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Sample records for interbody lumbar fusions

  1. [Mechanical studies of lumbar interbody fusion implants].

    PubMed

    Bader, R J; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Mittelmeier, W; Bertagnoli, R; Gradinger, R

    2002-05-01

    In addition to autogenous or allogeneic bone grafts, fusion cages composed of metal or plastic are being used increasingly as spacers for interbody fusion of spinal segments. The goal of this study was the mechanical testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) fusion cages used for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. With a special testing device according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, the mechanical properties of the implants were determined under four different loading conditions. The implants (UNION cages, Medtronic Sofamor Danek) provide sufficient axial compression, shear, and torsional strength of the implant body. Ultimate axial compression load of the fins is less than the physiological compression loads at the lumbar spine. Therefore by means of an appropriate surgical technique parallel grooves have to be reamed into the endplates of the vertebral bodies according to the fin geometry. Thereby axial compression forces affect the implants body and the fins are protected from damaging loading. Using a supplementary anterior or posterior instrumentation, in vivo failure of the fins as a result of physiological shear and torsional spinal loads is unlikely. Due to specific complications related to autogenous or allogeneic bone grafts, fusion cages made of metal or carbon fiber reinforced plastic are an important alternative implant in interbody fusion.

  2. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ .

  3. Instrumented Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Adult Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ching-Hsiao; Wang, Chen-Ti

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether using artificial cages increases fusion rates compared with use of bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. We hypothesized artificial cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion would provide better clinical and radiographic outcomes than bone chips alone. We assumed solid fusion would provide good clinical outcomes. We clinically and radiographically followed 34 patients with spondylolisthesis having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with mixed autogenous and allogeneic bone chips alone and 42 patients having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of artificial cages packed with morselized bone graft. Patients with the artificial cage had better functional improvement in the Oswestry disability index than those with bone chips alone, whereas pain score, patient satisfaction, and fusion rate were similar in the two groups. Postoperative disc height ratio, slip ratio, and segmental lordosis all decreased at final followup in the patients with bone chips alone but remained unchanged in the artificial cage group. The functional outcome correlated with radiographic fusion status. We conclude artificial cages provide better functional outcomes and radiographic improvement than bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis, although both techniques achieved comparable fusion rates. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18846411

  4. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Jeffrey D; Zucherman, James F; Kucharzyk, Donald W; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Miller, Larry E; Kunwar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. PMID:27729817

  5. Current Status of Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; FUNAKOSHI, Yusuke; OICHI, Yuki; KAWAOKA, Taigo; WATANABE, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented lumbar fusion can provide immediate stability and assist in satisfactory arthrodesis in patients who have pain or instability of the lumbar spine. Lumbar adjunctive fusion with decompression is often a good procedure for surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Among various lumbar fusion techniques, lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) has an advantage in that it maintains favorable lumbar alignment and provides successful fusion with the added effect of indirect decompression. This technique has been widely used and represents an advancement in spinal instrumentation, although the rationale and optimal type of LIF for DS remains controversial. We evaluated the current status and role of LIF in DS treatment, mainly as a means to augment instrumentation. We addressed the basic concept of LIF, its indications, and various types including minimally invasive techniques. It also has acceptable biomechanical features, and offers reconstruction with ideal lumbar alignment. Postsurgical adverse events related to each LIF technique are also addressed. PMID:27169496

  6. Lumbar facet cyst resolution following anterior interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Massey, Gene M; Caputo, Adam M; Michael, Keith W; Isaacs, Robert E; Brown, Christopher R

    2013-12-01

    Facet cysts are a relatively common source of neural compression in the lumbar spine. Open decompression and fusion are frequently used to treat the stenosis and instability associated with this pathology. Recently, anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has increased in popularity for the treatment of lumbar degenerative conditions. ALIF may achieve indirect decompression of the neural elements with less surgical morbidity than conventional open approaches. To date, there are no published reports describing the use of indirect decompression or interbody fusion for the treatment of facet cysts. We report a patient who developed an L4-L5 facet cyst secondary to degenerative changes and spondylolisthesis. ALIF with posterior instrumentation was used to address his condition. Six months after surgery, the patient had complete resolution of his symptoms. MRI revealed complete resolution of the facet cyst. This patient provides previously unreported evidence that interbody fusion alone may result in facet cyst resolution. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate if interbody fusion can consistently relieve the symptoms associated with facet cysts without the use of direct decompression.

  7. Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Two-Year Results with a Modular Interbody Device

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, Chevas; Chung, Woosik M.; Chappuis, James L; Freedman, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To present radiographic outcomes following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) utilizing a modular interbody device. Overview of Literature Though multiple anterior lumbar interbody techniques have proven successful in promoting bony fusion, postoperative subsidence remains a frequently reported phenomenon. Methods Forty-three consecutive patients underwent ALIF with (n=30) or without (n=11) supplemental instrumentation. Two patients underwent ALIF to treat failed posterior instrumented fusion. The primary outcome measure was presence of fusion as assessed by computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were lordosis, intervertebral lordotic angle (ILA), disc height, subsidence, Bridwell fusion grade, technical complications and pain score. Interobserver reliability of radiographic outcome measures was calculated. Results Forty-three patients underwent ALIF of 73 motion segments. ILA and disc height increased over baseline, and this persisted through final follow-up (p<0.01). Solid anterior interbody fusion was present in 71 of 73 motion segments (97%). The amount of new bone formation in the interbody space increased over serial imaging. Subsidence >4 mm occurred in 12% of patients. There were eight surgical complications (19%): one major (reoperation for nonunion/progressive subsidence) and seven minor (five subsidence, two malposition). Conclusions The use of a modular interbody device for ALIF resulted in a high rate of radiographic fusion and a low rate of subsidence. The large endplate and modular design of the device may contribute to a low rate of subsidence as well as maintenance of ILA and lordosis. Previously reported quantitative radiographic outcome measures were found to be more reliable than qualitative or categorical measures. PMID:25346811

  8. Review of early clinical results and complications associated with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF).

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Maharaj, Monish; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-09-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion represents an effective surgical intervention for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, pseudoarthrosis and spinal deformities. Traditionally, conventional open anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion techniques have been employed with excellent results, but each with their own advantages and caveats. Most recently, the antero-oblique trajectory has been introduced, providing yet another corridor to access the lumbar spine. Termed the oblique lumbar interbody fusion, this approach accesses the spine between the anterior vessels and psoas muscles, avoiding both sets of structures to allow efficient clearance of the disc space and application of a large interbody device to afford distraction for foraminal decompression and endplate preparation for rapid and thorough fusion. This review aims to summarize the early clinical results and complications of this new technique and discusses potential future directions of research.

  9. Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Vastardis, Georgios; Zelenakova, Julia; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M.; Waldorff, Erik I.; Zindrick, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) will function biomechanically similar to a traditional anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) plus posterior instrumentation (FIREBIRD, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX). Purpose of this study was to determine if an Integrated Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA) can stabilize single motion segments as well as an anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL) + pedicle screw construct (FIREBIRD). Methods Eight cadaveric lumbar spines (age: 43.9±4.3 years) were used. Each specimen's range of motion was tested in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) under intact condition, after L4-L5 PILLAR SA with intervertebral screws and after L4-L5 360° fusion (PILLAR AL + Pedicle Screws and rods (FIREBIRD). Each specimen was tested in flexion (8Nm) and extension (6Nm) without preload (0 N) and under 400N of preload, in lateral bending (±6 Nm) and axial rotation (±5 Nm) without preload. Results Integrated fusion using the PILLAR SA device demonstrated statistically significant reductions in range of motion of the L4-L5 motion segment as compared to the intact condition for each test direction. PILLAR SA reduced ROM from 8.9±1.9 to 2.9±1.1° in FE with 400N follower preload (67.4%), 8.0±1.7 to 2.5±1.1° in LB, and 2.2±1.2 to 0.7±0.3° in AR. A comparison between the PILLAR SA integrated fusion device versus 360° fusion construct with spacer and bilateral pedicle screws was statistically significant in FE and LB. The 360° fusion yielded motion of 1.0±0.5° in FE, 1.0±0.8° in LB (p0.05). Conclusions The PILLAR SA resulted in motions of less than 3° in all modes of motion and was not as motion restricting as the traditional 360° using bilateral pedicle screws. The residual segmental motions compare very favorably with published biomechanical studies of other interbody integrated fusion devices. PMID:25694931

  10. Subsidence of metal interbody cage after posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Ajiro, Yasumitsu; Umezawa, Natsuki

    2009-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion is considered to be an excellent fusion procedure to stabilize anterior support, correct alignment in the sagittal and coronal plane, and achieve foraminal decompression by lifting the disk height. The metal interbody cage in posterior lumbar interbody fusion is thought to be useful to prevent collapse of the graft bone and to correct and maintain disk height; however, some studies have noted a gradual decrease of disk height due to cage subsidence. Therefore, to investigate the significance of cage subsidence, 86 disk levels radiographically confirmed to have good union in 66 patients with posterior lumbar interbody fusion combined with pedicle screw fixation and a single metal cage for degenerative lumbar disease were retrospectively evaluated. The follow-up period ranged from 3 years to 10 years 3 months, with a mean of 7 years 9 months. Cage subsidence often showed a gradual increase over time. At final follow-up, subsidence averaged 4.0 mm on the cranial surface and 2.7 mm on the caudal surface. Although the average increase of disk height was 3.2 mm immediately postoperatively, the final disk height decreased by 4.2 mm on average from that time. The degree of cage subsidence and decrease of disk height were not correlated with the final clinical results. Subsidence was not correlated with bone mineral density in the vertebral body, body weight, or site of the insertion. On the other hand, the wedge shape of the cage and the thickness of the resected endplate had a significant influence on cage subsidence.

  11. Lumbar interbody fusion: techniques, indications and comparison of interbody fusion options including PLIF, TLIF, MI-TLIF, OLIF/ATP, LLIF and ALIF

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Malham, Greg; Seex, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine is common in the ageing population, and is one of the most frequent causes of disability. Lumbar spondylosis may result in mechanical back pain, radicular and claudicant symptoms, reduced mobility and poor quality of life. Surgical interbody fusion of degenerative levels is an effective treatment option to stabilize the painful motion segment, and may provide indirect decompression of the neural elements, restore lordosis and correct deformity. The surgical options for interbody fusion of the lumbar spine include: posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF), oblique lumbar interbody fusion/anterior to psoas (OLIF/ATP), lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The indications may include: discogenic/facetogenic low back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy due to foraminal stenosis, lumbar degenerative spinal deformity including symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis. In general, traditional posterior approaches are frequently used with acceptable fusion rates and low complication rates, however they are limited by thecal sac and nerve root retraction, along with iatrogenic injury to the paraspinal musculature and disruption of the posterior tension band. Minimally invasive (MIS) posterior approaches have evolved in an attempt to reduce approach related complications. Anterior approaches avoid the spinal canal, cauda equina and nerve roots, however have issues with approach related abdominal and vascular complications. In addition, lateral and OLIF techniques have potential risks to the lumbar plexus and psoas muscle. The present study aims firstly to comprehensively review the available literature and evidence for different lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) techniques. Secondly, we propose a set of recommendations and guidelines

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of lateral lumbar interbody fusion with secondary augmentation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marco T; Reyes, Phillip M; Bse; Altun, Idris; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Singh, Vaneet; Chang, Steve W; Kelly, Brian P; Crawford, Neil R

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) has emerged as a popular method for lumbar fusion. In this study the authors aimed to quantify the biomechanical stability of an interbody implant inserted using the LLIF approach with and without various supplemental fixation methods, including an interspinous plate (IP). METHODS Seven human cadaveric L2-5 specimens were tested intact and in 6 instrumented conditions. The interbody implant was intended to be used with supplemental fixation. In this study, however, the interbody was also tested without supplemental fixation for a relative comparison of these conditions. The instrumented conditions were as follows: 1) interbody implant without supplemental fixation (LLIF construct); and interbody implant with supplemental fixation performed using 2) unilateral pedicle screws (UPS) and rod (LLIF + UPS construct); 3) bilateral pedicle screws (BPS) and rods (LLIF + BPS construct); 4) lateral screws and lateral plate (LP) (LLIF + LP construct); 5) interbody LP and IP (LLIF + LP + IP construct); and 6) IP (LLIF + IP construct). Nondestructive, nonconstraining torque (7.5 Nm maximum) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, whereas 3D specimen range of motion (ROM) was determined optoelectronically. RESULTS The LLIF construct reduced ROM by 67% in flexion, 52% in extension, 51% in lateral bending, and 44% in axial rotation relative to intact specimens (p < 0.001). Adding BPS to the LLIF construct caused ROM to decrease by 91% in flexion, 82% in extension and lateral bending, and 74% in axial rotation compared with intact specimens (p < 0.001), providing the greatest stability among the constructs. Adding UPS to the LLIF construct imparted approximately one-half the stability provided by LLIF + BPS constructs, demonstrating significantly smaller ROM than the LLIF construct in all directions (flexion, p = 0.037; extension, p < 0.001; lateral bending, p = 0.012) except axial rotation (p = 0

  13. Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion via a Unilateral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Chul; Yi, Seong; Kim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine the outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), via a unilateral approach, in selected patients who presented with unilateral leg pain and segmental instability of the lumbar spine. Patients with a single level of a herniated disc disease in the lumbar spine, unilateral leg pain, chronic disabling lower back pain (LBP), and a failed conservative treatment, were considered for the procedure. A total of 41 patients underwent a single-level PLIF using two PEEK™ (Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone) cages filled with iliac bone, via a unilateral approach. The patients comprised 21 women and 20 men with a mean age of 41 years (range: 22 to 63 years). Two cages were inserted using a unilateral medial facetectomy and a partial hemilaminectomy. At follow-up, the outcomes were assessed using the Prolo Scale. The success of the fusion was determined by dynamic lumbar radiography and/or computerized tomography scanning. All the patients safely underwent surgery without severe complications. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, 1 patient underwent percutaneous pedicle screw fixation due to persistent LBP. A posterior displacement of the cage was found in one patient. At the last follow up, 90% of the patients demonstrated satisfactory results. An osseous fusion was present in 85% of the patients. A PLIF, via a unilateral approach, enables a solid union with satisfactory clinical results. This preserves part of the posterior elements of the lumbar spine in selected patients with single level instability and unilateral leg pain. PMID:16807980

  14. Mini-Open Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Combined with Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Corrective Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong-Suh; Chung, Sung-Soo; Lee, Jun-Young; Yum, Tae-Hoon; Shin, Seong-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study. Purpose To introduce the techniques and present the surgical outcomes of mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) at the most caudal segments of the spine combined with lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) for the correction of adult spinal deformity Overview of Literature Although LLIF is increasingly used to correct adult spinal deformity, the correction of sagittal plane deformity with LLIF alone is reportedly suboptimal. Methods Thirty-two consecutive patients with adult spinal deformity underwent LLIF combined with mini-open ALIF at the L5–S1 or L4–S1 levels followed by 2-stage posterior fixation. ALIF was performed for a mean 1.3 levels and LLIF for a mean 2.7 levels. Then, percutaneous fixation was performed in 11 patients (percutaneous group), open correction with facetectomy with or without laminectomy in 16 (open group), and additional pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) in 5 (PSO group). Spinopelvic parameters were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Hospitalization data and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results No major medical complications developed, and clinical outcomes improved postoperatively in all groups. The mean postoperative segmental lordosis was greater after ALIF (17.5°±5.5°) than after LLIF (8.1°±5.3°, p <0.001). Four patients (12.5%) had lumbar lordosis with a pelvic incidence of ±9° preoperatively, whereas this outcome was achieved postoperatively in 30 patients (93.8%). The total increase in lumbar lordosis was 14.7° in the percutaneous group, 35.3° in the open group, and 57.0° in the PSO group. The ranges of potential lumbar lordosis increase were estimated as 4°–25°, 23°–42°, and 45°–65°, respectively. Conclusions Mini-open ALIF combined with LLIF followed by posterior fixation may be a feasible technique for achieving optimal sagittal balance and reducing the necessity of more extensive surgery. PMID:27994777

  15. Clinical Outcomes of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion versus Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Three-Level Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guoxin; Wu, Xinbo; Yu, Shunzhi; Sun, Qi; Zhang, Hailong; Gu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to directly compare the clinical outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in three-level lumbar spinal stenosis. This retrospective study involved a total of 60 patients with three-level degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent MIS-TLIF or PLIF from January 2010 to February 2012. Back and leg visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scale were used to assess the pain, disability, and health status before surgery and postoperatively. In addition, the operating time, estimated blood loss, and hospital stay were also recorded. There were no significant differences in back VAS, leg VAS, ODI, SF-36, fusion condition, and complications at 12-month follow-up between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, significantly less blood loss and shorter hospital stay were observed in MIS-TLIF group (P < 0.05). Moreover, patients undergoing MIS-TLIF had significantly lower back VAS than those in PLIF group at 6-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Compared with PLIF, MIS-TLIF might be a prior option because of noninferior efficacy as well as merits of less blood loss and quicker recovery in treating three-level lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:27747244

  16. Modified Mini-open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Pakzaban, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective case series. Objective. To describe a modified technique for mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) that improves visualization for decompression, fusion, and freehand pedicle screw insertion. Accuracy of freehand pedicle screw placement with this technique was assessed. Summary of Background Data. Mini-open TLIF is a minimally invasive technique that allows limited visualization of the bone and neural anatomy via an expandable tubular retractor inserted through the Wiltse plane. No significant modification that of this technique has been described in detail. Methods. In this study, 92 consecutive patients underwent one-level modified mini-open TLIF (MOTLIF). MOTLIF modifications consisted of (i) transmuscular dissection through the multifidus muscle rather than intermuscular dissection in the Wiltse plane; (ii) microsurgical detachment of multifidus from the facet rather than muscle dilation; (iii) en bloc total facetectomy (unilateral or bilateral, as needed for decompression); (iv) facet autograft used for interbody fusion; and (v) solid pedicle screws placed bilaterally by a freehand technique under direct vision. Results. The mean age was 53 years. Mean follow-up was 35 months (minimum 2 yrs). By 6 months, mean Visual Analog Scale for back and leg pain had improved from 51 to 19 and from 58 to 17, respectively, and mean Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) improved from 53 to 16. These improvements persisted at 2 years. Solid fusion, defined by computed tomography at 1 year, was achieved in 88.1%, whereas satisfactory fusion was achieved in 95.2% of patients. Pedicle screws were accurately placed in 335 of 336 imaged pedicles (pedicle breach grades: 91.1% grade 1; 8.6% grade 2; and 0.3% grade 3). Mean fluoroscopy time was 29.3 seconds. Conclusion. MOTLIF is a safe and effective minimally invasive technique with a high fusion rate. It allows accurate pedicle screw placement by a freehand technique. By eliminating bi

  17. Interbody Spacer Material Properties and Design Conformity for Reducing Subsidence During Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chatham, Lillian S; Patel, Vikas V; Yakacki, Christopher M; Dana Carpenter, R

    2017-05-01

    There is a need to better understand the effects of intervertebral spacer material and design on the stress distribution in vertebral bodies and endplates to help reduce complications such as subsidence and improve outcomes following lumbar interbody fusion. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of spacer material on the stress and strain in the lumbar spine after interbody fusion with posterior instrumentation. A standard spacer was also compared with a custom-fit spacer, which conformed to the vertebral endplates, to determine if a custom fit would reduce stress on the endplates. A finite element (FE) model of the L4-L5 motion segment was developed from computed tomography (CT) images of a cadaveric lumbar spine. An interbody spacer, pedicle screws, and posterior rods were incorporated into the image-based model. The model was loaded in axial compression, and strain and stress were determined in the vertebra, spacer, and rods. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), titanium, poly(para-phenylene) (PPP), and porous PPP (70% by volume) were used as the spacer material to quantify the effects on stress and strain in the system. Experimental testing of a cadaveric specimen was used to validate the model's results. There were no large differences in stress levels (<3%) at the bone-spacer interfaces and the rods when PEEK was used instead of titanium. Use of the porous PPP spacer produced an 8-15% decrease of stress at the bone-spacer interfaces and posterior rods. The custom-shaped spacer significantly decreased (>37%) the stress at the bone-spacer interfaces for all materials tested. A 28% decrease in stress was found in the posterior rods with the custom spacer. Of all the spacer materials tested with the custom spacer design, 70% porous PPP resulted in the lowest stress at the bone-spacer interfaces. The results show the potential for more compliant materials to reduce stress on the vertebral endplates postsurgery. The custom spacer provided a

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Mini Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, Ehab M.; Elmorsy, Haitham M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mini-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (Mini-TLIF) and other minimally invasive approaches introduced for the purpose of treating lumbar degenerative disc disease and instability are achieving high success and safety rates as the conventional approaches. Moreover, it has less soft tissue damage, minimal blood loss, and less hospital stay. Methods A prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 on 28 patients who were subjected to Mini-open TLIF combined with transpedicular screw fixation for spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease. Two paramedian approaches were done, 4 cm for each, to insert the pedicular screws, along with inserting unilateral TLIF cage with autologous bone graft. Decompression was done either unilateral or bilateral according to the patient side of radiculopathy. Sixteen patients (57.2%) were diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 7 patients (25%) were diagnosed with isthmic type spondylolisthesis, and 5 patients (17.8%) were diagnosed with degenerative disc disease, 2 of them(7.1%) had previous operations at the same level. Twenty patients (71.4%) were operated at the L4/5 level, and 8 patients (28.6%) at the L5/S1 level. Results All patients were able to ambulate the next day of surgery. The mean estimated blood loss was 251.79mL. The average hospital stay was 4.14 days. The average follow-up was 9 months. The mean visual analog scale was 1.86 at discharge, 1.68 after 3 months, and 1.38 after 6 months. After 6 months of the operation, MacNab's criteria were good in 23 patients and excellent in 5 patients. We had one case with transient weakness, 2 cases of screw malposition without clinical manifestations, and one case of infection. Conclusion Mini-TLIF approach is an efficient and safe approach for treating instability and degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. The clinical outcome is encouraging and it may be an operation of choice for lumbar spinal fusion in selected patients. PMID:28127376

  19. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion for the management of spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Devkota, P; Shrestha, S K; Krishnakumar, R; Renjithkumar, J

    2011-03-01

    The ideal surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis still remains controversial. There are several methods of treatment and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is one of them. We analyze the results of spondylolisthesis treated by PLIF in term of radiological union, improvement of pre-operative symptoms like back pain, radiating pain and return to normal activities including that of employment, by the review of the medical records. Total of 72 patients, 20 male and 52 female and the age ranges from 15 to 68 years with the mean age being 44.38 years were included in the study. Thirty (41.66%) patients had isthmic spondylolisthesis, 26 (36.12%) had congenital spondylolisthesis, and 16 (22.22%) cases had degenerative spondylolisthesis. There were 38 (52.77%) cases of grade I, 14 (19.44%) cases of grade II and 20 (27.77%) cases of grade III according to the grading criteria of Meyerding. According to the evaluation criteria used by Stauffer and Coventry, 59 patients (81.94%) got good results, eight patients (11.11%) belonged to the fair group and five cases (6.94%) had the poor results. This study showed that PLIF is one of the effective and reliable techniques for the management of spondylolisthesis.

  20. Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Discogenic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianqiang; Fang, Xiutong; Zhong, Weiye; Liu, Ning; Wood, Kirkham B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The treatment of degenerative discogenic pain is controversial, and anterior lumbar fusion for the treatment of degenerative discogenic low back pain has also been a controversial topic for over a generation. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the outcome of different anterior lumbar fusion levels for degenerative discogenic low back pain. In this study, we performed a clinical outcome subgroup analysis. The outcomes of 84 consecutive patients who underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) results, and complication rate were recorded separately. Medical indications were degenerative disc disease (73.8%), postdiscectomy disc disease (16.1%), and disc herniation (9.5%). Patients with severe spondylolysis or disc degeneration, with more than 3 or multilevel lesions, were excluded. The mean operative time was 124.5 ± 10.9 min (range 51–248 min), the mean intraoperative blood loss was 242.1 ± 27.7 mL (range 50–2700 mL), the mean hospital stay was 3.9 ± 1.1 days (range 3–6 days), the mean preoperative VAS score was 7.5 ± 1.4, and the mean preoperative ODI score was 60.0 ± 5.7. At the 1-year follow-up, the mean postoperative VAS score was 3.3 ± 1.3 and the mean postoperative ODI score was 13.6 ± 3.4 (P < 0.05). L4–L5 disc fusion led to better clinical results than 2-level L4–L5/L5–S1 disc fusion. Additionally, the 2-level fusion of L4–L5/L5–S1 had better clinical results than the L5–S1 disc fusion at both the 1 and 2-year postoperative follow-ups regarding the VAS score and the ODI score. The rate of complications was more frequent in the 2-level L4–L5/L5–S1 group (27.3%) (group C) than in the L4–L5 group (9.1%) (group A) and the L5–S1 group (12.5%) (group B). There was no difference between the L4–L5 group (9.1%) and the L

  1. Large volume inside the cage leading incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual back pain after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Wakao, Norimitsu; Hirasawa, Atsuhiko; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Osuka, Koji; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare intervertebral bone fusion and clinical outcomes in L4-5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using the same posterior instrumentation with four combinations of one of three types of interbody cage with one of two bone grafts, iliac and local or only local. In 67 patients who underwent L4-5 PLIF, 19 patients had the Brantigan cage and iliac and local bone graft, 18 with the TELAMON C cage and iliac and local bone graft, 16 with the TELAMON C cage and local bone graft (TL), and 14 with the OIC PEEK cage and local bone graft. Clinical assessments were based on Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores and on the visual analogue scale (VAS). The bone fusion assessments were based on radiography and CT scans according to the Brantigan, Steffee, and Fraser criteria. More than 2 years after surgery, these assessments were made. In the results, the fusion outcome for the group receiving TL was significantly less than those for the other three groups. In TL, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the inside volume of the cage of ≥2.0 mL was the only significant factor for incomplete fusion. Moreover, the VAS (low back pain) score was significantly higher for TL than for the other three groups. In conclusions, we believe that the large volume inside the cage (≥2.0 mL) with local bone graft may lead incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual postsurgical low back pain after PLIF.

  2. Comparison between Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Conventional Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: An Updated Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lei; Wu, Wen-Jian; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The previous studies agree that minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has better function outcomes, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay, when compared to open-TLIF. However, there are no significance differences on operative time, complication, and reoperation rate between the two procedures. This could be from less relative literatures and lower grade evidence. The further meta-analysis is needed with more and higher grade evidences to compare the above two TLIF procedures. Methods: Prospective and retrospective studies that compared open-TLIF and MIS-TLIF were identified by searching the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP database (the literature search comprised Medical Subject Heading terms and key words or Emtree term). The retrieval time ranged from the date when the database was founded to January 2015. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the clinical outcomes and perioperative data. Results: Twenty-four studies (n = 1967 patients) were included in this review (n = 951, open-TLIF, n = 1016, MIS-TLIF). MIS-TLIF was associated with a significant decrease in the visual analog score (VAS)-back pain score (WMD = −0.44; P = 0.001), Oswestry Disabilities Index (WMD = −1.57; P = 0.005), early ambulation (WMD = −1.77; P = 0.0001), less blood loss (WMD = −265.59; P < 0.00001), and a shorter hospital stay (WMD = −1.89; P < 0.0001). However, there were no significant differences in the fusion rate (RR = 0.99; P = 0.34), VAS-leg pain (WMD = −0.10; P = 0.26), complication rate (RR = 0.84; P = 0.35), operation time (WMD = −5.23; P = 0.82), or reoperation rate (RR = 0.73; P = 0.32). Conclusions: MIS-TLIF resulted in a similar fusion rate with better functional outcome, less blood loss, shorter ambulation, and hospital stay; furthermore, it did not increase the complication or

  3. Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion: Do the cons outweigh the pros?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF). Although anticipated pros of MIS XLIF included reduced blood loss, operative time, and length of stay (LOS), they also included, higher fusion, and lower infection rates. Unanticipated cons, however, included increased morbidity/mortality rates. Methods: We assessed the pros and cons (e.g., risks, complications, comparable value/superiority/inferiority, morbidity/mortality) of MIS XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Results: Pros of XLIF included various biomechanical and technical surgical advantages, along with multiple cons vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. For example, XLIF correlated with a considerably higher frequency of major neurological deficits vs. other constructs; plexus injuries 13.28%, sensory deficits 0–75% (permanent in 62.5%), motor deficits 0.7–33.6%, and anterior thigh pain 12.5–25%. XLIF also disproportionately contributed to other major morbidity/mortality; sympathectomy, major vascular injuries (some life-ending others life-threatening), bowel perforations, and seromas. Furthermore, multiple studies documented no superiority, and the potential inferiority of XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Conclusion: Reviewing the pros of XLIF (e.g. radiographic, technical, biomechanical) vs. the cons (inferiority, increased morbidity/mortality) vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF, we question whether XLIF should remain part of the lumbar spinal surgical armamentarium. PMID:27843688

  4. A Biomechanical Stability Study of Extraforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion on the Cadaveric Lumbar Spine Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Yan, Meijun; Han, Yingchao; Xia, Dongdong; Sun, Guixin; Li, Lijun; Tan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is an effective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease. However, this fusion technique requires resection of inferior facet joint to provide access for superior facet joint resection, which results in reduced lumbar spinal stability and unnecessary trauma. We have previously developed extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF) that can avoid back muscle injury with direct nerve root decompression. This study aims to show that ELIF enhances lumbar spinal stability in comparison to TLIF by comparing lumbar spinal stability of L4–L5 range of motion (ROM) on 12 cadaveric spine specimens after performing TLIF or ELIF. Methods 12 cadaveric spine specimens were randomly divided and treated in accordance with the different internal fixations, including ELIF with a unilateral pedicle screw (ELIF+UPS), TLIF with a unilateral pedicle screw (TLIF+UPS), TLIF with a bilateral pedicle screw (TLIF+BPS), ELIF with a unilateral pedicle screw and translaminar facet screw (ELIF+UPS+TLFS) and ELIF with a bilateral pedicle screw (ELIF+BPS). The treatment groups were exposed to a 400-N load and 6 N·m movement force to calculate the angular displacement of L4-L5 during anterior flexion, posterior extension, lateral flexion and rotation operation conditions. Results The ROM in ELIF+UPS group was smaller than that of TLIF+UPS group under all operating conditions, with the significant differences in left lateral flexion and right rotation by 36.15% and 25.97% respectively. The ROM in ELIF+UPS group was higher than that in TLIF+BPS group. The ROM in the ELIF+UPS+TLFS group was much smaller than that in the ELIF+UPS group, but was not significantly different than that in the TLIF+BPS group. Conclusions Despite that TLIF+BPS has great stability, which can be comparable by that of ELIF+UPS. Additionally, ELIF stability can be further improved by using translaminar facet screws without causing more tissue damage to patient. PMID

  5. Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2015-03-01

    A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20 years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature.

  6. Change of Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum after Indirect Decompression Using Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the ligamentum flavum thickness and remodeling of the spinal canal after anterior fusion during a 10-year follow-up. Overview of Literature Extreme lateral interbody fusion provides minimally invasive treatment of the lumbar spine; this anterior fusion without direct posterior decompression, so-called indirect decompression, can achieve pain relief. Anterior fusion may restore disc height, stretch the flexure of the ligamentum flavum, and increase the spinal canal diameter. However, changes in the ligamentum flavum thickness and remodeling of the spinal canal after anterior fusion during a long follow-up have not yet been reported. Methods We evaluated 10 patients with L4 spondylolisthesis who underwent stand-alone anterior interbody fusion using the iliac crest bone. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 10 years after surgery. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the dural sac and the ligamentum flavum at L1–2 to L5–S1 was calculated using a Picture Archiving and Communication System. Results Spinal fusion with correction loss (average, 4.75 mm anterior slip) was achieved in all patients 10 years postsurgery. The average CSAs of the dural sac and the ligamentum flavum at L1–2 to L5–S1 were 150 mm2 and 78 mm2, respectively. The average CSA of the ligamentum flavum at L4–5 (30 mm2) (fusion level) was significantly less than that at L1–2 to L3–4 or L5–S1. Although patients had an average anterior slip of 4.75 mm, the average CSA of the dural sac at L4–5 was significantly larger than at the other levels. Conclusions Spinal stability induced a lumbar ligamentum flavum change and a sustained remodeling of the spinal canal, which may explain the long-term pain relief after indirect decompression fusion surgery. PMID:28243378

  7. Roseomonas spinal epidural abscess complicating instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Bantouna, Vasiliki; Lianoudakis, Efstratios; Stavrakakis, Ioannis; Scoulica, Efstathia

    2013-07-01

    The first case of a spinal epidural abscess caused by Roseomonas mucosa following instrumented posterior lumbar fusion is presented. Although rare, because of its highly resistant profile, Roseomonas species should be included in the differential diagnosis of epidural abscesses in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts.

  8. Effect of steerable cage placement during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion on lumbar lordosis.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Timothy E; Viljoen, Stephanus V; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2014-03-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) is commonly used for the treatment of a variety of degenerative spine disorders. Recently, steerable interbody cages have been developed which potentially allow for greater restoration of lumbar lordosis. Here we describe a technique and radiographic results following minimally invasive placement of steerable cages through a bilateral approach. A retrospective review was conducted of the charts and radiographs of 15 consecutive patients who underwent 19 levels of bilateral MIS-TLIF with the placement of steerable cages. These were compared to 10 patients who underwent 16 levels of unilateral MIS-TLIF with the placement of bullet cages. The average age, body mass index, distribution of the levels operated and follow-up were similar in both groups. The average height of the steerable cage placed was 10.9 mm compared to 8.5mm for bullet cages. The preoperative focal Cobb's angle per level was similar between both groups with a mean of -5.3 degrees for the steerable cage group and -4.8 degrees for the bullet cage group. There was a significant improvement in postoperative Cobb's angle after placement of a steerable cage with a mean of -13.7 (p<0.01) and this persisted at the last follow-up with -13 degrees (p<0.01). There was no significant change in Cobb's angle after bullet cage placement with -5.7 degrees postoperatively and a return to the baseline preoperative Cobb's angle of -4.8 at the last follow-up. Steerable cage placement for MIS-TLIF improves focal lordosis compared to bullet cage placement.

  9. Failure of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer implant used for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4-L5 and L5-S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5-S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability.

  10. Failure of a Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Implant Used for Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4–L5 and L5–S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5–S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability. PMID:24436878

  11. Segmental and global lordosis changes with two-level axial lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Melgar, Miguel A; Tobler, William D; Ernst, Robert J; Raley, Thomas J; Anand, Neel; Miller, Larry E; Nasca, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Background Loss of lumbar lordosis has been reported after lumbar interbody fusion surgery and may portend poor clinical and radiographic outcome. The objective of this research was to measure changes in segmental and global lumbar lordosis in patients treated with presacral axial L4-S1 interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation and to determine if these changes influenced patient outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective, multi-center review of prospectively collected data in 58 consecutive patients with disabling lumbar pain and radiculopathy unresponsive to nonsurgical treatment who underwent L4-S1 interbody fusion with the AxiaLIF two-level system (Baxano Surgical, Raleigh NC). Main outcomes included back pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Odom's outcome criteria, and fusion status using flexion and extension radiographs and computed tomography scans. Segmental (L4-S1) and global (L1-S1) lumbar lordosis measurements were made using standing lateral radiographs. All patients were followed for at least 24 months (mean: 29 months, range 24-56 months). Results There was no bowel injury, vascular injury, deep infection, neurologic complication or implant failure. Mean back pain severity improved from 7.8±1.7 at baseline to 3.3±2.6 at 2 years (p < 0.001). Mean ODI scores improved from 60±15% at baseline to 34±27% at 2 years (p < 0.001). At final follow-up, 83% of patients were rated as good or excellent using Odom's criteria. Interbody fusion was observed in 111 (96%) of 116 treated interspaces. Maintenance of lordosis, defined as a change in Cobb angle ≤ 5°, was identified in 84% of patients at L4-S1 and 81% of patients at L1-S1. Patients with loss or gain in segmental or global lordosis experienced similar 2-year outcomes versus those with less than a 5° change. Conclusions/Clinical Relevance Two-level axial interbody fusion supplemented with posterior fixation does not alter segmental or global lordosis in most patients. Patients with

  12. Comparison of the Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization System and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Shan, Jian-Lin; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Li, Fang; Guan, Kai; Sun, Tian-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been few studies comparing the clinical and radiographic outcomes between the Dynesys dynamic stabilization system and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Dynesys and PLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods Of 96 patients with lumbar degenerative disease included in this retrospectively analysis, 46 were treated with the Dynesys system and 50 underwent PLIF from July 2008 to March 2011. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. We also evaluated the occurrence of radiographic and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). Results The mean follow-up time in the Dynesys group was 53.6 ± 5.3 months, while that in the PLIF group was 55.2 ± 6.8 months. At the final follow-up, the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale score were significantly improved in both groups. The range of motion (ROM) of stabilized segments in Dynesys group decreased from 7.1 ± 2.2° to 4.9 ± 2.2° (P < 0.05), while that of in PLIF group decreased from 7.3 ± 2.3° to 0° (P < 0.05). The ROM of the upper segments increased significantly in both groups at the final follow-up, the ROM was higher in the PLIF group. There were significantly more radiographic ASDs in the PLIF group than in the Dynesys group. The incidence of complications was comparable between groups. Conclusions Both Dynesys and PLIF can improve the clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to PLIF, Dynesys stabilization partially preserves the ROM of the stabilized segments, limits hypermobility in the upper adjacent segment, and may prevent the occurrence of ASD. PMID:26824851

  13. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Ossification of the Yellow Ligament in the Lumbar Spine: First Reported Case

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tetsuya; Funayama, Toru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Keita; Miura, Kousei; Nagashima, Katsuya; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    When ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) occurs in the lumbar spine and extends to the lateral wall of the spinal canal, facetectomy is required to remove all of the ossified lesion and achieve decompression. Subsequent posterior fixation with interbody fusion will then be necessary to prevent postoperative progression of the ossification and intervertebral instability. The technique of lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) has recently been introduced. Using this procedure, surgeons can avoid excess blood loss from the extradural venous plexus and detachment of the ossified lesion and the ventral dura mater is avoidable. We present a 55-year-old male patient with OYL at L3/4 and anterior spondylolisthesis of L4 vertebra, with concomitant ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, who presented with a severe gait disturbance. He underwent a 2-stage operation without complications: LLIF for L3/4 and L4/5 was performed at the initial surgery, and posterior decompression fixation using pedicle screws from L3 to L5 was performed at the second surgery. His postoperative progress was favorable, and his interbody fusion was deemed successful. Here, we present the first reported case of LLIF for OYL of the lumbar spine. This procedure can be a good option for OYL of the lumbar spine. PMID:28352485

  14. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sandra; Vaidya, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar spinal fusion is advancing with minimally invasive techniques, bone graft alternatives, and new implants. This has resulted in significant reductions of operative time, duration of hospitalization, and higher success in fusion rates. However, costs have increased as many new technologies are expensive. This study was carried out to investigate the clinical outcomes and fusion rates of a low implant load construct of unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) which reduced the cost of the posterior implants by almost 50%. Nineteen consecutive patients who underwent single level TLIF with this construct were included in the study. Sixteen patients had a TLIF allograft interbody spacer placed, while in three a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage was used. Follow-up ranged from 15 to 54 months with a mean of 32 months. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out preoperatively and at multiple time points following surgery. An overall improvement in Oswestry scores and visual analogue scales for leg and back pain (VAS) was observed. Three patients underwent revision surgery due to recurrence of back pain. All patients showed radiographic evidence of fusion from 9 to 26 months (mean 19) following surgery. This study suggests that unilateral pedicle screws and a contralateral translaminar screw are a cheaper and viable option for single level lumbar fusion. PMID:19015896

  15. The Multiple Benefits of Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery: Results Comparing Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterior Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Starkweather, Angela R.; Witek-Janusek, Linda; Nockels, Russ P.; Peterson, Jonna; Mathews, Herb L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) offers equivalent postoperative fusion rates compared to posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) and minimizes the amount of iatrogenic injury to the spinal muscles. The objective of this study was to examine the difference in pain perception, stress, mood disturbance, quality of life, and immunological indices throughout the perioperative course among patients undergoing TLIF and PLF. A prospective, nonrandomized descriptive design was used to evaluate these measures among patients undergoing TLIF (n = 17) or PLF (n = 18) at 1 week prior to surgery (T1), the day of surgery (T2), 24 hours postoperatively (T3), and 6 weeks postoperatively (T4). Among TLIF patients, pain, stress, fatigue, and mood disturbance were significantly decreased at the 6-week follow-up visit (T4) compared to patients who underwent PLF. The TLIF group also demonstrated significantly higher levels (near baseline) of CD8 cells atT4 than the PLF group. Interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the TLIF group as well, which may be an indicator of ongoing nerve regeneration and healing. Knowledge concerning the effect of pain and the psychological experience on immunity among individuals undergoing spinal fusion can help nurses tailor interventions to improve outcomes, regardless of the approach used. PMID:18330408

  16. Comparison of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Monosegmental Vacuum Phenomenon within an Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    An, Ki-Chan; Kong, Gyu-Min; Park, Dae-Hyun; Youn, Ji-Hong; Lee, Woon-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective. Purpose To compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of posterolateral lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in monosegmental vacuum phenomenon within an intervertebral disc. Overview of Literature The vacuum phenomenon within an intervertebral disc is a serious form of degenerative disease that destabilizes the intervertebral body. Outcomes of PLIF and PLF in monosegmental vacuum phenomenon are unclear. Methods Monosegmental instrumented PLIF and PLF was performed on 84 degenerative lumbar disease patients with monosegmental vacuum phenomenon (PLIF, n=38; PLF, n=46). Minimum follow-up was 24 months. Clinical outcomes of leg and back pain were assessed using visual analogue scales for leg pain (LVAS) and back pain (BVAS), and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The radiographic outcome was the estimated bony union rate. Results LVAS, BVAS, and ODI improved in both groups. There was no significant difference in the degree of these improvements between PLIF and PLF patients (p>0.05). Radiological union rate was 91.1% in PLIF group and 89.4% in PLF group at postoperative 24 months (p>0.05). Conclusions No significant differences in clinical results and union rates were found between PLIF and PLF patients. Selection of the operation technique will reflect the surgeon's preferences and patient condition. PMID:26949464

  17. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cortical bone trajectory screw fixation versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion using traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Several biomechanical studies have demonstrated the favorable mechanical properties of the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw. However, no reports have examined surgical outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with CBT screw fixation for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) compared with those after PLIF using traditional pedicle screw (PS) fixation. The purposes of this study were thus to elucidate surgical outcomes after PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS and to compare these results with those after PLIF using traditional PS fixation. METHODS Ninety-five consecutive patients underwent PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS (CBT group; mean followup 35 months). A historical control group consisted of 82 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with traditional PS fixation (PS group; mean follow-up 40 months). Clinical status was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale score. Fusion status was assessed by dynamic plain radiographs and CT. The need for additional surgery and surgery-related complications was also evaluated. RESULTS The mean JOA score improved significantly from 13.7 points before surgery to 23.3 points at the latest follow-up in the CBT group (mean recovery rate 64.4%), compared with 14.4 points preoperatively to 22.7 points at final follow-up in the PS group (mean recovery rate 55.8%; p < 0.05). Solid spinal fusion was achieved in 84 patients from the CBT group (88.4%) and in 79 patients from the PS group (96.3%, p > 0.05). Symptomatic adjacent-segment disease developed in 3 patients from the CBT group (3.2%) compared with 9 patients from the PS group (11.0%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS provided comparable improvement of clinical symptoms with PLIF using traditional PS fixation. However, the successful fusion rate tended to be lower in the CBT group than in the PS group, although the difference was not statistically significant between the 2 groups.

  18. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Blake P.; Lindley, Emily M.; Turner, A. Simon; Seim III, Howard B.; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L.

    2010-01-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and subsequent osteogenesis. In this study, six adult ewes underwent anterior-lateral interbody fusion at L3/L4 and L4/L5 using PEEK interbody rings filled with autogenous bone at one level and ABM/P-15 at the other level and no additional instrumentation. Clinical CT scans were obtained at 3 and 6 months; micro-CT scans and histomorphometry analyses were performed after euthanization at 6 months. Clinical CT scan analysis showed that all autograft and ABM/P-15 treated levels had radiographically fused outside of the rings at the 3-month study time point. Although the clinical CT scans of the autograft treatment group showed significantly better fusion within the PEEK rings than ABM/P-15 at 3 months, micro-CT scans, clinical CT scans, and histomorphometric analyses showed there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups at 6 months. Thus, ABM/P-15 was as successful as autogenous bone graft in producing lumbar spinal fusion in an ovine model, and it should be further evaluated in clinical studies. PMID:20694847

  19. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Blake P; Lindley, Emily M; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L; Patel, Vikas V

    2010-12-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and subsequent osteogenesis. In this study, six adult ewes underwent anterior-lateral interbody fusion at L3/L4 and L4/L5 using PEEK interbody rings filled with autogenous bone at one level and ABM/P-15 at the other level and no additional instrumentation. Clinical CT scans were obtained at 3 and 6 months; micro-CT scans and histomorphometry analyses were performed after euthanization at 6 months. Clinical CT scan analysis showed that all autograft and ABM/P-15 treated levels had radiographically fused outside of the rings at the 3-month study time point. Although the clinical CT scans of the autograft treatment group showed significantly better fusion within the PEEK rings than ABM/P-15 at 3 months, micro-CT scans, clinical CT scans, and histomorphometric analyses showed there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups at 6 months. Thus, ABM/P-15 was as successful as autogenous bone graft in producing lumbar spinal fusion in an ovine model, and it should be further evaluated in clinical studies.

  20. Comparison of outcomes between minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and traditional posterior lumbar intervertebral fusion in obese patients with lumbar disk prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Peng; An, Ji-Long; Sun, Ya-Peng; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the curative effect between minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) and the posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in obese patients with lumbar disk prolapse. Patients and methods In this study, 72 patients who underwent lumbar disk prolapse therapy in the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University between March 2011 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed and were divided into two groups, MIS-TLIF group (n=35) and PLIF group (n=37), according to different surgical procedures. Several clinical parameters were compared between these two groups. Results Compared with PLIF, MIS-TLIF was associated with longer operative time, less blood loss, less postoperative drainage and shorter postoperative time in bed; moreover, patients in the MIS-TLIF group had lower levels of serum creatine kinase on 1, 3 and 5 postoperative days. At the 3- and 6-month follow-up, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of low back pain of patients in the MIS-TLIF group were significantly reduced and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores were increased, whereas the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion Obese patients can achieve good efficacy with MIS-TLIF or PLIF treatment, but MIS-TLIF surgery showed longer operative time, fewer traumas and bleeding volume, less incidence of short-term pain, low complication rate and faster postoperative recovery. PMID:28176906

  1. Non-neurological major complications of extreme lateral and related lumbar interbody fusion techniques

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complications exclusive of new neurological deficits/injuries that follow extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and related lateral lumbar interbody techniques should be better recognized to determine the safety of these procedures. Unfortunately, a review of the XLIF literature did not accurately reflect the frequency of these “other complications” as few US surgeons publish such adverse events that may lead to medicolegal suits. Methods: Major complications occurring with XLIF included sympathectomy, major vascular injuries, bowel perforations, sterile seromas, and instrumentation failures. Results: The frequency of sympathectomy was 4% for XLIF vs. 15% for anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). There were three major vascular injuries for XLIF; one fatal intraoperative event, one life-threatening retroperitoneal hematoma, and one iatrogenic lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully embolized. Two bowel perforations were reported, whereas a third was a “direct communication.” One patient developed a sterile recurrent seroma due to vancomycin powder utilized for an XLIF. One study cited malpositioning of an XLIF cage resulting in a lateral L3–L4 extrusion, whereas the second series looked at the 45% risk of cage-overhang when XLIF devices were placed in the anterior one-third of the vertebral body. Conclusion: Excluding new neurological deficits, XLIF techniques resulted in multiple other major complications. However, these small numbers likely reflect just the tip of the iceberg (e.g., 10%) and the remaining 90% may never be known as many US-based spine surgeons fail to publish such adverse events as they are discoverable in a court of law and may lead to medicolegal suits. PMID:27843680

  2. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion versus instrumented posterolateral fusion in Grade I/II spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pooswamy, Shanmugasundaram; Muralidharagopalan, Niranjanan Raghavn; Subbaiah, Sivasubramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spondylolisthesis refers to slippage of one vertebra over the other, which may be caused by a variety of reasons such as degenerative, trauma, and isthmic. Surgical management forms the mainstay of treatment to prevent further slip and worsening. However, there is no consensus regarding the best surgical option to treat these patients. This study compares TLIF and instrumented PLF in patients with Grade I and II spondylolisthesis and analysis the outcome with respect to functional outcome, pain, fusion rate, adequacy of medial facetectomy for decompression, and complications. Materials and Methods: Forty patients operated for spondylolisthesis by instrumented posterolateral or transforaminal fusion between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012 were included in this retrospective study. They were followed up for 3 years. Twenty one cases were of instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) and 19 cases were of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The patients were asked to fill up the Oswestry disability index (ODI), Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ), and low back pain rating scale (LBPRS) preoperatively, at 1-month postoperatively, and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. Radiological parameters were assessed using radiographs. Results: No significant differences were found in DPQ, LBPRS, or ODI scores preoperative, 1-month postoperative, and at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months followup. No significant difference was found between the two groups in blood loss. The only significant difference between the two groups was in the operative time, in which the instrumented PLF group had a mean of 50 min lesser than the TLIF group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: TLIF and instrumented PLF are equally efficacious options in the treatment of Grade I and II spondylolisthesis, except lytic type.

  3. More nerve root injuries occur with minimally invasive lumbar surgery, especially extreme lateral interbody fusion: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the lumbar spine, do more nerve root injuries occur utilizing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques versus open lumbar procedures? To answer this question, we compared the frequency of nerve root injuries for multiple open versus MIS operations including diskectomy, laminectomy with/without fusion addressing degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and/or degenerative spondylolisthesis. Methods: Several of Desai et al. large Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial studies showed the frequency for nerve root injury following an open diskectomy ranged from 0.13% to 0.25%, for open laminectomy/stenosis with/without fusion it was 0%, and for open laminectomy/stenosis/degenerative spondylolisthesis with/without fusion it was 2%. Results: Alternatively, one study compared the incidence of root injuries utilizing MIS transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) techniques; 7.8% of PLIF versus 2% of TLIF patients sustained root injuries. Furthermore, even higher frequencies of radiculitis and nerve root injuries occurred during anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIFs) versus extreme lateral interbody fusions (XLIFs). These high frequencies were far from acceptable; 15.8% following ALIF experienced postoperative radiculitis, while 23.8% undergoing XLIF sustained root/plexus deficits. Conclusions: This review indicates that MIS (TLIF/PLIF/ALIF/XLIF) lumbar surgery resulted in a higher incidence of root injuries, radiculitis, or plexopathy versus open lumbar surgical techniques. Furthermore, even a cursory look at the XLIF data demonstrated the greater danger posed to neural tissue by this newest addition to the MIS lumbar surgical armamentariu. The latter should prompt us as spine surgeons to question why the XLIF procedure is still being offered to our patients? PMID:26904372

  4. Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Pathology after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Adult Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Yamashita, Tomoya; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohzono, Kenji; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after fusion surgery for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) has been reported to be relatively low compared with other lumbar disease entities. However, there has been no study of symptomatic ASP incidence using posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with pedicle screw instrumentation. We investigated the incidence of symptomatic ASP after PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation for adult low-grade IS and identified significant risk factors for symptomatic ASP. We retrospectively studied records of 40 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Japan. The patients were followed for ≥ 4 years. Patients' medical records were retrospectively examined for evidence of symptomatic ASP. Age at time of surgery, sex, fusion level, whole lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, preexisting laminar inclination angle, and facet tropism at the cranial fusion segment were analyzed to identify risk factors for symptomatic ASP. Four patients (ASP group) developed symptomatic ASP at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion. There were no significant differences in age, sex, fusion level, lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, or facet tropism at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion between the ASP and the non-ASP groups. In contrast, laminar inclination angle at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was significantly higher in the ASP group than in the non-ASP group. Four patients (10%) developed symptomatic ASP after PLIF with transpedicular fixation for adult low-grade IS. Preexisting laminar horizontalization at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was a significant risk factor for symptomatic ASP. PMID:24436872

  5. Comparison of complication rates of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and lateral lumbar interbody fusion: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jacob R; Smith, Brandon W; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) and lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) are 2 currently popular techniques for lumbar arthrodesis. The authors compare the total risk of each procedure, along with other important complication outcomes. METHODS This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant studies (up to May 2015) that reported complications of either MI-TLIF or LLIF were identified from a search in the PubMed database. The primary outcome was overall risk of complication per patient. Secondary outcomes included risks of sensory deficits, temporary neurological deficit, permanent neurological deficit, intraoperative complications, medical complications, wound complications, hardware failure, subsidence, and reoperation. RESULTS Fifty-four studies were included for analysis of MI-TLIF, and 42 studies were included for analysis of LLIF. Overall, there were 9714 patients (5454 in the MI-TLIF group and 4260 in the LLIF group) with 13,230 levels fused (6040 in the MI-TLIF group and 7190 in the LLIF group). A total of 1045 complications in the MI-TLIF group and 1339 complications in the LLIF group were reported. The total complication rate per patient was 19.2% in the MI-TLIF group and 31.4% in the LLIF group (p < 0.0001). The rate of sensory deficits and temporary neurological deficits, and permanent neurological deficits was 20.16%, 2.22%, and 1.01% for MI-TLIF versus 27.08%, 9.40%, and 2.46% for LLIF, respectively (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.002, respectively). Rates of intraoperative and wound complications were 3.57% and 1.63% for MI-TLIF compared with 1.93% and 0.80% for LLIF, respectively (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.034, respectively). No significant differences were noted for medical complications or reoperation. CONCLUSIONS While there was a higher overall complication rate with LLIF, MI-TLIF and LLIF both have

  6. Neurological complications using a novel retractor system for direct lateral minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Sedra, Fady; Lee, Robert; Dominguez, Ignacio; Wilson, Lester

    2016-09-01

    We describe our experience using the RAVINE retractor (K2M, Leesburg, VA, USA) to gain access to the lateral aspect of the lumbar spine through a retroperitoneal approach. Postoperative neurological adverse events, utilising the mentioned retractor system, were recorded and analysed. We included 140 patients who underwent minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion (MI-LLIF) for degenerative spinal conditions between 2011 and 2015 at two major spinal centres. A total of 228 levels were treated, 35% one level, 40% two level, 20% three level and 5% 4 level surgeries. The L4/5 level was instrumented in 28% of cases. 12/140 patients had postoperative neurological complications. Immediately after surgery, 5% of patients (7/140) had transient symptoms in the thigh ranging from sensory loss, pain and paraesthesia, all of which recovered within 12weeks following surgery. There were five cases of femoral nerve palsy (3.6% - two ipsilateral and three contralateral), all of which recovered completely with no residual sensory or motor deficit within 6months. MI-LLIF done with help of the described retractor system has proved a safe and efficient way to achieve interbody fusion with minimal complications, mainly nerve related, that recovered quickly. Judicious use of the technique to access the L4/5 level is advised.

  7. Bone Morphogenic Protein Is a Viable Adjunct for Fusion in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M Mashfiqul Arafin; Sta.Ana, Ana Rosario P.; Yeo, William

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Comparison of prospectively collected data of patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) with and without recombinant human bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP). Purpose To compare the clinical, radiological outcome and complications of patients undergoing MIS-TLIF with and without BMP. Overview of Literature BMP is an effective fusion enhancer with potential complications. Direct comparison of MIS-TLIF with and without BMP is limited to retrospective studies with short follow-up. Methods From June 2005 to February 2011, consecutive cases of MIS-TLIF performed by a single surgeon were included. North American Spine Society (NASS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and visual analogue score (VAS) were assessed preoperatively and at 6 and 24 months postoperatively. Fusion rates and complications were noted. Results The 252 cases comprised 104 non-BMP and 148 BMP cases. The BMP group was significantly older (mean age, 60.2 vs. 53.9; p<0.01). Preoperative scores were similar. Immediate postoperative morphine usage was significantly lower in the BMP group (12.4 mg vs. 20.1 mg, p<0.01). At 6 months, the BMP group had lower VAS back and leg pain scores (p<0.01). At 2 years, the BMP group had better leg pain scores (p<0.01), ODI (15.4 vs. 20.3, p=0.04) and NASS scores (8.8 vs. 15.8, p<0.01). Both groups showed significant clinical improvement compared to their preoperative levels. The BMP group attained a significantly higher rate of fusion at 6 months follow-up (88.4% vs. 76.8%, p=0.016) with no difference at 2 years. The non-BMP and BMP group had 12 (11.5%) and 9 (6.1%) complications and 5 (4.8%) and 2 (1.4%) reoperations, respectively. Conclusions The use of BMP to augment fusion in MIS-TLIF is an acceptable alternative that has potential benefits of less pain in early and intermediate postoperative follow-up. PMID:27994786

  8. Endoscopic Foraminal Decompression Preceding Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion To Decrease The Incidence Of Post Operative Dysaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Katzell, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background Lumbar interbody fusion has become a well established method to diminish axial back pain as well as radiculopathy in patients with degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and instability. The concept of indirect decompression of the neural foramen and spinal canal while performing fusion became popular in the mid 1990’s with description of ALIF techniques. Morphometric analysis confirmed the extent of decompression of posterior elements with interbody height restoration. In an attempt to diminish potential complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches to the spine for interbody fusion, and with the hope of accomplishing fusion in a less invasive manner, lateral lumbar interbody fusion has become quite popular. This transpsoas approach to the disc space has been associated with a high incidence of neurologic complications. Even though this is the first technique to routinely recommend EMG monitoring to increase safety in the approach, neurologic injuries still occur. A newer oblique lateral lumbar interbody (OLLIF) approach has recently been described to lessen the incidence of neurologic injury. This technique also advocates use of EMG testing to lessen neurologic trauma. In spite of this precaution, neurologic insult has not been eliminated. In fact, even in patients whose electrical stimulation thresholds suggested a safe entry space into the disc, transient dysaesthesia continues to occur in 20-25 percent of cases. Purpose This pilot study reflects data and observations of a subset of patients treated with endoscopic foraminotomy preceding oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (OLLIF) to assess specifically potential improvements in dysaesthesia rates. Methods A select subset of patients undergoing OLLIF failed to meet electrodiagnostic criteria for safe disc access through Kambin’s triangle. These patients underwent an endoscopic foraminotomy and exiting nerve decompression prior to discectomy, endplate preparation and cage

  9. Miniopen Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Unilateral Fixation: A Comparison between Ipsilateral and Contralateral Reherniation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fubing; Jiang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors between ipsilateral and contralateral reherniation and to compare the effectiveness of miniopen transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with unilateral fixation for each group. From November 2007 to December 2014, clinical and radiographic data of each group (ipsilateral or contralateral reherniation) were collected and compared. Functional assessment (Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA)) and radiographic evaluation (fusion status, disc height, lumbar lordosis (LL), and functional spine unit (FSU) angle) were applied to compare surgical effect for each group preoperatively and at final followup. MacNab questionnaire was applied to further evaluate the satisfactory rate after the discectomy and fusion. No difference except pain-free interval was found between ipsilateral and contralateral groups. There was a significant difference in operative time between two groups. No differences were found in clinical and radiographic data for assessment of surgical effect between two groups. The satisfactory rate was decreasing in both groups with time passing after discectomy. Difference in pain-free interval may be a distinction for ipsilateral and contralateral reherniation. Miniopen TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation can be a recommendable way for single level reherniation regardless of ipsilateral or contralateral reherniation. PMID:27885358

  10. Hybrid Biosynthetic Autograft Extender for Use in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Safety and Clinical Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Mokbel K; Tundo, Kelly M; Block, Jon E; Muir, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Autologous iliac crest bone graft is the preferred option for spinal fusion, but the morbidity associated with bone harvest and the need for graft augmentation in more demanding cases necessitates combining local bone with bone substitutes. The purpose of this study was to document the clinical effectiveness and safety of a novel hybrid biosynthetic scaffold material consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA, 75:25) combined by lyophilization with unmodified high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (10-12% wt:wt) as an extender for a broad range of spinal fusion procedures. We retrospectively evaluated all patients undergoing single- and multi-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion at an academic medical center over a 3-year period. A total of 108 patients underwent 109 procedures (245 individual vertebral levels). Patient-related outcomes included pain measured on a Visual Analog Scale. Radiographic outcomes were assessed at 6 weeks, 3-6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Radiographic fusion or progression of fusion was documented in 221 of 236 index levels (93.6%) at a mean (±SD) time to fusion of 10.2+4.1 months. Single and multi-level fusions were not associated with significantly different success rates. Mean pain scores (+SD) for all patients improved from 6.8+2.5 at baseline to 3.6+2.9 at approximately 12 months. Improvements in VAS were greatest in patients undergoing one- or two-level fusion, with patients undergoing multi-level fusion demonstrating lesser but still statistically significant improvements. Overall, stable fusion was observed in 64.8% of vertebral levels; partial fusion was demonstrated in 28.8% of vertebral levels. Only 15 of 236 levels (6.4%) were non-fused at final follow-up.

