although the constraints on an axion-electron coupling obtained in the case of magnetized plates are not competitive, the constraints on an axion-neutron coupling found for plates with polarized nuclear spins are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained previously for the GUT axions alone using the process of two-axion exchange. The proposed experiment allows us also to strengthen the presently known constraints on the axion-neutron coupling constants of GUT axions by using both processes of one- and two-axion exchange.
Closed system of coupling effects in generalized thermo-elastoplasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Śloderbach, Z.
2016-05-01
In this paper, the field equations of the generalized coupled thermoplasticity theory are derived using the postulates of classical thermodynamics of irreversible processses. Using the Legendre transformations two new thermodynamics potentials P and S depending upon internal thermodynamic forces Π are introduced. The most general form for all the thermodynamics potentials are assumed instead of the usually used additive form. Due to this assumption, it is possible to describe all the effects of thermomechanical couples and also the elastic-plastic coupling effects observed in such materials as rocks, soils, concretes and in some metalic materials. In this paper not only the usual postulate of existence of a dissipation qupotential (the Gyarmati postulate) is used to derive the velocity equation. The plastic flow constitutive equations have the character of non-associated flow laws even when the Gyarmati postulate is assumed. In general formulation, the plastic strain rate tensor is normal to the surface of the generalized function of plastic flow defined in the the space of internal thermodynamic forces Π but is not normal to the yield surface. However, in general formulation and after the use the Gyarmati postulate, the direction of the sum of the plastic strain rate tensor and the coupled elastic strain rate tensor is normal to the yield surface.
Effect of strong coupling on dust acoustic waves and instabilities
Rosenberg, M. Kalman, G.
1998-10-01
The presence of charged dust in a plasma can lead to very low frequency dust acoustic waves and instabilities. In certain laboratory plasmas the dust is strongly coupled, as characterized by the condition {Gamma}{sub d}=Q{sub d}{sup 2} exp({minus}d/{lambda}{sub D})/dT{sub d}{ge}1, where Q{sub d} is the dust charge, {ital d} is the intergrain spacing, T{sub d} is the dust thermal energy, and {lambda}{sub D} is the plasma screening length. When the dust is strongly coupled, the spatial correlation of the grains can affect the dispersion relation of these waves. We review our recent work [1] on the dispersion properties of dust acoustic waves in the strongly coupled (liquid) phase in a dusty plasma, including also the effects of dust-neutral collisions. We then discuss a preliminary analysis of the effect of strong dust coupling on an ion dust two-stream instability in a collisional dusty plasma. Applications to laboratory dusty plasmas are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Effect of strong coupling on dust acoustic waves and instabilities
Rosenberg, M.; Kalman, G.
1998-10-21
The presence of charged dust in a plasma can lead to very low frequency dust acoustic waves and instabilities. In certain laboratory plasmas the dust is strongly coupled, as characterized by the condition {gamma}{sub d}=Q{sub d}{sup 2} exp(-d/{lambda}{sub D})/dT{sub d}{>=}1, where Q{sub d} is the dust charge, d is the intergrain spacing, T{sub d} is the dust thermal energy, and {lambda}{sub D} is the plasma screening length. When the dust is strongly coupled, the spatial correlation of the grains can affect the dispersion relation of these waves. We review our recent work [1] on the dispersion properties of dust acoustic waves in the strongly coupled (liquid) phase in a dusty plasma, including also the effects of dust-neutral collisions. We then discuss a preliminary analysis of the effect of strong dust coupling on an ion dust two-stream instability in a collisional dusty plasma. Applications to laboratory dusty plasmas are discussed.
Effective Theories Of The Strong Interaction
Dr. Ubirajara van Kolck
2004-07-31
This is the final report corresponding to the full funding period (08/01-07/04) in the Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator Grant DE-FG03-01ER41196. The development of an understanding of the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative effects in strong-interacting systems forms the broad context of this research. The main thrust is the application of effective theories to QCD. Topics included a new power counting in the pionful effective theory, low-energy Compton scattering, charge-symmetry breaking in pion production and in the two-nucleon potential, parity violation, coupled-channel scattering, shallow resonances and halo nuclei, chiral symmetry in the baryon spectrum, existence of a tetraquark state, and molecular meson states. DOE grant DE-FG03-01ER41196 was used to partially support in the period 08/01-07/04 the research activities of the Principal Investigator, Dr. Ubirajara van Kolck, one post-doctoral research associate, Dr. Boris A. Gelman, and one graduate student, Mr. Will Hockings. During the grant period the PI was first Assistant then Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Arizona (UA), and a RHIC Physics Fellow at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center (RBRC). The association with RBRC ended in the Summer of 2004. Since September of 2002 the PI has also been partially supported by a Sloan Research Fellowship. Dr. Boris Gelman was supported by the grant from September 2002 to May 2004. He joined the UA after receiving a Ph.D. from the University of Maryland in the Summer of 2002. He left to take a research associate position in the nuclear theory group of the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The support of a post-doctoral researcher on this grant for two years was only possible by carrying over first- and second-year funds to later years. In addition, Mr. William Hockings started doing research under the PI's guidance. Mr. Hockings took Independent Study courses with the PI, while working as a teaching
Effective dipole moment for the mode coupling instability: Mapping of self-consistent wake models
Roecker, T. B.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E.; Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.
2012-07-15
The theory of the mode coupling instability operating in two-dimensional plasma crystals is generalized, by employing the linear plasma response formalism to describe the interparticle interactions self-consistently. In this approach, the underlying ion distribution function is calculated from first principles. Subthermal and suprathermal regimes of the ion flow are considered. A mapping procedure is proposed, which relates the self-consistent coupling coefficients to the effective dipole moment of the wake-the parameter which characterizes the mode coupling in the framework of the conventionally used Yukawa/point-wake model. The importance of the self-consistent approach is demonstrated by comparing the theoretically obtained dipole moments with the values deduced from experiments.
Investigation on intergranular exchange coupling effect in Pr9Fe85.5B5.5 ribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Z. B.; Zhang, M.; Wang, L. C.; Shen, B. G.; Zhang, X. F.; Li, Y. F.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.
2014-02-01
The intergranular exchange coupling effects are investigated via thermal activation of magnetization reversal in the magnetic relaxation process, combined with Henkel plots and the measurement of susceptibilities in three types of Pr9Fe85.5B5.5 ribbons. Exchange interaction between hard-hard grains is proposed in optimal melt-spun ribbons, as well as in over melt-spun ribbons even bearing a weak exchange coupling between soft-hard grains. In under melt-spun ribbons, the decoupled effect is proposed between hard-hard grains. These investigations may contribute to a clear understanding about the complicated nature of the intergranular exchange coupling in nanocomposite magnets.
Propulsive effects of vortex coupling between parallel pulsed jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas
2015-11-01
For vehicles that use pulsed jet propulsion, nature provides inspiration for different ways to improve propulsive performance. Communities of marine invertebrates called salps improve the efficiency of cruising locomotion by aggregating into large multi-animal chains. In this process, the cylindrical animals physically connect to each other side-by-side to form an array of individual pulsed jets whose synchronous pulsing propels the entire chain forward. Some benefits of this chaining behavior can be described using existing models of pulsed jet propulsion for steady, cruising conditions. However, during unsteady conditions such as impulsive maneuvering at low speeds, it remains unclear how interactions between neighboring jets will affect the chain's propulsive performance. Using bench-top experiments, we investigate the unsteady interactions between two parallel pulsed jets. Under some conditions, the pulsed jets form vortex rings that coalesce before vortex formation is complete, coupling the hydrodynamics of the independent jets. We measure how different degrees of vortex coupling alter the energy and momentum transfer in the two-jet system. Finally, we explore the energy and momentum scalings that would guide the design of a vehicle using multi-jet maneuvering techniques. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szałowski, Karol; Balcerzak, Tadeusz
2014-09-01
The thermodynamics of a spin-1/2 magnetic multilayer system with antiferromagnetic interplanar couplings is studied using the pair approximation method. Special attention is paid to magnetocaloric properties, quantified by isothermal entropy change. The multilayer consists of two kinds of magnetic planes, one of which is diluted. The intraplanar couplings in both planes have arbitrary anisotropy ranging between Ising and isotropic Heisenberg interactions. The phase diagram related to the occurrence of magnetic compensation phenomenon is constructed and discussed. Then the isothermal entropy change is discussed as a function of interaction parameters, magnetic component concentration and external magnetic field amplitude. The ranges of normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect are found and related to the presence or absence of compensation.
Szałowski, Karol; Balcerzak, Tadeusz
2014-09-24
The thermodynamics of a spin-1/2 magnetic multilayer system with antiferromagnetic interplanar couplings is studied using the pair approximation method. Special attention is paid to magnetocaloric properties, quantified by isothermal entropy change. The multilayer consists of two kinds of magnetic planes, one of which is diluted. The intraplanar couplings in both planes have arbitrary anisotropy ranging between Ising and isotropic Heisenberg interactions. The phase diagram related to the occurrence of magnetic compensation phenomenon is constructed and discussed. Then the isothermal entropy change is discussed as a function of interaction parameters, magnetic component concentration and external magnetic field amplitude. The ranges of normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect are found and related to the presence or absence of compensation. PMID:25186229
Anomalous coupling, top-mass and parton-shower effects in W + W - production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellm, J.; Gieseke, S.; Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Plätzer, S.; Reuschle, C.; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J. F.
2016-05-01
We calculate the process ppto {W}+{W}-to {e}+{ν}_e{μ}-{overline{ν}}_{μ } at NLO QCD, including also effective field theory (EFT) operators mediating the ggW + W - interaction, which first occur at dimension eight. We further combine the NLO and EFT matrix elements produced by G oS am with the H erwig7/M atchbox framework, which offers the possibility to study the impact of a parton shower. We assess the effects of the anomalous couplings by comparing them to top-mass effects as well as uncertainties related to variations of the renormalisation, factorisation and hard shower scales.
Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Najafi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Hoseini Kamkar, Elnaz; Mahboubi, Mohamad
2015-01-01
Background The purpose of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT-C) on enhancement of marital adjustment in infertile couples. Materials and Methods This was a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. We selected 30 infertile couples (60 subjects) by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly assigned to two groups, sample and control. Each group consisted of 15 couples who had marital maladjustment and low sexual satisfaction. Couples answered the marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction questionnaires at baseline after which the sample group received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Results of pre-test and post-test showed that EFT-C significantly impacted marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion EFT-C had a significant effect on enhancement of satisfaction, cohesion and affectional expression. This approach impacted physical and emotional sexual satisfaction of infertile couples. PMID:26644864
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Mike R.
This thesis presents a new coupling method for treating the interaction of an acoustic fluid with a flexible structure, with emphasis on handling spatially non-matching meshes. It is based on the Localized Lagrange Multiplier (LLM) method. A frame is introduced as a "mediator" or "information relay" device between the fluid and the structure at the interaction surface. The frame is discretized in terms of kinematic variables. A Lagrange multiplier field is introduced between the frame and the structure, and another one between the frame and the fluid. The function of the multiplier pair is weak enforcement of kinematic continuity. This configuration completely decouples the structure and fluid models, because each model communicates to the frame through node collocated multipliers and not directly to each other. In order to assure proper communication, energy formulations of the fluid and structure models are in terms of displacements and associated time derivatives. A novel transformation of the fluid displacement model into a fluid displacement potential model enforces the irrotational condition of the acoustic fluid. This transformation reduces the number of degrees of freedom in two and three-dimensions and is suitable for both vibration and transient analyses. The LLM method facilitates the construction of separate discretizations using different mesh generation programs, as well as use of customized time integration methods. To advance the solution in time, the LLM coupling method is combined with a partitioned solution procedure. The time-stepping computations are organized in a way that eliminates the traditional prediction step characteristic of staggered solution procedures. This is accomplished by solving for the interface variables: Lagrange multipliers and frame states, and then feeding this solution back to the coupled components. This sequence forestalls the well-known stability degradation caused by prediction, yet it retains the desirable
Interaction with Caveolin-1 Modulates G Protein Coupling of Mouse β3-Adrenoceptor*
Sato, Masaaki; Hutchinson, Dana S.; Halls, Michelle L.; Furness, Sebastian G. B.; Bengtsson, Tore; Evans, Bronwyn A.; Summers, Roger J.
2012-01-01
Caveolins act as scaffold proteins in multiprotein complexes and have been implicated in signaling by G protein-coupled receptors. Studies using knock-out mice suggest that β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR) signaling is dependent on caveolin-1; however, it is not known whether caveolin-1 is associated with the β3-AR or solely with downstream signaling proteins. We have addressed this question by examining the impact of membrane rafts and caveolin-1 on the differential signaling of mouse β3a- and β3b-AR isoforms that diverge at the distal C terminus. Only the β3b-AR promotes pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive cAMP accumulation. When cells expressing the β3a-AR were treated with filipin III to disrupt membrane rafts or transfected with caveolin-1 siRNA, the cyclic AMP response to the β3-AR agonist CL316243 became PTX-sensitive, suggesting Gαi/o coupling. The β3a-AR C terminus, SP384PLNRF389DGY392EGARPF398PT, resembles a caveolin interaction motif. Mutant β3a-ARs (F389A/Y392A/F398A or P384S/F389A) promoted PTX-sensitive cAMP responses, and in situ proximity assays demonstrated an association between caveolin-1 and the wild type β3a-AR but not the mutant receptors. In membrane preparations, the β3b-AR activated Gαo and mediated PTX-sensitive cAMP responses, whereas the β3a-AR did not activate Gαi/o proteins. The endogenous β3a-AR displayed Gαi/o coupling in brown adipocytes from caveolin-1 knock-out mice or in wild type adipocytes treated with filipin III. Our studies indicate that interaction of the β3a-AR with caveolin inhibits coupling to Gαi/o proteins and suggest that signaling is modulated by a raft-enriched complex containing the β3a-AR, caveolin-1, Gαs, and adenylyl cyclase. PMID:22535965
Qiu, Yongjian; Li, Meina; Pasoreck, Elise K.; Long, Lingyun; Shi, Yiting; Galvão, Rafaelo M.; Chou, Conrad L.; Wang, He; Sun, Amanda Y.; Zhang, Yiyin C.; Jiang, Anna; Chen, Meng
2015-01-01
Phytochromes (phys) are red and far-red photoreceptors that control plant development and growth by promoting the proteolysis of a family of antagonistically acting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, the PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs). We have previously shown that the degradation of PIF1 and PIF3 requires HEMERA (HMR). However, the biochemical function of HMR and the mechanism by which it mediates PIF degradation remain unclear. Here, we provide genetic evidence that HMR acts upstream of PIFs in regulating hypocotyl growth. Surprisingly, genome-wide analysis of HMR- and PIF-dependent genes reveals that HMR is also required for the transactivation of a subset of PIF direct-target genes. We show that HMR interacts with all PIFs. The HMR-PIF interaction is mediated mainly by HMR’s N-terminal half and PIFs’ conserved active-phytochrome B binding motif. In addition, HMR possesses an acidic nine-amino-acid transcriptional activation domain (9aaTAD) and a loss-of-function mutation in this 9aaTAD impairs the expression of PIF target genes and the destruction of PIF1 and PIF3. Together, these in vivo results support a regulatory mechanism for PIFs in which HMR is a transcriptional coactivator binding directly to PIFs and the 9aaTAD of HMR couples the degradation of PIF1 and PIF3 with the transactivation of PIF target genes. PMID:25944101
Fairbairn, Catharine E; Cranford, James A
2016-08-01
Models of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are increasingly conceptualizing social and relationship factors as being critical to the understanding of problem drinking. Close relationships involving conflict have been a particular research focus, and partners' expressions of negative emotion are theorized to affect drinking among those with AUD. Although it has long been presumed that behaviors during couples interactions influence drinking-and this assumption has informed many modern treatments for AUD-this hypothesis has not been directly tested. We bring multiple methods to bear on this question, combining laboratory-based behavioral observation with a longitudinal design. Forty-eight individuals with AUD (probands), together with their partners, completed a laboratory-based conflict interaction. Their behavior was coded with the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System. Longitudinal follow-ups of drinking behaviors were completed at 6 and 12 months. Results showed that, above and beyond the proband's own behaviors, partner negative behaviors moderated probands' drinking trajectories, with drinkers whose partners displayed higher levels of hostility at baseline reporting slower declines in frequency of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems over time and higher levels of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems at follow-up. Results emphasize the importance of considering close relationships in the study of AUD and further indicate the utility of combining multiple methods in alcohol research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362489
Walker-Type Mean Circulations and Convectively Coupled Tropical Waves as an Interacting System.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Jun-Ichi; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.; Grabowski, Wojciech W.
2002-05-01
Interactions between convectively coupled tropical waves and Walker-type mean circulations are examined using a two-dimensional analytic model wherein drying and cooling of the boundary layer by convective and mesoscale downdrafts are in equilibrium with the wind-induced perturbations of surface fluxes. The moist thermodynamic state directly affects the stability of the large-scale circulation by controlling the wind perturbation on surface fluxes and the strength of the convective downdrafts. Stability analyses yield two major conclusions.(i) The mean Walker circulation is linearly unstable, suggesting that it may only exist in a quasi-steady sense through the spontaneous generation of transient waves. The instability is a manifestation of positive feedback: enhanced low-level convergence increases the surface wind speed, which increases the surface flux. As a result, convective heating is increased, which further enhances the low-level convergence. The mean circulation is more unstable when its horizontal extent is small and its depth large. Hence, when the horizontal extent of the mean circulation is a few thousand kilometers, as in the authors' recent cloud-resolving simulations, the deep first-baroclinic mode circulation is too unstable to be maintained even in a quasi-steady sense, realizing a shallow double-cell structure.(ii) The convectively coupled large-scale wave differs from traditional tropical large-scale instabilities of a homogeneous mean state in an important way: the longest waves are the most unstable rather than the shortest. Linear coupling of the waves with the mean state, through wind-induced surface flux perturbations, induces monotonically growing instabilities when the ascent of the mean circulation occupies more than half of the total domain. These instabilities occur only with the odd-wavenumber modes, which have parity with the mean circulation. Otherwise, the system supports linear neutral waves that propagate slower than the dry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Cita, V. M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Khangulyan, D.; Perucho, M.
2016-06-01
Context. Stars and their winds can contribute to the non-thermal emission in extragalactic jets. Because of the complexity of jet-star interactions, the properties of the resulting emission are closely linked to those of the emitting flows. Aims: We simulate the interaction between a stellar wind and a relativistic extragalactic jet and use the hydrodynamic results to compute the non-thermal emission under different conditions. Methods: We performed relativistic axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a relativistic jet interacting with a supersonic, non-relativistic stellar wind. We computed the corresponding streamlines out of the simulation results and calculated the injection, evolution, and emission of non-thermal particles accelerated in the jet shock, focusing on electrons or e±-pairs. Several cases were explored, considering different jet-star interaction locations, magnetic fields, and observer lines of sight. The jet luminosity and star properties were fixed, but the results are easily scalable when these parameters are changed. Results: Individual jet-star interactions produce synchrotron and inverse Compton emission that peaks from X-rays to MeV energies (depending on the magnetic field), and at ~100-1000 GeV (depending on the stellar type), respectively. The radiation spectrum is hard in the scenarios explored here as a result of non-radiative cooling dominance, as low-energy electrons are efficiently advected even under relatively high magnetic fields. Interactions of jets with cold stars lead to an even harder inverse Compton spectrum because of the Klein-Nishina effect in the cross section. Doppler boosting has a strong effect on the observer luminosity. Conclusions: The emission levels for individual interactions found here are in the line of previous, more approximate, estimates, strengthening the hypothesis that collective jet-star interactions could significantly contribute at high energies under efficient particle acceleration.
Effective Supergravity from the Weakly Coupled HeteroticString
Gaillard, Mary K.
2005-05-01
The motivation for Calabi-Yau-like compactifications of the weakly coupled E{sub 8} {circle_times} E{sub 8} heterotic string theory, its particle spectrum and the issue of dilaton stabilization are briefly reviewed. Modular invariant models for hidden sector condensation and supersymmetry breaking are described at the quantum level of the effective field theory. Their phenomenological and cosmological implications, including a possible origin for R-parity, are discussed.
Magnetoelectric coupling effects in multiferroic complex oxide composite structures.
Vaz, Carlos A F; Hoffman, Jason; Ahn, Charles H; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy
2010-07-20
The study of magnetoelectric materials has recently received renewed interest, in large part stimulated by breakthroughs in the controlled growth of complex materials and by the search for novel materials with functionalities suitable for next generation electronic devices. In this Progress Report, we present an overview of recent developments in the field, with emphasis on magnetoelectric coupling effects in complex oxide multiferroic composite materials. PMID:20414887
Holographic description of finite-size effects in strongly coupled superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-García, Antonio M.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson
2012-08-01
Despite its fundamental and practical interest, the understanding of mesoscopic effects in strongly coupled superconductors is still limited. Here we address this problem by studying holographic superconductivity in a disk and a strip of typical size ℓ. For ℓ<ℓc, where ℓc depends on the chemical potential and temperature, we have found that the order parameter vanishes. The superconductor-metal transition at ℓ=ℓc is controlled by mean-field critical exponents, which suggests that quantum and thermal fluctuations induced by finite-size effects are suppressed in holographic superconductors. Intriguingly, the effective interactions that bind the order parameter increase as ℓ decreases. Most of these results are consistent with experimental observations in Pb nanograins at low temperature and are qualitatively different from the ones expected in a weakly coupled superconductor.
Geophone-seabed coupling effect and its correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bao-Qing; Zhou, Hui; Li, Guo-Fa; Guo, Jian-Qing
2016-03-01
By summing geophone and hydrophone data with opposite polarity responses to water layer reverberation, the ocean bottom cable dual-sensor acquisition technique can effectively eliminate reverberation, broaden the frequency bandwidth, and improve both the resolution and fidelity of the seismic data. It is thus widely used in industry. However, it is difficult to ensure good coupling of the geophones with the seabed because of the impact of ocean flow, seafloor topography, and field operations; therefore, geophone data are seriously affected by the transfer function of the geophone-seabed coupling system. As a result, geophone data frequently have low signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), which causes large differences in amplitude, frequency, and phases between geophone and hydrophone data that severely affect dual-sensor summation. In contrast, the hydrophone detects changes in brine pressure and has no coupling issues with the seabed; thus, hydrophone data always have good S/N. First, in this paper, the mathematical expression of the transfer function between geophone and seabed is presented. Second, the transfer function of the geophone-seabed is estimated using hydrophone data as reference traces, and finally, the coupling correction based on the estimated transfer function is implemented. Using this processing, the amplitude and phase differences between geophone and hydrophone data are removed, and the S/N of the geophone data are improved. Synthetic and real data examples then show that our method is feasible and practical.
Competition between spin-orbit interaction and exchange coupling within a honeycomb lattice ribbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Son-Hsien; Hu, C. D.; Chang, Ching-Ray
2016-01-01
Spin density patterns of a pinned magnetic impurity that is embedded in a honeycomb lattice with zigzag edges are investigated by employing a mean-field assisted Landauer-Keldysh formalism. Both the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the extrinsic localized magnetic moments are considered, and the effects of the pinning directions and the species of the sublattice on the electron spins are analyzed. A local time-reversal symmetry breaking cannot destroy the equilibrium edge-state spin accumulation that is induced by intrinsic spin-orbit coupling when the pinning field lies in the plane of the ribbon and the embedding position is the A-site at the edge. The induced local spin can be either parallel or antiparallel to the localized impurity moment, depending on the location of the pinned impurity, because itinerant electrons are found only at the B-site of the edge, but not at the A-site.
Mahowald, Natalie; Rothenberg, D.; Lindsay, Keith; Doney, Scott C.; Moore, Jefferson Keith; Randerson, James T.; Thornton, Peter E; Jones, C. D.
2011-02-01
Coupled-carbon-climate simulations are an essential tool for predicting the impact of human activity onto the climate and biogeochemistry. Here we incorporate prognostic desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the CCSM3.1 coupled carbon-climate model and explore the resulting interactions with climate and biogeochemical dynamics through a series of transient anthropogenic simulations (20th and 21st centuries) and sensitivity studies. The inclusion of prognostic aerosols into this model has a small net global cooling effect on climate but does not significantly impact the globally averaged carbon cycle; we argue that this is likely to be because the CCSM3.1 model has a small climate feedback onto the carbon cycle. We propose a mechanism for including desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into a simple carbon-climate feedback analysis to explain the results of our and previous studies. Inclusion of aerosols has statistically significant impacts on regional climate and biogeochemistry, in particular through the effects on the ocean nitrogen cycle and primary productivity of altered iron inputs from desert dust deposition.
Effect of strongly coupled plasma on photoionization cross section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Madhusmita
2014-01-01
The effect of strongly coupled plasma on the ground state photoionization cross section is studied. In the non relativistic dipole approximation, cross section is evaluated from bound-free transition matrix element. The bound and free state wave functions are obtained by solving the radial Schrodinger equation with appropriate plasma potential. We have used ion sphere potential (ISP) to incorporate the plasma effects in atomic structure calculation. This potential includes the effect of static plasma screening on nuclear charge as well as the effect of confinement due to the neighbouring ions. With ISP, the radial equation is solved using Shooting method approach for hydrogen like ions (Li+2, C+5, Al+12) and lithium like ions (C+3, O+5). The effect of strong screening and confinement is manifested as confinement resonances near the ionization threshold for both kinds of ions. The confinement resonances are very much dependent on the edge of the confining potential and die out as the plasma density is increased. Plasma effect also results in appearance of Cooper minimum in lithium like ions, which was not present in case of free lithium like ions. With increasing density the position of Cooper minimum shifts towards higher photoelectron energy. The same behaviour is also true for weakly coupled plasma where plasma effect is modelled by Debye-Huckel potential.
Effect of strongly coupled plasma on photoionization cross section
Das, Madhusmita
2014-01-15
The effect of strongly coupled plasma on the ground state photoionization cross section is studied. In the non relativistic dipole approximation, cross section is evaluated from bound-free transition matrix element. The bound and free state wave functions are obtained by solving the radial Schrodinger equation with appropriate plasma potential. We have used ion sphere potential (ISP) to incorporate the plasma effects in atomic structure calculation. This potential includes the effect of static plasma screening on nuclear charge as well as the effect of confinement due to the neighbouring ions. With ISP, the radial equation is solved using Shooting method approach for hydrogen like ions (Li{sup +2}, C{sup +5}, Al{sup +12}) and lithium like ions (C{sup +3}, O{sup +5}). The effect of strong screening and confinement is manifested as confinement resonances near the ionization threshold for both kinds of ions. The confinement resonances are very much dependent on the edge of the confining potential and die out as the plasma density is increased. Plasma effect also results in appearance of Cooper minimum in lithium like ions, which was not present in case of free lithium like ions. With increasing density the position of Cooper minimum shifts towards higher photoelectron energy. The same behaviour is also true for weakly coupled plasma where plasma effect is modelled by Debye-Huckel potential.
Strongly coupled partitioned approach for fluid structure interaction in free surface flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Facci, Andrea Luigi; Ubertini, Stefano
2016-06-01
In this paper we describe and validate a methodology for the numerical simulation of the fluid structure interaction in free surface flows. Specifically, this study concentrates on the vertical impact of a rigid body on the water surface, (i.e. on the hull slamming problem). The fluid flow is modeled through the volume of fluid methodology, and the structure dynamics is described by the Newton's second law. An iterative algorithm guarantees the tight coupling between the fluid and solid solvers, allowing the simulations of lightweight (i.e. buoyant) structures. The methodology is validated comparing numerical results to experimental data on the free fall of different rigid wedges. The correspondence between numerical results and independent experimental findings from literature evidences the reliability and the accuracy of the proposed approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sanjay; Ajay
2015-01-01
Stacking dependent quasi-particle spectrum and density of states (DOS) in trilayer (ABC-, ABA- and AAA-stacked) graphene are analyzed using mean-field Green's function equations of motion method. Interlayer coupling (t1) is found to be responsible for the splitting of quasi-particle peaks in each stacking order. Coulomb interaction suppresses the trilayer splitting and generates a finite gap at Fermi level in ABC- while a tiny gap in ABA-stacked trilayer graphene. Influence of t⊥ is prominent for AAA-stacking as compared to ABC- and ABA-stacking orders. The theoretically obtained quasi-particle energies and DOS has been viewed in terms of recent angle resolved photoemission spectroscopic (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopic (STM) data available on these systems.
El Nino-southern oscillation: A coupled response to the greenhouse effect?
Sun, De-Zheng
1997-11-01
The purpose of this article to elucidate the link between the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and radiative forcing (of which the greenhouse effect is a major part). A unified theory for the tropical Pacific climate is developed by considering the response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere to a changing radiative forcing. The hypothesis is that both the zonal surface sea temperature (SST) gradients and ENSO are a coupled response to the strong radiative heating or the tropical warmth. Owing to ocean-atmosphere interaction, the stronger the radiative heating, the larger the zonal SST gradients. When the SST gradients exceed a critical value, however, the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the cold-tongue region is too strong for the coupled system to hold steady. Consequently, the coupled system enters an oscillatory state. These coupled dynamics are examined in a simple mathematical model whose behavior is consistent with the hypothesis. With a linear temperature profile throughout the depth of subsurface ocean, the model predicts that both the magnitude and period of the oscillation increase with increases in radiative forcing or the greenhouse effect. The increase in the magnitude of the oscillation largely comes from an enhancement of the magnitude of the cold anomalies, while the increase in the period mostly comes from a prolonged duration of the warm events. With a profile in which the lapse rate decreases with depth, the sensitivity is more moderate. The simplicity of the model prevents a quantitative simulation of the sensitivity of ENSO to increases in the greenhouse effect, but qualitatively the model results support the empirical interpretation of the prolonged duration of the 1990-1995 ENSO event. 5 refs., 7 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chao-Chun; Wu, Wen-Chin
2010-11-01
We investigate the effect of anisotropic and long-range dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) on the center motions of nonoverlapping Bose-Einstein condensates in bilayer and multilayer stacks. In the bilayer, it is shown analytically that while DDI plays no role in the in-phase modes of center motions of condensates, out-of-phase mode frequency (ωo) depends crucially on the strength of DDI (ad). At the small-ad limit, ωo2(ad)-ωo2(0)∝ad. In the multilayer stack, transverse modes associated with center motions of coupled condensates are found to be optical-phonon-like. At the long-wavelength limit, phonon velocity is proportional to ad.
Fridlyand, Leonid E.; Philipson, Louis H.
2016-01-01
Insulin secretory in pancreatic beta-cells responses to nutrient stimuli and hormonal modulators include multiple messengers and signaling pathways with complex interdependencies. Here we present a computational model that incorporates recent data on glucose metabolism, plasma membrane potential, G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCR), cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum calcium dynamics, cAMP and phospholipase C pathways that regulate interactions between second messengers in pancreatic beta-cells. The values of key model parameters were inferred from published experimental data. The model gives a reasonable fit to important aspects of experimentally measured metabolic and second messenger concentrations and provides a framework for analyzing the role of metabolic, hormones and neurotransmitters changes on insulin secretion. Our analysis of the dynamic data provides support for the hypothesis that activation of Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases play a critical role in modulating the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and catecholamines. The regulatory properties of adenylyl cyclase isoforms determine fluctuations in cytoplasmic cAMP concentration and reveal a synergistic action of glucose, GLP-1 and GIP on insulin secretion. On the other hand, the regulatory properties of phospholipase C isoforms determine the interaction of glucose, acetylcholine and free fatty acids (FFA) (that act through the FFA receptors) on insulin secretion. We found that a combination of GPCR agonists activating different messenger pathways can stimulate insulin secretion more effectively than a combination of GPCR agonists for a single pathway. This analysis also suggests that the activators of GLP-1, GIP and FFA receptors may have a relatively low risk of hypoglycemia in fasting conditions whereas an activator of muscarinic receptors can increase this risk. This computational analysis demonstrates that study of second messenger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kjellander, Roland; Ramirez, Rosa
2008-12-01
An exact treatment of screened electrostatics in electrolyte solutions is presented. In electrolytes the anisotropy of the exponentially decaying electrostatic potential from a molecule extends to the far field region. The full directional dependence of the electrostatic potential from a charged or uncharged molecule remains in the longest range tail (i.e. from all multipole moments). In particular, the range of the potential from an ion and that from an electroneutral polar particle is generally exactly the same. This is in contrast to the case in vacuum or pure polar liquids, where the potential from a single charge is longer ranged than that from a dipole, which is, itself, longer ranged than the one from a quadrupole etc. The orientational dependence of the exponentially screened electrostatic interaction between two molecules in electrolytes is therefore rather complex even at long distances. These facts are formalized in Yukawa multipole expansions of the electrostatic potential and the pair interaction free energy based on the Yukawa function family exp(-κr)/rm, where r is the distance, κ is a decay parameter and m is a positive integer. The expansion is formally exact for electrolytes with molecular solvent and in the primitive model, provided the non-Coulombic interactions between the particles are sufficiently short ranged. The results can also be applied in the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Differences and similarities to the ordinary multipole expansion of electrostatics are pointed out. On the other hand, when the non-Coulombic interactions between the constituent particles of the electrolyte solution contain a dispersion 1/r6 potential, the electrostatic potential from a molecule decays like a power law for long distances rather than as a Yukawa function. This is due to nontrivial coupling between the electrostatic and dispersion interactions. There remains an exponentially decaying component in the electrostatic potential, but it becomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carl, Douglas
1986-01-01
The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic significantly influences attitudes about life and lifestyles. Homosexuals have to give increased consideration to coupling, the nature of coupled relationships, sex and intimacy, and death long before the normal time. Discusses impact of AIDS on the early stages of gay coupling and on the…
Size effects in superconducting thin films coupled to a substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero-Bermúdez, Aurelio; García-García, Antonio M.
2014-02-01
Recent experimental advances in surface science have made it possible to track the evolution of superconductivity in films as the thickness enters the nanoscale region where it is expected that the substrate plays an important role. Here, we put forward a mean-field, analytically tractable, model that describes size effects in ultrathin films coupled to the substrate. We restrict our study to one-band, crystalline, weakly coupled superconductors with no impurities. The thin-film substrate/vacuum interfaces are described by a simple asymmetric potential well and a finite quasiparticle lifetime. Boundary conditions are chosen to comply with the charge neutrality condition. This model provides a fair description of experimental results in ultrathin lead films: on average, the superconducting gap decreases with thickness and it is always below the bulk value. Clear oscillations, remnants of the shape resonances, are still observed for intermediate thicknesses. For materials with a weaker electron-phonon coupling and negligible disorder, a modest enhancement of superconductivity seems to be feasible. The relaxation of the charge neutrality condition, which is in principle justified in complex oxide heterostructures and other materials, would lead to a much stronger enhancement of superconductivity by size effects.
Coupled-channel and screening effects in charmonium spectrum
Li Baiqing; Meng Ce; Chao Kuangta
2009-07-01
Using the same quenched limit as input, we compare the charmonium spectra predicted by two different models, i.e., the coupled-channel model and the screened potential model in the mass region below 4 GeV, in which the contributions from decay channels involving P-wave (as well as even higher excited) D mesons can be neglected. We find that the two models have similar global features in describing the charmonium spectrum since they approximately embody the same effect of the vacuum polarization of dynamical light quark pairs. Adopting these models will be helpful to clarify the nature of the newly discovered charmonium or charmoniumlike states; and the coupled-channel model is more adept in investigating the influences of open-charm thresholds on the charmonium spectrum. In particular, we show the S-wave decay coupling effect on lowering the {chi}{sub c1}(2P) mass toward the DD* threshold, in support of the assignment of the X(3872) as a {chi}{sub c1}(2P)-dominated charmonium state.
Coupling effect of quantum wells on band structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jie, Chen; Weiyou, Zeng
2015-10-01
The coupling effects of quantum wells on band structure are numerically investigated by using the Matlab programming language. In a one dimensional finite quantum well with the potential barrier V0, the calculation is performed by increasing the number of inserted barriers with the same height Vb, and by, respectively, varying the thickness ratio of separated wells to inserted barriers and the height ratio of Vb to V0. Our calculations show that coupling is strongly influenced by the above parameters of the inserted barriers and wells. When these variables change, the width of the energy bands and gaps can be tuned. Our investigation shows that it is possible for quantum wells to achieve the desired width of the bands and gaps.
Bérut, A; Imparato, A; Petrosyan, A; Ciliberto, S
2016-02-12
We experimentally study the statistical properties of the energy fluxes between two trapped Brownian particles, interacting through dissipative hydrodynamic coupling, and submitted to an effective temperature difference ΔT, obtained by random forcing the position of one trap. We identify effective heat fluxes between the two particles and show that they satisfy an exchange fluctuation theorem in the stationary state. We also show that after the sudden application of a temperature gradient ΔT, the total hot-cold flux satisfies a transient exchange fluctuation theorem for any integration time, whereas the total cold-hot flux only does it asymptotically for long times. PMID:26919017
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Priesack, E.
2012-04-01
Climate change causes altering distributions of meteorological factors influencing plant growth and its interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. Recent studies show, that uncertainties in regional and global climate simulations are also caused by lacking descriptions of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Therefore, we couple a mechanistic soil-plant model to a regional climate and forecast model. The detailed simulation of the water and energy exchanges, especially the transpiration of grassland and forests stands, are the key features of the modelling framework. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) (Skamarock 2008) is an open source mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. The WRF model was modified in a way, to either choose its native, static land surface model NOAH or the mechanistic eco-system model Expert-N 5.0 individually for every single grid point within the simulation domain. The Expert-N 5.0 modelling framework provides a highly modular structure, enabling the development and use of a large variety of different plant and soil models, including heat transfer, nitrogen uptake/turnover/transport as well as water uptake/transport and crop management. To represent the key landuse types grassland and forest, we selected two mechanistic plant models: The Hurley Pasture model (Thornley 1998) and a modified TREEDYN3 forest simulation model (Bossel 1996). The models simulate plant growth, water, nitrogen and carbon flows for grassland and forest stands. A mosaic approach enables Expert-N to use high resolution land use data e.g. CORINE Land Cover data (CLC, 2006) for the simulation, making it possible to simulate different land use distributions within a single grid cell. The coupling results are analyzed for plausibility and compared with the results of the default land surface model NOAH (Fei Chen and Jimy Dudhia 2010). We show differences between the mechanistic and the static model coupling, with focus on the feedback effects
Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Rao, Bhagyashree D; Jafurulla, Md
2015-01-01
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of molecules involved in signal transduction across cell membranes and are major drug targets. Since GPCRs are integral membrane proteins, their structure and function are modulated by membrane lipids. In particular, membrane cholesterol is an important lipid in the context of GPCR function. Solubilization of integral membrane proteins is a process in which the proteins and lipids in native membranes are dissociated in the presence of a suitable amphiphilic detergent. Interestingly, solubilization offers a convenient approach to monitor lipid-receptor interaction as it results in differential extents of lipid solubilization, thereby allowing to assess the role of specific lipids on receptor function. In this review, we highlight how this solubilization strategy is utilized to decipher novel information about the structural stringency of cholesterol necessary for supporting the function of the serotonin(1A) receptor. We envision that insight in GPCR-lipid interaction would result in better understanding of GPCR function in health and disease. PMID:25950962
Hey Mr. Sandman: dyadic effects of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep among married couples.
Revenson, Tracey A; Marín-Chollom, Amanda M; Rundle, Andrew G; Wisnivesky, Juan; Neugut, Alfred I
2016-04-01
This study examined associations among anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep duration in a sample of middle-aged couples using the actor-partner interaction model with dyadic data. Self-report measures were completed independently by both partners as part of the health histories obtained during their annual preventive medical examinations in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that husbands' anxiety and depressive symptoms had a stronger effect on their wives' anxiety and depression than the other way around, but this was not moderated by one's own sleep duration. For both wives and husbands, higher levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety predicted shorter sleep duration for their partner 1 year later, although the effect of husbands' mental health on their wives' was again stronger. The findings suggest that sleep problems might better be treated as a couple-level phenomenon than an individual one, particularly for women. PMID:26546242
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wachel, J. C.; Szenasi, F. R.
1980-01-01
Lateral and torsional vibration data obtained on a centrifugal compressor train which had shaft instabilities and gear failures is examined. The field data verifies that the stability of centrifugal compressors can be adversely affected by coincidence of torsional natural frequencies with lateral instability frequencies. The data also indicates that excitation energy from gear boxes can reduce stability margins if energy is transmitted either laterally or torsionally to the compressors. The lateral and torsional coupling mechanisms of shaft systems is discussed. The coupling mechanisms in a large industrial compressor train are documented and the potential effect on rotor stability is demonstrated. Guidelines are set forth to eliminate these potential problems by minimizing the interaction of torsional and lateral responses and their effect on rotor stability.
Spinning boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair: The effect of self-interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen; Rúnarsson, Helgi F.
2016-05-01
Self-interacting boson stars (BSs) have been shown to alleviate the astrophysically low maximal mass of their nonself-interacting counterparts. We report some physical features of spinning self-interacting BSs, namely their compactness, the occurrence of ergo-regions and the scalar field profiles, for a sample of values of the coupling parameter. The results agree with the general picture that these BSs are comparatively less compact than the nonself-interacting ones. We also briefly discuss the effect of scalar self-interactions on the properties of Kerr black holes with scalar hair.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamet, Quentin; Huck, Thierry; de Verdière, Alain Colin; Arzel, Olivier; Campin, Jean-Michel
2015-04-01
The role of the ocean-atmosphere interactions in the multidecadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is investigated in an idealized coupled configuration of the MIT General Circulation Model. The flat-bottom ocean, composed of an Atlantic-like small basin, a Pacific-like large basin, and an unblocked Antarctic-like circumpolar channel, is coupled to a global atmospheric model (SPEEDY). In order to better represent the atmospheric dynamics and its interactions with the ocean, three set-ups, with horizontal resolution of about 4°, 2° and 1° (at the equator) in both the ocean and atmosphere models, are compared. They show a linearly increasing North Atlantic Oscillation-like variability. At all resolutions, the AMOC undergoes a spontaneous variability on multidecadal time scales between 30-40 yr, with an additional higher frequency in the highest resolution set-up. The AMOC variability responds to temperature anomalies along the western boundary through the thermal wind relationship. These temperature anomalies result from the propagation of large-scale baroclinic Rossby waves across the small basin. The unstable region responsible for the growth of Rossby waves through baroclinic instability, diagnosed using a temperature variance budget, shifts from the eastern boundary at coarse resolution (4°) to the western boundary at higher resolution (2° and 1°). An earlier study, performed with the same coarse resolution set-up (4°), has shown that the AMOC does not participate to the growth of Rossby waves, but passively reacts to these waves. The AMOC being mainly connected to the western boundary dynamics, its role in setting large scale baroclinic Rossby waves might be different between the coarse resolution set-ups (4°) and the higher resolution set-ups (2° and 1°). The ocean-atmosphere interactions are strongly enhanced in the highest resolution set-up (1°), with the development of a significant correlation of about 0
Effective Interactions from No Core Shell Model
Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Barrett, B. R.; Navratil, P.; Vary, J. P.
2008-11-11
We construct the many-body effective Hamiltonian for pf-shell by carrying out 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}. NCSM calculations at the 2-body cluster level. We demonstrate how the effective Hamiltonian derived from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials for the 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} NCSM space should be modified to properly account for the many-body correlations produced by truncating to the major pf-shell. We obtain two-body effective interactions for the pf-shell by using direct projection and use them to reproduce the results of large scale NCSM for other light Ca isotopes.