  11. Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (OLLIF): Technical Notes and Early Results of a Single Surgeon Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background context: Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent and expensive health conditions in the Western world. The standard treatment, interbody fusion, is an invasive procedure that requires the stripping of muscles and soft tissue, leading to surgical morbidity. Current minimally invasive (MI) spinal fusions are technically demanding and suffer from technical limitations. Purpose: Oblique lumbar lateral interbody fusion (OLLIF) is a new technique for fusion of the lumbar spine that overcomes these complications. Outcome measures include patient demographics, reported outcomes, and surgical outcomes. Study design/Setting: Kambin's Triangle can easily be located as a silent window with an electrophysiological probe. Discectomy is performed through a single access portal with a 10 mm diameter. After a discectomy, the disc space is packed with beta-tricalcium phosphate soaked in autologous bone marrow, aspirated, and the cage is inserted. Finally, a minimally invasive posterior fixation is performed. Methods: OLLIF’s major innovation is to approach the disc through Kambin’s Triangle, aided by bilateral fluoroscopy. Results: We present data from 69 consecutive OLLIF surgeries on 128 levels with a control group of 55 consecutive open transformational lumbar interbody fusions (TLIFs) on 125 levels. For a single level OLLIF, the mean surgery time is 69 minutes (min) and blood loss is 29 ml. Surgery time was approximately twice as fast as open TLIF (mean: 135 min) and blood loss is reduced by over 80% compared to TLIF (mean: 355 ml). Conclusions: OLLIF is a minimally invasive fusion that significantly reduces surgery times compared to open surgery. OLLIF overcomes the difficulties of traditional open fusions, making it a safe and technically less demanding surgery than open or minimally invasive TLIF.  PMID:26623206

  12. Do Trunk Muscles Affect the Lumbar Interbody Fusion Rate?: Correlation of Trunk Muscle Cross Sectional Area and Fusion Rates after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Stand-Alone Cage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man Kyu; Park, Bong Jin; Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Sung Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although trunk muscles in the lumbar spine preserve spinal stability and motility, little is known about the relationship between trunk muscles and spinal fusion rate. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between trunk muscles cross sectional area (MCSA) and fusion rate after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using stand-alone cages. Methods A total of 89 adult patients with degenerative lumbar disease who were performed PLIF using stand-alone cages at L4–5 were included in this study. The cross-sectional area of the psoas major (PS), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF) muscles were quantitatively evaluated by preoperative lumbar magnetic resonance imaging at the L3–4, L4–5, and L5–S1 segments, and bone union was evaluated by dynamic lumbar X-rays. Results Of the 89 patients, 68 had bone union and 21 did not. The MCSAs at all segments in both groups were significantly different (p<0.05) for the PS muscle, those at L3–4 and L4–5 segments between groups were significantly different (p=0.048, 0.021) for the ES and MF muscles. In the multivariate analysis, differences in the PS MCSA at the L4–5 and L5–S1 segments remained significant (p=0.048, 0.043 and odds ratio=1.098, 1.169). In comparison analysis between male and female patients, most MCSAs of male patients were larger than female's. Fusion rates of male patients (80.7%) were higher than female's (68.8%), too. Conclusion For PLIF surgery, PS muscle function appears to be an important factor for bone union and preventing back muscle injury is essential for better fusion rate. PMID:27226860

  13. Total 3D Airo® Navigation for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Xiaofeng; Berlin, Connor; Moriguchi, Yu; Zhang, Qiwei; Härtl, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. A new generation of iCT scanner, Airo®, has been introduced. The purpose of this study is to describe how Airo facilitates minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF). Method. We used the latest generation of portable iCT in all cases without the assistance of K-wires. We recorded the operation time, number of scans, and pedicle screw accuracy. Results. From January 2015 to December 2015, 33 consecutive patients consisting of 17 men and 16 women underwent single-level or two-level MIS-TLIF operations in our institution. The ages ranged from 23 years to 86 years (mean, 66.6 years). We treated all the cases in MIS fashion. In four cases, a tubular laminectomy at L1/2 was performed at the same time. The average operation time was 192.8 minutes and average time of placement per screw was 2.6 minutes. No additional fluoroscopy was used. Our screw accuracy rate was 98.6%. No complications were encountered. Conclusions. Airo iCT MIS-TLIF can be used for initial planning of the skin incision, precise screw, and cage placement, without the need for fluoroscopy. “Total navigation” (complete intraoperative 3D navigation without fluoroscopy) can be achieved by combining Airo navigation with navigated guide tubes for screw placement. PMID:27529069

  14. Arthrodesis Rate and Patient Reported Outcomes After Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Utilizing a Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Coated PEEK Interbody Implant: A Retrospective, Observational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Sophea R.; Staples, Miranda; Liang, Kevin; Raiszadeh, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is utilized in symptomatic spinal disc destabilization due to degenerative lumbar disc disease, isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis, internal disc disruption, or pseudarthrosis after non-operative treatments fail. The addition of a plasma-sprayed titanium coating (PTC) to polyether ether ketone spacers (PEEK) may reduce the rate of implant subsidence or non-union secondary to poor osseous-integration of non-coated PEEK or metal interbody systems. Methods A retrospective, non-randomized, single-center chart review, evaluated the post-surgical follow-up data of patients receiving a PTC PEEK implant during single or multi-level ALIF procedures to determine the clinical efficacy and rate of arthrodesis after utilization of a coated spacer. Standard roentgenographs or computed tomography were used to identify successful arthrodesis following the ALIF procedure and longitudinal clinical improvements were determined by scores on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for low back and leg pain. Results Forty-four subjects (48% male, mean=53 years) were included in this chart review. Follow-up radiology demonstrated radiographic union with bridging bone formation across the interbody space for 42/44 (96%) individuals with solid arthrodesis occurring at an average of 7.3 ± 2.3 months. Subjects demonstrated significant improvement in VAS low back pain (4.5 ± 2.4 point improvement, p=0.0001) and VAS leg pain (4.1 ± 3.3 point improvement, p=0.0001). While there was a significant reduction in the improvement of VAS low back pain of Worker's Compensation claimants as compared to other patients (3.9 ± 2.4 vs. 5.3 ± 2.1), there was no difference in VAS low back pain or leg pain when the data was stratified by gender, age, tobacco use, comorbidities, prior surgery, fusion construct length, use of supplemental posterior instrumentation, BMI, or diagnosis. Conclusions This study provides support that the addition of a PTC coating

  15. Reduction in adjacent-segment degeneration after multilevel posterior lumbar interbody fusion with proximal DIAM implantation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Chen, Tai-Been; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Han-Jung

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Multilevel long-segment lumbar fusion poses a high risk for future development of adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD). Creating a dynamic transition zone with an interspinous process device (IPD) proximal to the fusion has recently been applied as a method to reduce the occurrence of ASD. The authors report their experience with the Device for Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM) implanted proximal to multilevel posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in reducing the development of proximal ASD. METHODS This retrospective study reviewed 91 cases involving patients who underwent 2-level (L4-S1), 3-level (L3-S1), or 4-level (L2-S1) PLIF. In Group A (42 cases), the patients received PLIF only, while in Group B (49 cases), an interspinous process device, a DIAM implant, was put at the adjacent level proximal to the PLIF construct. Bone resection at the uppermost segment of the PLIF was equally limited in the 2 groups, with preservation of the upper portion of the spinous process/lamina and the attached supraspinous ligament. Outcome measures included a visual analog scale (VAS) for low-back pain and leg pain and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for functional impairment. Anteroposterior and lateral flexion/extension radiographs were used to evaluate the fusion status, presence and patterns of ASD, and mobility of the DIAM-implanted segment. RESULTS Solid interbody fusion without implant failure was observed in all cases. Radiographic ASD occurred in 20 (48%) of Group A cases and 3 (6%) of Group B cases (p < 0.001). Among the patients in whom ASD was identified, 9 in Group A and 3 in Group B were symptomatic; of these patients, 3 in Group A and 1 in Group B underwent a second surgery for severe symptomatic ASD. At 24 months after surgery, Group A patients fared worse than Group B, showing higher mean VAS and ODI scores due to symptoms related to ASD. At the final follow-up evaluations, as reoperations had been performed to treat symptomatic ASD in some

  16. How does back muscle strength change after posterior lumbar interbody fusion?

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong-Suh; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Chung, Sung-Soo; Park, Won-Hah; Shin, Won-Ju; Seo, Yong-Gon

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE There is a lack of evidence of how back muscle strength changes after lumbar fusion surgery and how exercise influences these changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in back muscle strength after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to measure the effects of a postoperative exercise program on muscle strength and physical and mental health outcomes. METHODS This prospective study enrolled 59 women (mean age 58 years) who underwent PLIF at 1 or 2 spinal levels. To assess the effects of a supervised lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE), the authors allocated the patients to an LSE (n = 26) or a control (n = 33) group. The patients in the LSE group performed the LSEs between 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Back extensor strength, visual analog scale (VAS) scores in back pain, and physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores on the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were determined for the both groups. RESULTS Mean strength of the back muscles tended to slightly decrease by 7.5% from preoperatively to 3 months after PLIF (p = 0.145), but it significantly increased thereafter and was sustained until the last follow-up (38.1%, p < 0.001). The mean back muscle strength was similar in the LSE and control groups preoperatively, but it increased significantly more in the LSE group (64.2%) than in the control group (21.7%) at the last follow-up 12 months after PLIF (p = 0.012). At the last follow-up, decreases in back pain VAS scores were more significant among LSE group patients, who had a pain reduction on average of 58.2%, than among control group patients (reduction of 26.1%) (p = 0.013). The patients in the LSE group also had greater improvement in both PCS (39.9% improvement) and MCS (20.7% improvement) scores than the patients in the control group (improvement of 18.0% and 1.1%, p = 0.042 and p = 0.035, respectively). CONCLUSIONS After PLIF, strength in back muscles decreased until 3 months postoperatively but

  17. Porous biodegradable lumbar interbody fusion cage design and fabrication using integrated global-local topology optimization with laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Heesuk; Hollister, Scott J; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Biodegradable cages have received increasing attention for their use in spinal procedures involving interbody fusion to resolve complications associated with the use of nondegradable cages, such as stress shielding and long-term foreign body reaction. However, the relatively weak initial material strength compared to permanent materials and subsequent reduction due to degradation may be problematic. To design a porous biodegradable interbody fusion cage for a preclinical large animal study that can withstand physiological loads while possessing sufficient interconnected porosity for bony bridging and fusion, we developed a multiscale topology optimization technique. Topology optimization at the macroscopic scale provides optimal structural layout that ensures mechanical strength, while optimally designed microstructures, which replace the macroscopic material layout, ensure maximum permeability. Optimally designed cages were fabricated using solid, freeform fabrication of poly(ε-caprolactone) mixed with hydroxyapatite. Compression tests revealed that the yield strength of optimized fusion cages was two times that of typical human lumbar spine loads. Computational analysis further confirmed the mechanical integrity within the human lumbar spine, although the pore structure locally underwent higher stress than yield stress. This optimization technique may be utilized to balance the complex requirements of load-bearing, stress shielding, and interconnected porosity when using biodegradable materials for fusion cages.

  18. [The posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages (PLIF) and transpedicular stabilization].

    PubMed

    Diedrich, O; Kraft, C N; Perlick, L; Schmitt, O

    2001-01-01

    The development of intervertebral cages has significantly innovated the original technique of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). In this study we present the results of patients treated for degenerative or postoperative segmental spinal instabilities by PLIF with cages and pedicular stabilisation (360 degrees-instrumentation). Between 1992 and 1999 we implanted either CFRP-, PEEK- or Titanium-cages in 86 patients. 78 patients were adequately followed up over a period of at least 12 months (average 2,6 years). 5 patients were stabilised over 2 segments, so that ultimately 83 fused segments were evaluated.15% of all patients had an excellent, 51% a good, 28% a moderate and 5% an insufficient clinical result. Degenerative instabilities had a better outcome with 73% good or excellent clinical results, compared to postoperative instabilities (56%). Based on stringent radiographic fusion criteria we found true bony fusion in 52% of all segments after 12 months, 63% after 24 months, 72% after 36 months, and 78% after 48 months. In 21 segments cage packing was performed with autologous spongiosa, while in 62 segments a combination of cortical bone and spongiosa obtained from osseous structures at the operation-site were used as packing material. At the 24 month radiographic control we found a slightly higher fusion rate for those segments treated with autologous spongiosa obtained from the iliac crest. Neither for cages nor for pedicular screws was implant failure or material fatigue found. Serious entero-, pulmo-, cardio- or urological complications were not observed. Nonetheless the necessity for operative revision was 9%. A postoperative semiquantitative evaluation of segments neighbouring the fused vertebra revealed in 28% an increase in degenerative changes. Particularly after 360 degrees-instrumentation, interpretation of the fusion-status should be based on structural and not on functional criteria. The modification of PLIF with cages compared to the use of

  19. Minimally Invasive Extraforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Revision Surgery: A Technique through Kambin's Triangle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Gue; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF) for revision surgery. Methods From January 2011 to December 2012, 12 patients who underwent minimally invasive ELIF through the Kambin's triangle for revision surgery were included in this study. All patients underwent the surgical procedure in the following sequence: (1) epidural anesthesia, (2) exposing the Kambin's triangle toward the lateral part of the dura (partial resection of the superior articular process), (3) bilateral cage insertion for reinforcement of stabilization and fusion, and (4) percutaneous transpedicular screwing. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS), and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Imaging and clinical findings including surgical techniques, clinical outcomes, and related complications were depicted and analyzed. Results The mean age of the patients (5 men, 7 women) was 60.7±13.4 years, and the mean follow-up period was 27.1±4.9 months. The mean VAS (back and leg) score improved significantly at final follow-up. The mean ODI score decreased as follows: preoperative, 76.78±6.08; 3 months after the surgery, 37.74±6.67; and at final follow-up, 29.91±2.98. Two patients presented with transient nerve root irritation, but there were no cases of incidental dural tear or serious infection. No significant neurological deterioration or major complication was noted in any of the patients. Conclusion Minimally invasive ELIF for revision surgery is an effective surgical option with a low complication rate. PMID:26834815

  20. Open and Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Comparison of Intermediate Results and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Hwan Tak

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes of open vs. minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF). Overview of Literature MI-TLIF promises smaller incisions and less soft tissue dissection resulting in lower morbidity and faster recovery; however, it is technically challenging. Methods Twenty-five patients with MI-TLIF were compared with 25 matched open TLIF controls. A minimum 2 year follow-up and a statistical analysis of perioperative and long-term outcomes were performed. Potential complications were recorded. Results The mean ages for the open and MI-TLIF cases were 44.4 years (range, 19-69 years) and 43.6 years (range, 20-69 years), respectively. The male:female ratio was 13:12 for both groups. Average follow-up was 26.9 months for the MI-TLIF group and 29.3 months for the open group. Operative duration was significantly longer in the MI-TLIF group than that in the open group (p<0.05). No differences in estimated blood loss, duration to ambulation, or length of stay were found. Significant improvements in the Oswestry disability index and EQ-5D functional scores were observed at 6-, 12-, and 24-months in both groups, but no significant difference was detected between the groups. Fusion rates were comparable. Cage sizes were significantly smaller in the MI-TLIF group at the L5/S1 level (p<0.05). One patient had residual spinal stenosis at the MI-TLIF level, and one patient who underwent two-level MI-TLIF developed a deep vein thrombosis resulting in a pulmonary embolism. Conclusions MI-TLIF and open TLIF had comparable long-term benefits. Due to technical constraints, patients should be advised on the longer operative time and potential undersizing of cages at the L5S1 level. PMID:25901228

  1. Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Surgical technique, outcomes and complications after a minimum of one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, I; Luque, R; Noriega, M; Rey, J; Alia, J; Marco-Martínez, F

    «Minimally invasive» techniques have been recently been developed in order to achieve good clinical results with a low incidence of complications. The extralateral interbody fusion or direct transpsoas is a minimally invasive anterior arthrodesis. A total of 97 patients with 138 segments received surgery between May 2012 and May 2015. The follow-up was from 12-44 months. The mean age was 68 years (41-86). The most common cause of intervention was the adjacent segment (30%), deformity (22%), and lumbar disc disease (21%). The interbody cage was implanted as: Single (stand-alone) in 33%, and additional fixation was used in the others: Screws, percutaneous unilateral (11%), bilateral (27%), or with a lateral plate (62%). The mean stay was 3.2 days (2-6). The score on a lumbar visual analogue scale decreased from 9 to 4.1, and dropped to 3 after one year. The improvement in disc height was from 8.4mm to 13.8mm, and a larger increase in the foramen diameter from 10.5 to 13.1mm, which were statistically significant. The early major complications recorded were, three motor femoral nerve injuries and retroperitoneal haematoma (4%), and the early minor were: two fractures (2%). As major late complications there was an abdominal hernia, a mobilization of 10mm and three radiculopathy (5%), and as minor late, three fracture, two mobilisations greater than 10mm, four mobilisations of less than 10mm, and one mobilisation of a screw plate (10%). The extralateral interbody fusion technique is a safe and reliable when performing a lumbar fusion by an alternative minimally invasive route.

  2. BMP-2-induced Neuroforaminal Bone Growth in the Setting of a Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junyoung; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Singh, Kern

    2015-06-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has become a popular alternative to traditional methods of lumbar decompression and fusion. When compared with the open technique, the minimally invasive approach can result in decreased pain and blood loss as well as a shorter length of hospitalization. However, the narrower working channel through the tubular retractor increases the difficulty of decortication and bone grafting. Therefore, recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMP-2) is often utilized (although this is off-label) to create a more favorable interbody fusion environment. Recently, the use of rhBMP-2 has been associated with excessive bone growth in an MIS-TLIF. If this bone growth compresses the neighboring neural structures, patients may present with either new or recurrent radicular pain. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging can demonstrate heterotopic bone growth extending from the disk space into either the ipsilateral neuroforamen or lateral recess, which may result in the compression of the exiting or traversing root, respectively. The purpose of this article and the accompanying video is to demonstrate a technique for defining and resecting rhBMP-2-induced heterotopic bone growth following a previous MIS-TLIF.

  3. Evaluation of a novel tool for bone graft delivery in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Jeffrey B; Kleiner, Hannah M; Grimberg, E John; Throlson, Stefanie J

    2016-01-01

    Study design Disk material removed (DMR) during L4-5 and L5-S1 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (T-LIF) surgery was compared to the corresponding bone graft (BG) volumes inserted at the time of fusion. A novel BG delivery tool (BGDT) was used to apply the BG. In order to establish the percentage of DMR during T-LIF, it was compared to DMR during anterior diskectomy (AD). This study was performed prospectively. Summary of background data Minimal information is available as to the volume of DMR during a T-LIF procedure, and the relationship between DMR and BG delivered is unknown. BG insertion has been empiric and technically challenging. Since the volume of BG applied to the prepared disk space likely impacts the probability of arthrodesis, an investigation is justified. Methods A total of 65 patients with pathology at L4-5 and/or L5-S1 necessitating fusion were treated with a minimally invasive T-LIF procedure. DMR was volumetrically measured during disk space preparation. BG material consisting of local autograft, BG extender, and bone marrow aspirate were mixed to form a slurry. BG slurry was injected into the disk space using a novel BGDT and measured volumetrically. An additional 29 patients who were treated with L5-S1 AD were compared to L5-S1 T-LIF DMR to determine the percent of T-LIF DMR relative to AD. Results DMR volumes averaged 3.6±2.2 mL. This represented 34% of the disk space relative to AD. The amount of BG delivered to the disk spaces was 9.3±3.2 mL, which is 2.6±2.2 times the amount of DMR. The BGDT allowed uncomplicated filling of the disk space in <1 minute. Conclusion The volume of DMR during T-LIF allows for a predictable volume of BG delivery. The BGDT allowed complete filling of the entire prepared disk space. The T-LIF diskectomy debrides 34% of the disk relative to AD. PMID:27274320

  4. Clinical efficacy of lumbar interbody fusion using a channel system combined with ozone therapy for the treatment of central-type L3-L4 lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Hong; Qin, Shuzhen

    2017-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion via the intervertebral foramen combined with ozone (O3) therapy for the treatment of L3-L4 central-type lumbar disc herniation was explored. We recruited patients with sciatica who attended our hospital between July 2013 and October 2015 and underwent lumbar X-ray (anteroposterior and lateral view), lumbar flexion-extension radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging after admission. Seventy-four patients with central-type lumbar disc herniation but no other complications were randomly selected and divided into the observation and control groups. The observation group comprised 37 patients treated with lumbar fusion using a channel system combined with O3 therapy, whereas the control group comprised 37 patients treated with lumbar fusion alone. The effects of the two therapies were evaluated using visual analog scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association, and MacNab scores. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05). The scores of the observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those before surgery and those of the control group (P<0.05). One patient in the observation group experienced no obvious improvement in symptoms after surgery, and two patients in the control group experienced postoperative recurrence; these three patients subsequently underwent laminectomy combined with planted bone fusion and internal fixation. There was no significant difference in total efficacy rates between the two groups (P>0.05). Lumbar fusion using a channel system combined with O3 therapy for the treatment of L3-L4 central-type lumbar disc herniation is safe and effective. It has the advantages of reduced trauma, fewer complications, and rapid pain relief, and it promotes the recovery of lumbar function. Strict mastery of the surgical indications is key to the success of the procedure; however, it is worth expanding its use in

  5. Particular Features of Surgical Site Infection in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Go We

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous reports have observed differences only in infection rates between posterolateral fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). There have been no reports that describe the particular features of surgical site infection (SSI) in PLIF. In this study, we endeavor to identify the distinguishing characteristics and risk factors of SSI in PLIF. Methods Our study undertook a review of a case series of an institute. Patients who had undergone PLIF consecutively in the author's hospital were reviewed. Two proactive procedures were introduced during the study period. One was irrigation of the autolocal bone, and the other was the intradiscal space irrigation with a nozzle. Infection rate and risk factors were analyzed. For subgroup analysis, the elapsed time to a diagnosis (ETD), clinical manifestations, hematologic findings, and causative bacteria were examined in patients with SSI. Results In a total of 1,831 cases, there were 30 cases of SSI (1.6%). Long operation time was an independent risk factor (p = 0.008), and local bone irrigation was an independent protective factor (p = 0.001). Two cases of referred SSI were included in the subgroup analysis. There were 6/32 (19%) superficial incisional infections (SII), 6/32 (19%) deep incisional infections (DII), and 20/32 (62%) organ/space infections (O/SI). The difference of incidence among three groups was significant (p = 0.002).The most common bacteria encountered were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis followed by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in incisional infections, and no growth followed by S. epidermidis in O/SI. ETD was 8.5 ± 2.3 days in SII, 8.7 ± 2.3 days in DII and 164.5 ± 131.1 days in O/SI (p = 0.013). Conclusions The rate of SSI in PLIF was 1.6%, with the most common type being O/SI. The causative bacteria of O/SI was of lower virulence than in the incisional infection, and thus diagnosis was delayed due to its latent and insidious feature. Contamination of auto

  6. Surgical Management of Minimally Invasive Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Stand-Alone Interbody Cage for L4-5 Degenerative Disorders: Clinical and Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hironaka, Yasuo; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment for degenerative spinal disorders is controversial, although lumbar fusion is considered an acceptable option for disabling lower back pain. Patients underwent instrumented minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (mini-ALIF) using a retroperitoneal approach except for requiring multilevel fusions, severe spinal canal stenosis, high-grade spondylolisthesis, and a adjacent segments disorders. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and radiographs of 142 patients who received mini-ALIF for L4-5 degenerative lumbar disorders between 1998 and 2010. We compared preoperative and postoperative clinical data and radiographic measurements, including the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, visual analog scale (VAS) score for back and leg pain, disc height (DH), whole lumbar lordosis (WL), and vertebral wedge angle (WA). The mean follow-up period was 76 months. The solid fusion rate was 90.1% (128/142 patients). The average length of hospital stay was 6.9 days (range, 3–21 days). The mean blood loss was 63.7 ml (range, 10–456 ml). The mean operation time was 155.5 min (range, 96–280 min). The postoperative JOA and VAS scores for back and leg pain were improved compared with the preoperative scores. Radiological analysis showed significant postoperative improvements in DH, WL, and WA, and the functional and radiographical outcomes improved significantly after 2 years. The 2.8% complication rate included cases of wound infection, liquorrhea, vertebral body fractures, and a misplaced cage that required revision. Mini-ALIF was found to be associated with improved clinical results and radiographic findings for L4-5 disorders. A retroperitoneal approach might therefore be a valuable treatment option. PMID:24140782

  7. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with unilateral pedicle screw fixation: comparison between primary and revision surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Moo Sung; Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery with a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is an important minimally invasive fusion technique for the lumbar spine. Lumbar spine reoperation is challenging and is thought to have greater complication risks. The purpose of this study was to compare MIS TLIF with unilateral screw fixation perioperative results between primary and revision surgeries. This was a prospective study that included 46 patients who underwent MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw. The patients were divided into two groups, primary and revision MIS TLIF, to compare perioperative results and complications. The two groups were similar in age, sex, and level of operation, and were not significantly different in the length of follow-up or clinical results. Although dural tears were more common with the revision group (primary 1; revision 4), operation time, blood loss, total perioperative complication, and fusion rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Both groups showed substantial improvements in VAS and ODI scores one year after surgical treatment. Revision MIS TLIF performed by an experienced surgeon does not necessarily increase the risk of perioperative complication compared with primary surgery. MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation is a valuable option for revision lumbar surgery.

  8. Percutaneous posterior-lateral lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative disc disease using a B-Twin expandable spinal spacer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lizu; Xiong, Donglin; Zhang, Qiang; Jian, Jin; Zheng, Husan; Luo, Yuhui; Dai, Juanli; Zhang, Deren

    2010-02-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) causes gradual intervertebral space collapse, concurrent discogenic or facet-induced pain, and possible compression radiculopathy. A new minimal invasion procedure of percutaneous posterior-lateral lumbar interbody fusion (PPLIF) using a B-Twin stand-alone expandable spinal spacer (ESS) was designed to treat this disease and evaluated by follow-up more than 1 year. 12 cases with chronic low back pain and compressive radiculopathy due to DDD refractory were selected to conservative treatment. Under fluoroscopy in the posterior-lateral position, a K-wire was advanced into the intervertebral space and a dilator and working cannula were introduced into the disc space step by step. Discectomy and endplate scratching were performed through the cannula using pituitary forceps and endplate curettage. An ESS was inserted into the intervertebral space by a B-Twin expandable spinal delivery system after some bone graft chips implanted into the disc space. The ongoing study includes intraoperative difficulties, complications, radiologic evidence of fusion and clinical outcome as scored by pre- and postoperative questionnaires pertaining to pain intensity and degree of disability. The 12 procedures of lumbar interbody fusion using stand-alone expandable spinal system through percutaneous approach were successful. Radiologic study demonstrated fusion in a total of 11 cases and only 1 exception after more than 1 year visiting. The values of Visual Analog Scale (VAS) on movement and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) dropped by more than 80 and 67.4%, respectively. Disk space heights averaging 9.0 mm before procedure were increased to 11.5 mm 1 month (a significant difference compared with preprocedure, P < 0.01) after surgery and stabilized at 10.8 mm upon final follow-up (a significant difference compared with preprocedure, P < 0.01). The results demonstrated that the percutaneous approach for posterior-lateral lumbar interbody fusion using

  9. Anatomy of the psoas muscle and lumbar plexus with respect to the surgical approach for lateral transpsoas interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Bogner, Eric A; Herzog, Richard J; Huang, Russel C

    2011-04-01

    Lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is a minimally invasive technique that permits interbody fusion utilizing cages placed via a direct lateral retroperitoneal approach. We sought to describe the locations of relevant neurovascular structures based on MRI with respect to this novel surgical approach. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive lumbosacral spine MRI scans in 43 skeletally mature adults. MRI scans were independently reviewed by two readers to identify the location of the psoas muscle, lumbar plexus, femoral nerve, inferior vena cava and right iliac vein. Structures potentially at risk for injury were identified by: a distance from the anterior aspect of the adjacent vertebral bodies of <20 mm, representing the minimum retraction necessary for cage placement, and extension of vascular structures posterior to the anterior vertebral body, requiring anterior retraction. The percentage of patients with neurovascular structures at risk for left-sided approaches was 2.3% at L1-2, 7.0% at L2-3, 4.7% at L3-4 and 20.9% at L4-5. For right-sided approaches, this rose to 7.0% at L1-2, 7.0% at L2-3, 9.3% at L3-4 and 44.2% at L4-5, largely because of the relatively posterior right-sided vasculature. A relationship between the position of psoas muscle and lumbar plexus is described which allows use of the psoas position as a proxy for lumbar plexus position to identify patients who may be at risk, particularly at the L4-5 level. Further study will establish the clinical relevance of these measurements and the ability of neurovascular structures to be retracted without significant injury.

  10. High neurological complication rates for extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion and related techniques: A review of safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are frequent reports of lumbosacral plexus and other neurological injuries occurring with extreme lateral interbody fusions (XLIF) and other related lateral lumbar techniques. Methods: This review focuses on the new neurological deficits (e.g. lumbosacral plexus, root injuries) that occur following minimally invasive surgery (MIS) XLIF and other related lateral lumbar techniques. Results: A review of multiple articles revealed the following ranges of new postoperative neurological complications for XLIF procedures: plexus injuries 13.28%; sensory deficits 0–75% (permanent in 62.5%); motor deficits 0.7–33.6%; anterior thigh pain 12.5–25%. Of interest, in a study by Lykissas et al., the frequency of long-term neural injury following lateral lumber interbody fusion (LLIF) with BMP-2 (72 patients) was much higher than for LLIF performed with autograft/allograft (72 patients). The addition of bone morphogenetic protein led to persistent sensory deficits in 29 vs. 20 without BMP; persistent motor deficits in 35 with vs. 17 without BMP; and persistent anterior thigh/groin pain in 8 with vs. 0 without BMP. They should also have noted the unacceptably high incidence of neural injury occurring with LLIF alone without BMP. Conclusion: This review highlights the high risk of neural injury (up to 75% for sensory, 33.6% for motor, and an overall plexus injury rate of 13.28%) utilizing the XLIF and other similar lateral lumbar approaches. With such extensive neurological injuries, is the XLIF really safe, and should it still be performed? PMID:27843679

  11. Comparison of Clinical and Radiological Results of Posterolateral Fusion and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of L4 Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kuraishi, Shugo; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ikegami, Shota; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Tateiwa, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Hisatoshi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Multicenter analysis of two groups of patients surgically treated for degenerative L4 unstable spondylolisthesis. Purpose To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of posterolateral fusion (PLF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for degenerative L4 unstable spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature Surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis is widely performed. However, few reports have compared the outcome of PLF to that of PLIF for degenerative L4 unstable spondylolisthesis. Methods Patients with L4 unstable spondylolisthesis with Meyerding grade II or more, slip of >10° or >4 mm upon maximum flexion and extension bending, and posterior opening of >5 degree upon flexion bending were studied. Patients were treated from January 2008 to January 2010. Patients who underwent PLF (n=12) and PLIF (n=19) were followed-up for >2 years. Radiographic findings and clinical outcomes evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score were compared between the two groups. Radiographic evaluation included slip angle, translation, slip angle and translation during maximum flexion and extension bending, intervertebral disc height, lumbar lordotic angle, and fusion rate. Results JOA scores of the PLF group before surgery and at final follow-up were 12.3±4.8 and 24.1±3.7, respectively; those of the PLIF group were 14.7±4.8 and 24.2±7.8, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups. Correction of slip estimated from postoperative slip angle, translation, and maintenance of intervertebral disc height in the PLIF group was significantly (p<0.05) better than those in the PLF group. However, there was no significant difference in lumbar lordotic angle, slip angle and translation angle upon maximum flexion, or extension bending. Fusion rates of the PLIF and PLF groups had no significant difference. Conclusions The L4–L5 level posterior instrumented fusion for unstable spondylolisthesis using both PLF and PLIF

  12. Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Clinical and Radiological Results of Mean 46-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Erken, H. Yener

    2017-01-01

    Background. Spinal fusion has been shown to be the preferred surgical option to reduce pain, recover function, and increase quality of life in the treatment of a variety of lumbar spinal disorders. The main goal of the present study is to report our clinical experience and results of percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (PELIF) applications using the expandable spacer in a single institution. Methods. We performed a retrospective review of 18 patients with >12-month follow-up who had been operated on PELIF using expandable spacer from 2001 to 2007. Their clinical and radiological data were collected and analyzed. Results. The mean follow-up period was 46 months. The mean DH before the surgery was 8.3 mm which improved to 11.4 mm at the early postoperative period and regressed to 9.3 mm at the last follow-up visit. The VAS-B, VAS-L, and ODI scores at the last follow-up showed a 54%, 72%, and 69% improvement from the preoperative period, respectively. Conclusions. The presented PELIF technique with the expandable spacer seems to be a promising surgical technique for the treatment of a variety of lumbar spinal disorders. Conversely, radiological results including disc space subsidence make the stand-alone application of the expandable spacer debatable. PMID:28337448

  13. Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Clinical and Radiological Results of Mean 46-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Erken, H Yener; Bae, Junseok

    2017-01-01

    Background. Spinal fusion has been shown to be the preferred surgical option to reduce pain, recover function, and increase quality of life in the treatment of a variety of lumbar spinal disorders. The main goal of the present study is to report our clinical experience and results of percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (PELIF) applications using the expandable spacer in a single institution. Methods. We performed a retrospective review of 18 patients with >12-month follow-up who had been operated on PELIF using expandable spacer from 2001 to 2007. Their clinical and radiological data were collected and analyzed. Results. The mean follow-up period was 46 months. The mean DH before the surgery was 8.3 mm which improved to 11.4 mm at the early postoperative period and regressed to 9.3 mm at the last follow-up visit. The VAS-B, VAS-L, and ODI scores at the last follow-up showed a 54%, 72%, and 69% improvement from the preoperative period, respectively. Conclusions. The presented PELIF technique with the expandable spacer seems to be a promising surgical technique for the treatment of a variety of lumbar spinal disorders. Conversely, radiological results including disc space subsidence make the stand-alone application of the expandable spacer debatable.

  14. Microendoscopy-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar degenerative disease: short-term and medium-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Bin; Rong, Li-Min; Chen, Rui-Qiang; Dong, Jian-Wen; Xie, Pei-Gen; Zhang, Liang-Ming; Feng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate short-term and medium-term outcomes of microendoscopy-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) and open TLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods: In this prospective, randomized control study, 50 cases received microendoscopy-assisted MIS-TLIF (MIS group), while another well-matched 50 cases accepted open TLIF (open group). Parameters between both groups, including surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss and radiologic exposure, postoperative analgesic usage and ambulatory time, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg, functional scores, self-evaluation of surgical outcome (modified MacNab criteria), interbody fusion rate, adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) rate, as well as complication incidence were compared at 1 month and 24 months postoperatively. Results: Intraoperative blood loss and postoperative analgesic usage were significantly reduced in MIS group (P<0.05). Patients undergoing microendoscopy-assisted MIS-TLIF were able to ambulate earlier postoperatively than those receiving open TLIF (P<0.05). However, it showed prolonged surgical duration and enhanced radiologic exposure in MIS group (P<0.05). At 1 month postoperatively, MIS group was associated with more improvement of VAS and functional scores compared with open group (P<0.05). While at 24 months postoperatively, both groups revealed similar VAS and functional scores (P>0.05). Excellent and perfect scale rating by modified MacNab criteria, interbody fusion rate, ASD rate and complication incidence between both groups were nearly the same (P>0.05). Conclusions: Microendoscopy-assisted MIS-TLIF owns advantages of less iatrogenic injury, decreased blood loss, reduced analgesic usage and earlier rehabilitation, while it has drawbacks of more surgical duration and radiologic exposure. It is superior than open TLIF in terms of short-term clinical outcomes and has similar medium-term clinical outcomes. PMID:26885072

  15. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion at L5-S1 through a Unilateral Approach: Technical Feasibility and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Suh; Kim, Jin-Sung; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Hur, Jung-Woo; Seong, Ji-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Minimally invasive spinal transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) at L5-S1 is technically more demanding than it is at other levels because of the anatomical and biomechanical traits. Objective. To determine the clinical and radiological outcomes of MIS-TLIF for treatment of single-level spinal stenosis low-grade isthmic or degenerative spondylolisthesis at L5-S1. Methods. Radiological data and electronic medical records of patients who underwent MIS-TLIF between May 2012 and December 2014 were reviewed. Fusion rate, cage position, disc height (DH), disc angle (DA), disc slope angle, segmental lordotic angle (SLA), lumbar lordotic angle (LLA), and pelvic parameters were assessed. For functional assessment, the visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and patient satisfaction rate (PSR) were utilized. Results. A total of 21 levels in 21 patients were studied. DH, DA, SLA, and LLA had increased from their preoperative measures at the final follow-up. Fusion rate was 86.7% (18/21) at 12 months' follow-up. The most common cage position was anteromedial (15/21). The mean VAS scores for back and leg pain mean ODI scores improved significantly at the final follow-up. PSR was 88%. Cage subsidence was observed in 33.3% (7/21). Conclusions. The clinical and radiologic outcomes after MIS-TLIF at L5-S1 in patients with spinal stenosis or spondylolisthesis are generally favorable. PMID:27433472

  16. Preserving Posterior Complex Can Prevent Adjacent Segment Disease following Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgeries: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun-Peng; Du, Cheng-Fei; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Zhong, Zheng-Cheng; Chen, Xuan-Wei; Wu, Gui; Li, Zhe-Cheng; Ye, Jin-Duo; Lin, Jian-Hua; Wang, Li Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomechanical effects of the lumbar posterior complex on the adjacent segments after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgeries. Methods A finite element model of the L1–S1 segment was modified to simulate PLIF with total laminectomy (PLIF-LAM) and PLIF with hemilaminectomy (PLIF-HEMI) procedures. The models were subjected to a 400N follower load with a 7.5-N.m moment of flexion, extension, torsion, and lateral bending. The range of motion (ROM), intradiscal pressure (IDP), and ligament force were compared. Results In Flexion, the ROM, IDP and ligament force of posterior longitudinal ligament, intertransverse ligament, and capsular ligament remarkably increased at the proximal adjacent segment in the PLIF-LAM model, and slightly increased in the PLIF-HEMI model. There was almost no difference for the ROM, IDP and ligament force at L5-S1 level between the two PLIF models although the ligament forces of ligamenta flava remarkably increased compared with the intact lumbar spine (INT) model. For the other loading conditions, these two models almost showed no difference in ROM, IDP and ligament force on the adjacent discs. Conclusions Preserved posterior complex acts as the posterior tension band during PLIF surgery and results in less ROM, IDP and ligament forces on the proximal adjacent segment in flexion. Preserving the posterior complex during decompression can be effective on preventing adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) following PLIF surgeries. PMID:27870867

  17. Interbody Fusion in Low Grade Lumbar Spondylolsithesis: Clinical Outcome Does Not Correalte with Slip Reduction and Neural Foraminal Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Atanu; McConnell, Jeffrey R.; Jha, Deepak K.; Chakraburtty, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective nonrandomized study. Purpose To find a possible correlation between clinical outcome and extent of lumbar spondylolisthesis reduction. Overview of Literature There is no consensus in the literature concerning whether a beneficial effect of reduction on outcome can be expected following reduction and surgical fusion for low grade lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods Forty six patients with a mean age of 37.5 years (age, 17–48 years) with isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent interbody fusion with cages with posterior instrumentation (TLIF). Clinical outcome was measured using visual analogue score (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Foraminal dimensions and disc heights were measured in standard digital radiographs. These were analyzed at baseline and 1 year after surgery and changes were compared. Radiographic fusion was judged with computed tomography scans at 1 year. Results Ninety percent of the patients had good or very good clinical results with fusion and instrumentation. Baseline and one-year postoperative mean VAS score was 6.33 (range, 5–8) and 0.76 (range, 0–3), respectively (p=0.004). Baseline and one-year postoperative, mean ODI score was 48 (range, 32–62) and 10 (range, 6–16), respectively (p<0.001). A mean spondylolisthesis slip of 32.1% was reduced to 6.7% at 1 year. Average anterior disc height, posterior disc height, vertical foraminal dimension), and foraminal) diameter improved from 9.8 to 11.7 mm (p=0.005), 4.5 to 5.8 mm (p=0.004), 11.3 to 12.6 mm (p=0.002), and 18.6 to 20.0 mm (p<0.001), respectively. The fusion rate was 75% with TLIF. There is no significant correlation between the improvements of ODI scores and the extent of slip reduction. Conclusions Neural decompression and interbody fusion can significantly improve pain and disability but the clinical outcome does not correlate with radiological improvement in the neural foraminal dimension. PMID:27114773

  18. A Multi-center Clinical Study of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with the Expandable Stand-alone Cage (Tyche® Cage) for Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Oh, Seong Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo; Rim, Dae Cheol; Kim, Tae Sung

    2007-01-01

    Objective This multi-center clinical study was designed to determine the long-term results of patients who received a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion with expandable cage (Tyche® cage) for degenerative spinal diseases during the same period in each hospital. Methods Fifty-seven patients with low back pain who had a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion using a newly designed expandable cage were enrolled in this study at five centers from June 2003 to December 2004 and followed up for 24 months. Pain improvement was checked with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and their disability was evaluated with the Oswestry Disability Index. Radiographs were obtained before and after surgery. At the final follow-up, dynamic stability, quality of bone fusion, interveretebral disc height, and lumbar lordosis were assessed. In some cases, a lumbar computed tomography scan was also obtained. Results The mean VAS score of back pain was improved from 6.44 points preoperatively to 0.44 at the final visit and the score of sciatica was reduced from 4.84 to 0.26. Also, the Oswestry Disability Index was improved from 32.62 points preoperatively to 18.25 at the final visit. The fusion rate was 92.5%. Intervertebral disc height, recorded as 9.94±2.69 mm before surgery was increased to 12.23±3.31 mm at postoperative 1 month and was stabilized at 11.43±2.23 mm on final visit. The segmental angle of lordosis was changed significantly from 3.54±3.70° before surgery to 6.37±3.97° by 24 months postoperative, and total lumbar lordosis was 20.37±11.30° preoperatively and 24.71±11.70° at 24 months postoperative. Conclusion There have been no special complications regarding the expandable cage during the follow-up period and the results of this study demonstrates a high fusion rate and clinical success. PMID:19096552

  19. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. Material/Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Results Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  20. The Negligible Influence of Chronic Obesity on Hospitalization, Clinical Status, and Complications in Elective Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kombos, Theodoros; Bode, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is a common surgical treatment for degenerative spinal instability, but many surgeons consider obesity a contraindication for elective spinal fusion. The aim of this study was to analyze whether obesity has any influence on hospitalization parameters, change in clinical status, or complications. Methods. In this prospective study, regression analysis was used to analyze the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on operating time, postoperative care, hospitalization time, type of postdischarge care, change in paresis or sensory deficits, pain level, wound complications, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and implant complications. Results. Operating time increased only 2.5 minutes for each increase of BMI by 1. The probability of having a wound complication increased statistically with rising BMI. Nonetheless, BMI accounted for very little of the variation in the data, meaning that other factors or random chances play a much larger role. Conclusions. Obesity has to be considered a risk factor for wound complications in patients undergoing elective PLIF for degenerative instability. However, BMI showed no significant influence on other kinds of peri- or postoperative complications, nor clinical outcomes. So obesity cannot be considered a contraindication for elective PLIF. PMID:27478866

  1. Short-Term Results of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Pedicle Screw with Cortical Bone Trajectory Compared with Conventional Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Shimada, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Purpose To evaluate clinical and radiological results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) performed with cortical bone trajectory (CBT) pedicle screw insertion with those of TLIF using 'conventional' or percutaneous pedicle screw insertion. Overview of Literature CBT is a new trajectory for pedicle screw insertion in the lumbar spine; clinical and radiological results of TLIF using pedicle screws inserted with CBT are unclear. Methods In total, 26 patients (11 males, 15 females) were enrolled in this retrospective study and divided into three groups: TLIF with pedicle screw insertion by conventional minimally invasive methods via the Wiltse approach (M-TLIF, n=10), TLIF with percutaneous pedicle screw insertion (P-TLIF, n=6), and TLIF with pedicle screw insertion with CBT (CBT-TLIF, n=10). Surgical results and preand postoperative radiological findings were evaluated and compared. Results Intraoperative blood loss was significantly less with CBT-TLIF (p=0.03) than with M-TLIF. Postoperative lordotic angles did not differ significantly among the three groups. Complete fusions were obtained in 10 of 12 levels (83%) with M-TLIF, in seven levels (100%) with P-TLIF, and in 10 of 11 levels (91%) with CBT-TLIF. On postoperative computed tomography, correct positioning was seen in 84.1% of M-TLIF screws, 88.5% of P-TLIF screws, and 90% of CBT-TLIF screws. Conclusions CBT-TLIF resulted in less blood loss and a shorter operative duration than M-TLIF or P-TLIF. Postoperative rates of bone union, maintenance of lordotic angles, and accuracy of pedicle screw positions were similar among the three groups. PMID:26097661

  2. Clinical and radiological outcome of anterior–posterior fusion versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for symptomatic disc degeneration: a retrospective comparative study of 133 patients

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, James D.; Safriel, Yair; Gilbert, Thomas J.; Mehbod, Amir A.; Denis, Francis; Transfeldt, Ensor E.; Wroblewski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Abundant data are available for direct anterior/posterior spine fusion (APF) and some for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), but only few studies from one institution compares the two techniques. One-hundred and thirty-three patients were retrospectively analyzed, 68 having APF and 65 having TLIF. All patients had symptomatic disc degeneration of the lumbar spine. Only those with one or two-level surgeries were included. Clinical chart and radiologic reviews were done, fusion solidity assessed, and functional outcomes determined by pre- and postoperative SF-36 and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and a satisfaction questionnaire. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. The mean operating room time and hospital length of stay were less in the TLIF group. The blood loss was slightly less in the TLIF group (409 vs. 480 cc.). Intra-operative complications were higher in the APF group, mostly due to vein lacerations in the anterior retroperitoneal approach. Postoperative complications were higher in the TLIF group due to graft material extruding against the nerve root or wound drainage. The pseudarthrosis rate was statistically equal (APF 17.6% and TLIF 23.1%) and was higher than most published reports. Significant improvements were noted in both groups for the SF-36 questionnaires. The mean ODI scores at follow-up were 33.5 for the APF and 39.5 for the TLIF group. The patient satisfaction rate was equal for the two groups. PMID:19125304

  3. The use of RhBMP-2 in single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a clinical and radiographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Makda, Junaid; Hong, Joseph; Patel, Ravi; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Anderson, David G.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Albert, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    The “off label” use of rhBMP-2 in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure has become increasingly popular. Although several studies have demonstrated the successful use of rhBMP-2 for this indication, uncertainties remain regarding its safety and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the single-level TLIF procedure using rhBMP-2. Patients who underwent a single-level TLIF between January 2004 and May 2006 with rhBMP-2 were identified. A retrospective evaluation of these patients included operative report(s), pre- and postoperative medical records, and dynamic and static lumbar radiographs. Patient-reported clinical outcome measures were obtained from a telephone questionnaire and included a modification of the Odom’s criteria, a patient satisfaction score, and back and leg pain numeric rating scale scores. Forty-eight patients met the study criteria and were available for follow-up (avg. radiographic and clinical follow-up of 19.4 and 27.4 months, respectively). Radiographic fusion was achieved in 95.8% of patients. Good to excellent results were achieved in 71% of patients. On most recent clinical follow-up, 83% of patients reported improvement in their symptoms and 84% reported satisfaction with their surgery. Twenty-nine patients (60.4%) reported that they still had some back pain, with an average back pain numeric rating score of 2.8. Twenty patients (41.7%) reported that they still had some leg pain, with an average leg pain numeric rating score was 2.4. Thirteen patients (27.1%) had one or more complications, including transient postoperative radiculitis (8/48), vertebral osteolysis (3/48), nonunion (2/48), and symptomatic ectopic bone formation (1/48). The use of rhBMP-2 in the TLIF procedure produces a high rate of fusion, symptomatic improvement and patient satisfaction. Although its use eliminates the risk of harvesting autograft, rhBMP-2 is associated with other

  4. Hospital charges associated with "never events": comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and lumbar laminectomy to total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Contag, Alec G; Rastegar, Farbod; Waagmeester, Garrett; Anderson, Paul A; Arthur, Melanie; Hart, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Beginning in 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS) determined that certain hospital-acquired adverse events such as surgical site infection (SSI) following spine surgery should never occur. The following year, they expanded the ruling to include deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following total joint arthroplasty. Due to their ruling that "never events" are not the payers' responsibility, CMS insists that the costs of managing these complications be borne by hospitals and health care providers, rather than billings to health care payers for additional care required in their management. Data comparing the expected costs of such adverse events in patients undergoing spine and orthopedic surgery have not previously been reported. METHODS The California State Inpatient Database (CA-SID) from 2008 to 2009 was used for the analysis. All patients with primary procedure codes indicating anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), lumbar laminectomy (LL), total knee replacement (TKR), and total hip replacement (THR) were analyzed. Patients with diagnostic and/or treatment codes for DVT, PE, and SSI were separated from patients without these complication codes. Patients with more than 1 primary procedure code or more than 1 complication code were excluded. Median charges for treatment from primary surgery through 3 months postoperatively were calculated. RESULTS The incidence of the examined adverse events was lowest for ACDF (0.6% DVT, 0.1% PE, and 0.03% SSI) and highest for TKA (1.3% DVT, 0.3% PE, 0.6% SSI). Median inpatient charges for uncomplicated LL was $51,817, compared with $73,432 for ACDF, $143,601 for PLIF, $74,459 for THR, and $70,116 for TKR. Charges for patients with DVT ranged from $108,387 for TKR (1.5 times greater than index) to $313,536 for ACDF (4.3 times greater than index). Charges for patients with PE ranged from $127,958 for TKR (1.8 times greater than

  5. Fixation Strength of Caudal Pedicle Screws after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with the Modified Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw Method

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Clinical case series. Purpose In the posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedure in our institute, the cephalad screw trajectory follows a mediolateral and caudocephalad directed path according to the original cortical bone trajectory (CBT) method. However, the starting point of the caudal screw is at the medial border of the pedicle on an articular surface of the superior articular process, and the trajectory takes a mediolateral path parallel to the cephalad endplate. The incidence of caudal screw loosening after PLIF with this modified CBT screw method was investigated, and significant risk factors for caudal screw loosening were evaluated. Overview of Literature A biomechanical study of this modified caudal screw trajectory using the finite element method reported about a 20% increase in uniaxial yield pullout load compared with the traditional trajectory. However, there has been no clinical study concerning the fixation strength of this modified caudal screw trajectory. Methods The subjects were 193 consecutive patients who underwent single-level PLIF with modified CBT screw fixation. Caudal screw loosening was checked in computed tomography at 6 months after surgery, and screw loosening was defined as a radiolucency of 1 mm or more at the bone-screw interface. Results The incidence of caudal screw loosening after lumbosacral PLIF (46.2%) was significantly higher than that after floating PLIF (6.0%). No significant differences in sex, brand of the instruments, and diameter and length of the caudal screw were evident between patients with and without caudal screw loosening. Patients with caudal screw loosening were significantly older at the time of surgery than patients without caudal screw loosening. Conclusions Fixation strength of the caudal screw after floating PLIF with this modified CBT screw technique was sufficiently acceptable. Fixation strength after the lumbosacral procedure was not. PMID:27559442

  6. Comparison of ALIF vs. XLIF for L4/5 interbody fusion: pros, cons, and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Shanu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of lumbar fusion for the treatment of various degenerative lumbar spine diseases has increased dramatically over the last twenty years. Many lumbar fusion techniques have been developed and popularized, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) initially introduced in the 1930’s, has become a common and widely accepted technique for lumbar fusions over the last decade offering several advantages over standard posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). More recently, the lateral trans-psoas approach termed extreme, direct or lateral lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF, DLIF, LLIF) is gaining widespread popularity. The aim of this paper is to compare the approaches, advantages and disadvantages of ALIF and XLIF for L4/5 interbody fusion based on relevant literature. PMID:27683688

  7. Systematic Review of Thigh Symptoms after Lateral Transpsoas Interbody Fusion for Adult Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gammal, Isaac D.; Bendo, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is a minimally invasive technique for achieving lumbar spinal fusion. While it has many advantages over open techniques it carries with it a distinct set of risks, most commonly post-operative ipsilateral thigh pain, weakness and sensory disturbances. It is vital for both the surgeon and patient to understand the risks for and outcomes of injury associated with this procedure. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the incidence, risks, and long-term clinical outcomes of post-operative thigh symptoms in patients treated with LTIF. Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Collaboration Library, using keywords and MeSH terms, for English-language literature published through September 2014, as well as reference lists from key articles. Studies were then manually filtered to retrieve articles that met inclusion criteria. We were interested in studies that reported postoperative lower extremity symptoms after LTIF, such as pain, weakness and changes in sensation. The strength of evidence was determined based on precepts outlined by the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE). Results A total of 392 articles were initially retrieved, with 24 ultimately meeting criteria for inclusion. The incidence of any post-operative thigh symptom varied, ranging as high as 60.7%, with 9.3% of patients experiencing a motor deficit related to direct nerve injury. Several studies reported cases of persistent symptoms at 6 months follow up. Additionally, inclusion of the L4-5 disc space and a longer duration of surgery were both identified as risks for developing postoperative thigh symptoms. Conclusion The risk of postoperative thigh symptoms after LTIF is high. Thigh pain, paresthesias and weakness were the most commonly reported symptoms. While most patients’ symptoms resolved by 6 months follow up

  8. Posterior corrective surgery with a multilevel transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and a rod rotation maneuver for patients with degenerative lumbar kyphoscoliosis.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Akira; Namikawa, Takashi; Kato, Minori; Ozaki, Tomonori; Hori, Yusuke; Hidaka, Noriaki; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical results of posterior corrective surgery using a multilevel transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with a rod rotation (RR) and to evaluate the segmental corrective effect of a TLIF using CT imaging. The medical records of 15 consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar kyphoscoliosis (DLKS) who had undergone posterior spinal corrective surgery using a multilevel TLIF with an RR technique and who had a minimum follow-up of 2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographic parameters were evaluated using plain radiographs, and segmental correction was evaluated using CT imaging. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Scoliosis Research Society Patient Questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) and the SF-36. The mean follow-up period was 46.7 months, and the mean age at the time of surgery was 60.7 years. The mean total SRS-22 score was 2.9 before surgery and significantly improved to 4.0 at the latest follow-up. The physical functioning, role functioning (physical), and social functioning subcategories of the SF-36 were generally improved at the latest follow-up, although the changes in these scores were not statistically significant. The bodily pain, vitality, and mental health subcategories were significantly improved at the latest follow-up (p < 0.05). Three complications occurred in 3 patients (20%). The Cobb angle of the lumbar curve was reduced to 20.3° after surgery. The overall correction rate was 66.4%. The pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (preoperative/postoperative = 31.5°/4.3°), pelvic tilt (29.2°/18.9°), and sagittal vertical axis (78.3/27.6 mm) were improved after surgery and remained so throughout the follow-up. Computed tomography image analysis suggested that a 1-level TLIF can result in 10.9° of scoliosis correction and 6.8° of lordosis. Posterior corrective surgery using a multilevel TLIF with an RR on patients with DLKS can provide effective correction in the coronal plane but allows only

  9. Posterolateral instrumented fusion with and without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis: A randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Etemadifar, Mohammad Reza; Hadi, Abdollah; Masouleh, Mehran Feizi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spondylolisthesis is a common cause of surgery in patients with lower back pain. Although posterolateral fusion and pedicle screw fixation are a relatively common treatment method for the treatment of spondylolisthesis, controversy exists about the necessity of adding interbody fusion to posterolateral fusion. The aim of our study was to assess the functional disability, pain, and complications in patients with spondylolisthesis treated by posterolateral instrumented fusion (PLF) with and without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: From February 2007 to February 2011, 50 adult patients with spondylolisthesis were randomly assigned to be treated with PLF or PLF+TLIF techniques (25 patients in each group) by a single surgeon. Back pain, leg pain, and disability were assessed before treatment and until 2 years after surgical treatment using visual analog scale (VAS) and oswestry disability index (ODI). Patients were also evaluated for postoperative complications such as infection, neurological complications, and instrument failure. Results: All patients completed the 24 months of follow-up. Twenty patients were females and 30 were males. Average age of the patients was 53 ± 11 years for the PLF group and 51 ± 13 for the PLF + TLIF group. Back pain, leg pain, and disability score were significantly improved postoperatively compared to preoperative scores (P < 0.001). At 3 months of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in VAS score for back pain and leg pain in both groups; however, after 6 months and 1 year and 2 years follow-up, the reported scores for back pain and leg pain were significantly lower in the PLF+TLIF group (P < 0.05). The ODI score was also significantly lower in the PLF+TLIF group at 1 year and 2 years of follow-up (P < 0.05). One screw breakage and one superficial infection occurred in the PLF+TLIF group, which had no statistical significance (P = 0

  10. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) Versus Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) Implants for Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, William; McLain, Robert F.; Rufo-Smith, Candace; Gurd, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative disc disease is common and debilitating for many patients. If conservative extensive care fails, anterior lumbar interbody fusion has proven to be an alternative form of surgical management. The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage(SAC) was introduced as a method to obtain stability and fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) is comparable in safety and efficacy to the Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) device. Methods As part of a prospective, randomized, controlled FDA trial, 73 patients underwent anterior interbody fusion using either the SAC(56%) or the BAK device (44%). Results Background characteristics were similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the SAC and BAK groups in mean operative time or mean blood loss during surgery. Adverse event rates did not differ between the groups. Assessment of plain radiographs could not confirm solid fusion in 63% of control and 71% of study patients. Functional scores from Owestry and SF-36 improved in both groups by the two-year follow-up. There were no significant differences between the SAC and BAK patients with respect to outcome. Conclusions Both the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage and the BAK Cage provided satisfactory improvement in function and pain relief, despite less than expected radiographic fusion rates. The apparent incongruency between fusion rates and functional outcomes suggests that either radiographs underestimate the true incidence of fusion, or that patients are obtaining good pain relief and improved function despite a lower rate of fusion than previously reported. This was a Level III study. PMID:25694930

  11. Clinical Outcomes of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Patients 80 Years of Age and Older with Lumbar Degenerative Disease: Minimum 2 Years' Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Matsumura, Akira; Konishi, Sadahiko; Kato, Minori; Namikawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective To compare clinical outcomes, radiographic evaluations including bony union rate and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFxs), and perioperative complications following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) between patients ≥80 years of age and those <80 years. Methods Ninety-six patients ≥70 years old who underwent PLIF were reviewed. We divided the patients into the two age groups, ≥80 group (n = 19) and <80 group (n = 77), and compared the clinical outcomes using Japanese Orthopaedics Association (JOA) scores and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). We also evaluated bony union and the incidence of OVFxs in the both groups. Results The JOA score improved 47.6% in the ≥80 group and 49.1% in the <80 group. There were no significant differences between the two groups. Only the bodily pain component of the SF-36 improved significantly in the ≥80 group, and seven of eight components (exception was general health) improved significantly in the <80 group. Bony union rate was significantly superior in the <80 group (94.8%) compared with that of the ≥80 group (73.7%, p = 0.013). OVFx prevalence and incidence were not significantly different between the two groups, although postoperative OVFx worsened the JOA score improvement in the ≥80 group (38.8%, p = 0.02). Conclusions The present study indicated that surgical outcomes of PLIF in patients ≥80 years were comparable to those < 80 years. However, bony union rate was significantly lower and postoperative OVFx worsened the clinical outcomes in patients ≥80 years. PMID:27781186

  12. Quality-of-Life Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Based on Long-Term Analysis of 304 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Namath S.; White, G. Zachary; Begun, Evan M.; Collins, Robert A.; Fahim, Daniel K.; Hiremath, Girish K.; Adbi, Fadumo M.; Yacob, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. This was a prospective clinical study that took place in an outpatient spine clinic. Objective. To demonstrate the short-/long-term outcomes from a large cohort of patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF). Summary of Background Data. Long-term prospective outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive spinal fusion for debilitating back pain has not been well studied. Methods. Presenting diagnosis was determined from clinical findings and radiographical (radiograph, magnetic resonance image, computed tomographic scan) evaluations preoperatively. Patients were assessed with outcome measures preoperatively, and postoperatively at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and annually 2 to 7 years (mean follow-up: 47 mo) final follow-up. The rate of postoperative complications and reoperations at the initial level of MITLIF and adjacent level(s) were followed. Fusion rates were assessed blinded and independently by radiograph. Results. Visual analogue scale scores decreased significantly from 7.0 preoperatively to 3.5 at mean 47-month follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index scores declined from 43.1 preoperatively to 28.2 at mean 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 mental component scores increased from 43.8 preoperatively to 49.7 at 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 physical component scores increased from 30.6 preoperatively to 39.6 at 47-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion. This prospectively collected outcomes study shows long-term statistically significant clinical outcomes improvement after MITLIF in patients with clinically symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with or without stenosis. MITLIF resulted in a high rate of spinal fusion and very low rate of interbody fusion failure and/or adjacent segment disease requiring reoperation while reducing postoperative complications. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24150437

  13. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumented posterolateral fusion in adult spondylolisthesis: description and association of clinico-surgical variables with prognosis in a series of 36 cases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Moreta, Juan A.; Hernandez-Vicente, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background We present our experience in the treatment of patients with isthmic or degenerative spondylolisthesis, by means of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and instrumented posterolateral fusion (IPLF), and we compare them with those published in the literature. We analyse whether there exists any statistical association between the clinical characteristics of the patient, radiological characteristics of the disease and our surgical technique, with the complications and the clinical-radiological prognosis of the cases. Method We designed a prospective study. A total of 36 cases were operated. The patients included were 14 men and 22 women, with an average age of 57.17±27.32 years. Our technique consists of PLIF+IPLF, using local bone for the fusion. The clinical results were evaluated with the Visual Analogical Scale (VAS) and the Kirkaldy-Willis criteria. The radiological evaluation followed the Bratingan (PLIF) and Lenke (IPLF) methodology. A total of 42 variables were statistically analysed by means of SPSS18. We used the Paired Student's T-test, logistic regression and Pearson's Chi-square-test. Results The spondylolisthesis was isthmic in 15 cases and degenerative in 21 cases. The postoperative evaluations had excellent or good results in 94.5% (n = 34), with a statistically significant improvement in the back pain and sciatica (p < 0.01). The rate of circumferential fusion reached was approximately 92%. We had 13.88% of transitory morbility and 0% of mortality associated with our technique. A greater age, degree of listhesis or length of illness before the intervention, weakly correlated with worse clinical results (p< -0.2). In our series, the logistical regression showed that the clinical characteristics of the patient, radiological characteristics of the lesion and our surgical technique were not associated with greater postoperative complications. Conclusion Although a higher level of training is necessary, we believe that the described

  14. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System: expandable, standalone interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Emstad, Erik; del Monaco, Diana Cardenas; Fielding, Louis C; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral fusion cages have been in clinical use since the 1990s. Cages offer the benefits of bone graft containment, restored intervertebral and foraminal height, and a more repeatable, stable procedure compared to interbody fusion with graft material alone. Due to concerns regarding postoperative stability, loss of lordosis, and subsidence or migration of the implant, interbody cages are commonly used with supplemental fixation such as pedicle screw systems or anterior plates. While providing additional stability, supplemental fixation techniques increase operative time, exposure, cost, and morbidity. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System (VariLift® system) has been developed as a standalone solution to provide the benefits of intervertebral fusion cages without the requirement of supplemental fixation. The VariLift® system, FDA-cleared for standalone use in both the cervical and lumbar spine, is implanted in a minimal profile and then expanded in situ to provide segmental stability, restored lordosis, and a large graft chamber. Preclinical testing and analyses have found that the VariLift® System is durable, and reduces stresses that may contribute to subsidence and migration of other standalone interbody cages. Fifteen years of clinical development with the VariLift® system have demonstrated positive clinical outcomes, continued patient maintenance of segmental stability and lordosis, and no evidence of implant migration. The purpose of this report is to describe the VariLift® system, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The VariLift® System represents an improved surgical option for a stable interbody fusion without requiring supplemental fixation. PMID:26060414

  15. Transdural retrieval of a retropulsed lumbar interbody cage: Technical case report.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan Aqdas; Shah, Ashish; Kakarla, Udaya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe a novel method to retrieve a herniated lumbar interbody cage. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is an increasingly popular method of spinal fixation and fusion. Unexpected retropulsion of an interbody is a rare event that can result in intractable pain or motor compromise necessitating surgical retrieval of the interbody. Both anterior and posterior approaches to removing migrated cages may be associated with significant surgical morbidity and mortality. A 60-year-old woman underwent an L4-S1 TLIF coupled with pedicle screw fixation at a previous hospital 5 years prior to admission. She noted sudden-onset bilateral lower extremity weakness and right-sided foot drop. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographs were notable for purely centrally herniated interbody. A posterior, midline transdural approach was used to retrieve the interbody. Situated in between nerve rootlets to the ventral canal, this virgin corridor allowed us to easily visualize and protect neurological structures while safely retrieving the interbody. The patient experienced an immediate improvement in symptoms and was discharged on postoperative day 3. At 12-month follow-up, she had no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and had returned to normal activities of daily living. While the risk of CSF leak may be higher with a transdural approach, we maintain that avoiding unnecessary retraction of the nerve roots may outweigh this risk. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a transdural approach for the retrieval of a retropulsed lumbar interbody cage.

  16. Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) as a Bone Void Filler in Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Prospective Pilot Study of Simultaneous DBM and Autologous Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Haebin; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hyung; Jin, Sung-Won

    2017-01-01

    Objective Solid bone fusion is an essential process in spinal stabilization surgery. Recently, as several minimally invasive spinal surgeries have developed, a need of artificial bone substitutes such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM), has arisen. We investigated the in vivo bone growth rate of DBM as a bone void filler compared to a local autologous bone grafts. Methods From April 2014 to August 2015, 20 patients with a one or two-level spinal stenosis were included. A posterior lumbar interbody fusion using two cages and pedicle screw fixation was performed for every patient, and each cage was packed with autologous local bone and DBM. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of leg pain and back pain and the Korean Oswestry Disability Index (K-ODI). Clinical outcome parameters and range of motion (ROM) of the operated level were collected preoperatively and at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Computed tomography was performed 1 year after fusion surgery and bone growth of the autologous bone grafts and DBM were analyzed by ImageJ software. Results Eighteen patients completed 1 year of follow-up, including 10 men and 8 women, and the mean age was 56.4 (32–71). The operated level ranged from L3/4 to L5/S1. Eleven patients had single level and 7 patients had two-level repairs. The mean back pain NRS improved from 4.61 to 2.78 (p=0.003) and the leg pain NRS improved from 6.89 to 2.39 (p<0.001). The mean K-ODI score also improved from 27.33 to 13.83 (p<0.001). The ROM decreased below 2.0 degrees at the 3-month assessment, and remained less than 2 degrees through the 1 year postoperative assessment. Every local autologous bone graft and DBM packed cage showed bone bridge formation. On the quantitative analysis of bone growth, the autologous bone grafts showed significantly higher bone growth compared to DBM on both coronal and sagittal images (p<0.001 and p=0.028, respectively). Osteoporotic patients showed less bone

  17. Surgical Data and Early Postoperative Outcomes after Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Results of a Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Data-Monitored Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Paulo; Buzek, David; Franke, Jörg; Senker, Wolfgang; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Hubbe, Ulrich; Manson, Neil; Rosenberg, Wout; Assietti, Roberto; Martens, Frederic; Barbanti Brodano, Giovanni; Scheufler, Kai-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion (MILIF) offers potential for reduced operative morbidity and earlier recovery compared with open procedures for patients with degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD). Firm conclusions about advantages of MILIF over open procedures cannot be made because of limited number of large studies of MILIF in a real-world setting. Clinical effectiveness of MILIF in a large, unselected real-world patient population was assessed in this Prospective, monitored, international, multicenter, observational study. Objective: To observe and document short-term recovery after minimally invasive interbody fusion for DLD. Materials and Methods: In a predefined 4-week analysis from this study, experienced surgeons (≥30 MILIF surgeries pre-study) treated patients with DLD by one- or two-level MILIF. The primary study objective was to document patients’ short-term post-interventional recovery (primary objective) including back/leg pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), disability (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), health status (EQ-5D) and Patient satisfaction. Results: At 4 weeks, 249 of 252 patients were remaining in the study; the majority received one-level MILIF (83%) and TLIF was the preferred approach (94.8%). For one-level (and two-level) procedures, surgery duration was 128 (182) min, fluoroscopy time 115 (154) sec, and blood-loss 164 (233) mL. Time to first ambulation was 1.3 days and time to study-defined surgery recovery was 3.2 days. Patients reported significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced back pain (VAS: 2.9 vs 6.2), leg pain (VAS: 2.5 vs 5.9), and disability (ODI: 34.5% vs 45.5%), and a significantly (P < 0.0001) improved health status (EQ-5D index: 0.61 vs 0.34; EQ VAS: 65.4 vs 52.9) 4 weeks postoperatively. One adverse event was classified as related to the minimally invasive surgical approach. No deep site infections or deaths were reported. Conclusions: For experienced surgeons, MILIF for DLD demonstrated early benefits (short time to

  18. Evaluation of Coflex interspinous stabilization following decompression compared with decompression and posterior lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease: A minimum 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Su, Qing-Jun; Liu, Tie; Yang, Jin-Cai; Kang, Nan; Guan, Li; Hai, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have compared the clinical and radiological outcomes between Coflex interspinous stabilization and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for degenerative lumbar disease. We compared the at least 5-year clinical and radiological outcomes of Coflex stabilization and PLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Eighty-seven consecutive patients with lumbar degenerative disease were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-two patients underwent decompression and Coflex interspinous stabilization (Coflex group), 45 patients underwent decompression and PLIF (PLIF group). Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated. Coflex subjects experienced less blood loss, shorter hospital stays and shorter operative time than PLIF (all p<0.001). Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scale back and leg pain at each follow-up time point. The Coflex group had significantly better clinical outcomes during early follow-up. At final follow-up, the superior and inferior adjacent segments motion had no significant change in the Coflex group, while the superior adjacent segment motion increased significantly in the PLIF group. At final follow-up, the operative level motion was significantly decreased in both groups, but was greater in the Coflex group. The reoperation rate for adjacent segment disease was higher in the PLIF group, but this did not achieve statistical significance (11.1% vs. 4.8%, p=0.277). Both groups provided sustainable improved clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease through at least 5-year follow-up. The Coflex group had significantly better early efficacy than the PLIF group. Coflex interspinous implantation after decompression is safe and effective for lumbar degenerative disease.

  19. Minimum 10-Year Follow-up Study of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Progressive Pattern of the Adjacent Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Taketoshi; Hori, Takeshi; Suzuki, Kayo; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The aims of the current study are to evaluate the minimum 10-year follow-up clinical results of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature ALIF has been widely used as a treatment regimen in the management of lumbar spondylolisthesis. Still much controversy exists regarding the factors that affect the postoperative clinical outcomes. Methods The author performed a retrospective review of 20 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis treated with ALIF (follow-up, 16.4 years). The clinical results were assessed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for low back pain, vertebral slip and disc height index on the radiographs. Results The mean preoperative JOA score was 7.1 ± 1.8 points (15-point-method). At 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years or more after surgery, the JOA scores were assessed as 12.4 ± 2.2 points, 12.7 ± 2.6 points, 12.0 ± 2.5 points, respectively (excluding the data of reoperated cases). The adjacent disc degeneration developed in all cases during the long-term follow-up. The progressive pattern of disc degeneration was divided into three types. Initially, disc degeneration occurred due to disc space narrowing. After that, the intervertebral discs showed segmental instability with translation at the upper level. But the lower discs showed osteophyte formation, and occasionally lead to the collapse or spontaneous union. Conclusions The clinical results of the long-term follow-up data after ALIF became worse due to the adjacent disc degeneration. The progressive pattern of disc degeneration was different according to the adjacent levels. PMID:22708014

  20. Dynamic stabilization for L4-5 spondylolisthesis: comparison with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with more than 2 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Fay, Li-Yu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the past decade, dynamic stabilization has been an emerging option of surgical treatment for lumbar spondylosis. However, the application of this dynamic construct for mild spondylolisthesis and its clinical outcomes remain uncertain. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS) with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the management of single-level spondylolisthesis at L4-5. METHODS This study retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive patients with Meyerding Grade I spondylolisthesis at L4-5 who were managed with surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups: DDS and MI-TLIF. The DDS group was composed of patients who underwent standard laminectomy and the DDS system. The MI-TLIF group was composed of patients who underwent MI-TLIF. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores at each time point of evaluation. Evaluations included radiographs and CT scans for every patient for 2 years after surgery. RESULTS A total of 86 patients with L4-5 spondylolisthesis completed the follow-up of more than 2 years and were included in the analysis (follow-up rate of 94.5%). There were 64 patients in the DDS group and 22 patients in the MI-TLIF group, and the overall mean follow-up was 32.7 months. Between the 2 groups, there were no differences in demographic data (e.g., age, sex, and body mass index) or preoperative clinical evaluations (e.g., visual analog scale back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores). The mean estimated blood loss of the MI-TLIF group was lower, whereas the operation time was longer compared with the DDS group (both p < 0.001). For both groups, clinical outcomes were significantly improved at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery compared with preoperative clinical status. Moreover, there were no differences between the 2

  1. Applying the Mini-Open Anterolateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Self-Anchored Stand-Alone Polyetheretherketone Cage in Lumbar Revision Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Lei; Chen, Yuqiao; Li, Lei; Lü, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    The author retrospectively studied twenty-two patients who underwent revision lumbar surgeries using ALLIF with a self-anchored stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage. The operation time, blood loss, and perioperative complications were evaluated. Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores and visual analog scale (VAS) scores of leg and back pain were analyzed preoperatively and at each time point of postoperative follow-up. Radiological evaluation including fusion, disc height, foraminal height, and subsidence was assessed. The results showed that the ALLIF with a self-anchored stand-alone PEEK cage is safe and effective in revision lumbar surgery with minor surgical trauma, low access-related complication rates, and satisfactory clinical and radiological results. PMID:27885355

  2. Combined transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with posterolateral instrumented fusion for degenerative disc disease can be a safe and effective treatment for lower back pain

    PubMed Central

    Deukmedjian, Ara J; Cianciabella, Augusto J; Cutright, Jason; Deukmedjian, Arias

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lumbar fusion is a proven treatment for chronic lower back pain (LBP) in the setting of symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis; however, fusion is controversial when the primary diagnosis is degenerative disc disease (DDD). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of lumbar fusion in the treatment of LBP due to DDD. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and five consecutive patients with single or multi-level DDD underwent lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion for the treatment of chronic LBP between the years of 2008 and 2011. The primary outcome measures in this study were back and leg pain visual analogue scale (VAS), patient reported % resolution of preoperative back pain and leg pain, reoperation rate, perioperative complications, blood loss and hospital length of stay (LOS). Results: The average resolution of preoperative back pain per patient was 84% (n = 205) while the average resolution of preoperative leg pain was 90% (n = 190) while a mean follow-up period of 528 days (1.5 years). Average VAS for combined back and leg pain significantly improved from a preoperative value of 9.0 to a postoperative value of 1.1 (P ≤ 0.0001), a change of 7.9 points for the cohort. The average number of lumbar disc levels fused per patient was 2.3 (range 1-4). Median postoperative LOS in the hospital was 1.2 days. Average blood loss was 108 ml perfused level. Complications occurred in 5% of patients (n = 11) and the rate of reoperation for symptomatic adjacent segment disease was 2% (n = 4). Complications included reoperation at index level for symptomatic pseudoarthrosis with hardware failure (n = 3); surgical site infection (n = 7); repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak (n = 1), and one patient death at home 3 days after discharge. Conclusion: Lumbar fusion for symptomatic DDD can be a safe and effective treatment for medically refractory LBP with or without leg pain. PMID:26692696

  3. Long-Term Outcomes of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Stand-Alone Ray Threaded Cage for Degenerative Disk Disease: A 20-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Belen G.; Noriega, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To analyze outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) stand-alone cages. Overview of Literature PLIF for degenerative disk disease using stand-alone cages has lost its popularity owing to implant-related complications and pseudoarthrosis. Methods We analyzed the records of 45 patients (18 women, 27 men), operated between January 1994 and December 1996, with a mean follow-up of 18 years 3 months (20 years 3 months–22 years 3 months). Clinical outcomes were measured using visual analogue score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), Odom's criteria, and radiological measurements of fusion rate, Cobb angle, and implant-related complications conducted at the preoperative evaluation, hospital discharge, 12-month follow-up, and final follow-up. Results Preoperative mean VAS (back) was 6.9 and VAS (radicular) was 7.2, with mean improvements (p <0.05) of 2.9 and 3.1, respectively, at the final follow-up. Median preoperative ODI was 64.5, with a mean improvement to 34 and 42 at the 12-month and final follow-ups, respectively (p <0.05). Odom's criteria at the 12-month follow-up were excellent in 11.2% patients, good in 57.7%, fair in 31.1%, and poor in none of the patients; at the final follow-up, no patient was classified as excellent, 71.1% as good, 22.2% as fair, and 6.7% as poor (p <0.05). Pseudoarthrosis was observed in five patients (11.1%), of whom, three (6.6%) required re-operation. Preoperative disk height was 9.23 mm, which increased to 13.33 mm in the immediate postoperative evaluation and was maintained at 10.0 mm at the final follow-up (p <0.05). The preoperative mean L1–S1 Cobb angle was 34.7°, which changed to 44.7° in the immediate postoperative evaluation and dropped to 39.7° at the final follow-up (p <0.005). Conclusions PLIF stand-alone cages were associated with good clinical outcomes. Although the fusion rate was excellent, maintenance of disk heights and a lordotic alignment were not achieved

  4. Percutaneous Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (pTLIF) with a Posterolateral Approach for the Treatment of Degenerative Disk Disease: Feasibility and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interbody fusion by open discectomy is the usual treatment for degenerative disk disease but requires a relatively long recovery period. The transforaminal posterolateral approach is a well-known standard in endoscopic spine surgery that allows direct access to the disk with progressive tissue dilation. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of percutaneous transforaminal interbody fusion (pTLIF) with percutaneous insertion of an expandable or a standard rigid interbody implant for patients with degenerative disk disease with or without spondylolisthesis and for revision surgery with the endoscopic posterolateral approach. Methods Between 2009 and 2014, the pTLIF procedure was performed in 30 patients. Ten patients underwent insertion of a rigid implant (group A) and the remaining 20 underwent insertion of an expandable titanium interbody implant as the initial procedure (n = 10) (group B) or after failed back surgery (n = 10) (group C). Patient outcomes were scored with visual analogic scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and modified Macnab criteria. Results The mean follow-up period was 38 (17) (range 11 to 67) months. The outcome was excellent in 18, good in 10 and fair in 2. No poor results and no major complications were reported. No significant (p<0.05) differences in VAS and ODI scores according to the study group were found. Median postoperative time until hospital discharge was 26 hours (20 to 68 hours). Postoperative values for VAS and ODI scores improved significantly (p<0.05) compared to preoperative data in all study groups. Conclusions These preliminary results have shown the feasibility and efficacy of the pTLIF procedure using a percutaneous posterolateral approach for the treatment of degenerative disk disease with or without spondylolisthesis up to grade 2 and in revision surgery. No significant differences in outcome were observed between an expandable and a rigid cage. Median postoperative time until hospital

  5. PEEK-Halo effect in interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Hogan, Jarred A; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Recent developments have seen poly[aryl-ether-ether-ketone] (PEEK) being increasingly used in vertebral body fusion. More novel approaches to improve PEEK have included the introduction of titanium-PEEK (Ti-PEEK) composites and coatings. This paper aims to describe a potential complication of PEEK based implants relating to poorer integration with the surrounding bone, producing a "PEEK-Halo" effect which is not seen in Ti-PEEK composite implants. We present images from two patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The first patient underwent an L5/S1 ALIF using a PEEK implant whilst the second patient underwent L4/L5 ALIF using a Ti-PEEK composite implant. Evidence of osseointegration was sought using CT imaging and confirmed using histological preparations of a sheep tibia model. The PEEK-Halo effect is demonstrated by a halo effect between the PEEK implant and the bone graft on CT imaging. This phenomenon is secondary to poor osseointegration of PEEK implants. The PEEK-Halo effect was not demonstrated in the second patient who received a Ti-PEEK composite graft. Histological analysis of graft/bone interface surfaces in PEEK versus Ti-PEEK implants in a sheep model further confirmed poorer osseointegration of the PEEK implant. In conclusion, the PEEK-Halo effect is seen secondary to minimal osseointegration of PEEK at the adjacent vertebral endplate following a PEEK implant insertion. This effect is not seen with Ti-PEEK implants, and may support the role of titanium in improving the bone-implant interface of PEEK substrates.

  6. Sagittal Balance Correction in Lateral Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Gallizzi, Michael A.; Sheets, Charles; Smith, Benjamin T.; Isaacs, Robert E.; Eure, Megan; Brown, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sagittal balance restoration has been shown to be an important determinant of outcomes in corrective surgery for degenerative scoliosis. Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is a less-invasive technique which permits the placement of a high lordosis interbody cage without risks associated with traditional anterior or transforaminal interbody techniques. Studies have shown improvement in lumbar lordosis following LIF, but only one other study has assessed sagittal balance in this population. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of LIF to restore sagittal balance in degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Methods Thirty-five patients who underwent LIF for degenerative thoracolumbar scoliosis from July 2013 to March 2014 by a single surgeon were included. Outcome measures included sagittal balance, lumbar lordosis, Cobb Angle, and segmental lordosis. Measures were evaluated pre-operative, immediately post-operatively, and at their last clinical follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess the differences between pre-operative, first postoperative, and a follow-up visit. Results The average sagittal balance correction was not significantly different: 1.06cm from 5.79cm to 4.74cm forward. The average Cobb angle correction was 14.1 degrees from 21.6 to 5.5 degrees. The average change in global lumbar lordosis was found to be significantly different: 6.3 degrees from 28.9 to 35.2 degrees. Conclusions This study demonstrates that LIF reliably restores lordosis, but does not significantly improve sagittal balance. Despite this, patients had reliable improvement in pain and functionality suggesting that sagittal balance correction may not be as critical in scoliosis correction as previous studies have indicated. Clinical Relevance LIF does not significantly change sagittal balance; however, clinical improvement does not seem to be contingent upon sagittal balance correction in the degenerative scoliosis population. The DUHS IRB has determined this

  7. Dissection of left iliac artery during anterior lumbar interspace fusion: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Uwe M; Davies, Mark G; El Sayed, Hosam

    2015-04-01

    Vascular injury is an uncommon complication of spine surgery. Among the different approaches, anterior lumbar interbody fusion has increased potential for vascular injuries, since the great vessels and their branches overly the disc spaces to be operated on, and retraction of these vessels is necessary to gain adequate surgical exposure. The reported incidence for anterior lumbar interbody fusion-associated vascular injuries ranges from 0% to 18.1%, with venous laceration as the most common type. We report a case of anterior lumbar interbody fusion-associated left common iliac artery dissection leading to delayed acute limb ischemia developing in early post-operative period.

  8. Effects of Strontium Ranelate on Spinal Interbody Fusion Surgery in an Osteoporotic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Ho, Natalie Yi-Ju; Lai, Po-Liang; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Niu, Chi-Chien; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease that afflicts millions of people around the world, and a variety of spinal integrity issues, such as degenerative spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis, are frequently concomitant with osteoporosis and are sometimes treated with spinal interbody fusion surgery. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of strontium ranelate (SrR) treatment of osteoporosis in improving bone strength, promoting bone remodeling, and reducing the risk of fractures, but its effects on interbody fusion surgery have not been adequately investigated. SrR-treated rats subjected to interbody fusion surgery exhibited significantly higher lumbar vertebral bone mineral density after 12 weeks of treatment than rats subjected to the same surgery but not treated with SrR. Furthermore, histological and radiographic assessments showed that a greater amount of newly formed bone tissue was present and that better fusion union occurred in the SrR-treated rats than in the untreated rats. Taken together, these results show significant differences in bone mineral density, PINP level, histological score, SrR content and mechanical testing, which demonstrate a relatively moderate effect of SrR treatment on bone strength and remodeling in the specific context of recovery after an interbody fusion surgery, and suggest the potential of SrR treatment as an effective adjunct to spinal interbody fusion surgery for human patients. PMID:28052066

  9. A novel indication for a method in the treatment of lumbar tuberculosis through minimally invasive extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) in combination with percutaneous pedicle screws fixation in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiyou; Xu, Yichun; Chen, Ruiqiang; Dong, Jianwen; Liu, Bin; Rong, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: To describe a novel indication for a method through minimally invasive extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) in combination with percutaneous pedicle screwsfixation in the treatment of lumbar tuberculosis (TB) in an elderly patient, and its clinical efficacy and feasibility. Lumbar TB is a destructive form of TB. Antituberculous treatment should be started as early as possible. In some circumstances, however, surgical debridement with or without stabilization of the spine appears to be beneficial and may be recommended. Surgeries through the approach of anterior or posterior are still challenging and often involve some complications. Patient concerns: The case is a 68-year-old female who was misdiagnosed as simple vertebral compression fracture and underwent L1 and L2 percutaneous vertebroplasty in another hospital 7 years ago. He complained of lumbosacral pain for 1 month this time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) showed intervertebral space in L1/2 was seriously damaged like TB. Diagnoses: Lumbar tuberculosis Interventions: Antitubercular drugs, mini-invasive debridement with XLIF in combination with percutaneous pedicle screwsfixation was performed. This patient was followed up for 12 months. Outcomes: No obvious complication occurred during the operation and the wound healed well. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI: 56 vs 22) and visual analog scale (VAS: 4 vs 0) score significantly decreased atfinal follow-up of 12 months. Obvious recovery of kyphosis angle was found postoperatively (post: 14.8° vs pre: 33.5°). No recurrent infection occurred at the last follow-up. Lessons: Mini-invasive surgery by debridement through XLIF and percutaneous pedicle screwsfixation may be an effective and innovative treatment method for lumbar TB in the elderly. PMID:27902591

  10. Time-sequential changes of differentially expressed miRNAs during the process of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using equine bone protein extract, rhBMP-2 and autograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da-Fu; Zhou, Zhi-Yu; Dai, Xue-Jun; Gao, Man-Man; Huang, Bao-Ding; Liang, Tang-Zhao; Shi, Rui; Zou, Li-Jin; Li, Hai-Sheng; Bünger, Cody; Tian, Wei; Zou, Xue-Nong

    2014-03-01

    The precise mechanism of bone regeneration in different bone graft substitutes has been well studied in recent researches. However, miRNAs regulation of the bone formation has been always mysterious. We developed the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) model in pigs using equine bone protein extract (BPE), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), and autograft as bone graft substitute, respectively. The miRNA and gene expression profiles of different bone graft materials were examined using microarray technology and data analysis, including self-organizing maps, KEGG pathway and Biological process GO analyses. We then jointly analyzed miRNA and mRNA profiles of the bone fusion tissue at different time points respectively. Results showed that miRNAs, including let-7, miR-129, miR-21, miR-133, miR-140, miR-146, miR-184, and miR-224, were involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammation response, which provided suitable inflammatory microenvironment for bone formation. At late stage, several miRNAs directly regulate SMAD4, Estrogen receptor 1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C for bone formation. It can be concluded that miRNAs play important roles in balancing the inflammation and bone formation.

  11. Degenerative spondylolisthesis: contemporary review of the role of interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph F; Errico, Thomas J; Kim, Yong; Razi, Afshin

    2017-02-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis is a common presentation, yet the best surgical treatment continues to be a matter of debate. Interbody fusion is one of a number of options, but its exact role remains ill defined. The aim of this study was to provide a contemporary review of the literature to help determine the role, if any, of interbody fusion in the surgical treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis. A systematic review of the literature since 2005 was performed. Details on study size, patient age, surgical treatments, levels of slip, patient reported outcome measures, radiographic outcomes, complications and selected utility measures were recorded. Studies that compared a cohort treated with interbody fusion and at least one other surgical intervention for comparison were included for review. Only studies examining the effect in degenerative spondylolisthesis were included. Two authors independently reviewed the manuscripts and extracted key data. Thirteen studies were included in the final analysis. A total of 565 underwent interbody fusion and 761 underwent other procedures including decompression alone, interspinous stabilisation and posterolateral fusion with or without instrumentation. Most studies were graded Level III evidence. Heterogeneous reporting of outcomes prevented formal statistical analysis. However, in general, studies reviewed concluded no significant clinical or radiographic difference in outcome between interbody fusion and other treatments. Two small studies suggested interbody fusion is a better option in cases of definite instability. Interbody fusion only provided outcomes as good as instrumented posterolateral fusion. However, most studies were Level III, and hence, we remain limited in defining the exact role of interbody fusion-cases with clear instability appear to be most appropriate. Future work should use agreed-upon common outcome measures and definitions.

  12. Midline Lumbar Fusion with Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw

    PubMed Central

    MIZUNO, Masaki; KURAISHI, Keita; UMEDA, Yasuyuki; SANO, Takanori; TSUJI, Masanori; SUZUKI, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    A novel cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique provides an alternative fixation technique for lumbar spine. Trajectory of CBT screw creates a caudo-cephalad path in sagittal plane and a medio-lateral path in axial plane, and engages cortical bone in the pedicle. The theoretical advantage is that it provides enhanced screw grip and interface strength. Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) is composed of posterior mid-line approach, microsurgical laminectomy, and CBT screw fixation. We adopted the MIDLF technique for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Advantages of this technique include that decompression and fusion are available in the same field, and it minimizes approach-related damages. To determine whether MIDLF with CBT screw is as effective as traditional approach and it is minimum invasive technique, we studied the clinical and radiological outcomes of MIDLF. Our results indicate that MIDLF is effective and minimum invasive technique. Evidence of effectiveness of MIDLF is that patients had good recovery score, and that CBT screw technique was safety in clinical and stable in radiological. MIDLF with CBT screw provides the surgeon with additional options for fixation. This technique is most likely to be useful for treating lumbar spondylolisthesis in combination with midline decompression and insertion of an interbody graft, such as the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion or posterior lumbar interbody fusion techniques. PMID:25169139

  13. Simultaneous Lateral Interbody Fusion and Posterior Percutaneous Instrumentation: Early Experience and Technical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Drazin, Doniel; Kim, Terrence T.; Johnson, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar fusion surgery involving lateral lumbar interbody graft insertion with posterior instrumentation is traditionally performed in two stages requiring repositioning. We describe a novel technique to complete the circumferential procedure simultaneously without patient repositioning. Twenty patients diagnosed with worsening back pain with/without radiculopathy who failed exhaustive conservative management were retrospectively reviewed. Ten patients with both procedures simultaneously from a single lateral approach and 10 control patients with lateral lumbar interbody fusion followed by repositioning and posterior percutaneous instrumentation were analyzed. Pars fractures, mobile grade 2 spondylolisthesis, and severe one-level degenerative disk disease were matched between the two groups. In the simultaneous group, avoiding repositioning leads to lower mean operative times: 130 minutes (versus control 190 minutes; p = 0.009) and lower intraoperative blood loss: 108 mL (versus 93 mL; NS). Nonrepositioned patients were hospitalized for an average of 4.1 days (versus 3.8 days; NS). There was one complication in the control group requiring screw revision. Lateral interbody fusion and percutaneous posterior instrumentation are both readily accomplished in a single lateral decubitus position. In select patients with adequately sized pedicles, performing simultaneous procedures decreases operative time over sequential repositioning. Patient outcomes were excellent in the simultaneous group and comparable to procedures done sequentially. PMID:26649303

  14. An Innovative Use of Cortoss Bone Cement to Stabilize a Nonunion after Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    A 65-year-old male originally had surgery for spondylolisthesis at L5-S1 in 2008 and then went on to have an L4-5 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with pedicle screw fixation from L4 to S1 and interbody graft in 2010. Despite having two surgical procedures, he continued with intractable back pain and was told he had a failed lumbar fusion. When he was evaluated with a computerized tomography (CT) scan from April 2015, it demonstrated an erosive nonunion of the L4-5 interbody fusion without incorporation of the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage. In an attempt to perform a minimally invasive stabilization of the L4-5 nonunion, he underwent a percutaneous lateral foraminal approach with an injection of Cortoss® cement (Stryker®, Malvern, PA) into the L4-5 interspace and around the graft. The objective was to stabilize the nonunion, resulting in intermediate relief of pain. PMID:28229033

  15. An Innovative Use of Cortoss Bone Cement to Stabilize a Nonunion after Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Granville, Michelle; Jacobson, Robert E

    2017-01-20

    A 65-year-old male originally had surgery for spondylolisthesis at L5-S1 in 2008 and then went on to have an L4-5 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with pedicle screw fixation from L4 to S1 and interbody graft in 2010. Despite having two surgical procedures, he continued with intractable back pain and was told he had a failed lumbar fusion. When he was evaluated with a computerized tomography (CT) scan from April 2015, it demonstrated an erosive nonunion of the L4-5 interbody fusion without incorporation of the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage. In an attempt to perform a minimally invasive stabilization of the L4-5 nonunion, he underwent a percutaneous lateral foraminal approach with an injection of Cortoss® cement (Stryker®, Malvern, PA) into the L4-5 interspace and around the graft. The objective was to stabilize the nonunion, resulting in intermediate relief of pain.

  16. Posterolateral versus posterior interbody fusion in isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Majid Reza; Rahmanian, Abdolkarim; Masoudi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-05-20

    Spondylolisthesis is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by subluxation of a vertebral body over another in the sagittal plane. Its most common form is isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS). This study aims to compare clinical outcomes of posterolateral fusion (PLF) with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with posterior instrumentation in the treatment of IS. We performed a randomized prospective study in which 80 patients out of a total of 85 patients with IS were randomly allocated to one of two groups: PLF with posterior instrumentation (group I) or PLIF with posterior instrumentation (group II). Posterior decompression was performed in the patients. The Oswestry low back pain disability (OLBP) scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) and pain, respectively. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate fusion rate and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare categorical data. Fusion in group II was significantly better than in group I (p=0.012). Improvement in low back pain was statistically more significant in group I (p=0.001). The incidence of neurogenic claudication was significantly lower in group I than in group II (p=0.004). In group I, there was no significant correlation between slip Meyerding grade and disc space height, radicular pain, and low back pain. There was no significant difference in post-operative complications at 1-year follow-up. Our data showed that PLF with posterior instrumentation provides better clinical outcomes and more improvement in low back pain compared to PLIF with posterior instrumentation despite the low fusion rate.

  17. Expandable Polyaryl-Ether-Ether-Ketone Spacers for Interbody Distraction in the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Alimi, Marjan; Shin, Benjamin; Macielak, Michael; Hofstetter, Christoph P.; Njoku, Innocent; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Elowitz, Eric; Härtl, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective StaXx XD (Spine Wave, Inc., Shelton, CT, United States) is an expandable polyaryl-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) wafer implant utilized in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. PEEK implants have been successfully used as interbody devices. Few studies have focused on expandable PEEK devices. The aim of the current study is to determine the radiographic and clinical outcome of expandable PEEK cages utilized for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative diseases. Methods Forty-nine patients who underwent lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of expandable PEEK cages and posterior instrumentation were included. The clinical outcome was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiographic parameters including disk height, foraminal height, listhesis, local disk angle of the index level/levels, regional lumbar lordosis, and graft subsidence were measured preoperatively, postoperatively, and at latest follow-up. Results At an average follow-up of 19.3 months, the minimum clinically important difference for the ODI and VAS back, buttock, and leg were achieved in 64, 52, 58, and 52% of the patients, respectively. There was statistically significant improvement in VAS back (6.42 versus 3.11, p < 0.001), VAS buttock (4.66 versus 1.97, p = 0.002), VAS leg (4.55 versus 1.96, p < 0.001), and ODI (21.7 versus 12.1, p < 0.001) scores. There was a significant increase in the average disk height (6.49 versus 8.18 mm, p = 0.037) and foraminal height (15.6 versus 18.53 mm, p = 0.0001), and a significant reduction in the listhesis (5.13 versus 3.15 mm, p = 0.005). The subsidence of 0.66 mm (7.4%) observed at the latest follow-up was not significant (p = 0.35). Conclusions Midterm results indicate that expandable PEEK spacers can effectively and durably restore disk and foraminal height and improve

  18. Treatment of symptomatic thoracic disc herniations with lateral interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Rhiannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptomatic thoracic herniated discs have historically been treated using open exposures (i.e., thoracotomy), posing a clinical challenge given the approach related morbidity. Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is one modern minimally disruptive alternative to thoracotomy. The direct lateral technique for lumbar pathologies has seen a sharp increase in procedural numbers; however application of this technique in thoracic pathologies has not been widely reported. Methods This study presents the results of three cases where LIF was used to treat symptomatic thoracic disc herniations. Indications for surgery included thoracic myelopathy, radiculopathy and discogenic pain. Patients were treated with LIF, without supplemental internal fixation, and followed for 24 months postoperatively. Results: Average length of hospital stay was 5 days. One patient experienced mild persistent neuropathic thoracic pain, which was managed medically. At 3 months postoperative all patients had returned to work and by 12 months all patients were fused. From preoperative to 24-month follow-up there were mean improvements of 83.3% in visual analogue scale (VAS), 75.3% in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and 79.2% and 17.4% in SF-36 physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS), respectively. Conclusions LIF is a viable minimally invasive alternative to conventional approaches in treating symptomatic thoracic pathology without an access surgeon, rib resection, or lung deflation. PMID:27683683

  19. Long-Term Objective Physical Activity Measurements using a Wireless Accelerometer Following Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Interbody Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-04-01

    We report on a case of a patient who underwent minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (mi-TLIF) with objective physical activity measurements performed preoperatively and postoperatively at up to 12-months using wireless accelerometer technology. In the first postoperative month following surgery, the patient had reduced mobility, taking 2,397 steps over a distance of 1.8 km per day. However, the number of steps taken and distance travelled per day had returned to baseline levels by the second postoperative month. At one-year follow-up, the patient averaged 5,095 steps per day in the month over a distance of 3.8 km; this was a 60% improvement in both steps taken and distance travelled compared to the preoperative status. The use of wireless accelerometers is feasible in obtaining objective physical activity measurements before and after lumbar interbody fusion and may be applicable to other related spinal surgeries as well.

  20. The Memory Metal Minimal Access Cage: A New Concept in Lumbar Interbody Fusion—A Prospective, Noncomparative Study to Evaluate the Safety and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kok, D.; Donk, R. D.; Wapstra, F. H.; Veldhuizen, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design/Objective. A single-centre, prospective, non-comparative study of 25 patients to evaluate the performance and safety of the Memory Metal Minimal Access Cage (MAC) in Lumbar Interbody Fusion. Summary of Background Data. Interbody fusion cages in general are designed to withstand high axial loads and in the meantime to allow ingrowth of new bone for bony fusion. In many cages the contact area with the endplate is rather large leaving a relatively small contact area for the bone graft with the adjacent host bone. MAC is constructed from the memory metal Nitinol and builds on the concept of sufficient axial support in combination with a large contact area of the graft facilitating bony ingrowth and ease in minimal access implantation due to its high deformability. Methods. Twenty five subjects with a primary diagnosis of disabling back and radicular leg pain from a single level degenerative lumbar disc underwent an interbody fusion using MAC and pedicle screws. Clinical performance was evaluated prospectively over 2 years using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. The interbody fusion status was assessed using conventional radiographs and CT scan. Safety of the device was studied by registration of intra- and post-operative adverse effects. Results. Clinical performance improved significantly (P < .0018), CT scan confirmed solid fusion in all 25 patients at two year follow-up. In two patients migration of the cage occurred, which was resolved uneventfully by placing a larger size at the subsequent revision. Conclusions. We conclude that the Memory Metal Minimal Access Cage (MAC) resulted in 100% solid fusions in 2 years and proved to be safe, although two patients required revision surgery in order to achieve solid fusion. PMID:22567409

  1. Extreme lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Adam M; Michael, Keith W; Chapman, Todd M; Jennings, Jason M; Hubbard, Elizabeth W; Isaacs, Robert E; Brown, Christopher R

    2013-11-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) is a minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracolumbar spine. Though the procedure is rapidly increasing in popularity, limited data is available regarding its use in deformity surgery. We aimed to evaluate radiographic correction using XLIF in adults with degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Thirty consecutive patients were followed for an average of 14.3 months. Interbody fusion was completed using the XLIF technique with supplemental posterior instrumentation. Plain radiographs were obtained on all patients preoperatively, postoperatively, and at most recent follow-up. Plain radiographic measurements of coronal Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation, segmental lordosis, global lordosis, disc height, neuroforaminal height and neuroforaminal width were made at each time point. CT scans were obtained for all patients 1 year after surgery to evaluate for fusion. There was significant improvement in multiple radiographic parameters from preoperative to postoperative. Cobb angle corrected 72.3%, apical vertebral translation corrected 59.7%, neuroforaminal height increased 80.3%, neuroforaminal width increased 7.4%, and disc height increased 116.7%. Segmental lordosis at L4-L5 increased 14.1% and global lordosis increased 11.5%. There was no significant loss of correction from postoperative to most recent follow-up. There was an 11.8% pseudoarthrosis rate at levels treated with XLIF. Complications included lateral incisional hernia (n=1), rupture of anterior longitudinal ligament (n=2), wound breakdown (n=2), cardiac instability (n=1), pedicle fracture (n=1), and nonunion requiring revision (n=1). XLIF significantly improves coronal plane deformity in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis. XLIF has the ability to correct sagittal plane deformity, although it is most effective at lower lumbar levels.

  2. Minimally Invasive Direct Lateral Interbody Fusion (MIS-DLIF): Proof of Concept and Perioperative Results

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive direct lateral interbody fusion (MIS-DLIF) is a novel approach for fusions of the lumbar spine. In this proof of concept study, we describe the surgical technique and report our experience and the perioperative outcomes of the first nine patients who underwent this procedure. Study design/setting In this study we establish the safety and efficacy of this approach. MIS-DLIF was performed on 15 spinal levels in nine patients who failed to respond to conservative therapy for the treatment of a re-herniated disk, spondylolisthesis, or other severe disk disease of the lumbar spine. We recorded surgery time, blood loss, fluoroscopy time, patient-reported pain, and complications. Methods Throughout the MIS-DLIF procedure, the surgeon is aided by biplanar fluoroscopic imaging to place an interbody graft or cage into the disc space through the interpleural space. A discectomy is performed in the same minimally invasive fashion. The procedure is usually completed with posterior pedicle screw fixation. Results MIS-DLIF took 44/85 minutes, on average, for 1/2 levels, with 54/112 ml of blood loss, and 0.3/1.7 days of hospital stay. Four of nine patients did not require overnight hospitalization and were discharged two to four hours after surgery. We did not encounter any clinically significant complications. At more than ninety days post surgery, the patients reported a statistically significant reduction of 4.5 points on a 10-point sliding pain scale. Conclusions MIS-DLIF with pedicle screw fixation is a safe and clinically effective procedure for fusions of the lumbar spine. The procedure overcomes many of the limitations of the current minimally invasive approaches to the lumbar spine and is technically straightforward. MIS-DLIF has the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs relative to the current standard of care and therefore warrants further investigation. We are currently expanding this study to a larger cohort and

  3. Clinical comparison of Zero-profile interbody fusion device and anterior cervical plate interbody fusion in treating cervical spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bin; Nie, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of the study was to compare the clinical effect of Zero-profile interbody fusion device (Zero-P) with anterior cervical plate interbody fusion system (PCB) in treating cervical spondylosis. Methods: a total of 98 patients with cervical spondylosis (110 segments) in February 2011 to January 2013 were included in our hospital. All participants were randomly divided into observation group and control group with 49 cases in each group. The observation group was treated with Zero-P, while the control group received PCB treatment. Comparison of the two groups in neurological function score (JOA), pain visual analogue scale (VAS), the neck disability index (NDI), quality of life score (SF-36) and cervical curvature (Cobb angle) change were recorded and analyzed before and after treatment. Results: The observation group was found with 90% excellent and good rate, which was higher than that of the control group (80%). Dysphagia rate in observational group was 16.33% (8/49), which was significantly less than that in control group (46.94%). Operation time and bleeding volume in the observation group was less than those in control group. Postoperative improvements of JOA score, VAS score, and NDI in observational group were also significantly better than that in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The clinical effect of Zero-P and PCB for the treatment of cervical spondylosis was quite fair, but Zero-P showed a better therapeutic effect with improvement of life quality. PMID:26550337

  4. Lateral interbody fusion combined with open posterior surgery for adult spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Strom, Russell G; Bae, Junseok; Mizutani, Jun; Valone, Frank; Ames, Christopher P; Deviren, Vedat

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) with percutaneous screw fixation can treat adult spinal deformity (ASD) in the coronal plane, but sagittal correction is limited. The authors combined LIF with open posterior (OP) surgery using facet osteotomies and a rod-cantilever technique to enhance lumbar lordosis (LL). It is unclear how this hybrid strategy compares to OP surgery alone. The goal of this study was to evaluate the combination of LIF and OP surgery (LIF+OP) for ASD. METHODS All thoracolumbar ASD cases from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed. Patients with < 6 months follow-up, prior fusion, severe sagittal imbalance (sagittal vertical axis > 200 mm or pelvic incidence-LL > 40°), and those undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion were excluded. Deformity correction, complications, and outcomes were compared between LIF+OP and OP-only surgery patients. RESULTS LIF+OP (n = 32) and OP-only patients (n = 60) had similar baseline features and posterior fusion levels. On average, 3.8 LIFs were performed. Patients who underwent LIF+OP had less blood loss (1129 vs 1833 ml, p = 0.016) and lower durotomy rates (0% vs 23%, p = 0.002). Patients in the LIF+OP group required less ICU care (0.7 vs 2.8 days, p < 0.001) and inpatient rehabilitation (63% vs 87%, p = 0.015). The incidence of new leg pain, numbness, or weakness was similar between groups (28% vs 22%, p = 0.609). All leg symptoms resolved within 6 months, except in 1 OP-only patient. Follow-up duration was similar (28 vs 25 months, p = 0.462). LIF+OP patients had significantly less pseudarthrosis (6% vs 27%, p = 0.026) and greater improvement in visual analog scale back pain (mean decrease 4.0 vs 1.9, p = 0.046) and Oswestry Disability Index (mean decrease 21 vs 12, p = 0.035) scores. Lumbar coronal correction was greater with LIF+OP surgery (mean [± SD] 22° ± 13° vs 14° ± 13°, p = 0.010). LL restoration was 22° ± 13°, intermediately between OP-only with facet osteotomies (11° ± 7°, p < 0.001) and

  5. Utility of multilevel lateral interbody fusion of the thoracolumbar coronal curve apex in adult deformity surgery in combination with open posterior instrumentation and L5-S1 interbody fusion: a case-matched evaluation of 32 patients.

    PubMed

    Theologis, Alexander A; Mundis, Gregory M; Nguyen, Stacie; Okonkwo, David O; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Fessler, Richard; Bess, Shay; Schwab, Frank; Diebo, Bassel G; Burton, Douglas; Hart, Robert; Deviren, Vedat; Ames, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of supplementing long thoracolumbar posterior instrumented fusion (posterior spinal fusion, PSF) with lateral interbody fusion (LIF) of the lumbar/thoracolumbar coronal curve apex in adult spinal deformity (ASD). METHODS Two multicenter databases were evaluated. Adults who had undergone multilevel LIF of the coronal curve apex in addition to PSF with L5-S1 interbody fusion (LS+Apex group) were matched by number of posterior levels fused with patients who had undergone PSF with L5-S1 interbody fusion without LIF (LS-Only group). All patients had at least 2 years of follow-up. Percutaneous PSF and 3-column osteotomy (3CO) were excluded. Demographics, perioperative details, radiographic spinal deformity measurements, and HRQoL data were analyzed. RESULTS Thirty-two patients were matched (LS+Apex: 16; LS: 16) (6 men, 26 women; mean age 63 ± 10 years). Overall, the average values for measures of deformity were as follows: Cobb angle > 40°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 6 cm, pelvic tilt (PT) > 25°, and mismatch between pelvic incidence (PI) and lumbar lordosis (LL) > 15°. There were no significant intergroup differences in preoperative radiographic parameters, although patients in the LS+Apex group had greater Cobb angles and less LL. Patients in the LS+Apex group had significantly more anterior levels fused (4.6 vs 1), longer operative times (859 vs 379 minutes), and longer length of stay (12 vs 7.5 days) (all p < 0.01). For patients in the LS+Apex group, Cobb angle, pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), PI-LL (lumbopelvic mismatch), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain improved significantly (p < 0.05). For patients in the LS-Only group, there were significant improvements in Cobb angle, ODI score, and VAS scores for back and leg pain. The LS+Apex group had better correction of Cobb angles (56% vs 33%, p = 0.02), SVA (43% vs 5%, p = 0

  6. Deep vein thrombosis due to migrated graft bone after posterior lumbosacral interbody fusion. Case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Sato, Shigenobu; Nakagawa, Izumi; Hyakumachi, Takahiko; Yanagibashi, Yasushi; Nitta, Fumihito; Masuda, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the case of an 83-year-old woman with refractory sciatica attributable to isthmic spondylolisthesis at L-5. Her symptoms were successfully improved after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) at L5-S1; however, notable swelling in her left leg suddenly developed 2 days postoperatively. Anterior migration of a fragment of bone graft was demonstrated on computed tomography scanning, and there was obvious occlusion of the left common iliac vein (CIV) on magnetic resonance venography. Ultrasonography revealed a thrombus in the left CIV at the site of compression. To prevent a pulmonary embolism during manipulation of the affected vein, an inferior vena cava filter was placed just before excision of the migrated bone fragment. The swelling in the patient's leg subsided quickly after the surgery, and she was treated with heparin and warfarin to prevent recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Six months after the second surgery, complete restoration of blood flow to the left CIV and no recurrence of DVT were demonstrated on magnetic resonance venography. Especially in elderly patients with degenerative disc disease, excessive curettage and impaction of disc materials during the PLIF procedure may cause migration of bone graft fragments. Surgeons should be aware of the possible vascular complications of PLIF.

  7. Outcomes of Demineralized Bone Matrix Enriched with Concentrated Bone Marrow Aspirate in Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Eckardt, Mark A.; Hamamoto, Jason T.; Plotkin, Benjamin; Daubs, Michael D.; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that a significant amount of variability exists in various demineralized bone matrix (DBM) formulations, which casts doubts on its reliability in consistently promoting fusion. Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) is a cellular based graft that contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and growth factors can confer osteogenic and osteoinductive potential to DBM. The goal of this study was to describe the outcome of DBM enriched with concentrated BMA in patients undergoing combined lumbar interbody and posterolateral fusion. Methods Eighty patients with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up were evaluated. Fusion and rates of complication were evaluated. Functional outcomes were assessed based on the modified Odom’s criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects of independent variables on fusion outcome. Results The overall rate of solid fusion (i.e patients with both solid posterolateral and interbody fusion) was 81.3% (65/80). Specifically, the radiographic evidence of solid posterolateral and interbody fusions were 81.3% (65/80) and 92.5% (74/80), respectively. Seven (8.75%) patients developed hardware-related complications, 2 (2.5%) patients developed a postoperative infection and 2 (2.5%) patients developed clinical pseudarthrosis. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores of 3 and 4 were associated with non-solid unions (CCI-3, p = 0.048; CCI-4, p = 0.03). Excellent or good outcomes were achieved in 58 (72.5%) patients. Conclusions Patients undergoing lumbar fusion using an enriched bone graft containing concentrated BMA added to DBM can achieve successful fusion with relatively low complications and good functional outcomes. Despite these findings, more studies with higher level of evidence are needed to better understand the efficacy of this promising graft option. PMID:27909656

  8. Assessment and classification of subsidence after lateral interbody fusion using serial computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Malham, Gregory M; Parker, Rhiannon M; Blecher, Carl M; Seex, Kevin A

    2015-07-24

    OBJECT Intervertebral cage settling during bone remodeling after lumbar lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is a common occurrence during the normal healing process. Progression of this settling with endplate collapse is defined as subsidence. The purposes of this study were to 1) assess the rate of subsidence after minimally invasive (MIS) LIF by CT, 2) distinguish between early cage subsidence (ECS) and delayed cage subsidence (DCS), 3) propose a descriptive method for classifying the types of subsidence, and 4) discuss techniques for mitigating the risk of subsidence after MIS LIF. METHODS A total of 128 consecutive patients (with 178 treated levels in total) underwent MIS LIF performed by a single surgeon. The subsidence was deemed to be ECS if it was evident on postoperative Day 2 CT images and was therefore the result of an intraoperative vertebral endplate injury and deemed DCS if it was detected on subsequent CT scans (≥ 6 months postoperatively). Endplate breaches were categorized as caudal (superior endplate) and/or cranial (inferior endplate), and as ipsilateral, contralateral, or bilateral with respect to the side of cage insertion. Subsidence seen in CT images (radiographic subsidence) was measured from the vertebral endplate to the caudal or cranial margin of the cage (in millimeters). Patient-reported outcome measures included visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey physical and mental component summary scores. RESULTS Four patients had ECS in a total of 4 levels. The radiographic subsidence (DCS) rates were 10% (13 of 128 patients) and 8% (14 of 178 levels), with 3% of patients (4 of 128) exhibiting clinical subsidence. In the DCS levels, 3 types of subsidence were evident on coronal and sagittal CT scans: Type 1, caudal contralateral, in 14% (2 of 14), Type 2, caudal bilateral with anterior cage tilt, in 64% (9 of 14), and Type 3, both endplates bilaterally, in 21% (3 of 14). The mean subsidence in the DCS

  9. [Early clinical effect of intervertebral fusion of lumbar degenerative disease using nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 intervertebral fusion cage].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; An, Hong; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Li, Kaiting

    2014-10-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the early clinical effects of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 intervertebral fusion cage (n-HA/PA66 cage) for the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. We selected 27 patients with lumbar degenerative diseases who were managed by posterior decompression or reset operation combined with n-HA/PA66 cage intervertebral fusion and internal fixation from August 2010 to January 2012. The oswestry disability index (ODI), low back and leg pain visual analogue score (VAS), and intervertebral height (IH) were evaluated at preoperation, 1 week postoperation and the last follow-up period, respectively. Intervertebral bony fusion was evaluated at the last follow-up time. The patients were followed up for 12-24 months (averaged 19 months). The ODI, VAS and IH were significantly improved at 1 week postoperation and the last follow-up time compared with those at preoperative period (P < 0.05). But there was no significant difference between 1 week postoperative and the last follow-up time (P < 0.05). Brantigan's standard was used to evaluate fusion at the last follow-up time. There were 19 patients with grade 5 fusion, 8 with grade 4 fusion, with a fusion rate of 100%, and none with grade 1-3 fusions. There was no cage translocation and internal fixation breakage. These results suggested that n-HA/PA66 cage was an ideal biological material in the posterior lumbar interbody fusion and internal fixation operation for treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. It can effectively maintain the intervertebral height and keep a high rate of bony fusion. The early clinical effect has been satisfactory.

  10. A Preliminary Report on the CO2 Laser for Lumbar Fusion: Safety, Efficacy and Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Villavicencio, Alan T; Burneikiene, Sigita; Babuska, Jason M; Nelson, Ewell L; Mason, Alexander; Rajpal, Sharad

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential technical advantages of the CO2 laser technology in mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries and report our preliminary clinical data on the safety and clinical outcomes. There is currently no literature discussing the recently redeveloped CO2 laser technology application for lumbar fusion. Safety and clinical outcomes were compared between two groups: 24 patients that underwent CO2 laser-assisted one-level TLIF surgeries and 30 patients that underwent standard one-level TLIF surgeries without the laser. There were no neural thermal injuries or other intraoperative laser-related complications encountered in this cohort of patients. At a mean follow-up of 17.4 months, significantly reduced lower back pain scores (P=0.013) were reported in the laser-assisted patient group compared to a standard fusion patient group. Lower extremity radicular pain intensity scores were similar in both groups. Laser-assisted TLIF surgeries showed a tendency (P = 0.07) of shorter operative times that was not statistically significant. Based on this preliminary clinical report, the safety of the CO2 laser device for lumbar fusion surgeries was assessed. There were no neural thermal injuries or other intraoperative laser-related complications encountered in this cohort of patients. Further investigation of CO2 laser-assisted lumbar fusion procedures is warranted in order to evaluate its effect on clinical outcomes.

  11. Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF): A single-center clinical and radiological follow-up study of 20 patients.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, Enrico; Molliqaj, Granit; Schaller, Karl; Gautschi, Oliver Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is an alternative to standard posterior approaches for achieving fusion in the lumbar spine. It allows exposure of the lateral aspect of the lumbar disc through a lateral approach with the possibility to insert a wide footprint interbody cage as a stand-alone procedure or associated with a uni- or bilateral percutaneous fixation. This is a retrospective series of 20 consecutive patients operated with a XLIF procedure from 2014 to 2015. N=10 women and N=10 men with a mean age of 67.5years (range 37.9-81.2) were included in the study. N=18 patients have been operated at one level, while N=2 patients underwent a double-level XLIF. The index levels were: L2-L3 in 2, L3-L4 in 7, L4-L5 in 9 and L3-L5 in 2 patients, respectively. The mean clinico-radiological follow-up was 9.8months (range 2.5-16.6). The clinical outcome was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Euro-Qol (EQ)-5D, visual analogue scale (VAS) and EQ-5D index scores. Preoperative, postoperative and follow-up sagittal balance was assessed by EOS full spine X-ray. Furthermore, presence or absence of fusion was assessed by thin cuts CT scan at the end of the follow-up. The analysis highlighted a clear clinical improvement for the study collective. The mean ODI improved from 41.6 preoperatively to 23.5 at the last follow-up (p<0.0036). EQ-5D VAS and EQ-5D index improved from 45.5 to 71.8 (p<0.0001) and from 0.454 to 0.693 (p<0.0002), respectively. Analysis of the sagittal balance revealed an increase of the total lumbar lordosis, however not in a statistically significant manner (p=0.164). Furthermore, an increase of 55.7% in mean disc height (from 7.0mm to 10.9mm) has been observed (p<0.0001). Surprisingly, the right foramen height was increased in a statistically significant manner compared to the left one, but both of them increased in absolute values. However, foraminal area on both sides did not significantly increase. The mean canal area was 115.7mm(2

  12. Comparison Study between Conventional Sequence and Slice-Encoding Metal Artifact Correction (SEMAC) in the Diagnosis of Postoperative Complications in Patients Receiving Lumbar Inter-Body Fusion and Pedicle Screw Fixation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sol Bee; Kwon, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Slice-Encoding Metal Artifact Correction (SEMAC) sequence is one of the metal artifact reduction techniques of anatomical structure, but there has been no report about evaluation of post-operative complications. The purpose of this article is to compare the anatomical visibility between fast spin echo (FSE) and FSE-SEMAC and to evaluate the additional value of FSE-SEMAC in diagnostic confidence of the complications. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective study with 54 patients who received lumbar spinal surgery and MR images including FSE-SEMAC. For the semi-quantitative evaluation, the visibility of anatomical structures (neural foramen, bone-inter-body cage interface, central canal, nerve root in epidural space, back muscle, and bone-pedicle screw interface) was evaluated. For qualitative evaluation, we evaluated FSE and FSE with FSE-SEMAC independently, and recorded the diagnostic confidence level of post-operative complications. Generalized estimating equation regression analysis was used for statistical analysis, and a weighted kappa was used for inter-observer agreement. Results Scores of 6 imaging findings with FSE-SEMAC were significantly higher than that of FSE (P-value < .0001). Inter-observer agreements show good reliability (weighted kappa = 0.45–0.75). Both reviewers deemed 37 (reviewer 1) or 19 more (reviewer 2) post-operative complications with FSE plus FSE-SEMAC, compared to FSE only. Except for central canal stenosis (P-value = .2408), diagnostic confidence level for other post-operative complications were significantly higher with FSE plus FSE-SEMAC (P-value = .0000) than FSE. Conclusions FSE-SEMAC significantly reduces image distortion, compared to FSE sequence in 3.0-T MR. Also, diagnostic confidence for post-operative complications was higher when FSE with additional FSE-SEMAC compared to FSE only. PMID:27711137

  13. Structural and mechanical evaluations of a topology optimized titanium interbody fusion cage fabricated by selective laser melting process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ying; Wirtz, Tobias; LaMarca, Frank; Hollister, Scott J

    2007-11-01

    A topology optimized lumbar interbody fusion cage was made of Ti-Al6-V4 alloy by the rapid prototyping process of selective laser melting (SLM) to reproduce designed microstructure features. Radiographic characterizations and the mechanical properties were investigated to determine how the structural characteristics of the fabricated cage were reproduced from design characteristics using micro-computed tomography scanning. The mechanical modulus of the designed cage was also measured to compare with tantalum, a widely used porous metal. The designed microstructures can be clearly seen in the micrographs of the micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy examinations, showing the SLM process can reproduce intricate microscopic features from the original designs. No imaging artifacts from micro-CT were found. The average compressive modulus of the tested caged was 2.97+/-0.90 GPa, which is comparable with the reported porous tantalum modulus of 3 GPa and falls between that of cortical bone (15 GPa) and trabecular bone (0.1-0.5 GPa). The new porous Ti-6Al-4V optimal-structure cage fabricated by SLM process gave consistent mechanical properties without artifactual distortion in the imaging modalities and thus it can be a promising alternative as a porous implant for spine fusion.