Sakuma, Noritsugu; Ohshima, Tsubasa; Shoji, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Sato, Ryota; Wachi, Ayako; Kato, Akira; Kawai, Yoichiro; Manabe, Akira; Teranishi, Toshiharu
2011-04-26
Nanocomposite magnets (NCMs) consisting of hard and soft magnetic phases are expected to be instrumental in overcoming the current theoretical limit of magnet performance. In this study, structural analyses were performed on L1(0)-FePd/α-Fe NCMs with various hard/soft volume fractions, which were formed by annealing Pd/γ-Fe(2)O(3) heterostructured nanoparticles and pure Pd nanoparticles. The sample with a hard/soft volume ratio of 82/18 formed by annealing at 773 K had the largest maximum energy product (BH(max) = 10.3 MGOe). In such a sample, the interface between the hard and soft phases was coherent and the phase sizes were optimized, both of which effectively induced exchange coupling. This exchange coupling was directly observed by visualizing the magnetic interaction between the hard and soft phases using a first-order reversal curve diagram, which is a valuable tool to improve the magnetic properties of NCMs. PMID:21425857
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pholele, T. M.; Chuma, J. M.
2014-10-01
The effects of differently positioned and combined apertures on the magnitudes of electric coupling coefficients of two identical combline resonators are analysed. Coupling coefficient, k-vertical symmetry provides greater negative coupling for apertures less than 50 % opening on the common wall. Combined apertures do not enhance electric coupling. The Γ aperture annihilates electric coupling, whereas T shaped aperture provides reduced negative coupling coefficients compared to single apertures that make up the combination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surenkok, Gokce; Utku Turuncoglu, Ufuk
2015-04-01
In this study, a coupled regional atmosphere-wave model has been implemented and tested in the Mediterranean Sea to study the effects of surface roughness length in the simulated wind speed and direction of the atmosphere model over the sea. In general, the standalone atmosphere models tend to overestimate the wind speed especially over the sea due to their poor representation of the surface fluxes and roughness length. The designed modelling system (RegESM; Turuncoglu et al., 2013) mainly aims to improve the modelled surface winds by adding two-way interaction between atmosphere and wave models. The used version of the RegESM modelling system is configured to have two model components: (1) WAM spectra wave model (The WAMDI Group, 1987) and (2) ICTP's RegCM4 atmosphere model (Giorgi et al., 2012). The model components are coupled using Earth system Modelling Framework (ESMF; Hill et al., 2004; Collins et al., 2005). In this case, atmosphere model sends surface wind speed components to wave model and retrieves surface roughness length and friction velocity to calculate surface fluxes (Zeng et al., 1998). The current version of the modelling system only represents the interaction between atmosphere and wave components but does not include an ocean component but the ocean component will be included in the future. The designed modelling system is configured for Mediterranean Sea and a set of sensitivity tests are performed to tune the individual model components. In this case, the horizontal resolution of the atmospheric model is set to 50 km and covers whole Mediterranean Basin. In this case, the atmospheric model is forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset (Dee et al., 2011) for 2008-2012 periods. In this configuration, the wave model has higher horizontal resolution (0.125° ) than the atmospheric model and the interpolation between the model components is handled by ESMF. The coupling time step to exchange the fields between the model components is set to one hour
Desired change in couples: gender differences and effects on communication.
Heyman, Richard E; Hunt-Martorano, Ashley N; Malik, Jill; Slep, Amy M Smith
2009-08-01
Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3 to 7 year-old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners' emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996), both men's and women's relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners' adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man's and the woman's top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners' conversations. PMID:19685983
Dynamical Jahn-Teller effect in spin-orbital coupled system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasu, Joji; Ishihara, Sumio
2012-02-01
Orbital degree of freedom is one of the most attractive themes in strongly correlated electron system. A coupling between the orbital and the lattice vibration is known as a Jahn-Teller effect (JTE). The dynamical aspect of the Jahn-Teller interaction is often neglected in solid, because it is strongly suppressed by the cooperative JTE. Recently, Ba3CuSb2O9 has been reported as a candidate of the spin liquid. A Cu^2+ has the eg orbital degree of freedom and is surrounded by the O^2- octahedron. The octahedra on the neighboring sites do not have the common O ions. This fact implies that the cooperative JTE is weak, and the dynamical JTE is expected to play some key roles on orbital and magnetic properties. The purpose of this research is to study the dynamical JTE in a spin-orbital coupled system. In particular, we focus on the competitive or cooperative phenomena between the superexchange interaction and the dynamical JTE. The superexchange interactions are derived from the d-p model on a honeycomb lattice. We have confirmed this interaction stabilizes the antiferro-spin and ferro-orbital configurations for the realistic parameters. The dynamical JTE described as the orbital-lattice coupling is obtained by extracting the low energy states of the vibronic Hamiltonian. We analyze the model including the two kinds of interactions by using the Bethe approximation. We find that the magnetic order is unstable in wide parameter region and the spin-dimer state with the orbital order is realized. Furthermore the orbital order is strongly suppressed by the dynamical JTE.
Simple Coupling of Reactor Physics Effects and Uncertain Nuances
2012-08-27
The "Simple Coupling of Reactor Physics Effects and Uncertain Nuances" (SCORPEUN) code is a simple r-z 1-group neutron diffusion code where each r-mesh is coupled to a single-flow-channel model that represents all flow-channels in that r-mesh. This 1-D model assesses q=m*Cp*deletaT for each z-mesh in that channel. This flow channel model is then coupled to a simple 1-D heat conduction model for ascertaining the peak center-line fuel temperature in a hypothetical pin assigned to thatmore » flow channel. The code has property lookup capability for water, Na, Zirc, HT9, metalic fuel, oxide fuel, etc. It has linear interpolation features for micro-scopic cross-sections with respect to coolant density and fuel temperature. ***This last feature has not been fully tested and may need development***. The interpolated microscopic cross-sections are then combined (using the water density from the T/H calculation) to generate macroscopic diffusion coefficient, removal cross-section and nu-sigmaF for each r-z mesh of the neutron diffusion code.« less
Simple Coupling of Reactor Physics Effects and Uncertain Nuances
Bays, Samuel
2012-08-27
The "Simple Coupling of Reactor Physics Effects and Uncertain Nuances" (SCORPEUN) code is a simple r-z 1-group neutron diffusion code where each r-mesh is coupled to a single-flow-channel model that represents all flow-channels in that r-mesh. This 1-D model assesses q=m*Cp*deletaT for each z-mesh in that channel. This flow channel model is then coupled to a simple 1-D heat conduction model for ascertaining the peak center-line fuel temperature in a hypothetical pin assigned to that flow channel. The code has property lookup capability for water, Na, Zirc, HT9, metalic fuel, oxide fuel, etc. It has linear interpolation features for micro-scopic cross-sections with respect to coolant density and fuel temperature. ***This last feature has not been fully tested and may need development***. The interpolated microscopic cross-sections are then combined (using the water density from the T/H calculation) to generate macroscopic diffusion coefficient, removal cross-section and nu-sigmaF for each r-z mesh of the neutron diffusion code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Xiaoge; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Minghua; Li, Huimin; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Jie
2015-02-01
The chaotic atmospheric circulations and the ocean-atmosphere coupling may both cause variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This study uses an interactive ensemble (IE) coupled model to study the contribution of the atmospheric noise and coupling to the monthly variability of the NAO. In the IE model, seven atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) realizations with different initial states are coupled with a single realization of the land, ocean and ice component models. The chaotic noise from the atmosphere at the air-sea interface is therefore reduced. The time variances of monthly NAO index in the ensemble AGCM mean of the IE model is found to be about 20.1 % of that in the SC model. Therefore, more than 79.9 % of the simulated monthly variability of NAO is caused by atmospheric noise. The coupling between sea surface temperature (SST) and NAO is only found in regions south of about 40°N in the North Atlantic Ocean. The IE strategy highlighted the interaction between the NAO and the SST in the region (28°-38°N, 20°W-50°W) to the southeast of the Gulf Stream extension. While the ocean-atmosphere coupling explains <1/5th of the NAO variability in the IE model, it shows slightly larger persistence than the SC model, consistent with the hypothesis of a slower mode of variability from ocean-atmosphere coupling that has larger predictability than the variability driven by the atmosphere.
Do the Naïve Know Best? The Predictive Power of Naïve Ratings of Couple Interactions
Baucom, Katherine J.W.; Baucom, Brian R.; Christensen, Andrew
2013-01-01
We examined the utility of naïve ratings of communication patterns and relationship quality in a large sample of distressed couples. Untrained raters assessed 10-minute videotaped interactions from 134 distressed couples who participated in both problem solving and social support discussions at each of three time points (pre-therapy, post-therapy, and 2-year follow-up) during a randomized clinical trial of behavioral couple therapy. Teams of naïve raters observed a particular type of discussion from the three time points at one sitting in a random order and rated dyadic interaction patterns (negative reciprocity, positive reciprocity, wife demand/husband withdraw, husband demand/wife withdraw, and mutual avoidance) and the overall relationship quality of couples. These naïve ratings were strongly and consistently associated with both levels of, and changes in, trained observational codes and self-reported relationship satisfaction. Naïve ratings of couples accounted for similar – and at times superior – amounts of variance in both concurrent relationship satisfaction and divorce at 5-year follow-up when compared with trained ratings. These findings offer compelling support for the use of naïve raters in research with couples, and also suggest important future directions that are applicable to both research and practice with distressed couples. PMID:22708571
Thermoelectric effect in the Kondo dot side-coupled to a Majorana mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khim, Heunghwan; López, Rosa; Lim, Jong Soo; Lee, Minchul
2015-06-01
We investigate the linear thermoelectric response of an interacting quantum dot side-coupled by one of two Majorana modes hosted by a topological superconducting wire. We employ the numerical renormalization group technique to obtain the thermoelectrical conductance L in the Kondo regime while the background temperature T, the Majorana-dot coupling Γm, and the overlap ɛm between the two Majorana modes are tuned. We distinguish two transport regimes in which L displays different features: the weak- (Γm
Effect of particle interactions on thermoremanent magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newell, A. J.; Niemerg, M.; Bates, D.
2013-12-01
Paleomagnetism has a dizzying array of protocols for determining the strength of the Earth's magnetic field in the past from measurements of the magnetic memory in rocks. Some, such as variants of the Thellier-Thellier method, try to isolate the signal from an "ideal" fraction of magnetic minerals, discarding the contribution of "non-ideal" minerals; others, like the multi-specimen method, try to glean useful information from all of the minerals. The "ideal" remanence carriers behave like single-domain (SD) magnets with uniaxial anisotropy, and their behavior is predicted by Louis Néel's theory of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM). Non-ideal carriers are not at all well understood, but every paleointensity method relies on assumptions about their nature to either remove their signal or make use of it. One way to explore the boundary between ideal and non-ideal is to look at the behavior of SD magnets as they are brought increasingly close together, thus increasing the strength of the magnetostatic coupling between them. Magnetostatic coupling greatly increases the complexity of such a system. Instead of just two stable states, many must be found. Instead of one energy barrier, there is a network of connections between stable states over energy barriers. Instead of one rate for the relaxation of a system towards equilibrium, there are several. It is particularly difficult to find the transition states at the top of the energy barriers. We have developed software that does all of the above. A method from algebraic geometry called homotopy continuation is used to find all stable states and transition states. The software can track changes in these states with magnetic field, temperature, or other external variables. We use it to model TRM acquisition in small systems of interacting particles, and examine its behavior under various paleointensity tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Sneha; Pallamraju, Duggirala
2015-04-01
Investigations on the magnetospheric-ionospheric processes form an important element of research in the understanding of the solar-terrestrial interactions. In this work, we have investigated the linkage between the ring current intensity and the high-latitude ionospheric plasma density variations during different geomagnetic conditions. The Global Positioning System (GPS) derived Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) during 2011-2013 over high- and low-latitude stations in both the hemispheres and the symmetric ring current index (SYM-H) have been used in this study. A cross-correlation analysis performed between the variations of these two parameters during a wide range of geomagnetic conditions reveal that there is a seasonal, latitudinal and hemispherical dependence in the interrelationship between SYM-H and VTEC. The best cross-correlation between SYM-H and VTEC over both the hemispheres is obtained during equinoctial months which can be attributed to the semiannual variation of the solar wind-magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling. Summer time VTEC over southern hemisphere exhibits a better correlation with SYM-H index in comparison to that of the northern hemisphere. These results have been explained in the light of relative contributions from seasonal and hemispherical variation that exists in the ionospheric plasma. The results are striking as the correlation is found between the variation in two independent processes occurring at widely separated regions in space, namely, the ring current intensity and the behavior of ionospheric densities at high-latitudes. Season-dependent high- and low-latitude coupling of the ionospheric VTEC is observed during the disturbed geomagnetic conditions.
Solvation free energies from a coupled reference interaction site model/simulation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freedman, Holly
2005-12-01
Accounting for solvation in thermodynamic studies is one issue requiring further work so that computational models may be more advantageously applied to studies of systems in solution, especially studies of large systems such as aqueous biosystems. In the area of applied molecular biology, this capability is very significant, since computational thermodynamic studies can supply valuable information to assist in the design of molecules with specific desired binding or conformational properties, such as inhibitors. This dissertation addresses the issue by suggesting a new approach for the calculation of solvation free energies using a modified reference interaction site model (RISM) integral equation approach in which molecular simulations are used to provide the solvent structure around a solute at infinite dilution in the form of radial distribution functions. The intent is to compensate for insufficiencies arising in the standard RISM approach, and in this way to establish an alternative to the very time consuming free energy simulations, which are usually depended upon for high accuracy and have seen some recent applications, although falling somewhat short as far as practicality. Chapter 2 of this dissertation investigates how it is possible to implement such a scheme, with consideration given to the inherent errors associated with such an approach. In Chapter 3, the resulting coupled RISM simulation methodology is first tested by its application to determine absolute solvation free energies of some small molecules. Applications of relative solvation free energy determination by the coupled RISM/simulation methodology to the conformational analysis of the alanine dipeptide, and to the tautomeric equilibria of the DNA base cytosine and one of its analogues, are then described in Chapters 4 and 5, respectively. Chapter 6 is concerned with the determination of a potential of mean force profile for a simple atom transfer reaction in aqueous solution. By means of
Study of coupled-bunch collective effects in the ALS
Byrd, J.M.; Corlett, J.N.
1993-05-01
We present an overview of the calculated longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch (CB) growth rates using the measured RF cavity higher order mode (HOM) impedance for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring for producing synchrotron radiation. We also describe a visual method of representing the effective beam impedance and corresponding growth rates which is especially useful for understanding the dependence of growth rate on HOM frequency and Q, for determining the requirements of the CB feedback system, and for interpreting measured beam spectra.
Nature of the effective interaction between dendrimers
Mandal, Taraknath Dasgupta, Chandan Maiti, Prabal K.
2014-10-14
We have performed fully atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the effective interaction between two polyamidoamine dendrimers. Using the umbrella sampling technique, we have obtained the potential of mean force (PMF) between the dendrimers and investigated the effects of protonation level and dendrimer size on the PMF. Our results show that the interaction between the dendrimers can be tuned from purely repulsive to partly attractive by changing the protonation level. The PMF profiles are well-fitted by the sum of an exponential and a Gaussian function with the weight of the exponential function dominating over that of the Gaussian function. This observation is in disagreement with the results obtained in previous analytic [C. Likos, M. Schmidt, H. Löwen, M. Ballauff, D. Pötschke, and P. Lindner, Macromolecules 34, 2914 (2001)] and coarse-grained simulation [I. Götze, H. Harreis, and C. Likos, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7761 (2004)] studies which predicted the effective interaction to be Gaussian.
Strain pseudospins with power-law interactions: Glassy textures of a cooled coupled-map lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shenoy, S. R.; Lookman, T.
2008-10-01
We consider a spin-1 model of strain pseudospins S(r⃗)=0,±1 that arise from a triple-well Landau free energy for a square/rectangle or “austenite-martensite” structural transformation of a two-dimensional lattice. The pseudospin model has elastic-compatibility-induced power-law anisotropic (PLA) interactions and no quenched disorder. The iteratively solved local mean-field equations for ⟨S(r⃗,t)⟩ form a temperature-dependent PLA-coupled nonlinear-map lattice, where t is the iteration “time.” On cooling at a constant rate, the excess entropy shows a weak roll-off near a temperature T=Tg and a sharper elbow at a lower T∗ , just above a Kauzmann-type TK where the excess entropy would have become negative. The crossover temperatures Tg,T∗ decrease logarithmically with cooling rate and mark stability changes in spatiotemporal attractors of the cooled PLA-coupled map. Three phases in ⟨S(r⃗,t)⟩ are found, with textures of the martensitic-variant domain walls as “inherent structures.” There is a high-temperature (T>Tg) fine scale phase of feathery domain walls and an intermediate temperature (Tg>T>T∗) phase of mazelike domain walls, with both showing square-wave oscillations as predominantly period-two attractors but with minority-frequency subharmonic clusters. Finally, there is a low-temperature freezing (T∗>T) to a static fixed point or period-one attractor of coarse, irregular bidiagonal twins, as in a strain glass. A Haar-wavelet analysis is used to identify the local attractor dynamics. A central result is that dynamically heterogeneous and mobile low-strain droplets act as catalysts, and can form correlated chains or transient “catalytic corrals” to incubate an emerging local texture. The hotspot lifetime vanishes linearly in T-TK , suggesting that TK is a dynamic spinodal limit for generating the “austenitic” catalyst, the disappearance of which drives a trapping into one of many bidiagonal glassy states. The model has
Effects of Preplasma in 10-ps Relativistic Laser Matter Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, M. S.; Stephens, R. B.; Peebles, J.; McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Beg, F.; Sentoku, Y.; Link, A.; Chen, H.; McLean, H.; Theobald, W.; Haberberger, D.; Davies, A.
2014-10-01
Experiments were performed using the kJ 10-ps OMEGA EP laser to study the effect of preplasma on fast electron generation and energy coupling in relativistic laser plasma interaction (LPI) with a controlled preplasma at various scalelength created by a 1-ns UV laser. Targets were multilayered planar foil consisting of an Al substrate, a buried Cu layer and a thick conductive CH layer. Preplasma density profile and relativistic LPI generated fields were characterized using a 10-ps 4 ω optical probe (angular filter refractometry and polarimetry) together with radiography using a high-energy proton beam produced by the second kJ 10-ps EP beam. Fast electrons were diagnosed by measuring Cu K-shell fluorescence emission and bremsstrahlung radiation. Electron energy spectrum was monitored by a magnetic spectrometer. Preliminary results showed nonlinear interaction instabilities and a reduced electron temperature with increasing preplasma scalelength. Dynamics of the relativistic LPI and the resultant fast electron beam characteristics and energy coupling will be presented. Supported by the US DOE under DE-NA0002026 and DE-FC02-04ER54789.
Coupled modelling of the effect of overpressure on water discharge in a tile drainage system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henine, H.; Nédélec, Y.; Ribstein, P.
2014-04-01
The effect of subsurface drainage on agricultural catchment outflow has been debated for quite some time. Concerning downstream peak flow, it is a complex task to predict the impact of agricultural drainage because different flow media are involved: the soil, pipe drainage networks and open channel networks. In France, drain pipes are designed to operate under a free-surface flow condition. Nevertheless, during intense rainfall events, some pipe sections may flow under pressurised conditions, so that a complex interaction between pipe networks and groundwater flows appears in the vicinity of these sections. In this paper, an integrated modelling strategy is considered in order to analyse these flow interactions. A 1D Saint-Venant network model is combined with a 2D Boussinesq shallow groundwater flow model by means of special internal boundary conditions which take into account the flow interactions. This study follows field experiments conducted in a small subsurface drained catchment, where drainage discharge and pressure heads were monitored in a buried pipe collector and water table profiles were monitored in the field. The simulation results of the coupled model are in good agreement with experimental observations. Moreover, it satisfactorily simulates the behaviour of the drainage system during the pressurisation stages. The model is also applied to a scenario addressing the effect of pressurisation, as compared to non-pressurisation, at the outlet. The coupled model reveals the relation existing between pipe pressurisation and hydrograph timing. Pipe pressurisation results in temporary storage of discharging water, which is released later when pressurisation stops.
Long-range magnetic interactions and proximity effects in an amorphous exchange-spring magnet
Magnus, F.; Brooks-Bartlett, M. E.; Moubah, R.; Procter, R. A.; Andersson, G.; Hase, T. P. A.; Banks, S. T.; Hjörvarsson, B.
2016-01-01
Low-dimensional magnetic heterostructures are a key element of spintronics, where magnetic interactions between different materials often define the functionality of devices. Although some interlayer exchange coupling mechanisms are by now well established, the possibility of direct exchange coupling via proximity-induced magnetization through non-magnetic layers is typically ignored due to the presumed short range of such proximity effects. Here we show that magnetic order can be induced throughout a 40-nm-thick amorphous paramagnetic layer through proximity to ferromagnets, mediating both exchange-spring magnet behaviour and exchange bias. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations show that nearest-neighbour magnetic interactions fall short in describing the observed effects and long-range magnetic interactions are needed to capture the extent of the induced magnetization. The results highlight the importance of considering the range of interactions in low-dimensional heterostructures and how magnetic proximity effects can be used to obtain new functionality. PMID:27291298
Long-range magnetic interactions and proximity effects in an amorphous exchange-spring magnet.
Magnus, F; Brooks-Bartlett, M E; Moubah, R; Procter, R A; Andersson, G; Hase, T P A; Banks, S T; Hjörvarsson, B
2016-01-01
Low-dimensional magnetic heterostructures are a key element of spintronics, where magnetic interactions between different materials often define the functionality of devices. Although some interlayer exchange coupling mechanisms are by now well established, the possibility of direct exchange coupling via proximity-induced magnetization through non-magnetic layers is typically ignored due to the presumed short range of such proximity effects. Here we show that magnetic order can be induced throughout a 40-nm-thick amorphous paramagnetic layer through proximity to ferromagnets, mediating both exchange-spring magnet behaviour and exchange bias. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations show that nearest-neighbour magnetic interactions fall short in describing the observed effects and long-range magnetic interactions are needed to capture the extent of the induced magnetization. The results highlight the importance of considering the range of interactions in low-dimensional heterostructures and how magnetic proximity effects can be used to obtain new functionality. PMID:27291298
Spin-orbital and spin Kondo effects in parallel coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krychowski, D.; Lipiński, S.
2016-02-01
Strong electron correlations and interference effects are discussed in parallel-coupled single-level or orbitally doubly degenerate quantum dots. The finite-U mean-field slave boson approach is used to study many-body effects. The analysis is carried out in a wide range of parameter space including both atomic-like and molecular-like Kondo regimes and taking into account various perturbations, like interdot tunneling, interdot interaction, mixing of the electrode channels, and exchange interaction. We also discuss the influence of singularities of electronic structure and the impact of polarization of electrodes. Special attention is paid to potential spintronic applications of these systems showing how current polarization can be controlled by adjusting interference conditions and correlations by gate voltage. Simple proposals of double dot spin valve and bipolar electrically tunable spin filter are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerpa, Nestor; Hassani, Riad; Gerbault, Muriel
2014-05-01
A large variety of geodynamical problems can be viewed as a solid/fluid interaction problem coupling two bodies with different physics. In particular the lithosphere/asthenosphere mechanical interaction in subduction zones belongs to this kind of problem, where the solid lithosphere is embedded in the asthenospheric viscous fluid. In many fields (Industry, Civil Engineering,etc.), in which deformations of solid and fluid are "small", numerical modelers consider the exact discretization of both domains and fit as well as possible the shape of the interface between the two domains, solving the discretized physic problems by the Finite Element Method (FEM). Although, in a context of subduction, the lithosphere is submitted to large deformation, and can evolve into a complex geometry, thus leading to important deformation of the surrounding asthenosphere. To alleviate the precise meshing of complex geometries, numerical modelers have developed non-matching interface methods called Fictitious Domain Methods (FDM). The main idea of these methods is to extend the initial problem to a bigger (and simpler) domain. In our version of FDM, we determine the forces at the immersed solid boundary required to minimize (at the least square sense) the difference between fluid and solid velocities at this interface. This method is first-order accurate and the stability depends on the ratio between the fluid background mesh size and the interface discretization. We present the formulation and provide benchmarks and examples showing the potential of the method : 1) A comparison with an analytical solution of a viscous flow around a rigid body. 2) An experiment of a rigid sphere sinking in a viscous fluid (in two and three dimensional cases). 3) A comparison with an analog subduction experiment. Another presentation aims at describing the geodynamical application of this method to Andean subduction dynamics, studying cyclic slab folding on the 660 km discontinuity, and its relationship
Co-Authorship and Bibliographic Coupling Network Effects on Citations
Biscaro, Claudio; Giupponi, Carlo
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the effects of the co-authorship and bibliographic coupling networks on the citations received by scientific articles. It expands prior research that limited its focus on the position of co-authors and incorporates the effects of the use of knowledge sources within articles: references. By creating a network on the basis of shared references, we propose a way to understand whether an article bridges among extant strands of literature and infer the size of its research community and its embeddedness. Thus, we map onto the article – our unit of analysis – the metrics of authors' position in the co-authorship network and of the use of knowledge on which the scientific article is grounded. Specifically, we adopt centrality measures – degree, betweenneess, and closeness centrality – in the co-authorship network and degree, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient in the bibliographic coupling and show their influence on the citations received in first two years after the year of publication. Findings show that authors' degree positively impacts citations. Also closeness centrality has a positive effect manifested only when the giant component is relevant. Author's betweenness centrality has instead a negative effect that persists until the giant component - largest component of the network in which all nodes can be linked by a path - is relevant. Moreover, articles that draw on fragmented strands of literature tend to be cited more, whereas the size of the scientific research community and the embeddedness of the article in a cohesive cluster of literature have no effect. PMID:24911416
Taubert, Richard; Ameling, Ralf; Weiss, Thomas; Christ, André; Giessen, Harald
2011-10-12
We study the transition from the near-field to the far-field coupling regime of particle plasmons in a three-dimensional geometry. In the far-field regime, retardation plays the dominant role and the plasmonic resonances are radiatively coupled. When the spatial arrangement of the oscillators is matched to their resonance wavelength, superradiant-like effects are observed. PMID:21879724
Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions
Ness, Deborah; Calabrese, Pasquale
2016-01-01
Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory systems, we review recent animal and human studies exploring the effects of stress on multiple memory systems. Apart from discussing the interaction between distinct memory systems in stressful situations, we will also outline the fundamental role of the amygdala in mediating such stress effects. Additionally, based on the methods applied in the herein discussed studies, we will discuss how memory translates into behaviour. PMID:27034845
Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.
Strong-coupling superconductivity, the Lorenz number, and the Nernst effect in cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandrov, Sasha
2004-03-01
Strong electron-phonon interaction in the cuprates has gathered support over the last decade in a large number of experiments. Here I argue that the bipolaron extension of the BCS theory to the strong-coupling regime [1] naturally explains the temperature dependent Lorenz number and the large Nernst effect in the cuprates. The Wiedemann-Franz law breaks down due to the interference of polaron and bipolaron contributions to the heat flow that provides a quantitative fit to the experimental "Hall" Lorenz number [2]. A strong enhancement of the Nernst signal and its magnetic field dependence above Tc originate in a critical slowing down of the bipolaron relaxation times, when the system approaches the Bose-Einstein condensation. [1] A.S. Alexandrov, Theory of superconductivity: from weak to strong coupling, IOP Publishing (Bristol-Philadelphia, 2003) [2] K. K. Lee, A. S. Alexandrov, and W. Y. Liang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 217001 (2003)
Dynamically coupled fluid body interactions in vorticity-based numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eldredge, Jeff D.
2008-11-01
A novel method is presented for robustly simulating coupled dynamics in fluid-body interactions with vorticity-based flow solvers. In this work, the fluid dynamics are simulated with a viscous vortex particle method. In the first substep of each time increment, the fluid convective and diffusive processes are treated, while a predictor is used to independently advance the body configuration. An iterative corrector is then used to simultaneously remove the spurious slip - via vorticity flux - and compute the end-of-step body configuration. Fluid inertial forces are isolated and combined with body inertial terms to ensure robust treatment of dynamics for bodies of arbitrary mass. The method is demonstrated for dynamics of articulated rigid bodies, including a falling cylinder, flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder and free swimming of a three-link 'fish'. The error and momentum conservation properties of the method are explored. In the case of the vibrating cylinder, comparison with previous work demonstrates good agreement.
Noisy contact interactions of multi-layer mechanical structures coupled by boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awrejcewicz, J.; Krysko, V. A., Jr.; Yakovleva, T. V.; Krysko, V. A.
2016-05-01
In this work mathematical models of temporal part of chaos at chosen spatial locations of a plate locally reinforced by ribs taking into account an interplay of their interactions are derived and studied numerically for the most relevant dynamical parameters. In addition, an influence of the additive external noise on chaotic vibrations of multi-layer beam-plate structures coupled only by boundary conditions is investigated. We illustrate and discuss novel nonlinear phenomena of the temporal regular and chaotic contact/no-contact dynamics with the help of Morlet wavelets and Fourier analysis. We show how the additive white noise cancels deterministic chaos close to the boundary of chaotic region in the space of parameters, and we present windows of on/off switching of the frequencies during the contact dynamics between structural members. In order to solve the mentioned design type nonlinear problem we apply methods of qualitative theory of differential equations, the Bubnov-Galerkin method in higher approximations, the Runge-Kutta methods of 4th, 6th and 8th order, as well as the computation and analysis of the largest Lyapunov exponent (Benettin's and Wolf's algorithms are used). The agreement of outcomes of all applied qualitatively different numerical approaches validate our simulation results. In particular, we have illustrated that the Fourier analysis of the studied mechanical structures may yield erroneous results, and hence the wavelet-based analysis is used to investigate chaotic dynamics in the system parameter space.
Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction for axial flow blade based on weak coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, X. B.; Guo, P. C.; Luo, X. Q.
2012-11-01
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow in whole flow passage of axial flow hydraulic turbine was conducted based on the Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and the standard k-ε model. Stress analysis of axial flow blade were carried on by elasticity unsteady FEM. The fluid domain and solid domain were calculated by sequential iteration. Based on weak coupling technology, the fluid-structure interaction analysis of the axial flow blade was conducted. Instantaneous flow field characteristic and stress distribution on blade were analyzed. According to the comparing with the results of pure flow numerical simulation, the pressure difference between press side and suction side increases after considering the FSI, to a certain extent, which will worsen cavitations performance of the blade. Meanwhile, stress distribution on the blades do not change significantly, but the maximum stress value increases markedly, and the maximum displacement reduces slightly. The research demonstrates that the FSI not only changes the distribution of the flow field in blade area, but also have a greater impact on the stress of the blades.
Sala, Pia; Pötz, Sandra; Brunner, Martina; Trötzmüller, Martin; Fauland, Alexander; Triebl, Alexander; Hartler, Jürgen; Lankmayr, Ernst; Köfeler, Harald C.
2015-01-01
A novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach for analysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines by an Orbitrap Fourier Transform mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed. This method depends on three selectivity criteria for separation and identification: retention time, exact mass at a resolution of 100,000 and collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra in a linear ion trap. The process of chromatography development showed the best separation properties with a silica-based Kinetex column. This type of chromatography was able to separate all major lipid classes expected in mammalian samples, yielding increased sensitivity of oxidized phosphatidylcholines over reversed phase chromatography. Identification of molecular species was achieved by exact mass on intact molecular ions and CID tandem mass spectra containing characteristic fragments. Due to a lack of commercially available standards, method development was performed with copper induced oxidation products of palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine, which resulted in a plethora of lipid species oxidized at the arachidonoyl moiety. Validation of the method was done with copper oxidized human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) prepared by ultracentrifugation. In these LDL samples we could identify 46 oxidized molecular phosphatidylcholine species out of 99 possible candidates. PMID:25874761
Anisotropic Paramagnetic Meissner Effect by Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espedal, Camilla; Yokoyama, Takehito; Linder, Jacob
2016-03-01
Conventional s -wave superconductors repel an external magnetic field. However, a recent experiment [A. Di Bernardo et al., Phys. Rev. X 5, 041021 (2015)] has tailored the electromagnetic response of superconducting correlations via adjacent magnetic materials. We consider another route of altering the Meissner effect where spin-orbit interactions induce an anisotropic Meissner response that changes sign depending on the field orientation. The tunable electromagnetic response opens new paths in the utilization of hybrid systems comprising magnets and superconductors.
Baig, M. H.; Ahmad, K.; Hasan, Q.; Khan, M. K. A.; Rao, N. S.; Kamal, M. A.; Choi, I.
2015-01-01
Glucagon receptor (GCGR) is a secretin-like (class B) family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in humans that plays an important role in elevating the glucose concentration in blood and has thus become one of the promising therapeutic targets for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GCGR based inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes are either glucagon neutralizers or small molecular antagonists. Management of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system, and the search for a new and effective natural GCGR antagonist is an important area for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, a number of natural compounds containing antidiabetic properties were selected from the literature and their binding potential against GCGR was determined using molecular docking and other in silico approaches. Among all selected natural compounds, curcumin was found to be the most effective compound against GCGR followed by amorfrutin 1 and 4-hydroxyderricin. These compounds were rescored to confirm the accuracy of binding using another scoring function (x-score). The final conclusions were drawn based on the results obtained from the GOLD and x-score. Further experiments were conducted to identify the atomic level interactions of selected compounds with GCGR. PMID:26236379
General approach on chemistry and stress coupling effects during oxidation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suo, Yaohong; Shen, Shengping
2013-10-01
In this paper, the mechanism of growth strain is discussed based on the irreversible evolving equations by considering the coupling effects of stress and chemical reaction during isothermal oxidation, and a simple model relating the growth strain and the oxide thickness is developed. If the effect of the stress on the chemical reaction is not taken into account, the model reduces to the Clarke assumption. The expression of Dox is exhibited, and its value can be determined by experiments. The stress evolving equations are derived, where the viscoplastic strain of the oxide and metal and the growth strain of the oxide are considered. Numerical results are given and compared with results from experiments and the existing model. There is good agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data.
Shi, Yanrong; Liu, Xiaoguang; Gebremedhin, Debebe; Falck, John R; Harder, David R; Koehler, Raymond C
2008-01-01
Adenosine, astrocyte metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have been implicated in neurovascular coupling. Although A2A and A2B receptors mediate cerebral vasodilation to adenosine, the role of each receptor in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to neural activation remains to be fully elucidated. In addition, adenosine can amplify astrocyte calcium, which may increase arachidonic acid metabolites such as EETs. The interaction of these pathways was investigated by determining if combined treatment with antagonists exerted an additive inhibitory effect on the CBF response. During whisker stimulation of anesthetized rats, the increase in cortical CBF was reduced by approximately half after individual administration of A2B, mGluR and EET antagonists and EET synthesis inhibitors. Combining treatment of either a mGluR antagonist, an EET antagonist, or an EET synthesis inhibitor with an A2B receptor antagonist did not produce an additional decrement in the CBF response. Likewise, the CBF response also remained reduced by ~50% when an EET antagonist was combined with an mGluR antagonist or an mGluR antagonist plus an A2B receptor antagonist. In contrast, A2A and A3 receptor antagonists had no effect on the CBF response to whisker stimulation. We conclude that (1) adenosine A2B receptors, rather than A2A or A3 receptors, play a significant role in coupling cortical CBF to neuronal activity, and (2) the adenosine A2B receptor, mGluR, and EETs signaling pathways are not functionally additive, consistent with the possibility of astrocytic mGluR and adenosine A2B receptor linkage to the synthesis and release of vasodilatory EETs. PMID:17519974
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, M.; Kraus, P.; Tamtögl, A.; Miret-Artés, S.; Ernst, W. E.
2013-11-01
Helium atom scattering (HAS) was used to study the antimony Sb(111) surface beyond the hard-wall model. HAS angular distributions and drift spectra show a number of selective adsorption resonance features, which correspond to five bound-state energies for He atoms trapped in the surface-averaged He-Sb(111) potential. As their best representation, a 9-3 potential with a depth of 4.4±0.1 meV was determined. Furthermore, the charge density corrugation of the surface was analyzed using close-coupling calculations. By using a hybrid potential, consisting of a corrugated Morse potential (short range) and a 9-3 potential (long range), a peak-to-peak corrugation of 17% was obtained. The kinematic focusing effects that occurred were in good agreement with surface phonon dispersion curves from already published density functional perturbation theory calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li; Shi, Jun-Jie
2005-07-01
By using the transfer matrix method, within the framework of the dielectric continuum approximation, uniform forms for the interface optical (IO) phonon modes as well as the corresponding electron-IO phonon interaction Hamiltonians in n-layer coupling low-dimensional systems (including the coupling quantum well (CQW), coupling quantum-well wire (CQWW), and coupling quantum dot (CQD)) have been presented. Numerical calculations on the three-layer asymmetrical AlGaAs/GaAs systems are performed, and the analogous characteristics for limited frequencies of IO phonon in the three types of systems (CQW, CQWW, and CQD) when the wave-vector and the quantum number approach zero or infinity are analyzed and specified. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 60276004 and 60390073, the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, the Ministry of Education of China and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangzhou Education Bureau under Grant No. 2060
RCS jet-flow field interaction effects on the aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rausch, J. R.; Roberge, A. M.
1973-01-01
A study was conducted to determine the external effects caused by operation of the reaction control system during entry of the space shuttle orbiter. The effects of jet plume-external flow interactions were emphasized. Force data were obtained for the basic airframe characteristics plus induced effects when the reaction control system is operating. Resulting control amplification and/or coupling were derived and their effects on the aerodynamic stability and control of the orbiter and the reaction control system thrust were determined.
Virués-Ortega, Javier; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
2006-01-01
This paper reviews literature published on the psychophysiological effects of long-term human-animal interaction (i.e., pet ownership, pet adoption). A literature search was conducted using PsycInfo and Medline databases. Although the available evidence is far from being consistent, it can be concluded that, in some cases, long-term relationships with animals may moderate baseline physiological variables, particularly blood pressure. Results proved more coherent in studies where animals were adopted by owners as part of the procedure. This paper examines existing hypotheses seeking to account for these effects and the supporting evidence. Two major hypotheses have been suggested to explain the psychophysiological effects of long-term interaction, namely (1) stress-buffering effects of noncritical social support provided by pets; and (2) classical conditioning of relaxation. These mechanisms may partially account for the long-term health outcomes observed in a number of human-animal interaction studies. PMID:16462556
Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Chen, Xiaoshan
1995-07-07
The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the {open_quotes}Fassel{close_quotes} TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.
Interdot Coulomb correlation effects and spin-orbit coupling in two carbon nanotube quantum dots
Wang, Zhen-Hua; Kuang, Xiao-Yu Zhong, Ming-Min; Shao, Peng; Li, Hui
2014-01-28
Transport properties of the two-level Kondo effect involving spin, orbital, and pseudospin degrees of freedom are examined in a parallel carbon nanotube double quantum dot with a sufficient interdot Coulomb interaction and small interdot tunneling. The interdot Coulomb correlation effects are taken into account, and it plays an important role in forming bonding and antibonding states. Attached to ferromagnetic leads, the Kondo effect is observed at the interdot Coulomb blockade region with degeneracy of spin, orbital, and pseudospin degrees of freedom. A crossover from a two-level Kondo state involving the fivefold degeneracy of the double quantum dots to an SU(4) spin-orbit Kondo state and to an SU(2) spin-Kondo effect is demonstrated. At finite magnetic field, the splitting of the spin, orbital, and pseudospin Kondo resonance can be restored. For finite intradot Coulomb interaction U, there is a competition between the single-dot Kondo effect and the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling J{sub AFM}, resulting in the suppression of the Kondo resonance. Moreover, both the J{sub AFM} and the Zeeman interactions compete, leading to need a much higher value of the magnetic field to compensate for the Kondo splitting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timmermans, J.; van der Tol, C.; Verhoef, W.; Su, Z.
2009-04-01
Models that describe the exchange of CO2 and H2O between the surface and atmosphere use bulk-parametrization of the within-canopy aerodynamic resistance and leaf area density (eq. LAI). This bulk parametrization is based on the Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory. The MOS theory however breaks down for sparse canopies and it cannot couple profiles in the leaf density to profiles in the within-canopy aerodynamic resistance. The objective of this research is to create a simple model that is able to couple the within-canopy aerodynamic resistance and canopy reflection for different levels in the canopy. This model should be able to represent the canopy using as fewer parameters as possible, in order to facilitate inversion of remote sensing imagery. A virtual canopy was simulated using an L-systems approach, Lindenmayer 1968. The L-system approach was chosen because it describes the canopy with fractals. It therefore needs very little inputs to simulate a virtual canopy. A vertical profile of leaf density was calculated for 60 levels from this virtual canopy. The within-canopy aerodynamic resistance was modeled from the vertical leaf density profile using foliage drag coefficient, Massman 1997. A modified version of the SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observations and Photosynthesis) model was used to calculate the H2O and CO2 fluxes using the vertical profiles of leaf density and within-canopy aerodynamic resistance. The simulated fluxes are compared with field measurements over a vineyard and a forested area. The field measurements in both areas are acquired using the same setup: a basic flux tower in addition with an eddy-covariance setup. We present in this article the methodology and the results, as a proof of concept. references Massman, W.J., An Analytical One-Dimensional Model of Momentum Transfer by vegetation of arbitrary structure, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1997, 83, 407-421 Lindenmayer, A., Mathematical Models for Cellular Interactions in Development, Journal of
Convergence of multi-channel effective interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, M.; Schaefer, B.-J.; Wambach, J.; Kuo, T. T. S.; Brown, G. E.
2006-11-01
A detailed analysis of the convergence properties of the Andreozzi-Lee-Suzuki iteration method, which is used for the calculation of low-momentum effective potentials Vlowk, is presented. After summarizing different modifications of the iteration method for one-flavor channels we introduce a simple model to study the generalization of the iteration method to multi-flavor channels. The failure of a straightforward generalization is discussed. The introduction of a channel-dependent cutoff cures the conceptual and technical problems. This novel method has already been applied successfully for realistic hyperon-nucleon interactions.
Simple effective interaction for dimensional crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constantin, Lucian A.
2016-03-01
We show that the effective electron-electron interaction veff[n ] (r ,r') =erf [|r - r'|b (n ) ]/|r -r'| , with n being the electronic density and b (n ) fixed from the compressibility sum rule, is remarkably accurate in both three and two dimensions, competing with the actual state-of-the-art exchange-correlation static kernels. Using this result, we propose a simple isotropic approximation for the quasi-two-dimensional regime, which gives a realistic wave vector analysis of the correlation energy, in the context of the linear response time-dependent density functional theory.
Global nuclear structure effects of the tensor interaction
Zalewski, M.; Olbratowski, P.; Rafalski, M.; Werner, T. R.; Satula, W.; Wyss, R. A.
2009-12-15
A direct fit of the isoscalar spin-orbit (SO) and both isoscalar and isovector tensor coupling constants to the f{sub 5/2}-f{sub 7/2} SO splittings in {sup 40}Ca, {sup 56}Ni, and {sup 48}Ca nuclei requires a drastic reduction of the isoscalar SO strength and strong attractive tensor coupling constants. The aim of this work is to address further consequences of these strong attractive tensor and weak SO fields on binding energies, nuclear deformability, and high-spin states. In particular, the contribution to the nuclear binding energy from the tensor field shows a generic magic structure with tensorial magic numbers N(Z)=14,32,56, or 90, corresponding to the maximum spin asymmetries in 1d{sub 5/2}, 1f{sub 7/2}+2p{sub 3/2}, 1g{sub 9/2}+2d{sub 5/2}, and 1h{sub 11/2}+2f{sub 7/2} single-particle configurations, respectively, and that these numbers are smeared out by pairing correlations and deformation effects. The consequences of strong attractive tensor fields and weak SO interaction for nuclear stability at the drip lines are also examined, particularly those close to the tensorial doubly magic nuclei. The possibility of an entirely new tensor-force-driven deformation effect is discussed.
Xiang Wenchang
2009-01-01
The analytic form of the asymptotic behavior of the S matrix in the saturation regime including the running coupling is obtained. To get this result, we solve the Balitsky and Kovchegov-Weigert evolution equations in the saturation regime, which include running coupling corrections. We study also the effect of rare fluctuations on top of the running coupling. We find that the rare fluctuations are less important in the running coupling case as compared to the fixed coupling case.