  14. Anterior lumbar interbody surgery for spondylosis results from a classically-trained neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    Chatha, Gurkirat; Foo, Stacy W L; Lind, Christopher R P; Budgeon, Charley; Bannan, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    Anterior lumbar surgery for degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a relatively novel technique that can prevent damage to posterior osseous, muscular and ligamentous spinal elements. This study reports the outcomes and complications in 286 patients who underwent fusion - with artificial disc implants or combined fusion and artificial disc implants - by a single-operator neurosurgeon, with up to 24 months of follow-up. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form 36 (SF36) and prospective log of adverse events were used to assess the clinical outcome. Radiographic assessments of implant position and bony fusion were analysed. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Irrespective of pre-surgical symptoms (back pain alone or back and leg pain combined), workers' compensation status and type of surgical implant, clinically significant improvements in VAS, ODI and SF36 were primarily observed at 3 and/or 6 month follow-up, and improvements were maintained at 24 months after surgery. A 94% fusion rate was obtained; the overall complication was 9.8% which included 3.5% with vascular complications. The anterior lumbar approach can be used for treating DDD for both back pain and back and leg pain with low complication rates. With appropriate training, single-operator neurosurgeons can safely perform these surgeries.

  15. Arthrodesis to L5 versus S1 in long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu-Jung; Suk, Se-Il; Park, Seung-Rim; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Choi, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Young-Hyun; Won, Man-Hee

    2009-04-01

    There is a debate regarding the distal fusion level for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Whether a healthy L5-S1 motion segment should be included or not in the fusion remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal indication for the fusion to the sacrum, and to compare the results of distal fusion to L5 versus the sacrum in the long instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A total of 45 patients who had undergone long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis were evaluated with a minimum 2 year follow-up. Twenty-four patients (mean age 63.6) underwent fusion to L5 and 21 patients (mean age 65.6) underwent fusion to the sacrum. Supplemental interbody fusion was performed in 12 patients in the L5 group and eleven patients in the sacrum group. The number of levels fused was 6.08 segments (range 4-8) in the L5 group and 6.09 (range 4-9) in the sacrum group. Intraoperative blood loss (2,754 ml versus 2,938 ml) and operative time (220 min versus 229 min) were similar in both groups. The Cobb angle changed from 24.7 degrees before surgery to 6.8 degrees after surgery in the L5 group, and from 22.8 degrees to 7.7 degrees in the sacrum group without statistical difference. Correction of lumbar lordosis was statistically better in the sacrum group (P = 0.03). Less correction of lumbar lordosis in the L5 group seemed to be associated with subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration. The change of coronal and sagittal imbalance was not different in both groups. Subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration occurred in 58% of the patients in the L5 group. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 developed in five patients. Interestingly, the development of adjacent segment disease was not related to the preoperative grade of disc degeneration, which proved minimal degeneration in the five patients. In the L5 group, there were nine patients of complications at L5-S1 segment, including adjacent segment disease at

  16. Osteoinductive activity of ErhBMP-2 after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion with a ß-TCP interbody cage in a goat model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongli; Zhang, Fan; Lv, Feizhou; Jiang, Jianyuan; Liu, Dayong; Xia, Xinlei

    2014-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces bone and cartilage tissue formation. Large amounts of BMP-2 are difficult to purify or to produce in vitro using eukaryotic cells. The goal of the present study was to assess the clinical use of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human BMP-2 (ErhBMP-2) on bone fusion after cervical and lumbar spine surgery in a goat model, compared with the standard autogenous iliac bone grafting. Thirty-six goats were randomized to 3 groups: (A) autogenous iliac bone grafting, (B) cervical interbody fusion cage containing ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP), or (C) cervical interbody fusion cage containing ß-TCP+ErhBMP-2 (2.5 mg). Cervical bone repair was evaluated using radiographs and computed tomography scans at 0, 3, and 6 months. Histological analyses were performed on cervical samples. Two goats died from infection. The differences in intervertebral height among the groups were not significant 3 months postoperatively but became significant after 6 months between groups A vs B and C (P=.04); there was no difference between groups B and C at 6 months. Adding ErhBMP-2 significantly increased cervical fusion at 6 months (P=.04). Histological examinations showed that ß-TCP+ErhBMP-2 increased new bone area, material degradation rate, and depth of tissue penetration and decreased residual material area, all in a time-dependent manner. Escherichia coli-derived rhBMP-2 combined with an enhanced fusion cage containing ß-TCP induced bone formation in a goat model. Furthermore, its ability to promote bone fusion was similar to autogenous iliac bone grafting.

  17. Mid-term Clinical Outcomes of Stand-alone Posterior Interbody Fusion with Rectangular Cages: A 4-year-minimum Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung Rae; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun Sang

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine minimum 4 years of clinical outcomes including fusion rate, revision rate and complications of patients who underwent placement of rectangular stand-alone cages. Methods Thirty-three cases of degenerative spine that had been followed for at least 4-years were reviewed retrospectively. Cages were inserted at L4-L5 level or L5-S1 in 27 or in 6 cases respectively. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Odom's criteria, fusion rate, intervertebral disc height and lumbar lordosis were determined pre- and post-operatively on standing x-rays. Amount of intra- and postoperative blood loss, total volume transfused, duration of surgery and perioperative complications were also evaluated. Results The mean VAS score of back pain and sciatica were improved from 8.0 and 7.0 points to 3.4 and 2.4 during 1 years follow-up visit and the scores was raised gradually. Also, during the follow-up, 94% of patients showed excellent or good outcomes by the Odom's criteria. Intervertebral disc height was increased from 8.2±1.4mm to 9.2±1.9mm at the first year of follow-up, however, found to be decreased and stabilized to 8.3±1.8mm after 2 years. The fusion rate was approximately 91% after 4 year postoperative. The segmental angle of lordosis was increased significantly by two years but it was not maintained after four years. A statistically insignificant change in total lumbar lordosis was also observed. Three patients (9%) had experienced perioperative complications. Conclusion The use of rectangular stand-alone cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) resulted in a various degree of subsidence and demonstrate very low complication rate, high functional stability and improved clinical outcomes in patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease. PMID:24757473

  18. Lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas interbody fusion in a patient with achondroplastic dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Staub, Blake N; Holman, Paul J

    2015-02-01

    The authors present the first reported use of the lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach for interbody arthrodesis in a patient with achondroplastic dwarfism. The inherent anatomical abnormalities of the spine present in achondroplastic dwarfism predispose these patients to an increased incidence of spinal deformity as well as neurogenic claudication and potential radicular symptoms. The risks associated with prolonged general anesthesia and intolerance of significant blood loss in these patients makes them ideal candidates for minimally invasive spinal surgery. The patient in this case was a 51-year-old man with achondroplastic dwarfism who had a history of progressive claudication and radicular pain despite previous extensive lumbar laminectomies. The lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach was used for placement of interbody cages at L1/2, L2/3, L3/4, and L4/5, followed by posterior decompression and pedicle screw instrumentation. The patient tolerated the procedure well with no complications. Postoperatively his claudicatory and radicular symptoms resolved and a CT scan revealed solid arthrodesis with no periimplant lucencies.

  19. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  20. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  1. Methods of evaluating lumbar and cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Gruskay, Jordan A; Webb, Matthew L; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-03-01

    Introduced in 1911, spinal fusion is now widely used to stabilize the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Despite advancements in surgical techniques, including the use of instrumentation and optimizing bone graft options, pseudarthrosis remains one of the most significant causes of clinical failure following attempted fusion. Diagnosis of this common complication is based on a focused clinical assessment and imaging studies. Pseudarthrosis classically presents with the onset of or return of axial or radicular symptoms during the first postoperative year. However, this diagnosis is complicated because other diagnoses can mimic these symptoms (such as infection or adjacent segment degeneration) and because many cases of pseudarthrosis are asymptomatic. Computed tomography and assessment of motion on flexion/extension radiographs are the two preferred imaging modalities for establishing the diagnosis of pseudarthrosis. The purpose of this article was to review the current status of imaging and clinical practices for assessing fusion following spinal arthrodesis.

  2. [Anterior cervical fusion with tantalum interbody implants. Clinical and radiological results in a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Vicario, C; Lopez-Oliva, F; Sánchez-Lorente, T; Zimmermann, M; Asenjo-Siguero, J J; Ladero, F; Ibarzábal, A

    2006-04-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical technique in the treatment of cervical disc disease. Tantalum cages have been recently introduced in spine surgery for interbody fusion because of the advantages of their mechanical properties. We present the results of a prospective clinical and radiological study on 24 consecutive patients who underwent an ACDF with tantalum cages. Clinical evaluation was assessed preoperatively and after surgery by a questionnaire that included a Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) of neck and arm pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and the Zung Depression Scale. Results were classified by Odom's criteria. Radiological evaluation included flexion-extension X-rays, and changes in distance between spinous processes and Cobb angle were measured. Postoperatively patients were reviewed 3 and 12 months after surgery. A statistical significative improvement in all clinical data was reported. According to Odom's criteria in 75% of patients the results were considered like excellent or good. Only one case of radiological and clinical pseudoarthrosis was confirmed. No significative differences were reported 3 and 12 months after surgery. Tantalum cages are a very promising and usefull alternative among implants available for ACDF. Compatibility with MRI postoperative studies and the unnecessariness of autograft are some of their advantages.

  3. Retroperitoneal hematoma after using the extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) approach: Presentation of a case and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Peiró-García, A; Domínguez-Esteban, I; Alía-Benítez, J

    2016-01-01

    The transpsoas approach, also known as extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF), to the lumbar spine is a novel minimally invasive technique with positive clinical outcomes and a low complication rate. There is a low risk of bleeding, due to this approach causing less soft tissue disruption than traditional spine surgery, but segmental arteries and great vessels can be damaged. Retroperitoneal haematoma is a major complication, with few cases reported. This is the first case reported in a Stand-alone XLIF and also the first case reported with haemorrhagic shock. Non-specific symptoms such tachycardia, hypotension, and anaemia are the most prevalent in this complication. With this case, our aim is to describe serious complications related to XLIF.

  4. Stand-Alone Lateral Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luis; Abdala, Nitamar; Oliveira, Leonardo; Amaral, Rodrigo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the stand-alone lateral interbody fusion as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month followup. Prospective nonrandomized observational single-center study. 52 consecutive patients (67.6 ± 10 y/o; 73.1% female; 27.4 ± 3.4 BMI) with single-level grade I/II single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis without significant spine instability were included. Fusion procedures were performed as retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas interbody fusions without screw supplementation. The procedures were performed in average 73.2 minutes and with less than 50cc blood loss. VAS and Oswestry scores showed lasting improvements in clinical outcomes (60% and 54.5% change, resp.). The vertebral slippage was reduced in 90.4% of cases from mean values of 15.1% preoperatively to 7.4% at 6-week followup (P < 0.001) and was maintained through 24 months (7.1%, P < 0.001). Segmental lordosis (P < 0.001) and disc height (P < 0.001) were improved in postop evaluations. Cage subsidence occurred in 9/52 cases (17%) and 7/52 cases (13%) spine levels needed revision surgery. At the 24-month evaluation, solid fusion was observed in 86.5% of the levels treated. The minimally invasive lateral approach has been shown to be a safe and reproducible technique to treat low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis. PMID:22545019

  5. Sacroiliac joint pain after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Recently, the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) has gained increased attention as a source of persistent or new pain after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion. The underlying pathophysiology of SIJ pain may be increased mechanical load, iliac crest bone grafting, or a misdiagnosis of SIJ syndrome. Imaging studies show more frequent degeneration of the SIJ in patients with lumbar/lumbosacral fusion than in patients without such fusion. Using injection tests, it has been shown that SIJ pain is the cause of persistent symptoms in a considerable number of patients after fusion surgery. Recent articles reporting on surgical outcomes of SIJ fusion include a high percentage of patients who had lumbar/lumbosacral fusion or surgery before, although well-controlled clinical studies are necessary to assess the efficacy of surgical treatment. Taking these findings into consideration, the possibility that the SIJ is the source of pain should be considered in patients with failed back surgery syndrome after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion.

  6. Anterior column realignment following lateral interbody fusion for sagittal deformity correction.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Luiz; Fortti, Fernanda; Oliveira, Leonardo; Marchi, Luis; Jensen, Rubens; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Amaral, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    Degenerative and iatrogenic diseases may lead to loss of lordosis or even kyphotic thoracolumbar deformity and sagittal misalignment. Traditional surgery with three-column osteotomies is associated with important neurologic risks and postoperative morbidity. In a novel technique, the lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is complemented with the sacrifice of the anterior longitudinal ligament and anterior portion of the annulus followed by the insertion of a hyperlordotic interbody cage. This is a less invasive lateral technique named anterior column realignment (ACR) and aims to correct sagittal misalignment in adult spinal deformity (ASD), with or without the addition of minor posterior osteotomies. In this article, we provide an account of the evolution to the ACR technique, the literature, and the Brazilian experience in the treatment of adult spinal deformity with this novel advanced application of LTIF. In the presence of ASD, the risk-to-benefit ratio of a surgical correction must be evaluated. Less invasive surgical strategies can be alternatives to treat the deformity and provide better quality of life to the patient. ACR is an advanced application of lateral transpsoas approach, up to date has shown to be reliable and effective when used for ASD, and may minimize complications and morbidity from traditional surgical procedures. Long-term follow-up and comparative studies are needed to evaluate real benefit.

  7. Is lumbar facet fusion biomechanically equivalent to lumbar posterolateral onlay fusion?

    PubMed

    Toth, Jeffrey M; Foley, Kevin T; Wang, Mei; Seim, Howard B; Simon Turner, A

    2017-02-03

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed with the following research objectives: 1) to determine the efficacy of facet fusion with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) in an ovine lumbar facet fusion model; 2) to radiographically and histologically compare the efficacy of lumbar facet fusion with rhBMP-2/ACS to facet fusion with an iliac crest bone graft (ICBG); and 3) to biomechanically compare lumbar facet fusion with rhBMP-2/ACS to lumbar posterolateral fusion (PLF) with ICBG. METHODS The efficacies of the 3 treatments to induce fusion were evaluated in an instrumented ovine lumbar fusion model. Eight sheep had 10 cm(3)/side ICBG placed as an onlay graft for PLF at L2-3. At the adjacent L3-4 level, 0.5 cm(3)/side ICBG was placed for facet fusion. Finally, 0.5 cm(3)/side rhBMP-2/ACS (0.43 mg/ml) was placed for facet fusion at L4-5. CT scans were obtained at 2, 4, and 6 months postoperatively with 2 reviewers conducting an evaluation of the 6-month results for all treated spinal levels. All 8 sheep were killed at 6 months, and all posterolateral instrumentation was removed at this time. The spines were then sectioned through L3-4 to allow for nondestructive unconstrained biomechanical testing of the L2-3 and L4-5 segments. All treated spinal levels were analyzed using undecalcified histology with corresponding microradiography. Statistical comparisons were made between the treatment groups. RESULTS The PLF with ICBG (ICBG PLF group) and the rhBMP-2 facet fusion (rhBMP-2 Facet group) treatment groups demonstrated similar levels of stiffness, with the rhBMP-2 Facet group having on average slightly higher stiffness in all 6 loading directions. All 8 levels in the autograft facet fusion treatment group demonstrated CT radiographic and histological fusion. All 8 levels in the rhBMP-2 Facet group showed bilateral CT radiographic and histological fusion. Six of 16 rhBMP-2/ACS-treated facet defects demonstrated small

  8. Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis by Debridement, Interbody Fusion and Internal Fixation via Posterior Approach Only.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-xing; Zhang, Hong-qi; Wang, Yu-xiang; Guo, Chao-feng; Liu, Jin-yang

    2016-02-01

    Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis includes focal tuberculosis debridement, segmental stability reconstruction, neural decompression and kyphotic deformity correction. For the lesions mainly involved anterior and middle column of the spine, anterior operation of debridement and fusion with internal fixation has been becoming the most frequently used surgical technique for the spinal tuberculosis. However, high risk of structural damage might relate with anterior surgery, such as damage in lungs, heart, kidney, ureter and bowel, and the deformity correction is also limited. Due to the organs are in the front of spine, there are less complications in posterior approach. Spinal pedicle screw passes through the spinal three-column structure, which provides more powerful orthopedic forces compared with the vertebral body screw, and the kyphotic deformity correction effect is better in posterior approach. In this paper, we report a 68-year-old male patient with thoracic tuberculosis who underwent surgical treatment by debridement, interbody fusion and internal fixation via posterior approach only. The patient was placed in prone position under general anesthesia. Posterior midline incision was performed, and the posterior spinal construction was exposed. Then place pedicle screw, and fix one side rod temporarily. Make the side of more bone destruction and larger abscess as lesion debridement side. Resect the unilateral facet joint, and retain contralateral structure integrity. Protect the spinal cord, nerve root. Clear sequestrum, necrotic tissue, abscess of paravertebral and intervertebral space. Specially designed titanium mesh cages or bone blocks were implanted into interbody. Fix both side rods and compress both sides to make the mesh cages and bone blocks tight. Reconstruct posterior column structure with allogeneic bone and autologous bone. Using this technique, the procedures of debridement, spinal cord decompression, deformity correction, bone grafting

  9. Prevention of neurological complications using a neural monitoring system with a finger electrode in the extreme lateral interbody fusion approach.

    PubMed

    Narita, Wataru; Takatori, Ryota; Arai, Yuji; Nagae, Masateru; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Hayashida, Tatsuro; Ogura, Taku; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is a minimally disruptive surgical procedure that uses a lateral approach. There is, however, concern about the development of neurological complications when this approach is used, particularly at the L4-5 level. The authors performed a prospective study of the effects of a new neural monitoring system using a finger electrode to prevent neurological complications in patients treated with XLIF and compared the results to results obtained in historical controls. METHODS The study group comprised 36 patients (12 male and 24 female) who underwent XLIF for lumbar spine degenerative spondylolisthesis or lumbar spine degenerative scoliosis at L4-5 or a lower level. Using preoperative axial MR images obtained at the mid-height of the disc at the treated level, we calculated the psoas position value (PP%) by dividing the distance from the posterior border of the vertebral disc to the posterior border of the psoas major muscle by the anteroposterior diameter of the vertebral disc. During the operation, the psoas major muscle was dissected using an index finger fitted with a finger electrode, and threshold values of the dilator were recorded before and after dissection. Eighteen cases in which patients had undergone the same procedure for the same indications but without use of the finger electrode served as historical controls. Baseline clinical and demographic characteristics, PP values, clinical results, and neurological complications were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS The mean PP% values in the control and finger electrode groups were 17.5% and 20.1%, respectively (no significant difference). However, 6 patients in the finger electrode group had a rising psoas sign with PP% values of 50% or higher. The mean threshold value before dissection in the finger electrode group was 13.1 ± 5.9 mA, and this was significantly increased to 19.0 ± 1.5 mA after dissection (p < 0.001). A strong negative correlation was found

  10. Surgical Outcomes of Post-Fusion Lumbar Flatback Deformity with Sagittal Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Seong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review surgical results of post-fusion lumbar flatback treated with pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) or Smith-Petersen osteotomies (SPOs). Methods Twenty-eight patients underwent osteotomies. Radiological outcomes by sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and pelvic tilt (PT), T1 pelvic angle (T1PA), and pelvic incidence (PI)-lumbar lordosis (LL) at preoperative, postoperative 1 month, and final were evaluated. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) score of back pain/leg pain, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 score (SRS-22r) were analyzed and compared. Patients were divided into 2 groups (SVA ≤5 cm : normal, SVA >5 cm : positive) at final and compared outcomes. Results Nineteen patients (68%) had PSO and the other 9 patients had SPOs with anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIFs) (Mean age : 65 years, follow-up : 31 months). The PT, PI-LL, SVA, T1PA were significantly improved at 1 month and at final (p<0.01). VAS score, ODI, and SRS-22r were also significantly improved at the final (p<0.01). 23 patients were restored with normal SVA and the rest 5 patients demonstrated to positive SVA. SVA and T1PA at 1 month and SVA, PI-LL, and T1PA at final were significantly different (p<0.05) while the ODI, VAS, and SRS-22r did not differ significantly between the groups (p>0.05). Common reoperations were early 4 proximal junctional failures (14%) and late four rod fractures. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that PSO and SPOs with ALIFs at the lower lumbar are significantly improves sagittal balance. For maintenance of normal SVA, PI-LL might be made negative value and T1PA might be less than 11° even though positive SVA group was also significantly improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27847576

  11. Minimally Invasive Direct Thoracic Interbody Fusion (MIS-DTIF): Technical Notes of a Single Surgeon Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive direct thoracic interbody fusion (MIS-DTIF) is a new single surgeon procedure for fusion of the thoracic vertebrae below the scapula (T6/7) to the thoracolumbar junction. In this proof of concept study, we describe the surgical technique for MIS-DTIF and report our experience and the perioperative outcomes of the first four patients who underwent this procedure. Study design/setting In this study we attempt to establish the safety and efficacy of MIS-DTIF. We have performed MIS-DTIF on six spinal levels in four patients with degenerative disk disease or disk herniation. We recorded surgery time, blood loss, fluoroscopy time, complications, and patient-reported pain. Methods Throughout the MIS-DTIF procedure, the surgeon is aided by biplanar fluoroscopic imaging and electrophysiological monitoring. The surgeon approaches the spine with a series of gentle tissue dilations and inserts a working tube that establishes a direct connection from the outside of the skin to the disk space. Through this working tube, the surgeon performs a discectomy and inserts an interbody graft or cage. The procedure is completed with minimally invasive (MI) posterior pedicle screw fixation. Results For the single level patients the mean blood loss was 90 ml, surgery time 43 minutes, fluoroscopy time 293 seconds, and hospital stay two days. For the two-level surgeries, the mean blood loss was 27 ml, surgery time 61 minutes, fluoroscopy time 321 seconds, and hospital stay three days. We did not encounter any clinically significant complications. Thirty days post-surgery, the patients reported a statistically significant reduction of 5.3 points on a 10-point sliding pain scale. Conclusions MIS-DTIF with pedicle screw fixation is a safe and clinically effective procedure for fusions of the thoracic spine. The procedure is technically straightforward and overcomes many of the limitations of the current minimally invasive (MI) approaches to the thoracic spine. MIS

  12. Complication rate during multilevel lumbar fusion in patients above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Bijjawara; Upendra, Bidre; Vijay, S; Kumar, GC Arun; Reddy, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spine surgery in elderly with comorbidities is reported to have higher complication rates and increased cost. However, the surgical outcome is good irrespective of the complications. Hence, it is essential to identify the factors affecting the complication rates in such patients and the measures to reduce them. This retrospective observational study determines the perioperative complications, their incidence and the measures to reduce complications in the elderly with comorbidities, operated by instrumented multilevel lumbar fusion. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 60 years and above with one or more comorbidities operated by multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion in our center between January 2012 and December 2013 were included in the study. Perioperative complications and their incidence were calculated. Age, number of levels fused, operative time, blood loss, and complication rates were correlated with the duration of stay and the incidence of perioperative complications using SPSS software. Measures to reduce complications are determined by these results and by review of literature. Results: Fifty two patients were included in the study (28 females and 24 males) with an average age of 69 years (range 60-84 years). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity followed by diabetes. Spondylolisthesis was the most common indication. Eleven complications were noted with an incidence of 21%. Three were systemic complications which required transfer to Intensive Care Unit. Local complications were incidental durotomy (three), transient root deficits (two), wound infections (one), and persistent radicular pain (two). Operative time and blood loss were significantly higher in patients with complications. Conclusion: Complication rates strongly correlate with the blood loss and operative time. Reducing the operative time and blood loss by intraoperative tranexamic acid, laminectomy using osteotome, simultaneous bilateral exposure and instrumentation and

  13. The 'Lumbar Fusion Outcome Score' (LUFOS): a new practical and surgically oriented grading system for preoperative prediction of surgical outcomes after lumbar spinal fusion in patients with degenerative disc disease and refractory chronic axial low back pain.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A; Rehman, Azeem A; Teles, Alisson R; Aldag, Jean C; Dinh, Dzung H; McCall, Todd D

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate the predictive effect of non-invasive preoperative imaging methods on surgical outcomes of lumbar fusion for patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and refractory chronic axial low back pain (LBP), the authors conducted a retrospective review of 45 patients with DDD and refractory LBP submitted to anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) at a single center from 2007 to 2010. Surgical outcomes - as measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS/back pain) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) - were evaluated pre-operatively and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year post-operatively. Linear mixed-effects models were generated in order to identify possible preoperative imaging characteristics (including bone scan/99mTc scintigraphy increased endplate uptake, Modic endplate changes, and disc degeneration graded according to Pfirrmann classification) which may be predictive of long-term surgical outcomes . After controlling for confounders, a combined score, the Lumbar Fusion Outcome Score (LUFOS), was developed. The LUFOS grading system was able to stratify patients in two general groups (Non-surgical: LUFOS 0 and 1; Surgical: LUFOS 2 and 3) that presented significantly different surgical outcomes in terms of estimated marginal means of VAS/back pain (p = 0.001) and ODI (p = 0.006) beginning at 3 months and continuing up to 1 year of follow-up. In conclusion,  LUFOS has been devised as a new practical and surgically oriented grading system based on simple key parameters from non-invasive preoperative imaging exams (magnetic resonance imaging/MRI and bone scan/99mTc scintigraphy) which has been shown to be highly predictive of surgical outcomes of patients undergoing lumbar fusion for treatment for refractory chronic axial LBP.

  14. Mid-range outcomes in 64 consecutive cases of multilevel fusion for degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Röllinghoff, Marc; Schlüter-Brust, Klaus; Groos, Daniel; Sobottke, Rolf; Michael, Joern William-Patrick; Eysel, Peer; Delank, Karl Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of multilevel degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine, spondylodesis plays a controversial role. Most patients can be treated conservatively with success. Multilevel lumbar fusion with instrumentation is associated with severe complications like failed back surgery syndrome, implant failure, and adjacent segment disease (ASD). This retrospective study examines the records of 70 elderly patients with degenerative changes or instability of the lumbar spine treated between 2002 and 2007 with spondylodesis of more than two segments. Sixty-four patients were included; 5 patients had died and one patient was lost to follow-up. We evaluated complications, clinical/radiological outcomes, and success of fusion. Flexion-extension and standing X-rays in two planes, MRI, and/or CT scans were obtained pre-operatively. Patients were assessed clinically using the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Surgery performed was dorsolateral fusion (46.9%) or dorsal fusion with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF; 53.1%). Additional decompression was carried out in 37.5% of patients. Mean follow-up was 29.4±5.4 months. Average patient age was 64.7±4.3 years. Clinical outcomes were not satisfactory for all patients. VAS scores improved from 8.6±1.3 to 5.6±3.0 pre- to post-operatively, without statistical significance. ODI was also not significantly improved (56.1±22.3 pre- and 45.1±26.4 post-operatively). Successful fusion, defined as adequate bone mass with trabeculation at the facets and transverse processes or in the intervertebral segments, did not correlate with good clinical outcomes. Thirty-five of 64 patients (54%) showed signs of pedicle screw loosening, especially of the screws at S1. However, only 7 of these 35 (20%) complained of corresponding back pain. Revision surgery was required in 24 of 64 patients (38%). Of these, indications were adjacent segment disease (16 cases), pedicle screw loosening (7 cases), and

  15. Predisposing Factors for Intraoperative Endplate Injury of Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kanemura, Tokumi; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Segi, Naoki; Ouchida, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To compare intraoperative endplate injury cases and no injury cases in consecutive series and to identify predisposing factors for intraoperative endplate injury. Overview of Literature Unintended endplate violation and subsequent cage subsidence is an intraoperative complication of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF). It is still unknown whether it is derived from inexperienced surgical technique or patients' inherent problems. Methods Consecutive patients (n=102; mean age, 69.0±0.8 years) underwent XLIF at 201 levels at a single institute. Preoperative and immediately postoperative radiographs were compared and cases with intraoperative endplate injury were identified. Various parameters were reviewed in each patient and compared between the injury and no injury groups. Results Twenty one levels (10.4%) had signs of intraoperative endplate injury. The injury group had a significantly higher rate of females (p=0.002), lower bone mineral density (BMD) (p=0.02), higher rate of polyetheretherketone as cage material (p=0.04), and taller cage height (p=0.03) compared with the no injury group. Multivariate analysis indicated that a T-score of BMD as a negative (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.27–0.93; p=0.03) and cage height as a positive (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–3.17; p=0.03) were predisposing factors for intraoperative endplate injury. Conclusions Intraoperative endplate injury is correlated significantly with reduced BMD and taller cage height. Precise evaluation of bone quality and treatment for osteoporosis might be important and care should be taken not to choose excessively taller cage. PMID:27790319

  16. One-stage removal of a large dumb-bell-shaped cervical neurinoma without laminectomy or interbody fusion in a child.

    PubMed

    Ryu, H; Nishizawa, S; Yamamoto, S

    1999-12-01

    A 12-year-old boy had a large dumb-bell-shaped cervical neurinoma originating at the C5 spinal root that was removed in a one-stage operation through the enlarged C4/5 intervertebral foramen. This technique required no laminectomy, discectomy or interbody fusion, which may frequently produce spinal deformity in children.

  17. More nerve root injuries occur with minimally invasive lumbar surgery: Let's tell someone

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In a recent study entitled: “More nerve root injuries occur with minimally invasive lumbar surgery, especially extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF): A review”, Epstein documented that more nerve root injuries occurred utilizing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) versus open lumbar surgery for diskectomy, decompression of stenosis (laminectomy), and/or fusion for instability. Methods: In large multicenter Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial reviews performed by Desai et al., nerve root injury with open diskectomy occurred in 0.13–0.25% of cases, occurred in 0% of laminectomy/stenosis with/without fusion cases, and just 2% for open laminectomy/stenosis/degenerative spondylolisthesis with/without fusion. Results: In another MIS series performed largely for disc disease (often contained nonsurgical disc herniations, therefore unnecessary procedures) or spondylolisthesis, the risk of root injury was 2% for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) versus 7.8% for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Furthermore, the high frequencies of radiculitis/nerve root/plexus injuries incurring during anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIF: 15.8%) versus extreme lumbar interbody fusions (XLIF: 23.8%), addressing disc disease, failed back surgery, and spondylolisthesis, were far from acceptable. Conclusions: The incidence of nerve root injuries following any of the multiple MIS lumbar surgical techniques (TLIF/PLIF/ALIF/XLIF) resulted in more nerve root injuries when compared with open conventional lumbar surgical techniques. Considering the majority of these procedures are unnecessarily being performed for degenerative disc disease alone, spine surgeons should be increasingly asked why they are offering these operations to their patients? PMID:26904373

  18. Clear Zone Formation around Screws in the Early Postoperative Stages after Posterior Lumbar Fusion Using the Cortical Bone Trajectory Technique

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the initial fixation using the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) technique for posterior lumbar fusion through assessment of the clear zones around the screws and the risk factors involved. Overview of Literature Postoperative radiolucent zones (clear zones) are an indicator of poor conventional pedicle screw fixation. Methods Between January 2013 and April 2014, 19 patients (8 men and 11 women) underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion or posterior lumbar fusion using the CBT technique. A total of 109 screws were used for evaluation with measurement of the maximum insertional torque of last two screw rotations. Clear zone-positivity on plain radiographs was investigated 6 months after surgery. The relation between intraoperative insertional torque and clear zone-positivity was investigated by one-way analysis of variance. In addition, the correlation between clear zone-positivity and gender, age (<75 years old or >75 years old), or operative stabilization level (<2 or >3 vertebral levels) was evaluated using the chi-square test. Results Clear zones were observed around six screws (5.50%) in five patients (26.3%). The mean insertional torque (4.00±2.09 inlbs) of clear zone-positive screws was lower than that of clear zone-negative screws (8.12±0.50 in-lbs), but the difference was not significant. There was a significant correlation between clear zone-positivity and operative level of stabilization. Conclusions The low incidence of clear zone-positive screws indicates good initial fixation using the CBT technique. Multilevel fusions may be risk factors for clear zone generation. PMID:26713120

  19. Anterior cervical fusion with interbody cage containing beta-tricalcium phosphate augmented with plate fixation: a prospective randomized study with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Yang; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    A variety of bone graft substitutes, interbody cages, and anterior plates have been used in cervical interbody fusion, but no controlled study was conducted on the clinical performance of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and the effect of supplemented anterior plate fixation. The objective of this prospective, randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implanting interbody fusion cage containing beta-TCP for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy, and the fusion rates and outcomes in patients with or without randomly assigned plate fixation. Sixty-two patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy due to soft disc herniation or spondylosis were treated with one- or two-level discectomy and fusion with interbody cages containing beta-TCP. They were randomly assigned to receive supplemented anterior plate (n = 33) or not (n = 29). The patients were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. The radiological and clinical outcomes were assessed during a 2-year follow-up. The results showed that the fusion rate (75.0%) 3 months after surgery in patients treated without anterior cervical plating was significantly lower than that (97.9%) with plate fixation (P < 0.05), but successful bone fusion was achieved in all patients of both groups at 6-month follow-up assessment. Patients treated without anterior plate fixation had 11 of 52 (19.2%) cage subsidence at last follow-up. No difference (P > 0.05) was found regarding improvement in spinal curvature as well as neck and arm pain, and recovery rate of JOA score at all time intervals between the two groups. Based on the findings of this study, interbody fusion cage containing beta-TCP following one- or two-level discectomy proved to be an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Supplemented anterior plate fixation can promote interbody fusion and prevent cage subsidence but do not improve the 2-year outcome when compared with those treated

  20. Pain acceptance potentially mediates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and post-surgery outcomes among compensated lumbar fusion patients

    PubMed Central

    Dance, Cassie; DeBerard, M. Scott; Gundy Cuneo, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chronic low back pain is highly prevalent and often treatment recalcitrant condition, particularly among workers’ compensation patients. There is a need to identify psychological factors that may predispose such patients to pain chronicity. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether pain acceptance potentially mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and post-surgical outcomes in a sample of compensated lumbar fusion patients. Patients and methods Patients insured with the Workers Compensation Fund of Utah and who were at least 2 years post-lumbar fusion surgery completed an outcome survey. These data were obtained from a prior retrospective-cohort study that administered measures of pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, mental and physical health, and disability. Results Of the 101 patients who completed the outcome survey, 75.2% were male with a mean age of 42.42 years and predominantly identified as White (97.0%). The majority of the participants had a posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery. Pain acceptance, including activity engagement and pain willingness, was significantly correlated with better physical health and mental health, and lower disability rates. Pain catastrophizing was inversely correlated with measures of pain acceptance (activity engagement r=−0.67, p<0.01, pain willingness r=−0.73, p<0.01) as well as the outcome measures: mental health, physical health, and disability. Pain acceptance significantly mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and both mental and physical health and also the relationship between pain catastrophizing and disability. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the relationship between pain catastrophizing and negative patient outcomes was potentially mediated by pain acceptance. Understanding this mediating relationship offers insight into how pain acceptance may play a protective role in patients’ pain and disability and has potential implications for pain

  1. Use of autologous growth factors in lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Lowery, G L; Kulkarni, S; Pennisi, A E

    1999-08-01

    The results of spinal fusion, especially posteriorly above the lumbosacral junction, have been mixed. Autologous growth factor concentrate (AGF) prepared by ultraconcentration of platelets contains multiple growth factors having a chemotactic and mitogenic effect on mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts and may play a role in initiating bone healing. The purpose of this retrospective study is to review our results with AGF in lumbar spinal fusions. To date, AGF has been used in 39 patients having lumbar spinal fusion. The study group consisted of the first 19 consecutive cases to allow at least 6 months follow-up. The average follow-up was 13 months (range 6 to 18 months). Follow-up compliance was 91%. There were 7 men and 12 women. Average age was 52 years (range 30-72 years). Nine patients had prior back surgery. There were 8 smokers. AGF was used in posterior (n = 15) or anterior intradiscal (n = 4) fusions. AGF was used with autograft and coraline hydroxyapatite in all posterior fusions, and autograft, coral, and intradiscal spacer (carbon fiber spinal fusion cages or Synthes femoral ring) in intradiscal fusions. Posterior stabilization was used in all cases. Eight cases were single-level fusions, 6 were two-level, and 1 was a three-level fusion. Autologous iliac crest bone graft was taken in 14 cases and local autograft used in 5 cases. Posteriorly, a total of 23 levels were fused; of these, nine were at L5-S1, eight at L4-L5, five at L3-L4, and one at L2-L3. No impending pseudoarthroses were noted on plain radiographic examination at last follow-up visit. Solid fusion was confirmed in 3 patients having routine hardware removal, and in 2 patients who had surgery at an adjacent level. There was one posterior wound infection, which was managed without sequelae. When used as an adjunct to autograft, AGF offers theoretical advantages that need to be examined in controlled studies. Further study is necessary to determine whether coralline hydroxyapatite used as a

  2. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 3: assessment of economic outcome.

    PubMed

    Ghogawala, Zoher; Whitmore, Robert G; Watters, William C; Sharan, Alok; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Resnick, Daniel K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    A comprehensive economic analysis generally involves the calculation of indirect and direct health costs from a societal perspective as opposed to simply reporting costs from a hospital or payer perspective. Hospital charges for a surgical procedure must be converted to cost data when performing a cost-effectiveness analysis. Once cost data has been calculated, quality-adjusted life year data from a surgical treatment are calculated by using a preference-based health-related quality-of-life instrument such as the EQ-5D. A recent cost-utility analysis from a single study has demonstrated the long-term (over an 8-year time period) benefits of circumferential fusions over stand-alone posterolateral fusions. In addition, economic analysis from a single study has found that lumbar fusion for selected patients with low-back pain can be recommended from an economic perspective. Recent economic analysis, from a single study, finds that femoral ring allograft might be more cost-effective compared with a specific titanium cage when performing an anterior lumbar interbody fusion plus posterolateral fusion.

  3. Workers' Compensation, Return to Work, and Lumbar Fusion for Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis is associated with consistent outcomes in the general population. However, workers' compensation is a risk factor for worse outcomes. Few studies have evaluated prognostic factors within this clinically distinct population. The goal of this study was to identify prognostic factors for return to work among patients with workers' compensation claims after fusion for spondylolisthesis. The authors used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify 686 subjects from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation who underwent fusion for spondylolisthesis from 1993 to 2013. Positive return to work status was recorded in patients who returned to work within 2 years of fusion and remained working for longer than 6 months. The criteria for return to work were met by 29.9% (n=205) of subjects. The authors used multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify prognostic factors for return to work. Negative preoperative prognostic factors for postoperative return to work included: out of work for longer than 1 year before fusion (P<.001; odds ratio [OR], 0.16); depression (P=.007; OR<0.01); long-term opioid analgesic use (P=.006; OR, 0.41); lumbar stenosis (P=.043; OR, 0.55); and legal representation (P=.042; OR, 0.63). Return to work rates associated with these factors were 9.7%, 0.0%, 10.0%, 29.2%, and 25.0%, respectively. If these subjects were excluded, the return to work rate increased to 60.4%. The 70.1% (n=481) of subjects who did not return to work had markedly worse outcomes, shown by higher medical costs, chronic opioid dependence, and higher rates of failed back syndrome, total disability, and additional surgery. Psychiatric comorbidity increased after fusion but was much higher in those who did not return to work. Future studies are needed to identify how to better facilitate return to work among similar patients with workers' compensation claims.

  4. Midline lumbar fusion using cortical bone trajectory screws. Preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Bielecki, Mateusz; Prokopienko, Marek; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Czernicki, Tomasz; Marchel, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) using cortical bone trajectory is an alternative method of transpedicular spinal fusion for degenerative disease. The new entry points’ location and screwdriving direction allow the approach-related morbidity to be reduced. Aim To present our preliminary experience with the MIDLF technique on the first 5 patients with lumbar degenerative disease and with follow-up of at least 6 months. Material and methods Retrospective analysis was performed on the first 5 patients with foraminal (4) or central (1) stenosis operated on between December 2014 and February 2015. Three patients were fused at L4–L5 and two at the L5–S1 level. Results No intra- or post-operative complications occurred with this approach. An improvement regarding the leading symptom in the early postoperative period (sciatica 4/4, claudication 1/1) was achieved in all patients. The mean improvements in the visual analogue scale for low back and leg pain were 2.2 and 4.8 respectively. The mean Oswestry Disability Index scores were 52% (range: 16–82%) before surgery and 33% (range: 12–56%) at 3-month follow-up (mean improvement 19%). At the most recent follow-up, 4 patients reported the maintenance of the satisfactory result. The early standing and follow-up X-rays showed satisfactory screw placement in all patients. Conclusions In our initial experience, the MIDLF technique seems to be an encouraging alternative to traditional transpedicular trajectory screws when short level lumbar fusion is needed. Nevertheless, longer observations on larger groups of patients are needed to reliably evaluate the safety of the method and the sustainability of the results. PMID:27829938

  5. Full-endoscopic technique for anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion: 5-year follow-up results of 67 cases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nuzhao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Lushan

    2011-06-01

    With minimally invasive technique becoming more popular, endoscopic operations such as arthroscopy or laparoscopy have become the standard of care in several other areas. In this study, we evaluated the 5-year follow-up outcomes of anterior cervical (Ahn et al. in Photomed Laser Surg 23:362-368, 2005) discectomy and interbody fusion (ACDF) performed via endoscopic approach. Sixty-seven patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and cage fusion performed using endoscopic technique were followed for at least 5 years. We reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of these patients. The postoperative radiographic measures accessed were the anterior intervertebral height (AIH) and the lordosis angle (LDA). Clinical outcomes were determined using the previously validated Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and the pain visual analog scale (VAS). Patients included had a minimal follow-up period of 5 years and based on the outcomes criteria (JOA, VAS), 86.6% of patients reported excellent or good results. The AIH increased on average 18.7% of the original height (p < 0.01), and the LDA were more physiologic at final follow-up. Of the 67 cases, there was no segmental instability, and the bone fusion rate was 100%. One patient required revision open ACDF due to adjacent segment disc herniation 6 years postoperatively. There were no intraoperative complications, dysphasia or esophageal injury in this study group. It indicated endoscopic technique for ACDF can obtain satisfactory results in patients with cervical disc herniation, cervical myelopathy, or radiculopathy. Compared with a traditional approach, this technique may be associated with less morbidity while improving cosmesis and postoperative recovery. Prospective randomized control trials are needed to directly compare these two procedures.

  6. A cell attracting composite of lumbar fusion cage.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Busra; Hasirci, Nesrin; Hasirci, Vasif

    2017-06-01

    Lumbar fusion cages are devices used in spinal fusion procedures for disorders such as spondylosis and degenerative disc diseases that may occur due to age, trauma or genetic reasons. These devices are most frequently made of metals and polymers. The mechanical properties of such devices should be comparable to the bone to avoid stress shielding. Besides, cages should interact with the cells to prevent extrusion and achieve satisfactory fusion. In this study, poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) were compounded to create products with HAp contents up to 40% (w/w), processed by hot melt extrusion and injection molded to produce composites with maximum polymer-mineral interaction. The morphology, interaction with the plates and rate of proliferation of human osteoblast-like (HOB) cells were studied in vitro. We learned that cells interact more with HAp when the HAp content is higher than 20%. Tensile and compressive properties of PMMA were significantly increased with increasing HAp content; from an elastic modulus (E) of 2.08 to 3.92 GPa in tension, and from 349 to 562 MPa in compression. High HAp content of the samples increased the roughness from 0.69 μm for pure PMMA to 1.35 μm for 40% (w/w) HAp loaded PMMA, increased cell proliferation and as a result the cells presented filopodia indicating a satisfactory level of interaction with the cage surface. Based on mechanical and in vitro studies, a HAp content of around 30% (w/w) was found to be appropriate for good cell adhesion and satisfactory mechanical properties for use in the construction of a fusion cage. It was concluded that when PMMA and HAp were compounded at an optimal value, a cage material with adequate mechanical properties and increased cell attachment can be obtained for use in spinal fusion applications.

  7. A Novel Nonpedicular Screw-Based Fixation in Lumbar Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The authors present the clinical results obtained in patients who underwent interspinous fusion device (IFD) implantation following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The purpose of this study is investigating the feasibility of IFD with PLIF in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods. Between September 2013 and November 2014, 39 patients underwent PLIF and subsequent IFD (Romeo®2 PAD, Spineart, Geneva, Switzerland) implantation. Medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed to collect relevant data such as blood loss, operative time, and length of hospital stay. Radiographs and clinical outcome were evaluated 6 weeks and 12 months after surgery. Results. All 39 patients were followed up for more than one year. There were no major complications such as dura tear, nerve injuries, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or deep infection. Both interbody and interspinous fusion could be observed on radiographs one year after surgery. However, there were 5 patients having early retropulsion of interbody fusion devices. Conclusion. The interspinous fusion device appears to achieve posterior fixation and facilitate lumbar fusion in selected patients. However, further study is mandatory for proposing a novel anatomic and radiological scoring system to identify patients suitable for this treatment modality and prevent postoperative complications. PMID:28164125

  8. A Clinical Investigation of Contralateral Neurological Symptom after Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiayue; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yapeng; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze treatment outcomes and morbidity of contralateral neurological symptom in patients after TLIF surgery and to explore its possible causes. Material/Methods A retrospective study was conducted involving a total of 476 patients who underwent TILF from 2009 to 2012 in our hospital. These cases were divided into a symptomatic group (Group S) and a non-symptomatic group. The differences in contralateral foramen area and disc-height index(DHI) before and after surgery were compared between Group S and a random sample of 40 cases of non-symptomatic group patients (group N). In addition, according to whether the patient underwent second surgery, Group S patients were further divided into a transient neurologic symptoms group (Group T) and an operations exploration group (Group O). The time of symptom appearance, duration, and symptomatic severity (JOA VAS score) were compared between Group T and O. Results Among the 476 patients, 18 had postoperative contralateral neurological symptoms; thus, the morbidity was 3.7815%. The indicators in Group S were lower than in Group N in the differences in contralateral foramen area and disc-height index(DHI) before and after surgery (p<0.05). Five patients (Group O) in Group S had second surgery because of invalid conservative treatment. The surgical exploration rate was 1.0504%. Compared with Group T, the symptoms of Group O patients appeared earlier, persisted longer, and were more serious (p<0.05). Conclusions Contralateral neurological symptom is a potential complication after TLIF, and its causes are diverse. Surgical explorations should be conducted early for those patients with the complication who present with obvious nerve damage. PMID:26109143

  9. Anterior to psoas (ATP) fusion of the lumbar spine: evolution of a technique facilitated by changes in equipment

    PubMed Central

    Seex, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral interbody cages have been proven useful in spinal fusions. Spanning both lateral cortical rims while sparing the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament, the lateral interbody cages restore and maintain disc height while adding stability prior to supplemental fixation. The standard approach for their insertion is by a 90-degree lateral transpsoas method. This is relatively bloodless compared to other techniques although has its limitations, requiring neuro-monitoring and being, at times, very difficult at L4/5 due to iliac crest obstruction or an anterior plexus position. An oblique approach, with the patient in lateral decubitus, passes anterior to the iliac crest, retroperitoneal, and being anterior to psoas, eliminates the need for neuro-monitoring. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients underwent surgery for a total of 32 levels instrumented with the ATP technique. Mean age at the time of surgery was 62.4±7.4 years. There was a 6 months minimum clinical follow up, with imaging to assess fusion, at 6 and 12 months. Indications included symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylosis +/− spondylolisthesis, leg and back pain. All patients were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale 100 mm for back pain (VASb) and for leg pain (VASl) preoperatively, at 3, 6 and 12 months. Last follow-up was at 12 months for 9 patients and the rest had 6 months follow up. Results Statistical analysis showed significance for the results in ODI, VASb and VASl with improvement in all components except for one patient with worsening VASl. Eight patients had complications related to surgery which were still present at last follow-up including moderate weakness of hip flexion and EHL weakness. Lateral cutaneous nerve (LCN) palsy on the side of the approach was also seen as well as sympathectomy effect related to the mobilization of the sympathetic trunk. One patient, who also suffered from multiple sclerosis, experienced psoas abscess 3 months

  10. The impact of preoperative epidural injections on postoperative infection in lumbar fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anuj; Yang, Scott; Werner, Brian C; Cancienne, Jourdan M; Nourbakhsh, Ali; Shimer, Adam L; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Shen, Francis H

    2017-03-14

    OBJECTIVE Lumbar epidural steroid injections (LESIs) are performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes for a variety of indications, including low-back pain, the leading cause of disability and expense due to work-related conditions in the US. The steroid agent used in epidural injections is reported to relieve nerve root inflammation, local ischemia, and resultant pain, but the injection may also have an adverse impact on spinal surgery performed thereafter. In particular, the possibility that preoperative epidural injections may increase the risk of surgical site infection after lumbar spinal fusion has been reported but has not been studied in detail. The goal of the present study was to use a large national insurance database to analyze the association of preoperative LESIs with surgical site infection after lumbar spinal fusion. METHODS A nationwide insurance database of patient records was used for this retrospective analysis. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to query the database for patients who had undergone LESI and 1- or 2-level lumbar posterior spinal fusion procedures. The rate of postoperative infection after 1- or 2-level posterior spinal fusion was analyzed. These study patients were then divided into 3 separate cohorts: 1) lumbar spinal fusion performed within 1 month after LESI, 2) fusion performed between 1 and 3 months after LESI, and 3) fusion performed between 3 and 6 months after LESI. The study patients were compared with a control cohort of patients who underwent lumbar fusion without previous LESI. RESULTS The overall 3-month infection rate after lumbar spinal fusion procedure was 1.6% (1411 of 88,540 patients). The infection risk increased in patients who received LESI within 1 month (OR 2.6, p < 0.0001) or 1-3 months (OR 1.4, p = 0.0002) prior to surgery compared with controls. The infection risk was not significantly different from controls in patients who underwent lumbar fusion more than 3 months after LESI

  11. Work intensity in sacroiliac joint fusion and lumbar microdiscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Clay; Kondrashov, Dimitriy; Meyer, S Craig; Dix, Gary; Lorio, Morgan; Kovalsky, Don; Cher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence base supporting minimally invasive sacroiliac (SI) joint fusion (SIJF) surgery is increasing. The work relative value units (RVUs) associated with minimally invasive SIJF are seemingly low. To date, only one published study describes the relative work intensity associated with minimally invasive SIJF. No study has compared work intensity vs other commonly performed spine surgery procedures. Methods Charts of 192 patients at five sites who underwent either minimally invasive SIJF (American Medical Association [AMA] CPT® code 27279) or lumbar microdiscectomy (AMA CPT® code 63030) were reviewed. Abstracted were preoperative times associated with diagnosis and patient care, intraoperative parameters including operating room (OR) in/out times and procedure start/stop times, and postoperative care requirements. Additionally, using a visual analog scale, surgeons estimated the intensity of intraoperative care, including mental, temporal, and physical demands and effort and frustration. Work was defined as operative time multiplied by task intensity. Results Patients who underwent minimally invasive SIJF were more likely female. Mean procedure times were lower in SIJF by about 27.8 minutes (P<0.0001) and mean total OR times were lower by 27.9 minutes (P<0.0001), but there was substantial overlap across procedures. Mean preservice and post-service total labor times were longer in minimally invasive SIJF (preservice times longer by 63.5 minutes [P<0.0001] and post-service labor times longer by 20.2 minutes [P<0.0001]). The number of postoperative visits was higher in minimally invasive SIJF. Mean total service time (preoperative + OR time + postoperative) was higher in the minimally invasive SIJF group (261.5 vs 211.9 minutes, P<0.0001). Intraoperative intensity levels were higher for mental, physical, effort, and frustration domains (P<0.0001 each). After taking into account intensity, intraoperative workloads showed substantial overlap. Conclusion

  12. Neutral spine control exercises in rehabilitation after lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Tarnanen, Sami P; Neva, Marko H; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kankaanpää, Markku; Ylinen, Jari; Kraemer, William J; Newton, Robert U; Häkkinen, Arja

    2014-07-01

    Lumbar spine fusion (LSF) has been reported to change the biomechanics of the spine and therefore the rehabilitation after LSF is important. In this study, the effect of selected neutral spine control exercises on activation of trunk muscles after LSF was evaluated. Muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, longissimus, and multifidus muscles during 6 exercises in 22 LSF patients (mean age = 59 years; age range = 25-84 years; 50% women). Muscle activity concurrent with trunk flexion and extension during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used as a reference value. Pain during the effort was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). The highest activity in the rectus abdominis muscles was measured during bilateral shoulder extension (51% of MVIC), and in the external oblique, it occurred during unilateral shoulder horizontal adduction (48% of MVIC) and unilateral hip extension (46% of MVIC) exercises. The highest activation of the multifidus and longissimus muscles (60-104%) was measured during bilateral shoulder flexion and modified Roman chair exercises. The mean (SD) self-reported back pain VAS scores during exercises varied from 3 (7) to 16 (26). Neutral spine control exercises activate trunk muscles and cause minimal pain and are therefore feasible exercises for home-based training to improve muscle endurance and postural control after LSF. In addition, the level of muscle activity during bilateral shoulder flexion and modified Roman chair exercises was over 60% of MVIC, justifying their use in training for strength of the trunk extensor muscles.

  13. Lumbar Interspinous Process Fixation and Fusion with Stand-Alone Interlaminar Lumbar Instrumented Fusion Implant in Patients with Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Undergoing Decompression for Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Postacchini, Franco; Menchetti, Pier Paolo Maria; Sessa, Pasquale; Paolino, Michela; Cinotti, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To assess the ability of a stand-alone lumbar interspinous implant (interspinous/interlaminar lumbar instrumented fusion, ILIF) associated with bone grafting to promote posterior spine fusion in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) with vertebral instability. Overview of Literature A few studies, using bilateral laminotomy (BL) or bilateral decompression by unilateral laminotomy (BDUL), found satisfactory results in stenotic patients with decompression alone, but others reported increased olisthesis, or subsequent need for fusion in DS with or without dynamic instability. Methods Twenty-five patients with Grade I DS, leg pain and chronic low back pain underwent BL or BDUL and ILIF implant. Olisthesis was 13% to 21%. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 4 to 12 months up to 25 to 44 months (mean, 34.4). Outcome measures were numerical rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI) and short-form 36 health survey (SF-36) of body pain and function. Results Fusion occurred in 21 patients (84%). None had increased olisthesis or instability postoperatively. Four types of fusion were identified. In Type I, the posterior part of the spinous processes were fused. In Type II, fusion extended to the base of the processes. In Type III, bone was present also around the polyetheretherketone plate of ILIF. In Type IV, even the facet joints were fused. The mean NRS score for back and leg pain decreased by 64% and 80%, respectively. The mean ODI score was decreased by 52%. SF-36 bodily pain and physical function mean scores increased by 53% and 58%, respectively. Computed tomography revealed failed fusion in four patients, all of whom still had vertebral instability postoperatively. Conclusions Stand-alone ILIF with interspinous bone grafting promotes vertebral fusion in most patients with lumbar stenosis and unstable Grade I DS undergoing BL or BDUL. PMID:26949455

  14. Iliac Crest Bone Graft versus Local Autograft or Allograft for Lumbar Spinal Fusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tuchman, Alexander; Brodke, Darrel S.; Youssef, Jim A.; Meisel, Hans-Jörg; Dettori, Joseph R.; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S. Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design  Systematic review. Objective  To compare the effectiveness and safety between iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) and local autologous bone and allograft in the lumbar spine. Methods  A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases identified studies evaluating spinal fusion in patients with degenerative joint disease using ICBG, local autograft, or allograft in the thoracolumbar spine. Results  Six comparative studies met our inclusion criteria. A “low” strength of the overall body of evidence suggested no difference in fusion percentages in the lumbar spine between local autograft and ICBG. We found no difference in fusion percentages based on low evidence comparing allograft with ICBG autograft. There were no differences in pain or functional results comparing local autograft or allograft with ICBG autograft. Donor site pain and hematoma/seroma occurred more frequently in ICBG autograft group for lumbar fusion procedures. There was low evidence around the estimate of patients with donor site pain following ICBG harvesting, ranging from 16.7 to 20%. With respect to revision, low evidence demonstrated no difference between allograft and ICBG autograft. There was no evidence comparing patients receiving allograft with local autograft for fusion, pain, functional, and safety outcomes. Conclusion  In the lumbar spine, ICBG, local autograft, and allograft have similar effectiveness in terms of fusion rates, pain scores, and functional outcomes. However, ICBG is associated with an increased risk for donor site-related complications. Significant limitations exist in the available literature when comparing ICBG, local autograft, and allograft for lumbar fusion, and thus ICBG versus other fusion methods necessitates further investigation. PMID:27556001

  15. [Nursing Care of Lumbar Spine Fusion Surgery Using a Semi-Rigid Device (ISOBAR)].

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Shan; Su, Shu-Fen

    2016-04-01

    Aging frequently induces degenerative changes in the spine. Patients who suffer from lumbar degenerative disease tend to have lower back pain, neurological claudication, and neuropathy. Furthermore, incontinence may be an increasing issue as symptoms become severe. Lumbar spine fusion surgery is necessary if clinical symptoms continue to worsen or if the patient fails to respond to medication, physical therapy, or alternative treatments. However, this surgical procedure frequently induces adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is evidenced by the appearance of pathological changes in the upper and lower sections of the spinal surgical sites. In 1997, ISOBAR TTL dynamic rod stabilization was developed for application in spinal fusion surgery to prevent ASD-related complications. The device has proven effective in reducing pain in the lower back and legs, decreasing functional disability, improving quality of life, and retarding disc degeneration. However, the effectiveness of this intervention in decreasing the incidence of ASD requires further research investigation, and relevant literature and research in Taiwan is still lacking. This article discusses lumbar degenerative disease, its indications, the contraindications of lumbar spine fusion surgery using ISOBAR, and related postoperative nursing care. We hope this article provides proper and new knowledge to clinical nurses for the care of patients undergoing lumbar spine fusion surgery with ISOBAR.

  16. The Quality and Readability of Information Available on the Internet Regarding Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dafang; Schumacher, Charles; Harris, Mitchel B; Bono, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Study Design An Internet-based evaluation of Web sites regarding lumbar fusion. Objective The Internet has become a major resource for patients; however, the quality and readability of Internet information regarding lumbar fusion is unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality and readability of Internet information regarding lumbar fusion and to determine whether these measures changed with Web site modality, complexity of the search term, or Health on the Net Code of Conduct certification. Methods Using five search engines and three different search terms of varying complexity ("low back fusion," "lumbar fusion," and "lumbar arthrodesis"), we identified and reviewed 153 unique Web site hits for information quality and readability. Web sites were specifically analyzed by search term and Web site modality. Information quality was evaluated on a 5-point scale. Information readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid score for reading grade level. Results The average quality score was low. The average reading grade level was nearly six grade levels above that recommended by National Work Group on Literacy and Health. The quality and readability of Internet information was significantly dependent on Web site modality. The use of more complex search terms yielded information of higher reading grade level but not higher quality. Conclusions Higher-quality information about lumbar fusion conveyed using language that is more readable by the general public is needed on the Internet. It is important for health care providers to be aware of the information accessible to patients, as it likely influences their decision making regarding care.