Evidence for self-interaction of charge distribution in charge-coupled devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyonnet, A.; Astier, P.; Antilogus, P.; Regnault, N.; Doherty, P.
2015-03-01
Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are widely used in astronomy to carry out a variety of measurements, such as for flux or shape of astrophysical objects. The data reduction procedures almost always assume that the response of a given pixel to illumination is independent of the content of the neighboring pixels. We show evidence that this simple picture is not exact for several CCD sensors. Namely, we provide evidence that localized distributions of charges (resulting from star illumination or laboratory luminous spots) tend to broaden linearly with increasing brightness by up to a few percent over the whole dynamic range. We propose a physical explanation for this "brighter-fatter" effect, which implies that flatfields do not exactly follow Poisson statistics: the variance of flatfields grows less rapidly than their average, and neighboring pixels show covariances, which increase similarly to the square of the flatfield average. These covariances decay rapidly with pixel separation. We observe the expected departure from Poisson statistics of flatfields on CCD devices and show that the observed effects are compatible with Coulomb forces induced by stored charges that deflect forthcoming charges. We extract the strength of the deflections from the correlations of flatfield images and derive the evolution of star shapes with increasing flux. We show for three types of sensors that within statistical uncertainties, our proposed method properly bridges statistical properties of flatfields and the brighter-fatter effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markun, B.; Žumer, S.
2006-03-01
A theoretical study of the Casimir interaction in smectic-A systems, considering fluctuations of both types of smectic ordering—positional and orientational—including the coupling between them, is presented. Two model systems with plan-parallel geometry are studied: homeotropic cell and free-standing film. At large thicknesses of the system the behavior of the Casimir force is found to be primarily determined by positional fluctuations, whereas at small thicknesses also the orientational degrees of freedom greatly contribute to the interaction. The influence of different coupling strengths between orientational and positional order is presented. The dependence of the Casimir force on the director anchoring and surface-tension parameters is studied. The possibilities of experimental detection of the interaction are discussed.
Cost-effective treatment for the couple with infertility.
Van Voorhis, B J; Syrop, C H
2000-12-01
Although the evaluation of cost-effective approaches to infertility treatment remains in its infancy, several important principles have emerged from the initial studies in this field. Currently, in treating couples with infertility without tubal disease or severe male-factor infertility, the most cost-effective approach is to start with IUI or superovulation-IUI treatments before resorting to IVF procedures. The woman's age and number of sperm present for insemination are significant factors influencing cost-effectiveness. The influence of certain diagnoses on the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments requires further study. Even when accounting for the costs associated with multiple gestations and premature deliveries, the cost of IVF decreases within the range of other cost-effective medical procedures and decreases to less than the willingness to pay for these procedures. Indeed, for patients with severe tubal disease, IVF has been found to be more cost-effective than surgical repair. The cost-effectiveness of IVF will likely improve as success rates show continued improvements over the course of time. In addition, usefulness of embryo selection and practices to reduce the likelihood of high-order multiple pregnancies, without reductions in pregnancy rates, will significantly impact cost-effectiveness. The exclusion of infertility treatments from insurance plans is unfortunate and accentuates the importance of physicians understanding the economics of infertility treatment with costs that are often passed directly to the patient. The erroneous economic policies and judgments that have led to inequities in access to infertility health care should not be tolerated. PMID:11100309
Numerical Modeling of Coupled Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions in an Urban Setting
Rihani, J F; Maxwell, R M
2007-09-26
The Dominguez Channel Watershed (DCW), located in the southern portion of Los Angeles County (Figure A.1), drains about 345 square miles into the Los Angeles Harbor. The cities and jurisdictions in DCW are shown in Figure A.2. The largest of these include the cities of Los Angeles, Carson, and Torrance. This watershed is unique in that 93% of its land area is highly developed (i.e. urbanized). The watershed boundaries are defined by a complex network of storm drains and flood control channels, rather than being defined by natural topography. Table (1) shows a summary of different land uses in the Dominguez Channel Watershed (MEC, 2004). The Dominguez Watershed has the highest impervious area of all watersheds in the Los Angeles region. The more impervious the surface, the more runoff is generated during a storm. Storm water runoff can carry previously accumulated contaminants and transport them into receiving water systems. Point sources such as industrial wastewater and municipal sewage as well as urban runoff from commercial, residential, and industrial areas are all recognized as contributors to water quality degradation at DWC. Section 303(d) of the 1972 Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to identify and report all waters not meeting water quality standards and to develop action plans to pursue the water quality objectives. These plans specify the maximum amount of a given pollutant that the water body of concern can receive and still meet water quality standards. Such plans are called Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). TMDLs also specify allocations of pollutant loadings to point and non-point sources taking into account natural background pollutant levels. This demonstrates the importance of utilizing scientific tools, such as flow and transport models, to identify contaminant sources, understand integrated flow paths, and assess the effectiveness of water quality management strategies. Since overland flow is a very important component of the water
Kinetic Effects in Low Pressure Capacitively Coupled Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Likhanskii, Alexandre; Roark, Christine; Stoltz, Peter
2011-10-01
We present results of particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision simulations of kinetic effects in low pressure capacitively coupled plasma discharge. In particular, we examine discharges of various gases (including Ar, Xe, and others) in the pressure range of 10s of mT and the frequency range of 10s of MHz. We track the formation of high energy electrons (e.g., at the ionization threshold or greater) as a marker for enhanced ionization, and look at the effects of elastic and inelastic collisions on the formation of these high energy electron bunches. We show results for 2D and 3D simulations where we include density gradient effects, and results for plasma chemistry effects on the bulk electron energy distribution function and the ion energy distribution function at a plasma surface interface. We discuss the role of the bunches on electron heating in the plasma bulk and on their presence on how electron heating is treated in fluid simulations of plasma sources.
Assessing Spurious Interaction Effects in Structural Equation Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harring, Jeffrey R.; Weiss, Brandi A.; Li, Ming
2015-01-01
Several studies have stressed the importance of simultaneously estimating interaction and quadratic effects in multiple regression analyses, even if theory only suggests an interaction effect should be present. Specifically, past studies suggested that failing to simultaneously include quadratic effects when testing for interaction effects could…
Effects of nicardipine on ventriculo-arterial coupling in humans.
Tanaka, K; Oshita, S; Kitahata, H; Kimura, H; Kawahito, S; Park, Y C; Sakabe, T
1998-08-01
The ratio of effective arterial elastance (Ea) to left ventricular elastance (Ees) is an indicator of the coupling between ventricular properties and arterial load properties. Another criterion for the coupling between an energy source and its load is the principle of economical fuel consumption, or mechanical efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of stroke work (SW) to myocardial oxygen consumption per beat (MVO2). It has been revealed that SW of ventricular contraction is maximized when Ea/Ees = 1, while mechanical efficiency is maximized when Ea/Ees = 0.5. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ventriculo-arterial coupling during hypertension, and the effects of nicardipine on this relationship in surgical patients using Ea/Ees and SW/MVO2 as indicators. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and fentanyl. Radial artery pressure was displayed on a polygraph, and left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were determined by use of transoesophageal echocardiography. Ees was calculated as MAP/(ESVI-4), where MAP is mean arterial pressure and ESVI is end-systolic volume index. Ea was calculated as the ratio of MAP to stroke volume index (SVI). Stroke work index (SWI) was calculated as the product of MAP and SVI. MVO2 was assessed by estimating the ventricular pressure-volume area index (PVAI), which is expressed as the sum of SWI and the end-systolic potential energy index. Before (baseline), and 3, 10, 20, and 30 min after i.v. nicardipine (30 micrograms kg-1), Ea/Ees and SWI/PVAI were determined in 14 surgical patients with intraoperative hypertension. Before nicardipine (during hypertension), Ea was almost equal to Ees, whereas Ea/Ees was significantly reduced to about 0.5-0.6 at 3, 10, and 20 min after nicardipine. SWI/PVAI was maximized and significantly greater than the baseline value at 3 min after nicardipine. These results suggest that, during hypertension, ventricular and arterial properties were so
Experimental identification of smart material coupling effects in composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chesne, S.; Jean-Mistral, C.; Gaudiller, L.
2013-07-01
Smart composite structures have an enormous potential for industrial applications, in terms of mass reduction, high material resistance and flexibility. The correct characterization of these complex structures is essential for active vibration control or structural health monitoring applications. The identification process generally calls for the determination of a generalized electromechanical coupling coefficient. As this process can in practice be difficult to implement, an original approach, presented in this paper, has been developed for the identification of the coupling effects of a smart material used in a composite curved beam. The accuracy of the proposed identification technique is tested by applying active modal control to the beam, using a reduced model based on this identification. The studied structure was as close to reality as possible, and made use of integrated transducers, low-cost sensors, clamped boundary conditions and substantial, complex excitation sources. PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and MFC (macrofiber composite) transducers were integrated into the composite structure, to ensure their protection from environmental damage. The experimental identification described here was based on a curve fitting approach combined with the reduced model. It allowed a reliable, powerful modal control system to be built, controlling two modes of the structure. A linear quadratic Gaussian algorithm was used to determine the modal controller-observer gains. The selected modes were found to have an attenuation as strong as -13 dB in experiments, revealing the effectiveness of this method. In this study a generalized approach is proposed, which can be extended to most complex or composite industrial structures when they are subjected to vibration.
Fiber pressure sensors based on periodical mode coupling effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotem, Haim; Wang, Wen C.; Wang, Michael; Schaafsma, David; Skolnick, Bob; Grebel, Haim
2005-05-01
Fiber optic sensor technology offers the possibility of implementing low weight, high performance and cost effective health and damage assessment for infrastructure elements. Common fiber sensors are based on the effect of external action on the spectral response of a Fabry-Perot or a Bragg grating section, or on the modal dynamics in multimode (MM) fiber. In the latter case, the fiber itself acts as the sensor, giving it the potential for large range coverage. We were interested in this type of sensor because of its cost advantage in monitoring structural health. In the course of the research, a new type of a rugged modal filter device, based on off-center splicing, was developed. This device, in combination with a MM fiber, was found to be a potential single point-pressure sensing device. Additionally, by translating the pressing point along a MM sensing fiber with a constant load and speed, a sinusoidal intensity modulation was observed. This harmonic behavior, during load translation, is explained by the theory of mode coupling and dispersion. The oscillation period, L~0.43. mm, obtained at 980 nm in a Corning SMF-28 fiber, corresponds to the wavevector difference, Db, between the two-coupled modes, by L = 2p/Db. An additional outcome of the present research is the observation that the response of the loaded MM fiber is strongly dependent on the polarization state of the light traveling along the MM fiber due to different response of the modes to polarization active elements. Our main conclusions are that in MM fiber optic sensor design, special cautions need to be taken in order to stabilize the system, and that the sensitivity along a MM fiber sensor is periodic with a period of ~ 0.4 - 0.5 mm, depending on various fiber parameters and excited modes.
Interlayer coupling effect in low temperature magnetoresistance of amorphous Si/Nb multilayer films
Ochiai, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Kitatani, Takeshi
1994-12-31
The authors report on superconducting fluctuations and weak localization effects in amorphous Si/Nb multilayer films in order to investigate the coupling between different superconducting layers. They found that the coupling effect is strongly related to the transport parameters and the inelastic scattering time gives important information related to the mechanism of the coupling.
Quantifying Solvophobic Effects in Nonpolar Cohesive Interactions.
Yang, Lixu; Adam, Catherine; Cockroft, Scott L
2015-08-19
The hydrophobic effect plays a central role in determining the structure, activity, and properties of biomolecules and materials. In contrast, the general manifestation of this phenomenon in other solvents—the solvophobic effect—although widely invoked, is currently poorly defined because of the lack of a universally accepted descriptor. Here we have used synthetic molecular balances to measure solvent effects on aromatic, aliphatic, and fluorous nonpolar interactions. Our solvent screening data combined with independent experimental measurements of supramolecular association, single-molecule folding, and bulk phase transfer energies were all found to correlate well with the cohesive energy density (ced) of the solvent. Meanwhile, other measures of solvent cohesion, such as surface tension and internal pressure, gave inferior correlations. Thus, we establish ced as a readily accessible, quantitative descriptor of solvophobic association in a range of chemical contexts. PMID:26159869
Transverse effects of microbunch radiative interaction
Derbenev, Ya.S.; Shiltsev, V.D.
1996-06-03
In this article the authors study effects of microbunch cooperative electromagnetic radiation in a bend on transverse beam dynamics. An overtaking radiative interaction between different parts of the bunch results in three major forces variable along the bunch. Longitudinal force leads to energy loss and causes the bunch emittance growth in the bend due to the dispersion effect. Radial force consists of logarithmically large ``Talman`` centrifugal force and smaller centripetal force. Due to general radius-energy dependence in the bend, the ``Talman`` force does not affect beam dynamics while the centripetal force leads to projected emittance growth. Finally, radial and vertical focusing forces lead to trajectory distortions which vary along the bunch. These cooperative forces significantly affect the dynamics of short high-populated bunch in bends.
Effect of vertical and lateral coupling between tyre and road on vehicle rollover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yinong; Sun, Wei; Huang, Jingying; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Yanyang
2013-08-01
The vehicle stability involves many aspects, such as the anti-rollover stability in extreme steering operations and the vehicle lateral stability in normal steering operations. The relationships between vehicle stabilities in extreme and normal circumstances obtain less attention according to the present research works. In this paper, the coupling interactions between vehicle anti-rollover and lateral stability, as well as the effect of road excitation, are taken into account on the vehicle rollover analysis. The results in this paper indicate that some parameters influence the different vehicle stabilities diversely or even contradictorily. And it has been found that there are contradictions between the vehicle rollover mitigation performance and the lateral stability. The direct cause for the contradiction is the lateral coupling between tyres and road. Tyres with high adhesion capacity imply that the vehicle possesses a high performance ability to keep driving direction, whereas the rollover risk of this vehicle increases due to the greater lateral force that tyres can provide. Furthermore, these contradictions are intensified indirectly by the vertical coupling between tyres and road. The excitation from road not only deteriorates the tyres' adhesive condition, but also has a considerable effect on the rollover in some cases.
Cosmological effects of scalar-photon couplings: dark energy and varying-α Models
Avgoustidis, A.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Monteiro, A.M.R.V.L.; Vielzeuf, P.E.; Luzzi, G. E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt E-mail: up110370652@alunos.fc.up.pt
2014-06-01
We study cosmological models involving scalar fields coupled to radiation and discuss their effect on the redshift evolution of the cosmic microwave background temperature, focusing on links with varying fundamental constants and dynamical dark energy. We quantify how allowing for the coupling of scalar fields to photons, and its important effect on luminosity distances, weakens current and future constraints on cosmological parameters. In particular, for evolving dark energy models, joint constraints on the dark energy equation of state combining BAO radial distance and SN luminosity distance determinations, will be strongly dominated by BAO. Thus, to fully exploit future SN data one must also independently constrain photon number non-conservation arising from the possible coupling of SN photons to the dark energy scalar field. We discuss how observational determinations of the background temperature at different redshifts can, in combination with distance measures data, set tight constraints on interactions between scalar fields and photons, thus breaking this degeneracy. We also discuss prospects for future improvements, particularly in the context of Euclid and the E-ELT and show that Euclid can, even on its own, provide useful dark energy constraints while allowing for photon number non-conservation.
Non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion and levitation effect: A mode-coupling theory analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Atreyee; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra
2013-03-01
We present a study of diffusion of small tagged particles in a solvent, using mode coupling theory (MCT) analysis and computer simulations. The study is carried out for various interaction potentials. For the first time, using MCT, it is shown that only for strongly attractive interaction potential with allowing interpenetration between the solute-solvent pair the diffusion exhibits a non-monotonic solute size dependence which has earlier been reported in simulation studies [P. K. Ghorai and S. Yashonath, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 5824-5835 (2005), 10.1021/jp046312w]. For weak attractive and repulsive potential the solute size dependence of diffusion shows monotonic behaviour. It is also found that for systems where the interaction potential does not allow solute-solvent interpenetration, the solute cannot explore the neck of the solvent cage. Thus these systems even with strong attractive interaction will never show any non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion. This non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion has earlier been connected to levitation effect [S. Yashonath and P. Santikary, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 6368 (1994), 10.1021/j100076a022]. We also show that although levitation is a dynamic phenomena, the effect of levitation can be obtained in the static radial distribution function.
Komendantov, Alexander O; Canavier, Carmen C
2002-03-01
The role of gap junctions between midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in mechanisms of firing pattern generation and synchronization has not been well characterized experimentally. We modified a multi-compartment model of DA neuron by adding a spike-generating mechanism and electrically coupling the dendrites of two such neurons through gap junctions. The burst-generating mechanism in the model neuron results from the interaction of a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced current and the sodium pump. The firing patterns exhibited by the two model neurons included low frequency (2-7 Hz) spiking, high-frequency (13-20 Hz) spiking, irregular spiking, regular bursting, irregular bursting, and leader/follower bursting, depending on the parameter values used for the permeability for NMDA-induced current and the conductance for electrical coupling. All of these firing patterns have been observed in physiological neurons, but a systematic dependence of the firing pattern on the covariation of these two parameters has not been established experimentally. Our simulations indicate that electrical coupling facilitates NMDA-induced burst firing via two mechanisms. The first can be observed in a pair of identical cells. At low frequencies (low NMDA), as coupling strength was increased, only a transition from asynchronous to synchronous single-spike firing was observed. At high frequencies (high NMDA), increasing the strength of the electrical coupling in an identical pair resulted in a transition from high-frequency single-spike firing to burst firing, and further increases led to synchronous high-frequency spiking. Weak electrical coupling destabilizes the synchronous solution of the fast spiking subsystems, and in the presence of a slowly varying sodium concentration, the desynchronized spiking solution leads to bursts that are approximately in phase with spikes that are not in phase. Thus this transitional mechanism depends critically on action potential dynamics. The second
Anisotropic Paramagnetic Meissner Effect by Spin-Orbit Coupling.
Espedal, Camilla; Yokoyama, Takehito; Linder, Jacob
2016-03-25
Conventional s-wave superconductors repel an external magnetic field. However, a recent experiment [A. Di Bernardo et al., Phys. Rev. X 5, 041021 (2015)] has tailored the electromagnetic response of superconducting correlations via adjacent magnetic materials. We consider another route of altering the Meissner effect where spin-orbit interactions induce an anisotropic Meissner response that changes sign depending on the field orientation. The tunable electromagnetic response opens new paths in the utilization of hybrid systems comprising magnets and superconductors. PMID:27058095
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogata, Tomomichi; Mizuta, Ryo; Adachi, Yukimasa; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ose, Tomomaki
2016-04-01
Effect of air-sea coupling on the frequency distribution of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) over the northwestern Pacific (NWP) region is investigated using an atmosphere and ocean coupled general circulation model (AOGCM). Monthly varying flux adjustment enables AOGCM to simulate both subseasonal air-sea interaction and realistic seasonal to interannual SST variability. The maximum of intense TC distribution around 20-30°N in the AGCM shifts equatorward in the AOGCM due to the air-sea coupling. Hence AOGCM reduces northward intense TC distribution bias seen in AGCM. Over the NWP, AOGCM-simulated SST variability is large around 20-30°N where the warm mixed layer becomes shallower rapidly. Active entrainment from subsurface water over this region causes stronger SST cooling and hence TC intensity decreases. These results suggest that air-sea coupling characterized by subsurface oceanic condition causes more realistic distribution of intense TCs over the NWP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogata, Tomomichi; Mizuta, Ryo; Adachi, Yukimasa; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ose, Tomoaki
2015-12-01
Effect of air-sea coupling on the frequency distribution of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) over the northwestern Pacific (NWP) region is investigated using an atmosphere and ocean coupled general circulation model (AOGCM). Monthly varying flux adjustment enables AOGCM to simulate both subseasonal air-sea interaction and realistic seasonal to interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability. The maximum of intense TC distribution around 20-30°N in the AGCM shifts equatorward in the AOGCM due to the air-sea coupling. Hence, AOGCM reduces northward intense TC distribution bias seen in AGCM. Over the NWP, AOGCM-simulated SST variability is large around 20-30°N where the warm mixed layer becomes shallower rapidly. Active entrainment from subsurface water over this region causes stronger SST cooling, and hence, TC intensity decreases. These results suggest that air-sea coupling characterized by subsurface oceanic condition causes more realistic distribution of intense TCs over the NWP.
Effective p -wave interaction and topological superfluids in s -wave quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin; Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan
2016-03-01
p -wave interaction in cold atoms may give rise to exotic topological superfluids. However, the realization of p -wave interaction in a cold atom system is experimentally challenging. Here we propose a simple scheme to synthesize effective p -wave interaction in conventional s -wave interacting quantum gases. The key idea is to load atoms into a spin-dependent optical lattice potential. Using two concrete examples involving spin-1/2 fermions, we show how the original system can be mapped into a model describing spinless fermions with nearest-neighbor p -wave interaction, whose ground state can be a topological superfluid that supports Majorana fermions under proper conditions. Our proposal has the advantage that it does not require spin-orbit coupling or loading atoms onto higher orbitals, which is the key in earlier proposals to synthesize effective p -wave interaction in s -wave quantum gases, and may provide a completely new route for realizing p -wave topological superfluids.
Tamm State-Coupled Emission: Effect of Probe Location and Emission Wavelength
2015-01-01
We report the effect of the probe location and wavelength on the emission spatial distribution and spectral properties of fluorophores located on structures which display Tamm states. Our structure consists of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC)—that is, a multilayer structure of alternate high and low refractive index dielectrics—and a thin top silver film. Simulations show the presence of Tamm and surface plasmon modes in the structure. The electric field intensities for the Tamm modes are located mostly in the dielectric layer below the metal film. The corresponding field intensities for the surface plamon modes are located above the metal film in the distal side. Tamm states can be in resonance with the incident light normal or near normal to the surface, within the light line, and can be accessed without the use of a coupling prism or gratings. We investigated the emission spectra and angular distribution of the emission for probes located above and below the metal film to explore the interaction of fluorophores with Tamm plasmons and surface plasmons modes. Three probes were chosen with different overlap of the emission spectra with the Tamm modes. The fluorophores below the metal film coupled predominantly with the Tamm state and displayed more intense and only Tamm state-coupled emission (TSCE). Probes above the metal film display both surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) and Tamm state-coupled emission. In contrast to SPCE, which shows only KR, P-polarized emission, the Tamm states can display both S- and P-polarized emission and can be populated using both RK and KR illuminations. The TSCE angle is highly sensitive to wavelength, which suggests the use of Tamm structures to provide both directional emission and wavelength dispersion. The combination of plasmonic and photonic structures with directional emission close to surface normal offers the opportunities for new design formats for clinical testing, portable devices, and other
Interlayer exchange coupling effect of L1(0) CoPt based exchange coupled composite media.