  17. 100 Consecutive Cases of Degenerative Lumbar Conditions Using a Non-Threaded Locking Screw System With a 90-Degree Locking Cap

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Bryan W.; Tortolani, P. Justin; Fedder, Ira L.; Sefter, John C.; Davis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background This prospective study analyzes the perioperative outcomes and long-term fusion success of 100 consecutive lumbar degenerative cases. The cases were managed using a non-threaded locking screw system, in conjunction with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages, for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedures. These 100 cases were compared to another prospective study treating patients with the same inclusion and exclusion criteria using conventional plate-based pedicle screw spinal instrumentation augmented with carbon fiber interbody cages. Methods A total of 167 operative levels were treated in 100 patients (51 single-level, 39 two-level and 10 three-level cases). Eleven cases were revisions and 67 patients received interbody fusion cages. Patients had an average of 22.8 ± 4.0 months followup. Results: There was one instrumentation failure but no significant subsidence at the interbody fusion level. The disc space height was restored as part of the surgical procedure at the interbody cage levels: from 7.5 ± 2.3 mm preoperative to 9.0 ± 2.1 mm postoperative. There were 2 cases of pseudarthrosis (2 / 100 = 2%). The average operative time for 1-level cases was 111 ± 25 minutes; for 2-level cases it was 132.4 ± 21.8 minutes; and for 3-level cases it was 162.6 ± 33 minutes. Blood loss averaged 800 ± 473 cc for 1-level cases, 1055 ± 408 cc for 2 levels, and 1155 ± 714 cc for 3 levels. The length of stay was similar between the 3 groups (4.4 ± 1.2 days for single-level cases, 4.7 ± 1.1 for 2 levels, and 5.0 ± 1.1 for 3 levels; P > .05). There were 3 incidental durotomies, and 4 other patients developed infections postoperatively that required reoperation. Conclusion The disc and foraminal heights can be restored and maintained with a unilateral cage and pedicle screw construct. Unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using a PEEK cage combined with a non-threaded locking pedicle screw and rod system results in similar fusion rates to

  18. Congenital hypoplasia of the lumbar pedicle with spondylolisthesis: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Sheng; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Hyung Chang; Oh, Hyeong-Seok; Hwang, Byeong-Wook; Park, Sang-Joon; Chen, Jian-Han

    2017-04-01

    Congenital hypoplasia of the spinal pedicle is a rare condition. Previously reported cases were treated conservatively or with posterior instrumented fusion. However, the absence or hypoplasia of the lumbar pedicle may increase the difficulty of pedicle screw fixation and fusion. Herein, the authors describe 2 cases of rare adult congenital hypoplasia of the right lumbar pedicles associated with spondylolisthesis. The patients underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion with a stand-alone cage as well as percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. This method was used to avoid the difficulties associated with pedicle screw fixation and to attain solid fusion. Both patients achieved satisfactory outcomes after a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. This method may be an alternative for patients with congenital hypoplasia of the lumbar spinal pedicle.

  19. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 15: electrophysiological monitoring and lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is commonly used during lumbar fusion surgery for the prevention of nerve root injury. Justification for its use stems from the belief that IOM can prevent nerve root injury during the placement of pedicle screws. A thorough literature review was conducted to determine if the use of IOM could prevent nerve root injury during the placement of instrumentation in lumbar or lumbosacral fusion. There is no evidence to date that IOM can prevent injury to the nerve roots. There is limited evidence that a threshold below 5 mA from direct stimulation of the screw can indicate a medial pedicle breach by the screw. Unfortunately, once a nerve root injury has taken place, changing the direction of the screw does not alter the outcome. The recommendations formulated in the original guideline effort are neither supported nor refuted with the evidence obtained with the current studies.

  20. The NEtherlands Cervical Kinematics (NECK) Trial. Cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation; a double-blind randomised multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with cervical radicular syndrome due to disc herniation refractory to conservative treatment are offered surgical treatment. Anterior cervical discectomy is the standard procedure, often in combination with interbody fusion. Accelerated adjacent disc degeneration is a known entity on the long term. Recently, cervical disc prostheses are developed to maintain motion and possibly reduce the incidence of adjacent disc degeneration. A comparative cost-effectiveness study focused on adjacent segment degeneration and functional outcome has not been performed yet. We present the design of the NECK trial, a randomised study on cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in patients with cervical disc herniation. Methods/Design Patients (age 18-65 years) presenting with radicular signs due to single level cervical disc herniation lasting more than 8 weeks are included. Patients will be randomised into 3 groups: anterior discectomy only, anterior discectomy with interbody fusion, and anterior discectomy with disc prosthesis. The primary outcome measure is symptomatic adjacent disc degeneration at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Other outcome parameters will be the Neck Disability Index, perceived recovery, arm and neck pain, complications, re-operations, quality of life, job satisfaction, anxiety and depression assessment, medical consumption, absenteeism, and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial, in which 3 surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses will be kept blinded of the allocated treatment for 2 years. The follow-up period is 5 years. Discussion Currently, anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of cervical disc herniation. Whether additional interbody fusion or disc prothesis is necessary and cost-effective will be determined by this trial. Trial Registration Netherlands

  1. Is there a need for cervical collar usage post anterior cervical decompression and fusion using interbody cages? A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Allan; Halvorsen, Marie; Dedering, Asa

    2013-05-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a common surgical intervention for radiculopathy resulting from degenerative cervical spine conditions. Post-surgical cervical collar use is believed to reduce post-operative pain, provide the patient with a sense of security during activities of daily living and even reduce rates of non-fusion. This prospective randomized controlled pilot trial investigates trial design feasibility in relation to prospective physical, functional, and quality of life-related outcomes of patients undergoing ACDF with interbody cage, with (n = 17) and without (n = 16) post-operative cervical collar usage. Results show that the sample provides sufficient statistical power to show that the use of a rigid cervical collar during 6 post-operative weeks is associated with significantly lower levels of neck disability index after 6 weeks and significantly lower levels of prospective neck pain. To investigate causal quality of life or fusion rate outcomes, sample size needs to be increased at least fourfold and optimally sixfold when accounting for data loss in prospective follow-up. The study suggests that post-surgical cervical collar usage may help certain patients cope with initial post-operative pain and disability.

  2. Perioperative and short-term advantages of mini-open approach for lumbar spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vela, J.; Joven-Aliaga, E.; Herrera, A.; Vicente, J.; Suñén, E.; Loste, A.; Tabuenca, A.

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely reported a vascular and neurologic damage of the lumbar muscles produced in the classic posterior approach for lumbar spinal fusions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a better clinical and functional outcome in the postoperative and short term in patients undergoing minimal invasive surgery (“mini-open”) for this lumbar spinal arthrodesis. We designed a prospective study with a 30 individuals cohort randomized in two groups, depending on the approach performed to get a instrumented lumbar circumferential arthrodesis: “classic posterior” (CL group) or “mini-open” approach (MO group). Several clinical and functional parameters were assessed, including blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesic requirements and daily life activities during hospital stay and at the 3-month follow-up. Patients of the “mini-open approach” group had a significant lower blood loss and hospital stay during admission. They also had significant lower analgesic requirements and faster recovery of daily life activities (specially moderate efforts) when compared to the patients of the “classic posterior approach” group. No significant differences were found between two groups in surgery timing, X-rays exposure or sciatic postoperative pain. This study, inline with previous investigations, reinforces the concept of minimizing the muscular lumbar damage with a mini-open approach for a faster and better recovery of patients’ disability in the short term. Further investigations are necessary to confirm these findings in the long term, and to verify the achievement of a stable lumbar spinal fusion. PMID:19399538

  3. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Stundner, O.; Chiu, Y-L.; Sun, X.; Ramachandran, S-K.; Gerner, P.; Vougioukas, V.; Mazumdar, M.; Memtsoudis, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84 655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.50, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians. PMID:24493191

  4. Evaluation of the Etoricoxib-Mediated Pain-Relieving Effect in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Fusion Procedures for Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis: A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongxiang; Wang, Ping; Hu, Xinlei; Ye, Zhaoming

    2015-04-01

    This randomized, double-blind study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of etoricoxib in controlling the pain during lumbar fusion surgery of the degenerative lumbar scoliosis patients. We found that perioperative use of etoricoxib produced a significant reduction in the degree of pain compared to the patients treated with placebo. Etoricoxib eased the pain and helped to manage the discomfort of lumbar fusion surgery. In addition, etoricoxib was well tolerated as it caused no serious adverse reaction, suggesting a safe profile. Etoricoxib also appeared to ensure and promote the positive effect of surgery, however, insignificantly. Thus, the results suggest that etoricoxib was effective in safely managing the pain during the lumbar fusion surgery and recovery thereafter.

  5. Novel spinal instrumentation to enhance osteogenesis and fusion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Talcott, Michael R; Moran, Daniel W; Leuthardt, Eric C

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Instrumented spinal fusion continues to exhibit high failure rates in patients undergoing multilevel lumbar fusion or pseudarthrosis revision; with Grade II or higher spondylolisthesis; or in those possessing risk factors such as obesity, tobacco use, or metabolic disorders. Direct current (DC) electrical stimulation of bone growth represents a unique surgical adjunct in vertebral fusion procedures, yet existing spinal fusion stimulators are not optimized to enhance interbody fusion. To develop an advanced method of applying DC electrical stimulation to promote interbody fusion, a novel osteogenic spinal system capable of routing DC through rigid instrumentation and into the vertebral bodies was fabricated. A pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility of osteogenic instrumentation and compare the ability of osteogenic instrumentation to promote successful interbody fusion in vivo to standard spinal instrumentation with autograft. METHODS Instrumented, single-level, posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with autologous graft was performed at L4-5 in adult Toggenburg/Alpine goats, using both osteogenic spinal instrumentation (plus electrical stimulation) and standard spinal instrumentation (no electrical stimulation). At terminal time points (3 months, 6 months), animals were killed and lumbar spines were explanted for radiographic analysis using a SOMATOM Dual Source Definition CT Scanner and high-resolution Microcat II CT Scanner. Trabecular continuity, radiodensity within the fusion mass, and regional bone formation were examined to determine successful spinal fusion. RESULTS Quantitative analysis of average bone density in pedicle screw beds confirmed that electroactive pedicle screws used in the osteogenic spinal system focally enhanced bone density in instrumented vertebral bodies. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of high-resolution CT scans of explanted lumbar spines further demonstrated that the osteogenic spinal system induced solid

  6. Long-Term Follow-Up Radiologic and Clinical Evaluation of Cylindrical Cage for Anterior Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Cervical Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suhyeong; Yi, Hyeon-Joong; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Dong Won; Lee, Yoon Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Objective Various procedures have been introduced for anterior interbody fusion in degenerative cervical disc disease including plate systems with autologous iliac bone, carbon cages, and cylindrical cages. However, except for plate systems, the long-term results of other methods have not been established. In the present study, we evaluated radiologic findings for cylindrical cervical cages over long-term follow up periods. Methods During 4 year period, radiologic findings of 138 patients who underwent anterior cervical fusion with cylindrical cage were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, and 36 postoperative months using plain radiographs. We investigated subsidence, osteophyte formation (anterior and posterior margin), cage direction change, kyphotic angle, and bone fusion on each radiograph. Results Among the 138 patients, a minimum of 36 month follow-up was achieved in 99 patients (mean follow-up : 38.61 months) with 115 levels. Mean disc height was 7.32 mm for preoperative evaluations, 9.00 for immediate postoperative evaluations, and 4.87 more than 36 months after surgery. Osteophytes were observed in 107 levels (93%) of the anterior portion and 48 levels (41%) of the posterior margin. The mean kyphotic angle was 9.87° in 35 levels showing cage directional change. There were several significant findings : 1) related subsidence [T-score (p=0.039) and anterior osteophyte (p=0.009)], 2) accompanying posterior osteophyte and outcome (p=0.05). Conclusion Cage subsidence and osteophyte formation were radiologically observed in most cases. Low T-scores may have led to subsidence and kyphosis during bone fusion although severe neurologic aggravation was not found, and therefore cylindrical cages should be used in selected cases. PMID:23091668

  7. Evaluation of autologous platelet concentrate for intertransverse process lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Paul M; Miranda, Jose J; Kadiyala, Sudha; Patel, Tushar Ch; Panjabi, Manohar; Troiano, Nancy; Friedlaender, Gary E

    2008-04-01

    Data on the role of platelet concentrate (PC) in spinal fusion are limited. Using the New Zealand white rabbit model, we compared fusion rates at L5-L6 using 2 different volumes (1.5 cm(3), 3.0 cm(3)) of iliac crest autograft with and without PC (4 groups total, 10 animals in each). PC was collected from donor rabbits and adjusted to a concentration of 1 x 10(6) platelets/mL. Bone growth and fusion were evaluated using biomechanical, radiographic, and histologic testing. At 1.5 cm(3), autograft alone had a 29% fusion rate, compared with autograft plus PC, which had a 57% fusion rate (P = .06). At 3.0 cm(3), the fusion rate approached 90% in both groups. Radiologic fusion had a 70% correlation with biomechanical test results. Huo/Friedlaender scores were 4.3 (SD, 2.9) for 1.5-cm(3) autograft alone; 5.0 (SD, 3.5) for 1.5-cm(3) autograft plus PC; 4.7 (SD, 2.5) for 3.0-cm(3) autograft alone; and 7.7 (SD, 0.6) for 3.0-cm(3) autograft plus PC. For 1.5-cm(3) autograft, a trend toward improvement in biomechanically defined fusion was found when PC was added, which suggests that, when the amount of bone graft is limited, PC may function as a graft extender in posterolateral fusion. At higher volumes of bone graft, no appreciable difference was noted between groups. Although radiography revealed fusion masses, the technique was not useful in identifying pseudarthrosis. On histologic analysis, adding PC seemed to result in more mature bone at both volumes, with the most mature bone in the group with 3.0-cm(3) autograft plus PC.

  8. Endoscopic foraminotomy for recurrent lumbar radiculopathy after TLIF: Technical report

    PubMed Central

    Telfeian, Albert E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a well-accepted fusion technique that uses unilateral facet removal as an oblique corridor for inserting an interbody spacer. This manuscript focused on five cases of endoscopic foraminotomy for patients presenting with recurrent radiculopathy after TLIF procedures. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, charts from five patients with lumbar radiculopathy and instrumented TLIF procedures who underwent subsequent endoscopic procedures between 2011 and 2013 were reviewed. Results: The average pain relief 1 year postoperatively was reported to be 63.8%, good results as defined by MacNab. The average preoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score was 9.5, indicated in our questionnaire as severe and constant pain. The average 1 year postoperative VAS score was 3.5, indicated in our questionnaire as mild and intermittent pain. Conclusion: Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy could be used as a safe, yet, minimally invasive and innovative technique for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of previous instrumented lumbar fusion. IRB approval: Lifespan: IRB Study # 600415 PMID:25949850

  9. Impact of obesity on complications and outcomes: a comparison of fusion and nonfusion lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Onyekwelu, Ikemefuna; Glassman, Steven D; Asher, Anthony L; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Carreon, Leah Y

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Prior studies have shown obesity to be associated with higher complication rates but equivalent clinical outcomes following lumbar spine surgery. These findings have been reproducible across lumbar spine surgery in general and for lumbar fusion specifically. Nevertheless, surgeons seem inclined to limit the extent of surgery, perhaps opting for decompression alone rather than decompression plus fusion, in obese patients. The purpose of this study was to ascertain any difference in clinical improvement or complication rates between obese and nonobese patients following decompression alone compared with decompression plus fusion for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). METHODS The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD), formerly known as the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD), was queried for patients who had undergone decompression plus fusion (D+F group) versus decompression alone (D+0 group) for LSS and were stratified by a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (obese) or < 30 kg/m(2) (nonobese). Demographic, surgical, and health-related quality of life data were compared. RESULTS In the nonobese cohort, 947 patients underwent decompression alone and 319 underwent decompression plus fusion. In the obese cohort, 844 patients had decompression alone and 337 had decompression plus fusion. There were no significant differences in the Oswestry Disability Index score or in leg pain improvement at 12 months when comparing decompression with fusion to decompression without fusion in either obese or nonobese cohorts. However, absolute improvement in back pain was less in the obese group when decompression alone had been performed. Blood loss and operative time were lowest in the nonobese D+0 cohort and were higher in obese patients with or without fusion. Obese patients had a longer hospital stay (4.1 days) than the nonobese patients (3.3 days) when fusion had been performed. In-hospital stay was similar in both obese and nonobese D+0 cohorts. No

  10. Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-Yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

  11. Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

  12. Cortical blindness following posterior lumbar decompression and fusion.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Goldstein, Ira M

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative vision loss following non-ocular surgery is a well-documented phenomenon. In particular, perioperative vision loss has been frequently cited following spinal surgery. Although the rate of vision compromise in spinal surgery is relatively low, the consequences can be quite severe and devastating for the patient. We report a 60-year-old woman who initially presented with back and left leg pain as well as paraparesis. Imaging studies of the lumbar spine showed bony erosion consistent with tumor infiltration of the L3 and L4 spinal segments. Laminectomy at the L2-L4 levels for decompression of the intraspinal tumor was performed. Pathology of the resected bone was consistent with metastatic adenocarincoma. Postoperatively, the patient suffered severe anemia and bilateral infarctions of the posterior cerebral arteries and occipital lobes resulting in vision compromise. Although a definitive pathogenesis remains unknown, preoperative cardiovascular issues and intraoperative hemodynamic instabilities have typically been implicated as high risk factors. High risk factors for this novel clinical presentation of visual compromise following posterior lumbar laminectomy with decompression for an intraspinal tumor are reported.

  13. Concomitant Lumbar Stenosis and Aortic Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Christoph; Niemeier, Thomas E; Neway, William E

    2016-01-01

    Aortic pseudoaneurysm can create a constellation of symptoms that can mimic lumbar back pain. There are rare but well-documented reports of aortic pathology (aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, and chronic contained aneurysm ruptures) eroding into the vertebral column causing neural compression. We report a case of a rapidly progressive aortic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with pre-existing lumbar spine pathology which had the potential for catastrophic intraoperative bleeding during a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) technique. Postoperatively, the patient’s radicular pain resolved but her back pain remained. Further workup identified the pseudoaneurysm and the patient subsequently underwent open vascular repair. In this report, we highlight a lesser known mimicker of lumbar back pain. PMID:27882269

  14. Using the ACS-NSQIP to identify factors affecting hospital length of stay after elective posterior lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Basques, Bryce A.; Fu, Michael C.; Buerba, Rafael A.; Bohl, Daniel D.; Golinvaux, Nicholas S.; Grauer, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database from 2005 to 2010 that included 1,861 patients who had undergone elective posterior lumbar fusion. Objective To characterize factors that were independently associated with increased hospital length of stay (LOS) in patients who had undergone elective posterior lumbar fusion. Summary of Background Data Posterior lumbar spine fusion is a common surgical procedure used to treat lumbar spine pathology. LOS is an important clinical variable and a major determinant of inpatient hospital costs. There is lack of studies in the literature using multivariate analysis to specifically examine the predictors of LOS after elective posterior lumbar fusion. Methods Patients who underwent elective posterior lumbar fusion from 2005 to 2010 were identified in the ACS-NSQIP database. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were extracted for each case and a multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the contribution of each variable to LOS. Results A total of 1,861 elective posterior lumbar fusion patients were identified. The average age for patients in this cohort was 60.6 ± 13.9 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) with a body mass index (BMI) of 30.3 ± 6.2 kg/m2. 44.7% of patients were male. LOS ranged from 0 days to 51 days. Multivariate linear regression identified age (p < 0.001), morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2, p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class (p = 0.001), operative time (p < 0.001), multilevel procedure (p = 0.001), and intraoperative transfusion (p < 0.001) as significant predictors of extended LOS. Conclusion The identified preoperative and intraoperative variables associated with extended LOS after elective posterior lumbar fusion may be helpful to clinicians for patient counseling and postoperative planning. PMID:24384669

  15. Comparative Analysis of Interbody Cages Versus Tricortical Graft with Anterior Plate Fixation for Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Degenerative Cervical Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pritish; Shekhawat, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple techniques and modalities of fixation are used in Anterior Cervical Discectomy and interbody Fusion (ACDF), each with some merit and demerit against others. Such pool of techniques reflects lack of a consensus method conducive to uniformly good results. Aim A prospective study was done to analyse safety and efficacy of tricortical autograft and anterior cervical plate (Group A) with cylindrical titanium cage filled with cancellous bone (Group B) in procedure of ACDF for single level degenerative cervical disc disease. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with degenerative cervical disc disease were included in study for ACDF. After a computer generated randomisation, ten patients (10 segments) were operated with anterior locking plating and tricortical iliac crest graft (Group A, Tricortical graft group), while ten patients(10 segments) were operated with standalone cylindrical titanium cages filled with cancellous bone harvested using minimally invasive methods (Group B, Cage group) from April 2012 to May 2015. Odoms’s criteria, visual pain analogue score and sequential plain radiographs were obtained to assess for clinic-radiological outcome. Results According to Odom’s system of functional assessment, 9 patients from each group (90%) experienced good to excellent functional recovery and 9 of 10 (90%) patients of each groups were satisfied with outcome. In both groups, relief in neck pain or arm pain was similar without any statistical difference as assessed by visual analogue score. Fusion was present in 10 of 10 (100%) patients in tricortical graft group and 10 of 10 (100%) in cage group at the end of 6 months. There was no implant related complications in cage group. Transient postoperative dysphagia was recorded in 3 patients (2 in Group A and 1 in group B), which resolved within 3 days. In tricortical graft group, graft collapse and partial extrusion was detected in one patient, which did not correspond with good results obtained

  16. Evaluation of Outcome of Posterior Decompression and Instrumented Fusion in Lumbar and Lumbosacral Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ravikant; Kiyawat, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background For surgical treatment of lumbar and lumbosacral tuberculosis, the anterior approach has been the most popular approach because it allows direct access to the infected tissue, thereby providing good decompression. However, anterior fixation is not strong, and graft failure and loss of correction are frequent complications. The posterior approach allows circumferential decompression of neural elements along with three-column fixation attained via pedicle screws by the same approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome (functional, neurological, and radiological) in patients with lumbar and lumbosacral tuberculosis operated through the posterior approach. Methods Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis of the lumbar and lumbosacral region from August 2012 to August 2013. Of these, 13 patients had progressive neurological deterioration or increasing back pain despite conservative measures and underwent posterior decompression and pedicle screw fixation with posterolateral fusion. Antitubercular therapy was given till signs of radiological healing were evident (9 to 16 months). Functional outcome (visual analogue scale [VAS] score for back pain), neurological recovery (Frankel grading), and radiological improvement were evaluated preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Results The mean VAS score for back pain improved from 7.89 (range, 9 to 7) preoperatively to 2.2 (range, 3 to 1) at 1-year follow-up. Frankel grading was grade B in 3, grade C in 7, and grade D in 3 patients preoperatively, which improved to grade D in 7 and grade E in 6 patients at the last follow-up. Radiological healing was evident in the form of reappearance of trabeculae formation, resolution of pus, fatty marrow replacement, and bony fusion in all patients. The mean correction of segmental kyphosis was 9.85° postoperatively. The mean loss of correction at final follow-up was 3.15°. Conclusions

  17. Long-term result of posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine using the Tadpole system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of pedicle screw fixation is often seen in patients with severe osteoporosis. We developed new lumbar spinal instrumentation (Tadpole system) for elderly patients who have osteoporotic bone and poor general health status. The objective of this study was to document the long-term clinical outcomes after Tadpole system fixation, the rate of spinal fusion, the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, the rate of instrumentation failure, and the overall complications. Methods Sixty patients who underwent posterolateral spinal fusion using the Tadpole system, in whom a radiograph of the lumbar spine was taken at more than 5 years after operation, were involved in this study. The improvement rate of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, rate of spinal fusion, presence or absence of adjacent segment degeneration, rate of instrumentation failure, and postoperative complications of each patient were assessed at 5 years postoperatively. Results The mean JOA score improvement was 72.5%, and the posterolateral spinal fusion rate was 93.3% (56 of 60 patients) at the last follow-up. Adjacent segment degeneration occurred in only two patients who showed decreased intervertebral disc height, and instrumentation failure (hook deviation) was observed in one patient. No other complications were observed in any patients. Conclusion Tadpole system fixation shows favorable long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:24886530

  18. Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Use in the Treatment of Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qingqiang; Cohen, Jeremiah R.; Buser, Zorica; Park, Jong-Beom; Brodke, Darrel S.; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Youssef, Jim A.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Yoon, S. Tim

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective database review. Objective To identify trends of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) use in the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (LDS). Methods PearlDiver Patient Record Database was used to identify patients who underwent lumbar fusion for LDS between 2005 and 2011. The distribution of bone morphogenetic protein use rate (BR) in various surgical procedures was recorded. Patient numbers, reoperation numbers, BR, and per year BR (PYBR) were stratified by geographic region, gender, and age. Results There were 11,335 fusion surgeries, with 3,461 cases using rhBMP-2. Even though PYRB increased between 2005 and 2008, there was a significant decrease in 2010 for each procedure: 404 (34.5%) for posterior interbody fusion, 1,282 (34.3%) for posterolateral plus posterior interbody fusion (PLPIF), 1,477 (29.2%) for posterolateral fusion, and 335 (22.4%) for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. In patients using rhBMP-2, the reoperation rate was significantly lower than in patients not using rhBMP-2 (0.69% versus 1.07%, p < 0.0001). Male patients had higher PYBR compared with female patients in 2008 and 2009 (p < 0.05). The West region and PLPIF had the highest BR and PYBR. Conclusions Our data shows that the revision rates were significantly lower in patients treated with rhBMP-2 compared with patients not treated with rhBMP-2. Furthermore, rhBMP-2 use in LDS varied by year, region, gender, and type of fusion technique. In the West region, the posterior approach and patients 65 to 69 years of age had the highest rate of rhBMP-2 use. PMID:27853658

  19. Interdisciplinary Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Part of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Lindgreen, Pil; Rolving, Nanna; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients receiving lumbar spinal fusion surgery often have persisting postoperative pain negatively affecting their daily life. These patients may be helped by interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral therapy which is recognized as an effective intervention for improving beneficial pain coping behavior, thereby facilitating the rehabilitation process of patients with chronic pain. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of patients recovering from lumbar spinal fusion surgery and to explore potential similarities and disparities in pain coping behavior between receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 10 patients; 5 receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy in connection with their lumbar spinal fusion surgery and 5 receiving usual care. We conducted a phenomenological analysis to reach our first aim and then conducted a comparative content analysis to reach our second aim. RESULTS: Patients' postoperative experience was characterized by the need to adapt to the limitations imposed by back discomfort (coexisting with the back), need for recognition and support from others regarding their pain, a relatively long rehabilitation period during which they “awaited the result of surgery”, and ambivalence toward analgesics. The patients in both groups had similar negative perception of analgesics and tended to abstain from them to avoid addiction. Coping behavior apparently differed among receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Receivers prevented or minimized pain by resting before pain onset, whereas nonreceivers awaited pain onset before resting. CONCLUSION: The postoperative experience entailed ambivalence, causing uncertainty, worry and insecurity. This ambivalence was relieved when others recognized the patient's pain and offered support. Cognitive-behavioral therapy as part of

  20. Evaluation of Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis After Short Segment Decompression and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Naiguo; Wang, Dachuan; Wang, Feng; Tan, Bingyi; Yuan, Zenong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate short segment decompression of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and the efficiency of fusion treatment. After DLS surgery, the patients were retrospectively reviewed using the VAS (visual analog scale) and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) to assess clinical outcomes. All patients underwent posterior lumbar decompressive laminectomy, pedicle screw internal fixation, and posterolateral bone graft fusion surgery. Radiographic measurements included the scoliotic Cobb angle, the fused Cobb angle, the anterior intervertebral angle (AIA), the sagittal intervertebral angle (SIA), and lumbar lordosis angle. The relationships between these parameters were examined by bivariate Pearson analysis and linear regression analysis. Preoperatively, the Cobb angle at the scoliotic segment was 15.4°, which decreased to 10.2° immediately following surgery (P < 0.05). The AIA significantly increased by the last follow-up (4.4 ± 3.4) compared with pre- and postoperative values (2.5 ± 2.8 and 2.2 ± 2.4, respectively; P < 0.05). However, the scoliotic Cobb angle and the AIA did not correlate with the VAS or ODI scores. At the final follow-up, no patients had pseudoarthrosis or internal instrumentation-related complications. Short fusion surgical treatment results in limited DLS correction, with correction loss over time. The AIA between the upper adjacent segment and proximal fused vertebra continues to increase postoperatively, which does not exacerbate clinical symptoms, as reflected by the low reoperation rates for repairing degeneration at adjacent levels. PMID:26632679

  1. Dynesys dynamic stabilization: less good outcome than lumbar fusion at 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Behrooz; Makki, Daoud; Konan, Sujith; Park, Derek; Khan, Wasim; Okafor, Ben

    2013-02-01

    Dynamic semirigid stabilization of the lumbar spine was introduced in 1994 in an attempt to overcome the drawbacks of fusion. It is supposed to preserve motion at the treated levels, while avoiding hypermobility and thus spondylosis at the adjacent levels. Although the early reports showed promising results, the long term effects are still debated. We retrospectively compared outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization with those of the traditional fusion technique. Thirty-two patients who had undergone Dynesys between 2004 and 2006 (group 1) were compared to 32 patients who had been treated with fusion between 2005 and 2006 (group 2). VAS for back and leg pain, and ODI improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.001). These scores were all better in the fusion group, and even significantly so as far as VAS for back pain was concerned (p = 0.014). Similarly, more patients were satisfied or very satisfied after fusion than after Dynesys: 87.5% versus 68.8% (p = 0.04). Interestingly, in the Dynesys group scatter plot graphs showed a positive correlation between older age and improvement in the two VAS scores and in ODI. Dynamic stabilization with Dynesys remains controversial. Older patients are relatively more satisfied about it, probably because of their low level of demands.

  2. The outcome of pedicle screw instrumentation removal for ongoing low back pain following posterolateral lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Brumby-Rendell, Oscar P.; McDonald, Ben; Fisher, Tom; Tsimiklis, Christovalantis; Yoon, Wai Weng; Osti, Orso L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to determine whether patients derived benefit from removal of pedicle screw instrumentation for axial pain without other cause using our surgical technique and patient selection. A secondary aim was to investigate factors that were associated with poorer outcomes for this procedure as well as complication rate in this cohort. Methods Theater records from a single spinal surgeon’s practice were reviewed to identify patients that had undergone lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain with subsequent pedicle screw instrumentation removal (Expedium, DePuy Synthes) in the preceding 3 years with a minimum of 18 months follow-up. Inclusion criteria were persisting midline axial back pain with computed tomography (CT)−confirmed solid fusion with non-radicular symptoms and nil other potential causes found, e.g., infection. Case note review along with pre- and post-operative Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaires and visual analog scores (VAS) were assessed for all patients. Surgical technique included re-use of previous midline posterior incision and the Wiltse approach with removal of implants, confirmation of a solid fusion mass, washout and bone grafting of removal sites. Results From 50 consecutive patients who underwent removal of posterolateral instrumentation for an index elective lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain, 34 patients were identified that met the criteria with a mean follow-up of 25 months (range, 18-36 months). The VAS and ODI improved in 22/34 (65%) of participants. The mean cohort VAS score was 6.6 pre-surgery and 4.3 post-surgery (P=0.04). Preoperative and postoperative mean Oswestry disability scores were 64 and 41, respectively (P=0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with poorer compared to satisfactory outcomes with regards to compensable status, preoperative grade II opioid use and shorter time between fusion and removal procedure. Complications were one

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Sufentanil and Fentanyl Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia after Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Keun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Ji Yong; Oh, Chang Hyun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Kim, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Postoperative pain is one of the major complaints of patients after lumbar fusion surgery. The authors evaluated the effects of intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using fentanyl or sufentanil on postoperative pain management and pain-related complications. Methods Forty-two patients that had undergone surgery with lumbar instrumentation and fusion at single or double levels constituted the study cohort. Patients were equally and randomly allocated to a sufentanil group (group S) or a fentanyl group (group F) for patient controlled analgesia (PCA). Group S received sufentanil at a dose of 4 μg/kg IV-PCA and group F received fentanyl 24 μg/kg IV-PCA. A numeric rating scale (NRS) of postoperative pain was applied before surgery, and immediately and at 1, 6, and 24 hours (hrs) after surgery. Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores were obtained before surgery and one month after surgery. Opioid-related side effects were also evaluated. Results No significant intergroup difference was observed in NRS or ODI scores at any of the above-mentioned time points. Side effects were more frequent in group F. More specifically, nausea, vomiting rates were significantly higher (p=0.04), but pruritus, hypotension, and headache rates were non-significantly different in the two groups. Conclusion Sufentanil displayed no analgesic advantage over fentanyl postoperatively. However, sufentanil should be considerable for patients at high risk of GI issues, because it had lower postoperative nausea and vomiting rates than fentanyl. PMID:28061485

  4. Predictors of outcome after decompressive lumbar surgery and instrumented posterolateral fusion.

    PubMed

    Cobo Soriano, Javier; Sendino Revuelta, Marcos; Fabregate Fuente, Martín; Cimarra Díaz, Ignacio; Martínez Ureña, Paloma; Deglané Meneses, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    There has been no agreement among different authors on guidelines to specify the situations in which arthrodesis is justified in terms of results, risks and complications. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of outcome after decompressive lumbar surgery and instrumented posterolateral fusion. A prospective observational study design was performed on 203 consecutive patients. Potential preoperative predictors of outcome included sociodemographic factors as well as variables pertaining to the preoperative clinical situation, diagnosis, expectations and surgery. Separate multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between selected predictors and outcome variables, defined as the improvement after 1 year on the visual analog scale (VAS) for back pain, VAS for leg pain, physical component scores (PCS) of SF-36 and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Follow-up was available for 184 patients (90.6%). Patients with higher educational level and optimistic preoperative expectations had a more favourable postoperative leg pain (VAS) and ODI. Smokers had less leg pain relief. Patients with better mental component score (emotional health) had greater ODI improvement. Less preoperative walking capacity predicted more leg pain relief. Patients with disc herniation had greater relief from back pain and more PCS and ODI improvement. More severe lumbar pain was predictive of less improvement on ODI and PCS. Age, sex, body mass index, analgesic use, surgeon, self-rated health, the number of decompressed levels and the length of fusion had no association with outcome. This study concludes that a higher educational level, optimistic expectations for improvement, the diagnosis of "disc herniation", less walking capacity and good emotional health may significantly improve clinical outcome. Smoking and more severe lumbar pain are predictors of worse results.

  5. Predictors of outcome after decompressive lumbar surgery and instrumented posterolateral fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sendino Revuelta, Marcos; Cimarra Díaz, Ignacio; Martínez Ureña, Paloma; Deglané Meneses, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    There has been no agreement among different authors on guidelines to specify the situations in which arthrodesis is justified in terms of results, risks and complications. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of outcome after decompressive lumbar surgery and instrumented posterolateral fusion. A prospective observational study design was performed on 203 consecutive patients. Potential preoperative predictors of outcome included sociodemographic factors as well as variables pertaining to the preoperative clinical situation, diagnosis, expectations and surgery. Separate multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between selected predictors and outcome variables, defined as the improvement after 1 year on the visual analog scale (VAS) for back pain, VAS for leg pain, physical component scores (PCS) of SF-36 and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Follow-up was available for 184 patients (90.6%). Patients with higher educational level and optimistic preoperative expectations had a more favourable postoperative leg pain (VAS) and ODI. Smokers had less leg pain relief. Patients with better mental component score (emotional health) had greater ODI improvement. Less preoperative walking capacity predicted more leg pain relief. Patients with disc herniation had greater relief from back pain and more PCS and ODI improvement. More severe lumbar pain was predictive of less improvement on ODI and PCS. Age, sex, body mass index, analgesic use, surgeon, self-rated health, the number of decompressed levels and the length of fusion had no association with outcome. This study concludes that a higher educational level, optimistic expectations for improvement, the diagnosis of “disc herniation”, less walking capacity and good emotional health may significantly improve clinical outcome. Smoking and more severe lumbar pain are predictors of worse results. PMID:20135333

  6. Multilevel lumbar fusion and postoperative physiotherapy rehabilitation in a patient with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Pons, Tracey; Shipton, Edward A

    2011-04-01

    There are no comparative randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy modalities for chronic low back and radicular pain associated with multilevel fusion. Physiotherapy-based rehabilitation to control pain and improve activation levels for persistent pain following multilevel fusion can be challenging. This is a case report of a 68-year-old man who was referred for physiotherapy intervention 10 months after a multilevel spinal fusion for spinal stenosis. He reported high levels of persistent postoperative pain with minimal activity as a consequence of his pain following the surgery. The physiotherapy interventions consisted of three phases of rehabilitation starting with pool exercise that progressed to land-based walking. These were all combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) that was used consistently for up to 8 hours per day. As outcome measures, daily pain levels and walking distances were charted once the pool programme was completed (in the third phase). Phase progression was determined by shuttle test results. The pain level was correlated with the distance walked using linear regression over a 5-day average. Over a 5-day moving average, the pain level reduced and walking distance increased. The chart of recorded pain level and walking distance showed a trend toward decreased pain with the increased distance walked. In a patient undergoing multilevel lumbar fusion, the combined use of TENS and a progressive walking programme (from pool to land) reduced pain and increased walking distance. This improvement was despite poor medication compliance and a reported high level of postsurgical pain.

  7. Bone Union Rate Following Instrumented Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion: Comparison between Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Woo Dong

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To compare the union rate of posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) versus hydroxyapatite (HA) as bone graft extender. Overview of Literature To our knowledge, there has been no clinical trial to compare the outcomes of DBM versus HA as a graft material for PLF. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected data from consecutive 79 patients who underwent instrumented PLF. Patients who received DBM were assigned to group B (n=38), and patients who received HA were assigned into group C (n=41). The primary study outcome was fusion rate assessed with radiographs. The secondary outcomes included pain intensity using a visual analogue scale, functional outcome using Oswestry disability index score, laboratory tests of inflammatory profiles and infection rate. Results One year postoperatively, bone fusion was achieved in 73% in group B and 58% in group C without significant difference between the groups (p=0.15). There were no differences between the groups with respect to secondary outcomes. Conclusions DBM would provide noninferior outcomes compared to the HA as a fusion material for PLF, and could be a notable alternative. PMID:27994793

  8. MASTERS-D Study: A Prospective, Multicenter, Pragmatic, Observational, Data-Monitored Trial of Minimally Invasive Fusion to Treat Degenerative Lumbar Disorders, One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Neil; Buzek, David; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Hubbe, Ulrich; Rosenberg, Wout; Pereira, Paulo; Assietti, Roberto; Martens, Frederic; Lam, Khai; Barbanti Brodano, Giovanni; Durny, Peter; Lidar, Zvi; Scheufler, Kai; Senker, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess effectiveness and safety of minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion (MILIF) for degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) in daily surgical practice and follow up with patients for one year after surgery. A prospective, multicenter, pragmatic, monitored, international outcome study in patients with DLD causing back/leg pain was conducted (19 centers). Two hundred fifty-two patients received standard of care available in the centers. Patients were included if they were aged >18 years, required one- or two-level lumbar fusion for DLD, and met the criteria for approved device indications. Primary endpoints: time to first ambulation (TFA) and time to surgery recovery (TSR). Secondary endpoints: patient-reported outcomes (PROs)--back and leg pain (visual analog scale), disability (Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)), health status (EQ-5D), fusion rates, reoperation rates, change in pain medication, rehabilitation, return to work, patient satisfaction, and adverse events (AEs). Experienced surgeons (≥30 surgeries pre-study) treated patients with DLD by one- or two-level MILIF and patients were evaluated for one year (NCT01143324). At one year, 92% (233/252) of patients remained in the study. Primary outcomes: TFA, 1.3 ±0.5 days and TSR, 3.2 ±2.0 days. Secondary outcomes: Most patients (83.3%) received one level MILIF; one (two-level) MILIF mean surgery duration, 128 (182) min; fluoroscopy time, 115 (154) sec; blood loss, 164 (233) mL; at one year statistically significant (P<.0001) and clinically meaningful changes from baseline were reported in all PROs--reduced back pain (2.9 ±2.5 vs. 6.2 ±2.3 at intake), reduced leg pain (2.2 ±2.6 vs. 5.9 ±2.8), and ODI (22.4% ± 18.6 vs. 45.3% ± 15.3), as well as health-related quality of life (EQ-5D index: 0.71 ±0.28 vs. 0.34 ±0.32). More of the professional workers were working at one year than those prior to surgery (70.3% vs. 55.2%). Three AEs and one serious AE were considered

  9. Assessment of spontaneous correction of lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Mizusaki, Danilo; Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and radiographic response of the lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic, in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of Lenke type 1. Methods Forty-two patients with Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent operations via the posterior route with pedicle screws were prospectively evaluated. Clinical measurements (size of the hump and translation of the trunk in the coronal plane, by means of a plumb line) and radiographic measurements (Cobb angle, distal level of arthrodesis, translation of the lumbar apical vertebral and Risser) were made. The evaluations were performed preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and two years after surgery. Results The mean Cobb angle of the main thoracic curve was found to have been corrected by 68.9% and the lumbar curve by 57.1%. Eighty percent of the patients presented improved coronal trunk balance two years after surgery. In four patients, worsening of the plumb line measurements was observed, but there was no need for surgical intervention. Less satisfactory results were observed in patients with lumbar modifier B. Conclusions In Lenke 1 patients, fusion of the thoracic curve alone provided spontaneous correction of the lumbar curve and led to trunk balance. Less satisfactory results were observed in curves with lumbar modifier B, and this may be related to overcorrection of the main thoracic curve. PMID:26962505

  10. Retrospective radiological outcome analysis following teriparatide use in elderly patients undergoing multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kaliya-Perumal, Arun-Kumar; Lu, Meng-Ling; Luo, Chi-An; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer; Niu, Chi-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Elderly patients with chronic nonresolving symptoms due to degenerative spine pathologies are prone to have poor surgical outcomes and hardware-related complications, especially following multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion surgeries. With intention of analyzing if teriparatide can be an effective adjunct therapy to surgical management, radiological outcomes are studied. Sixty-two elderly patients were divided into 2 similar groups. Group 1 (n = 30; mean age = 69.83 years; fusion levels = 137; screws = 269) had taken teriparatide (20 mcg SC injection, once daily) for a duration of 7.4 ± 2.4 months following surgery and Group 2 (n = 32; mean age = 70.38 years; fusion levels = 144; screws = 283) did not take teriparatide. Radiological evaluation was done to determine the state of postero lateral fusion mass and to investigate the incidence of pedicle screw loosening at 1-year follow-up. Unilateral or bilateral bridging bone formation across the transverse process of adjacent vertebras showing continuous trabeculation suggestive of solid fusion was obtained in 66.7% patients in the teriparatide group and 50% patients in the control group (P = 0.20). 13.4% of the total no. of screws showed signs of loosening in the teriparatide group, compared to 24.4% in the control group (P = 0.001). Percentage of patients achieving solid fusion following teriparatide use was found to be more than that of the control group. This difference may have clinical importance but was not statistically significant. However, teriparatide use was more significantly influential in reducing the incidence of subsequent pedicle screw loosening. PMID:28151894

  11. Economic Effects of Anti-Depressant Usage on Elective Lumbar Fusion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sayadipour, Amirali; Kepler, Chrisopher K.; Mago, Rajnish; Certa, Kenneth M.; Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Albert, Todd J.; Anderson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested, although not proven, that presence of concomitant psychiatric disorders may increase the inpatient costs for patients undergoing elective surgery. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that elective lumbar fusion surgery is more costly in patients with under treatment for depression. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of 142 patients who underwent elective lumbar fusion. Of those 142 patients, 41 patients were chronically using an antidepressant medication that considered as a “study group”, and 101 patients were not taking an antidepressant medication that considered as a “control group”. Data was collected for this cohort regarding antidepressant usage patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index scores and cost. Costs were compared between those with a concomitant antidepressant usage and those without antidepressant usage using multivariate analysis. Results: Patients using antidepressants and those with no history of antidepressant usage were similar in terms of gender, age and number of operative levels. The LOS demonstrated a non-significant trend towards longer stays in those using anti-depressants. Total charges, payments, variable costs and fixed costs were all higher in the antidepressant group but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Using Total Charges as the dependent variable, gender and having psychiatric comorbidities were retained independent variables. Use of an antidepressant was independently predictive of a 36% increase in Total Charges. Antidepressant usage as an independent variable also conferred a 22% increase in cost and predictive of a 19% increase in Fixed Cost. Male gender was predictive of a 30% increase in Total Charges. Conclusion: This study suggests use of antidepressant in patients who undergo elective spine fusion compared with control group is associated with increasing total cost and length of

  12. Static and dynamic fatigue behavior of topology designed and conventional 3D printed bioresorbable PCL cervical interbody fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Ashleen R; Borkowski, Sean L; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Sangiorgio, Sophia N

    2015-09-01

    Recently, as an alternative to metal spinal fusion cages, 3D printed bioresorbable materials have been explored; however, the static and fatigue properties of these novel cages are not well known. Unfortunately, current ASTM testing standards used to determine these properties were designed prior to the advent of bioresorbable materials for cages. Therefore, the applicability of these standards for bioresorbable materials is unknown. In this study, an image-based topology and a conventional 3D printed bioresorbable poly(ε)-caprolactone (PCL) cervical cage design were tested in compression, compression-shear, and torsion, to establish their static and fatigue properties. Difficulties were in fact identified in establishing failure criteria and in particular determining compressive failure load. Given these limitations, under static loads, both designs withstood loads of over 650 N in compression, 395 N in compression-shear, and 0.25 Nm in torsion, prior to yielding. Under dynamic testing, both designs withstood 5 million (5M) cycles of compression at 125% of their respective yield forces. Geometry significantly affected both the static and fatigue properties of the cages. The measured compressive yield loads fall within the reported physiological ranges; consequently, these PCL bioresorbable cages would likely require supplemental fixation. Most importantly, supplemental testing methods may be necessary beyond the current ASTM standards, to provide more accurate and reliable results, ultimately improving preclinical evaluation of these devices.

  13. Static and Dynamic Fatigue Behavior of Topology Designed and Conventional 3D Printed Bioresorbable PCL Cervical Interbody Fusion Devices

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Ashleen R.; Borkowski, Sean L.; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Hollister, Scott J.; Sangiorgio, Sophia N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, as an alternative to metal spinal fusion cages, 3D printed bioresorbable materials have been explored; however, the static and fatigue properties of these novel cages are not well known. Unfortunately, current ASTM testing standards used to determine these properties were designed prior to the advent of bioresorbable materials for cages. Therefore, the applicability of these standards for bioresorbable materials is unknown. In this study, an image-based topology and a conventional 3D printed bioresorbable poly(ε)-caprolactone (PCL) cervical cage design were tested in compression, compression-shear, and torsion, to establish their static and fatigue properties. Difficulties were in fact identified in establishing failure criteria and in particular determining compressive failure load. Given these limitations, under static loads, both designs withstood loads of over 650N in compression, 395N in compression-shear, and 0.25Nm in torsion, prior to yielding. Under dynamic testing, both designs withstood 5 million (5M) cycles of compression at 125% of their respective yield forces. Geometry significantly affected both the static and fatigue properties of the cages. The measured compressive yield loads fall within the reported physiological ranges; consequently, these PCL bioresorbable cages would likely require supplemental fixation. Most importantly, supplemental testing methods may be necessary beyond the current ASTM standards, to provide more accurate and reliable results, ultimately improving preclinical evaluation of these devices. PMID:26072198

  14. Automatic lumbar vertebrae detection based on feature fusion deep learning for partial occluded C-arm X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Yinlong; An, Haibo; Tan, Jindong; Yang Li; Wei Liang; Yinlong Zhang; Haibo An; Jindong Tan; Li, Yang; Liang, Wei; Tan, Jindong; Zhang, Yinlong; An, Haibo

    2016-08-01

    Automatic and accurate lumbar vertebrae detection is an essential step of image-guided minimally invasive spine surgery (IG-MISS). However, traditional methods still require human intervention due to the similarity of vertebrae, abnormal pathological conditions and uncertain imaging angle. In this paper, we present a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) model to automatically detect lumbar vertebrae for C-arm X-ray images. Training data is augmented by DRR and automatic segmentation of ROI is able to reduce the computational complexity. Furthermore, a feature fusion deep learning (FFDL) model is introduced to combine two types of features of lumbar vertebrae X-ray images, which uses sobel kernel and Gabor kernel to obtain the contour and texture of lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate that our proposed model performs more accurate in abnormal cases with pathologies and surgical implants in multi-angle views.

  15. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stundner, O; Chiu, Y-L; Sun, X; Ramachandran, S-K; Gerner, P; Vougioukas, V; Mazumdar, M; Memtsoudis, S G

    2014-02-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84,655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% (n = 6163) also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood product transfusion and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (odds ratio (OR) 1.50, confidence interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood product transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians.

  16. Pain Intensity and Patients’ Acceptance of Surgical Complication Risks With Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Christopher M.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Warholic, Natalie; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Carreras, Edward; White, Andrew; Schmitz, Miguel; Wood, Kirkham B.; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment Objective To determine the relationship of pain intensity (back and leg) on patients’ acceptance of surgical complication risks when deciding whether or not to undergo lumbar spinal fusion. Background To formulate informed decisions regarding lumbar fusion surgery, preoperative discussions should include a review of the risk of complications balanced with the likelihood of symptom relief. Pain intensity has the potential to influence a patient’s decision to consent to lumbar fusion. We hypothesized that pain intensity is associated with a patient’s acceptance of surgical complication risks. Methods Patients being seen for the first time by a spine surgeon for treatment of a non-traumatic or non-neoplastic spinal disorder completed a structured questionnaire. It posed 24 scenarios, each presenting a combination of risks of 3 complications (nerve damage, wound infection, nonunion) and probabilities of symptom relief. For each scenario, the patient indicated whether he/she would/would not consent to a fusion for low back pain (LBP). The sum of the scenarios in which the patient responded that he or she would elect surgery was calculated to represent acceptance of surgical complication risks. A variety of other data were also recorded, including age, gender, education level, race, history of non-spinal surgery, duration of pain, and history of spinal injections. Data were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multivariate regression analyses. Results The mean number of scenarios accepted by 118 enrolled subjects was 10.2 (median 8, standard deviation 8.5, range 0 to 24, or 42.5% of scenarios). In general, subjects were more likely to accept scenarios with lower risks and higher efficacy. Spearman’s rank correlation estimates demonstrated a moderate association between the LBP intensity and acceptance of surgical complication risks (r=0.37, p=0.0001) while leg pain intensity had a weak but positive

  17. Operative Management of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Chao; Osti, Orso Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease is extremely common. Current evidence supports surgery in carefully selected patients who have failed non-operative treatment and do not exhibit any substantial psychosocial overlay. Fusion surgery employing the correct grafting and stabilization techniques has long-term results demonstrating successful clinical outcomes. However, the best approach for fusion remains debatable. There is some evidence supporting the more complex, technically demanding and higher risk interbody fusion techniques for the younger, active patients or patients with a higher risk of non-union. Lumbar disc arthroplasty and hybrid techniques are still relatively novel procedures despite promising short-term and mid-term outcomes. Long-term studies demonstrating superiority over fusion are required before these techniques may be recommended to replace fusion as the gold standard. Novel stem cell approaches combined with tissue engineering therapies continue to be developed in expectation of improving clinical outcomes. Results with appropriate follow-up are not yet available to indicate if such techniques are safe, cost-effective and reliable in the long-term. PMID:27559465

  18. Clinical and Radiological Comparison of Semirigid (WavefleX) and Rigid System for the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Keun; Lim, Hyunkeun; Oh, Chang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Spinal fusion operation is an effective treatment in the spinal pathology, but it could change the physiological distribution of load at the instrumented and adjacent segments. This retrospective study compared the radiological and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing lumbar fusion with semirigid rods versus rigid rods system. Methods Using transpedicular fixation and posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the level of L4/L5, 20 patients were treated with semirigid rods (WavefleX, SR group), and 20 patients with rigid rods (titanium, RR group). Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated, including visual analog score for lower back pain and leg pain, Prolo functional and economic scores, statues of implanted instruments, fusion rate, and complications during 24-month follow-up. Results Clinical scores were significantly improved until postoperative 24-month follow-up as compared with preoperative scores in both groups (p<0.05), with similar levels of improvement observed at the same time points postoperatively between the 2 groups. Prolo economic scores were significantly improved in SR group compared to RR until 12 months, but this improvement became similar after 18 months. The overall fusion rate was 94.1% until the 24-month follow-up for both groups. No significant complication was observed in both groups. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that semirigid rods system with posterior lumbar interbody fusion showed similar clinical and radiological result with rigid rods system until 2 years after instrumentation. The WavefleX rods system, as a semirigid rods with unique characteristics, may be an effective alternative treatment for patients in lumbar fusion. PMID:27437014

  19. Early clinical results with cortically based pedicle screw trajectory for fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Glennie, R Andrew; Dea, Nicolas; Kwon, Brian K; Street, John T

    2015-06-01

    This study reviews the outcomes and revision rates of degenerative lumbar fusion surgery using cortical trajectory pedicle screws in lieu of traditional pedicle screw instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation can be a challenge in patients with low bone mineral density. Wide posterior approaches to the lumbar spine exposing lateral to the facet joints and onto transverse processes causes an additional degree of muscular damage and blood loss not present with a simple laminectomy. A cortical bone trajectory pedicle screw has been proposed as an alternative to prevent screw pullout and decrease the morbidity associated with the wide posterior approach to the spine. We present a series of eight consecutive patients using a cortical bone trajectory instead of traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. A retrospective review of our institutional registry data identified eight patients who had cortical screws placed with the assistance of O-arm Stealth navigation (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) from 2010-2013. We analyzed the need for revision, the maintenance of reduction and the incidence of screw pullout or breakage. Our review demonstrated that two of eight patients were revised at an average of 12months. The reasons for these revisions were pseudarthrosis and caudal adjacent segment failure. All patients who were revised had frank screw loosening. We present early clinical results of a new technique that has been shown to have a better fixation profile in laboratory testing. Our less than favorable early clinical results should be interpreted with caution and highlight important technical issues which should be considered.

  20. Micro-computed tomography-based three-dimensional kinematic analysis during lateral bending for spinal fusion assessment in a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomonori; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L; Lee, Yu-Po; Taborek, Alexander P; Williams, Gregory M; Moseley, Timothy A; Bae, Won C; Masuda, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Rat posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) models have been used to assess the safety and effectiveness of new bone substitutes and osteoinductive growth factors using palpation, radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology as standard methods to evaluate spinal fusion. Despite increased numbers of PLF studies involving alternative bone substitutes and growth factors, the quantitative assessment of treatment efficacy during spinal motion has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spinal fusion on lumbar spine segment stability during lateral bending using a μCT-based three-dimensional (3D) kinematic analysis in the rat PLF model. Fourteen athymic male rats underwent PLF surgery at L4/5 and received bone grafts harvested from the ilium and femurs of syngeneic rats (Isograft, n=7) or no graft (Sham, n=7). At 8 weeks after the PLF surgery, spinal fusion was assessed by manual palpation, plain radiography, μCT, and histology. To determine lumbar segmental motions at the operated level during lateral bending, 3D kinematic analysis was performed. The Isograft group, but not the Sham group, showed spinal fusion on manual palpation (6/7), solid fusion mass in radiographs (6/7), as well as bone bridging in μCT and histological images (5/7). Compared to the Sham group, the Isograft group revealed limited 3D lateral bending angular range of motion and lateral translation during lateral bending at the fused segment where disc height narrowing was observed. This μCT-based 3D kinematic analysis can provide a quantitative assessment of spinal fusion in a rat PLF model to complement current gold standard methods used for efficacy assessment of new therapeutic approaches.

  1. Enhancement of Lumbar Fusion and Alleviation of Adjacent Segment Disc Degeneration by Intermittent PTH(1-34) in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuang; Tian, Fa-Ming; Gou, Yu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Heng; Song, Hui-Ping; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporosis, which is prevalent in postmenopausal or aged populations, is thought to be a contributing factor to adjacent segment disc degeneration (ASDD), and the incidence and extent of ASDD may be augmented by osteopenia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-34) has already been shown to be beneficial in osteoporosis, lumbar fusion and matrix homeostasis of intervertebral discs. However, whether PTH(1-34) has a reversing or retarding effect on ASDD in osteopenia has not been confirmed. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intermittent PTH(1-34) on ASDD in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. One hundred 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent L4 -L5 posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) with spinous-process wire fixation 4 weeks after OVX surgery. Control groups were established accordingly. PTH(1-34) was intermittently administered immediately after PLF surgery and lasted for 8 weeks using the following groups (n = 20) (V = vehicle): Sham+V, OVX+V, Sham+PLF+V, OVX+PLF+V, OVX+PLF+PTH. The fused segments showed clear evidence of eliminated motion on the fusion-segment based on manual palpation. Greater new bone formation in histology was observed in PTH-treated animals compared to the control group. The extent of ASDD was significantly increased by ovariotomy. Intermittent PTH(1-34) significantly alleviated ASDD by preserving disc height, microvessel density, relative area of vascular buds, endplate thickness and the relative area of endplate calcification. Moreover, protein expression results showed that PTH(1-34) not only inhibited matrix degradation by decreasing MMP-13, ADAMTS-4 and Col-I, but also promote matrix synthesis by increasing Col-II and Aggrecan. In conclusion, PTH(1-34), which effectively improves lumbar fusion and alleviates ASDD in ovariectomized rats, may be a potential candidate to ameliorate the prognosis of lumbar fusion in osteopenia.

  2. The Influences of Different Ratios of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate and Collagen Augmentation on Posterior Lumbar Spinal Fusion in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Yoon; Park, Hyo-Suk; Kim, Keun-Su; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Cho, Yong-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the influence of different ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and collagen augmentation for posterior lumbar fusion in a rat model. Materials and Methods We generated a posterior lumbar fusion model in 50 rats and divided it into five groups of equal number as follows; 1) autologous bone graft as group A, 2) 70% HA+30% β-TCP as group B, 3) 70% HA+30% β-TCP+collagen as group C, 4) 30% HA+70% β-TCP as group D, and 5) 30% HA+70% β-TCP+collagen as group E. Rats were euthanized at 12 weeks after surgery and fusion was assessed by manual palpation, quantitative analysis using microCT and histology. Results The score of manual palpation was significantly higher in group C than group E (3.1±1.1 vs. 1.8±0.8, p=0.033). However, in terms of microCT analysis, group D showed significantly higher scores than group B (5.5±0.8 vs. 3.1±1.1, p=0.021). According to quantitative volumetric analysis, 30% HA+70% β-TCP groups (group D and E) showed significantly reduced fusion mass at 12 weeks after surgery (123±14.2, 117±46.3 vs. 151±27.3, p=0.008, 0.003, respectively). Collagen augmentation groups revealed superior results in terms of both microCT score and histologic grade. Conclusion A 7:3 HA/β-TCP ratio with collagen augmentation rather than a 3:7 HA/β-TCP ratio could be a more favorable graft substitute for lumbar spinal fusion. There was positive role of collagen as an adjunct for spinal bone fusion process. PMID:28120573

  3. Quality and Quantity of Published Studies Evaluating Lumbar Fusion during the Past 10 Years: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T.; Sethi, Rajiv K.; Norvell, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) Has the proportion and number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as an indicator of quality of evidence regarding lumbar fusion increased over the past 10 years? (2) Is there a difference in the proportion of RCTs among the four primary fusion diagnoses (degenerative disk disease, spondylolisthesis, deformity, and adjacent segment disease) over the past 10 years? (3) Is there a difference in the type and quality of clinical outcomes measures reported among RCTs over time? (4) Is there a difference in the type and quality of adverse events measures reported among RCTs over time? (5) Are there changes in fusion surgical approach and techniques over time by diagnosis over the past 10 years? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2013, to identify lumbar fusion RCTs. Fusion studies designed specifically to evaluate recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 or other bone substitutes, revision surgery studies, nonrandomized comparison studies, case reports, case series, and cost-effectiveness studies were excluded. Results Forty-two RCTs between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2013, met the inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. There were 35 RCTs identified evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative disk disease, 4 RCTs evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis, and 3 RCTs evaluating patients with a combination of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. No RCTs were identified evaluating patients with deformity or adjacent segment disease. Conclusions This structured review demonstrates that there has been an increase in the available clinical database of RCTs using patient-reported outcomes evaluating the benefit of lumbar spinal fusion for the diagnoses of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Gaps remain in the

  4. A review of the 2001 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies: lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish lumbar spine study group.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian; Katz, Jeffrey N; Kim, David H; Jenis, Louis G

    2006-01-15

    The current debate over the efficacy of lumbar fusion for low back pain has not been settled. Fritzell et al published a landmark paper entitled "Lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish lumbar spine study group." Their goal was to provide objective evidence supporting lumbar fusion. While it was well designed and important to our knowledge base, it has limitations. We set out to review their work in an unbiased yet critical manner. Our goals are to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the paper, place it in the context of current knowledge, and highlight its significance for present-day practice and research. From technical and study design perspectives, Fritzell et al were able to validate the use of lumbar fusion for the treatment of low back pain. However, their use of "usual nonoperative" care and nonspecific definition of low back pain precluded a truly genuine comparison of operative and nonoperative groups. We commend the Swedish lumbar spine study group and their remarkable efforts; they elevated the sophistication of spine research and spawned many more excellent works to help settle the ongoing controversy on the ideal treatment of low back pain.