Yang, Yang; Pandey, K K M; Chen, J S; Chow, G M; Hu, J F
2011-03-01
In this work, effects of exchange coupling of soft magnetic layer on switching field and magnetization reversal behaviour of CoPt-SiO2(soft)/CoPt-SiO2(hard) exchange coupled media were investigated. With increasing the thickness of the soft layer, both the coercivity and magnetization squareness of composite media decreased. Soft layer thickness 4 nm and below was more effective to significantly reduce the switching field than that above 4 nm. More incoherent switching behavior was observed with increasing soft layer thickness. PMID:21449436
Coupling effect on the proton optics from the electron lenses
Luo, Y.; Gu, X.; Fischer, W.
2010-08-01
In this note we calculate the effect of the electron lense solenoids on the proton optics. Electron lenses (e-lenses) are to be used for head-on beam-beam compensation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Electron lenses are to be used for head-on beam-beam compensation in the polarized proton (pp) runs to compensate the large tune spread generated by the head-on proton-proton beam-beam interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The main part of an electron lens is a superconducting solenoid with a longitudinal magnetic field up to 6 T. In this report, we will estimate the e-elenses effects on the {beta} and dispersion functions with 100 GeV and 250 GeV pp run lattices. Table 1 lists some lattice and beam parameters to be used in the following study.
Seismic analysis of high arch dams considering contraction-peripheral joints coupled effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad Amin; Mirzabozorg, Hasan; Kianoush, M. Reza
2013-09-01
Dam-reservoir interaction is one of the classic coupled problems in which two various environments with different physical characteristics are in contact with each other on interface boundary. Consideration of such interaction is important in design of new dams as well as on safety evaluation of the existing ones. In the present study, the effect of hydrodynamic pressures at various reservoir operational levels on seismic behavior of an arch dam is investigated. Dez ultra-high arch dam in Iran was selected as case study and all contraction and peripheral joints were simulated using node-to-node contact elements which have the ability of opening/closing and tangential movement. In addition, stage construction effects including joint grouting based on available construction reports were considered. The reservoir was assumed to be compressible and the foundation rock was modeled to account for its flexibility. The TABAS earthquake record was used to excite the finite element model of dam-reservoir-foundation system. It was found that dam-reservoir interaction has significant structural effects on the system and generally, operating the considered arch dam at different water levels can highly affects the distribution of the crack prone area under the maximum credible earthquake.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribstein, B.; Achatz, U.; Senf, F.
2015-08-01
The interaction between solar tides (STs) and gravity waves (GWs) is studied via the coupling of a three-dimensional ray tracer model and a linear tidal model. The ray tracer model describes GW dynamics on a spatially and time-dependent background formed by a monthly mean climatology and STs. It does not suffer from typical simplifications of conventional GW parameterizations where horizontal GW propagation and the effects of horizontal background gradients on GW dynamics are neglected. The ray tracer model uses a variant of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) theory where a spectral description in position wave number space is helping to avoid numerical instabilities otherwise likely to occur in caustic-like situations. The tidal model has been obtained by linearization of the primitive equations about a monthly mean, allowing for stationary planetary waves. The communication between ray tracer model and tidal model is facilitated using latitude- and altitude-dependent coefficients, named Rayleigh friction and Newtonian relaxation, and obtained from regressing GW momentum and buoyancy fluxes against the STs and their tendencies. These coefficients are calculated by the ray tracer model and then implemented into the tidal model. An iterative procedure updates successively the GW fields and the tidal fields until convergence is reached. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the employed GW source, many aspects of observed tidal dynamics are reproduced. It is shown that the conventional "single-column" approximation leads to significantly overestimated GW fluxes and hence underestimated ST amplitudes, pointing at a sensitive issue of GW parameterizations in general.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warner, James E.; Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc
2014-09-01
This work focuses on the identification of heterogeneous linear elastic moduli in the context of frequency-domain, coupled acoustic-structure interaction (ASI), using either solid displacement or fluid pressure measurement data. The approach postulates the inverse problem as an optimization problem where the solution is obtained by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional. The latter measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, while incorporating the measurement data as additional quadratic error terms. We demonstrate two strategies for selecting the MECE weighting coefficient to produce regularized solutions to the ill-posed identification problem: 1) the discrepancy principle of Morozov, and 2) an error-balance approach that selects the weight parameter as the minimizer of another functional involving the ECE and the data misfit. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully recover elastic parameters in 2D and 3D ASI systems from response measurements taken in either the solid or fluid subdomains. Furthermore, both regularization strategies are shown to produce accurate reconstructions when the measurement data is polluted with noise. The discrepancy principle is shown to produce nearly optimal solutions, while the error-balance approach, although not optimal, remains effective and does not need a priori information on the noise level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavery, E.; Nagarajan, N.; Paramaguru, G.; Renganathan, R.
2015-07-01
Two sensitizers based on amino acids coupled with perylene moiety having absorption in the visible region have been designed and their interaction with doped and undoped TiO2 for the application of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been studied. The synthesized compounds PDI-PA and PDI-AA were characterized using 1H and 13C NMR, Mass and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The optical properties and lifetime measurements of the sensitizers were analyzed using various solvents with different polarity. The solvatochromism effect was studied using Lippert-Mataga plot. The electrochemical studies of both dyes were investigated in DMF with various scan rate ranging from 200 to 1000 mV s-1. Colloidal doped and undoped TiO2 was prepared and characterized by using absorption measurements. Binding ability of the sensitizers with the nanoparticles was studied through absorption, fluorescence quenching, cyclic voltammetry and FT-IR measurements. Results obtained from all the above analysis suggest the mode of quenching may be static. The binding constant values were calculated using Kamat-Fox equation indicates the binding behavior of the sensitizers with the nanoparticles. The fluorescence quenching was mainly attributed to electron transfer from the excited state of PDI's to the conduction band of colloidal semiconductors. The electron transfer mechanism was explained based on the Rehm-Weller equation as well as the energy level diagram.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Arthur J.
1992-01-01
Midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interactions are studied in simulations from a simplified coupled model that includes synoptic-scale atmospheric variability, ocean current advection of SST, and air-sea heat exchange. Although theoretical dynamical ('identical twin') predictions using this model have shown that the SST anomalies in this model indeed influence the atmosphere, it is found here that standard cross correlation and empirical orthogonal function analyses of monthly mean model output yield the standard result, familiar from observational studies, that the atmosphere forces the ocean with little or no feedback. Therefore, these analyses are inconclusive and leave open the question of whether anomalous SST is influencing the atmosphere. In contrast, it is found that compositing strong warm events of model SST is a useful indicator of ocean forcing the atmosphere. Additional evidence is presented for oceanic influence on the atmosphere, namely, that ocean current advection appears to enhance the persistence of model SST anomalies through a feedback effect that is absent when only heat flux is allowed to influence SST anomaly evolution.
Felippa, Carlos A.; Sprague, Michael A.; Ross, Michael R.; Park, K. C.
2008-11-01
This paper is a sequel on the topic of localized Lagrange multipliers (LLM) for applications of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between finite-element models of an acoustic fluid and an elastic structure. The prequel paper formulated the spatial-discretization methods, the LLM interface treatment, the time-marching partitioned analysis procedures, and the application to 1D benchmark problems. Here, we expand on formulation aspects required for successful application to more realistic 2D and 3D problems. Additional topics include duality relations at the fluid-structure interface, partitioned vibration analysis, reduced-order modeling, handling of curved interface surfaces, and comparison of LLM with other coupling methods. Emphasis is given to non-matching fluid-structure meshes. We present benchmark examples that illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of competing interface treatments. Realistic application problems involving the seismic response of two existing dams are considered. These include 2D modal analyses of the Koyna gravity dam, transient-response analyses of that dam with and without reduced-order modeling, incorporation of nonlinear cavitation effects, and the 3D transient-response analysis of the Morrow Point arch dam.
Warner, James E.; Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc
2014-01-01
This work focuses on the identification of heterogeneous linear elastic moduli in the context of frequency-domain, coupled acoustic-structure interaction (ASI), using either solid displacement or fluid pressure measurement data. The approach postulates the inverse problem as an optimization problem where the solution is obtained by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional. The latter measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, while incorporating the measurement data as additional quadratic error terms. We demonstrate two strategies for selecting the MECE weighting coefficient to produce regularized solutions to the ill-posed identification problem: 1) the discrepancy principle of Morozov, and 2) an error-balance approach that selects the weight parameter as the minimizer of another functional involving the ECE and the data misfit. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully recover elastic parameters in 2D and 3D ASI systems from response measurements taken in either the solid or fluid subdomains. Furthermore, both regularization strategies are shown to produce accurate reconstructions when the measurement data is polluted with noise. The discrepancy principle is shown to produce nearly optimal solutions, while the error-balance approach, although not optimal, remains effective and does not need a priori information on the noise level. PMID:25339790
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Jinyong; Cho, Jaehun; Han, Dong-Soo; Yin, Yuxiang; Kim, June-Seo; Swagten, Henk J. M.; You, Chun-Yeol
2016-04-01
The interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (iDMI), surface anisotropy energy, and spin pumping at the Ir/Co interface are experimentally investigated by performing Brillouin light scattering. Contrary to previous reports, we suggest that the sign of the iDMI at the Ir/Co interface is the same as in the case of the Pt/Co interface. We also find that the magnitude of the iDMI energy density is relatively smaller than in the case of the Pt/Co interface, despite the large strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of Ir. The saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) energy are significantly improved due to a strong SOC. Our findings suggest that an SOC in an Ir/Co system behaves in different ways for iDMI and PMA. Finally, we determine the spin pumping effect at the Ir/Co interface, and it increases the Gilbert damping constant from 0.012 to 0.024 for 1.5 nm-thick Co.
Bradley, Aaron J; Ugeda, Miguel M; da Jornada, Felipe H; Qiu, Diana Y; Ruan, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wickenburg, Sebastian; Riss, Alexander; Lu, Jiong; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Louie, Steven G; Crommie, Michael F
2015-04-01
Despite the weak nature of interlayer forces in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials, their properties are highly dependent on the number of layers in the few-layer two-dimensional (2D) limit. Here, we present a combined scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and GW theoretical study of the electronic structure of high quality single- and few-layer MoSe2 grown on bilayer graphene. We find that the electronic (quasiparticle) bandgap, a fundamental parameter for transport and optical phenomena, decreases by nearly one electronvolt when going from one layer to three due to interlayer coupling and screening effects. Our results paint a clear picture of the evolution of the electronic wave function hybridization in the valleys of both the valence and conduction bands as the number of layers is changed. This demonstrates the importance of layer number and electron-electron interactions on van der Waals heterostructures and helps to clarify how their electronic properties might be tuned in future 2D nanodevices. PMID:25775022
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz-Esparza, D.; Sauer, J.; Linn, R.
2015-12-01
Anomalous and unexpected fire behavior in complex terrain continues to result in substantial loss of property and extremely dangerous conditions for firefighting field personnel. We briefly discuss proposed hypotheses of fire interactions with atmospheric flows over complex terrain that can lead to poorly-understood and potentially catastrophic scenarios. Then, our recent results of numerical investigations via large-eddy simulation of coupled atmosphere-topography-fire phenomenology with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, HiGrad-Firetec model are presented as an example of the potential for increased understanding of these complex processes. This investigation focuses on the influence of downslope surface wind enhancement through stably stratified flow over an isolated hill, and the resulting dramatic changes in fire behavior including spread rate, and intensity. Implications with respect to counter-intuitive fire behavior and extreme fire events are discussed. This work demonstrates a tremendous opportunity to immediately create safer and more effective policy for field personnel through improved predictability of atmospheric conditions over complex terrain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heller, Michal P.; Janik, Romuald A.; Spaliński, Michał; Witaszczyk, Przemysław
2014-12-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of quark-gluon plasma play a pivotal role in our understanding of heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. They are based on a phenomenological description due to Müller, Israel, Stewart (MIS) and others, which incorporates viscous effects and ensures a well-posed initial value problem. Focusing on the case of conformal plasma we propose a generalization which includes, in addition, the dynamics of the least damped far-from-equilibrium degree of freedom found in strongly coupled plasmas through the AdS/CFT correspondence. We formulate new evolution equations for general flows and then test them in the case of N =4 super Yang-Mills plasma by comparing their solutions alongside solutions of MIS theory with numerical computations of isotropization and boost-invariant flow based on holography. In these tests the new equations reproduce the results of MIS theory when initialized close to the hydrodynamic stage of evolution, but give a more accurate description of the dynamics when initial conditions are set in the preequilibrium regime.
Jet-medium interactions at NLO in a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghiglieri, Jacopo; Moore, Guy D.; Teaney, Derek
2016-03-01
We present an extension to next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant g of the AMY effective kinetic approach to the energy loss of high momentum particles in the quark-gluon plasma. At leading order, the transport of jet-like particles is determined by elastic scattering with the thermal constituents, and by inelastic collinear splittings induced by the medium. We reorganize this description into collinear splittings, high-momentum-transfer scatterings, drag and diffusion, and particle conversions (momentum-preserving identity-changing processes). We show that this reorganized description remains valid to NLO in g, and compute the appropriate modifications of the drag, diffusion, particle conversion, and inelastic splitting coefficients. In addition, a new kinematic regime opens at NLO for wider-angle collinear bremsstrahlung. These semi-collinear emissions smoothly interpolate between the leading order high-momentum-transfer scatterings and collinear splittings. To organize the calculation, we introduce a set of Wilson line operators on the light-cone which determine the diffusion and identity changing coefficients, and we show how to evaluate these operators at NLO.
Heller, Michal P; Janik, Romuald A; Spaliński, Michał; Witaszczyk, Przemysław
2014-12-31
Relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of quark-gluon plasma play a pivotal role in our understanding of heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. They are based on a phenomenological description due to Müller, Israel, Stewart (MIS) and others, which incorporates viscous effects and ensures a well-posed initial value problem. Focusing on the case of conformal plasma we propose a generalization which includes, in addition, the dynamics of the least damped far-from-equilibrium degree of freedom found in strongly coupled plasmas through the AdS/CFT correspondence. We formulate new evolution equations for general flows and then test them in the case of N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma by comparing their solutions alongside solutions of MIS theory with numerical computations of isotropization and boost-invariant flow based on holography. In these tests the new equations reproduce the results of MIS theory when initialized close to the hydrodynamic stage of evolution, but give a more accurate description of the dynamics when initial conditions are set in the preequilibrium regime. PMID:25615302
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cairns, Iver
2012-07-01
As plasma waves grow or damp they extract or deposit energy, respectively, and alter the phase-space gradients of particle distributions, perhaps leading to instability or damping of other waves. In addition, wave electric and magnetic fields can scatter particles in both position and velocity, altering their motion and sometimes energizing them or causing them to escape or enter physical regions of interest. Plasma waves can also be used to diagnose plasma properties (e.g., the density and magnetic field strength) and the presence of nonthermal particles. Nevertheless, even though plasma waves can heat, cool, energize, scatter, reflect, and characterize plasma particles the question remains: Are plasma waves actually dynamically important in space plasmas? Here this question is addressed in the context of solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling by considering multiple regions where plasma waves might be dynamically important. These include: the slowing of the solar wind upstream of the bow shock associated with Fermi acceleration; heating and thermalization at the bow shock; limitation of the electron and ion temperature anisotropies and electron heat flux in the solar wind and magnetosheath; heating, flows, and particle acceleration in magnetic reconnection regions in Earth's magnetotail and magnetopause; precipitation of radiation belt particles into the loss cone and thence the ionosphere; and the development of auroral plasma cavities. In each case existing observations and theory are reviewed and compared, focusing on the importance to the plasma dynamics of plasma waves versus ``static'' macroscopic fields and other effects.
Thermal energy conversion by coupled shape memory and piezoelectric effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, Dmitry; Lebedev, Gor; Cugat, Orphee; Delamare, Jerome; Viala, Bernard; Lafont, Thomas; Gimeno, Leticia; Shelyakov, Alexander
2012-09-01
This work gives experimental evidence of a promising method of thermal-to-electric energy conversion by coupling shape memory effect (SME) and direct piezoelectric effect (DPE) for harvesting quasi-static ambient temperature variations. Two original prototypes of thermal energy harvesters have been fabricated and tested experimentally. The first is a hybrid laminated composite consisting of TiNiCu shape memory alloy (SMA) and macro fiber composite piezoelectric. This composite comprises 0.1 cm3 of active materials and harvests 75 µJ of energy for each temperature variation of 60 °C. The second prototype is a SME/DPE ‘machine’ which uses the thermally induced linear strains of the SMA to bend a bulk PZT ceramic plate through a specially designed mechanical structure. The SME/DPE ‘machine’ with 0.2 cm3 of active material harvests 90 µJ over a temperature increase of 35 °C (60 µJ when cooling). In contrast to pyroelectric materials, such harvesters are also compatible with both small and slow temperature variations.
Effects of a psychosocial couple-based prevention program on adverse birth outcomes.
Feinberg, Mark E; Roettger, Michael E; Jones, Damon E; Paul, Ian M; Kan, Marni L
2015-01-01
Although maternal stress and depression have been linked to adverse birth outcomes (ABOs), few studies have investigated preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health as a means of reducing ABOs. This randomized controlled study examines the impact of Family Foundations (FF)-a transition to parenthood program for couples focused on promoting coparenting quality, with previously documented impact on maternal stress and depression-on ABOs. We also examine whether intervention buffers birth outcomes from the negative effect of elevated salivary cortisol levels. We use intent-to-treat analyses to assess the main effects of the FF intervention on ABOs (prematurity, birth weight, pregnancy complications, Cesarean section, and days in hospital for mothers and infants) among 148 expectant mothers. We also test the interaction of cortisol with intervention condition status in predicting ABOs. FF participation was associated with reduced risk of C-section (OR .357, p < 0.05, 95 % CI 0.149, 0.862), but did not have main effects on other ABOs. FF significantly buffered (p < 0.05) the negative impact of maternal cortisol on birth weight, gestational age, and days in hospital for infants; that is, among women with relatively higher levels of prenatal cortisol, the intervention reduced ABOs. These results demonstrate that a psycho-educational program for couples reduces incidence of ABOs among higher risk women. Future work should test whether reduced maternal stress and depression mediate these intervention effects. PMID:24969352
Effects of a Psychosocial Couple-Based Prevention Program on Adverse Birth Outcomes
Roettger, Michael E.; Jones, Damon E.; Paul, Ian M.; Kan, Marni L.
2015-01-01
Although maternal stress and depression have been linked to adverse birth outcomes (ABOs), few studies have investigated preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health as a means of reducing ABOs. This randomized controlled study examines the impact of Family Foundations (FF)—a transition to parenthood program for couples focused on promoting coparenting quality, with previously documented impact on maternal stress and depression—on ABOs. We also examine whether intervention buffers birth outcomes from the negative effect of elevated salivary cortisol levels. We use intent-to-treat analyses to assess the main effects of the FF intervention on ABOs (prematurity, birth weight, pregnancy complications, Cesarean section, and days in hospital for mothers and infants) among 148 expectant mothers. We also test the interaction of cortisol with intervention condition status in predicting ABOs. FF participation was associated with reduced risk of C-section (OR .357, p < 0.05, 95 % CI 0.149, 0.862), but did not have main effects on other ABOs. FF significantly buffered (p < 0.05) the negative impact of maternal cortisol on birth weight, gestational age, and days in hospital for infants; that is, among women with relatively higher levels of prenatal cortisol, the intervention reduced ABOs. These results demonstrate that a psycho-educational program for couples reduces incidence of ABOs among higher risk women. Future work should test whether reduced maternal stress and depression mediate these intervention effects. PMID:24969352
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilting, Jens; Lehnertz, Klaus
2015-08-01
We investigate a recently published analysis framework based on Bayesian inference for the time-resolved characterization of interaction properties of noisy, coupled dynamical systems. It promises wide applicability and a better time resolution than well-established methods. At the example of representative model systems, we show that the analysis framework has the same weaknesses as previous methods, particularly when investigating interacting, structurally different non-linear oscillators. We also inspect the tracking of time-varying interaction properties and propose a further modification of the algorithm, which improves the reliability of obtained results. We exemplarily investigate the suitability of this algorithm to infer strength and direction of interactions between various regions of the human brain during an epileptic seizure. Within the limitations of the applicability of this analysis tool, we show that the modified algorithm indeed allows a better time resolution through Bayesian inference when compared to previous methods based on least square fits.
Sterile neutrino dark matter: Weak interactions in the strong coupling epoch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Hirata, Christopher M.
2016-08-01
We perform a detailed study of the weak interactions of standard model neutrinos with the primordial plasma and their effect on the resonant production of sterile neutrino dark matter. Motivated by issues in cosmological structure formation on small scales, and reported x-ray signals that could be due to sterile neutrino decay, we consider 7 keV-scale sterile neutrinos. Oscillation-driven production of such sterile neutrinos occurs at temperatures T ≳100 MeV , where we study two significant effects of weakly charged species in the primordial plasma: (1) the redistribution of an input lepton asymmetry; (2) the opacity for active neutrinos. We calculate the redistribution analytically above and below the quark-hadron transition, and match with lattice QCD calculations through the transition. We estimate opacities due to tree-level processes involving leptons and quarks above the quark-hadron transition, and the most important mesons below the transition. We report final sterile neutrino dark matter phase space densities that are significantly influenced by these effects, and yet relatively robust to remaining uncertainties in the nature of the quark-hadron transition. We also provide transfer functions for cosmological density fluctuations with cutoffs at k ≃10 h Mpc-1 , that are relevant to galactic structure formation.