  5. A Meta Analysis of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Autologous Iliac Crest Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Feng; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Zhiyu; Sun, Deri; Feng, Xinmin; An, Jiuli; Zhu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) as a substitute for iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) has been increasingly widely used in lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to systematically compare the effectiveness and safety of fusion with BMPs for the treatment of lumbar disease. Methods Cochrane review methods were used to analyze all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to nov 2013. Results 19 RCTs (1,852 patients) met the inclusion criteria. BMPs group significantly increased fusion rate (RR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.05–1.23, P = 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in overall success of clinical outcomes (RR: 1.04; 95% CI 0.95–1.13, P = 0.38) and complications (RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.85–1.09, p = 0.54). A significant reduction of the reoperation rate was found in BMPs group (RR: 0.57; 95% CI 0.42–0.77, p = 0.0002). Significant difference was found in the operating time (MD−0.32; 95% CI−0.55, −0.08; P = 0.009), but no significant difference was found in the blood loss, the hospital stay, patient satisfaction, and work status. Conclusion Compared with ICBG, BMPs in lumbar fusion can increase the fusion rate, while reduce the reoperation rate and operating time. However, it doesn’t increase the complication rate, the amount of blood loss and hospital stay. No significant difference was found in the overall success of clinical outcome of the two groups. PMID:24886911

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes in hybrid constructs for multi-level lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Alan; Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of hybrid constructs which involve a total disc arthroplasty (TDA) with stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) versus non-hybrid constructs including multi-level TDA, multi-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with posterior transpedicular fixation or multi-level stand-alone ALIF as a surgical intervention for degenerative disc disease (DDD) in the lumbar spine. Primary outcomes analysed included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for back pain. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar was undertaken by two separate reviewers and a meta-analysis of the outcomes was performed. Three studies met our search criteria. When comparing hybrid constructs to multi-level TDA or lumbar fusion (LF) improvements in back pain were found with a VAS back pain score reduction of 1.38 (P<0.00001) postoperatively and a VAS back pain score reduction of 0.99 points (P=0.0006) at 2-years follow-up. Results so far slightly favour clinically significant improved VAS back pain score outcomes postoperatively and at 2-years follow-up for hybrid constructs in multi-level lumbar DDD of the spine when compared with non-hybrid multi-level LF or TDA. It cannot however be concluded that a hybrid construct is superior to multi-level LF or TDA based on this meta-analysis. The results highlight the need for further prospective studies to delineate best practice in the management of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine.

  7. Decreasing hospital length of stay following lumbar fusion utilizing multidisciplinary committee meetings involving surgeons and other caretakers

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Lisa B. E.; Clark, Lisa; Glassman, Steven D.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although hospital length of stay (LOS) following lumbar fusion has decreased for a variety of reasons, different institutions find their LOS over the benchmarks published by the national Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Over a 3-year period, this prospective study introduced utilization of multidisciplinary committee meetings between surgeons and other caretakers to decrease LOS following spinal fusion surgery without compromising the quality of care. Methods: A multidisciplinary committee was established to assess factors and institute recommendations that influence hospital LOS following lumbar fusion compared to the national compared to the national AHRQ benchmark at baseline and at 1 and 2 years after adjusting our standard practice. We also analyzed re-admission rates at 7 and 30 days and determined the average variable direct cost. Results: While the national AHRQ benchmark average LOS (ALOS) was statistically better for DRGs 459 and 460 for all three years except for DRG 459 in the baseline year compared to our ALOS, we observed improvement in the ALOS for both DRG 459 and 460 throughout the 3 years of the study. ALOS for DRG 460 was statistically different for 2011–2012 vs 2013–2014 (P < 0.001) and 2012–2013 vs 2013–2014 (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant improvement in cost initially for 2012–2013 vs 2011–2012 (P < 0.001) and for 2013–2014 vs 2011–2012 (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This study established an effective patient discharge plan, patient education, partnerships with rehabilitation facilities, and study review and discussion among physicians and staff. Further monitoring of factors that impact hospital LOS following lumbar fusion is warranted to curtail patient complications and organizational expenditures while providing superior medical care. PMID:28217384

  8. Incidence, Predictors, and Postoperative Complications of Blood Transfusion in Thoracic and Lumbar Fusion Surgery: An Analysis of 13,695 Patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Ahmed; Nooh, Anas; Fortin, Maryse; Aldebeyan, Sultan; Jarzem, Peter; Ouellet, Jean; Weber, Michael H

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To identify predictive factors for blood transfusion and associated complications in lumbar and thoracic fusion surgeries. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database was used to identify patients who underwent lumbar or thoracic fusion from 2010 to 2013. Multivariate analysis was used to determine predictive factors and postoperative complications associated with transfusion. Results Out of 13,695 patients, 13,170 had lumbar fusion and 525 had thoracic fusion. The prevalence of transfusion was 31.8% for thoracic and 17.0% for lumbar fusion. The multivariate analysis showed that age between 50 and 60, age between 61 and 70, age > 70, dyspnea, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3, bleeding disease, multilevel surgery, extended surgical time, return to operation room, and higher preoperative blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were predictors of blood transfusion for lumbar fusion. Multilevel surgery, preoperative BUN, and extended surgical time were predictors of transfusion for thoracic fusion. Patients receiving transfusions who underwent lumbar fusion were more likely to develop wound infection, venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction and had longer hospital stay. Patients receiving transfusions who underwent thoracic fusion were more likely to have extended hospital stay. Conclusion This study characterizes incidence, predictors, and postoperative complications associated with blood transfusion in thoracic and lumbar fusion. Pre- and postoperative planning for patients deemed to be at high risk of requiring blood transfusion might reduce postoperative complications in this population.

  9. Biological performance of a polycaprolactone-based scaffold used as fusion cage device in a large animal model of spinal reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Abbah, Sunny A; Lam, Christopher X L; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Goh, James C H; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2009-10-01

    A bioactive and bioresorbable scaffold fabricated from medical grade poly (epsilon-caprolactone) and incorporating 20% beta-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL-TCP) was recently developed for bone regeneration at load bearing sites. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate bone ingrowth into mPCL-TCP in a large animal model of lumbar interbody fusion. Six pigs underwent a 2-level (L3/4; L5/6) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) implanted with mPCL-TCP + 0.6 mg rhBMP-2 as treatment group while four other pigs implanted with autogenous bone graft served as control. Computed tomographic scanning and histology revealed complete defect bridging in all (100%) specimen from the treatment group as early as 3 months. Histological evidence of continuing bone remodeling and maturation was observed at 6 months. In the control group, only partial bridging was observed at 3 months and only 50% of segments in this group showed complete defect bridging at 6 months. Furthermore, 25% of segments in the control group showed evidence of graft fracture, resorption and pseudoarthrosis. In contrast, no evidence of graft fractures, pseudoarthrosis or foreign body reaction was observed in the treatment group. These results reveal that mPCL-TCP scaffolds could act as bone graft substitutes by providing a suitable environment for bone regeneration in a dynamic load bearing setting such as in a porcine model of interbody spine fusion.

  10. The role of physical therapy and rehabilitation after lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Madera, Marcella; Brady, Jeremy; Deily, Sylvia; McGinty, Trent; Moroz, Lee; Singh, Devender; Tipton, George; Truumees, Eeric

    2017-03-10

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic and comprehensive review of the existing literature regarding postfusion rehabilitation. METHODS Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the authors conducted an exhaustive review of multiple electronic databases. Potential articles were screened using inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two authors independently analyzed these studies using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators such as level of evidence and availability of accepted patient-reported outcomes measures. These findings were synthesized in a narrative format. A third author resolved disagreements regarding the inclusion of a study. RESULTS Twenty-one articles with I or II levels of evidence were included in the review. The authors divided the findings of the literature review into several groups: rehabilitation terminology, timing and duration of postfusion rehabilitation, the need for rehabilitation relative to surgery-related morbidity, rehabilitation's relationship to outcomes, and cognitive and psychosocial aspects of postsurgical rehabilitation. Current evidence generally supports formal rehabilitation after lumbar fusion surgery. Starting physical therapy at the 12-week postoperative mark results in better outcomes at lower cost than an earlier, 6-week start. Where available, psychosocial support improves outcomes. However, a number of the questions could not be answered with high-grade evidence. In these cases, the authors used "best evidence available" to make recommendations. There are many cases in which different types of caregivers use clinical terminology differently. The data supporting an optimal protocol for postfusion rehabilitation remains elusive but, using the data available, the authors have crafted recommendations and a model protocol, which is currently undergoing prospective study. CONCLUSIONS Rehabilitation has long been a common feature in

  11. Flexible Stabilisation of the Degenerative Lumbar Spine Using PEEK Rods

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Jacques; Garlenq, Bruno; Larroque, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using cages, titanium rods, and pedicle screws is considered today as the gold standard of surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative disease and has produced satisfying long-term fusion rates. However this rigid material could change the physiological distribution of load at the instrumental and adjacent segments, a main cause of implant failure and adjacent segment disease, responsible for a high rate of further surgery in the following years. More recently, semirigid instrumentation systems using rods made of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been introduced. This clinical study of 21 patients focuses on the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with lumbar degenerative disease treated with Initial VEOS PEEK®-Optima system (Innov'Spine, France) composed of rods made from PEEK-OPTIMA® polymer (Invibio Biomaterial Solutions, UK) without arthrodesis. With an average follow-up of 2 years and half, the chances of reoperation were significantly reduced (4.8%), quality of life was improved (ODI = 16%), and the adjacent disc was preserved in more than 70% of cases. Based on these results, combined with the biomechanical and clinical data already published, PEEK rods systems can be considered as a safe and effective alternative solution to rigid ones. PMID:26981285

  12. Flexible Stabilisation of the Degenerative Lumbar Spine Using PEEK Rods.

    PubMed

    Benezech, Jacques; Garlenq, Bruno; Larroque, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using cages, titanium rods, and pedicle screws is considered today as the gold standard of surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative disease and has produced satisfying long-term fusion rates. However this rigid material could change the physiological distribution of load at the instrumental and adjacent segments, a main cause of implant failure and adjacent segment disease, responsible for a high rate of further surgery in the following years. More recently, semirigid instrumentation systems using rods made of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been introduced. This clinical study of 21 patients focuses on the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with lumbar degenerative disease treated with Initial VEOS PEEK(®)-Optima system (Innov'Spine, France) composed of rods made from PEEK-OPTIMA(®) polymer (Invibio Biomaterial Solutions, UK) without arthrodesis. With an average follow-up of 2 years and half, the chances of reoperation were significantly reduced (4.8%), quality of life was improved (ODI = 16%), and the adjacent disc was preserved in more than 70% of cases. Based on these results, combined with the biomechanical and clinical data already published, PEEK rods systems can be considered as a safe and effective alternative solution to rigid ones.

  13. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 17: bone growth stimulators as an adjunct for lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Michael G; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the formation of a solid arthrodesis and electrical and electromagnetic energy is well established; most of the information on the topic, however, pertains to the healing of long bone fractures. The use of both invasive and noninvasive means to supply this energy and supplement spinal fusions has been investigated. Three forms of electrical stimulation are routinely used: direct current stimulation (DCS), pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation (PEMFS), and capacitive coupled electrical stimulation (CCES). Only DCS requires the placement of electrodes within the fusion substrate and is inserted at the time of surgery. Since publication of the original guidelines, few studies have investigated the use of bone growth stimulators. Based on the current review, no conflict with the previous recommendations was generated. The use of DCS is recommended as an option for patients younger than 60 years of age, since a positive effect on fusion has been observed. The same, however, cannot be stated for patients over 60, because DCS did not appear to have an impact on fusion rates in this population. No study was reviewed that investigated the use of CCES or the routine use of PEMFS. A single low-level study demonstrated a positive impact of PEMFS on patients undergoing revision surgery for pseudarthrosis, but this single study is insufficient to recommend for or against the use of PEMFS in this patient population.

  14. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, V.; Kaila, R.; Wilson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the safety and efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) compared with bone graft when used specifically for revision spinal fusion surgery secondary to pseudarthrosis. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched using defined search terms. The primary outcome measure was spinal fusion, assessed as success or failure in accordance with radiograph, MRI or CT scan review at 24-month follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was time to fusion. Results A total of six studies (three prospective and three retrospective) reporting on the use of BMP2 met the inclusion criteria (203 patients). Of these, four provided a comparison of BMP2 and bone graft whereas the other two solely investigated the use of BMP2. The primary outcome was seen in 92.3% (108/117) of patients following surgery with BMP2. Although none of the studies showed superiority of BMP2 to bone graft for fusion, its use was associated with a statistically quicker time to achieving fusion. BMP2 did not appear to increase the risk of complication. Conclusion The use of BMP2 is both safe and effective within the revision setting, ideally in cases where bone graft is unavailable or undesirable. Further research is required to define its optimum role. Cite this article: Mr P. Bodalia. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:145–152. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000418. PMID:27121215

  15. Comparison of standard fusion with a "topping off" system in lumbar spine surgery: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fusion of lumbar spine segments is a well-established therapy for many pathologies. The procedure changes the biomechanics of the spine. Initial clinical benefits may be outweighed by ensuing damage to the adjacent segments. Various surgical devices and techniques have been developed to prevent this deterioration. "Topping off" systems combine rigid fusion with a flexible pedicle screw system to prevent adjacent segment disease (ASD). To date, there is no convincing evidence that these devices provide any patient benefits. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized, therapy-controlled trial in a clinical care setting at a university hospital. Patients presenting to the outpatient clinic with degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis will be assessed against study inclusion and exclusion criteria. After randomization, the control group will undergo conventional fusion. The intervention group will undergo fusion with a supplemental flexible pedicle screw system to protect the adjacent segment ("topping off"). Follow-up examination will take place immediately after treatment during hospital stay, after 6 weeks, and then after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. Subsequently, ongoing assessments will be performed annually. Outcome measurements will include quality of life and pain assessments using questionnaires (SF-36™, ODI, COMI). In addition, clinical and radiologic ASD, work-related disability, and duration of work disability will be assessed. Inpatient and 6-month mortality, surgery-related data (e.g., intraoperative complications, blood loss, length of incision, surgical duration), postoperative complications, adverse events, and serious adverse events will be documented and monitored throughout the study. Cost-effectiveness analysis will also be provided. Discussion New hybrid systems might improve the outcome of lumbar spine fusion. To date, there is no convincing published data on effectiveness or safety of these topping off systems. High

  16. Total disc replacement compared to lumbar fusion: a randomised controlled trial with 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Tullberg, Tycho; Branth, Björn; Olerud, Claes; Tropp, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The study design includes a prospective, randomised controlled study comparing total disc replacement (TDR) with posterior fusion. The main objective of this study is to compare TDR with lumbar spinal fusion, in terms of clinical outcome, in patients referred to a spine clinic for surgical evaluation. Fusion is effective for treating chronic low back pain (LBP), but has drawbacks, such as stiffness and possibly adjacent level degradation. Motion-preserving options have emerged, of which TDR is frequently used because of these drawbacks. How the results of TDR compare to fusion, however, is uncertain. One hundred and fifty-two patients with a mean age of 40 years (21–55) were included: 90 were women, and 80 underwent TDR. The patients had not responded to a conservative treatment programme and suffered from predominantly LBP, with varying degrees of leg pain. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination, radiographs, MRI, and in unclear cases, diagnostic injections. Outcome measures were global assessment (GA), VAS for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, SF36 and EQ5D at 1 and 2 years. Follow-up rate was 100%, at both 1 and 2 years. All outcome variables improved in both groups between preoperative and follow-up assessment. The primary outcome measure, GA, revealed that 30% in the TDR group and 15% in the fusion group were totally pain-free at 2 years (P = 0.031). TDR patients had reached maximum recovery in virtually all variables at 1 year, with significant differences compared to the fusion group. The fusion patients continued to improve and at 2 years had results similar to TDR patients apart from numbers of pain-free. Complications and reoperations were similar in both groups, but pedicle screw removal as additive surgery, was frequent in the fusion group. One year after surgery, TDR was superior to spinal fusion in clinical outcome, but this difference had diminished by 2 years, apart from (VAS for back pain and) numbers of pain-free. The

  17. Impact of iliac crest bone graft harvesting on fusion rates and postoperative pain during instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllopoulos, Dimitrios; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Stafylas, Kosmas

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of bone harvesting on postoperative pain and fusion rates. Group 1 patients received iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) either alone or augmented with local bone. Group 2 received only local bone. No statistical significance was found in radiological union or in the Oswestry Disability Index scores. Visual Analogue Scale scores showed less pain in group 2. Logistic regression showed no correlation between residual pain and occurrence of fusion. Harvesting ICBG did not appear to increase fusion rates and no relation was found between radiological non-union and pain. PMID:17724591

  18. Comparison between Two Different Cervical Interbody Fusion Cages in One Level Stand-alone ACDF: Carbon Fiber Composite Frame Cage Versus Polyetheretherketone Cage

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Minwook; Kim, Wook-Ha; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors conducted a retrospective study to compare the implantation of carbon fiber composite frame cages (CFCFCs) to the implantation of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages after anterior cervical discectomy for cervical degenerative disc disease. In addition, the predictive factors that influenced fusion or subsidence were investigated. Methods A total of 58 patients with single-level degenerative disc disease were treated with anterior cervical discectomy and implantation of stand-alone cages; CFCFCs were used in 35 patients, and PEEK cages were used in 23 patients. Preoperative and postoperative radiological and clinical assessments were performed. Results During the mean follow-up period of 41 months, fusion occurred in 43 patients (74.1%), and subsidence developed in 18 patients (31.0%). Pain decreased in all patients, and the patients' satisfaction rate was 75.9%. Neither fusion nor subsidence was related to the clinical outcome. There were no significant differences in the clinical and radiological outcomes between the CFCFC and the PEEK cage groups. Smoking history (p=0.023) was significantly associated with pseudarthrosis, and cage height (≥7mm) (p=0.037) were significantly associated with subsidence. Conclusion The clinical and radiological results were similar between the CFCFC and the PEEK cage groups. Fusion or subsidence did not affect the clinical outcomes. Smoking history and cage height (≥7mm) were predictive factors for pseudarthrosis or subsidence in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with stand-alone cages. PMID:25346758

  19. Incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment disease following posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Yang, Dalong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Sen; Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders, and hope to provide references in decision making and surgical planning for both spinal surgeon and surgically treated patients.By retrieving the medical records from January 2011 to December 2013 in our hospital, 237 patients were retrospectively reviewed. According to the occurrence of ASD at follow up, patients were divided into 2 groups: ASD and N-ASD group. To investigate risk values for the occurrence of ASD, 3 categorized factors were analyzed statistically: Patient characteristics: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), duration. Surgical variables: surgical strategy, number of fusion level, surgery segment, surgery time, blood loss, intraoperative superior facet joint violation. Radiographic parameters: preoperative lumbar lordosis, preoperative angular motion at adjacent segment, preoperative adjacent segment disc degeneration, preoperative paraspinal muscle degeneration.Postoperative ASD was developed in 15 of 237 patients (6.3%) at final follow up. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in patient characteristics of age, sex composition, BMD, duration, while the BMI was higher in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. There was no difference in surgical variables of surgical strategy, number of fusion level, surgery segment, surgery time, blood loss, while intraoperative superior facet joint violation was more common in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. There was no difference in radiographic parameters of preoperative lumbar lordosis, preoperative paraspinal muscle degeneration, while preoperative adjacent segment disc degeneration were more severe in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. The Logistic regression analysis revealed that, BMI >25 kg/m, preoperative disc degeneration, and superior facet joint

  20. Incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment disease following posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Yang, Dalong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Sen; Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders, and hope to provide references in decision making and surgical planning for both spinal surgeon and surgically treated patients. By retrieving the medical records from January 2011 to December 2013 in our hospital, 237 patients were retrospectively reviewed. According to the occurrence of ASD at follow up, patients were divided into 2 groups: ASD and N-ASD group. To investigate risk values for the occurrence of ASD, 3 categorized factors were analyzed statistically: Patient characteristics: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), duration. Surgical variables: surgical strategy, number of fusion level, surgery segment, surgery time, blood loss, intraoperative superior facet joint violation. Radiographic parameters: preoperative lumbar lordosis, preoperative angular motion at adjacent segment, preoperative adjacent segment disc degeneration, preoperative paraspinal muscle degeneration. Postoperative ASD was developed in 15 of 237 patients (6.3%) at final follow up. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in patient characteristics of age, sex composition, BMD, duration, while the BMI was higher in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. There was no difference in surgical variables of surgical strategy, number of fusion level, surgery segment, surgery time, blood loss, while intraoperative superior facet joint violation was more common in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. There was no difference in radiographic parameters of preoperative lumbar lordosis, preoperative paraspinal muscle degeneration, while preoperative adjacent segment disc degeneration were more severe in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. The Logistic regression analysis revealed that, BMI >25 kg/m2, preoperative disc degeneration, and superior

  1. The Outcomes of Minimally Invasive versus Open Posterior Approach Spinal Fusion in Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: The Current Evidence from Prospective Comparative Studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ai-Min; Chen, Chun-Hui; Shen, Zhi-Hao; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Weng, Wan-Qing; Li, Shu-Min; Chi, Yong-Long; Yin, Li-Hui; Ni, Wen-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the evidence of minimally invasive (MI) versus open (OP) posterior lumbar fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis from current prospective literatures. Methods. The electronic literature database of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library was searched at April 2016. The data of operative time, estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay, visual analog scale (VAS) of both lower back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), SF-36 PCS (physical component scores) and SF-36 MCS (mental component scores), complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery were extracted and analyzed by STATA 12.0 software. Results. Five nonrandom prospective comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the MI group had a significantly longer operative time than OP group, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. No significant difference was found in back pain, leg pain, ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery between MI and OP groups. Conclusion. The prospective evidence suggested that MI posterior fusion for spondylolisthesis had less EBL and hospital stay than OP fusion; however it took more operative time. Both MI and OP fusion had similar results in pain and functional outcomes, complication, fusion rate, and secondary surgery.

  2. The Outcomes of Minimally Invasive versus Open Posterior Approach Spinal Fusion in Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: The Current Evidence from Prospective Comparative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Min; Chen, Chun-Hui; Shen, Zhi-Hao; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Weng, Wan-Qing; Li, Shu-Min; Chi, Yong-Long; Yin, Li-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the evidence of minimally invasive (MI) versus open (OP) posterior lumbar fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis from current prospective literatures. Methods. The electronic literature database of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library was searched at April 2016. The data of operative time, estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay, visual analog scale (VAS) of both lower back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), SF-36 PCS (physical component scores) and SF-36 MCS (mental component scores), complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery were extracted and analyzed by STATA 12.0 software. Results. Five nonrandom prospective comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the MI group had a significantly longer operative time than OP group, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. No significant difference was found in back pain, leg pain, ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery between MI and OP groups. Conclusion. The prospective evidence suggested that MI posterior fusion for spondylolisthesis had less EBL and hospital stay than OP fusion; however it took more operative time. Both MI and OP fusion had similar results in pain and functional outcomes, complication, fusion rate, and secondary surgery. PMID:28154826

  3. Description and design considerations of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of a multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioural intervention for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ideal rehabilitation strategy following lumbar spinal fusion surgery has not yet been established. This paper is a study protocol, describing the rationale behind and the details of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation intervention for lumbar spinal fusion patients based on the best available evidence. Predictors of poor outcome following spine surgery have been identified to provide targets for the intervention, and the components of the intervention were structured in accordance with the cognitive-behavioural model. The study aims to compare the clinical and economical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation strategy to that of usual care for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Methods/Design The study is a randomized clinical trial including 96 patients scheduled for lumbar spinal fusion surgery due to degenerative disease or spondylolisthesis. Patients were recruited in the period October 2011 to July 2013, and the follow-up period is one year from date of surgery. Patients are allocated on a 1:2 ratio (control: intervention) to either treatment as usual (control group), which implies surgery and the standard postoperative rehabilitation, or in addition to this, a patient education focusing on pain behaviour and pain coping (intervention group). It takes place in a hospital setting, and consists of six group-based sessions, managed by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The primary outcomes are disability (Oswestry Disability Index) and sick leave, while secondary outcomes include coping (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), fear-avoidance belief (Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire), pain (Low Back Pain Rating Scale, pain index), mobility during hospitalization (Cumulated Ambulation Score), generic health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) and resource use. Outcomes are measured using self report questionnaires, medical records and national registers. Discussion It is expected that the intervention can

  4. Does lumbar paraspinal muscles improve after corrective fusion surgery in degenerative flat black?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background: Degenerative flat back (DFB) is characterized by sagittal imbalance resulting from the loss of lumbar lordosis (LL). Extensive degeneration and weakness of lumbar paraspinal extensor muscle (PSE) are thought to be the main cause of DFB. This study is to evaluate correlation between preoperative PSE conditions and angular severity of DFB and to evaluate correlation between preoperative PSE conditions and degree of improvement of DFB obtained by corrective surgery. Materials and Methods: Forty five patients with DFB who took magnetic resonance image (MRI) preoperatively and conducted simple radiography and three-dimensional gait analysis before and 6 months after corrective surgery were included. To determine the severity of PSE atrophy, the ratio between cross-sectional area of PSE and disc was calculated from L1–L2 to L4–L5 on MRI. To assess the degree of fat infiltration, the signal intensity of PSE was measured. Static parameters of spinopelvic segment were measured by simple radiography. Dynamic parameters of spinopelvic and lower limb joints were obtained by three-dimensional gait analysis. Results: In static parameters, thoracic angle was correlated with atrophy and fat infiltration of upper PSE. Thoracic angle was less improved after surgery, as atrophy of upper PSE was more severe. In dynamic parameters, thoracic angle showed correlation with upper PSE conditions, whereas lumbar angle had correlation with middle to lower PSE conditions. While thoracic kyphosis was less improved after surgery, as atrophy of upper PSE was more severe, LL was less improved, as atrophy and fat infiltration of PSE from L1–L2 to L4–L5 were more severe. Conclusions: Severity of atrophy or fat infiltration of PSE showed correlation with degree of angular deformity in patients with DFB and with less improvement after corrective surgery. Dynamic parameters showed more prominent correlation with PSE conditions than static parameters and also showed segmental

  5. Effectiveness of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Varies with the Physical Properties of Demineralized Bone Matrix Strip

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Hee; Park, Ji-Hun; Johnstone, Brian; Yoo, Jung-U

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A randomized, controlled animal study. Purpose To investigate the effectiveness of fusion and new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix (DBM) strips with jelly strengths. Overview of Literature The form of the DBM can make a difference to the outcome. The effect of different jelly strengths on the ability of DBM to form new bone is not known. Methods Forty-eight rabbits were randomized into a control group and two experimental groups. In the control group (group 1), 1.4 g of autologous iliac crest bone was placed bilaterally. In the experimental groups, a high jelly strength DBM-hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin strip (group 2) and a low jelly strength DBM-HA-gelatin strip (group 3) were used. The fusion was assessed with manual manipulation and radiographs. The volume of the fusion mass was determined from computed tomographic images. Results The fusion rates as determined by manual palpation were 37.5%, 93.8% and 50.0% in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p<0.05). By radiography, the fusion rate of High jelly strength DBM strip was statistically significantly greater than that of the other alternatives (p<0.05). The mean bone volume of the fusion mass as determined by computed tomography was 2,142.2±318.5 mm3, 3,132.9±632.1 mm3, and 2,741.5±380.4 mm3 in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that differences in the structural and mechanical properties of gelatin that are associated with jelly strength influenced cellular responses such as cell viability and bony tissue ingrowth, facilitating greater bone fusion around high jelly strength implants. PMID:26097660

  6. Anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion with porous tantalum implant. Results in a series with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Papacci, Fabio; Rigante, Luigi; Fernandez, Eduardo; Meglio, Mario; Montano, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    Few papers have been published about the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with implant of porous tantalum cages. These studies included patients submitted to operation at a single level. To our knowledge, we report the results of the largest series of ACDF with implant of porous tantalum cages. Our series included patients operated at a single or double level with a long follow-up (FU). We also discuss the pertinent literature. Clinical and outcome data of 99 consecutive patients (47 men, 52 women) submitted to ACDF with implant of porous tantalum cages (Trabecular Metal TM-S Cervical Fusion Device, Zimmer Spine, Minneapolis, MN) from June 2007 to September 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Mean FU was 67.47±19.63months. The changes in pain were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Patients were evaluated pre-operatively and at FU with the Short Form-36 Score Health Survey Version 2.0 (SF-36v2) for Physical Health and Mental Health Scores and the Neck Disability Index. We globally found a statistically significant improvement of all evaluated scores. Patients operated at two levels experienced a statistically significant improvement of all scores, with no statistical difference compared to patients operated at one level. No major complications occurred post-operatively and at FU. Only one patient (operated at two level) experienced an infection during FU. We conclude that ACDF with porous tantalum cages is a safe procedure, with long term clinical benefits (also in patients operated at two levels) and a very low rate of complications.

  7. The Use of Percutaneous Lumbar Fixation Screws for Bilateral Pedicle Fractures with an Associated Dislocation of a Lumbar Disc Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, William D.; Harrison, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Case report. Objective. To identify a safe technique for salvage surgery following complications of total disc replacement. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) is considered by some as the gold standard for discogenic back pain. Revision techniques for TDR and their complications are in their infancy. This case describes a successful method of fixation for this complex presentation. Methods and Results. A 48-year-old male with lumbar degenerative disc disease and no comorbidities. Approximately two weeks postoperatively for a TDR, the patient represented with acute severe back pain and the TDR polyethylene inlay was identified as dislocated anteriorly. Subsequent revision surgery failed immediately as the polyethylene inlay redislocated intraoperatively. Further radiology identified bilateral pedicle fractures, previously unseen on the plain films. The salvage fusion of L5/S1 reutilized the anterior approach with an interbody fusion cage and bone graft. The patient was then turned intraoperatively and redraped. The percutaneous pedicle screws were used to fix L5 to the sacral body via the paracoccygeal corridor. Conclusion. The robust locking screw in the percutaneous screw allowed a complete fixation of the pedicle fractures. At 3-year followup, the patient has an excellent result and has returned to playing golf. PMID:24294533

  8. Spontaneous Thoracic Curve Correction After Selective Posterior Fusion of Thoracolumbar/Lumbar Curves in Lenke 5C Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-ming; Wei, Xian-zhao; Zhu, Xiao-dong; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Selective fusion of the thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve is an effective method for the treatment of Lenke type 5C curves. Several studies have demonstrated that spontaneous correction of the thoracic curve does indeed occur. However, how this correction occurs after isolated posterior segmental instrumentation of the structural lumbar curve has not been well described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the thoracic curve to selective TL/L curve fusion in patients with Lenke type 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and assess the correlative clinical outcomes. Thirty-four consecutive patients with Lenke type 5C AIS were included in this study. All patients underwent selective TL/L curve instrumentation and fusion via the posterior approach. Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery and at least 2 years after surgery. The preoperative coronal Cobb angle of the major TL/L curve was 45.4° ± 7.0°, and that of the minor thoracic curve was 25.4° ± 8.8°. The major TL/L and minor thoracic curves were corrected to postoperative angles of 9.5° ± 5.0° and 11.2° ± 5.2°, respectively, and measured 10.5° ± 6.0° and 13.4° ± 7.5° at the follow-up, respectively. The supine side-bending average Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 9.9°. These results demonstrate satisfactory improvements because of coronal and sagittal restoration. Significant correlations were found between the preoperative and early postoperative conditions and the Cobb angle changes of the minor thoracic curve and the major TL/L curves (r = 0.42, P = 0.01). Significant correlations were also observed between the early and final follow-up postoperative conditions and the Cobb angle changes of the minor thoracic curve and the major TL/L curves (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). Significant correlations were observed between increased thoracic kyphosis (TK) and increased lumbar lordosis (LL

  9. A Comparison of the Effect of Epidural Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia on Pain Control after Posterior Lumbar Instrumented Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Cheong, Seong-Mee; Kim, Sumi; Kooh, Mirang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Retrospective analysis to compare the effect and complication of epidural patient-controlled analgesia (epidural PCA) with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) for the treatment of the post-operative pain after posterior lumbar instrumented fusion. Methods Sixty patients who underwent posterior lumbar instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disease at our institution from September 2007 to January 2008 were enrolled in this study. Out of sixty patients, thirty patients received IV PCA group and thirty patients received epidural PCA group. The pain scale was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results There were no significant difference between IV PCA group and epidural PCA group on the PCA related complications (p=0.7168). Ten patients in IV PCA group and six patients in epidural PCA group showed PCA related complications. Also, there were no significant differences in reduction of VAS score between two groups on postoperative 2 hours (p=0.9618) and 6 hours (p=0.0744). However, postoperative 12 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours showed the significant differences as mean of reduction of VAS score (p=0.0069, 0.0165, 0.0058 respectively). Conclusion The epidural PCA is more effective method to control the post-operative pain than IV PCA after 12 hours of spinal fusion operation. However, during the first twelve hours after operation, there were no differences between IV PCA and epidural PCA. PMID:22102950

  10. Decision making in surgical treatment of chronic low back pain: the performance of prognostic tests to select patients for lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Willems, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the main causes of disability in the western world with a huge economic burden to society. As yet, no specific underlying anatomic cause has been identified for CLBP. Imaging often reveals degenerative findings of the disc or facet joints of one or more lumbar motion segments. These findings, however, can also be observed in asymptomatic people. It has been suggested that pain in degenerated discs may be caused by the ingrowth of nerve fibers into tears or clefts of the annulus fibrosus or nucleus pulposus, and by reported high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. As this so-called discogenic pain is often exacerbated by mechanical loading, the concept of relieving pain by spinal fusion to stabilise a painful spinal segment, has been developed. For some patients lumbar spinal fusion indeed is beneficial, but its results are highly variable and hard to predict for the individual patient. To identify those CLBP patients who will benefit from fusion, many surgeons rely on tests that are assumed to predict the outcome of spinal fusion. The three most commonly used prognostic tests in daily practice are immobilization in a lumbosacral orthosis, provocative discography and trial immobilization by temporary external transpedicular fixation. Aiming for consensus on the indications for lumbar fusion and in order to improve its results by better patient selection, it is essential to know the role and value of these prognostic tests for CLBP patients in clinical practice. The overall aims of the present thesis were: 1) to evaluate whether there is consensus among spine surgeons regarding the use and appreciation of prognostic tests for lumbar spinal fusion; 2) to verify whether a thoracolumbosacral orthosisis (TLSO) truly minimises lumbosacral motion; 3) to verify whether a TLSO can predict the clinical outcome of fusion for CLBP; 4) to assess whether provocative discography of adjacent segments actually predicts the long-term clinical

  11. Efficacy of post-operative analgesia after posterior lumbar instrumented fusion for degenerative disc disease: a prospective randomized comparison of epidural catheter and intravenous administration of analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Kluba, Torsten; Hofmann, Fabian; Bredanger, Sabine; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Niemeyer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to compare the efficacy of epidural (EDA) versus intravenous (PCA) application of analgesics after lumbar fusion. Fifty-two patients scheduled for elective posterior instrumented lumbar fusion were randomized into two groups. EDA patients received an epidural catheter intraoperatively, and administration of ropivacain and sulfentanil was started after a normal postoperative wake-up test in the recovery room area. PCA patients received intravenous opioids in the post-operative period. Differences between EDA and PCA groups in terms of patient satisfaction with respect to pain relief were not significant. Nevertheless, EDA patients reported less pain on the third day after surgery. There were significantly more side effects in the EDA group, including complete reversible loss of sensory function and motor weakness. There were no major side effects, such as infection or persisting neurological deficits, in either group. The routine use of epidural anesthesia for lumbar spine surgery has too many risks and offers very little advantage over PCA. PMID:21808704

  12. Off-label innovation: characterization through a case study of rhBMP-2 for spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Schnurman, Zane; Smith, Michael L; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Off-label therapies are widely used in clinical practice by spinal surgeons. Some patients and practitioners have advocated for increased regulation of their use, and payers have increasingly questioned reimbursment for off-label therapies. In this study, the authors applied a model that quantifies publication data to analyze the developmental process from initial on-label use to off-label innovation, using as an example recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) because of its wide off-label use. METHODS As a case study of off-label innovation, the developmental patterns of rhBMP-2 from FDA-approved use for anterior lumbar interbody fusion to several of its off-label uses, including posterolateral lumbar fusion, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and posterior lumbar interbody fusion/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, were evaluated using the "progressive scholarly acceptance" (PSA) model. In this model, PSA is used as an end point indicating acceptance of a therapy or procedure by the relevant scientific community and is reached when the total number of peer-reviewed studies devoted to refinement or improvement of a therapy surpasses the total number assessing initial efficacy. Report characteristics, including the number of patients studied and study design, were assessed in addition to the time to and pattern of community acceptance, and results compared with previous developmental study findings. Disclosures and reported conflicts of interest for all articles were reviewed, and these data were also used in the analysis. RESULTS Publication data indicated that the acceptance of rhBMP-2 off-label therapies occurred more rapidly and with less evidence than previously studied on-label therapies. Additionally, the community appeared to respond more robustly (by rapidly changing publication patterns) to reports of adverse events than to new questions of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS The development of off-label therapies, including the

  13. Comparison of three calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes from biomechanical, histological, and crystallographic perspectives using a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Hsien; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Hu, Jin-Jia

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of three calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes with different chemical compositions on spinal fusion using a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model. Specifically, two recently developed non-dispersive tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous-based calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), namely a CPC consisting of equimolar amounts of the two compounds (nd-CPC) and a CPC consisting of a two-fold greater amount of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP-rich CPC), were compared with a commercial calcium phosphate bone graft (c-CPG) consisting of hydroxyapatite (60%) and β-tricalcium phosphate (40%). Single-level posterolateral lumbar fusion was performed at the L4-L5 vertebrae in fifteen adult rats (n=5 for each group). Spinal fusion was evaluated with radiographs, manual palpation, mechanical testing, micro-CT, and histology 8 weeks post-surgery. In particular, the crystallographic phases in the three substitutes were identified before and 8 weeks after their implantation. Manual palpation revealed stable constructs in nearly all of the spine specimens. The stiffness and bending load of fused spines in the two CPC groups were comparable to those in the c-CPG group. The radiographs specifically revealed implant resorption and bone remodeling in the DCP-rich CPC group. Analysis of 3D micro-CT images revealed that the bone volume ratio in the DCP-rich CPC group was significantly greater than those in the nd-CPC and c-CPG groups. Histology showed that the DCP-rich CPC group exhibited the highest degree of bone regeneration and osseointegration. Notably, DCP-rich CPC led to a pronounced phase transformation, generating the greatest amount of poorly crystalline apatite among the three groups, which together with adequate resorption may explain the aforementioned positive findings. We therefore conclude that of the bone graft substitutes considered, DCP-rich CPC has the greatest potential to be used in spinal fusion.

  14. Single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated with minimally invasive anterior debridement and fusion combined with posterior fixation via Wiltse approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Chen, Wen-jian; Zhu, Wen-tao; Li, Feng; Fang, Huang; Chen, An-min; Xiong, Wei

    2013-10-01

    The effect and safety of anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach were assessed in the single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Seventeen patients from 2007 to 2009 underwent anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach. Postoperative follow-up time was 24-41 months. Data included the patients' general information, microbiology, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, intervertebral fusion rate, and preoperative and final follow-up scores for American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Ten patients had undergone a prior spinal invasive procedure, and 7 had hematogenous infection. The infected segments included L1-2, L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 in 1, 2, 5, and 9 cases, respectively. Thirteen bacterial cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4), Streptococcus (3), and Escherichia coli (1). The operative time was 213.8±45.6 min, and the intraoperative blood loss was 180.6±88.1 mL. Postoperative complications consisted of urinary retention (2 cases), constipation (3), and deep vein thrombosis (2). On the final follow-up, VAS scores and ODIs were significantly lower than those of preoperation, while the ASIA grades improved. All the cases achieved good intervertebral bony fusion. Anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach can successfully treat single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis, with less trauma and reliable immobilization. It is a viable option for clinical application.

  15. Could the Topping-Off Technique Be the Preventive Strategy against Adjacent Segment Disease after Pedicle Screw-Based Fusion in Lumbar Degenerative Diseases? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Po-Hsin; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; An, Howard S.; Liu, Kang-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The “topping-off” technique is a new concept applying dynamic or less rigid fixation such as hybrid stabilization device (HSD) or interspinous process device (IPD) for the purpose of avoiding adjacent segment disease (ASD) proximal to the fusion construct. A systematic review of the literature was performed on the effect of topping-off techniques to prevent or decrease the occurrence of ASD after lumbar fusion surgery. We searched through major online databases, PubMed and MEDLINE, using key words related to “topping-off” technique. We reviewed the surgical results of “topping-off” techniques with either HSD or IPD, including the incidence of ASD at two proximal adjacent levels (index and supra-adjacent level) as compared to the fusion alone group. The results showed that the fusion alone group had statistically higher incidence of radiographic (52.6%) and symptomatic (11.6%) ASD at the index level as well as higher incidence (8.1%) of revision surgery. Besides, the HSD (10.5%) and fusion groups (24.7%) had statistically higher incidences of radiographic ASD at supra-adjacent level than the IPD (1%). The findings suggest that the “topping-off” technique may potentially decrease the occurrence of ASD at the proximal motion segments. However, higher quality prospective randomized trials are required prior to wide clinical application. PMID:28321409

  16. Prone Position-Related Meralgia Paresthetica after Lumbar Spinal Surgery : A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Jun

    2008-01-01

    Lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy occurring during spinal surgery is frequently related to iliac bone graft harvesting, but meralgia paresthetica (MP) can result from the patient being in the prone position. Prone position-related MP is not an uncommon complication after posterior spine surgery but there are only few reports in the literature on this subject. It is usually overlooked because of its mild symptoms and self-limiting course, or patients and physicians may misunderstand the persistence of lower extremity symptoms in the early postoperative period to be a reflection of poor surgical outcome. The authors report a case of prone position-related MP after posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the L3-4 and reviewed the literature with discussion on the incidence, pathogenesis, and possible risk factors related to this entity. PMID:19137086

  17. Survival Rates and Risk Factors for Cephalad and L5-S1 Adjacent Segment Degeneration after L5 Floating Lumbar Fusion : A Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Seok; Park, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the L5-S1 has distinct structural features in comparison with other lumbar spine segments, not much is known about adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) at the L5-S1 segment. The aim of study was to compare the incidence and character of ASD of the cephalad and L5-S1 segments after L5 floating lumbar fusion. Methods From 2005 to 2010, 115 patients who underwent L5 floating lumber fusion were investigated. The mean follow-up period was 46.1 months. The incidence of radiological and clinical ASD of the cephalad and the L5-S1 segments was compared using survival analysis. Risk factors affecting ASD were analyzed using a log rank test and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results Radiological ASD of the L5-S1 segment had a statistically significant higher survival rate than that of the cephalad segment (p=0.001). However, clinical ASD of the L5-S1 segment was significantly lower survival rates than that of the cephalad segment (p=0.038). Risk factor analysis showed that disc degeneration of the cephalad segment and preoperative spinal stenosis of the L5-S1 segment were risk factors. Conclusion In L5 floating fusion, radiological ASD was more common in the cephalad segment and clinical ASD was more common in the L5-S1 segment. At the L5-S1 segment, the degree of spinal stenosis appears to be the most influential risk factor in ASD incidences, unlike the cephalad segment. PMID:25733991

  18. Operative treatment of symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis and mild isthmic spondylolisthesis in young patients: direct repair of the defect or segmental spinal fusion?

    PubMed

    Schlenzka, D; Seitsalo, S; Poussa, M; Osterman, K

    1993-08-01

    Summary. The results of 23 patients with symptomatic spondylolysis or mild isthmic spondylolisthesis treated by Scott's direct repair of the defect (secclusion) were analyzed with particular reference to spinal mobility and the condition of the intervertebral discs, and compared with the outcome of 25 patients treated by posterolateral segmental fusion without instrumentation. The two groups were comparable as to age at operation (17.4 +/- 5.7 vs. 15.6 +/- 2.6 years), follow-up time (54 +/- 8 vs. 54 +/- 25 months), gender, and preoperative subjective symptoms. The mean preoperative vertebral slip was greater in the fusion group (7.2 +/- 8.4 vs. 13.1 +/- 4, P = 0.003). The follow-up assessment was carried out by an independent observer. It included an interview, Oswestry questionnaire, pain scale drawing, physical examination, plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional testing (lumbar spine mobility, static lifting power). For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test, the chi2 test, and the paired t-test were used. At followup, 87% of the Scott's group and 96% of the fusion group had occasional pain, not interfering with daily activities, or no pain at all. There was no statistical difference in the subjective, clinical, or functional outcome between the two operation groups. Plain radiographs in both groups showed significant loss of disc height in the operated segment during follow-up, indicating postoperative progression of disc degeneration. In flexion/extension radiographs the total range of movement in the three lowermost lumbar segments was slightly greater after secclusion. This difference was not significant. In MRI there was no statistical difference in disc hydration index between the two groups. The condition of the disc above the fusion was not worse than that of the corresponding disc above the secclusion. There was no correlation between pathologic disc findings in MRI and clinical outcome. It is concluded that in a small

  19. Within Patient Radiological Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Two Bone Graft Extenders Utilized in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Geoffrey; Gage, Gary B.; Neidert, Gary; Adkisson, Huston Davis

    2016-01-01

    Two bone graft extenders differing in chemical composition were implanted contralaterally in 27 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion as standard-of-care. Bone marrow aspirate and autogenous bone graft were equally combined either with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or a hybrid biomaterial [containing hyaluronic acid (HyA) but lacking a calcium salt] and implanted between the transverse processes. Fusion status on each side of the vertebrae was retrospectively graded (1–5 scale) on AP planar X-ray at multiple visits as available, through approximately 12 months. Additionally, consolidation or resorption since prior visit for each treatment was recorded. Sides receiving β-TCP extender showed marked resorption prior to bone consolidation during the first 6 months. By contrast, sides receiving the hybrid biomaterial containing integrated HyA showed rapid bone consolidation by week 6–8, with maintenance of initial bone volume through 12 months. Fusion grade was superior for the hybrid biomaterial, differing significantly from β-TCP at day 109 and beyond. Fusion success at >12 months was 92.9 vs. 67.9% for the hybrid biomaterial and β-TCP-treated sides, respectively. The hybrid biomaterial extender demonstrated a shortened time-to-fusion compared to the calcium-based graft. Mode of action has been demonstrated in the literature to differ between these compositions. Therefore, choice of synthetic biomaterial composition may significantly influence the mode of action of cellular events regulating appositional bone growth. PMID:26835455

  20. Replacement of Vertebral Lamina (Laminoplasty) in Surgery for Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A review of clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar laminoplasty (LL) for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis (ISL). Purpose The single session performance of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with allograft in the anterior column and providing the realignment of the vertebrae was presented as a preliminary report earlier. Overview of Literature Long-term surgical outcome of cervical laminoplasty in patients has been reported. But, outcome of LL in patients is unclear. Methods The long-term (5 years) year follow-up results of the LL technique are reported in this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative direct X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The patients that did not respond to conservative treatment were operated. Twenty-one (52.5%) female and 19 (47.5%) male patients were included. Results Mean age was 43,5 years (ranges, 22–57 years). The most common symptoms were low back pain (89%), pelvic and leg pain (69%) and reduction in walking distance (65%). A total of 180 pedicle screws were inserted in 40 patients; posterior lumbar interbody fusion and laminoplasty with reduction was performed in 20 patients for L4–L5, 12 patients for L5–S1, 4 patients for L3–L4–L5 and 4 patients for L4–L5-S1. Ten (25%) patients with ILL had accompanying spinal stenosis. The difference between preoperative and postoperative sagittal plane rotation and dislocation degrees and disc space heights were statistically significant in all patients (p<0.05). Solid grade 4 fusion was observed in 38 patients; in only 2 patients grade 2 pseudoarthrosis developed (5%), but these patients were asymptomatic. Visual analog scale, Prolo economical and functional scale was examined with an average follow-up 5.5 years. Conclusions LL technique has the advantages of shorter duration of operation, lack of graft donor site complications, protection of posterior column osseoligamentous structures and

  1. Back pain improvement after decompression without fusion or stabilization in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and clinically significant preoperative back pain.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Charles H; Glassman, Steven D; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Asher, Anthony L

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE The relief of leg symptoms by surgical decompression for lumbar stenosis is well supported by the literature. Less is known about the effect on back pain. Some surgeons believe that the relief of back pain should not be an expected outcome of decompression and that substantial back pain may be a contraindication to decompression only; therefore, stabilization may be recommended for patients with substantial preoperative back pain even in the absence of well-accepted indications for stabilization such as spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or sagittal malalignment. The purpose of this study is to determine if patients with lumbar stenosis and substantial back pain-in the absence of spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or sagittal malalignment-can obtain significant improvement after decompression without fusion or stabilization. METHODS Analysis of the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD) identified 726 patients with lumbar stenosis (without spondylolisthesis or scoliosis) and a baseline back pain score ≥ 5 of 10 who underwent surgical decompression only. No patient was reported to have significant spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or sagittal malalignment. Standard demographic and surgical variables were collected, as well as patient outcomes including back and leg pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and 3 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS The mean age of the cohort was 65.6 years, and 407 (56%) patients were male. The mean body mass index was 30.2 kg/m(2), and 40% of patients had 2-level decompression, 29% had 3-level decompression, 24% had 1-level decompression, and 6% had 4-level decompression. The mean estimated blood loss was 130 ml. The mean operative time was 100.85 minutes. The vast majority of discharges (88%) were routine home discharges. At 3 and 12 months postoperatively, there were significant improvements from baseline for back pain (7.62 to 3.19 to 3.66), leg pain (7.23 to 2.85 to

  2. [Efficacy of Coflex in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis].

    PubMed

    Hai, Y; Meng, X L; Li, D Y; Zhang, X N; Wang, Y S

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To study the clinical results of Coflex and lumbar posterior decompression and fusion in the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis at L(4-5). Methods: Thirty-eight patients with Grade Ⅰ degenerative spondylolisthesis, from January 2008 to December 2011 in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University were reviewed, and patients were divided into two groups by randomness. Group A was treated with Coflex and group B with pedicle instrumentation and interbody fusion. Fifteen patients were included in group A, and 23 patients were included in group B. In group A, the average age was (56.3±9.1) years. In group B, the average age was (58.2±11.2) years. The clinical results were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Slip distance (SD) was measured before and after surgery, and the changes of intervertebral angle at index level and adjacent level were also recorded. Results: The follow-up period was 36 to 68 months, with the average of (39±14) months in the both groups. The operation time and bleeding volume of patients in group A were significantly less than that of group B (P<0.05). In both groups, the difference of ODI and VAS before operation and postoperative follow-up were statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between lumbar intervertebral angle and the sliding distance in group A at all time points. In the group B, there was a significant increase in the intervertebral angle and the sliding distance at L(3-4) and L(5)-S(1 )level after surgery, the difference at upper and below adjacent segment before and after surgery were statistically significant. Conclusions: Coflex interspinous dynamic stabilization system has same excellent clinical results as pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion surgery for the treatment of L(4-5) degenerative spondylolisthesis; no significant progression of spondylolisthesis been observed during more than 3 years follow-up, and

  3. Tranexamic acid reduces perioperative blood loss of posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Houyin; Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. The routine usage of TA in spinal surgery is controversial. Only a few studies have focused on patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis, although a large clinical cohort exists in the population. This study aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of TA in reducing perioperative blood loss in posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. Methods: 100 eligible patients out of 126 were randomized to receive either a bolus dose of 30 mg/kg TA i.v, a maintenance dosage of 2 mg/kg/h TA, or an equivalent volume of normal saline. The pedicle screw system was used for fixing in all the patients, followed by decompression and posterior lumbar interbody fusion. The primary outcomes were intraoperative estimated blood loss and total blood loss. The secondary outcomes were receiving packed red blood cells and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Results: In total, 4 patients were excluded from the analyses, 50 patients were in the TA group, and 46 in the placebo group. The demographic and baseline data between the groups were not statistically different. The intraoperative estimated blood loss and the total blood loss were 33% and 41% lower in the TA group than the placebo group, respectively. The blood transfusion rate did not vary significantly (P = 0.191). Except a patient with a dural tear in the placebo group, no other complications were observed. Conclusion: TA significantly reduced the perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. PMID:28072709

  4. Design and fabrication of 3D-printed anatomically shaped lumbar cage for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration treatment.

    PubMed

    Serra, T; Capelli, C; Toumpaniari, R; Orriss, I R; Leong, J J H; Dalgarno, K; Kalaskar, D M

    2016-07-19

    Spinal fusion is the gold standard surgical procedure for degenerative spinal conditions when conservative therapies have been unsuccessful in rehabilitation of patients. Novel strategies are required to improve biocompatibility and osseointegration of traditionally used materials for lumbar cages. Furthermore, new design and technologies are needed to bridge the gap due to the shortage of optimal implant sizes to fill the intervertebral disc defect. Within this context, additive manufacturing technology presents an excellent opportunity to fabricate ergonomic shape medical implants. The goal of this study is to design and manufacture a 3D-printed lumbar cage for lumbar interbody fusion. Optimisations of the proposed implant design and its printing parameters were achieved via in silico analysis. The final construct was characterised via scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, x-ray micro computed tomography (μCT), atomic force microscopy, and compressive test. Preliminary in vitro cell culture tests such as morphological assessment and metabolic activities were performed to access biocompatibility of 3D-printed constructs. Results of in silico analysis provided a useful platform to test preliminary cage design and to find an optimal value of filling density for 3D printing process. Surface characterisation confirmed a uniform coating of nHAp with nanoscale topography. Mechanical evaluation showed mechanical properties of final cage design similar to that of trabecular bone. Preliminary cell culture results showed promising results in terms of cell growth and activity confirming biocompatibility of constructs. Thus for the first time, design optimisation based on computational and experimental analysis combined with the 3D-printing technique for intervertebral fusion cage has been reported in a single study. 3D-printing is a promising technique for medical applications and this study paves the way for future development of customised implants in spinal

  5. Tisseel does not reduce postoperative drainage, length of stay, and transfusion requirements for lumbar laminectomy with noninstrumented fusion versus laminectomy alone

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typically, fibrin sealants (FSs) and fibrin glues (FGs) are used to strengthen dural repairs during spinal surgery. In 2014, Epstein demonstrated that one FS/FG, Tisseel (Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA) equalized the average times to drain removal and length of stay (LOS) for patients with versus without excess bleeding (e.g. who did not receive Tisseel) undergoing multilevel laminectomies with 1-2 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF).[6] Methods: Here Tisseel was utilized to promote hemostasis for two populations; 39 patients undergoing average 4.4 level lumbar laminectomies with average 1.3 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF), and 48 patients undergoing average 4.0 level laminectomies alone (Lam). We compared the average operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for the LamF versus Lam groups. Results: The average operative times, EBL, postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements were all greater for LamF versus Lam patients; operative times (4.1 vs. 3.0 h), average EBL (192.3 vs. 147.9 cc), drainage (e.g. day 1; 199.6 vs. 167.4 cc; day 2; 172.9 vs. 63.9 cc), average LOS (4.6 vs. 2.5 days), and transfusion requirements (11 LamF patients; 18 Units [U] RBC versus 2 Lam patients; 3 U RBC). Conclusions: Utilizing Tisseel to facilitate hemostasis in LamF versus Lam still resulted in greater operative times, EBL, postoperative average drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for patients undergoing the noninstrumented fusions. Although Tisseel decreases back bleeding within the spinal canal, it does not reduce blood loss from LamF decorticated transverse processes. PMID:26005579

  6. Commentary on: Laminectomy plus fusion versus laminectomy alone for lumbar spondylolisthesis by Ghogawala Z, Dziura J, Butler WE, Dai F, Terrin N, Magge SN, et al. NEJM 2016;374 (15):1424-34

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: How does an article involving only 66 patients randomized into two spinal surgical groups get into the New England Journal of Medicine? Nevertheless, this one did. The article by Ghogawala et al. entitled Laminectomy plus fusion versus laminectomy alone for lumbar spondylolisthesis, compared the efficacy/outcomes of pedicle/screw/rod instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusions vs. decompressions alone for treating lumbar stenosis with grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Methods: They designed a randomized controlled study involving only 66 patients between the ages of 50–80 (average age: 67) with lumbar stenosis and stable DS (3–14 mm). Outcomes were measured utilizing the physical measures from the Short Form 36 (SF-36) up to 4 postoperative years, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) upt to 2 postoperative years. Data were available for 86% of patients at 2, but only for 68% of the patients at 4 postoperative years. Results: At 2 postoperative years, SF-36 scores were higher for the instrumented patients (28 patients) vs. decompressed (29 patients) patients. However, the scores were comparable for both groups using the ODI at 4 years. SF-36 scores, however, remained higher for the 19 remaining instrumented patients. Additionally, reoperation rates were 14% for fusions and a staggering 34% for decompressions alone. Conclusions: The authors concluded; laminectomy with fusion offered a “slightly greater but clinically meaningful improvement in overall physical health-related quality of life vs. laminectomy alone.” Rather, it should have read there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups and an insufficient number of patients were included in the study at all stages. PMID:27843677

  7. Acute vertebral fracture after spinal fusion: a case report illustrating the added value of single-source dual-energy computed tomography to magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with spinal Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Putzier, M; Pumberger, M; Hermann, K G; Diekhoff, T

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is degraded by metal-implant-induced artifacts when used for the diagnostic assessment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with instrumented spinal fusion. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) offers a promising supplementary imaging tool in these patients. This case report describes an 85-year-old woman who presented with a suspected acute vertebral fracture after long posterior lumbar interbody fusion. This is the first report of a vertebral fracture that showed bone marrow edema on DECT; however, edema was missed by an MRI STIR sequence owing to metal artifacts. Bone marrow assessment using DECT is less susceptible to metal artifacts than MRI, resulting in improved visualization of vertebral edema in the vicinity of fused vertebral bodies.

  8. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  9. Spontaneous healing of retroperitoneal chylous leakage following anterior lumbar spinal surgery: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Su, I-Chang

    2007-01-01

    Cisterna chyli is prone to injury in any retroperitoneal surgery. However, retroperitoneal chylous leakage is a rare complication after anterior spinal surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only ten cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of a 49-year-old man who had lumbar metastasis and associated radiculopathy. He had transient retroperitoneal chylous leakage after anterior tumor decompression, interbody bony fusion, and instrumental fixation from L2 to L4. The leakage stopped spontaneously after we temporarily clamped the drain tube. Intraperitoneal ascites accumulation developed thereafter due to nutritional loss and impaired hepatic reserves. We gathered ten reported cases of chylous leak after anterior thoracolumbar or lumbar spinal surgery, and categorized all these cases into two groups, depending on the integrity of diaphragm. Six patients received anterior spinal surgery without diaphragm splitting. Postoperative chylous leak stopped after conservative treatment. Another five cases received diaphragm splitting in the interim of anterior spinal surgery. Chylous leakage stopped spontaneously in four patients. The remaining one had a chylothorax secondary to postop chyloretroperitoneum. It was resolved only after surgical intervention. In view of these cases, all the chylous leakage could be spontaneously closed without complications, except for one who had a secondary chylothorax and required thoracic duct ligation and chemopleurodesis. We conclude that intraoperative diaphragm splitting or incision does not increase the risk of secondary chylothorax if it was closed tightly at the end of the surgery and the chest tube drainage properly done. PMID:17273839

  10. The Use of a Dehydrated Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allograft in Patients Who Subsequently Undergo Reexploration after Posterior Lumbar Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Subach, Brian R.; Copay, Anne G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Context. Products that can reduce development of epidural fibrosis may reduce risk for ongoing pain associated with development of scar tissue and make subsequent epidural reexploration easier. Purpose. To evaluate the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) on the formation of soft tissue scarring in the epidural space. Study Design. Case series. Patient Sample. Five patients having transforaminal lumbar interbody lumbar fusion (TLIF) with posterior instrumentation and implantation of dHACM in the epidural space and subsequent epidural reexploration. Outcome Measures. Degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space at reexploration. Intraoperative and postoperative complications related to dHACM and patient reported outcomes. Methods. The degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space was assessed during the reexploration surgery. Patients' outcomes were collected using standard validated questionnaires. Results. Four of 5 cases had easily detachable tissue during epidural reexploration. Angiolipoma of 10% was noted in 1 case and 5% in 2 cases. Significant improvements in patient reported outcomes were observed. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that dHACM implant during TLIF may have favorable effects on epidural fibrosis and is well tolerated. Further studies with larger cohorts are required to prove our results. PMID:25653880

  11. Surgical treatments for lumbar disc disease in adolescent patients; chemonucleolysis / microsurgical discectomy/ PLIF with cages.