Coupled interactions between tungsten surfaces and transient high-heat-flux deuterium plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takamura, S.; Uesugi, Y.
2015-03-01
Fundamental studies on the interactions between transient deuterium-plasma heat pulses and tungsten surfaces were carried out in terms of electrical, mechanical and thermal response in a compact plasma device AIT-PID (Aichi Institute of Technology-Plasma Irradiation Device). Firstly, electron-emission-induced surface-temperature increase is discussed in the surface-temperature range near tungsten's melting point, which is accomplished by controlling the sheath voltage and power transmission factor. Secondly, anomalous penetration of tungsten atomic efflux into the surrounding plasma was observed in addition to a normal layered population; it is discussed in terms of the effect of substantial tungsten influx into the deuterium plasma, which causes dissipation of plasma electron energy. Thirdly, a momentum input from pulsed plasma onto a tungsten target was observed visually. The force is estimated numerically by the accelerated ion flow to the target as well as the reaction of tungsten-vapour efflux. Finally, a discussion follows on the effects of the plasma heat pulses on the morphology of tungsten surface (originally a helium-induced ‘fuzzy’ nanostructure). A kind of bifurcated effect is obtained: melting and annealing. Open questions remain for all the phenomena observed, although sheath-voltage-dependent plasma-heat input may be a key parameter. Discussions on all these phenomena are provided by considering their implications to tokamak fusion devices.
Bai, Long; Zhang, Rong; Duan, Chen-Long
2012-01-01
: Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we theoretically study the Andreev reflection(AR) in a four-terminal Aharonov-Bohm interferometer containing a coupled double quantum dot with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the coherent indirect coupling via two ferromagnetic leads. When two ferromagnetic electrodes are in the parallel configuration, the spin-up conductance is equal to the spin-down conductance due to the absence of the RSOI. However, for the antiparallel alignment, the spin-polarized AR occurs resulting from the crossed AR (CAR) and the RSOI. The effects of the coherent indirect coupling, RSOI, and magnetic flux on the Andreev-reflected tunneling magnetoresistance are analyzed at length. The spin-related current is calculated, and a distinct swap effect emerges. Furthermore, the pure spin current can be generated due to the CAR when two ferromagnets become two half metals. It is found that the strong RSOI and the large indirect coupling are in favor of the CAR and the production of the strong spin current. The properties of the spin-related current are tunable in terms of the external parameters. Our results offer new ways to manipulate the spin-dependent transport. PMID:23228047
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, J.; Shimada, K.; Hayashi, H.; Iwasawa, H.; Aiura, Y.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.
2011-10-01
We examined the dimensionless coupling parameters of many-body interactions for a free-electron-like surface-derived state in Al(100) by means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A kink structure was found to exist in the energy-band dispersion near the Fermi level (EF), which was attributed to the electron-phonon interaction. At 50 K, the coupling parameters of the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions were estimated as λep=0.67±0.05 and λee˜0.003, respectively, indicating that the effective mass enhancement was mainly derived from the electron-phonon interaction. The temperature dependence of the kink structure, as measured by λep(T), was consistent with a theoretical calculation based on the Eliashberg function. A quasiparticle peak with a width of 15-20 meV was found near EF, which was explained well by the simulated spectral function incorporating the self-energy evaluated in this study. We found that the electrons at the surface were strongly scattered by the defects at the surface and that the linewidth was significantly broadened (Γ0=0.238±0.006 eV).
Effective theory of interacting dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Mancarella, Michele; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-08-01
We present a unifying treatment of dark energy and modified gravity that allows distinct conformal-disformal couplings of matter species to the gravitational sector. In this very general approach, we derive the conditions to avoid ghost and gradient instabilities. We compute the equations of motion for background quantities and linear perturbations. We illustrate our formalism with two simple scenarios, where either cold dark matter or a relativistic fluid is nonminimally coupled. This extends previous studies of coupled dark energy to a much broader spectrum of gravitational theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Mino; Skinner, J. L.
2011-10-01
The time-averaging approximation (TAA), originally developed to calculate vibrational line shapes for coupled chromophores using mixed quantum/classical methods, is reformulated. In the original version of the theory, time averaging was performed for the full one-exciton Hamiltonian, while herein the time averaging is performed on the coupling (off-diagonal) Hamiltonian in the interaction picture. As a result, the influence of the dynamic fluctuations of the transition energies is more accurately described. We compare numerical results of the two versions of the TAA with numerically exact results for the vibrational absorption line shape of the OH stretching modes in neat water. It is shown that the TAA in the interaction picture yields theoretical line shapes that are in better agreement with exact results.
Analysis of Inlet-Compressor Acoustic Interactions Using Coupled CFD Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suresh, A.; Townsend, S. E.; Cole, G. L.; Slater, J. W.; Chima, R.
1998-01-01
A problem that arises in the numerical simulation of supersonic inlets is the lack of a suitable boundary condition at the engine face. In this paper, a coupled approach, in which the inlet computation is coupled dynamically to a turbomachinery computation, is proposed as a means to overcome this problem. The specific application chosen for validation of this approach is the collapsing bump experiment performed at the University of Cincinnati. The computed results are found to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The coupled simulation results could also be used to aid development of a simplified boundary condition.
Strongly coupled interaction between a ridge of fluid and an inviscid airflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paterson, C.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.
2015-07-01
The behaviour of a steady thin sessile or pendent ridge of fluid on an inclined planar substrate which is strongly coupled to the external pressure gradient arising from an inviscid airflow parallel to the substrate far from the ridge is described. When the substrate is nearly horizontal, a very wide ridge can be supported against gravity by capillary and/or external pressure forces; otherwise, only a narrower (but still wide) ridge can be supported. Classical thin-aerofoil theory is adapted to obtain the governing singular integro-differential equation for the profile of the ridge in each case. Attention is focused mainly on the case of a very wide sessile ridge. The effect of strengthening the airflow is to push a pinned ridge down near to its edges and to pull it up near to its middle. At a critical airflow strength, the upslope contact angle reaches the receding contact angle at which the upslope contact line de-pins, and continuing to increase the airflow strength beyond this critical value results in the de-pinned ridge becoming narrower, thicker, and closer to being symmetric in the limit of a strong airflow. The effect of tilting the substrate is to skew a pinned ridge in the downslope direction. Depending on the values of the advancing and receding contact angles, the ridge may first de-pin at either the upslope or the downslope contact line but, in general, eventually both contact lines de-pin. The special cases in which only one of the contact lines de-pins are also considered. It is also shown that the behaviour of a very wide pendent ridge is qualitatively similar to that of a very wide sessile ridge, while the important qualitative difference between the behaviour of a very wide ridge and a narrower ridge is that, in general, for the latter one or both of the contact lines may never de-pin.
Coupled interactions between volatile activity and Fe oxidation state during arc crustal processes
Humphreys, Madeleine C.S.; Brooker, R; Fraser, D.C.; Burgisser, A; Mangan, Margaret T.; McCammon, C
2015-01-01
Arc magmas erupted at the Earth’s surface are commonly more oxidized than those produced at mid-ocean ridges. Possible explanations for this high oxidation state are that the transfer of fluids during the subduction process results in direct oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge, or that oxidation is caused by the effect of later crustal processes, including protracted fractionation and degassing of volatile-rich magmas. This study sets out to investigate the effect of disequilibrium crustal processes that may involve coupled changes in H2O content and Fe oxidation state, by examining the degassing and hydration of sulphur-free rhyolites. We show that experimentally hydrated melts record strong increases in Fe3+/∑Fe with increasing H2O concentration as a result of changes in water activity. This is relevant for the passage of H2O-undersaturated melts from the deep crust towards shallow crustal storage regions, and raises the possibility that vertical variations in fO2 might develop within arc crust. Conversely, degassing experiments produce an increase in Fe3+/∑Fe with decreasing H2O concentration. In this case the oxidation is explained by loss of H2 as well as H2O into bubbles during decompression, consistent with thermodynamic modelling, and is relevant for magmas undergoing shallow degassing en route to the surface. We discuss these results in the context of the possible controls on fO2 during the generation, storage and ascent of magmas in arc settings, in particular considering the timescales of equilibration relative to observation as this affects the quality of the petrological record of magmatic fO2.
Rockstuhl, Carsten; Salt, Martin Guy; Herzig, Hans Peter
2003-10-01
The boundary-element method is applied to the interaction of light with resonant metallic nanoparticles. At a certain wavelength, excitation of a surface plasmon takes place, which leads to a resonantly enhanced near-field amplitude and a large scattering cross section. The resonance wavelength for different scatterer geometries is determined. Alteration of the scattering properties in the presence of other metallic nanoparticles is discussed. To treat this problem, a novel formulation of the boundary-element method is presented that solves the interaction problem for all the coupled particles. PMID:14570111
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiaramello, M.; Riconda, C.; Amiranoff, F.; Fuchs, J.; Grech, M.; Lancia, L.; Marquès, J.-R.; Vinci, T.; Weber, S.
2016-07-01
Plasma amplification of low energy, a short (˜100-500 fs) laser pulse by an energetic long (˜10 ps) pulse via strong coupling Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering is investigated with an extensive analysis of one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Parameters relevant to nowadays experimental conditions are investigated. The obtained seed pulse spectra are analyzed as a function of the interaction conditions such as plasma profile, pulses delay, and seed or pulse duration. The factors affecting the amount of energy transferred are determined, and the competition between Brillouin-based amplification and parasitic Raman backscattering is analyzed, leading to the optimization of the interaction conditions.
The Kondo Effect and Controlled Spin Entanglement in Coupled Double-Quantum-Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Albert M.
2005-07-01
Semiconductor double-quantum dots represent an ideal system for studying the novel spin physics of localized spins. On each quantum dot when the number of electrons is odd and the net spin is 1/2, a strong coupling of this localized spin to conducting electrons in the leads gives rise to Kondo correlation. On the other hand, in the coupled double-quantum-dot if the inter-dot antiferromagnetic interaction is strong, the two spins can form a correlated spin-singlet state, quenching the Kondo effect. This competition between Kondo and antiferromagnetic correlation is studied in a controlled manner by tuning the inter-dot tunnel coupling. Increasing the inter-dot tunneling, we observe a continuous transition from a single-peaked to a double-peaked Kondo resonance in the differential conductance. On the double-peaked side, the differential conductance becomes suppressed at zero source-drain bias. The observed strong suppression of the differential conductance at zero bias provides direct evidence signaling the formation of an entangled spin-singlet state. This evidence for entanglement and the tunability of our devices bode well for quantum computation applications.
Predicting the phonon spectra of coupled nonlinear chains using effective phonon theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang
2016-06-01
In general one-dimensional nonlinear lattices, extensive studies have discovered the existence of renormalized phonons due to nonlinear interactions and found these renormalized phonons, as the energy carriers, are responsible for heat transport. Within the framework of renormalized phonons, a generic form of renormalized phonon spectrum has been derived and effective phonon theory (EPT) has been developed to explain the heat transport in general 1D nonlinear lattices. Our attention is dedicated to generalizing the EPT for two-layer nonlinear lattices and deriving the analytic expression of phonon spectra. By calculating the phonon spectra of different coupled models with EPT, it is found that the phonon dispersion relation is in good agreement with the result obtained from the spectral energy density method. It is demonstrated that the EPT of a coupled system can predict the phonon spectra of two-layer nonlinear lattices well. Thus, this finding may shed light on the prediction of heat conduction behavior in a coupled system, qualitatively, and provide a useful guide for designing thermal devices.
Quasistatic Metamaterials: Magnetic Coupling Enhancement by Effective Space Cancellation.
Prat-Camps, Jordi; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro
2016-06-01
A novel and broadly applicable way to increase magnetic coupling between distant circuits in the quasistatic regime is introduced. It is shown how the use of magnetic metamaterials enhances the magnetic coupling between emitting and receiving coils. Results are experimentally demonstrated by measuring a boost on the efficiency of the wireless transmission of power between distant circuits. PMID:27120801
Effective Social Interaction Strategies for Inclusive Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terpstra, Judith E.; Tamura, Ronald
2008-01-01
Many strategies and interventions exist in the education of young children with disabilities. One area of intervention is that of social interaction, including social skills instruction, peer interaction strategies, and play skills. Interaction and social skill strategies for use with children with and without disabilities for the purpose of…
Effectiveness of Artistic Interaction through Video Conferencing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eristi, Suzan Duygu
2011-01-01
This study investigated Turkish and Canadian primary school students' ways of expressing their perception of interactive art education through video conferencing and that of cultural interaction through pictorial representations. The qualitative research data were collected in the form of pictures and interviews on interactive art education along…
Effect of chemical synapse on vibrational resonance in coupled neurons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Bin; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xile
2009-03-01
The response of three coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons, under high-frequency driving, to a subthreshold low-frequency signal is investigated. We show that an optimal amplitude of the high-frequency driving enhances the response of coupled excited neurons to a subthreshold low-frequency input, and the chemical synaptic coupling is more efficient than the well-known electrical coupling (gap junction), especially when the coupled neurons are near the canard regime, for local signal input, i.e., only one of the three neurons is subject to a low-frequency signal. The influence of additive noise and the interplay between vibrational and stochastic resonance are also analyzed.
Effect of spin-orbit couplings in graphene with and without potential modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakouri, Kh.; Masir, M. Ramezani; Jellal, A.; Choubabi, E. B.; Peeters, F. M.
2013-09-01
We investigate the effect of Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit couplings on the electronic properties and spin configurations of Dirac fermions confined in: (i) a flat graphene sheet, (ii) a graphene wire with p-n-p structure, and (iii) a superlattice of graphene wires. The interplay between the spin-orbit interaction mechanisms breaks the electron-hole symmetry and the spin configuration induced by Rashba spin-orbit coupling lacks inversion symmetry in k space. We show that the Rashba spin-orbit interaction doubles the Fabry-Pérot resonant modes in the transmission spectrum of a graphene wire and opens new channels for the electron transmission. Moreover, it leads to the appearance of spin split extra Dirac cones in the energy spectrum of a graphene superlattice. It is shown that the spin of the electrons and holes confined in a flat graphene sheet is always perpendicular to their motion while this is not the case for the other nanostructures.
Shepherd, James J; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E
2016-03-01
Over the past few years, pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has shown promise for the description of strong correlation. This promise is related to its apparent ability to match results from doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), even though the latter method has exponential computational cost. Here, by modifying the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to sample only the seniority zero sector of Hilbert space, we show that the DOCI and pCCD energies are in agreement for a variety of 2D Hubbard models, including for systems well out of reach for conventional configuration interaction algorithms. Our calculations are aided by the sign problem being much reduced in the seniority zero space compared with the full space. We present evidence for this and then discuss the sign problem in terms of the wave function of the system which appears to have a simplified sign structure. PMID:26957162
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shepherd, James J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.
2016-03-01
Over the past few years, pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has shown promise for the description of strong correlation. This promise is related to its apparent ability to match results from doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), even though the latter method has exponential computational cost. Here, by modifying the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to sample only the seniority zero sector of Hilbert space, we show that the DOCI and pCCD energies are in agreement for a variety of 2D Hubbard models, including for systems well out of reach for conventional configuration interaction algorithms. Our calculations are aided by the sign problem being much reduced in the seniority zero space compared with the full space. We present evidence for this and then discuss the sign problem in terms of the wave function of the system which appears to have a simplified sign structure.
Seismic effects of viscous Biot-coupling: Finite difference simulations on micro-scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saenger, E. H.; Shapiro, S. A.; Keehm, Y.
2005-07-01
This paper is concerned with numerical considerations of viscous fluid effects on wave propagation in porous media. We apply a displacement-stress rotated staggered finite-difference (FD) grid technique to solve the elastodynamic wave equation. An accurate approximation of a Newtonian fluid is implemented in this technique by using a generalized Maxwell body. With this approach we consider the velocity predictions of the Biot theory for elastic waves in different digital rock samples. To distinguish between the low and the high frequency range we estimate the effective permeabilities by a flow simulation. Our numerical results indicate that the viscous Biot-coupling is visible in the numerical experiments. Moreover, the influences of other solid-fluid interactions (e.g., Squirt flow) are also discussed.
Zhang, Xing; Herbert, John M.
2014-08-14
We revisit the calculation of analytic derivative couplings for configuration interaction singles (CIS), and derive and implement these couplings for its spin-flip variant for the first time. Our algorithm is closely related to the CIS analytic energy gradient algorithm and should be straightforward to implement in any quantum chemistry code that has CIS analytic energy gradients. The additional cost of evaluating the derivative couplings is small in comparison to the cost of evaluating the gradients for the two electronic states in question. Incorporation of an exchange-correlation term provides an ad hoc extension of this formalism to time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation, without the need to invoke quadratic response theory or evaluate third derivatives of the exchange-correlation functional. Application to several different conical intersections in ethylene demonstrates that minimum-energy crossing points along conical seams can be located at substantially reduced cost when analytic derivative couplings are employed, as compared to use of a branching-plane updating algorithm that does not require these couplings. Application to H{sub 3} near its D{sub 3h} geometry demonstrates that correct topology is obtained in the vicinity of a conical intersection involving a degenerate ground state.
Wilkinson, Ray; Lock, Sarah; Bryan, Karen; Sage, Karen
2011-02-01
This paper discusses the implementation and evaluation of an interaction-focused intervention single case study for a couple where one partner has aphasia. Drawing on conversation analytic research, naturally occurring conversations of the couple at home pre- and post-intervention were collected and analysed. Analysis of the speaker with aphasia's topic initiating turns in the pre-intervention conversation showed that in each case a feature of the attempt was that the speaker had difficulty in getting the topic initiation accepted and established. Drawing on conversation analytic work on topic initiations in normal conversation, intervention focused on training the couple to co-produce these topic initiating turns of the speaker with aphasia in a collaborative and step-by-step manner. Post-intervention, there was evidence that the couple were now using this new method, albeit in a slightly different way to that worked on in the intervention sessions. Drawing on work into adaptation by speakers with aphasia and their conversation partners, these results are discussed in terms of a process of mutual adaptation by the couple. PMID:21329413
Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.
Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo
2016-04-01
Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides. PMID:27099712
Next-to-leading order gravitational spin-orbit coupling in an effective field theory approach
Levi, Michele
2010-11-15
We use an effective field theory (EFT) approach to calculate the next-to-leading order (NLO) gravitational spin-orbit interaction between two spinning compact objects. The NLO spin-orbit interaction provides the most computationally complex sector of the NLO spin effects, previously derived within the EFT approach. In particular, it requires the inclusion of nonstationary cubic self-gravitational interaction, as well as the implementation of a spin supplementary condition (SSC) at higher orders. The EFT calculation is carried out in terms of the nonrelativistic gravitational field parametrization, making the calculation more efficient with no need to rely on automated computations, and illustrating the coupling hierarchy of the different gravitational field components to the spin and mass sources. Finally, we show explicitly how to relate the EFT derived spin results to the canonical results obtained with the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) Hamiltonian formalism. This is done using noncanonical transformations, required due to the implementation of covariant SSC, as well as canonical transformations at the level of the Hamiltonian, with no need to resort to the equations of motion or the Dirac brackets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Church, N. S.; Kasama, T.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.; Harrison, R. J.
2011-12-01
While single-domain and multidomain remanence are mature theories and are well supported by experiment, natural mineral samples may be influenced by processes that are not incorporated in these models. Particles exhibiting pseudo-single domain (PSD) behavior are frequently inferred using measurements such as Day et al. plots and first-order reversal curve diagrams of igneous and sedimentary rocks containing magnetite or greigite, yet an analogous model for PSD remanence is lacking, limiting the use of such samples as paleomagnetic recorders as well as quantitative characterisation of the magnetic grains. The role of interactions-magnetostatic or exchange-is similarly poorly understood in all but the simplest systems. This study presents direct observations of remanence states in mineral intergrowths which will be used to discuss the nature of the PSD state and systems with interacting particles and phases: questions of relevance both to paleomagnetists and the wider physics community. This study applies electron holography to synthetic titanomagnetite samples that reproduce grains that have undergone high-temperature oxidation, commonly observed in igneous rocks. The oxy-exsolved samples are dominated by submicron titanomagnetite grains intergrown with lamellae of titanohematite, which may be either paramagnetic, permitting the study of PSD behavior and magnetostatic interactions, or antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic, where exchange coupling can be a significant influence. Holography of magnetite and paramagnetic titanohematite shows that the PSD state can vary widely as a function of the applied field and the geometry of phases, including uniform magnetization and vortex states predicted by micromagnetic simulations. Particles that are uniformly magnetized may show strong magnetostatic interactions and can show a variety of switching mechanisms, including non-uniform rotation and domain walls spanning large regions of interacting particles. These observations
Simulations of ponderomotive effects in inductively coupled plasmas
Sydorenko, D.Y.; Smolyakov, A.I.; Tyshetskiy, Y.O.; Godyak, V.A.
2005-03-01
The electromagnetic quasineutral particle-in-cell code, simulating interaction of a plane electromagnetic wave with a plasma slab, is developed. The code is used to study the ponderomotive effects in a plasma with a finite temperature. Simulations in linear regime show the strong thermal reduction of the ponderomotive force, which is in a good agreement with the linear analytical theory. It is found that in the essentially nonlinear regime, when the electron trajectories are strongly modified, the amplitude of the ponderomotive force increases compared to the linear case, but remains lower than the classical cold plasma value. The transition from nonlinear to linear regime as a function of the amplitude of the driving electromagnetic field is investigated.
Song Fuzhan; Shen Xiangqian; Liu Mingquan; Xiang Jun
2012-01-15
SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SFO)/Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) composite ferrite nanofibers with diameters about 120 nm have been prepared by the electrospinning and calcination process. The SFO/NZFO composite ferrites are formed after calcined at 700 Degree-Sign C for 2 h and the composite nanofibers with various mass ratios obtained at 900 Degree-Sign C are fabricated from NZFO grains about 16-40 nm and SFO grains of 19-45 nm with a uniform phase distribution. With the SFO ferrite content increasing, the coercivity (H{sub c}) and remanence (M{sub r}) for the composite ferrite nanofibers initially increase, reaching maximum values of 379.8 kA/m (297 K) and 242.2 kA/m (77 K), 39.1 Am{sup 2}/kg (297 K) and 53.5 Am{sup 2}/kg (77 K), respectively, at a mass ratio (SFO:NZFO) of 4, and then show a reduction tendency with a further increase of the mass ratio. This enhancement in magnetic properties is attributed to the competition of the exchange-coupling interaction and the dipolar interaction in the composite nanofibers. - Graphical abstract: SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SFO)/Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) composite ferrite nanofibers with a uniform phase distribution show competition of the exchange-coupling interaction and the dipolar interaction in the composite nanofibers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite ferrite nanofibers have been prepared by the electrospinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic exchange-coupling interaction for these nanofibers were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofibers magnetic properties measured at 297 K and 77 K were discussed.
Azar, R. Julian; Head-Gordon, Martin
2012-01-14
We propose a wave function-based method for the decomposition of intermolecular interaction energies into chemically-intuitive components, isolating both mean-field- and explicit correlation-level contributions. We begin by solving the locally-projected self-consistent field for molecular interactions equations for a molecular complex, obtaining an intramolecularly polarized reference of self-consistently optimized, absolutely-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs), determined with the constraint that each fragment MO be composed only of atomic basis functions belonging to its own fragment. As explicit inter-electronic correlation is integral to an accurate description of weak forces underlying intermolecular interaction potentials, namely, coordinated fluctuations in weakly interacting electronic densities, we add dynamical correlation to the ALMO polarized reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level, accounting for explicit dispersion and charge-transfer effects, which map naturally onto the cluster operator. We demonstrate the stability of energy components with basis set extension, follow the hydrogen bond-breaking coordinate in the C{sub s}-symmetry water dimer, decompose the interaction energies of dispersion-bound rare gas dimers and other van der Waals complexes, and examine charge transfer-dominated donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts. We compare our results with high-level calculations and experiment when possible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Ron; Jiang, Xing-Jian; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Tropical Atlantic SST shows a (statistically well-defined) decadal time scale in a 104-year simulation of unforced variability by a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The SST anomalies superficially resemble observed Tropical Atlantic variability (TAV), and are associated with changes in the atmospheric circulation. Brazilian rainfall is modulated with a decadal time scale, along with the strength of the Atlantic trade winds, which are associated with variations in evaporation and the net surface heat flux. However, in contrast to observed tropical Atlantic variability, the trade winds damp the associated anomalies in ocean temperature, indicating a negative feedback. Tropical SST anomalies in the CGCM, though opposed by the surface heat flux, are advected in from the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. These variations modulate the strength of the thermohaline circulation (THC): warm, salty anomalies at the equator sink drawing cold, fresh mid-latitude water. Upon reaching the equator, the latter inhibit vertical overturning and advection from higher latitudes, which allows warm, salty anomalies to reform, returning the cycle to its original state. Thus, the cycle results from advection of density anomalies and the effect of these anomalies upon the rate of vertical overturning and surface advection. This decadal modulation of Tropical Atlantic SST and the thermohaline circulation is correlated with ocean heat transport to the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and Norwegian Sea SST. Because of the central role of equatorial convection, we question whether this mechanism is present in the current climate, although we speculate that it may have operated in palaeo times, depending upon the stability of the tropical water column.
Effect of double layers on magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lysak, Robert L.; Hudson, Mary K.
1987-01-01
The Earth's auroral zone contains dynamic processes occurring on scales from the length of an auroral zone field line which characterizes Alfven wave propagation to the scale of microscopic processes which occur over a few Debye lengths. These processes interact in a time-dependent fashion since the current carried by the Alfven waves can excite microscopic turbulence which can in turn provide dissipation of the Alfven wave energy. This review will first describe the dynamic aspects of auroral current structures with emphasis on consequences for models of microscopic turbulence. A number of models of microscopic turbulence will be introduced into a large-scale model of Alfven wave propagation to determine the effect of various models on the overall structure of auroral currents. In particular, the effects of a double layer electric field which scales with the plasma temperature and Debye length is compared with the effect of anomalous resistivity due to electrostatic ion cyclotron turbulence in which the electric field scales with the magnetic field strength. It is found that the double layer model is less diffusive than in the resistive model leading to the possibility of narrow, intense current structures.
Superconductor disorder and strong proximity coupling effects in Majorana nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, William; Sau, Jay
Topological superconductivity induced by proximity to a conventional superconductor is only robust against moderate disorder in the parent superconductor, and only when the energy scale of the interface coupling is much smaller than the parent gap. I present detailed calculations of proximity-induced superconductivity in one-dimensional, spin-orbit coupled, semiconductor nanowires when the parent superconductor disorder and interface coupling exceed this limit. This parameter regime is characterized by unique spectroscopic signatures on both sides of the external field tuned topological phase transition. This work is supported by LPS-MPO-CMTC, Microsoft Q, and JQI-NSF-PFC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majda, Andrew J.; Khouider, Boualem; Frenkel, Yevgeniy
2015-02-01
Atmospheric convection has the striking capability to organize itself into a hierarchy of cloud clusters and super-clusters on scales ranging from the convective cell of a few kilometres to planetary scale disturbances such as the Madden-Julian oscillation. It is widely accepted that this phenomenon is due in large part to the two-way coupling between convective processes and equatorially trapped waves and planetary scale flows in general. However, the physical mechanisms responsible for this multiscale organization and the associated across-scale interactions are poorly understood. The two main peculiarities of the tropics are the vanishing of the Coriolis force at the equator and the abundance of mid-level moisture. Here we test the effect of these two physical properties on the organization of convection and its interaction with gravity waves in a simplified primitive equation model for flows parallel to the equator. Convection is represented by deterministic as well as stochastic multicloud models that are known to represent organized convection and convectively coupled waves quite well. It is found here that both planetary rotation and mid-troposphere moisture are important players in the diminishing of organized convection and convectively coupled gravity wave activity in the subtropics and mid-latitudes. The meridional mean circulation increases with latitude while the mean zonal circulation is much shallower and is dominated by mid-level jets, reminiscent of a second baroclinic mode circulation associated with a congestus mode instability in the model. This is consistent with the observed shallow Hadley and Walker circulations accompanied by congestus cloud decks in the higher latitude tropics and sub-tropics. Moreover, deep convection activity in the stochastic model simulations becomes very patchy and unorganized as the computational domain is pushed towards the subtropics and mid-latitudes. This is consistent with previous work based on cloud resolving
Álvarez, Yanina D.; Belingheri, Ana Verónica; Perez Bay, Andrés E.; Javis, Scott E.; Tedford, H. William; Zamponi, Gerald; Marengo, Fernando D.
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted that the immediately releasable pool is a group of readily releasable vesicles that are closely associated with voltage dependent Ca2+ channels. We have previously shown that exocytosis of this pool is specifically coupled to P/Q Ca2+ current. Accordingly, in the present work we found that the Ca2+ current flowing through P/Q-type Ca2+ channels is 8 times more effective at inducing exocytosis in response to short stimuli than the current carried by L-type channels. To investigate the mechanism that underlies the coupling between the immediately releasable pool and P/Q-type channels we transiently expressed in mouse chromaffin cells peptides corresponding to the synaptic protein interaction site of Cav2.2 to competitively uncouple P/Q-type channels from the secretory vesicle release complex. This treatment reduced the efficiency of Ca2+ current to induce exocytosis to similar values as direct inhibition of P/Q-type channels via ω-agatoxin-IVA. In addition, the same treatment markedly reduced immediately releasable pool exocytosis, but did not affect the exocytosis provoked by sustained electric or high K+ stimulation. Together, our results indicate that the synaptic protein interaction site is a crucial factor for the establishment of the functional coupling between immediately releasable pool vesicles and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:23382986
Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.
2009-01-01
Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…
Chung, Stephen; Vafai, Kambiz
2014-01-01
The effects of hyperthermia, coupling attributes and property variations on Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport within a multi-layered wall while accounting for the fluid structure interaction (FSI) is analyzed in this work. To understand the potential impact of the hyperthermia process, thermo-induced attributes are incorporated, accounting for the plasma flow, mass transfer, as well as the elastic wall structure. The coupling effect of osmotic pressure, Soret and Dufour diffusion is discussed and their influence on LDL transport is examined, demonstrating that only the Soret effect needs to be accounted for. The effect of thermal expansion on changing the behavior of flow, mass transport, and elastic structure is illustrated and analyzed while incorporating the variations in the effective LDL diffusivity and consumption rate, as well as other dominating parameters. It is shown that hyperthermia results in an enhancement in LDL transport by increasing the concentration levels within the arterial wall. PMID:24183548
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, David; Peterson, Sean D.
2012-11-01
Voiced speech is a complex process that involves coupled interactions between expelled air and the vocal fold structure. Numerical simulations of this process are difficult due to the unsteady nature of the flow and boundary conditions, while experimental investigations are generally limited in the structural modeling. To bridge this gap, an experimental platform is investigated that couples a mechanical flow facility featuring instrumented and actuated walls, with a numerical structure solver. Specifically, a proof-of-concept experimental apparatus consisting of a flat plate oriented normal to a uniform jet is developed. The plate is instrumented with pressure sensors, which record the pressure distribution caused by the impinging jet. A real-time controller reads the pressure distribution and computes the integrated force on the plate. The resulting force is applied to a numerical structure model comprising a spring-mass-damper system, in which the dynamical parameters can be adjusted in software. The axial position and velocity of the plate are updated in real time based upon the numerical dynamics solution. In the future, this experimental facility will be extended to model two degrees of freedom asymmetric vocal fold motion with full fluid coupling. Pressure sensors distributed across the solid interface, as opposed to direct force sensors, will help explicate the effect of fluid-structure coupling on tissue loading and flow properties, thus allowing for more detailed validation and improvement of computational models.
Note on anomalous Higgs-boson couplings in effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchalla, G.; Catà, O.; Celis, A.; Krause, C.
2015-11-01
We propose a parametrization of anomalous Higgs-boson couplings that is both systematic and practical. It is based on the electroweak chiral Lagrangian, including a light Higgs boson, as the effective field theory (EFT) at the electroweak scale v. This is the appropriate framework for the case of sizeable deviations in the Higgs couplings of order 10% from the Standard Model, considered to be parametrically larger than new-physics effects in the sector of electroweak gauge interactions. The role of power counting in identifying the relevant parameters is emphasized. The three relevant scales, v, the scale of new Higgs dynamics f, and the cut-off Λ = 4 πf, admit expansions in ξ =v2 /f2 and f2 /Λ2. The former corresponds to an organization of operators by their canonical dimension, the latter by their loop order or chiral dimension. In full generality the EFT is thus organized as a double expansion. However, as long as ξ ≫ 1 / 16π2 the EFT systematics is closer to the chiral counting. The leading effects in the consistent approximation provided by the EFT, relevant for the presently most important processes of Higgs production and decay, are given by a few (typically six) couplings. These parameters allow us to describe the properties of the Higgs boson in a general and systematic way, and with a precision adequate for the measurements to be performed at the LHC. The framework can be systematically extended to include loop corrections and higher-order terms in the EFT.
Pairing interaction effects in exciton level densities
Fu, C.Y.
1989-01-01
Recent progress in pairing corrections for exciton state-density formulas used in pre-compound nuclear reaction theories is reviewed. These correction factors are, strictly speaking, dependent on the nuclear excitation energy U and the exciton number n. A simple formula for (U,n)-dependent pairing corrections has been derived, based on the BCS pairing equations for constant single-particle spacing, for the exciton state-density formula for one kind of Fermion. It has been shown that the constant-pairing-energy correction used in standard state-density formulas, such U{sub 0} in Gilbert and Cameron, is a limiting case of the general (U,n)-dependent results. Spin cutoff factors with pairing effects were also obtained using the same theory and parameterized into an explicit (U,n)-dependent function, thereby defining a simple exciton level-density formula for applications in quantum mechanical precompound theories. Preliminary results from extending such simple pairing-interaction representations to level-density formulas for two kinds of Fermions are summarized. The results show that the ratios in the exciton level densities in the one-Fermion and two-Fermion approaches vary with both U and n, thus likely leading to differences in calculated compound to precompound ratios. However, the differences in the spin cutoff factors in the two cases are found to be rather small. 12 refs., 3 figs.
Interaction of free fatty acids with mitochondria: coupling, uncoupling and permeability transition.
Di Paola, Marco; Lorusso, Michele
2006-01-01
Long chain free fatty acids (FFA) exert, according to their actual concentration, different effects on the energy conserving system of mitochondria. Sub-micromolar concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) rescue DeltapH-dependent depression of the proton pumping activity of the bc1 complex. This effect appears to be due to a direct interaction of AA with the proton-input mouth of the pump. At micromolar concentrations FFA increase the proton conductance of the inner membrane acting as protonophores. FFA can act as natural uncouplers, causing a mild uncoupling, which prevents reactive oxygen species production in the respiratory resting state. When Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria are exposed to micromolar concentrations of FFA, the permeability of the inner membrane increases, resulting in matrix swelling, rupture of the outer membrane and release of intermembrane pro-apoptotic proteins. The characteristics of AA-induced swelling appear markedly different in mitochondria isolated from heart or liver. While in the latter it presents the canonical features of the classical permeability transition (PT), in heart mitochondria substantial differences are observed concerning CsA sensitivity, DeltaPsi dependence, reversibility by BSA and specificity for the activating divalent cation. In heart mitochondria, the AA-dependent increase of the inner membrane permeability is affected by ANT ligands such as adenine nucleotides and atractyloside. AA apparently causes a Ca2+-mediated conversion of ANT from a translocator to a channel system. Upon diamide treatment of heart mitochondria, the Ca2+/AA-induced CsA insensitive channel is converted into the classical PT pore. The relevance of these observations in terms of tissue-specific components of the putative PTP and heart ischemic and post-ischemic process is discussed. PMID:16697347
Ion-mediated interactions between net-neutral slabs: Weak and strong disorder effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf
2015-12-01
We investigate the effective interaction between two randomly charged but otherwise net-neutral, planar dielectric slabs immersed in an asymmetric Coulomb fluid containing a mixture of mobile monovalent and multivalent ions. The presence of charge disorder on the apposed bounding surfaces of the slabs leads to substantial qualitative changes in the way they interact, as compared with the standard picture provided by the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions. While, the latter predict purely attractive interactions between strictly neutral slabs, we show that the combined effects from surface charge disorder, image depletion, Debye (or salt) screening, and also, in particular, their coupling with multivalent ions, give rise to a more diverse behavior for the effective interaction between net-neutral slabs at nano-scale separations. Disorder effects show large variation depending on the properly quantified strength of disorder, leading either to non-monotonic effective interaction with both repulsive and attractive branches when the surface charges are weakly disordered (small disorder variance) or to a dominating attractive interaction that is larger both in its range and magnitude than what is predicted from the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions, when the surfaces are strongly disordered (large disorder variance).
Ion-mediated interactions between net-neutral slabs: Weak and strong disorder effects.
Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf
2015-12-21
We investigate the effective interaction between two randomly charged but otherwise net-neutral, planar dielectric slabs immersed in an asymmetric Coulomb fluid containing a mixture of mobile monovalent and multivalent ions. The presence of charge disorder on the apposed bounding surfaces of the slabs leads to substantial qualitative changes in the way they interact, as compared with the standard picture provided by the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions. While, the latter predict purely attractive interactions between strictly neutral slabs, we show that the combined effects from surface charge disorder, image depletion, Debye (or salt) screening, and also, in particular, their coupling with multivalent ions, give rise to a more diverse behavior for the effective interaction between net-neutral slabs at nano-scale separations. Disorder effects show large variation depending on the properly quantified strength of disorder, leading either to non-monotonic effective interaction with both repulsive and attractive branches when the surface charges are weakly disordered (small disorder variance) or to a dominating attractive interaction that is larger both in its range and magnitude than what is predicted from the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions, when the surfaces are strongly disordered (large disorder variance). PMID:26696064
An investigation of the effects of pitch-roll (de)-coupling on helicopter handling qualities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ockier, C. J.; Pausder, H. J.; Blanken, C. L.
1995-01-01
An investigation of the effects of pitch-roll coupling on helicopter handling qualities was performed by the US Army and DLR, using a NASA ground-based and a DLR inflight simulator. Over 90 different coupling configurations were evaluated using a roll-axis tracking task. The results show that although the current ADS-33C coupling criterion discriminates against those types of coupling typical of conventionally controlled helicopters, it not always suited for the prediction of handling qualities of helicopters with modern control systems. Based on the observation that high frequency inputs during tracking are used to alleviate coupling, a frequency domain pitch-roll coupling criterion that uses the average coupling ratio between the bandwidth and neutral stability frequency is formulated. This criterion provides a more comprehensive coverage with respect to the different types of coupling and shows excellent consistency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rockwell, Donald
1999-01-01
This program has involved, first of all, a critical state-of-the-art assessment of vortex-body interactions. Then, efforts were focused on experimental investigation on coupled-wake instabilities and turbulence occurring in a two-cylinder system. An extensive review was undertaken on the effect of incident vortices on various types of bodies. These incident vortices have a length scale of the same order of magnitude as the scale of the body. The body can take on various forms, including, for example, a circular cylinder, a blade or a wing. The classes of vortex-body interaction that were critically assessed include: (1) Periodic distortion of the incident (primary) vortex and shedding of secondary vorticity from the surface of the body. (2) Modulated vortex distortion and shedding at a leading-edge or surface due to incidence of a complex system of vortices. (3) Vortex distortion and shedding in presence of body oscillation. (4) Three-dimensional vortex interaction and shedding. For all of these classes of vortex-body interaction, quantitative topologies of the vorticity distributions and streamline patterns were found to be central to a unified description of mechanisms of vortex distortion and shedding. In most cases, it was possible to define relationships between vortex interactions and unsteady loading at the body surface. This phase of the program was an experimental investigation of a two-cylinder system, which simulated a central aspect of a four-wheel bogie on a large-scale commercial aircraft. The overall aim of this experimental research program was to determine the crucial elements of the unsteadiness in the gap and near-wake regions as a function of time using cinema-based techniques. During the research program, various image evaluation techniques were employed. They involved assessment of instantaneous velocity fields, streamline topology and patterns of vorticity. Experiments were performed in a large-scale water channel using a high
A Comparison of Interactively Coupled Paleoclimate-Vegetation Models With the Vegetation Record
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batra, P.; Pollard, D.; Barron, E.
2001-05-01
Climate-vegetation interactions are a key ingredient in understanding Earth system history. Vegetation models used to explore past climate and past vegetation distributions are largely based on modern plant-climate relationships. This study explores the application of four such models, each built upon different assumptions and parameters, and determines how well each model reproduces past records. In addition, this approach enables an exploration of the potential influence of vegetation on paleoclimates. The four vegetation models (the BIOME 3.5 model of Haxeltine and Prentice (1996), the simple dynamic vegetation model of Cosgrove (1998), the EVE model of Bergengren et al. (2001) and the IBIS model of Foley et al. (1996)) were run interactively with a general circulation model (GCM) of the atmosphere for four time periods. The GCM utilized is GENESIS 2.0, designed for paleoclimate studies. The four time periods for which all four vegetation models are employed are the Early Miocene, Oxygen Isotope Stage Three (warm and cool phases) between 30,000 and 42,000 years ago, and the Last Glacial Maximum. Differences between parameterizations include differences in the number of vegetation types in each model, the inclusion in some models of the influence of atmospheric CO2 levels on the growth of C3 versus C4 vegetation and on stomatal conductance, and whether the models focus on the equilibrium or dynamic state of ecosystems. Preliminary results indicate only small differences in globally-averaged mean annual temperature and precipitation values, suggesting that all models have almost the same effect on the climate. There are differences, however, in how accurately each model reproduces the paleorecord. For example, in the Miocene simulations, when compared to the data of Wolfe (1985), the SDVM model underpredicts the presence of deciduous vegetation in North America, while the EVE model underpredicts the presence of coniferous forest in Eurasia. In the Last Glacial
Colo, Gianluca; Bortignon, Pier Francesco; Sagawa, Hiroyuki
2010-12-15
We discuss calculations of the single-particle states in magic nuclei, performed within the particle-vibration coupling (PVC) approach by using consistently the Skyrme effective interaction. The vibrations are calculated within fully self-consistent random-phase approximation and the whole interaction is also used in the PVC vertex. Our main emphasis is therefore the discussion of our results in comparison with those in which some approximation is made. The perspectives for improving current density functional theory (DFT) calculations are also addressed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tu, Eugene L.
1992-01-01
The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically to investigate the effects of canard vertical position on a close-coupled canard-wing-body configuration at a transonic Mach number of 0.90 and angles of attack ranging from -2 to 12 degrees. Canard-wing interactions are investigated for high-, mid- and low-canard positions. The computational results show favorable canard-wing interactions for the high- and mid-canard configurations. The unfavorable lift and drag characteristics for the low-canard configuration are examined by analyses of the low-canard flowfield structure.
Influence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the Kondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Arturo; Ulloa, Sergio E.; Sandler, Nancy; Ingersent, Kevin
2016-02-01
An Anderson model for a magnetic impurity in a two-dimensional electron gas with bulk Rashba spin-orbit interaction is solved using the numerical renormalization group under two different experimental scenarios. For a fixed Fermi energy, the Kondo temperature TK varies weakly with Rashba coupling λR, as reported previously. If instead the band filling is low and held constant, increasing λR can drive the system into a helical regime with exponential enhancement of TK. Under either scenario, thermodynamic properties at low temperatures T exhibit the same dependencies on T /TK as are found for λR=0 . Unlike the conventional Kondo effect, however, the impurity exhibits static spin correlations with conduction electrons of nonzero orbital angular momentum about the impurity site. We also consider a magnetic field that Zeeman splits the conduction band but not the impurity level, an effective picture that arises under a proposed route to access the helical regime in a driven system. The impurity contribution to the system's ground-state angular momentum is found to be a universal function of the ratio of the Zeeman energy to a temperature scale that is not TK (as would be the case in a magnetic field that couples directly to the impurity spin), but rather is proportional to TK divided by the impurity hybridization width. This universal scaling is explained via a perturbative treatment of field-induced changes in the electronic density of states.