    PubMed

    Kuh, Sung-Uk; Kim, Young-Soo; Cho, Young-Eun; Yoon, Young-Sul; Jin, Byung-Ho; Kim, Keun-Su; Chin, Dong-Kyu

    2005-02-28

    The herniated lumbar disc (HLD) in adolescent patients is characterized by typical discogenic pain that originates from a soft herniated disc. It is frequently related to back trauma, and sometimes it is also combined with a degenerative process and a bony spur such as posterior Schmorl's node. Chemonucleolysis is an excellent minimally invasive treatment having these criteria: leg pain rather than back pain, severe limitation on the straight leg raising test (SLRT), and soft disc protrusion on computed tomography (CT). Microsurgical discectomy is useful in the cases of extruded or sequestered HLD and lateral recess stenosis due to bony spur because the nerve root is not decompressed with chymopapain. Spinal fusion, like as PLIF, should be considered in the cases of severe disc degeneration, instability, and stenosis due to posterior central bony spur. In our study, 185 adolescent patients, whose follow-up period was more than 1 year (the range was 1-4 years), underwent spinal surgery due to HLD from March, 1998 to December, 2002 at our institute. Among these cases, we performed chemonucleolysis in 65 cases, microsurgical discectomy in 94 cases, and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with cages in 33 cases including 7 reoperation cases. The clinical success rate was 91% for chemonucleolysis, 95% for microsurgical disectomy, and 89% for PLIF with cages, and there were no non- union cases for the PLIF patients with cages. In adolescent HLD, chemonucleolysis was the 1st choice of treatment because the soft adolescent HLD was effectively treated with chemonucleolysis, especially when the patient satisfied the chemonucleolysis indications.

  12. SU-E-T-82: Comparison of Several Lumbar Intervertebral Fusion Titanium Cages with Respect to Their Backscattering Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Failing, T; Chofor, N; Poppinga, D; Schoenfeld, A; Poppe, B; Willborn, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Investigating the backscatter dose factor with regards to structure and geometry of the surface material. Methods: The titanium cages used for this study representing both prototypes and well established products are made of a laser-sintered titanium alloy (AditusV GmbH, Berlin, Germany). A set of four radiochromic EBT3 films was used in a stacked geometry to measure the range and the magnitude of the expected surface dose enhancement due to the in comparison to water increased secondary electron release from the material. The measurement geometry and the small thickness of radiochromic EBT3 film allowed the dose measurement at distances of 0.1 mm, 0.9 mm, 1.7 mm and 2.5 mm from the probe surfaces. Water reference measurements were taken under equal conditions, in order to allow the calculation of the relative dose enhancement at the surface of a probe. Measurements were performed within a water phantom. An Epson Expression 10000 XL flatbed scanner was used for digitization. Results: Sintered titanium showed a dose enhancement factor of 1.22 at the surface of the material. The factor can be reduced to less than 1.10 by utilizing mesh structures. In both cases, the dose enhancement factor decreased to less than 1.03 at a distance of 1.7mm indicating the low energy of scattered electrons. Conclusion: Backscattering of titanium cages should be considered in treatment planning, especially when the cages are located close to organs at risk. While mesh structures were introduced to improve bone fusion with the implant structure, the potentially harmful surface dose enhancement is significantly reduced.

  13. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Posterolateral Spinal Fusion: What's the Right Dose?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Clifford Barry; Sietsema, Debra Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Single center retrospective cohort analysis. Purpose The goal was to evaluate the influence of varying amount of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) per level on fusion rates and complications in posterolateral spinal fusions. Overview of Literature rhBMP-2 has been utilized for lumbar posterolateral fusions for many years. Initial rhBMP-2 recommendations were 20 mg/level of fusion. Dose and concentration per level in current studies vary from 4.2 to 40 mg and 1.5 to 2.0 mg/mL, respectively. Variable fusion and complication rates have been reported. Methods Patients (n=1,610) undergoing instrumented lumbar spinal fusion (2003–2009) with utilization of rhBMP-2 were retrospectively evaluated. Patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, number of levels, associated interbody fusion, and types of bone void filler were analyzed. Fusions rates and nonunions were subdivided into number of levels and amount of rhBMP-2 used per level. Results Patients (n=559) were evaluated with 58.5% females having an average age of 63 years, BMI of 31 kg/m2. Number of levels fused ranged from 1 to 8. rhBMP-2 averaged 7.3 mg/level (range, 1.5–24 mg/level) based upon length of collagen sponge in relation to length of fusion levels. Patients with non-union formation had lower rhBMP-2 dose per level (p=0.016). A significant difference in non-union rate was found between patients undergoing fusion with <6 mg/level compared to those with >6 mg/level (9.1% vs. 2.4%, χ2=0.012). No significant differences were noted between 6–11.9 mg/level and ≥12 mg/level. No threshold was found for seroma formation or bone overgrowth. Conclusions Previous recommendation of 20 mg/level of rhBMP-2 is more than what is required for predictable fusion rates of 98%. No dose related increase of infection, seroma formation, and bone overgrowth has been found. In order to provide variable dosing and cost reduction, industry generated rhBMP-2 kit size should be

  14. Perioperative outcomes in minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Belton, Patrick; Zarzour, Hekmat; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare minimally invasive (MIS) and open techniques for MIS lumbar laminectomy, direct lateral and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries with respect to length of surgery, estimated blood loss (EBL), neurologic complications, perioperative transfusion, postoperative pain, postoperative narcotic use, and length of stay (LOS). METHODS: A systematic review of previously published studies accessible through PubMed was performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Statistical data was calculated with analysis of variance with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 11 pertinent laminectomy studies, 20 direct lateral studies, and 27 TLIF studies were found. For laminectomy, MIS techniques resulted in a significantly longer length of surgery (177.5 min vs 129.0 min, P = 0.04), shorter LOS (4.3 d vs 5.3 d, P = 0.01) and less perioperative pain (visual analog scale: 16 ± 17 vs 34 ± 31, P = 0.04). There is evidence of decreased narcotic use for MIS patients (postoperative intravenous morphine use: 9.3 mg vs 42.8 mg), however this difference is of unknown significance. Direct lateral approaches have insufficient comparative data to establish relative perioperative outcomes. MIS TLIF had superior EBL (352 mL vs 580 mL, P < 0.0001) and LOS (7.7 d vs 10.4 d, P < 0.0001) and limited data to suggest lower perioperative pain. CONCLUSION: Based on perioperative outcomes data, MIS approach is superior to open approach for TLIF. For laminectomy, MIS and open approaches can be chosen based on surgeon preference. For lateral approaches, there is insufficient evidence to find non-inferior perioperative outcomes at this time. PMID:26716097

  15. The surgery and early postoperative radicular pain in cases with multifocal lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ulutaş, Murat; Çınar, Kadir; Seçer, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Persistence of postoperative radicular pain after surgery for multifocal disc herniation (MFDH) is a clinical problem. This study aims to evaluate the effects of a combined treatment approach compared with unilateral stabilization on early postoperative radicular pain in patients with MFDH. Age, sex, level of operation, clinical findings, and radicular pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores before surgery in the early postoperative period and at 3 months after surgery were retrospectively reviewed for 20 cases of multifocal lumbar disc herniation. The combined approach (translaminar and far lateral) was used for 13 cases. Seven cases underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and unilateral transpedicular stabilization following total facetectomy. The mean age of the sample was 49.4 ± 10.1 years and the female-to-male ratio was 8:12. The mean VAS scores for radicular pain in cases treated with the combined approach were 8.2, 4.07, and 2.3 in the preoperative and early postoperative periods and 3 months after surgery, respectively. The mean score for radicular pain improved by 50.4% in the early postoperative period and by 72% in the late postoperative period. The mean VAS scores for radicular pain in cases who underwent TLIF and unilateral stabilization after facetectomy were 8.4, 2.1, and 1.4 in the preoperative and early postoperative periods and 3 months after surgery, respectively. The mean VAS score for radicular pain improved by 75% in the early postoperative period and by 83.3% in the late postoperative period. The combined approach is an effective alternative in cases with MFDH. TLIF and unilateral segmental stabilization provide substantial decompression and eliminate mechanical compression by conserving the height of the intervertebral foramen in the event that sufficient decompression is unable to obtain. We suggest that elimination of chemical mediators, particularly those causing pain in the dorsal ganglion, contributes to

  16. The surgery and early postoperative radicular pain in cases with multifocal lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Murat; Çınar, Kadir; Seçer, Mehmet

    2017-03-01

    Persistence of postoperative radicular pain after surgery for multifocal disc herniation (MFDH) is a clinical problem. This study aims to evaluate the effects of a combined treatment approach compared with unilateral stabilization on early postoperative radicular pain in patients with MFDH.Age, sex, level of operation, clinical findings, and radicular pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores before surgery in the early postoperative period and at 3 months after surgery were retrospectively reviewed for 20 cases of multifocal lumbar disc herniation. The combined approach (translaminar and far lateral) was used for 13 cases. Seven cases underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and unilateral transpedicular stabilization following total facetectomy.The mean age of the sample was 49.4 ± 10.1 years and the female-to-male ratio was 8:12. The mean VAS scores for radicular pain in cases treated with the combined approach were 8.2, 4.07, and 2.3 in the preoperative and early postoperative periods and 3 months after surgery, respectively. The mean score for radicular pain improved by 50.4% in the early postoperative period and by 72% in the late postoperative period. The mean VAS scores for radicular pain in cases who underwent TLIF and unilateral stabilization after facetectomy were 8.4, 2.1, and 1.4 in the preoperative and early postoperative periods and 3 months after surgery, respectively. The mean VAS score for radicular pain improved by 75% in the early postoperative period and by 83.3% in the late postoperative period.The combined approach is an effective alternative in cases with MFDH. TLIF and unilateral segmental stabilization provide substantial decompression and eliminate mechanical compression by conserving the height of the intervertebral foramen in the event that sufficient decompression is unable to obtain. We suggest that elimination of chemical mediators, particularly those causing pain in the dorsal ganglion, contributes to the absence

  17. Does clinical improvement of symptomatic degenerative lumbar disease impact obesity?

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jacob R; Farooqui, Zishaan; Smith, Brandon W; Kahn, Elyne N; Liu, Xilin; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul

    2017-03-31

    OBJECTIVE Obesity and low-back pain associated with degenerative spondylosis or spondylolisthesis are common comorbid conditions. Many patients report that the pain and disability associated with degenerative lumbar disease are key factors in their inability to lose weight. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if there is an association between improved functional status and weight loss following a successful transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent single-level TLIF was performed. Inclusion criteria were preoperative body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m(2), achievement of minimum clinically important difference in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, defined as improvement of 15 points), and minimum 1-year postoperative followup BMI. Preoperative and postoperative BMI, ODI, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were compared. A subgroup analysis of patients who achieved substantial clinical benefit (SCB, defined as a net improvement of 18.8 points on the ODI) was also performed. RESULTS A total of 56 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the study population was 55.6 ± 13.7 years. The mean preoperative BMI was 34.8 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), the mean preoperative ODI was 66.2 ± 10.1, and the mean preoperative VAS score was 7.1 ± 1.7. The mean change in ODI was -33.1 ± 13.5 (p < 0.01) and the mean change in the VAS score was -4.1 ± 2.1 (p < 0.01). The mean change in BMI was +0.15 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) (range -4.2 to +6.5 kg/m(2); p = 0.6). SCB was achieved in 46 patients on the ODI. The mean preoperative BMI for patients with SCB was 34.8 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), and the mean postoperative BMI was 34.7 ± 5.0 kg/m(2). The mean change in BMI was -0.03 ± 1.9 kg/m(2) (p = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS Despite successful surgical intervention via TLIF with achievement of improved function and pain, obese patients did not have significant change in weight postoperatively.

  18. Anterolateral Radical Debridement and Interbody Bone Grafting Combined With Transpedicle Fixation in the Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Qixin; Wu, Yongchao; Guo, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the clinical outcomes of radical anterolateral debridement and autogenous ilium with rib or titanium cage interbody autografting with transpedicle fixation for the treatment of thoracolumbar tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis operation aims to remove the lesions and necrotic tissues, remove spinal cord compression, and reconstruct spinal stability. However, traditional operation methods cannot effectively correct cyrtosis or stabilize the spine. In addition, the patient needs to stay in bed for a long time and may have many complications. So far, the best surgical method and fixation method for spinal tuberculosis remain controversial. There were a total of 43 patients, 16 involving spinal cord injury, from January 2004 to January 2011. The patients were surgically treated for radical anterolateral debridement via posterolateral incision and autogenous ilium with rib or titanium cage interbody autografting and single-stage transpedicle fixation. All the patients were followed up to determine the stages of intervertebral bone fusion and the corrections of spinal kyphosis with the restoration of neurological deficit. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of these patients decreased to normal levels for a mean of 2.8 months. The function of feeling, motion, and sphincter in 16 paraplegia cases gradually recovered after 1 week to 3 months postoperatively, and the American Spinal Injury Association scores significantly increased at the final follow-up. Intervertebral bone fusions were all achieved postoperatively. No internal fixation devices were loose, extracted, or broken. There was no correction degree loss during the follow-up. The method of radical anterolateral debridement and autogenous ilium with rib or titanium cage interbody autografting and single-stage transpedicle fixation was effective for the treatment of thoracolumbar tuberculosis, correcting kyphotic deformity, and reconstructing

  19. Anterior D-rod and titanium mesh fixation for acute mid-lumbar burst fracture with incomplete neurologic deficits: A prospective study of 56 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhe-yuan; Ding, Zhen-qi; Liu, Hao-yuan; Fang, Jun; Liu, Hui; Sha, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anterior decompression and reconstruction have gained wide acceptance as viable alternatives for unstable mid-lumbar burst fracture, but there are no mid and long term prospective studies regarding clinical and radiologic results of mid-lumbar burst fractures. Materials and Methods: An Institutional Review Board-approved prospective study of 56 consecutive patients of mid-lumbar burst fractures with a load-sharing score of 7 or more treated with anterior plating was carried out. All patients were evaluated for radiologic and clinical outcomes. The fusion status, spinal canal compromise, segmental kyphotic angle (SKA), vertebral body height loss (VBHL), and adjacent segment degeneration was examined for radiologic outcome, whereas the American Spinal Injury Association scale, the visual analog scale (VAS), and the employment status were used for clinical evaluation. Results: The patients underwent clinical and radiologic followup for at least 5 years after the surgery. At the last followup, there was no case of internal fixation failure, adjacent segment degeneration, and other complications. Interbody fusion was achieved in all cases. The average fusion time was 4.5 months. No patient suffered neurological deterioration and the average neurologic recovery was 1.3 grades on final observation. Based on VAS pain scores, canal compromise, percentage of VBHL and SKA, the difference was statistically significant between the preoperative period and postoperative or final followup (P < 0.05). Results at postoperative and final followup were better than the preoperative period. However, the difference was not significant between postoperative and final followup (P > 0.05). Thirty-four patients who were employed before the injury returned to work after the operation, 15 had changed to less strenuous work. Conclusion: Good mid term clinicoradiological results of anterior decompression with D-rod and titanium mesh fixation for suitable patients with mid-lumbar

  20. A Cost-Benefit Between Pyxis and Bar Coding for the Brooke Army Medical Center Operating Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-29

    22630 - Lumbar Fusion (single interspace, posterior interbody technique), to 10.1%, CPT code 33405, Prosthetic Heart Valve (Aortic). Table 5. Manual...Calculations vs. Pyxis CPT Code Title Manual E Variance 22612 Lumbar Fusion (posterior or $1,048.59 $1059.30 $10.71 posterolateral technique)(single (1...interspace) 22558 Anterior Lumbar Interbody $1054.72 $1090.18 $35.46 Fusion Pyxis vs. Bar Coding 30 (3.2%) 22630 Lumber Fusion (single $4819.88

  1. Porous titanium-nickel for intervertebral fusion in a sheep model: part 2. Surface analysis and nickel release assessment.

    PubMed

    Assad, M; Chernyshov, A V; Jarzem, P; Leroux, M A; Coillard, C; Charette, S; Rivard, C H

    2003-02-15

    Porous titanium-nickel (PTN) devices represent an alternative to traditional cage implants. PTN materials possess an interconnecting network of pores with capillarity properties that may promote bone ingrowth, long-term fixation, and intervertebral fusion without the need for bone grafting. However, their considerable surface area and nickel content may elicit concerns over sensitization potential. Therefore, PTN surface corrosion and nickel release resistance must be carefully studied. To evaluate this possibility, a PTN interbody fusion device (IFD) was compared to a conventional nonporous cage made of TiAlV, a well-known biocompatible biomaterial, in a sheep model. PTN and TiAlV IFDs were inserted at two non-contiguous lumbar sites for 3, 6, and 12 months postsurgery. Their surface was then evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with backscattered electron analysis (BSE). No evidence of surface corrosion was observed either pre- or postimplantation, regardless of device type. Dosage of nickel ions was also performed with the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Blood nickel levels were observed to be within acceptable levels at all postinstrumentation times. Nickel content in PTN-adjacent tissue, as well as in detoxification and remote organs, was equivalent both in PTN-treated and control sheep. Therefore, porous titanium-nickel demonstrated resistance to both in vivo surface corrosion and nickel ion release and compared very well with a conventional titanium implant in the course of a 12-month sheep study.

  2. Spinal neuromodulation as a novel surgical option for failed back surgery syndrome following rhBMP exuberant bony growth in instrumented lumbar fusion: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Lissounov, Alexei; Tverdohleb, Tatiana; Kohanchi, David; Candido, Kenneth D.; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) for instrumented lumbar fusion was approved in 2002, and since then has led to an increasing incidence of BMP-related neuropathic pain. These patients are usually resistant to conventional medical therapy and frequently undergo multiple surgical revisions without any pain relief. Case Description: A 58-year-old male was referred to the author's outpatient clinic after four lumbar surgeries did not provide satisfactory pain relief. During his 10 years of suffering from low back pain after an injury, the patient was resistant to conventional and interventional treatment options. He was experiencing severe back pain rated 10/10, as well as right lower extremity pain, numbness, tingling, and motor deficits. Outside spine specialists had performed revision surgeries for BMP-related exuberant bone formation at L5–S1, which included the removal of the ipsilateral hardware and debridement of intradiscal and intraforamina heterotrophic exuberant bony formation. The author implanted the patient with a permanent continuous spinal cord stimulator, after which he achieved complete pain relief (0/10) and restoration of motor, sensory, autonomic, and sphincter functions. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of restorative function with neuromodulation therapy in a BMP-induced postoperative complication, which is considered as a primarily inflammatory process, rather than nerve root compression due to exuberant bony formation. We hypothesize that neuromodulation may enhance blood flow and interfere with inflammatory processes, in addition to functioning by the accepted gate control theory mechanism. The neuromodulation therapy should be strongly considered as a therapeutic approach, even with confirmed BMP-induced postoperative radiculitis, rather than proposing multiple surgical revisions. PMID:27843683

  3. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  4. Clinical outcomes following spinal fusion using an intraoperative computed tomographic 3D imaging system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Roy; Miller, Jacob A; Sabharwal, Navin C; Lubelski, Daniel; Alentado, Vincent J; Healy, Andrew T; Mroz, Thomas E; Benzel, Edward C

    2017-03-03

    -related readmission (0.8% vs 2.2%, risk ratio [RR] 0.37; p = 0.05) and overall readmissions (4.9% vs 7.4%, RR 0.66; p = 0.07). The O-arm was significantly associated with decreased risk of reoperation for hardware failure (2.9% vs 5.9%, RR 0.50; p = 0.01), screw misplacement (1.6% vs 4.2%, RR 0.39; p < 0.01), and all-cause reoperation (5.2% vs 10.9%, RR 0.48; p < 0.01). Mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that O-arm-assisted navigation was a significant predictor of decreased risk of reoperation (HR 0.49; p < 0.01). The protective effect of O-arm-assisted navigation against reoperation was durable in subset analysis of procedures involving < 5 vertebral levels (HR 0.44; p = 0.01) and ≥ 5 levels (HR 0.48; p = 0.03). Further subset analysis demonstrated that O-arm-assisted navigation predicted decreased risk of reoperation among patients undergoing posterolateral fusion only (HR 0.39; p < 0.01) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (HR 0.22; p = 0.03), but not posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. CONCLUSIONS To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate clinical outcomes associated with O-arm-assisted navigation following thoracolumbar spinal fusion. O-arm-assisted navigation decreased the risk of reoperation to less than half the risk associated with freehand and fluoroscopic approaches. Future randomized controlled trials to corroborate the findings of the present study are warranted.

  5. Can the caudal extent of fusion in the surgical treatment of scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy be stopped at lumbar 5?

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Ueno, Masaki; Saito, Wataru; Shintani, Ryousuke; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Ohtori, Seiji; Okamoto, Makihito; Masaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Ueda, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Instrumentation and fusion to the sacrum/pelvis has been a mainstay in the surgical treatment of scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and is recommended to correct pelvic obliquity. The caudal extent of instrumentation and fusion in the surgical treatment of scoliosis in DMD has remained a matter of considerable debate, and there have been few studies on the use of segmental pedicle screw instrumentation for this pathology. From 2004 to 2007, a total of 28 patients with DMD underwent segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion only to L5. Assessment was performed clinically and with radiologic measurements. All patients had a curve with the apex at L2 or higher preoperatively. Preoperative coronal curve averaged 74°, with a postoperative mean of 14°, and 17° at the last follow-up. The pelvic obliquity improved from 17° preoperatively to 6° postoperatively, and 6° at the last follow-up. Good sagittal plane alignment was recreated after surgery and maintained long term. In 23 patients with a preoperative L5 tilt of less than 15°, the pelvic obliquity was effectively corrected to less than 10° and maintained by adequately addressing spinal deformity, while five patients with a preoperative L5 tilt of more than 15° had a postoperative pelvic obliquity of more than 15°. Segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion to L5 was effective and safe in patients with DMD scoliosis with a minimal L5 tilt (<15°) and a curve with the apex at L2 or higher, both initially and long term, obviating the need for fixation to the sacrum/pelvis. Segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion to L5 was safe and effective in patients with DMD scoliosis with stable L5/S1 articulation as evidenced by a minimal L5 tilt of less than 15°, even though pelvic obliquity was significant. There was no major complication. With rigid segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, the caudal extent of fusion in the treatment of DMD scoliosis should be determined by the

  6. Instrumented reduction and monosegmental fusion for Meyerding Grade IV developmental spondylolisthesis: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kentaro; Mikami, Yasuo; Nagae, Masateru; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Takumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-12-01

    There are numerous reports of treatment methods for spondylolisthesis with a Meyerding Grade of more than III. In high dysplastic spondylosthesis, surgical treatment was selected because there is considered to be a high possibility of low back pain and lower limb neurological symptoms worsening if slippage progresses. Monosegmental lumbar interbody fusion (L5-S1) with a pedicle screw system (PPS) was used to treat three cases of Meyerding Grade IV developmental spondylolisthesis. Patients gave written informed consent. The spondylolisthesis was reduced to Meyerding Grade I and sagittal balance improved in all three cases. In two cases with severe spinal instability, there were no postoperative neurological complications and the course was favorable. However, in one case with little spinal mobility due to vertebral body dysplasia, despite performing sufficient decompression of the nerve root at L5 and slow reduction to avoid placing excessive tension on the nerve root, a transient neurological disorder was observed. A PPS was used to increase the reduction strength and favorable reduction was possible. However, in the case with a long clinical course and the case with poor spinal mobility, since the mobility and plasticity of the nerve root itself may have been reduced, it was considered that reduction should be performed carefully using intraoperative neurological monitoring.

  7. Instrumented Reduction and Monosegmental Fusion for Meyerding Grade IV Developmental Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kentaro; Mikami, Yasuo; Nagae, Masateru; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Takumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are numerous reports of treatment methods for spondylolisthesis with a Meyerding Grade of more than III. In high dysplastic spondylosthesis, surgical treatment was selected because there is considered to be a high possibility of low back pain and lower limb neurological symptoms worsening if slippage progresses. Monosegmental lumbar interbody fusion (L5–S1) with a pedicle screw system (PPS) was used to treat three cases of Meyerding Grade IV developmental spondylolisthesis. Patients gave written informed consent. The spondylolisthesis was reduced to Meyerding Grade I and sagittal balance improved in all three cases. In two cases with severe spinal instability, there were no postoperative neurological complications and the course was favorable. However, in one case with little spinal mobility due to vertebral body dysplasia, despite performing sufficient decompression of the nerve root at L5 and slow reduction to avoid placing excessive tension on the nerve root, a transient neurological disorder was observed. A PPS was used to increase the reduction strength and favorable reduction was possible. However, in the case with a long clinical course and the case with poor spinal mobility, since the mobility and plasticity of the nerve root itself may have been reduced, it was considered that reduction should be performed carefully using intraoperative neurological monitoring. PMID:25546662

  8. Minimally Invasive Laminectomy in Spondylolisthetic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Caralopoulos, Ilias N.; Bui, Cuong J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative lumbar stenosis associated with spondylolisthesis is common in elderly patients. The most common symptoms are those of neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Surgery is indicated for those who fail conservative management. The generally accepted recommendation is to perform a laminectomy and a fusion at the involved level. Methods We reviewed our results for minimally invasive single-level decompression without fusion performed by the senior author in patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis with no dynamic instability from 2008 to 2011 at a single institution. Outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale, and revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at initial presentation and at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up time points. Results Records for 28 patients (19 males, 9 females) were reviewed. The success rate, defined as improvement in pain and functional outcome without the need for surgical fusion, was 86%. VAS scores decreased by 6.3 points, Prolo scores increased by 3.5 points, and the ODI decreased by 31% at 1 year. All changes were statistically significant. Conclusion Minimally invasive decompression alone can be a reasonable alternative to decompression and fusion for patients with spondylolisthetic lumbar stenosis and neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Decompression without fusion should be considered for older patients and for patients who are not ideal fusion candidates. PMID:24688331

  9. Enhancement of posterolateral lumbar spine fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and mesenchymal stem cells delivered in fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zunpeng; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Haitao; He, Xiaoning; Liu, Xinchun

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have shown great potential for accelerating bone healing. In the present study, we evaluate the efficacy of fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite for posterolateral spinal fusion in a rabbit model. Forty adult rabbits underwent posterolateral intertransverse fusion at the L5-L6 level. The animals were randomly divided into four groups based on the implant material: fibrin glue, fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells composite, fibrin glue-recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2) composite, and fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite. After six weeks, the rabbits were euthanized for manual palpation, radiographic examination, biomechanical testing, and histology. Manual palpation results showed that the fusion rate for fibrin glue, fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells, fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, and fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was 0, 0, 40%, and 70%, respectively. Moreover, fusion rate determined by radiographic examination for fibrin glue, fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells, fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, and fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was 0, 0, 40%, and 80%, respectively. Gray analysis showed that fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 group had higher ossification area and density than fibrin glue group; and fibrin glue/mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 group had higher ossification area and density than fibrin glue/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 group. Formation of continuous bone masses between L5 and L6 level in mesenchymal stem cells/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/fibrin glue group was further confirmed by computed

  10. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT in rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: a low-cost, behavioural approach is cost-effective over individual exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Laurberg, Ida; Christensen, Finn B

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Christensen et al. reported the clinical effects of a low-cost rehabilitation program equally efficient to a relatively intensive program of individual, physiotherapist-guided exercise therapy. Yet, the low-cost approach is not fully supported as an optimal strategy until a full-scale economic evaluation, including extra-hospital effects such as service utilization in the primary health care sector and return-to-work, is conducted. The objective of this study was to conduct such evaluation i.e. investigate the cost-effectiveness of (1) a low-cost rehabilitation regimen with a behavioural element and (2) a regimen of individual exercise therapy, both in comparison with usual practice, from a health economic, societal perspective. Study design was a cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT with a 2-year follow-up. Ninety patients having had posterolateral or circumferential fusion (indicated by chronic low back pain and localized pathology) were randomized 3 months after their spinal fusion. Validated pain- and disability index scales were applied at baseline and at 2 years postoperative. Costs were measured in a full-scale societal perspective. The probability of the behavioural approach being cost-effective was close to 1 given pain as the prioritized effect measure, and 0.8 to 0.6 (dependent on willingness to pay per effect unit) given disability as the prioritized effect measure. The probability of the exercise therapy approach being cost-effective was modest due to inferior effectiveness. Results proved robust to relevant sensitivity analysis although a differentiated cost-effectiveness ratio between males and females was suspected. In conclusion, a simple behavioural extension, of setting up group meetings for patients, to a regimen with a strict physiotherapeutic focus was found cost-effective, whereas the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency and guidance of a traditional physiotherapeutic regimen was unlikely in present trial setting.

  11. Commentary on: A randomized controlled trial of fusion surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (Forsth P, Ólafsson G, Carlsson T, Frost A, Borgström F, Fritzell P, et al. N Eng J Med 2016;374:1414-23)

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This article by Forsth et al. published in the New England Journal of Medicine entitled A randomized controlled trial of fusion surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis determined that decompressions alone vs. decompressions/fusions were equally effective in treating 1-2 level spinal stensois with/without degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Additionally, decompression alone reduced the perioperative morbidity, while reducuing the length of hospital stay (LOS), operative time, and surgical costs. Methods: Utilizing a randomized controlled design, the efficacy of 1-2 level decompressions alone vs. decompressions with fusions for lumbar spinal stenosis with/without DS (135 patients) was assessed in 247 patients between the ages of 50–80. Outcomes were analyzed at 2 and 5 postoperative years utilizing the 6-minute walk test, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results: At 2 and 5 postoperative years, there were no significant clinical differences between the two groups (e.g., on the average ODI or 6-minute walk test). In addition, with decompressions alone, the LOS (averaging 7.4 days for fusion vs. 4.1 days for decompression alone), surgical time, and operative costs were markedly reduced. Furthermore, at 6.5 postoperative years, reoperation rates were comparable for both groups; 22% for decompression/fusion vs. 21% for decompression alone. Conclusions: The authors concluded that at 2 and 5 postoperative years, patients with 1-2 level spinal stenosis did equally well with decompressions alone vs. decompressions with fusions with/without degenerative spondylolisthesis. This article offers a clear message for spinal surgeons; for older patients with 1-2 level spinal stenosis with/without DS, decompresions alone will typically suffice. This reduces patient morbidity along with LOS, operative time, and surgical costs. PMID:27843676

  12. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite–collagen composite) –alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union–related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone.

  13. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite–collagen composite) –alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union–related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone. PMID:27833116

  14. Scoliosis secondary to lumbar osteoid osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiping; Niu, Xingbang; Wang, Biao; He, Simin; Hao, Dingjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lumbar osteoid osteoma has a low incidence, which could easily lead to scoliosis. Patient concerns: Scoliosis secondary to lumbar osteoid osteoma could be easily misdiagnosed when patients do not complain of obvious symptoms. Diagnoses: We reported a case of a 9-year-old boy with back deformity that was firstly diagnosed with scoliosis at the local hospital. After prescribed with orthosis, the patient experienced aggravating pain that could not be relieved with painkillers. After he admitted to our hospital for further medical advice, he was prescribed to complete radiological examinations. Considering his radiological examination results and his medical history, correct diagnosis of lumbar osteoid osteoma was made. Interventions: Surgical intervention of posterior lesion resection was conducted after diagnosis. Intra-operative frozen pathology indicated features of osteoid osteoma. As the lesion involved inferior articular process of L5, which could cause lumbar instability after lesion resection, internal fixation was conducted at L4-S1 segment, and posterolateral bone fusion was also conducted at L5-S1 segment. Outcomes: Three months after operation, the patient showed marked improvement of scoliosis deformity and great relief of lumbar pain. Lessons subsections: Although spine osteoid osteoma is clinically rare, it shall not be overlooked when young patients present with scoliosis first. Radiological results including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging shall be taken carefully as reference when making diagnosis. Surgical intervention of lesion resection could well improve scoliosis and relieve lumbar pain. PMID:27893671

  15. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  16. The role of lumbar disc replacement in the surgical management of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Brian J C

    2012-01-01

    Spinal fusion has long been the standard surgical treatment for degenerative disorders of the spine, but clinical outcomes are often unpredictable. Lumbar disc replacement allows removal of the pain source while preserving motion. This article explores the role of lumbar disc replacement in the surgical management of low back pain.

  17. Study on the anatomy of the lumbosacral anterior great vessels pertinent to L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery with computer tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liehua; Liang, Yong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Haoming; Li, Songtao; Zhao, Chen; Hou, Tianyong; Liu, Ling

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the anatomy of the lumbosacral anterior great vessels using computer tomography (CT) angiography before L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery. Sixty-two adult patients were selected. The location of the abdominal aortic bifurcation and common iliac venous confluence in the lumbar vertebrae and the anatomic parameters of the iliac vascular space (e.g., distances from the included angle vertex of the iliac vascular space to the median sagittal plane and to the inferior boundary of L5 and distances between the left and right iliac vessels on the inferior boundary of L5 and on the superior boundary of S1) were analysed. Overall, 67.73% of the 62 cases had an abdominal aortic bifurcation located at L4 and L4/5 intervertebral disc; 61.29%, the common iliac venous confluence located at L5. The four distances mentioned above were 0.98 cm ± 0.38 cm, 2.01 cm ± 1.26 cm, 3.11 cm ± 1.35 cm and 4.34 cm ± 1.10 cm, respectively. A classification system of types A, B and C was developed. The calculated L5/S1 intervertebral space exposure percentages of types A, B and C were 32.21%, 82.58% and 54.68%, respectively. During L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery, type B intervertebral discs can be exposed conveniently, preventing injury of the iliac vessels, which was also observed in 54.68% and 32.21% of the type C and type A discs, respectively. Because the type A intervertebral disc has minimal exposure, the risk of iliac vascular injury is relatively high in these patients.

  18. Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

  19. Quantification of lumbar endurance on a backup lumbar extension dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Hager, Staci M; Udermann, Brian E; Reineke, David M; Gibson, Mark H; Mayer, John M; Murray, Steven R

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of static and dynamic lumbar muscle endurance measurements on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer. Sixteen healthy participants (8 male; 8 female) volunteered for this investigation. Fifty percent of each participant's body weight was calculated to determine the weight load utilized for the static (holding time) and dynamic (repetitions) lumbar extension endurance tests. Four separate tests (2 static, 2 dynamic) were conducted with at least a 24-hour rest period between tests. Test-retest intraclass correlations were shown to be high (static lumbar endurance, ICC = 0.92 (p < 0.0005); dynamic lumbar endurance, ICC = 0.93 (p < 0.0005) for both of the performed tests. Our results demonstrated that static and dynamic lumbar endurance can be assessed reliably on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer. Key PointsReliability studies that test lumbar endurance on machines that effectively stabilize the pelvis and isolate the lumbar extensors are limited.This is the first study to report reliability measures of static and dynamic lumbar endurance on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer.Static and dynamic lumbar endurance on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer, which uses a variety of pelvic stabilization mechanisms, can be reliably assessed in apparently healthy individuals.Future research is necessary to examine the reliability of lumbar extension endurance on the BackUP dynamometer in patient populations and validity in various settings.

  20. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  1. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  2. Lumbar Stenosis: A Recent Update by Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Lee, Seung Jin

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc results in initial relative instability, hypermobility, and hypertrophy of the facet joints, particularly at the superior articular process. This finally leads to a reduction of the spinal canal dimensions and compression of the neural elements, which can result in neurogenic intermittent claudication caused by venous congestion and arterial hypertension around nerve roots. Most patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis had neurogenic intermittent claudication with the risk of a fall. However, although the physical findings and clinical symptoms in lumbar stenosis are not acute, the radiographic findings are comparatively severe. Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive and good method for evaluation of lumbar stenosis. Though there are very few studies pertaining to the natural progression of lumbar spinal stenosis, symptoms of spinal stenosis usually respond favorably to non-operative management. In patients who fail to respond to non-operative management, surgical treatments such as decompression or decompression with spinal fusion are required. Restoration of a normal pelvic tilt after lumbar fusion correlates to a good clinical outcome. PMID:26435805

  3. Total Disc Replacement in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) was introduced for the first time to the world market for the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). It seems like the right time to sum up the relevant results in order to understand where LTDR stands on now, and is heading forward to. The pathogenesis of DDD has been currently settled, but diagnosis and managements are still controversial. Fusion is recognized as golden standard of surgical managements but has various kinds of shortcomings. Lately, LTDR has been expected to replace fusion surgery. A great deal of LTDR reports has come out. Among them, more than 5-year follow-up prospective randomized controlled studies including USA IDE trials were expected to elucidate whether for LTDR to have therapeutic benefit compared to fusion. The results of these studies revealed that LTDR was not inferior to fusion. Most of clinical studies dealing with LTDR revealed that there was no strong evidence for preventive effect of LTDR against symptomatic degenerative changes of adjacent segment disease. LTDR does not have shortcomings associated with fusion. However, it has a potentiality of the new complications to occur, which surgeons have never experienced in fusion surgeries. Consequently, longer follow-up should be necessary as yet to confirm the maintenance of improved surgical outcome and to observe any very late complications. LTDR still may get a chance to establish itself as a substitute of fusion both nominally and virtually if it eases the concerns listed above. PMID:26713139

  4. Spinal Anesthesia in Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Noah L; Edwards, Charles C; Brown, Charles H; Ledford, Emily C; Dean, Clayton L; Lin, Charles; Edwards, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Spinal anesthesia is increasingly viewed as a reasonable alternative to general anesthesia for lumbar spine surgery. However, the results of spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine decompression and combined decompression and fusion procedures are limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to report a single institution's experience using spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. A retrospective review was conducted using a prospectively collected database of consecutive lumbar spine surgeries performed under spinal anesthesia in patients 70 years or older at a single center between December 2013 and October 2015. A total of 56 patients were included in the study; 27 patients (48%) underwent lumbar decompression and 29 patients (52%) underwent combined decompression and fusion procedures. Mean operative time was 101 minutes (range, 30-210 minutes), and mean operative blood loss was 187 mL (range, 20-700 mL). Mean maximum inpatient postoperative visual analog scale score was 6.2 (range, 1-10). Nausea occurred in 21% (12 of 56) of the patients. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days (range, 1-6 days). No mortality, stroke, permanent loss of function, or pulmonary embolism occurred. None of the cases required conversion to general anesthesia. All of the patients were ambulatory on either the day of the surgery or the next morning. These results demonstrate that spinal anesthesia is a viable method of anesthesia for patients 70 years and older undergoing lumbar spine surgery. They also demonstrate the safety of this method for patients older than 84 years and for surgeries lasting up to 3½ hours. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e317-e322.].

  5. [Fusion implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastic].

    PubMed

    Früh, H J; Liebetrau, A; Bertagnoli, R

    2002-05-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used in the medical field when high mechanical strength, innovative design, and radiolucency (see spinal fusion implants) are needed. During the manufacturing process of the material CFRP carbon fibers are embedded into a resin matrix. This resin material could be thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin EPN/DDS) or thermoplastic (e.g., PEAK). CFRP is biocompatible, radiolucent, and has higher mechanical capabilities compared to other implant materials. This publication demonstrates the manufacturing process of fusion implants made of a thermoset matrix system using a fiber winding process. The material has been used clinically since 1994 for fusion implants of the cervical and lumbar spine. The results of the fusion systems CORNERSTONE-SR C (cervical) and UNION (lumbar) showed no implant-related complications. New implant systems made of this CFRP material are under investigation and are presented.

  6. [Non fusion techniques in spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Schizas, C; Duff, J M; Tessitore, E; Faundez, A

    2009-12-16

    In order to prevent adjacent segment degeneration following spinal fusion new techniques are being used. Lumbar disc arthroplasty yields mid term results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Cervical disc arthroplasty is indicated in the treatment of cervicobrachialgia with encouraging initial results. The ability of arthroplasty to prevent adjacent segment degeneration has yet to be proven. Although dynamic stabilization had not been proven effective in treating chronic low back pain, it might be useful following decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Interspinal devices are useful in mild lumbar spinal stenosis but their efficacy in treating low back pain is yet to be proven. Confronted with a growing number of new technologies clinicians should remain critical while awaiting long term results.

  7. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  8. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  9. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized.

  10. Improving the Clinical Evidence of Bone Graft Substitute Technology in Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wellington K.; Nickoli, M. S.; Wang, J. C.; Lieberman, J. R.; An, H. S.; Yoon, S. T.; Youssef, J. A.; Brodke, D. S.; McCullough, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes have been used routinely for spine fusion for decades, yet clinical evidence establishing comparative data remains sparse. With recent scrutiny paid to the outcomes, complications, and costs associated with osteobiologics, a need to improve available data guiding efficacious use exists. We review the currently available clinical literature, studying the outcomes of various biologics in posterolateral lumbar spine fusion, and establish the need for a multicenter, independent osteobiologics registry. PMID:24353975

  11. Postlaminectomy Bilateral Lumbar Intraspinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ik; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts are included in the difference diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Developing imaging modalities has result in increased reporting about these lesions. However, the case of bilateral new lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy has been rarely reported. We report of a rare case with bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:27799997

  12. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery Plus Lumbar Mini-Open Surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyon Su; Kim, Hak Sun; Ankur, Nanda; Kho, Phillip Anthony; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Do Yeon; Park, Jin Oh; Moon, Seong Hwan; Lee, Hwan Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study are to describe the outcome of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated with Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) plus supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region for thoracic and lumbar deformity correction and fusion. Materials and Methods This is a case series of 13 patients treated with VATS plus lumbar mini-open surgery for AIS. A total of 13 patients requiring fusions of both the thoracic and lumbar regions were included in this study: 5 of these patients were classified as Lenke type 1A and 8 as Lenke type 5C. Fusion was performed using VATS up to T12 or L1 vertebral level. Lower levels were accessed via a small mini-incision in the lumbar area to gain access to the lumbar spine via the retroperitoneal space. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Results The average number of fused vertebrae was 7.1 levels. A significant correction in the Cobb angle was obtained at the final follow-up (p = 0.001). The instrumented segmental angle in the sagittal plane was relatively well-maintained following surgery, albeit with a slight increase. Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) scores were noted have significantly improved at the final follow-up (p < 0.05). Conclusion Indications for the use of VATS may be extended from patients with localized thoracic scoliosis to those with thoracolumbar scoliosis. By utilizing a supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region, a satisfactory deformity correction may be accomplished with minimal post-operative scarring. PMID:21155045

  13. The activL® Artificial Disc: a next-generation motion-preserving implant for chronic lumbar discogenic pain

    PubMed Central

    Yue, James J; Garcia, Rolando; Miller, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs is a leading cause of chronic low back pain in adults. Treatment options for patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain unresponsive to conservative management include total disc replacement (TDR) or lumbar fusion. Until recently, only two lumbar TDRs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration − the Charité Artificial Disc in 2004 and the ProDisc-L Total Disc Replacement in 2006. In June 2015, a next-generation lumbar TDR received Food and Drug Administration approval − the activL® Artificial Disc (Aesculap Implant Systems). Compared to previous-generation lumbar TDRs, the activL® Artificial Disc incorporates specific design enhancements that result in a more precise anatomical match and allow a range of motion that better mimics the healthy spine. The results of mechanical and clinical studies demonstrate that the activL® Artificial Disc results in improved mechanical and clinical outcomes versus earlier-generation artificial discs and compares favorably to lumbar fusion. The purpose of this report is to describe the activL® Artificial Disc including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, postoperative care, mechanical testing, and clinical experience to date. PMID:27274317

  14. The activL(®) Artificial Disc: a next-generation motion-preserving implant for chronic lumbar discogenic pain.

    PubMed

    Yue, James J; Garcia, Rolando; Miller, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs is a leading cause of chronic low back pain in adults. Treatment options for patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain unresponsive to conservative management include total disc replacement (TDR) or lumbar fusion. Until recently, only two lumbar TDRs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration - the Charité Artificial Disc in 2004 and the ProDisc-L Total Disc Replacement in 2006. In June 2015, a next-generation lumbar TDR received Food and Drug Administration approval - the activL(®) Artificial Disc (Aesculap Implant Systems). Compared to previous-generation lumbar TDRs, the activL(®) Artificial Disc incorporates specific design enhancements that result in a more precise anatomical match and allow a range of motion that better mimics the healthy spine. The results of mechanical and clinical studies demonstrate that the activL(®) Artificial Disc results in improved mechanical and clinical outcomes versus earlier-generation artificial discs and compares favorably to lumbar fusion. The purpose of this report is to describe the activL(®) Artificial Disc including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, postoperative care, mechanical testing, and clinical experience to date.

  15. PRIMARY LIPOSARCOMA OF THE LUMBAR SPINE: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Cardoso, André Luiz Passos; Tristão, Newton Antônio; Pimenta, Wilson Eloy; Daher, Sérgio; de Souza Carneiro, Siderley; Barbosa, Nathalia Parrode Machado; de Lima Malta, Nayanne; Ribeiro, Noara Barros

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of primary bone liposarcoma of the lumbar spine, for which only one case has been reported. A female patient, 60 years of age, with lumbar pain and left sciatalgy for six months. In the imaging exams, a destructive tumor was found in the L4 vertebral body, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumoral lesion with T1 hiposignal and T2 hypersignal. Histological diagnosis was difficult, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical treatment was performed with wide ressection, spinal cord decompression, and anterior and posterior fusion of L3 to L5 complemented by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After three years, a computed tomography (CT) scan evidenced an expansive injury in the lung. Despite its rarity, liposarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sciatica and primary tumors of the spine. PMID:27027092

  16. Occult lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, A R; Taylor, J C

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients presenting with low back pain, associated with sciatic or femoral neuropathy, were found to have lateral recess stenosis occurring as a result of hypertrophy of the facet joints, with preservation within normal limits of the sagittal AP diameter of the lumbar canal. Pathology was believed to be traumatic in origin, and the variable nature of the adhesions suggested recurrent inflammation; the hypertrophy of the facet joints may have been the result of traumatic inflammatory hyperaemia. Radiological investigations were unhelpful. The diagnosis of the condition was made at the time of surgical exploration by the findings of alteration of the facet joints, adhesions and fixity of the nerve roots, normal sagittal AP diameter of the canal, and absence of other significant lesions. Gratifying results were obtained with decompression by wide laminectomy with excision of overhanging facet joints and release of adhesions. PMID:894321

  17. [Intradural lumbar disk hernia].

    PubMed

    Alonso-Bartolomé, P; Canga, A; Vázquez-Barquero, A; García-Valtuille, R; Abascal, F; Cerezal, L

    2001-04-01

    Intradural disc herniation is a rare complication of degenerative disc disease. A correct diagnosis of this process is frequently difficult. If this entity is not preoperatively diagnosed and is omitted at surgery, severe neurologic sequels may be provoked. We report a case of a pathologically proven intradural disc herniation preoperatively diagnosed by MR imaging. Clinically, it was manifested by sudden onset of right leg ciatalgia and progressive right lower extremity weakness. The patient also referred a one-month history of sexual dysfunction. MR imaging revealed interruption of the low signal of the anulus fibrosus and of the posterior longitudinal ligament at L2-L3 level and a voluminous disc fragment migrated in the dural sac that showed rim enhancement with gadolinium.The clinical, neuroradiological, and surgical management of lumbar intradural disc herniation are reviewed.

  18. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  19. Effect of Direct Vertebral Rotation on the Uninstrumented Lumbar Curve in Thoracic Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Suk, Se-Il

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To determine the effect and direction of direct vertebral rotation (DVR) in the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) on the uninstrumented lumbar curve depending on the lumbar modifier used for the correction of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Overview of Literature DVR in the LIV should be implemented in a different direction to obtain better spontaneous lumbar correction depending on the preoperative lumbar spine modifier. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 160 patients with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by pedicle screw instrumentation and rod derotation. Patients who had a distal fusion level between T11 and L1 were divided into two groups: the DVR group versus the No-DVR group. Each group was divided into subgroups depending on the lumbar modifier used: the DVR-A, B, and C groups versus the No-DVR-A, B, and C groups. The DVR-A group was subdivided into two subgroups depending on the direction of screw rotation in the LIV: the DVR-A-O group (opposite direction) and the DVR-A-S group (same direction). Results There were no significant differences in the preoperative curve characteristics between the two groups. The preoperative lumbar curve was corrected in 70% of the patients in the DVR group and in 56% in the No-DVR group. Spontaneous coronal correction of the lumbar curve was better in the DVR-A-S group than that in the No-DVR-A group. However, the DVR-A-O group had the higher incidence of adding-on deformity. The DVR-B and C groups showed better spontaneous correction of lumbar coronal magnitude, apical vertebral translation, and rotation and the LIV tilting. Conclusions In lumbar modifiers B and C, screws in the LIV have to be rotated opposite to the direction of the screw rotation of the main thoracic curve; however, in modifier A, the screws have to be rotated in the same direction. PMID:28243381

  20. Radioscapholunate Fusions

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Duncan Thomas; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarpal fusions are performed for a variety of indications, most commonly for debilitating painful arthritis. The goal of a wrist fusion is to fuse the painful, diseased joints and to preserve motion through the healthy joints. Depending on the extent of the disease process, radiocarpal fusions may take the form of radiolunate, radioscapholunate, or total wrist fusions. Surgical techniques and instrumentation have advanced over the last few decades, and consequently the functional outcomes have improved and complications decreased. Techniques for partial carpal fusions have improved and now include distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision, which improves range of motion and fusion rates. In this article we discuss the various surgical techniques and fixation methods available and review the corresponding evidence in the literature. The authors' preferred surgical technique of radioscapholunate fusion with distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision is outlined. New implants and new concepts are also discussed. PMID:24179717

  1. Clinical and surgical outcomes after lumbar laminectomy: An analysis of 500 patients

    PubMed Central

    Bydon, Mohamad; Macki, Mohamed; Abt, Nicholas B.; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to determine the clinical and surgical outcomes following lumbar laminectomy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of neurosurgical patients who underwent first-time, bilateral, 1-3 level laminectomies for degenerative lumbar disease. Patients with discectomy, complete facetectomy, and fusion were excluded. Results: Five hundred patients were followed for an average of 46.79 months. Following lumbar laminectomy, patients experienced statistically significant improvement in back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, weakness, and sensory deficits. The rate of intraoperative durotomy was 10.00%; however, 1.60% experienced a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak. The risk of experiencing at least one postoperative complication with a lumbar laminectomy was 5.60%. Seventy-two patients (14.40%) required reoperations for progression of degenerative disease over a mean of 3.40 years. The most common symptoms prior to reoperation included back pain (54.17%), radiculopathy (47.22%), weakness (18.06%), sensory deficit (15.28%), and neurogenic claudication (19.44%). The relative risk of reoperation for patients with postoperative back pain was 6.14 times higher than those without postoperative back pain (P < 0.001). Of the 72 patients undergoing reoperations, 55.56% underwent decompression alone, while 44.44% underwent decompression and posterolateral fusions. When considering all-time reoperations, the lifetime risk of requiring a fusion after a lumbar laminectomy based on this study (average follow-up of 46.79 months) was 8.0%. Conclusion: Patients experienced statistically significant improvements in back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, motor weakness, and sensory deficit following lumbar laminectomy. Incidental durotomy rate was 10.00%. Following a first-time laminectomy, the reoperation rate was 14.4% over a mean of 3.40 years. PMID:26005583

  2. Shape optimization for the subsidence resistance of an interbody device using simulation-based genetic algorithms and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Chi

    2013-07-01

    Subsidence of interbody devices into the vertebral body might result in serious clinical problems, especially when the devices are not well designed and analyzed. Recently, some novel designs were proposed to reduce the risk of subsidence, but those designs are based on the researcher's experience. The purpose of this study was to discover the interbody device design with excellent subsidence resistance by changing the device's shape. The three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models, which consisted of the interbody device and vertebral body, were created first. Then, the simulation-based genetic algorithm, which combined the finite element model and the searching algorithm, was developed by using ANSYS® Parametric Design Language. Finally, the numerical results were carefully validated with the use of biomechanical tests. The optimum shape design obtained in this study looks like a flower with many petals and it has excellent subsidence resistance when compared with the other designs provided by the past studies. The results of the present study could help surgeons to understand the subsidence resistance of interbody devices in terms of their shapes and has directly provided the design rationales to engineers.

  3. [Lumbar stabilization exercises].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el ejercicio es la intervención con mayor grado de evidencia de eficacia para el tratamiento del dolor crónico de la espalda baja, con beneficio superior en términos de dolor y funcionalidad, en comparación con cualquiera otra intervención. Existe una amplia variedad de ejercicios diseñados; sin embargo, actualmente los llamados ejercicios de estabilización lumbar adquiririeron una popularidad creciente entre los clínicos que están en contacto con enfermedades de la columna. Sin embargo, existe controversia en cuanto a la prescripción adecuada de los mismos y los múltiples protocolos publicados. Objetivo: analizar la bibliografía científica acerca del uso y prescripción de estos ejercicios para favorecer la mejor toma de decisiones enlos clínicos y diseñar, con base a la evidencia, el programa más adecuado para cada paciente. Conclusión: se encontró que este programa es una herramienta esencial en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda baja, en la etapa terapéutica y en la preventiva.

  4. Lumbar intrathecal ligaments.

    PubMed

    Kershner, David E; Binhammer, Robert T

    2002-03-01

    A meticulous examination was performed on 56 vertebral columns from cadavers between 64 and 89 years of age. Identification of all contents within the dural sac was completed; however, the main focus was the cauda equina and lumbar region. In addition to scope dissection, radiographs and histological preparations were used to identify structures, tissue types, and any possible pathology. Discrete intrathecal ligamentous bands were observed in all cadavers examined. They were found randomly binding the dorsal nerve roots of the cauda equina to the dura. Occasional binding of the ventral nerve roots to the dorsal roots was observed. Histological examination demonstrated a dense collagen ligament varying between 0.13 and 0.35 microm in thickness and from 3 mm to 3.5 cm in length. The average number of ligaments found per cadaver was 18. These ligaments displayed a broad base attachment to the nerve root or dura of approximately 3 mm. Looping of the nerve roots associated with these ligaments was seen in one cadaver with a burst fracture. Electron microscopic studies of these ligaments demonstrated similarities to denticulate ligaments. It is suggested that the intrathecal ligaments represent remnants from fetal development of the denticulate ligaments.

  5. Surgical techniques for lumbo-sacral fusion.

    PubMed

    Tropiano, P; Giorgi, H; Faure, A; Blondel, B

    2017-02-01

    Lumbo-sacral (L5-S1) fusion is a widely performed procedure that has become the reference standard treatment for refractory low back pain. L5-S1 is a complex transition zone between the mobile lordotic distal lumbar spine and the fixed sacral region. The goal is to immobilise the lumbo-sacral junction in order to relieve pain originating from this site. Apart from achieving inter-vertebral fusion, the main challenge lies in the preoperative determination of the fixed L5-S1 position that will be optimal for the patient. Many lumbo-sacral fusion techniques are available. Stabilisation can be achieved using various methods. An anterior, posterior, or combined approach may be used. Recently developed minimally invasive techniques are gaining in popularity based on their good clinical outcomes and high fusion rates. The objective of this conference is to resolve the main issues faced by spinal surgeons in their everyday practice.

  6. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  7. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  8. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  9. Minimally invasive surgery for lumbar synovial cysts with coexisting degenerative spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Daniel; Shah, Saumya; Lu, Daniel C.; Holly, Langston T.

    2016-01-01

    Background About one third of lumbar synovial cysts are associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Segmental instability is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and recurrence of synovial cysts and lumbar fusion has been advocated as a treatment of choice in the presence of spondylolisthesis. In patients with spondylolisthesis, minimally invasive resection of lumbar synovial cysts, without fusion, could minimize surgically induced segmental instability while providing good pain relief. Methods Clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar synovial cyst patients with and without spondylolisthesis were retrospectively compared. Pain outcomes were assessed with modified Macnab criteria. Results Fifty-three patients (18 with grade 1 spondylolisthesis) underwent minimally invasive synovial cyst resection and all had either excellent or good pain outcome at ≤ 8 post- operative weeks (P = 1.000, n = 53). At > 8 post-operative weeks (mean (SD) follow-up of 200 (175) weeks), excellent or good outcomes were noted in 89% of patients without spondylolisthesis and in 75% of patients with spondylolisthesis (P = 0.425, n = 40). Four patients developed a new grade 1 spondylolisthesis at a mean follow-up of 2.6 ± 2.1 years. Nine patients were assessed for spondylolisthesis measurements at 1.2 ± 1.3 years of follow up and no significant difference was observed (5 ± 0 vs 5 ± 1 mm; P = 0.791). Two patients without spondylolisthesis and none of the patients with spondylolisthesis had a synovial cyst recurrence. Conclusion Patients with concomitant lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and synovial cyst can have good short- and long-term clinical outcomes with minimally invasive surgery without fusion. Post-operative segmental instability does not appear to be significant in patients with spondylolisthesis. All patients included in this article signed an informed consent for the use of their medical information for research. PMID:27909658

  10. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  11. Chylothorax following anterior thoraco-lumbar spine exposure. A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mora de Sambricio, A; Garrido Stratenwerth, E

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a possible complication of the thoraco-abdominal approach to the spine. It is more commonly a reactive effusion, but it also may be caused by hemothorax, empyema or, less commonly, a chylothorax. The case of a chylothorax is reported as a late onset complication of a double anterior and posterior instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine. Its management and clinical outcome, and a review of the literature is presented.

  12. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar spine configuration

    PubMed Central

    Hamoud, K.; May, H.; Hay, O.; Medlej, B.; Masharawi, Y.; Peled, N.; Hershkovitz, I.

    2010-01-01

    As life expectancy increases, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) becomes a common health problem among the elderly. DLSS is usually caused by degenerative changes in bony and/or soft tissue elements. The poor correlation between radiological manifestations and the clinical picture emphasizes the fact that more studies are required to determine the natural course of this syndrome. Our aim was to reveal the association between lower lumbar spine configuration and DLSS. Two groups were studied: the first included 67 individuals with DLSS (mean age 66 ± 10) and the second 100 individuals (mean age 63.4 ± 13) without DLSS-related symptoms. Both groups underwent CT images (Philips Brilliance 64) and the following measurements were performed: a cross-section area of the dural sac, vertebral body dimensions (height, length and width), AP diameter of the bony spinal canal, lumbar lordosis and sacral slope angles. All measurements were taken at L3 to S1. Vertebral body lengths were significantly greater in the DLSS group at all levels compared to the control, whereas anterior vertebral body heights (L3, L4, L5) and middle vertebral heights (L3, L5) were significantly smaller in the LSS group. Lumbar lordosis, sacral slope and bony spinal canal were significantly smaller in the DLSS compared to the control. We conclude that the size and shape of vertebral bodies and canals significantly differed between the study groups. A tentative model is suggested to explain the association between these characteristics and the development of degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:20652366

  13. Percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy of lumbar spinal facets: the results of 46 cases.

    PubMed

    Göçer, A I; Cetinalp, E; Tuna, M; Ildan, F; Bağdatoğlu, H; Haciyakupoğlu, S

    1997-01-01

    The results of percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy of lumbar spinal facets in 46 patients followed at least three months (mean 15 months) are reported and compared with those reported previously. Satisfactory pain relief three months after the procedure was achieved in 36.4 percent of patients without operations and in 41.7 percent of patients, with operations other than fusion. No patient had previously undergone fusion. Treatment of low-back pain by using radio-frequency thermocoagulation of spinal facets is a simple, safe, and well-tolerated procedure. It can be used to relief of pain in spite of decreasing rates of success within the follow-up period.

  14. The human lumbar dorsal rami.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N; Wilson, A S; Tynan, W

    1982-01-01

    The L 1-4 dorsal rami tend to form three branches, medial, lateral, and intermediate, which are distributed, respectively, to multifidus, iliocostalis, and longissimus. The intertransversarii mediales are innervated by a branch of the dorsal ramus near the origin of the medial branch. The L 4 dorsal ramus regularly forms three branches while the L 1-3 levels the lateral and intermediate branches may, alternatively, arise from a short common stem. The L 5 dorsal ramus is much longer than the others and forms only a medial and an intermediate branch. Each lumbar medial branch innervates two adjacent zygapophysial joints and ramifies in multifidus, supplying only those fascicles which arise from the spinous process with the same segmental number as the nerve. The comparative anatomy of the lumbar dorsal rami is discussed and the applied anatomy with respect to 'rhizolysis', 'facet denervation' and diagnostic paraspinal electromyography is described. PMID:7076562

  15. Assessment of Lumbar Lordosis and Lumbar Core Strength in Information Technology Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Roma Satish; Dabadghav, Rachana; Rairikar, Savita; Shayam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Observational study. Purpose To correlate lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in information technology (IT) professionals. Overview of Literature IT professionals have to work for long hours in a sitting position, which can affect lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength. Methods Flexicurve was used to assess the lumbar lordosis, and pressure biofeedback was used to assess the lumbar core strength in the IT professionals. All subjects, both male and female, with and without complaint of low back pain and working for two or more years were included, and subjects with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity were excluded from the study. Analysis was done using Pearson's correlation. Results For the IT workers, no correlation was seen between lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength (r=–0.04); however, a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain (r=–0.12), while there was no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core in IT people who had no complains of pain (r=0.007). Conclusions The study shows that there is no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in IT professionals, but a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain. PMID:27340529

  16. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans.

  17. Kinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of the Degenerative Cervical Spine: Changes after Anterior Decompression and Cage Fusion.

    PubMed

    Obradov, Marina; Bénard, Menno R; Janssen, Michiel M A; Anderson, Patricia G; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Spruit, Maarten

    2016-11-01

    Study Design A prospective cohort study. Objective Decompression and fusion of cervical vertebrae is a combined procedure that has a high success rate in relieving radicular symptoms and stabilizing or improving cervical myelopathy. However, fusion may lead to increased motion of the adjacent vertebrae and cervical deformity. Both have been postulated to lead to adjacent segment pathology (ASP). Kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used to evaluate range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine and ASP. Our objective was to measure ASP, cervical curvature, and ROM of individual segments of the cervical spine using kinematic MRI before and 24 months after monosegmental cage fusion. Methods Eighteen patients who had single-level interbody fusion were included. ROM (using kinematic MRI) and degeneration, spinal stenosis, and cervical curvature were measured preoperatively and 24 months postoperatively. Results Using kinematic MRI, segmental motion of the cervical segments was measured with a precision of less than 3 degrees. The cervical fusion did not affect the ROM of adjacent levels. However, pre- and postoperative ROM was higher at the levels immediately adjacent to the fusion level compared with those further away. In addition, at 24 months postoperatively, the number of cases with ASP was higher at the levels immediately adjacent to fusion level. Conclusions Using kinematic MRI, ROM after spinal fusion can be measured with high precision. Kinematic MRI can be used not only in clinical practice, but also to study intervention and its effect on postoperative biomechanics and ASP of cervical vertebrae.

  18. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  19. Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease –Update

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical Need Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD. Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery? Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD

  20. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    Liu G, Wong HK. Laminectomy and fusion. In: Shen FH, Samartzis D, Fessler RG, eds. Textbook of the Cervical Spine . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 34. Wood GW. Arthrodesis of the spine. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ...

  1. Trends, Major Medical Complications, and Charges Associated with Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deyo, Richard A.; Mirza, Sohail K.; Martin, Brook I.; Kreuter, William; Goodman, David C.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.

    2010-01-01

    Context In recent decades, the fastest growth in lumbar surgery occurred in older patients with spinal stenosis. Trials indicate that for selected patients, decompressive surgery offers an advantage over non-operative treatment, but surgeons often recommend more invasive fusion procedures. Comorbidity is common in elderly patients, so benefits and risks must be carefully weighed in the choice of surgical procedure. Objective Examine trends in use of different types of stenosis operations and the association of complications and resource use with surgical complexity. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims for 2002–2007, focusing on 2007 to assess complications and resource use in U.S. hospitals. Operations for Medicare recipients undergoing surgery for lumbar stenosis (n=32,152 in the first 11 months of 2007) were grouped into 3 gradations of invasiveness: decompression alone, simple fusion (one or two disc levels, single surgical approach) or complex fusion (more than 2 disc levels or combined anterior and posterior approach). Main Outcome Measures Rates of the 3 types of surgery, major complications, postoperative mortality, and resource use. Results Overall, surgical rates declined slightly from 2002–2007, but the rate of complex fusion procedures increased 15-fold, from 1.3 to 19.9 per 100,000 beneficiaries. Life-threatening complications increased with increasing surgical invasiveness, from 2.3% among patients having decompression alone to 5.6% among those having complex fusions. After adjustment for age, comorbidity, previous spine surgery, and other features, the odds ratio (OR) of life-threatening complications for complex fusion compared to decompression alone was 2.95 (95% CI 2.50–3.49). A similar pattern was observed for rehospitalization within 30 days, which occurred for 7.8% of patients undergoing decompression and 13.0% having a complex fusion (adjusted OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.74–2.17). Adjusted mean hospital

  2. Primary lumbar hernia: A rarely encountered hernia

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramurthy, Sharada; Suresh, H.B.; Anirudh, A.V.; Prakash Rozario, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lumbar hernia is an uncommon abdominal wall hernia, making its diagnosis and management a challenge to the treating surgeon. Presentation may be misleading and diagnosis often missed. An imaging study forms an indispensable aid in the diagnosis and surgery is the only treatment option. Presentation of case A 42 year old male presented with history of pain in lower back of 4 years duration and was being treated symptomatically over 4 years with analgesics and physiotherapy. He had noticed a swelling over the left side of his mid-back and consequently on examination was found to have a primary acquired lumbar hernia arising from the deep superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt. Diagnosis was confirmed by Computed Tomographic imaging. Discussion A lumbar hernia may be primary or secondary with only about 300 cases of primary lumbar hernia reported in literature. Lumbar hernias manifest through two possible defects in the posterior abdominal wall, the superior being more common. Management remains surgical with various techniques emerging over the years. The patient at our center underwent an open sublay mesh repair with excellent outcome. Conclusion A surgeon may encounter a primary lumbar hernia perhaps once in his lifetime making it an interesting surgical challenge. Sound anatomical knowledge and adequate imaging are indispensable. Inspite of advances in minimally invasive surgery, it cannot be universally applied to patients with lumbar hernia and management requires a more tailored approach. PMID:26812667

  3. Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis. Etiologic and pathologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Quiles, M; Marchisello, P J; Tsairis, P

    1978-03-01

    The etiologic factors and pathologic findings in 38 patients with lumbar arachnoiditis are presented. Lumbar spine surgery and the injection of contrast materials prior to the diagnosis of this condition are considered the most important factors in its genesis. In this series, there was microscopic evidence of arachnoiditis ossificans in 3 patients and arachnoiditis calcificans in 1 patient.

  4. Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst

    PubMed Central

    Alen, Jose F.; Ramos, Ana; Lobato, Ramiro D.; Lagares, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature. PMID:20174835

  5. Lumbar Diskography and Failed Back Syndrome in Patients Receiving Workers' Compensation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2015-11-01

    Lumbar diskography (LD) is frequently used in the evaluation of patients with degenerative disk disease and diskogenic low back pain. Its safety and diagnostic accuracy are a topic of debate. No study has evaluated the efficacy of LD within the clinically distinct workers' compensation population. Within this setting, the authors wished to determine the effect of undergoing LD before diskogenic fusion on rates of postoperative failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Also, the authors compared opioid analgesic use between patients undergoing LD and patients not undergoing LD. ICD-9 diagnoses and CPT procedural codes were used to identify 1591 patients from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation who underwent diskogenic fusion between 1993 and 2013. A total of 682 patients underwent LD before fusion, which formed the LD group, with the remaining 909 patients as controls. The authors used a multivariate logistic regression analysis while correcting for relevant covariates. Diskography before fusion was a positive predictor of postoperative FBSS (P=.04; odds ratio, 1.44). The rate of FBSS was 13.9% of the LD group and 8.8% in the control group. Postoperatively, the LD group was supplied with a significantly higher daily opioid analgesic load (P=.04) for an average of 130 additional days (P<.01). Additional predictors of FBSS included the ability to remain at work within 1 week of index fusion (P=.02; odds ratio, 0.54), male sex (P=.03; odds ratio, 1.51), preoperative narcotic use for more than 1 year (P=.02; odds ratio, 1.53), and fusion technique (P=.03). Diskography should ideally help identify good candidates for lumbar fusion. However, the authors' study raises significant concerns regarding LD's current role within the workers' compensation population.

  6. Results of lumbar hemivertebral excision for congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    King, J D; Lowery, G L

    1991-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the long-term correction achieved by excision of lumbar hemivertebrae and the risk attendant. Seven patients had a follow-up of 41.14 months for lumbar hemivertebral excisions. Six had two-stage anterior vertebral body excision and, 7-8 days later, posterior lamina and pedicle excision with fusion. One patient had a single-stage correction. After surgery, the patients were in pantaloon casts or braces for a minimum of 6 months (supine, first 6-12 weeks). Hemivertebrae were at L2 (N = 1), L3 (N = 1), L4-L5 (N = 1), and L5-S1 (N = 4). Preoperative curves or hemivertebral angles averaged 36.6 degrees (range, 30-52 degrees). Average age was 7.5 years (range, 22 months to 12.5 years). Mean follow-up was 41.14 months. Surgical correction of the seven cases averaged 28.0 degrees. Two-stage procedures yielded 29.7 degrees correction with no complications; single-stage yielded 18 degrees correction, and the only complication was an L5 nerve root paresis.

  7. [Lumbar pain in old age].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, H

    1996-10-22

    In advanced age, lumbar pain is less frequently caused by occupational stress and psychosomatic factors. Unstable segments and spondylo-arthrotic degeneration can lead to muscular strain whenever insufficient secondary stability and missing muscular equilibrium are involved. In the differential diagnosis one must distinguish between osteoporosis and spinal stenosis, which increases in frequency with age. Pain due to internal or gynecological problems must be excluded. From the therapeutic point of view, patients should be instructed in ergonomics and the simple application of physiotherapeutic procedures, e.g. heat and cold. Analgetics become increasingly important with age, consequently resulting in reduced use of antirheumatics. There exists enough evidence to show that muscular training of the lumbar muscles play an important role in the secondary prevention of lumbar pain in elderly people as well. Essentially, it can be stated that physical age is not directly related to possible ailment. The change of occupational obligations, with possibilities to adapt to personal stress levels, as well as the positive attitude towards everyday life in retirement have a major influence in accepting and handling ability of problems, concerning pain. In the department of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Rheumatology of the Clinic Wilhelm Schulthess it was found that among 7806 patients with lower back pain (1990-1995) 43.3% involved the ages of 40 to 60 and 31.3% the ages of 60 to 80. More distinctly than in younger patients, older aged patients tend to show a marked discrepancy between radiological findings and effective pain. Lower back pains of elderly patients are of a different nature from those found in younger or middle-aged people. Ischialgia due to the protrusion of an intervertebral disk or an acute lumbovertebral syndrome caused by muscular instability are found much less frequently.

  8. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bursalı, Adem; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4–5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  9. Biportal Endoscopic Spinal Surgery for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Je-Tea; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Young-Sang; Jang, Han-Jin; Yoo, Bang

    2016-01-01

    The major problems of revision surgery for recurrent lumbar disc herniation (LDH) include limited visualization due to adhesion of scar tissue, restricted handling of neural structures in insufficient visual field, and consequent higher risk of a dura tear and nerve root injury. Therefore, clear differentiation of neural structures from scar tissue and adhesiolysis performed while preserving stability of the remnant facet joint would lower the risk of complications and unnecessary fusion surgery. Biportal endoscopic spine surgery has several merits including sufficient magnification with panoramic view under very high illumination and free handling of instruments normally impossible in open spine surgery. It is supposed to be a highly recommendable alternative technique that is safer and less destructive than the other surgical options for recurrent LDH. PMID:27583117

  10. Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Min; Rhee, Woo Tack; Choi, Soo Jung; Eom, Dae Woon

    2009-07-01

    The lumbar intraspinal epidural ganglion cyst has been a rare cause of the low back pain or leg pain. Ganglion cysts and synovial cysts compose the juxtafacet cysts. Extensive studies have been performed about the synovial cysts, however, very little has been known about the ganglion cyst. Current report is about two ganglion cysts associated with implicative findings in young male patients. We discuss about the underlying pathology of the ganglion cyst based on intraoperative evidences, associated disc herniation at the same location or severe degeneration of the ligament flavum that the cyst originated from in young patients.

  11. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  12. Lumbar hyperlordosis of neuromuscular origin: pathophysiology and surgical strategy for correction

    PubMed Central

    Khouri, Nejib; Glorion, Christophe; Lechevallier, Joël; Morin, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar hyperlordosis of neuromuscular origin is rare and requires surgical treatment in order to preserve a good sitting posture. We report twenty-seven cases of a preponderantly sagittal hyperlordosis deformity of the lumbar spine in patients with neuromuscular disorders and identify the indications and results of treatment. Seventeen males and ten females, aged 13 to 27 years, underwent operations for a lumbar hyperlordosis of neuromuscular origin responsible for major difficulties in sitting. In all patients, the sacrum was horizontal and associated in twenty-six cases with marked pelvic anteversion. Eleven patients were treated surgically by a posterior approach. The sixteen remaining patients had a preliminary discectomy, followed by posterior correction and fusion. Lumbar hyperlordosis was reduced from 8° to 77° between L1 and S1. The horizontal sacrum was partially reduced with an improvement from 8° to 50°. Consequently, patients recovered a comfortable sitting position. One patient died of respiratory complications six weeks after surgery. Surgical correction is a demanding procedure which can be performed by a posterior approach. It is mandatory to analyse the spino-pelvic balance to avoid iliac retroversion and the loss of the role of the ischia in the sitting position. PMID:16967278

  13. Subsidence after single-level anterior cervical fusion with a stand-alone cage.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Young; Choi, Ki-Young; Moon, Bong Ju; Hur, Hyuk; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors for subsidence in patients treated with stand-alone anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages for single-level degenerative cervical disease. Seventy-seven consecutive patients who underwent single-level stand-alone ACDF with a PEEK cage between 2005 and 2012 were included. Subsidence was defined as a decrease in the interbody height of more than 3mm on radiographs at the 1-year follow-up compared with that in the immediate post-operative image. Patients were divided into the subsidence and non-subsidence groups. The following factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of subsidence: age, pre-operative overall cervical sagittal angle, segmental angle of the operated level, interbody height, cage height, cage devices and cage location (distance between anterior margin of the body endplate and that of the cage). The clinical outcomes were assessed with visual analog scale, modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score and neck disability index. Twenty-six out of the 77 (33.8%) patients had radiological signs of cage subsidence. Solid fusion was achieved in 25 out of the 26 patients (96.2%) in the subsidence group and in 47 out of the 51 patients (92.2%) in the non-subsidence group. More than 3mm distance between anterior margin of the vertebral body and that of the cage was significantly associated with subsidence (p<0.05). However, subsidence did not correlate with fusion rate or clinical outcomes. Cage location was the only significant risk factor. Therefore, cage location should be taken into consideration during stand-alone ACDF using PEEK cages.

  14. LUMBAR SURGERY IN WORK-RELATED CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: CAN A CONTINUUM OF CARE ENHANCE OUTCOMES?

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Tom G.; Gatchel, Robert J.; Brede, Emily; Theodore, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Context Systematic reviews of lumbar fusion outcomes in purely workers’ compensation (WC) patient populations have indicated mixed results for efficacy. Recent studies on lumbar fusions in the WC setting have reported return-to-work rates of 26–36%, re-operation rates of 22–27%, and high rates of persistent opioid use two years post-surgery. Other types of lumbar surgery in WC populations are also acknowledged to have poorer outcomes than in non-WC. The possibility of improving outcomes by employing a biopsychosocial model with a continuum of care, including post-operative functional restoration in this “at risk” population, has been suggested as a possible solution. Purpose To compare objective socioeconomic and patient-reported outcomes for WC patients with different lumbar surgeries followed by functional restoration, relative to matched comparison patients without surgery. Study Design/Setting A prospective cohort study of chronic disabling occupational lumbar spinal disorder (CDOLD) patients with WC claims treated in an interdisciplinary functional restoration program. Patient Sample A consecutive cohort of 564 patients with pre-rehab surgery completed an functional restoration and was divided into groups based on surgery type: lumbar fusion (F group, n = 331) and non-fusion lumbar spine surgery (NF group, n = 233). An unoperated comparison group was matched for length of disability (U group, n = 349). Outcome Measures Validated patient-reported measures of pain, disability and depression were administered PRE- and POST-rehab. Socioeconomic outcomes were collected via a structured one-year POST interview. Methods All patients completed an intensive, medically-supervised FRP, combining quantitatively-directed exercise progression with a multimodal disability management approach. The writing of this manuscript was supported in part by NIH Grant 1K05-MH-71892 and no conflicts of interest are noted among the authors. Results The F group had a

  15. One-stage posterior C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion for the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingchen; Li, Ye; Wu, Yuntao

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of using one-stage posterior C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion in the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture. A total of 13 patients with unstable hangman's fractures underwent C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation, lamina interbody fusion or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion and imaging examinations to evaluate the fracture fixation and healing condition at three days and three months following surgery. Postoperative X-ray and computed tomography (CT) results showed high fracture reduction, good internal fixation position and reliable fracture fixation. The three-month postoperative CT showed good vertebral fracture healing. C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation has a good curative effect in the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture. The direct fixation of the fracture enables early ambulation by the patients.

  16. Lumbar stenosis: clinical case☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Alpoim, Bruno; Rodrigues, Elisa; Félix, António; Silva, Luís; Leal, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar stenosis is an increasingly common pathological condition that is becoming more frequent with increasing mean life expectancy, with high costs for society. It has many causes, among which degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic causes stand out. Most of the patients respond well to conservative therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who present symptoms after implementation of conservative measures. Here, a case of severe stenosis of the lumbar spine at several levels, in a female patient with pathological and surgical antecedents in the lumbar spine, is presented. The patient underwent two different decompression techniques within the same operation. PMID:26229836

  17. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  18. Fusion mass bone quality after uninstrumented spinal fusion in older patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Thomas; Christensen, Finn B; Langdahl, Bente L; Ernst, Carsten; Fruensgaard, Søren; Ostergaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Jens Langer; Rasmussen, Sten; Niedermann, Bent; Høy, Kristian; Helmig, Peter; Holm, Randi; Lindblad, Bent Erling; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Egund, Niels; Bünger, Cody

    2010-12-01

    Older people are at increased risk of non-union after spinal fusion, but little is known about the factors determining the quality of the fusion mass in this patient group. The aim of this study was to investigate fusion mass bone quality after uninstrumented spinal fusion and to evaluate if it could be improved by additional direct current (DC) electrical stimulation. A multicenter RCT compared 40 and 100 μA DC stimulation with a control group of uninstrumented posterolateral fusion in patients older than 60 years. This report comprised 80 patients who underwent DEXA scanning at the 1 year follow-up. The study population consisted of 29 men with a mean age of 72 years (range 62-85) and 51 women with a mean age of 72 years (range 61-84). All patients underwent DEXA scanning of their fusion mass. Fusion rate was assessed at the 2 year follow-up using thin slice CT scanning. DC electrical stimulation did not improve fusion mass bone quality. Smokers had lower fusion mass BMD (0.447 g/cm(2)) compared to non-smokers (0.517 g/cm(2)) (P = 0.086). Women had lower fusion mass BMD (0.460 g/cm(2)) compared to men (0.552 g/cm(2)) (P = 0.057). Using linear regression, fusion mass bone quality, measured as BMD, was significantly influenced by gender, age of the patient, bone density of the remaining part of the lumbar spine, amount of bone graft applied and smoking. Fusion rates in this cohort was 34% in the control group and 33 and 43% in the 40 and 100 μA groups, respectively (not significant). Patients classified as fused after 2 years had significant higher fusion mass BMD at 1 year (0.592 vs. 0.466 g/cm(2), P = 0.0001). Fusion mass bone quality in older patients depends on several factors. Special attention should be given to women with manifest or borderline osteoporosis. Furthermore, bone graft materials with inductive potential might be considered for this patient population.

  19. Lumbar total disc arthroplasty: coronal midline definition and optimal TDA placement.

    PubMed

    Marshman, Laurence A G; Friesem, Tai; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Le Huec, Jean-Charles; Krishna, Manoj; Reddy, Guru R

    2008-01-01

    It is a general principle with arthroplasty insertion that precise implant centering is critical for long term function and outcome. Whilst some authors have proclaimed that lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA) may be different, and that off -centre placement may be functionally well tolerated, these claims are premature: significantly worse clinical results have already been reported with poorly placed TDA at 2 years. Accurate TDA placement requires a precise and consistent definition of the desired coronal midline target (which is currently lacking), as well as a procedural mechanism to optimize placement at that target. We summarize our experience, as well as others', in achieving these two requirements. Long-term outcomes after lumbar TDA insertion should only be compared with results from fusion where TDAs have been implanted accurately.

  20. Adhesive arachnoiditis following lumbar myelography.

    PubMed

    Skalpe, I O

    1978-03-01

    Late sequelae (adhesive arachnoiditis) have been reported following myelography with the oily contrast medium (Pantopaque) and with the ionic water-soluble contrast media methiodal sodium (Abrodil, Conturex, Kontrast U) meglumine iothalamate (Conray Meglumine) and meglumine iocarmate (Bis-Conray, Dimer-X). Adhesive arachnoiditis has not yet been reported after the use of the nonionic water-soluble contrast medium metrizamide (Amipaque). Thus, this is considered the contrast medium of choice for lumbar myelography. Using the recommended dose of 10 ml with an iodine concentration of 170 mg/ml for this examination, adhesive arachnoiditis is unlikely to occur. Increased osmolality of spinal fluid after injection of contrast medium is related to increased frequency of arachnoiditis.

  1. Lumbar herniated disc: spontaneous regression

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Kasım Zafer

    2017-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a frequent condition that results in substantial disability and causes admission of patients to neurosurgery clinics. To evaluate and present the therapeutic outcomes in lumbar disc hernia (LDH) patients treated by means of a conservative approach, consisting of bed rest and medical therapy. Methods This retrospective cohort was carried out in the neurosurgery departments of hospitals in Kahramanmaraş city and 23 patients diagnosed with LDH at the levels of L3−L4, L4−L5 or L5−S1 were enrolled. Results The average age was 38.4 ± 8.0 and the chief complaint was low back pain and sciatica radiating to one or both lower extremities. Conservative treatment was administered. Neurological examination findings, durations of treatment and intervals until symptomatic recovery were recorded. Laségue tests and neurosensory examination revealed that mild neurological deficits existed in 16 of our patients. Previously, 5 patients had received physiotherapy and 7 patients had been on medical treatment. The number of patients with LDH at the level of L3−L4, L4−L5, and L5−S1 were 1, 13, and 9, respectively. All patients reported that they had benefit from medical treatment and bed rest, and radiologic improvement was observed simultaneously on MRI scans. The average duration until symptomatic recovery and/or regression of LDH symptoms was 13.6 ± 5.4 months (range: 5−22). Conclusions It should be kept in mind that lumbar disc hernias could regress with medical treatment and rest without surgery, and there should be an awareness that these patients could recover radiologically. This condition must be taken into account during decision making for surgical intervention in LDH patients devoid of indications for emergent surgery. PMID:28119770

  2. Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment while waiting for the results of the culture. Risks A lumbar puncture is considered a safe procedure with minimal risks. Most of the time, there are no complications. In some instances, a ...

  3. Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

    MedlinePlus

    .org Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Page ( 1 ) Spinal fractures can vary widely in severity. While some fractures are very serious injuries that require emergency treatment, other fractures can ...

  4. Posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for symptomatic adjacent-segment degenerative stenosis: description of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, Hazem; Paschel, Erin E; Khattar, Nicolas K; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Gerszten, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The development of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD) is a well-recognized consequence of lumbar fusion surgery. Extension of a fusion to a diseased segment may only lead to subsequent adjacent-segment degeneration. The authors report the use of a novel technique that uses dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for the surgical treatment of symptomatic ASD following a prior lumbar instrumented fusion. METHODS A cohort of 28 consecutive patients was evaluated who developed symptomatic stenosis immediately adjacent to a previous lumbar instrumented fusion. All patients had symptoms of neurogenic claudication refractory to nonsurgical treatment and were surgically treated with decompression and dynamic stabilization instead of extending the fusion construct using a posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization system. Preoperative symptoms, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and perioperative complications were recorded. Clinical outcome was gauged by comparing VAS scores prior to surgery and at the time of last follow-up. RESULTS The mean follow-up duration was 52 months (range 17-94 months). The mean interval from the time of primary fusion surgery to the dynamic stabilization surgery was 40 months (range 10-96 months). The mean patient age was 51 years (range 29-76 years). There were 19 (68%) men and 9 (32%) women. Twenty-three patients (82%) presented with low-back pain at time of surgery, whereas 24 patients (86%) presented with lower-extremity symptoms only. Twenty-four patients (86%) underwent operations that were performed using single-level dynamic stabilization, 3 patients (11%) were treated at 2 levels, and 1 patient underwent 3-level decompression and dynamic stabilization. The most commonly affected and treated level (46%) was L3-4. The mean preoperative VAS pain score was 8, whereas the mean postoperative score was 3. No patient required surgery for symptomatic degeneration rostral to the level of dynamic stabilization during the

  5. Automatic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Measurement in CT Images.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dong, Zhongxing; Yan, Ruyi; Gong, Liyan; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Salganicoff, Marcos; Fei, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar spondylolisthesis is one of the most common spinal diseases. It is caused by the anterior shift of a lumbar vertebrae relative to subjacent vertebrae. In current clinical practices, staging of spondylolisthesis is often conducted in a qualitative way. Although meyerding grading opens the door to stage spondylolisthesis in a more quantitative way, it relies on the manual measurement, which is time consuming and irreproducible. Thus, an automatic measurement algorithm becomes desirable for spondylolisthesis diagnosis and staging. However, there are two challenges. 1) Accurate detection of the most anterior and posterior points on the superior and inferior surfaces of each lumbar vertebrae. Due to the small size of the vertebrae, slight errors of detection may lead to significant measurement errors, hence, wrong disease stages. 2) Automatic localize and label each lumbar vertebrae is required to provide the semantic meaning of the measurement. It is difficult since different lumbar vertebraes have high similarity of both shape and image appearance. To resolve these challenges, a new auto measurement framework is proposed with two major contributions: First, a learning based spine labeling method that integrates both the image appearance and spine geometry information is designed to detect lumbar vertebrae. Second, a hierarchical method using both the population information from atlases and domain-specific information in the target image is proposed for most anterior and posterior points positioning. Validated on 258 CT spondylolisthesis patients, our method shows very similar results to manual measurements by radiologists and significantly increases the measurement efficiency.

  6. Factors influencing the length of stay in patients with lumbar pedicle screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    El-Kadi, Matt; Ibinson, James; Donovan, Erin; Sullivan, Dan; Kadi, Rayyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current health care practices aim for cost reduction to achieve maximal benefit. Because of the increasing number of spinal fusions, this area has become a target for both hospitals and payment organizations. Length of stay (LOS) is one potentially modifiable variable to help reduce overall cost. Attempting to predict the LOS in spinal surgery based on patient factors has not revealed a set of variables that are consistently associated with increased stay. Methods: Medical records from all patients who underwent posterior lumbar spinal fusion by a single neurosurgeon at a single facility were retrospectively examined in a blind fashion. Data were obtained including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), American society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and analyzed to determine a potential relationship with LOS. Results: A total of 1360 patients were identified for analysis. There were significant but small correlations between age, ASA, BMI, and LOS. Conclusions: There is an effect of age, ASA, and BMI on LOS. However, the significance of this effect is small. Future studies aiming to identify additional factors, which could potentially be modifiable, in order to work on decreasing LOS in lumbar spinal fusion patients. PMID:27843684

  7. The Fusion Energy Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    2004-06-01

    Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

  8. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  9. Return to Work After Diskogenic Fusion in Workers' Compensation Subjects.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar fusion for degenerative disk disease (DDD) is associated with variable clinical outcomes. Patients with workers' compensation claims often have worse fusion outcomes than the general population. Few studies have evaluated the risk factors for poor outcomes within this clinically distinct population. The goal of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of return to work status after fusion for DDD in a workers' compensation setting. The authors used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), diagnosis and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) procedural codes to identify 1037 subjects from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation database who underwent fusion for DDD between 1993 and 2013. Of these subjects, 23.2% (n=241) made a sustained return to work within 2 years after fusion. To identify preoperative predictors of postoperative return to work status, the authors used multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for many important covariates. These included prolonged time out of work (P<.001; odds ratio [OR], 0.24), psychiatric history (P<.001; OR, 0.14), prolonged use of opioid analgesics (P<.001; OR, 0.46), male sex (P=.014; OR, 0.65), and legal representation (P=.042; OR, 0.67). The return to work rates associated with these risk factors were 10.4%, 2.0%, 11.9%, 21.1%, and 20.7%, respectively. Of the study subjects, 76.8% (n=796) did not return to work and had considerably worse postoperative outcomes, highlighted by chronic opioid dependence and high rates of failed back syndrome, additional surgery, and new psychiatric comorbidity. The low return to work rates and other generally poor outcomes reported in this study may indicate a more limited role for lumbar fusion among patients with DDD who have workers' compensation claims. More studies are needed to determine whether fusion for DDD can improve function and quality of life in these patients.

  10. Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Spinal Fusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paul; Lau, Darryl; Brodt, Erika D.; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions Compared with no stimulation, does electrical stimulation promote bone fusion after lumbar spinal fusion procedures? Does the effect differ based on the type of electrical stimulation used? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to October 15, 2013, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of electrical stimulation to no electrical stimulation on fusion rates after lumbar spinal fusion for the treatment of degenerative disease. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Results Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The following types of electrical stimulation were investigated: direct current (three studies), pulsed electromagnetic field (three studies), and capacitive coupling (one study). The control groups consisted of no stimulation (two studies) or placebo (four studies). Marked heterogeneity in study populations, characteristics, and design prevented a meta-analysis. Regardless of the type of electrical stimulation used, cumulative incidences of fusion varied widely across the RCTs, ranging from 35.4 to 90.6% in the intervention groups and from 33.3 to 81.9% in the control groups across 9 to 24 months of follow-up. Similarly, when stratified by the type of electrical stimulation used, fusion outcomes from individual studies varied, leading to inconsistent and conflicting results. Conclusion Given the inconsistency in study results, possibly due to heterogeneity in study populations/characteristics and quality, we are unable to conclude that electrical stimulation results in better fusion outcomes compared with no stimulation. The overall strength of evidence for the conclusions is low. PMID:25278882

  11. Surgical management of an unusual osteomyelitis involving posterior elements in lumbar spine. A case report.

    PubMed

    Chang, C K; Tsai, W S; Liu, H J; Pan, W C

    1992-06-01

    Improper and invasive management of low back pain may lead to an unexpected tragedy, vertebral osteomyelitis. A 30-year-old female patient suffering from low back pain after a lumbar strain called on a herbal therapist and was given a herb massage with some unknown medication. Unfortunately, a persistent painful ulcer with discharge developed over her back. She was referred to our clinic shortly after where x-ray showed bony destruction over the spinous process, facet, and lamina of L4. Fistulectomy, debridement and spinal fusion were performed. A satisfactory outcome was finally achieved.

  12. In vivo experimental study of hat type cervical intervertebral fusion cage (HCIFC).

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu-tong; Yao, Zhen-jun; Jia, Lian-shun; Qi, Jin; Wang, Jun

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of interbody fusion achieved using the hat type cervical intervertebral fusion cage (HCIFC) with those of an autologous tricortical iliac crest graft, Harms cage and the carbon cage in a goat cervical spine model. Thirty-two goats underwent C3-4 discectomy and fusion. They were subdivided into four groups of eight goats each: group 1, autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft; group 2, Harms cage filled with autologous iliac crest graft; group 3, carbon cage filled with autologous iliac bone; and group 4, HCIFC filled with autologous iliac graft. Radiography was performed pre- and postoperatively and after one, two, four, eight and 12 weeks. At the same time points, disc space height, intervertebral angle, and lordosis angle were measured. After 12 weeks, the goats were killed and fusion sites were harvested. Biomechanical testing was performed in flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending to determine the stiffness and range of motion. All cervical fusion specimens underwent histomorphological analyses. One week after operation, the disc space height (DSH), intervertebral angle (IVA) and lordosis angle (LA) of HCIFC and carbon cage were statistically greater than those of autologous iliac bone graft and Harms cage. Significantly higher values for DSH, IVA and LA were shown in cage-treated goats than in those that received bone graft over a 12-week period. The stiffness of Harms cage in axial rotation and lateral bending were statistically greater than that of other groups. Radiographic and histomorphological evaluation showed better fusion results in the cage groups than in the autologous bone group. HCIFC can provide a good intervertebral distractability and sufficient biomechanical stability for cervical fusion.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If You Have Questions en español Resonancia magnética: columna lumbar What It Is Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Cervical Spine Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  14. Strength gains through lumbar lordosis restoration

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis that restoring the lumbar lordosis will increase a patient's voluntary muscular strength and decrease back pain symptoms. Clinical Features A patient was diagnosed with mechanical low back pain. The initial radiographic study revealed a loss of the lumbar lordosis. The patient determined his maximum bench press prior to the treatment program. The treatment outcome was based upon post-intervention radiographs, a Borg pain scale, and the patient's post-intervention maximum bench press. Intervention and Outcome The treatment program consisted of warm-up exercises, spinal manipulation, rehabilitative exercises, neuromuscular re-education, and prescribed home care. The treatment period consisted of 12 visits in the first 4 weeks, followed by once weekly for another 12 weeks, for a total of 24 visits in 4 months. In the first month, the Borg scale decreased from 5/10 to 0/10, and after 4 months the lumbar lordosis was increased from 2° to 31°. The sacral base angle (Ferguson's angle) increased from 18° to 31°. The patient's maximum bench press also increased from 245 pounds to 305 pounds. Conclusion Restoration of the lumbar lordosis appears to have a positive effect on muscular strength. This study supports the previous premise that a lumbar lordosis provides an inherent mechanical advantage for strength and stability. PMID:19674610

  15. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  16. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  17. A Foundation for Systems Anthropometry: Lumbar/Pelvic Kinematics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Roentgenographic Measurement of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Height ." Spine , 6(2):154:158. Andriacchi, T., Schultz, A... measured , enabling coupled motion (Wite and Panjabi, 1978), for example, in lateral bending of the lumbar spine , to be investigated. Two different...to seated position. They describe measured positions of the lumbar spine , sacrum, and inncminate with anatomical landmarks important to

  18. [Lumbar disc protrusion in childhood. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Lins, E; Basedow, H

    1976-02-01

    This is a case of lumbar disc protrusion in a 14 year old girl, with typical symptomatology. Special attention should be called to the rarity of this case. The clinical and myelographic diagnosis showed a lumbar herniation L 4/L5. Treatment was performed by lumbar hemilaminectomie. The post operative controll showed remission of the clinical findings.

  19. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  20. Computed tomography of the postoperative lumbar spine

    SciTech Connect

    Teplick, J.G.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    In the postoperative patient ordinary radiographs of the spine generally add very little information, revealing the usual postoperative bone changes and often postoperative narrowing of the intervertebral space. Myelography may sometimes be informative, showing evidence of focal arachnoiditis or a focal defect at the surgical site. However, the latter finding is difficult to interpret. As experience with high-resolution CT scanning of the lumbar spine has been increasing, it is becoming apparent that this noninvasive and easily performed study can give considerably more information about the postoperative spine than any of the other current imaging methods. About 750 patients with previous lumbar laminectomies had CT scanning within a 28 month period.

  1. DEGENERATIVE STENOSIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Zylbersztejn, Sérgio; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Rodrigues, Nilson Rodinei; Werlang, Pablo Mariotti; Kisaki, Yorito; Rios, Aldemar Roberto Mieres; Bello, Cesar Dall

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update on degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spine, which is a common pathological condition among patients over the age of 65 years. The anamnesis and physical examination need to be precise, since radiography often only provides indirect signs. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary if the symptoms persist. The treatment for lumbar stenosis is a matter of controversy. However, there seems to be some benefit from surgical treatment rather than conservative treatment, such that surgery brings improvements in symptoms and functions for a period of up to two years. PMID:27042635

  2. Comparison of electromyographic activities of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during stabilization exercises in prone, quadruped, and sitting positions

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Marie; Jacobs, Dee; Wooten, Mary E.; Edeer, Ayse Ozcan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were: 1) describe a hierarchy of electromyographic activity production, using percentage maximum voluntary contraction of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during prone, quadruped and sitting exercises; and 2) identify optimal recruitment exercises for both lumbar iliocostalis as a global multi-segmental stabilizer and lumbar multifidus as a segmental stabilizer. [Subjects] Twelve healthy volunteers (six male and six female) aged 24 to 45 participated. [Methods] Surface electromyographic activity data were collected bilaterally from lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during exercises. [Results] Two-way ANOVA showed that prone extension, and prone alternate arm and leg lifting exercises produce a statistically significant difference in percent maximum voluntary contraction of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus bilaterally compared to other exercises. Quadruped alternate arm and leg lifting exercises produce greater activity in lumbar multifidus muscle than sitting exercises [Conclusion] Prone exercises generate the greatest electromyographic activity and may be the most effective exercises for strengthening both lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles. Quadruped alternate arm and leg lifting produces electromyographic activity at the recommended percent maximum voluntary contraction for training the lumbar multifidus in its role as a segmental stabilizer and is an effective training exercise for this goal. PMID:27821968

  3. Seat belt injuries of the lumbar spine--stable or unstable?

    PubMed

    Yu, W Y; Siu, C M

    1989-12-01

    Twenty six patients with seat belt injuries of the lumbar spine were admitted into the Spinal Cord Injury Unit of the University Hospital, University of British Columbia, in the past 10 years. Four patients with pure ligamentous injuries were primarily treated surgically. Sixteen patients were treated with closed methods with a Stryker frame followed by a body cast or brace. Significant angulation with spinal deformity occurred in 6 patients. The common factor of failure of closed treatment was the inadequate reduction of initial angulation. When the initial angulation at the fracture site was adequately reduced, closed methods were associated with satisfactory results with no serious disability seen in long term follow-up. Open reduction with fixation with compression rods or wiring and fusion invariably leads to good results. It is recommended that patients with seat belt fractures of the lumbar spine may be treated by a closed method provided good reduction is obtained initially, otherwise open reduction and posterior fusion is more preferable.

  4. Evaluation with evoked and spontaneous electromyography during lumbar instrumentation: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Welch, W C; Rose, R D; Balzer, J R; Jacobs, G B

    1997-09-01

    The neuroanatomical structures that approximate the bony pedicles of the lumbar spine allow little room for technical error or compromise of the bone during pedicle screw insertion. Currently available neurophysiological monitoring techniques detect compromised bone and nerve root injury after it occurs. The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the reliability and efficacy of a unique neurophysiological monitoring technique. This technique provides immediate evaluation of pedicle cortical bone integrity in patients undergoing lumbar fusion with instrumentation by using electrified surgical instruments throughout the pedicle screw fusion procedure. Spontaneous electromyographic (EMG) activity was also monitored. Intraoperative evoked EMG stimulation was performed using a pedicle probe and feeler as monopolar stimulators during the insertion of 164 pedicle bone screws in 32 patients. The EMG response to subthreshold stimulation intensities indicated cortical bone compromise. Immediate and conclusive feedback via evoked EMG activity using stimulating pedicle probes in appropriate muscle groups was successful in identifying pedicle cortical bone compromise in four patients. One false-negative evoked EMG study was noted but was identified via spontaneous EMG activity. Intraoperative EMG monitoring alerted the surgeon that redirection of the pedicle probe or screw was necessary to avoid nerve root irritation or injury and served as an early warning system. Evoked EMG stimulation proved to be reliable and efficacious, especially when used in combination with spontaneous EMG. This technique may provide an added safeguard during implant placement procedures at centers where intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is routinely performed.

  5. Motion-preserving technologies for degenerative lumbar spine: The past, present, and future horizons

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Hassan; Mhatre, Devdatt; Defossez, Henri; Bono, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades, remarkable advancements in the understanding of the origin of low-back pain and lumbar spinal disorders have been achieved. Spinal fusion is generally considered the “gold standard” in the treatment of low-back pain; however, fusion is also associated with accelerated degeneration of adjacent levels. Spinal arthroplasty and dynamic stabilization technologies, as well as the continuous improvement in diagnosis and surgical interventions, have opened a new era of treatment options. Recent advancements in nonfusion technologies such as motion-preservation devices and posterior dynamic stabilization may change the gold standard. These devices are designed with the intent to provide stabilization and eliminate pain while preserving motion of the functional spinal unit. The adaption of nonfusion technologies by the surgical community and payers for the treatment of degenerative spinal conditions will depend on the long-term clinical outcome of controlled randomized clinical studies. Although the development of nonfusion technology has just started and the adoption is very slow, it may be considered a viable option for motion preservation in coming years. This review article provides technical and surgical views from the past and from the present, as well as a glance at the future endeavors and challenges in instrumentation development for lumbar spinal disorders. © 2011 SAS - The International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:25802672

  6. Osteoconductive hydroxyapatite coated PEEK for spinal fusion surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Byung-Dong; Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Jung, In-Kwon

    2013-10-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much interest as biomaterial for interbody fusion cages due to its similar stiffness to bone and good radio-transparency for post-op visualization. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates bone growth to the medical implant. The objective of this work is to make an implant consisting of biocompatible PEEK with an osteoconductive HA surface for spinal or orthopedic applications. Highly dense and well-adhered HA coating was developed on medical-grade PEEK using aerosol deposition (AD) without thermal degradation of the PEEK. The HA coating had a dense microstructure with no cracks or pores, and showed good adhesion to PEEK at adhesion strengths above 14.3 MPa. The crystallinity of the HA coating was remarkably enhanced by hydrothermal annealing as post-deposition heat-treatment. In addition, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of cell adhesion morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone-to-implant contact ratio, were remarkably enhanced by the HA coating through AD.

  7. Anterior extrusion of fusion cage in posttraumatic cervical disk disease.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Aymeric; Bouazza, Schahrazed; George, Bernard; Orabi, Mikael; Bresson, Damien

    2015-03-01

    Anterior interbody fusion of the cervical spine (ACDF) with bone grafts or cages has become the gold standard for treating cervical disk disease. Several technical modifications have been developed, but currently no consensus exists regarding the optimal technique. In addition, there is also evidence that complications are frequently associated with this procedure. A frequent cause for implant failure in monosegmental ACDF is cage migration into the vertebral end plates or the spinal canal. We report a patient admitted for sudden quadriparesis with complete motor deficit caused by posttraumatic cervical disk protrusion at C4-C5, resulting in spinal compression. ACDF using a titanium stand-alone cage was performed and cured the patient. At the 1-year follow-up visit, imaging showed asymptomatic anterior complete extrusion of the cage out of the disk space. To our knowledge, such an anterior cage migration without trauma has not been reported in the literature to date, and we tried to find technical reasons to explain this complication.

  8. Review of fusion synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  9. Midsagittal anatomy of lumbar lordosis in adult egyptians: MRI study.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Abdelmonem A; Hegazy, Raafat A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25-57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments "vertebrae and discs" were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI = LB/LH × 100) showed significant gender differences (P < 0.0001). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis.

  10. Lumbar spine anomalies in a pycnodysostosis case.

    PubMed

    Beguiristain, J L; Arriola, F J; Leyes, M

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of pycnodysostosis in which several clefts in the laminas, interarticular parts, and pedicles of the whole lumbar spine were revealed for the first time on CT. We review similar findings in the literature, and discuss their pathogenesis.

  11. Multiple lumbar arachnoid cysts. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, S; Cassarino, A; Braidotti, P

    1986-09-01

    Arachnoid cysts are a rare cause of compression of the contents of the lumbar spinal canal; in the literature only about 100 cases are reported. The various methods of diagnosis are discussed in the light of a recent case observed by the authors.

  12. [Lumbar pain and bilateral adrenal masses].

    PubMed

    García, Elena; Sánchez, Raquel; Martínez, Guillermo; Bernal, Carmen; Calatayud, M; Partida, M; Hawkins, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Many problems may arise when defining whether adrenal lesions are primary to the adrenal glands or represent other tissue, whether they are benign or malignant and whether they are functioning or nonfunctioning. Adrenal imaging complements the clinical and hormonal evaluation of these patients. We present a patient with lumbar pain and bilateral adrenal masses.

  13. The LP-ESP(®) lumbar disc prosthesis with 6 degrees of freedom: development and 7 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Aaron, Alain; Brusson, Adrien; Rakover, Jean-Patrick; Rousseau, Marc-Antoine

    2013-02-01

    The viscoelastic lumbar disk prosthesis-elastic spine pad (LP-ESP(®)) is an innovative one-piece deformable but cohesive interbody spacer providing 6 full degrees of freedom about the 3 axes, including shock absorption. A 20-year research program has demonstrated that this concept provides mechanical properties very close to those of a natural disk. Improvements in technology have made it possible to solve the problem of the bond between the elastic component and the titanium endplates and to obtain an excellent biostability. The prosthesis geometry allows limited rotation and translation with resistance to motion (elastic return property) aimed at avoiding overload of the posterior facets. The rotation center can vary freely during motion. It thus differs substantially from current prostheses, which are 2- or 3-piece devices involving 1 or 2 bearing surfaces and providing 3 or 5 degrees of freedom. This design and the adhesion-molding technology differentiate the LP-ESP prosthesis from other mono-elastomeric prostheses, for which the constraints of shearing during rotations or movement are absorbed at the endplate interface. Seven years after the first implantation, we can document in a solid and detailed fashion the course of clinical outcomes and the radiological postural and kinematic behavior of this prosthesis.

  14. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  15. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics.

  16. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  17. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  18. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Betti, R.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Miller, R. L.; Laberge, M.; Delage, M.

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  19. Outcomes and National Trends for the Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nuno, Miriam; Shweikeh, Faris; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Baron, Eli; Kim, Terrence T.; Johnson, J. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Operative treatment of lumbar spine compression fractures includes fusion and/or cement augmentation. Our aim was to evaluate postoperative differences in patients treated surgically with fusion, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty. Methods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database search for adult vertebral compression fracture patients treated 2004–2011 identified 102,316 surgical patients: 30.6% underwent spinal fusion, 17.1% underwent kyphoplasty, and 49.9% underwent vertebroplasty. Univariate analysis of patient and hospital characteristics, by treatment, was performed. Multivariable analysis was used to determine factors associated with mortality, nonroutine discharge, complications, and patient safety. Results. Average patient age: fusion (46.2), kyphoplasty (78.5), vertebroplasty (76.7) (p < .0001). Gender, race, household income, hospital-specific characteristics, and insurance differences were found (p ≤ .001). Leading comorbidities were hypertension, osteoporosis, and diabetes. Risks for higher mortality (OR 2.0: CI: 1.6–2.5), nonroutine discharge (OR 1.6, CI: 1.6–1.7), complications (OR 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.1), and safety related events (OR 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.1) rose consistently with increasing age, particularly among fusion patients. Preexisting comorbidities and longer in-hospital length of stay were associated with increased odds of nonroutine discharge, complications, and patient safety. Conclusions. Fusion patients had higher rates of poorer outcomes compared to vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty cohorts. Mortality, nonroutine discharge, complications, and adverse events increased consistently with older age. PMID:27403423

  20. Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion condition is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion. .

  1. Comparison of Functional Outcome and Quality of Life in Patients With Idiopathic Scoliosis Treated by Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hengwei; Wang, Qifei; Huang, Zifang; Sui, Wenyuan; Yang, Jingfan; Deng, Yaolong; Yang, Junlin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Longer spinal fusions have been shown to result in improved deformity correction; however, loss of normal flexibility in the fusion area should not be ignored. Current consensus was to achieve a shorter fusion in primary surgery, with the goal of preserving as much of the distal motion segment as possible. However, the correlation between the length of fusion and functional outcome remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, a previous study has demonstrated the function outcomes and the differences in HRQoL with specific fusion levels. In this cross-sectional study, 172 patients (mean age, 17.8 y) with idiopathic scoliosis treated by spinal fusion (mean time since surgery, 29.7 mo) were included to measure lumbar spine mobility and quality of life using validated outcome instruments in the study population. Patients were assigned to 5 groups according to the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) level: group A (fusion above L2) 26 patients; group B (fusion to L2) 21 patients; group C (fusion to L3) 46 patients; group D (fusion to L4) 53 patients; and group E (fusion to L5) 26 patients. At each follow-up, patients were asked to complete the Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) Questionnaire. Lumbar mobility was assessed using a dual digital inclinometer. Average spinal range of motion (ROM) was 41.4 degrees (SD, 20.7), forward flexion was 29.2 degrees (SD, 15.0), and backward extension was 12.2 degrees (SD, 9.5). The total spinal range of motion and forward flexion dropped noticeably as the LIV got more distal. Statistically significant between-group differences (1-way ANOVA) were found for ROM (P < 0.001), forward flexion (P < 0.001), or backward extension (P < 0.001). The motion segments preserved significantly correlated with ROM (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), ROMF (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), and ROME (r = 0.39, P < 0.001). However, no significant between-group differences was found for each domain of SRS-22 questionnaire

  2. Effects of lumbar stabilization exercise on functional disability and lumbar lordosis angle in patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Igsoo; Jeon, Chunbae; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises on the functional disability and lumbar lordosis angles in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with chronic low back pain divided into a lumbar stabilization exercise group (n = 15) and a conservative treatment group (n = 15). [Methods] The lumbar stabilization exercise and conservative treatment groups performed an exercise program and conservative physical treatment, respectively. Both programs were performed 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The degree of functional disability was assessed by the Oswestry disability index, and lumbar lordosis angles were measured by plain radiography. [Results] The Oswestry disability index decreased significantly in the both groups; however, it was significantly lower in the lumbar stabilization exercise group. The lumbar lordosis angle increased significantly in the lumbar stabilization exercise group after treatment and was also significantly greater than that in the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercise is more effective than conservative treatment for improving functional disability and lumbar lordosis angles. PMID:26180363

  3. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  4. Characteristics of PMHS Lumbar Motion Segments in Lateral Shear.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srini; Prasad, Priya; Rouhana, Stephen W; Demetropoulos, Constantine K; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Nolte, Lutz P

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of eighteen lumbar spine motion segments subjected to lateral shear forces under quasi-static (0.5 mm/s) and dynamic (500 mm/s) test conditions. The quasi-static test was also performed on the lumbar spine of a side impact anthropomorphic test device, the EuroSID-2 (ES-2). In the quasi-static tests, the maximum force before disc-endplate separation in the PMHS lumbar motion segments was 1850 +/- 612 N, while the average linear stiffness of PMHS lumbar motion segments was 323 +/- 126 N/mm. There was a statistically significant difference between the quasi-static (1850 +/- 612 N) and dynamic (2616 +/- 1151 N) maximum shear forces. The ES-2 lumbar spine (149 N/mm) was more compliant than the PMHS lumbar segments under the quasi-static test condition.

  5. [Vascular complications associated with lumbar spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Riedemann-Wistuba, M; Alonso-Pérez, M; Llaneza-Coto, J M

    2016-01-01

    Although there are currently less invasive techniques available for the treatment of spinal injuries, open surgery is still required in many cases. Vascular injuries occurring during lumbar spine surgery, although uncommon, are of great importance due to their potential gravity. Clinical manifestations vary from an acute hemorrhagic shock that needs urgent treatment to save the patient's life, to insidious injuries or an asymptomatic evolution, and should be studied to choose the best therapeutic alternative. Four cases are reported that represent this range of possibilities and emphasize the importance of a careful surgical technique during lumbar spine interventions, and the need for high clinical suspicion, essential for the early diagnosis of these vascular complications. The current therapeutic options are also discussed.

  6. [Polish nomenclature of lumbar disc disease].

    PubMed

    Radło, Paweł; Smetkowski, Andrzej; Tesiorowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is one of the most common damage of musculoskeletal system. The incidence of pain of lumbosacral spine is estimated approximately on 60-90% in general population, whereas the incidence of disc herniation in patients experiencing low back pain is about 91%. Despite the high incidence and uncomplicated pathogenesis of disc disease there is a problem with the nomenclature. In the vast majority of cases, the naming confusion stems from ignorance of the etiology of low back pain. Different terminologies: morphological, topographical, Radiological and Clinical are used interchangeably. In addition, diagnosis is presented in a variety of languages: Polish, English and Latin. Moreover, the medical and traditional language are used alternately. The authors found in Polish literature more, than 20 terms to describe lumbar disc herniation. All of these terms in the meaning of the authors are used to determine one pathology--mechanical damage to the intervertebral disc and moving the disc material beyond the anatomical area.

  7. Single incision endoscopic surgery for lumbar hernia.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Shimizu, Satsuki; Shin, Hisato; Matsunoki, Aika; Watanabe, Go

    2011-01-01

    Single Incision Endoscopic Surgery (SIES) has emerged as a less invasive surgery among laparoscopic surgeries, and this approach for incisional hernia was reported recently. This is the first report of SIES for an incisional lumbar hernia. A 66-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our institution because of a left flank hernia that developed after left iliac crest bone harvesting. A 20-mm incision was created on the left side of the umbilicus and all three trocars (12, 5, and 5 mm) were inserted into the incision. The hernial defect was 14 × 9 cm and was repaired with intraperitoneal onlay mesh and a prosthetic graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. SIES for lumbar hernia offers a safe and effective outcome equivalent compared to laparoscopic surgery. In addition, SIES is less invasive and has a cosmetic benefit.

  8. Diskography outcomes in patients following lumbar diskectomy.

    PubMed

    Siambanes, David; Kposowa, Augustine J; Michelsen, Steven

    2003-08-01

    The results of lumbar diskography at post-diskectomy and nonoperative disk levels in postoperative patients and patients without prior back surgery were reviewed over 3 years. Other possible predictive factors, including disk degeneration (per the Adam's classification), end-point resistance, gender, and age, also were reviewed. The results revealed that no statistically significant association was noted between the presence of a prior diskectomy and the outcome of diskography. However, disk degeneration classified as ruptured and fissured correlated statistically with positive diskography. Additionally, age between 30 and 39 years and male gender were statistically associated with a positive diskogram. Disk levels displaying a poor end point during diskography injection (not amendable to pressurization) were statistically related to ruptured or fissured disk levels and thus positive diskography. Based on these results, the assumption that disabling low-back pain presenting after lumbar procedure is due to diskogenic disease arising from the surgical level is not supported.

  9. Recognition of lumbar disk herniation with NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, N.I.; Genant, H.K.; Moon, K.L.; Helms, C.A.; Morris, J.M.

    1983-12-01

    Fifteen nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 14 patients with herniated lumbar intervertebral disks were performed on the UCSF NMR imager. Computed tomographic (CT) scans done on a GE CT/T 8800 or comparable scanner were available at the time of NMR scan interpretation. Of the 16 posterior disk ruptures seen at CT, 12 were recognized on NMR. Diminished nucleus pulposus signal intensity was present in all ruptured disks. In one patient, NMR scans before and after chymopapain injection showed retraction of the protruding part of the disk and loss of signal intensity after chemonucleolysis. Postoperative fibrosis demonstrated by CT in one patient and at surgery in another showed intermediate to high signal intensity on NMR, easily distinguishing it from nearby thecal sac and disk. While CT remains the method of choice for evaluation of the patient with suspected lumbar disk rupture, the results of this study suggest that NMR may play a role in evaluating this common clinical problem.

  10. Lumbar discal cyst in an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Alex; Agarwal, Vikas; Casagranda, Bethany; Hughes, Marion A; Rothfus, William E

    2013-01-01

    Our patient, a 22-year-old starting wide receiver for an NCAA Division I football team, presented with low back pain and sciatica. A lumbar-spine MRI without contrast demonstrated findings suspicious for discal cyst. The patient was referred for surgery, and the lesion was resected. The rarity of discal cyst makes it difficult to diagnose because most radiologists are not aware of the entity. An organized approach to diagnosis can facilitate appropriate management.

  11. Congenitally absent lumbar pedicle: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Wortzman, G.; Steinhardt, M.I.

    1984-09-01

    Three patients who had a diagnosis of congenitally absent lumbar pedicle underwent CT examination. Findings showed that each patient had an aberrant hypoplastic pedicle plus a retroisthmic defect in their ipsilateral lamina rather than an absent pedicle. Axial CT was the diagnostic modality of choice; reformated images were of little value. The differential diagnosis to be considered from the findings of plain film radiography includes pediculate thinning, neoplastic disease, neurofibroma, mesodermal dysplasia associated with neurofibromatosis, and vascular anomalies.

  12. Lumbar nerve root: the enigmatic eponyms.

    PubMed

    Dyck, P

    1984-01-01

    Man's quest for recognition has not escaped the physician, whose contributions to medicine perpetuate his name in print. It is a final grasp for professional immortality, which for men like Imhotep and Hippocrates, has prevailed for millennia. This fervor was particularly evident in the latter 19th century, which created a flurry of eponyms, often two or more physicians publishing the same clinical observation. This article reviews the eponym epidemic as it relates to lumbar radiculopathy.

  13. [Serious thromboembolitic incidents during lumbar spine phlebography].

    PubMed

    Gatti, P; Valat, J P; Videgrain, M

    1983-02-01

    From a series of 400 cases of lumbar spine phlebography by selective catheterisation, 4 serious thrombo-embolic episodes were observed, including 2 cases of severe pulmonary embolism which responded favourably to medical treatment. In 3 cases, risk factors were found (prolonged immobilisation in bed, past history of phlebitis). One case developed severe phlebitis of the lower limbs despite prophylactic treatment with low dose calcium heparin. In the other cases, no anti-coagulant therapy was prescribed before or during the examination.

  14. Effect of Load Carriage on Lumbar Spine Kinematics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    markers 14 – 16 , 18 and ground force plates 7 , 18 , 19 to measure body positioning and ground reac- tion forces . These methods approach...data obtained in this setting do not refl ect the state of the lumbar spine in the upright position due to alterations in bone- muscle interactions...lumbar spine might be related to the greater forces acting on inferior levels through the lumbar spine 38 and that IVDs of inferior levels undergo

  15. Etiology of lumbar lordosis and its pathophysiology: a review of the evolution of lumbar lordosis, and the mechanics and biology of lumbar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sparrey, Carolyn J; Bailey, Jeannie F; Safaee, Michael; Clark, Aaron J; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of postural degeneration, particularly the loss of lumbar lordosis commonly observed in the elderly in the context of evolution, mechanical, and biological studies of the human spine and to synthesize recent research findings to clinical management of postural malalignment. Lumbar lordosis is unique to the human spine and is necessary to facilitate our upright posture. However, decreased lumbar lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis are hallmarks of an aging human spinal column. The unique upright posture and lordotic lumbar curvature of the human spine suggest that an understanding of the evolution of the human spinal column, and the unique anatomical features that support lumbar lordosis may provide insight into spine health and degeneration. Considering evolution of the skeleton in isolation from other scientific studies provides a limited picture for clinicians. The evolution and development of human lumbar lordosis highlight the interdependence of pelvic structure and lumbar lordosis. Studies of fossils of human lineage demonstrate a convergence on the degree of lumbar lordosis and the number of lumbar vertebrae in modern Homo sapiens. Evolution and spine mechanics research show that lumbar lordosis is dictated by pelvic incidence, spinal musculature, vertebral wedging, and disc health. The evolution, mechanics, and biology research all point to the importance of spinal posture and flexibility in supporting optimal health. However, surgical management of postural deformity has focused on restoring posture at the expense of flexibility. It is possible that the need for complex and costly spinal fixation can be eliminated by developing tools for early identification of patients at risk for postural deformities through patient history (genetics, mechanics, and environmental exposure) and tracking postural changes over time.

  16. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  17. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tschen, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere nor a family member with this condition. Results: Microscopic examination of the raised band showed nearly complete absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. In contrast, a biopsy of symmetrically located normal-appearing skin showed a uniform distribution of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. Linear lumbar localized elastolysis is a descriptive designation that accurately reflects a correlation of the clinical and pathological changes of this condition. Conclusion: The clinical differential of raised horizontal cord-like bands on the lower back (without a family history of an inherited elastic fiber disorder, a prior history of trauma, or a significant change in weight or exercise habit) includes linear focal elastosis and linear lumbar localized elastolysis. Microscopic evaluation of a Verhoeff-van Gieson stained lesion specimen (which may be accompanied by a biopsy of normal-appearing skin for comparison) will readily differentiate these conditions. The former is usually characterized by increased elastic fibers, whereas the latter, as in this patient, shows a paucity or absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. PMID:23882313

  18. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  19. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206

  20. How Does Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease Affect the Disc Deformation at the Cephalic Levels In Vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Li, Weishi; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    level and the level one above experienced higher tensile and shear deformations during end ranges of lumbar motion in the patients with DDD before surgical treatments when compared with the healthy subjects. The larger disc deformations at the cephalic segments were otherwise not detectable using conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Future studies should investigate the effect of surgical treatments, such as fusion or disc replacement, on the biomechanics of the adjacent segments during end ranges of lumbar motion. PMID:21245781

  1. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming