Science.gov

Sample records for interdisciplinary secondary prevention

  1. Secondary HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Temoshok, L R; Frerichs, R R

    1998-06-01

    Primary HIV prevention, preventing HIV exposure among uninfected persons, has been the focus of much attention. However, secondary HIV prevention, preventing HIV transmission from infected people to their uninfected contacts, has not received as much interest or attention from HIV researchers, clinicians, and policymakers. The concept of secondary HIV prevention, as distinguished from primary prevention, is clarified, and the current and future strategies to further secondary HIV prevention efforts are explored. Secondary prevention strategies can be incorporated into comprehensive programs and result in shifts in attitudes and behaviors. This could reduce the size of the epidemic, while also benefiting the individual and his or her close relationships.

  2. A Model and Strategies for Realizing Secondary Level Interdisciplinary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.; Campbell, Star; Bardwell, Jenny

    This paper discusses strategies that can be used to realize interdisciplinary instruction at the secondary level and details a sample curriculum that employs themes related to human nutrition. The Secondary Level Interdisciplinary Curriculum is organized around five thematic units that present nutrition issues highly relevant to adolescents:…

  3. Preventing Secondary Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Andrew M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the Institute of Medicine model of the dynamic nature of the disabling process of both primary disabilities and secondary conditions, and the interaction of that process with risk factors and quality of life. The components of a comprehensive disability prevention program are discussed. (Author/JDD)

  4. [Melanoma secondary prevention].

    PubMed

    Suppa, M; Daxhelet, M; del Marmol, V

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma represents a major public health problem. Its incidence is constantly rising and the mortality rate can be frightfully important if the diagnosis is delayed. Melanoma also exerts a significant economical burden on the society. Therefore there is a need of concrete and pragmatic public health strategies in order to enhance melanoma prevention. Primary prevention of melanoma consists in avoiding excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays,'which represent the main risk factor for the disease occurrence. Secondary prevention is a synonym of melanoma early diagnosis and can be obtained by means of two methods : patients' self-examination and medical examination. Both these examinations must be routinely and thoroughly performed, must be based on the ABCDE rule and the ugly duckling sign, and ideally must be aided by the use of total-body photography. Current international guidelines suggest that all cutaneous screenings should be performed using dermoscopy, a non-invasive imaging technique that allows improving considerably the diagnostic performance. More sophisticated imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, are also available in specialised centres. The current scientific evidence supports the efficacy of melanoma primary and secondary prevention programs as a tool to decrease melanoma mortality. Many skin cancer prevention campaigns have been organised worldwide. The most famous and successful in Europe is Euromelanoma.

  5. AIDS: An Inter-Disciplinary Secondary Curriculum Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Marianne

    This curriculum guide to teaching secondary students about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) using an interdisciplinary approach includes lessons that are meant to supplement the existing curriculum, but may be used to supplant existing lessons. Most of the lessons employ the investigative approach to learning and require student…

  6. [Secondary stroke prevention].

    PubMed

    Ferro, J M; Correia, M; Freire, A; Perez y Sanchez, J; Abrunhosa, M A; Perez y Sanchez, M F

    1998-11-01

    The guidelines for secondary stroke prevention, graded following available scientific evidence, are presented. Stroke and TIA are defined and the indications for referral established. Basic assessment of stroke patients should include laboratory evaluation, ECG, brain CT, ultrasound examination of the extracranial vessels for events in the carotid distribution, and transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiogram if cardioembolism is suspected. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological reduction of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, stopping smoking and reducing alcohol intake are general measures recommended for secondary stroke prevention, together with healthier life-style changes (eating a Mediterranean type diet and performing regular moderate physical exercise). Concerning antithrombotic therapy, oral anticoagulants are recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation and other high to medium emboligenic cardiac risk conditions. Antiplatelet drugs are recommended for all other survivors of an ischemic cerebral event. Aspirin (75-325 mg/day) is the drug of choice. Alternative antiplatelet agents are clopidrogrel, ticlopidine, dipiridamol or triflusal. They can be used in patients with intolerance or contraindication to aspirin or in high-risk subjects. Endarterectomy of the symptomatic carotid is an additional procedure recommended for patients with ischemic stroke or TIA and carotid stenosis > 80% on the side of the symptomatic cerebral hemisphere. PMID:10021804

  7. Preventing Dance Injuries: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    This book on the interdisciplinary nature of dance medicine as an emerging field of inquiry contains the following chapters: (1) "A Comparison of Patterns of Injury in Ballet, Modern, and Aerobic Dance" (Marie Schafle, And Others); (2) "Pronation as a Predisposing Factor in Overuse Injuries" (Steven R. Kravitz); (3) "Some Common Foot and Ankle…

  8. Of Organelles and Octagons: What Do Preservice Secondary Teachers Learn from Interdisciplinary Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Examined the impact of an interdisciplinary teacher project on the learning of preservice secondary teachers enrolled in a graduate level teacher education program. Data on four successive cohorts of students indicated that participants successfully created and implemented interdisciplinary curriculum and were quite positive about the experience.…

  9. Cancer Prevention Interdisciplinary Education Program at Purdue University: Overview and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Adedokun, Omolola; Childress, Amy; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella; Nagel, Julie; Knapp, Deborah W.; Lelievre, Sophie; Agnew, Christopher R.; Shields, Cleveland; Leary, James; Adams, Robin; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a broad field that crosses many disciplines; therefore, educational efforts to enhance cancer prevention research focused on interdisciplinary approaches to the field are greatly needed. In order to hasten progress in cancer prevention research, the Cancer Prevention Internship Program (CPIP) at Purdue University was designed to develop and test an interdisciplinary curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students. The hypothesis was that course curriculum specific to introducing interdisciplinary concepts in cancer prevention would increase student interest in and ability to pursue advanced educational opportunities (e.g., graduate school, medical school). Preliminary results from the evaluation of the first year which included 10 undergraduate and 5 graduate students suggested that participation in CPIP is a positive professional development experience, leading to a significant increase in understanding of interdisciplinary research in cancer prevention. In its first year, the CPIP project has created a successful model for interdisciplinary education in cancer prevention research. PMID:21533583

  10. Compendium of Interdisciplinary Activities for an Introductory Course in Communication Systems at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David J.

    This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…

  11. The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Program on Secondary Art Students Participating in an Interdisciplinary Chemistry-Art Program and in an Art Only Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Patrick; Hopkins, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an interdisciplinary program on the secondary level. The sample consisted of 17 students enrolled in a high school advanced photography class. The students in the sample varied in their chemistry background. The sample was randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The…

  12. The Diversity of Anti-Microbial Secondary Metabolites Produced by Fungal Endophytes: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Raizada, Manish N.

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides, and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, human and plant pathology. Several trends were apparent. First, host plants are often investigated for endophytes when there is prior indigenous knowledge concerning human medicinal uses (e.g., Chinese herbs). However, within their native ecosystems, and where investigated, endophytes were shown to produce compounds that target pathogens of the host plant. In a few examples, both fungal endophytes and their hosts were reported to produce the same compounds. Terpenoids and polyketides are the most purified anti-microbial secondary metabolites from endophytes, while flavonoids and lignans are rare. Examples are provided where fungal genes encoding anti-microbial compounds are clustered on chromosomes. As different genera of fungi can produce the same metabolite, genetic clustering may facilitate sharing of anti-microbial secondary metabolites between fungi. We discuss gaps in the literature and how more interdisciplinary research may lead to new opportunities to develop bio-based commercial products to combat global crop and human pathogens. PMID:23543048

  13. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  14. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  15. RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by Using Discrete Mathematics: An Interdisciplinary Research Experience for Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, Roni; Wachira, James

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project was on RNA secondary structure prediction by using a lattice walk approach. The lattice walk approach is a combinatorial and computational biology method used to enumerate possible secondary structures and predict RNA secondary structure from RNA sequences. The method uses discrete mathematical techniques and identifies specified base pairs as parameters. The goal of the REU was to introduce upper-level undergraduate students to the principles and challenges of interdisciplinary research in molecular biology and discrete mathematics. At the beginning of the project, students from the biology and mathematics departments of a mid-sized university received instruction on the role of secondary structure in the function of eukaryotic RNAs and RNA viruses, RNA related to combinatorics, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information resources. The student research projects focused on RNA secondary structure prediction on a regulatory region of the yellow fever virus RNA genome and on an untranslated region of an mRNA of a gene associated with the neurological disorder epilepsy. At the end of the project, the REU students gave poster and oral presentations, and they submitted written final project reports to the program director. The outcome of the REU was that the students gained transferable knowledge and skills in bioinformatics and an awareness of the applications of discrete mathematics to biological research problems. PMID:20810968

  16. RNA secondary structure prediction by using discrete mathematics: an interdisciplinary research experience for undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Ellington, Roni; Wachira, James; Nkwanta, Asamoah

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project was on RNA secondary structure prediction by using a lattice walk approach. The lattice walk approach is a combinatorial and computational biology method used to enumerate possible secondary structures and predict RNA secondary structure from RNA sequences. The method uses discrete mathematical techniques and identifies specified base pairs as parameters. The goal of the REU was to introduce upper-level undergraduate students to the principles and challenges of interdisciplinary research in molecular biology and discrete mathematics. At the beginning of the project, students from the biology and mathematics departments of a mid-sized university received instruction on the role of secondary structure in the function of eukaryotic RNAs and RNA viruses, RNA related to combinatorics, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information resources. The student research projects focused on RNA secondary structure prediction on a regulatory region of the yellow fever virus RNA genome and on an untranslated region of an mRNA of a gene associated with the neurological disorder epilepsy. At the end of the project, the REU students gave poster and oral presentations, and they submitted written final project reports to the program director. The outcome of the REU was that the students gained transferable knowledge and skills in bioinformatics and an awareness of the applications of discrete mathematics to biological research problems.

  17. [Primary and secondary prevention of stroke].

    PubMed

    Trenkwalder, Peter; Rüchardt, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The basis for primary and secondary prevention of stroke (and also TIA) are both a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet, non smoking, weight reduction and regular exercise, and consistent treatment of arterial hypertension with a target of < 140 /90 mmHg. The choice of the antihypertensive is depending on concomitant diseases, more important than the class of antihypertensive is treatment to target. Reduction of cholesterol with statins in primary prevention is dependant on total cardiovascular risk, in secondary prevention statins are integral part of modern treatment in non cardioembolic stroke. Atrial fibrillation is one of the major causes of stroke and should be treated with anticoagulation depending on the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Platelet inhibition is mandatory lifelong in all non cardioembolic strokes, in primary prevention only for patients with high total cardiovascular risk. Treatment of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis should be determined on an individual basis. Symptomatic carotid artery stenosis should be treated immediately after the index stroke. PMID:26488098

  18. Putting Professionalism Back into Teaching: Secondary Preservice and In-Service Teachers Engaging in Interdisciplinary Unit Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolle, Elizabeth Petroelje; Frambaugh-Kritzer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Recently, interdisciplinary instruction has come back to the educational scene, specifically supported through the Common Core State Standards. As teacher educators and former middle-level teachers, the authors see this as a positive move to enhance learning for adolescents. This qualitative study sought to answer: How do secondary preservice and…

  19. Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Curnis, Antonio; Mascioli, Giosuè; Bontempi, Luca; Bordonali, Tania; Dei Cas, Livio

    2005-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death is still the largest cause of natural death in western countries, especially in patients with coronary artery disease and in those who have already experienced an episode of resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or ventricular tachycardia. Prevention of arrhythmia recurrences (i.e. secondary prevention) in these patients remains a challenge for the cardiologist. To date no studies have demonstrated that drug therapy can be of some value in preventing arrhythmia recurrences or sudden death in these patients, and only cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation resulted effective in reducing mortality rate. It remains, however, to be defined which patients who survived an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or who already experienced a sustained ventricular tachycardia could benefit the most from an ICD, but to date no invasive or non-invasive tests have proven to be effective for this stratification. Vaughan-Williams class II and III drugs could be of some value in reducing tachycardia cycle length thus increasing antitachycardia pacing efficacy and reducing ICD shocks.

  20. Preventing infant abductions: an infant security program transitioned into an interdisciplinary model.

    PubMed

    Hiner, Jacqueline; Pyka, Jeanine; Burks, Colleen; Pisegna, Lily; Gador, Rachel Ann

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to identify vulnerabilities. By establishing an interdisciplinary approach to infant security, participants were able to unravel a complicated concept, systematically analyze the gaps, and agree to a plan of action. This resulted in improved communication and clarification of roles between the nursing and security divisions. Supply costs decreased by 17.4% after the first year of implementation. Most importantly, this project enhanced and strengthened the existing infant abduction prevention measures, hard wired the importance of infant security, and minimized vulnerabilities. PMID:22293642

  1. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tárraga López, Pedro J; Albero, Juan Solera; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle.19,20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55–64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. RESULTS 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also

  2. Personalizing Treatment: Between Primary and Secondary Prevention.

    PubMed

    Blaha, Michael J

    2016-09-15

    Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the management of patients with elevated blood cholesterol increasingly emphasize assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in deciding when to initiate pharmacotherapy. The decision to treat is based primarily on mathematical integration of traditional risk factors, including age, sex, race, lipid values, systolic blood pressure, hypertension therapy, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Advanced risk testing is selectively endorsed for patients when the decision to treat is otherwise uncertain, or more broadly interpreted as those patients who are at so-called "intermediate risk" of ASCVD events using traditional risk factors alone. These new guidelines also place new emphasis on a clinician-patient risk discussion, a process of shared decision making in which patient and physician consider the potential benefits of treatment, risk of adverse events, and patient preferences before making a final decision to initiate treatment. Advanced risk testing is likely to play an increasingly important role in this process as weaknesses in exclusive reliance on traditional risk factors are recognized, new non-statin therapies become available, and guidelines are iteratively updated. Comparative efficacy studies of the various advanced risk testing options suggest that coronary artery calcium scoring is most strongly predictive of ASCVD events. Most importantly, coronary artery calcium scoring appears to identify an important subgroup of patients with advanced subclinical atherosclerosis-who are "between" primary and secondary prevention-that might benefit from the most aggressive lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy. PMID:27620358

  3. Secondary stroke prevention: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Esenwa, Charles; Gutierrez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the USA and a major cause of mortality worldwide. One out of four strokes is recurrent. Secondary stroke prevention starts with deciphering the most likely stroke mechanism. In general, one of the main goals in stroke reduction is to control vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking cessation. Changes in lifestyle like a healthy diet and aerobic exercise are also recommended strategies. In the case of cardioembolism due to atrial fibrillation, mechanical valves, or cardiac thrombus, anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy. The role of anticoagulation is less evident in the case of bioprosthetic valves, patent foramen ovale, and dilated cardiomyopathy with low ejection fraction. Strokes due to larger artery atherosclerosis account for approximately a third of all strokes. In the case of symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis, surgical intervention as close as possible in time to the index event seems highly beneficial. In the case of intracranial large artery atherosclerosis, the best medical therapy consists of antiplatelets, high-dose statins, aggressive controls of vascular risk factors, and lifestyle modifications, with no role for intracranial arterial stenting or angioplasty. For patients with small artery occlusion (ie, lacunar stroke), the therapy is similar to that used in patients with intracranial large artery atherosclerosis. Despite the constant new evidence on how to best treat patients who have suffered a stroke, the risk of stroke recurrence remains unacceptably high, thus evidencing the need for novel therapies. PMID:26300647

  4. [Social network analysis of interdisciplinary cooperation and networking in early prevention and intervention. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Künster, A K; Knorr, C; Fegert, J M; Ziegenhain, U

    2010-11-01

    Child protection can only be successfully solved by interdisciplinary cooperation and networking. The individual, heterogeneous, and complex needs of families cannot be met sufficiently by one profession alone. To guarantee efficient interdisciplinary cooperation, there should not be any gaps in the network. In addition, each actor in the network should be placed at an optimal position regarding function, responsibilities, and skills. Actors that serve as allocators, such as pediatricians or youth welfare officers, should be in key player positions within the network. Furthermore, successful child protection is preventive and starts early. Social network analysis is an adequate technique to assess network structures and to plan interventions to improve networking. In addition, it is very useful to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions like round tables. We present data from our pilot project which was part of "Guter Start ins Kinderleben" ("a good start into a child's life"). Exemplary network data from one community show that networking is already quite effective with a satisfactory mean density throughout the network. There is potential for improvement in cooperation, especially at the interface between the child welfare and health systems.

  5. Suicide Prevention for Counselors Working with Youth in Secondary and Post-Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest statistics, suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in those aged 15-24 (CDC, 2010), when many are enrolled in secondary and post-secondary institutions. Because of such alarming statistics, the need for prevention education is great. However, many counselors and educators feel ill- equipped in prevention and intervention…

  6. Secondary Prevention--Serving Families at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyen, Ute; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Child Protection Center in Lubeck (Germany) offers a nonpunitive, self-help approach to prevent child abuse by encouraging families to determine their own needs. Over half of families served over a two-year period were self-reported and almost one-fifth received help to prevent violence against children before the occurrence of child abuse or…

  7. Strategies for Preventing Behavioral Incidents in the Nation's Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Johnny; Leonard, Rex

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strategies that can be used to prevent the five most common behavioral problems in secondary schools: (1) failure to complete assigned work, (2) tardiness, (3) inattentiveness, (4) littering, and (5) failure to bring materials to class. (FL)

  8. Helpers in Distress: Preventing Secondary Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Natasha; Kanter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Those in close contact with trauma survivors are themselves at risk for trauma (e.g., Bride, 2007; Figley, 1995). Family, friends, and professionals who bear witness to the emotional retelling and re-enacting of traumatic events can experience what is called "secondary trauma" (Elwood, Mott, Lohr, & Galovski, 2011). The literature…

  9. Violence Prevention in United States Society of Jesus Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Thomas Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the…

  10. Meteorology Meets Engineering: An Interdisciplinary STEM Module for Middle- and Secondary-School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, B.; Moran, A.; Woods, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Given the continued need to educate the public on both the meteorological and engineering hazards posed by the severe winds of a tornado, an interdisciplinary STEM module designed by faculty from the Oceanography and Mechanical Engineering departments at the U.S. Naval Academy was developed to engage students ages 12-16 in the fields of meteorology and engineering. Interdisciplinary educational modules such as this one are becoming increasingly common components of academic outreach programs, but to our knowledge, this is one of the first to combine the fields of meteorology and engineering. While many studies have examined changes in student engagement and interest in the STEM fields as a result of participating in interdisciplinary activities such as this one, relatively fewer have focused on quantifying changes in student content knowledge. The primary purposes of this paper are to (1) describe our interdisciplinary STEM module in detail, and (2) report immediate changes in students' knowledge of basic meteorological and engineering content as a result of their participation in the module. Results from a quick, easy-to-administer assessment instrument given to students immediately before and after their participation in the 1-hour module indicated that they learned basic content in both meteorology and engineering. Mean improvement of scores on the assessment questions was 40.2%, a change that was statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Future studies of student learning could gain additional insight into the value of the module by lengthening the time between student participation in the module and the administration of the post-module assessment.

  11. Ergonomic principles and tools for best interdisciplinary psycho-physical stress prevention.

    PubMed

    Dal Cason, Dott Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The psycho-physical stress is a risk to all intents and purposes,finally acknowledged, it requires increasing attention. Measures forits protection are reflected in the appropriate application of organizational policies on a human scale, or in respect of the"macro-ergonomics". This work consists on several inter-disciplinary tools available to the proper prevention, outbreaks of work-related stress.During work, adequate rests are important to prevent work related physical and mental fatigue. The strategies for maintaining a healthy balance between work rate and work breaks, may differ depending on the individual, subjective habits and peculiarities related to the work environment. Resting does not necessarily mean "going to break". The break-time is important as the work-time. While the latter is regulated, the first is not always clearly defined, though necessary. Knowing the employment contract is the first step towards the implementation of their rights relating to periods of suspension from the activity of work is also essential for high performance working. Breathing exercises, massage therapy, biofeedback, role-playing are some of the tools used during work breaks to prevent mental and physical fatigue. At the end music has a rhythm by alternating strong and weak accents. If the musical notes represent the "vertical" trend of music (melody), figures and pauses, inserted into the rhythmic structure of the measure, regulate the duration of sounds over time and determine the "horizontal" trend of a song. Transferring this concept on work, is meant to understand, using a metaphor, the importance of respect of changes in both vertical and horizontal trends inside a cycle. PMID:22317321

  12. RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by Using Discrete Mathematics: An Interdisciplinary Research Experience for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Roni; Wachira, James; Nkwanta, Asamoah

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project was on RNA secondary structure prediction by using a lattice walk approach. The lattice walk approach is a combinatorial and computational biology method used to enumerate possible secondary structures and predict RNA secondary structure from RNA sequences. The method uses…

  13. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  14. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  15. Personalized approach to primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke represents a significant part of stroke management and health care. Although there are official guidelines concerning stroke management, new knowledge are introduced to them with a slight delay. This article provides an overview of current information on primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. It summarizes information especially in the field of cardioembolic stroke, the use of new anticoagulants and the management of carotid stenosis based on the results of recent clinical studies. The optimal approach in stroke management is to follow these recommendations, to know new strategies and to apply an individual personalized approach in our clinical decisions. PMID:24949113

  16. Preventing the Obesity Epidemic by Second Generation Tailored Health Communication: An Interdisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Enwald, Heidi Päivyt Karoliina

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to obesity are major challenges worldwide. The use of eHealth communication and the tailoring of information delivered via the Internet at the individual level may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Mastering behaviors related to nutrition, physical activity, and weight management are the main issues in preventing obesity, and the need for interdisciplinary knowledge within this area is obvious. Objective The objectives were to review the literature on tailored health communication and to present an interdisciplinary analysis of studies on “second” generation tailored interventions aimed at behavior change in nutrition, physical activity, or weight management. Methods A literature search was conducted of the main electronic information sources on health communication. Selection criteria were defined, and 23 intervention studies were selected. The content analysis focused on the following: study designs, objectives of behavior change, target groups, sample sizes, study lengths, attrition rates, theories applied, intervention designs, computer-based channels used, statistically significant outcomes from the perspective of tailoring, and possible biases of the studies. However, this was not a structured meta-analysis and cannot be replicated as such. Results Of the 23 studies, 21 were randomized controlled trials, and all focused on behavior change: 10 studies focused on behavior change in nutrition, 7 on physical activity, 2 on nutrition and physical activity, and 4 on weight management. The target groups and the number of participants varied: 8 studies included more than 500 participants, and 6 studies included less than 100. Most studies were short; the duration of 20 studies was 6 months or less. The Transtheoretical Model was applied in 14 of the 23 studies, and feedback as a tailoring mechanism was used in addition to an Internet site (or program) in 15 studies and in addition to

  17. [Primary and secondary prevention of arteriosclerosis. Risk stratification of hypertension].

    PubMed

    Gysan, D B

    2002-10-01

    Hypertension is one of the important risk factors in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. The differences between primary and secondary prevention in diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are reviewed from international studies. The optimal therapy for hypertension and risk stratification, including all other risk factors, will reduce the incidence and mortality of coronary heart disease and stroke. PMID:12395218

  18. Project Prevention - A Curriculum Specifically Designed To Prevent Illegal Drug Use among Students with Disabilties: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Sandy; And Others

    The Project Prevention curriculum is specifically designed for the prevention of substance abuse among students with disabilities and was piloted in 10 classrooms serving students with mild, moderate, and severe disabilities. This component of the curriculum is intended for secondary students and includes four sections with a total of 67 lesson…

  19. The Jung Curriculum. An Interdisciplinary Curriculum and Resource Packet Designed for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Patricia E.; Fuller, Roger J.

    The ideas and concepts of Carl Jung are the basis for the materials of this curriculum guide for teaching gifted students at the secondary level. Entitled "Man and His Symbols," the guide is organized in five parts: (1) Approaching the Unconscious; (2) Ancient Myths and Modern Man; (3) The Process of Individuation; (4) Symbolism in the Visual…

  20. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) study

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Oscar R.; White, Carole L.; Pearce, Lesly; Pergola, Pablo; Roldan, Ana; Benavente, Marie-France; Coffey, Christopher; McClure, Leslie A.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Conwit, Robin; Heberling, Patricia A.; Howard, George; Bazan, Carlos; Vidal-Pergola, Gabriela; Talbert, Robert; Hart, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Small subcortical strokes, also known as lacunar strokes, comprise more than 25% of brain infarcts, and the underlying vasculopathy is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. How to optimally prevent stroke recurrence and cognitive decline in S3 patients is unclear. The aim of the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes study (Trial registration: NCT00059306) is to define strategies for reducing stroke recurrence, cognitive decline, and major vascular events. Methods Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes is a randomised, multicentre clinical trial (n = 3000) being conducted in seven countries, and sponsored by the US NINDS/NIH. Patients with symptomatic small subcortical strokes in the six-months before and an eligible lesion on magnetic resonance imaging are simultaneously randomised, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, to antiplatelet therapy – 325 mg aspirin daily plus 75 mg clopidogrel daily, vs. 325 mg aspirin daily plus placebo, double-blind – and to one of two levels of systolic blood pressure targets –‘intensive’ (<130 mmHg) vs. ‘usual’ (130–149 mmHg). Participants are followed for an average of four-years. Time to recurrent stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) is the primary outcome and will be analysed separately for each intervention. The secondary outcomes are the rate of cognitive decline and major vascular events. The primary and most secondary outcomes are adjudicated centrally by those unaware of treatment assignment. Conclusions Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes will address several important clinical and scientific questions by testing two interventions in patients with recent magnetic resonance imaging-defined lacunar infarcts, which are likely due to small vessel disease. The results will inform the management of millions of patients with this common vascular disorder. PMID:21371282

  1. Mechanisms and prevention of secondary brain damage during intensive care.

    PubMed

    Dearden, N M

    1998-01-01

    The injured brain may be damaged by primary impact, secondary injury from secondary damage due to initiation of destructive inflammatory and biochemical cascades by the primary injury or secondary ischemic injury following secondary insults that initiate or augment these immunological and biochemical cascades. Cerebral ischemia will arise whenever delivery of oxygen and substrates to the brain fall below metabolic needs. Many factors lead to the development of secondary insults to the injured brain during initial resuscitation, transport, surgery, and subsequent intensive care. Continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation (jugular oximetry, brain tissue PO2) and cerebral blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler ultrasonography) in patients with brain trauma reveals multiple episodes of transient hypoperfusion with an adverse relationship between incidence and outcome. Secondary brain insults arise through systemic or intracranial mechanisms that reduce cerebral blood flow from compromised CPP, vascular distortion or cerebrovascular narrowing or lower oxygen delivery from hypoxemia associated with airway obstruction, pulmonary pathology, or anemia. Secondary brain ischemia remains a common pathway to secondary brain damage in most critically ill neurosurgical patients. In the future prevention of secondary brain injury may well hinge on giving a cocktail of novel agents that modify destructive biochemical and inflammatory pathways, each having a potential therapeutic window possibly in a subgroup of patients. To date, phase 3 clinical trials of several agents including PEGSOD and tyrilizad mesylate have failed to show relevant efficacy after brain trauma or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The therapeutic role of calcium channel blockers in traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is currently under investigation following the results of subgroup metaanalysis. Several phase 3, NMDA receptor antagonist studies are underway in brain trauma with results expected soon. Although we

  2. Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Monika; Gulati, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease requires involvement of an extended health care team. Obstetricians and gynecologists are uniquely positioned within the health care system because they are often the primary or only contact women have with the system. This review article discusses initial assessment, treatment recommendations, and practical tips regarding primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with a focus on coronary heart disease; discussion includes peripheral and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:27212092

  3. Creating and Executing an Applied Interdisciplinary Campaign for Domestic Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Sarah N.; Otjen, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary, experiential learning project that combined marketing and communications courses at a state university. Two professors from different colleges partnered with a domestic violence center to enable students to create a community-based social marketing campaign. Student assessments indicated success in…

  4. Novel oral anticoagulants in secondary prevention of stroke.

    PubMed

    Diener, H C; Easton, J D; Hankey, G J; Hart, R G

    2013-06-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) oral anticoagulation with vitamin-K antagonists (warfarin, phenprocoumon) is effective both for primary and secondary stroke prevention yielding a 60-70% relative reduction in stroke risk compared with placebo, as well as a mortality reduction of 26 percent. Vitamin-K antagonists have a number of well documented shortcomings. Recently the results of randomised trials for three new oral anticoagulants that do not exhibit the limitations of vitamin-K antagonists have been published. These include direct factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban) and a direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran). The studies (RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, ARISTOTLE, AVERROES) provide promising results for the new agents, including higher efficacy and a significantly lower incidence of intracranial bleeds compared with warfarin or aspirin. The new drugs show similar results in secondary as well as in primary stroke prevention in patients with AF. Apixaban was demonstrated to be clearly superior to aspirin and had the same rate of major bleeding complications. Meta-analyses show that the novel anticoagulants are superior to warfarin for the reduction of stroke, major bleeding and intracranial bleeds. New anticoagulants add to the therapeutic options for patients with AF, and offer a number of advantages over warfarin, for both the clinician and patient, including a favorable bleeding profile and convenience of use. Aspirin is no longer an option in secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Consideration of these new anticoagulants will improve clinical decision making. PMID:23953901

  5. Secondary preventive medication persistence and adherence 1 year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Olson, D.M.; Zhao, X.; Pan, W.; Zimmer, L.O.; Goldstein, L.B.; Alberts, M.J.; Fagan, S.C.; Fonarow, G.C.; Johnston, S.C.; Kidwell, C.; LaBresh, K.A.; Ovbiagele, B.; Schwamm, L.; Peterson, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Data on long-term use of secondary prevention medications following stroke are limited. The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal (AVAIL) Registry assessed patient, provider, and system-level factors influencing continuation of prevention medications for 1 year following stroke hospitalization discharge. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from 106 hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program were surveyed to determine their use of warfarin, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and diabetes medications from discharge to 12 months. Reasons for stopping medications were ascertained. Persistence was defined as continuation of all secondary preventive medications prescribed at hospital discharge, and adherence as continuation of prescribed medications except those stopped according to health care provider instructions. Results: Of the 2,880 patients enrolled in AVAIL, 88.4% (2,457 patients) completed 1-year interviews. Of these, 65.9% were regimen persistent and 86.6% were regimen adherent. Independent predictors of 1-year medication persistence included fewer medications prescribed at discharge, having an adequate income, having an appointment with a primary care provider, and greater understanding of why medications were prescribed and their side effects. Independent predictors of adherence were similar to those for persistence. Conclusions: Although up to one-third of stroke patients discontinued one or more secondary prevention medications within 1 year of hospital discharge, self-discontinuation of these medications is uncommon. Several potentially modifiable patient, provider, and system-level factors associated with persistence and adherence may be targets for future interventions. PMID:21900638

  6. [Secondary prevention of stroke through arterial blood pressure reduction].

    PubMed

    Mancia, G; Grassi, G

    1997-07-01

    Large scale observational studies have conclusively demonstrated that systolic and diastolic blood pressure values are linearly related to the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases and that high blood pressure is an important risk factor for both primary and secondary development of stroke. Interventional studies have shown that blood pressure lowering by antihypertensive treatment reduces the incidence of stroke in hypertensive patients without a history of previous stroke. Whether this is the case also for the secondary prevention of cerebral ischemic attacks has not been unequivocally shown, however. The PROGRESS ("Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study") study has been designed and is under way to collect information on this important issue of the antihypertensive treatment, its purpose being to evaluate the blood pressure lowering effects with an ACE-inhibitor on recurrent stroke in an overall population of 6000 patients with a positive history of previous cerebral ischemic attacks or stroke. PMID:9340173

  7. [Prevention and treatment of the complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome--the significance of evidence-based, interdisciplinary management].

    PubMed

    Gődény, Sándor; Csenteri, Orsolya Karola

    2015-12-13

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder likely to affect women. The syndrome is often associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia and adversely affects endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. The complex feature of the syndrome requires an interdisciplinary approach to treatment, where cooperation of paediatrician, internist, gynaecologist, endocrinologist, dermatologist, psychologist and oncologist is essential. The prevention and the treatment should be based on the best available evidence. This should include physical examination, laboratory tests for hormones, serum insulin, glucose, lipids, in addition patient's preferences should be considered, too. To maximise health gain of polycystic ovarian syndrome, adequate, effective, efficient and safe treatment is necessary. This article summarises the highest available evidence provided by meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of the syndrome, and discusses the relevant evidence published in the literature. PMID:26639643

  8. [Prevention and treatment of the complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome--the significance of evidence-based, interdisciplinary management].

    PubMed

    Gődény, Sándor; Csenteri, Orsolya Karola

    2015-12-13

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder likely to affect women. The syndrome is often associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia and adversely affects endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. The complex feature of the syndrome requires an interdisciplinary approach to treatment, where cooperation of paediatrician, internist, gynaecologist, endocrinologist, dermatologist, psychologist and oncologist is essential. The prevention and the treatment should be based on the best available evidence. This should include physical examination, laboratory tests for hormones, serum insulin, glucose, lipids, in addition patient's preferences should be considered, too. To maximise health gain of polycystic ovarian syndrome, adequate, effective, efficient and safe treatment is necessary. This article summarises the highest available evidence provided by meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of the syndrome, and discusses the relevant evidence published in the literature.

  9. The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Unit on the Environmental Decision-Making of Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConney, Amanda W.; And Others

    In the first phase of this study an interdisciplinary curriculum unit was developed centered on the concept of sustainable development in tropical rainforests. The centerpiece of the interdisciplinary unit was the investigation of a simulated environmental problem which required students to develop and then decide on a solution, having weighed a…

  10. [Advances in the secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke].

    PubMed

    Masjuan, Jaime

    2012-10-01

    Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is the main cause of cardioembolic stroke. Classically, prevention consists of oral antivitamin-K anticoagulants (AVK), which, despite their demonstrated efficacy, continue to be underused due to their numerous drawbacks. Recently, a new generation of oral anticoagulants has been shown to have a better safety profile and greater efficacy than AVK. The studies that have compared rivoraxaban, dabigatran and apixaban with warfarin have also included a substantial proportion of patients who had previously had a stroke. The results of the substudies performed in this population with a high risk of hemorrhagic and embolic events have been consistent with those in the overall populations in these studies. The new anticoagulants are a feasible alternative to AVK in the secondary prevention of ictus in patients with NVAF. When anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated, percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage could be an alternative.

  11. [Therapeutic recommendations. Secondary prevention of cerebral vascular accident].

    PubMed

    Ferro, J M; Correia, M; Freire, A

    1998-01-01

    The guidelines for secondary stroke prevention, graded following available scientific evidence, are presented. Stroke and TIA are defined and the indications for referral established. Basic assessment of stroke patients should include laboratory evaluation, ECG, brain CT, ultrasound examination of the extracranial vessels for events in the carotid distribution, and transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiogram if cardioembolism is suspected. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological reduction of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, stopping smoking and reducing alcohol intake are general measures recommended for secondary stroke prevention, together with healthier life-style changes (eating a Mediterranean type diet and performing regular moderate physical exercise). Concerning antithrombotic therapy, oral anticoagulants are recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation and other high to medium emboligenic cardiac risk conditions. Antiplatelet drugs are recommended for all other survivors of an ischemic cerebral event. Aspirin (75-325 mg/day) is the drug of choice. Alternative antiplatelet agents are clopidrogrel, ticlopidine, dipiridamol or triflusal. They can be used in patients with intolerance or contraindication to aspirin or in high-risk subjects. Endarterectomy of the symptomatic carotid is an additional procedure recommended for patients with ischemic stroke or TIA and carotid stenosis > 80% on the side of the symptomatic cerebral hemisphere. PMID:9951075

  12. [The role of dietitian in cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention].

    PubMed

    Agostini, Susanna; Biffi, Barbara; Brazzo, Silvia; Da Vico, Letizia; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2014-03-01

    Rehabilitation and secondary prevention programs are recognized as an essential part of the overall care of patients with cardiovascular disease. They consist of multidisciplinary strategies aiming at the reduction of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There are some evidence of the efficacy of nutritional care in modifying eating habits and behavior in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. In 2007, the Italian Association of Dietitians (ANDID) appointed a working group of dietitians, skilled in nutrition applied in cardiovascular disease, with the aim to make an overview of the available scientific literature and to develop a Professional Position Paper on the role of Dietitian in cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention. The first Position Paper, developed in 2008, covered the available evidence about the dietitian professional role and contribution in the management of the topic. The working group has recently updated the contents by introducing, in agreement with the work done by ANDID, the methodology of the Nutrition Care Process and Model (NCP), a systematic problem-solving method intended to stimulate critical thinking, decision-making and address issues related to food and nutritional assistance, in order to provide a safe, effective and high quality care.

  13. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Controversies in Primary and Secondary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Saffra, Norman A.; Seidman, Carly J.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in the United States and worldwide. It commonly follows a relapsing course with the potential for multiple adverse visual sequelae and, rarely, blindness. Both immune-competent and immune-suppressed populations can develop severe relapsing disease. There is considerable debate regarding the initial treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis in both groups, with multiple antiparasitic agents commonly used with little evidence to support any particular regimen. The precise role of corticosteroids in treatment also has yet to be rigorously defined. Secondary prevention is commonly implemented in the immune suppressed population, but there is a lack of level one evidence to support its role in immune-competent patients, though it warrants future investigation. PMID:24380083

  14. Beyond Primary Prevention of Alcohol Use: A Culturally Specific Secondary Prevention Program for Mexican Heritage Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin’ it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants’ use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents. PMID:22193861

  15. Vorapaxar for secondary stroke prevention: perspectives and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; Kim, Moo Hyun; Fortmann, Seth D; Hanley, Dan F

    2015-01-01

    Vorapaxar, a novel antiplatelet thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) inhibitor, has been evaluated in the successful TRA2P trial and failed TRACER trial. The drug is currently approved for post myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease indications on top of clopidogrel and/or aspirin. The stroke data after vorapaxar are mixed, dominated with heavy excess of intracranial bleeding risks and slightly worsened second stroke rates, but show less primary ischemic strokes. Fortunately, these conflicting data do not belong purely to vorapaxar per se but rather, reflect unreasonably aggressive strategies, including predominantly triple antiplatelet therapy, utilized in both Trial to Assess the Effects of SCH 530348 in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Patients with Arteriosclerosis (TRA2P) and especially in Thrombin-Receptor Antagonist Vorapaxar in Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRACER). The FDA-confirmed evidence strongly suggests that unique pharmacokinetics and a very mild "comfort zone" antiplatelet profile makes vorapaxar a good candidate for improved secondary stroke prevention. The outcome-driven, randomized trial should test head-to-head monotherapy with vorapaxar (Zontivity®) versus clopidogrel (Plavix®) and versus dipyridamole with very low dose aspirin (Aggrenox®). The advantages and potential pitfalls of such a trial are discussed in this article. PMID:26566105

  16. The Uptake of Secondary Prevention by Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Cobigo, V.; Balogh, R.; Wilton, A.; Lunsky, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Secondary prevention involves the early detection of disease while it is asymptomatic to prevent its progression. For adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities, secondary prevention is critical as they may not have the ability to recognize the early signs and symptoms of disease or lack accessible information about these.…

  17. Prevention of Root Caries: A Literature Review of Primary and Secondary Preventive Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gluzman, Rima; Frey, Barbara J.; McGowan, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This literature review summarizes the effectiveness of the seven leading root caries preventive agents and provides recommendations for use of those agents in clinical practice with older adults and vulnerable elderly. Method Studies were eligible if they assessed the effectiveness of either fluoride, chlorhexidine, xylitol, amorphous calcium phosphate, sealants, saliva stimulators, or silver diamine fluoride to prevent/control root caries in an English-language articles between 1979–2010 Results In the 31 eligible studies, the most effective primary (1°) prevention agents had reductions in RC incidence ranging from 72% to nearly 200% as compared to a placebo while for secondary (2°) prevention, the best agents demonstrated arrest rates between 67–80%. Conclusion For 1° prevention of root caries the recommended ‘best choice’ is a 38% Silver Diamine Fluoride solution professionally applied annually, while for the 2° prevention of root caries, the recommended ‘best choice’ is a 22,500 ppm Sodium Fluoride varnish professionally applied every 3 months. PMID:23600985

  18. Secondary prevention of stroke--results from the Southern Africa Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI) study.

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, M.; Connor, M. D.; Lewando-Hundt, G.; Tollman, S.; Ngoma, B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of risk factors and experience of preventive interventions in stroke survivors, and identilfy barriers to secondary prevention in rural South Africa. METHODS: A clinician visited individuals in the Agincourt field site (in South Africa's rural north east) who were identified in a census as possible stroke victims to confirm the diagnosis of stroke. We explored the impact of stroke on the individual's family, and health-seeking behaviour following stroke by conducting in-depth interviews in the households of 35 stroke survivors. We held two workshops to understand the knowledge, experience, and views of primary care nurses, who provide the bulk of professional health care. FINDINGS :We identified 103 stroke survivors (37 men), 73 (71%) of whom had hypertension, but only 8 (8%) were taking anti-hypertensive treatment. Smoking was uncommon; 8 men and 1 woman smoked a maximum of ten cigarettes daily. 94 (91%) stroke survivors had sought help, which involved allopathic health care for most of them (81; 79%). 42 had also sought help from traditional healers and churches, while another 13 people had sought help only from those sources. Of the 35 survivors who were interviewed, 29 reported having been prescribed anti-hypertensive pills after their stroke. Barriers to secondary prevention included cost of treatment, reluctance to use pills, difficulties with access to drugs, and lack of equipment to measure blood pressure. A negative attitude to allopathic care was not an important factor. CONCLUSION: In this rural area hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor in stroke survivors. Effective secondary prevention may reduce the incidence of recurrent strokes, but there is no system to deliver such care. New strategies for care are needed involving both allopathic and non-allopathic-health care providers. PMID:15500283

  19. Mathematical modeling is also physics—interdisciplinary teaching between mathematics and physics in Danish upper secondary education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Claus

    2015-07-01

    Mathematics plays a crucial role in physics. This role is brought about predominantly through the building, employment, and assessment of mathematical models, and teachers and educators should capture this relationship in the classroom in an effort to improve students’ achievement and attitude in both physics and mathematics. But although there are overwhelming amounts of literature on modeling in science and mathematics education, the interdisciplinary position is seldom addressed explicitly. Furthermore, there has been a striking lack of exposure of the question of how future teachers, who are largely educated in a mono-disciplinary fashion, can best become equipped to introduce genuinely interdisciplinary teaching activities to their future pupils. This paper presents some preliminary reflections upon a graduate course, which aims to prepare future physics and mathematics teachers for interdisciplinary teaching, and which has been designed on the basis of influential theoretical expositions of the concept of interdisciplinarity.

  20. An interdisciplinary framework for measuring and supporting adherence in HIV prevention trials of ARV-based vaginal rings

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Owen, Derek H; Amico, K Rivet; Morrow, Kathleen M; Moench, Thomas; Friend, David R; Friedland, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. Discussion The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings) and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1) adherence support – sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2) self-reported psychometric measures – creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3) more objective measurement of adherence – real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion. Coordinating research

  1. Preventing skin tears in a nursing and rehabilitation center: an interdisciplinary effort.

    PubMed

    Bank, Dena; Nix, Denise

    2006-09-01

    Skin tears are painful, traumatic wounds that result from the separation of the epidermis from the dermis. To assess the clinical effectiveness of a preventive skin care protocol, 13-month retrospective pre-intervention data collection followed by 15-month post-intervention skin tear incidence data collection was conducted among all patients in a 209-bed urban nursing and rehabilitation center. The preventive skin care strategies implemented - staff education, skin sleeves and padded side rails for high-risk patients, gentle skin cleansers, and lotion - were selected by facility staff members and the multidisciplinary skin team. Nosocomial skin tear data were obtained by reviewing incident reports. Following implementation of the prevention protocols, the number of skin tears changed from a mean of 18.7 to a mean of 8.73 per month (P <0.001). The average monthly reduction in nosocomial skin tears was projected to reduce the dressing and labor costs of managing these wounds an average of 1,698 dollars per month (18,168.60 dollars annually). The results of this study confirm previously reported research suggesting that the effects of implementing a comprehensive skin care protocol can persist, reducing the incidence of nosocomial skin tears and their associated risks and costs. Prospective cost-effectiveness studies to confirm these findings are needed.

  2. Statement of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Prevention Committee (CEIPC for its Spanish acronym) on the 2012 European Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Royo-Bordonada, M A; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Villar Alvarez, F; Sans, S; Pérez, A; Pedro-Botet, J; Moreno Carriles, R M; Maiques, A; Lizcano, Á; Lizarbe, V; Gil Núñez, A; Fornés Ubeda, F; Elosua, R; de Santiago Nocito, A; de Pablo Zarzosa, C; de Álvaro Moreno, F; Cortés, O; Cordero, A; Camafort Babkowski, M; Brotons Cuixart, C; Armario, P

    2016-04-01

    Based on the two main frameworks for evaluating scientific evidence (SEC and GRADE) European cardiovascular prevention guidelines recommend interventions across all life stages using a combination of population-based and high-risk strategies with diet as the cornerstone of prevention. The evaluation of cardiovascular risk (CVR) incorporates HDL levels and psychosocial factors, a very high risk category, and the concept of age-risk. They also recommend cognitive-behavioural methods (e.g., motivational interviewing, psychological interventions) led by health professionals and with the participation of the patient's family, to counterbalance psychosocial stress and reduce CVR through the institution of positive habits such as a healthy diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, and adherence to treatment. Additionally, public health interventions - such as smoking ban in public areas or the elimination of trans fatty acids from the food chain - are also essential. Other innovations include abandoning antiplatelet therapy in primary prevention and the recommendation of maintaining blood pressure within the 130-139/80-85 mmHg range in diabetic patients and individuals with high CVR. Finally, due to the significant impact on patient progress and medical costs, special emphasis is given to the low therapeutic adherence levels observed. In sum, improving cardiovascular prevention requires a true partnership among the political class, public administrations, scientific and professional associations, health foundations, consumer associations, patients and their families. Such partnership would promote population-based and individual strategies by taking advantage of the broad spectrum of scientific evidence available, from clinical trials to observational studies and mathematical models to evaluate population-based interventions, including cost-effectiveness analyses. PMID:23969295

  3. [Statement of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Prevention Committee (CEIPC for its Spanish acronym) on the 2012 European Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Angel; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Villar Alvarez, Fernando; Sans, Susana; Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Moreno Carriles, Rosa María; Maiques, Antonio; Lizcano, Angel; Lizarbe, Vicenta; Gil Núñez, Antonio; Fornés Ubeda, Francisco; Elosua, Roberto; de Santiago Nocito, Ana; de Pablo Zarzosa, Carmen; de Álvaro Moreno, Fernando; Cortés, Olga; Cordero, Alberto; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Armario, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Based on the two main frameworks for evaluating scientific evidence (SEC and GRADE) European cardiovascular prevention guidelines recommend interventions across all life stages using a combination of population-based and high-risk strategies with diet as the cornerstone of prevention. The evaluation of cardiovascular risk (CVR) incorporates HDL levels and psychosocial factors, a very high risk category, and the concept of age-risk. They also recommend cognitive-behavioural methods (e.g., motivational interviewing, psychological interventions) led by health professionals and with the participation of the patient's family, to counterbalance psychosocial stress and reduce CVR through the institution of positive habits such as a healthy diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, and adherence to treatment. Additionally, public health interventions - such as smoking ban in public areas or the elimination of trans fatty acids from the food chain - are also essential. Other innovations include abandoning antiplatelet therapy in primary prevention and the recommendation of maintaining blood pressure within the 130-139/80-85mmHg range in diabetic patients and individuals with high CVR. Finally, due to the significant impact on patient progress and medical costs, special emphasis is given to the low therapeutic adherence levels observed. In sum, improving cardiovascular prevention requires a true partnership among the political class, public administrations, scientific and professional associations, health foundations, consumer associations, patients and their families. Such partnership would promote population-based and individual strategies by taking advantage of the broad spectrum of scientific evidence available, from clinical trials to observational studies and mathematical models to evaluate population-based interventions, including cost-effectiveness analyses.

  4. Statement of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Prevention Committee (CEIPC for its Spanish acronym) on the 2012 European Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Royo-Bordonada, M A; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Villar Alvarez, F; Sans, S; Pérez, A; Pedro-Botet, J; Moreno Carriles, R M; Maiques, A; Lizcano, Á; Lizarbe, V; Gil Núñez, A; Fornés Ubeda, F; Elosua, R; de Santiago Nocito, A; de Pablo Zarzosa, C; de Álvaro Moreno, F; Cortés, O; Cordero, A; Camafort Babkowski, M; Brotons Cuixart, C; Armario, P

    2016-04-01

    Based on the two main frameworks for evaluating scientific evidence (SEC and GRADE) European cardiovascular prevention guidelines recommend interventions across all life stages using a combination of population-based and high-risk strategies with diet as the cornerstone of prevention. The evaluation of cardiovascular risk (CVR) incorporates HDL levels and psychosocial factors, a very high risk category, and the concept of age-risk. They also recommend cognitive-behavioural methods (e.g., motivational interviewing, psychological interventions) led by health professionals and with the participation of the patient's family, to counterbalance psychosocial stress and reduce CVR through the institution of positive habits such as a healthy diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, and adherence to treatment. Additionally, public health interventions - such as smoking ban in public areas or the elimination of trans fatty acids from the food chain - are also essential. Other innovations include abandoning antiplatelet therapy in primary prevention and the recommendation of maintaining blood pressure within the 130-139/80-85 mmHg range in diabetic patients and individuals with high CVR. Finally, due to the significant impact on patient progress and medical costs, special emphasis is given to the low therapeutic adherence levels observed. In sum, improving cardiovascular prevention requires a true partnership among the political class, public administrations, scientific and professional associations, health foundations, consumer associations, patients and their families. Such partnership would promote population-based and individual strategies by taking advantage of the broad spectrum of scientific evidence available, from clinical trials to observational studies and mathematical models to evaluate population-based interventions, including cost-effectiveness analyses.

  5. [Anticoagulant therapy in secondary prevention of coronary events].

    PubMed

    Bultas, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events is the domain of antiplatelet therapy and according to present risk is used one drug strategy or combination of acetylsalicylic acid with ADP receptor blockers. The importance of the combination of dual antiplatelet therapy together with xabans or dabigatran was investigated in 6 clinical trials. Only one of them (ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51) indicated that treatment with small dose of rivaroxaban (2 × 2.5 mg) may be added to dual strategy of acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. The risk of major bleeding event is increased and net clinical benefit is only about 0.5 % per year. Dual therapy with aspirin and prasugrel or tikagrelor is beneficial. In the second part of the review is discussed higher incidence of myocardial infarction in controlled group in the trial comparing treatment of dabigatran with warfarin. This relationship has not been resolved, however, in patients with higher risk of coronary events and indication of anticoagulant treatment with direct oral anticoagulants it is recommended to choose from xabans (apixaban and rivaroxaban). PMID:25692828

  6. Gender Differences in Utilization of Effective Cardiovascular Secondary Prevention: A Cleveland Clinic Prevention Database Study

    PubMed Central

    CHO, LESLIE; HOOGWERF, BYRON; HUANG, JULIE; BRENNAN, DANIELLE M.; HAZEN, STANLEY L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that women with cardiovascular disease may receive less aggressive care than men. Using a large cardiology database from a tertiary referral center, we sought to determine if treatment differences still persist in the current era. Methods We analyzed data on 2462 patients who were referred for secondary prevention to the Preventive Cardiology Clinic at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation between 1997 and 2004. The primary objective was to evaluate use of effective secondary preventive therapies, by gender, as outlined in the ACC/AHA guidelines, such as antiplatelet therapy, beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent effect of gender on all cause mortality. Results Women were older (62.2 ± 11.1 vs. 59.4 ± 11.0, p < 0.001) and more likely to be hypertensive (68.1% vs. 56.1%, p < 0.001) than men. Overall, women were more likely than men to have higher baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (6.14 ± 13.4 vs. 4.9 ± 10.7, p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (135 ± 66 vs. 116 ± 46, p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (52 ± 17 vs. 41 ± 11, p < 0.001), and total cholesterol (238 ± 98 vs. 202 ± 65, p < 0.001). Women were less likely to be on antiplatelet therapy (76.6 % vs. 85.0%, p < 0.001) and statins or any lipid-lowering therapy (62.6% vs. 67.1%, p = 0.04) compared with men on presentation. Conclusions Even in the current era, women with established cardiovascular disease continue to receive less aggressive care than men. They are less likely to be on aspirin and statin therapy. More aggressive efforts should be made to treat both men and women with standard secondary preventive efforts. PMID:18345999

  7. Secondary Prevention in an RTI Model: A Step toward Academic Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Esther Klein

    2010-01-01

    The secondary level of a Response to Intervention system, sometimes referred to as Tier II intervention, targets students who experience inadequate response to good classroom instruction for 10-15 weeks of validated small-group instruction. The twin purposes of secondary prevention are to (a) prevent the development of long-term reading difficulty…

  8. Adapting postdoctoral training to interdisciplinary science in the 21st century: the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program at the National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shine; Hursting, Stephen D; Perkins, Susan N; Dores, Graça M; Weed, Douglas L

    2005-03-01

    Preparing junior scientists for careers in the health sciences has become an immense challenge for many reasons, including the emerging demand for multidisciplinary approaches to solving problems in the health sciences. For those choosing careers in hybrid and interdisciplinary fields, the "traditional" postdoctoral training model may not perform well, particularly in light of other problems that plague postdoctoral success. New approaches are required. Using the interdisciplinary field of cancer prevention as an example, the authors describe the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) of the National Cancer Institute, a three-year postdoctoral program of which the goal is to provide its fellows with a strong foundation in cancer prevention through education, mentored research, and structured professional development training activities that emphasize multidisciplinary approaches and leadership skills. Over time, the CPFP has incorporated the best aspects of the traditional postdoctoral training model with newer training approaches in an effort to overcome existing problems in postdoctoral training and to address the additional complexities inherent in training those who seek careers in interdisciplinary science. Many aspects of the CPFP, including an efficient infrastructure, a dedicated staff, a capacity to provide educational activities, and the provision of rich research opportunities, may translate well to other postdoctoral programs that face similar issues.

  9. Organizing your practice for screening and secondary prevention among adults.

    PubMed

    Knierim, Kyle E; Fernald, Douglas H; Staton, Elizabeth W; Nease, Donald E

    2014-06-01

    Prevention plays an important role in achieving the triple aim of decreasing per capita health care costs, improving the health of populations, and bettering the patient experience. Primary care is uniquely positioned to provide preventive services. External forces are aligning to support the transition of primary care from traditional models focused on disease-specific, acute episodes of care to new ways of organizing that are more patient centered, team based, and quality driven. By aligning leadership, building change capacity, and selectively choosing relevant processes to change, those practicing primary care can successfully organize their practice environment to deliver preventive services.

  10. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  11. Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…

  12. Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program: A Secondary School Curriculum to Combat Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier

    2010-01-01

    The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…

  13. An open debate about the object and purpose of global health knowledge in the context of an interdisciplinary research partnership on HIV/STI prevention priorities in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the failure of the latest vaccine trial, HVTN-505, HIV prevention efforts remain critical. Social and structural factors contributing to HIV and STI transmission include stigma regarding sexual violence, HIV infection and sexual orientation. For instance, HIV prevention and overall sexual health programs in Peru have been implemented yet key populations of youth (sex workers, male and transgender youth) continue to be overrepresented in new cases of HIV and STI. This suggests that interventions must take new directions and highlights the need for additional research. Discussion While interdisciplinary, international research collaborations often are indicated as best practice in developing new knowledge in global health and an important component of the leadership in health systems, this does not mean they are free of challenges. In this debate we document our reflections on some of the challenges in developing an interdisciplinary and international research team to understand HIV and STI prevention priorities among youth in two culturally diverse cities in Peru: Lima, the capital city, and Ayacucho, in the Andean region. Summary Rather than offering solutions we aim to contribute to the debate about the object and purpose of global health research in the context of developing international research partnerships that genuinely promote a reciprocal and bidirectional flow of knowledge between the Global South and the Global North, and researchers at intersections of these locations. PMID:24886493

  14. Interdisciplinary Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepner, Freda

    Interdisciplinary learning is most simply defined as the co-teaching of courses by at least two faculty members from different departments in the institution. Interdisciplinary learning in the United States began after World War II with the proposal of a core curriculum covering Western civilization, literary texts, science, and English…

  15. Primary and secondary prevention of liver cancer caused by HBV

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Baruch S.

    2010-01-01

    Primary cancer of the liver (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide; HBV is the major cause of HCC. A vaccine that protects against HBV infection was invented in 1969 and is now one of the most commonly used vaccines. National vaccination programs have dramatically reduced the prevalence of HBV infection and carriers, with a concomitant decrease in the incidence of HCC in the vaccine-impacted populations. HBV vaccine is the first widely used cancer prevention vaccine; a second that protects against papilloma virus and cancer of the cervix has recently been introduced. Appropriate treatment of HBV carriers with antivirals can reduce the titers of HBV in their blood and thereby greatly reduce the risk of HCC and chronic liver disease. Further data are required to establish criterion for treatment to enable protocols for medical and prevention programs. There are other viral caused cancers and an understanding of their pathogenesis is an important future direction for research to reduce the human burden of cancer. PMID:20036981

  16. Mobile Phone Interventions for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Linda G; Beatty, Alexis; Stafford, Zoey; Whooley, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health in the form of text messaging and mobile applications provides an innovative and effective approach to promote prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. Through a comprehensive search of databases from 2002-2016, we conducted a quantitative systematic review. The selected studies were critically evaluated to extract and summarize pertinent characteristics and outcomes. A large majority of studies (22 of 28, 79%) demonstrated text messaging, mobile applications, and telemonitoring via mobile phones were effective in improving outcomes. Some key factors associated with successful interventions included personalized messages with tailored advice, greater engagement (2-way text messaging, higher frequency of messages), and use of multiple modalities. Overall, text messaging appears more effective than smartphone-based interventions. Incorporating principles of behavioral activation will help promote and sustain healthy lifestyle behaviors in patients with CVD that result in improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27001245

  17. Role of primary and secondary prevention in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Iwonna; Gutfreund, Katarzyna; Bienias, Wojciech; Matych, Marta; Szewczyk, Anna; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious epidemiological problem in industrialized countries. The incidence of AD has increased considerably over the last 30 years. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease accompanied by strong itching. It is characterized by typical features depending on age. The parents of children suffering from AD must be prepared to change their lifestyle. They should avoid factors which can promote skin lesions and apply appropriate, regular skin care. The article describes primary prevention of AD as well as prophylactic measures to avoid skin eczema. It presents the role of infections, vaccinations, breastfeeding and the influence of domestic animals, house renovation and moulds on development of AD. The article also describes the significance of the epidermal barrier, skin colonization by microbial agents, pruritus, stress, food and inhalant allergy among people who suffer from AD. PMID:26755903

  18. "Comets, Origins, and Life:” Promoting Interdisciplinary Science in Secondary and Middle Schools in the Washington, DC and Saint Louis, MO Metro Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, Boncho; Gibb, E. L.; Brewer, G.; Novak, R.; Mandell, A. M.; Seaton, P.; Price, J.; Long, T.; Bahar, S.; Edwards, S. S.

    2010-10-01

    Developing a full-year program to support secondary and middle school science education is a key part of the "broader impact” component of NSF Grant AST- 0807939 (PI/Co-PI Bonev/Gibb). This program is realized at two stages: (1) a professional development course for teachers is offered during the summer; (2) during the subsequent academic year we collaborate with educators in lessons planning or curriculum development as demanded in their particular schools. We successfully offered the course “ Comets, Origins, and Life: Interdisciplinary Science in the Secondary Classroom ” (45 contact hours; 3 credits) in the summers of 2009 and 2010 at the Catholic University of America. This class demonstrates how a complex hypothesis - for the delivery of water and prebiotic organic matter to early Earth - is being tested by integrating astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and Earth and planetary science. Collaborations with participants from the 2009 class include curriculum development within the Earth Science program in Prince Georges county, MD and strengthening science in Washington DC public schools. Our next step is to offer our class in the Saint Louis, MO area. The main challenge in our work with educators is not to present them with "interesting information", but to fit what we offer within the very particular curriculum expectations of their school districts. These curriculum expectations often vary from district to district and sometimes from year to year. We gratefully acknowledge the support by the NSF, allowing to fully integrate our research area into education. We also gratefully acknowledge our collaborations with the Goddard Center for Astrobiology and the Howard B. Owens Science Center (both in MD) in developing our class curriculum. Educators interested in this program can contact Boncho Bonev (bonev@cua.edu; for the Washington DC and Baltimore, MD areas) and Erika Gibb (gibbe@umsl.edu; for the Saint Louis, MO area).

  19. Influence of primary and secondary prevention indications on anxiety about the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Rahmawati, Anita; Chishaki, Akiko; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi-Makaya, Miyuki; Ohtsuka, Yuko; Nakai, Mori; Miyazono, Mami; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Sakurada, Harumizu; Takemoto, Masao; Mukai, Yasushi; Inoue, Shujirou; Sunagawa, Kenji; Chishaki, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been established for primary and secondary prevention of fatal arrhythmias. However, little is known about the influence of ICD indications on quality of life (QOL) and psychological disturbances. This study aimed to examine whether there were differences in QOL and psychological distress in patients that have an ICD for primary or secondary prevention of fatal arrhythmias. Methods A multicenter survey of 179 consecutive outpatients (29.1% primary prevention) with ICD implantations completed the Short Form-8 (SF-8), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Worries about ICD (WAICD). Results Patients with an ICD for primary prevention had a higher trait anxiety score and worries about ICD score than patients with an ICD for secondary prevention (41.7±12.4 vs. 34.7±12.3, p=0.001 and 39.6±18.0 vs. 30.0±18.9, p=0.002, respectively), even after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. In multivariable analysis of variance, primary prevention ICD recipients reported a poorer QOL on the vitality subscale of the SF-8. Conclusions In our study population, which mostly consisted of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I and II subjects, primary prevention ICD recipients were more prone to experience worries about their ICD, anxiety, and a poorer QOL compared to secondary prevention ICD recipients. In clinical practice, primary prevention ICD patients should be closely monitored. If warranted, they should be offered psychological intervention, as anxiety and low QOL were predictors of mortality. PMID:27092190

  20. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Practical Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, James H.; Carter, Maia D.; Lavie, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that we possess highly effective tools for the primary and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and other complications of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease remains the most common cause of death in our society. Arterial inflammation and endothelial dysfunction play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. Therapeutic lifestyle changes in conjunction with an aggressive multidrug regimen targeted toward the normalization of the major CV risk factors will neutralize the atherogenic milieu, reduce vascular inflammation, and markedly decrease the risk of adverse CV events and need for revascularization procedures. Specific CV risk factors and optimal therapies for primary and secondary prevention are discussed. PMID:19648392

  1. A conceptual model for identifying, preventing, and managing secondary conditions in people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, James H; Chen, Ming-De; Hsieh, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Secondary conditions are considered a direct consequence of having a disability, and many are presumed to be preventable. Although a few researchers have noted that people with disabilities are exposed to several secondary conditions, including pain, fatigue, depression, and obesity, what is lacking in the literature is a conceptual framework for understanding the antecedents, risk factors, and consequences of secondary conditions. To move the rehabilitation and public health professions toward a more unified approach to understanding and managing secondary conditions as well as distinguishing them from chronic and associated conditions, this article proposes a set of criteria for defining secondary conditions and a conceptual model that considers the potential factors associated with their onset, impact, severity, and management.

  2. Pharmacological secondary prevention of PTSD in youth: challenges and opportunities for advancement.

    PubMed

    Maccani, Matthew A; Delahanty, Douglas L; Nugent, Nicole R; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk for a number of deleterious mental and physical health outcomes that if untreated may persist throughout the life course. Efficacious interventions applied soon after trauma exposure have the potential to reduce or prevent the development of PTSD symptoms and their associated impact on behavior and physical health. We review extant research related to treatment-modifiable peritraumatic predictors of pediatric PTSD, which have informed an emerging field of pharmacologic secondary prevention (i.e., occurring shortly following trauma exposure) of PTSD. Challenges and opportunities for early posttrauma PTSD prevention are described. Finally, we offer new models for biologically informed integration of pharmacologic and psychosocial secondary prevention intervention strategies for children and adolescents.

  3. Using Misoprostol for Primary versus Secondary Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage – Do Costs Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Sarkar, Anupam; Rao, Krishna D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postpartum heammorrhage (PPH), defined as blood loss greater than or equal to 500 ml within 24 hours after birth, is the leading cause of maternal deaths globally and in India. Misoprostol is an important option for PPH management in setting where oxytocin (the gold standard for PPH prevention and treatment) in not available or not feasible to use. For the substantial number of deliveries which take place at home or at lower level heatlh facilities in India, misoprostol pills can be adminstered to prevent PPH. The standard approach using misoprostol is to administer it prophylactically as primary prevention (600 mcg). An alternative strategy could be to administer misoprostol only to those who are at high risk of having PPH i.e. as secondary prevention. Methods This study reports on the relative cost per person of a strategy involving primary versus secondary prevention of PPH using misoprostol. It is based on a randomized cluster trial that was conducted in Bijapur district in Karnataka, India between December 2011 and March 2014 among pregnant women to compare two community-level strategies for the prevention of PPH: primary and secondary. The analysis was conducted from the government perspective using an ingredient approach. Results The cluster trial showed that there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the two study arms. However, the results of the cost analysis show that there is a difference of INR 6 (US$ 0.1) per birth for implementing the strategies primary versus secondary prevention. In India where 14.9 million births take place at sub-centres and at home, this additional cost of INR 6 per birth translates to an additional cost of INR 94 (US$ 1.6) million to the government to implement the primary prevention compared to the secondary prevention strategy. Conclusion As clinical outcomes did not differ significantly between the two arms in the trial, taking into account the difference in costs and potential issues with

  4. Preventing Teen Pregnancy. Secondary Learning Guide 4. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on preventing teen pregnancy is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems; establish…

  5. An Analysis of Family-School Collaboration in Preventing Adolescent Violence in Urban Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, C. J. Gerda; Emslie, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people. Empirical evidence indicates…

  6. CRACKDOWN: A Guide to Preventing Substance Abuse Secondary. Citywide Teach-in--September 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This secondary school curriculum guide, the subject of a citywide teach-in in the New York City schools, provides facts, lessons, and learning activities designed to provide information about and to prevent the use of crack, a form of cocaine. The guide covers the facts about crack, the reasons given for using crack, strategies for saying no to…

  7. The Case for Diet: A Safe and Efficacious Strategy for Secondary Stroke Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dearborn, Jennifer L.; Urrutia, Victor C.; Kernan, Walter N.

    2015-01-01

    Diet is strongly associated with risk for first stroke. In particular, observational and experimental research suggests that a Mediterranean-type diet may reduce risk for first ischemic stroke with an effect size comparable to statin therapy. These data for first ischemic stroke suggest that diet may also be associated with risk for recurrent stroke and that diet modification might represent an effective intervention for secondary prevention. However, research on dietary pattern after stroke is limited and direct experimental evidence for a therapeutic effect in secondary prevention does not exist. The uncertain state of science in this area is reflected in recent guidelines on secondary stroke prevention from the American Heart Association, in which the Mediterranean-type diet is listed with only a class IIa recommendation (level of evidence C). To change guidelines and practice, research is needed, starting with efforts to better define current nutritional practices of stroke patients. Food frequency questionnaires and mobile applications for real-time recording of intake are available for this purpose. Dietary strategies for secondary stroke prevention are low risk, high potential, and warrant further evaluation. PMID:25699006

  8. Secondary Prevention Interventions for Young Drug Users: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lawrence; Orr, Linda; Watson, Lynsey; Jackson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the international scientific evidence on the effectiveness of secondary prevention interventions for young drug users. The review provides insight into the effectiveness of interventions that have been evaluated using moderately strong research designs. Most of the studies included are from the United States of America. Some…

  9. Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and American guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-11-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  10. Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology Position Statement on Dyslipidemia Management: differences between the European and American Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  11. [Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and American guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org/en.

  12. [Spanish interdisciplinary committee for cardiovascular disease prevention and the spanish society of cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and american guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-04-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  13. [Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology Position Statement on Dyslipidemia Management. Differences Between the European and American Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yong; Lu, Lei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Min; Li, Xianchi; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing dramatically especially in developing countries like India. CVD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There has been a growing awareness of the role of nutrients in the prevention of CVD. One specific recommendation in the battle against CVD is the increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies have reported inverse associations of CVD with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids supplementation might exert protective effects on CVD. They exert their cardioprotective effect through multiple mechanisms. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy has shown promise as a useful tool in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. This review briefly summarizes the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of CVD.

  15. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.

  16. Awareness of prevention of teenage pregnancy amongst secondary school learners in Makhado municipality

    PubMed Central

    Radzilani-Makatu, Makondelele; Takalani, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexuality plays a very significant role in the lives of both boys and girls. It is, therefore, considered important for schools to recognise and accept sexuality as part of the development process of the child. Professor Kader Asmal (previous South African Minister of Education) suggested that the earlier the school begins to teach learners about sexuality, the better because they can be easily misled by their peers if proper guidance regarding their sexuality is not given. Aim The current study was conducted to assess the awareness of teenagers on the prevention of teenage pregnancy (TP) in six secondary school learners situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. Setting The study was conducted at six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province in 2014. Methodology A quantitative descriptive survey study was conducted where data were collected, using self-administered questionnaires, from 381 systematically sampled participants from six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. Data were analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22.0. Necessary approval procedures and ethical clearance were obtained prior to data collection. Results Ninety-four percent of participants agreed that TP can be prevented through abstaining from sex, whilst 65% of participants agreed that TP could be prevented by using contraceptives such as pills and injections. Eighty-three percent of participants agreed that TP could be prevented through the use of condoms. Seventy-four percent participants disagreed that bathing after sex prevents teenage pregnancies. Furthermore, 28% participants agreed that TP can be prevented by oral sex. Conclusion The conclusion drawn was that learners are aware of the measures for preventing TP. PMID:27380836

  17. Pre-Exercise Screening and Health Coaching in CHD Secondary Prevention: A Qualitative Study of the Patient Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, R.; Gillies, M.; Barber, J.; MacIntyre, K.; Harkins, C.; Findlay, I. N.; McCloy, K.; Gillie, A.; Scoular, A.; MacIntyre, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary prevention programmes can be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). In particular, UK guidelines, including those from the Department of Health, emphasize physical activity. However, the effects of secondary prevention programmes with an exercise component are moderate and uptake is highly…

  18. Emphasis: Interdisciplinary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, John K., Ed.; Crabbe, Katharyn F., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The articles collected in this issue of "The English Record" examine various aspects of the use of interdisciplinary approaches in English instruction. Titles are "Zen, the Arts, and Motorcycle Maintenance" by Janet Gane and Tom Reigstad, which describes the formation of a course in creative inquiry; "Career Education and the English Curriculum"…

  19. Secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Notara, Venetia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos E

    2014-09-01

    Although cardiovascular disease mortality rates seem to decline, especially among middle-aged people in developed countries, the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) increases, representing the most common cause of morbidity in both developed and developing countries and generating large economic burden. It is estimated that one fifth of the ACS patients die suddenly and half of them belong to a fast growing popula- tion age-group, i.e., those between 70 and .80 years. A substantial number of these deaths has been attributed to various lifestyles, modifiable factors; therefore, it can be prevented. However, factors such as dietary habits and behaviours, physical activity, life stress and smoking habits, although thoroughly discussed, are not well understood and appreciated in the spectrum of secondary ACS prevention. The latter deserves further attention under the prism of socio-economic status that has changed dramatically in the last years in some populations. The aim of this review was to discuss the role of lifestyle factors on secondary ACS prevention under the prism of individual's socio-economic status. Based on the retrieved information it was revealed that there is vast evidence that secondary prevention of cardiovascular events cannot be accomplished simply through medical treatment, but it requires a multifaceted approach incorporating lifestyle modifications, too. Therefore, public health policy endeavours should be directed towards multifocal strategies, i.e., to motivate and support cardiac patients to consistently follow treatment regimens and to establish more effective and efficient community lifestyle interventions. PMID:25438395

  20. Best practice recommendations for prevention of sudden death in secondary school athletes: an update.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Rianna R; Huggins, Robert A; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the recent Inter-Association Task Force held in Washington, D.C. at the 2013 Youth Safety Summit determined best practice recommendations for preventing sudden death in secondary school athletics. This document highlights the major health and safety practices and policies in high school athletics that are paramount to keep student athletes safe. The purpose of this commentary is to review the findings of the document developed by the task force and to provide possible areas where research is needed to continue to educate medical practitioners, players, coaches, and parents on ways to prevent tragedies from occurring during sport.

  1. [Dual antiplatelet therapy for treatment and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease: indications, modalities and duration].

    PubMed

    Degrauwe, Sophie; Iglesias, Juan F

    2016-05-25

    The choice and optimal duration of dualantiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) represent a challenging clinical dilemma. Antiplatelet treatment strategies are determined by the clinical setting, patient comorbidities and management strategy. While aspirin remains the cornerstone for secondary prevention of CAD, DAPT significantly reduces recurrent ischemic adverse events at the expense of an increased risk of major bleeding complications. A tailored approach based on individual ischemic and hemorrhagic risk assessment is currently recommended. This review aims to provide a contemporary overview on the current body of evidence concerning DAPT for treatment and secondary prevention of CAD with practical emphasis on current indications, choice, combination and optimal duration of antiplatelet therapy. PMID:27424342

  2. [Secondary prevention after urological cancers. What are the pertinent facts about aftercare?].

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A

    2007-06-01

    Secondary prevention and aftercare of urological cancers are an essential part of outpatient care provided by the urologist in private practice. More than one-half of the patients who are confronted with the diagnosis of cancer turn to so-called unconventional treatment procedures. The difficulties for those affected and caregivers lie in equal measure in distinguishing between sensible and less advisable or even counterproductive treatment options. Fixed plans of action for aftercare do not do justice to the exigencies of individualized care of cancer patients in private practice, especially with respect to longer survival. Early detection of local recurrence and metastases and the management of complications are determined by the individual disease course and have to be measured against the improvement in quality of life. Secondary preventive measures in the sense of complementary medicine can be helpful. Current evidence is quite promising only for prostate cancer and is of some importance in urological practice. PMID:17447048

  3. Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Kateřina; Ševčíková, Jarmila; Kyselý, Zdeněk; Horáková, Dagmar; Vlčková, Jana; Kollárová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the Czech Republic and worldwide. Also, a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, a high proportion of smokers in the population, and one of the highest per capita alcohol consumption rates are typical for the Czech population. The role of general practitioners in the prevention of colorectal cancer is crucial. In primary prevention, the doctor should emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle - a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, maintaining a normal body weight, adequate physical activity, and non-smoking. In secondary prevention, patients should be informed about the possibilities of colorectal cancer screening and the benefits of early detection of the disease. Participation rates of the target population for colorectal cancer screening are low. Steps leading to increased participation in colorectal cancer screening (including postal invitations) play an important role in influencing the mortality of colorectal cancer.

  4. Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Azeem, Kateřina; Ševčíková, Jarmila; Kyselý, Zdeněk; Horáková, Dagmar; Vlčková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the Czech Republic and worldwide. Also, a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, a high proportion of smokers in the population, and one of the highest per capita alcohol consumption rates are typical for the Czech population. The role of general practitioners in the prevention of colorectal cancer is crucial. In primary prevention, the doctor should emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle – a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, maintaining a normal body weight, adequate physical activity, and non-smoking. In secondary prevention, patients should be informed about the possibilities of colorectal cancer screening and the benefits of early detection of the disease. Participation rates of the target population for colorectal cancer screening are low. Steps leading to increased participation in colorectal cancer screening (including postal invitations) play an important role in influencing the mortality of colorectal cancer. PMID:27110303

  5. Prevention of secondary conditions in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: identification of systems-level barriers.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) impact 2-5% of the US population and are associated with life-long cognitive and behavioral impairments. Individuals with FASD have high rates of secondary conditions, including mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. This study focuses on systems-level barriers that contribute to secondary conditions and interfere with prevention and treatment. Using a phenomenological methodology, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with parents of children with FASD and service providers. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Participants emphasized the pervasive lack of knowledge of FASD throughout multiple systems. This lack of knowledge contributes to multi-system barriers including delayed diagnosis, unavailability of services, and difficulty qualifying for, implementing, and maintaining services. FASD is a major public health problem. Broad system changes using a public health approach are needed to increase awareness and understanding of FASD, improve access to diagnostic and therapeutic services, and create responsive institutional policies to prevent secondary conditions. These changes are essential to improve outcomes for individuals with FASD and their families and facilitate dissemination of empirically supported interventions.

  6. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...

  7. Teaching Bioethics from an Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Rivers, Jr.; Brock, D. Heyward

    1982-01-01

    Outlines an interdisciplinary workshop in bioethics for secondary teachers taught by a team consisting of a scientist, a philosopher, and a literary critic. Discusses definitions, topics, reading selections, problems, and value. (DC)

  8. Implementation of an automated guideline monitor for secondary prevention of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Noirot, Laura A.; Blickensderfer, Amy; Christensen, Erin; Schaiff, Robyn; Kessels, Anthony; Braverman, Alan; Goldberg, Anne; Dunagan, William Claiborne; Bailey, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines can be used to help improve health care quality, but they are often not optimally implemented. Practice enabling and reinforcing techniques, such as clinical reminders and academic detailing are effective methods for translating guidelines into practice. Following a study showing that we could improve adherence to secondary prevention guidelines for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using computerized alerts and academic detailing, we implemented an automated monitor to accomplish the same goal in a less labor-intensive manner. This paper describes the implementation of this production application. PMID:12463887

  9. Secondary prevention of drug dependence through the transcendental meditation program in metropolitan Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Monahan, R J

    1977-09-01

    Using mailed questionnaires, the Transcendental Meditation program was investigated as an approach to the secondary prevention of substance dependence. Significant differences were found between a random sample of meditators and matched control subjects in usage levels and percentage of users for almost all legal and illegal drugs. Meditators had used more prescribed psychoactive medications before learning meditation, but usage levels returned to normal soon after starting. Former users of alcohol, cigarettes, or illegal drugs achieved remarkable abstinence records. For most substances the amount of decrease was positively correlated with degree of participation in the program and the length of time meditating.

  10. Spontaneous pneumothorax after traumatic pneumonectomy: a role for talc pleurodesis in secondary prevention?

    PubMed

    Ariyaratnam, Priyadharshanan; Cartwright, Neil; Arnold, Anthony; Cowen, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of spontaneous contralateral pneumothorax 2 months after a pneumonectomy, with the initial placement of an intercostal chest drain on the side of the pneumothorax. Due to the high risk of a subsequent life-threatening pneumothorax, pleurodesis became an important consideration. Surgical pleurodesis can be complicated by the risks of single lung ventilation; therefore, talc pleurodesis was performed by using the intercostal drain once the lung had fully expanded. The patient remains free of recurrence 14 months after the pneumonectomy. Our case suggests that talc may be an effective alternative method of secondary prevention of a pneumothorax after a pneumonectomy.

  11. Nurses' perspectives on nurse-coordinated prevention programmes in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a pilot survey

    PubMed Central

    Jorstad, H.T.; Chan, Y.K.; Scholte op Reimer, W.J.M.; Doornenbal, J.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Peters, R.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasingly provided by nurse-coordinated prevention programs (NCPP). Little is known about nurses’ perspectives on these programs. Aim: To investigate nurses’ perspectives/experiences in NCPPs in acute coronary syndrome patients. Methods: Thirteen nurses from NCPPs in 11 medical centers in the RESPONSE trial completed an online survey containing 45 items evaluating 3 outcome categories: (1) conducting NCPP visits; (2) effects of NCPP interventions on risk profiles and (3) process of care. Results: Nurses felt confident in counseling/motivating patients to reduce CAD risk. Interventions targeting LDL, blood pressure and medication adherence were reported as successful, corresponding with significant improvements of these risk factors. Improving weight, smoking and physical activity was reported as less effective. Screening for anxiety/depression was suggested as an improvement. Conclusions: Nurses acknowledge the importance and effectiveness of NCPPs, and correctly identify which components of the program are the most successful. Our study provides a basis for implementation and quality improvement for NCCPs. PMID:26572788

  12. School Violence in Secondary Education in the Governorate of Mafraq: Forms, Causes and Prevention--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaled, Mohammad S. Bani

    2014-01-01

    This study considers school violence. It was investigated in secondary schools in the governorate of Mafraq. The aim is to identify the forms and causes of the phenomenon; hence to come out with the preventive and remedial measures, accordingly. The study was conducted in one of the secondary schools selected randomly in the city of Mafraq in the…

  13. Comparison of the effects of secondary prevention in schoolchildren between hospitals with and without mobile dental services in Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tianviwat, Sukanya; Birch, Stephen; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of hospital clinics with and without adjunct mobile services for the delivery of secondary prevention for caries in Thai schoolchildren. A dental survey was conducted in schools served by different dental services. 711 schoolchildren were selected from primary schools in Southern Thailand by multistage cluster random sampling. WHO basic oral health survey methods were employed to evaluate three outcomes of secondary prevention: 1) Coverage of secondary prevention - all filled teeth (FT+D(F)T) among caries experienced teeth (DMFT), 2) Effectiveness of secondary prevention - successfully filled teeth (FT) among all filled teeth (FT+D(F)T) and 3) Protective effect of secondary prevention- successfully filled teeth (FT) among caries experienced teeth (DMFT). The respective percentages were 74.3, 97.5 and 72.5 in the children served by hospital-only services, and 41.3, 97.2 and 40.2 in the other group. From clustered logistic regression modeling, only the first and third outcomes were significantly different between the two access groups. This study showed that adjunct mobile service may be less effective in secondary prevention.

  14. [Stroke from the Perspective of Neurologists (Part 3): Update in the Secondary Prevention].

    PubMed

    Schur, Patrick; Luft, Andreas

    2016-05-25

    In this third edition the secondary prevention of stroke will be discussed. After the acute phase in which recanalization of an occluded brain artery is in the focus, the risks for a recurrent stroke have to be minimized and rehabilitation should be started. A systematic workup, an extended evaluation of (non-) modifiable risk factors and the clinical-radiological findings are the source of an effective preventive therapy. Risk assessment of the major risk factors such as arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes and dyslipidemia is established. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the complex atheromatosis with a complex structure are independent risk factors for stroke. The search for an etiology is usually a definition of probabilities. The most probable cause of stroke is assumed. PMID:27223418

  15. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Lynne V

    2015-04-13

    Clostridium difficile infections are a global clinical concern and are one of the leading causes of nosocomial outbreaks. Preventing these infections has benefited from multidisciplinary infection control strategies and new antibiotics, but the problem persists. Probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and may also be a beneficial strategy for C. difficile infections, but randomized controlled trials are scarce. This meta-analysis pools 21 randomized, controlled trials for primary prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI) and four trials for secondary prevention of C. difficile recurrences and assesses the efficacy of specific probiotic strains. Four probiotics significantly improved primary CDI prevention: (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus casei DN114001, a mixture of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and a mixture of L. acidophilus, L. casei and L. rhamnosus). None of the tested probiotics significantly improved secondary prevention of CDI. More confirmatory randomized trials are needed to establish if probiotics are useful for preventing C. difficile infections. v.

  16. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Lynne V.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections are a global clinical concern and are one of the leading causes of nosocomial outbreaks. Preventing these infections has benefited from multidisciplinary infection control strategies and new antibiotics, but the problem persists. Probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and may also be a beneficial strategy for C. difficile infections, but randomized controlled trials are scarce. This meta-analysis pools 21 randomized, controlled trials for primary prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI) and four trials for secondary prevention of C. difficile recurrences and assesses the efficacy of specific probiotic strains. Four probiotics significantly improved primary CDI prevention: (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus casei DN114001, a mixture of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and a mixture of L. acidophilus, L. casei and L. rhamnosus). None of the tested probiotics significantly improved secondary prevention of CDI. More confirmatory randomized trials are needed to establish if probiotics are useful for preventing C. difficile infections. PMID:27025619

  17. Report: trends in adherence to secondary prevention medications in post-acute coronary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Kassab, Yaman Walid; Hassan, Yahaya; Aziz, Noorizan Abd; Zulkifly, Hanis Hanum; Iqbal, Muhammad Shahid

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate patients' adherence to evidence-based therapies at an average of 2 years after discharge for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and to identify factors associated with non-adherence. This study was conducted at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. A random sample of ACS patients (n=190) who had discharged on a regimen of secondary preventive medications were included and followed up over a three follow-up appointments at 8, 16, and 23 months post discharge. At each appointment, patients were interviewed and given Morisky questioner to complete in order to compare their level of adherence to the prescribed regimens across the three consecutive time periods. Majority of patients reported either medium or low adherence across the three time periods with only small portion reported high adherence. Furthermore, there was a significant downward trend in the level of adherence to cardio protective medications during the study period (p<0.001). This study also identified 6 factors-age, gender, employment status, ACS subtype, number of co morbidities and number of prescription medications per day that may influence Patients' adherence to their medications. Our findings suggest that long-term adherence to secondary prevention therapies among patients with ACS in Malaysia is sub optimal and influenced by many demographic, social as well as clinical factors.

  18. Microcapsule-Type Organogel-Based Self-Healing System Having Secondary Damage Preventing Capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye-In; Kim, Dong-Min; Yu, Hwan-Chul; Chung, Chan-Moon

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a novel microcapsule-type organogel-based self-healing system in which secondary damage does not occur in the healed region. A mixture of an organogelator, poor and good solvents for the gelator is used as the healing agent; when the good solvent evaporates from this agent, a viscoelastic organogel forms. The healing agent is microencapsulated with urea-formaldehyde polymer, and the resultant microcapsules are integrated into a polymer coating to prepare self-healing coatings. When the coatings are scratched, they self-heal, as demonstrated by means of corrosion testing, electrochemical testing, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After the healed coatings are subjected to vigorous vibration, it is demonstrated that no secondary damage occurs in the healed region. The secondary damage preventing capability of the self-healing coating is attributable to the viscoelasticity of the organogel. The result can give insight into the development of a "permanent" self-healing system. PMID:27070306

  19. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  20. Limited V-shaped cement augmentation of the proximal femur to prevent secondary hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Fliri, Ladina; Sermon, An; Wähnert, Dirk; Schmoelz, Werner; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Patients with a femoral fracture due to osteoporosis are at high risk of sustaining a secondary fracture on the contralateral side. A prophylactic mechanical reinforcement of the contralateral side during operation of the initial fracture could be of interest for such patients. This biomechanical in vitro study investigates the potential of a limited V-shaped bone cement augmentation to prevent secondary hip fractures by targeting the areas of the proximal femur with the highest stresses during a fall. Five pairs of human cadaveric proximal femora were tested in a configuration simulating a fall on the greater trochanter. The femoral neck of one specimen of each pair was augmented with 8-14 ml polymethylmethacrylate from the lateral cortex towards inferior and superior, spanning a V-shaped cement pattern. Clinical relevant fractures were generated with a 45 kg mass in controlled free fall. Load-displacement data were recorded and energy to fracture, fracture load, yield load and stiffness were statistically evaluated. Augmented samples absorbed 124% more energy until fracture compared to their controls (p = 0.043). No significant differences were found between the two groups for fracture load (p = 0.5), yield load (p = 0.35) and stiffness (p = 0.5). Biomechanically, a limited V-shaped prophylactic cement augmentation carries potential to prevent secondary hip fractures indicated by increased energy absorption until fracture. Further investigations are necessary to minimize interference with the biology and to maximize the mechanical benefit of prophylactic augmentation.

  1. Novel oral anticoagulants for the secondary prevention of cerebral ischemia: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Mavridis, Dimitris; Parissis, John; Deftereos, Spyridon; Frogoudaki, Alexandra; Vrettou, Agathi-Rosa; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Chondrogianni, Maria; Safouris, Apostolos; Filippatou, Angeliki; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Triantafyllou, Nikos; Ellul, John; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Alexandrov, Anne W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Background: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have shown to be both safe and effective for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). We conducted a network meta-analysis (NMA) using published data from secondary prevention subgroups of different phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing individual NOACs with warfarin. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and SCOPUS and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. First, we conducted a pairwise meta-analysis for each pairwise comparison, and then we performed NMA to combine direct and indirect evidence for any given pair of treatments. The comparative effects of all NOACs against warfarin were ranked with the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve for each outcome. Results: We identified four RCTs (including 15,240 patients) comparing individual NOACs (apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban) with warfarin. Using indirect evidence, dabigatran was related to a significantly lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke compared with rivaroxaban [risk ratio (RR) 0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.75], while rivaroxaban was associated with a significantly lower risk of major gastrointestinal bleeding compared with dabigatran (RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.03–0.74). We also performed clustered ranking plot for the primary efficacy and safety endpoints to identify the treatment with the probably best benefit-to-risk ratio profile. Conclusions: The three NOACs showed differences in terms of safety and efficacy for secondary stroke prevention in NVAF. Our findings can serve only as hypothesis generation and require independent confirmation in head-to-head RCTs, owing to the sparse available evidence and increased uncertainty in both indirect effect estimates and ranking of treatments. PMID:27582891

  2. Recruiting African American girls and parents for a secondary weight gain prevention study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Betty M; Newton, Robert L; York-Crowe, Emily; Walden, Heather M; Ryan, Donna H; White, Marney A; Williamson, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    This research report describes the process and results of recruiting African American adolescent girls and parents for a secondary weight gain prevention study. We sought to recruit 60 girls with equal representation of at-risk for overweight (BMI percentile 85-95) and overweight (BMI > 95th percentile), and at least one obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) parent. A personal and individual recruitment approach was the sole method utilized for recruitment of participants into this two-year Internet-based study targeting weight gain prevention. Participants were randomized to either an interactive behavioral condition or a health-based education (control) condition. Fifty-seven African American adolescent girls and their parents were enrolled in the study conducted at a university-based nutrition research center. One hundred eight adolescent girls volunteered and met the study criteria on the first contact, 95 interviewed in the clinic, 64 were randomized, and 57 (89%) of those randomized began the study. Seven percent of the study sample was comprised of African American girls at-risk for overweight, while the majority (93%) of those enrolled were overweight (BMI > 95th percentile). Our study sample comprised an imbalanced number of overweight versus at-risk for overweight African American girls suggesting that perhaps a clinic-based secondary weight gain prevention study may be an inefficient and ineffective setting for recruiting this population. Although we were successful in recruiting a majority of overweight girls, we conclude that the imbalance in the number of participants recruited is likely related to the sociocultural environment that predisposes African American girls to obesity and a lack of awareness by the parents' of the consequences of being overweight.

  3. Interdisciplinary technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Lester D.

    1993-01-01

    The 'computational test-cell' will enable the incorporation of new methodologies, such as concurrent engineering and probabilistic methods, into the propulsion design process. This will provide the capability to conduct credible, interdisciplinary analyses of new propulsion concepts and designs. Probabilistic methods can be used as the basis for reliability-based design. Recently methods have been devised that provide the capability of simulating the performance of propulsion systems at several levels of resolution. These methods make it possible to quantify uncertainty and to establish confidence bounds for the calculated values. The introduction of reliability-based design methodology along with probabilistic analyses will provide a tool to reduce the design space for new systems and to reduce our dependence on hardware testing for proof-of-concept and system integration demonstrations. The resulting simulations will reduce the need for testing and identify potential operational problems early in the design process. This capability will make it possible to compute the expected performance, stability, reliability, and life of propulsion components, subsystems, and systems at design and off-design conditions, to bring life cycle cost trade-offs early into the design process and to determine optimum designs to satisfy specified mission requirements.

  4. Edetate Disodium-Based Treatment for Secondary Prevention in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Issa, Omar M

    2016-02-01

    An abundance of data, known for decades, is available linking metals, such as lead and cadmium, with cardiovascular disease. However, the idea that these toxic metals could be a modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis did not become apparent clinically until the completion of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy in 2012. This pivotal study was the first double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of its kind to demonstrate a clear improvement in cardiovascular outcomes with edetate disodium therapy in a secondary prevention, post-myocardial infarction population. This effect size was most striking in diabetic patients, where the efficacy of edetate disodium was comparable, if not superior, to that of current guideline-based therapies. Given the economic burden of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the potential impact of this therapy could be enormous if the results of this study are replicated.

  5. Failure of passively administered anti-Rh to prevent secondary Rh responses.

    PubMed

    de Silva, M; Contreras, M; Mollison, P L

    1985-01-01

    Rh-negative women, immunized to Rh by previous pregnancies, with only low concentrations of IgG anti-Rh(D) in their plasma were assigned at random to test and control groups (7 subjects in each group). Both groups were challenged with an intravenous injection of 0.28 ml of Rh-positive red cells; in addition, the test group received 500 micrograms anti-Rh intramuscularly. 2 weeks after the injections, all subjects showed an increase in plasma anti-Rh concentration; levels in test and control groups were similar. It is concluded that in Rh-immunized subjects with low levels of IgG anti-Rh a secondary response to Rh cannot be prevented by giving passively administered anti-Rh with the red cells.

  6. Vorapaxar: A novel agent to be considered in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kehinde, Obamiro; Kunle, Rotimi

    2016-01-01

    Patients receiving therapy for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) are still at high risk of a major cardiovascular event or death despite the use of currently available treatment strategy. Vorapaxar, an oral protease-activated receptor antagonist, is a novel antiplatelet drug that has been recently approved to provide further risk reduction. The results of two Phase III trials (thrombin receptor antagonists for clinical event reduction and the TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) have showed that vorapaxar, in addition to standard of care therapy, has the potential to provide further risk reduction in patients with prior MI. A search was made on PubMed on articles related to clinical trials and clinical consideration with the use of vorapaxar. This review article summarizes the results of Phase II trials, Phase III trials, subgroup analysis, precautions, and drug interaction with the use of vorapaxar. PMID:27134460

  7. [Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment: possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic prevention].

    PubMed

    Campisi, C; Boccardo, F; Zilli, A; Maccio, A; Napoli, F; Ferreira Azevedo, W; Fulcheri, E; Taddei, G

    2002-01-01

    We performed a prospective randomized study upon 50 patients who had undergone a breast cancer treatment, considering particularly the possibility of appearance of arm secondary lymphedema. The patients were divided in two groups of 25 patients each. In the 1st group, we performed only a clinical follow-up, whilst in the 2nd one, we used also lymphoscintigraphy. The aim of the study was to compare the incidence of arm secondary lymphedema in the two groups, and relate the data with those of the international literature, in order to identify diagnostic procedures indicative of the risk of development of lymphedema and find proper therapeutic preventive measures. It is certainty complex to foresee the appearance of arm lymphedema due to breast cancer treatment. No specific preventive therapeutic methods based upon particular diagnostic investigations were ever reported. Patients had undergone surgery and radiation for breast cancer in the period between April 1992 and June 1994, and controlled at over 5 years after operation. Upper limb lymphoscintigraphy was performed only in one of the two groups of 25 patients, before operation and, furthermore, after 1-3-6 months and 1-3 years from the treatment. Patients who presented lymphoscintigraphic alterations (dermal back flow, diffused or delayed transit of the tracer, etc.), before edema appeared clinically, underwent physical and rehabilitative therapy (bandages, manual lymphatic drainage, mechanical lymph drainage, elastic garments, etc.) and microsurgery (lymphatic-venous anastomoses at the arm), performed early (stages Ib and II) in patients not responsive to physical therapy. In the first group followed only clinically, secondary arm lymphedema occurred in 9 cases (36%), and appeared after a period variable from 1 week to 2 years (3-6 months averagely). In the second group, lymphoscintigraphy, performed preoperatively, permitted to find lymphatic impairment (absence of deltoid way, reduced axillary lymph nodal

  8. Vorapaxar: A novel agent to be considered in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, Obamiro; Kunle, Rotimi

    2016-01-01

    Patients receiving therapy for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) are still at high risk of a major cardiovascular event or death despite the use of currently available treatment strategy. Vorapaxar, an oral protease-activated receptor antagonist, is a novel antiplatelet drug that has been recently approved to provide further risk reduction. The results of two Phase III trials (thrombin receptor antagonists for clinical event reduction and the TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) have showed that vorapaxar, in addition to standard of care therapy, has the potential to provide further risk reduction in patients with prior MI. A search was made on PubMed on articles related to clinical trials and clinical consideration with the use of vorapaxar. This review article summarizes the results of Phase II trials, Phase III trials, subgroup analysis, precautions, and drug interaction with the use of vorapaxar. PMID:27134460

  9. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. PMID:27296663

  10. Use of medicines recommended for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gaedke, Mari Ângela; da Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias; Manenti, Euler Roberto Fernandes; Henn, Ruth Liane; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Nunes, Marcelo Felipe; da Motta, Monique Adriane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To analyze if the demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as percutaneous coronary intervention are associated with the use of medicines for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS : In this cohort study, we included 138 patients with acute coronary syndrome, aged 30 years or more and of both sexes. The data were collected at the time of hospital discharge, and after six and twelve months. The outcome of the study was the simultaneous use of medicines recommended for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome: platelet antiaggregant, beta-blockers, statins and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. The independent variables were: sex, age, education in years of attending, monthly income in tertiles and percutaneous coronary intervention. We described the prevalence of use of each group of medicines with their 95% confidence intervals, as well as the simultaneous use of the four medicines, in all analyzed periods. In the crude analysis, we verified the outcome with the independent variables for each period through the Chi-square test. The adjusted analysis was carried out using Poisson Regression. RESULTS : More than a third of patients (36.2%; 95%CI 28.2;44.3) had the four medicines prescribed at the same time, at the moment of discharge. We did not observe any differences in the prevalence of use in comparison with the two follow-up periods. The most prescribed class of medicines during discharge was platelet antiaggregant (91.3%). In the crude analysis, the demographic and socioeconomic variables were not associated to the outcome in any of the three periods. CONCLUSIONS : The prevalence of simultaneous use of medicines at discharge and in the follow-ups pointed to the under-utilization of this therapy in clinical practice. Intervention strategies are needed to improve the quality of care given to patients that extend beyond the hospital discharge, a critical point of transition

  11. Cost-effectiveness of simvastatin in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, M; Wang, S; Leclerc, C; Fitzsimon, C; Tretiak, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of simvastatin in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Canada. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness model based on results from the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (45 study) and cost and resource utilization data from Canadian sources to simulate the economic impact of long-term simvastatin treatment (15 years). PATIENTS: Subjects with mean age of 59.4 years at recruitment into 4S study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall death rate and incidence of 5 major nonfatal events associated with CAD: myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, stroke and transient ischemic attack. Direct medical costs associated with CAD were assessed from the perspective of provincial ministries of health (i.e., costs borne by the ministries); the impact of simvastatin treatment on these costs was determined. RESULTS: The 4S study, with a median follow-up of 5.4 years, showed significantly reduced mortality and morbidity among the patients given simvastatin compared with the control subjects. Three premises were designed to predict the consequences of simvastatin treatment of CAD in Canada over 15 years, 10 years beyond the end of the 4S study. The 2 most probable premises, which assumed that the clinical benefits of simvastatin would be cumulative for either the first 10 years or the full 15 years of the model, had incremental costs per year of life gained (cost-effectiveness ratio) of $9867 and $6108 respectively. CONCLUSION: This model suggests that simvastatin provides a cost-effective approach to the long-term prevention of secondary CAD in Canada. PMID:9099167

  12. Unstructured cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in rural South Australia: does it meet best practice guidelines?

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Tracey; Kucia, Angela; Greenhill, Jennene

    2008-06-01

    Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programs that address risk factors, psychological problems, and physical activity are essential in optimizing health and reducing the risk of further cardiac events. Behavioural and lifestyle modification support offered through these programs is predicated on initial identification of risk. Many rural populations in Australia do not have access to structured cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs, and the level of support available to them in the form of unstructured CR is unclear. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients presenting to hospital with myocardial infarction in rural South Australia over a 12 month period was undertaken to identify documented evidence of assessment of and intervention for lifestyle and behavioural risk factors in-hospital and at follow up in general practice (GP) clinics. Of 77 eligible participants, permission was received to access the medical records of 55 patients in the hospital setting, and 34 of these 55 patients in GP clinic follow up. Documented evidence of assessment of modifiable risk factors was inadequate for the majority of participants, with the exception of smoking status, hypertension and diabetes. This suggests that the majority of these participants did not receive lifestyle and behavioural interventions in line with current National Heart Foundation Recommendations for Cardiac Rehabilitation. Barriers to comprehensive CR and secondary prevention services in Australia must be addressed, particularly in high risk rural and remote populations. Future research must focus on the ongoing monitoring and evaluation of rural health care services to analyse existing levels of CR and secondary prevention to ensure current guidelines are being implemented, to support the further development and resourcing of CR services and to evaluate the subsequent impact on patient outcomes.

  13. Development of a multifunctional adhesive system for prevention of root caries and secondary caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary A. S.; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jason; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel adhesive for prevention of tooth root caries and secondary caries by possessing a combination of protein-repellent, antibacterial, and remineralization capabilities for the first time; and (2) investigate the effects of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on dentine bond strength, protein-repellent properties, and dental plaque microcosm biofilm response. Methods MPC, DMAHDM and NACP were added into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose primer and adhesive. Dentine shear bond strengths were measured. Adhesive coating thickness, surface texture and dentine-adhesive interfacial structure were examined. Protein adsorption onto adhesive resin surface was determined by the micro bicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm biofilm model was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production. Results The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP did not adversely affect dentine shear bond strength (p > 0.1). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP produced a coating on root dentine with a thickness of approximately 70 μm and completely sealed all the dentinal tubules. The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP had 95% reduction in protein adsorption, compared to SBMP control (p < 0.05). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP was strongly antibacterial, with biofilm CFU being four orders of magnitude lower than that of SBMP control. Significance The novel multifunctional adhesive with strong protein-repellent, antibacterial and remineralization properties is promising to coat tooth roots to prevent root caries and secondary caries. The combined use of MPC, DMAHDM and NACP may have wide applicability to bonding agents, cements, sealants and composites to inhibit caries. PMID:26187532

  14. Alternative erythropoietin-mediated signaling prevents secondary microvascular thrombosis and inflammation within cutaneous burns.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J; Shen, Keyue; Vitalo, Antonia G; Brines, Michael; Cerami, Anthony; Berthiaume, Francois; Yarmush, Martin L

    2013-02-26

    Alternate erythropoietin (EPO)-mediated signaling via the heteromeric receptor composed of the EPO receptor and the β-common receptor (CD131) exerts the tissue-protective actions of EPO in various types of injuries. Herein we investigated the effects of the EPO derivative helix beta surface peptide (synonym: ARA290), which specifically triggers alternate EPO-mediated signaling, but does not bind the erythropoietic EPO receptor homodimer, on the progression of secondary tissue damage following cutaneous burns. For this purpose, a deep partial thickness cutaneous burn injury was applied on the back of mice, followed by systemic administration of vehicle or ARA290 at 1, 12, and 24 h postburn. With vehicle-only treatment, wounds exhibited secondary microvascular thrombosis within 24 h postburn, and subsequent necrosis of the surrounding tissue, thus converting to a full-thickness injury within 48 h. On the other hand, when ARA290 was systemically administered, patency of the microvasculature was maintained. Furthermore, ARA290 mitigated the innate inflammatory response, most notably tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated signaling. These findings correlated with long-term recovery of initially injured yet viable tissue components. In conclusion, ARA290 may be a promising therapeutic approach to prevent the conversion of partial- to full-thickness burn injuries. In a clinical setting, the decrease in burn depth and area would likely reduce the necessity for extensive surgical debridement as well as secondary wound closure by means of skin grafting. This use of ARA290 is consistent with its tissue-protective properties previously reported in other models of injury, such as myocardial infarction and hemorrhagic shock. PMID:23401545

  15. Secondary prevention after PCI: the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, S.; Scuffham, P.A.; Alon, M.; van den Boom, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of secondary prevention after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using data from the Lescol Intervention Prevention Study (LIPS). In the LIPS trial, patients with normal-to-moderate hypercholesterolaemia who had undergone a first PCI were randomised to receive either fluvastatin 40 mg twice-daily plus dietary counselling or dietary counselling alone. A Markov model was used to estimate the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and life year gained (LYG). Costs were based on prices and reimbursed charges, utility data were drawn from literature. Monte Carlo simulations and multivariate analysis were used to assess uncertainty. Results Routine statin treatment costs an additional €734 (SD €686) per patient over ten years compared with controls. It resulted in an additional 0.078 (0.047) QALYs or 0.082 (0.041) LYG. The incremental costs per QALY and LYG were €9312 (€14,648) and €8954 (€16,617) respectively. Anticipating a willingness to pay of €20,000 per QALY, there is a 75.1% chance that fluvastatin treatment is cost-effective. Conclusion Statin therapy with fluvastatin is economically efficient with regard to reducing heart disease in the Netherlands when given routinely to all patients following PCI. PMID:25696357

  16. Antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Capodanno, Davide; Alberts, Mark; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2016-10-01

    Atherothrombosis is the common underlying process for numerous progressive manifestations of cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of pharmacological management in patients with atherothrombosis. Over the past 20 years, major advances in antiplatelet pharmacotherapy have been made, particularly for the treatment of patients with CAD. The treatment of patients with concomitant CAD and CVD is complex, owing to their increased risk of both ischaemia and bleeding. When CVD arises from large artery atherosclerosis, antithrombotic therapies are essential to prevent stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). However, the use of antithrombotic medications in patients with CVD can put them at high risk of intracranial haemorrhage. As such, the risk-benefit profile of various combinations of antiplatelet agents in patients with both CAD and CVD is uncertain. This Review provides a state-of-the-art account of the available evidence on antithrombotic therapies for the secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with concomitant CAD and CVD, particularly those with a history of noncardioembolic stroke or TIA.

  17. Resolvin D2 prevents secondary thrombosis and necrosis in a mouse burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J; Sarin, Dhruv; Irimia, Daniel; Yarmush, Martin L; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Deep partial thickness burns are subject to delayed necrosis of initially viable tissues surrounding the primary zone of thermally induced coagulation, which results in an expansion of the burn wound, both in area and depth, within 48 hours postburn. Neutrophil sequestration and activation leading to microvascular damage is thought to mediate this secondary tissue damage. Resolvins, a class of endogenous mediators derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to regulate the resolution of inflammation. We hypothesized that exogenous resolvins could mitigate the deleterious impact of the inflammatory response in burn wounds. Using two different mouse burn injury models involving significant partial thickness injuries, we found that a systemically administered single dose of resolvin D2 (RvD2) as low as 25 pg/g bw given within an interval of up to 4 hours postburn effectively prevented thrombosis of the deep dermal vascular network and subsequent dermal necrosis. By preserving the microvascular network, RvD2 enhanced neutrophil access to the dermis, but prevented neutrophil-mediated damage through other anti-inflammatory actions, including inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and neutrophil platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. In a clinical context, RvD2 may be therapeutically useful by reducing the need for surgical debridement and the area requiring skin grafting. PMID:23110665

  18. Resolvin D2 prevents secondary thrombosis and necrosis in a mouse burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J; Sarin, Dhruv; Irimia, Daniel; Yarmush, Martin L; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Deep partial thickness burns are subject to delayed necrosis of initially viable tissues surrounding the primary zone of thermally induced coagulation, which results in an expansion of the burn wound, both in area and depth, within 48 hours postburn. Neutrophil sequestration and activation leading to microvascular damage is thought to mediate this secondary tissue damage. Resolvins, a class of endogenous mediators derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to regulate the resolution of inflammation. We hypothesized that exogenous resolvins could mitigate the deleterious impact of the inflammatory response in burn wounds. Using two different mouse burn injury models involving significant partial thickness injuries, we found that a systemically administered single dose of resolvin D2 (RvD2) as low as 25 pg/g bw given within an interval of up to 4 hours postburn effectively prevented thrombosis of the deep dermal vascular network and subsequent dermal necrosis. By preserving the microvascular network, RvD2 enhanced neutrophil access to the dermis, but prevented neutrophil-mediated damage through other anti-inflammatory actions, including inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and neutrophil platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. In a clinical context, RvD2 may be therapeutically useful by reducing the need for surgical debridement and the area requiring skin grafting.

  19. The role of exercise in the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hartley, L H

    1985-01-01

    Although exact definitions of exercise requirements for primary and secondary prevention of coronary disease cannot be stated with certainty on the basis of currently available information, we can make some general conclusions. The characteristics associated with lowered risk from coronary disease in apparently normal populations are: 8 MET-hours of activity during leisure time or job: walking briskly during leisure time (1 hour = 1 MET-hour) walking at job (same as above) jogging during leisure time (30 minutes of activity = 1 MET-hour) walking to and from work (same as walking above) performing very heavy work in occupational pursuits (few jobs today have those energy requirements) regularly climbing 5 flights or more of stairs (10 steps per flight) regularly walking 5 city blocks per day (12 blocks per mile) regularly engaging in strenuous sports (basketball, running, mountaineering, skiing, swimming, or tennis) accumulating activities that use 2000 or more kcal per week Conclusions concerning the prevention of reinfarction in patients who are recovering from a first heart attack include: Exercise is helpful in hastening the recovery process after myocardial infarction and should be started early in the recovery period. Exercise helps to reduce mortality when used in conjunction with a multifactorial program.

  20. Secondary prevention in a cardiology group practice and hospital setting after a heart-care initiative.

    PubMed

    LaBresh, K A; Owen, P; Alteri, C; Reilly, S; Albright, P S; Hordes, A R; Shaftel, P A; Noonan, T E; Stoukides, C A; Kaul, A F

    2000-02-10

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Consensus Panel Statement for Preventing Heart Attack and Death in Patients with Coronary Disease provides recommendations for the secondary prevention of heart disease in at-risk patients. Blackstone Cardiology Associates of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, undertook an initiative in their practice implementing secondary-prevention guidelines in patients with coronary artery disease. This retrospective study evaluates practice patterns for the management of hyperlipidemia for a cardiology group in an ambulatory and hospital setting after the institution of a physician-supervised, nurse-based disease management program. Practice patterns in patients with established coronary heart disease treated in a lipid center compared with non-lipid-center settings were evaluated. Parameters evaluated included documenting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, presence of lipid-lowering therapy, and achieving the National Cholesterol Education Program II (NCEP II) goal of LDL-cholesterol levels < or =100 mg/dL in patients with preexisting coronary artery disease. A total of 352 patients met inclusion criteria in the lipid-center setting and were compared with 289 non-lipid-center consecutively chosen patients. Age and gender differences were also evaluated. Inpatient medical records from a 254-bed Brown University-affiliated teaching hospital were also evaluated for lipid profile, achievement of NCEP II goal, and use of lipid-lowering medication on admission and discharge. The most recent LDL-cholesterol values of patients followed in the lipid-center and in the non-lipid-center setting of the Blackstone Cardiology Associates were compared. Blackstone Cardiology Associates consists of 4 cardiologists and 4 advanced-practice nurses. Achievement of LDL-cholesterol goal was higher in both the lipid-center and non-lipid-center settings compared with baseline. A smaller percentage of patients at goal in the lipid setting is likely due to referral

  1. Secondary Prevention Beyond Hospital Discharge for Acute Coronary Syndrome: Evidence-Based Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fitchett, David H; Goodman, Shaun G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Lin, Peter; Welsh, Robert; Stone, James; Grégoire, Jean; Mcfarlane, Philip; Langer, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    In the past 3 decades, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease has resulted in innovations in the treatment and prevention of its clinical manifestations such as death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. After an acute coronary syndrome there are short- and long-term risks of subsequent cardiovascular events. This leads to opportunities to initiate strategies to reduce complications resulting from myocardial injury (cardiac protection) and to prevent recurrent acute coronary events (vascular protection). The results from clinical trials inform best practice and guidelines for patient management. Despite clear and consistent guidelines, an important number of patients are not receiving these treatments. Moreover, many others do not receive treatment that follows the strategy proven in the clinical trial and this is associated with a significant loss of opportunities to improve outcomes. The Canadian Heart Research Centre has therefore assembled a panel of experts to provide a review of available data and distill it to specific evidence-based recommendations that can be used by specialists and primary care physicians as a platform for secondary prevention. The therapeutic recommendations are conveniently divided into vascular protection (dual antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering, and renin angiotensin system inhibition) which should be considered in all patients; cardiac protection (addition of β-blocker therapy) in patients with left ventricular dysfunction including consideration for management of heart failure; and continuing management of risk factors and comorbid conditions on the basis of the specific patient profile. These recommendations are intended as a decision support tool and a quick reference for Canadian physicians. PMID:27342696

  2. Successful Treatment and Secondary Prevention of Venous Thrombosis Secondary to Behçet Disease with Rivaroxaban

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Catherine; Hermans, Cedric

    2016-01-01

    We here present the successful initial treatment and secondary prophylaxis of superficial venous thrombosis secondary to Behçet's disease by a novel anticoagulant drug, rivaroxaban (Xarelto®). To our knowledge, this is the first case of using an oral direct inhibitor of FXa in this setting. Our findings are promising; the outcome was favourable without any adverse effect noted. We propose that the patients with Behçet's disease and venous thrombosis might benefit from the advantages of the new anticoagulant drug. PMID:27437154

  3. A program to improve secondary stroke prevention: the Colorado Neurological Institute stroke preventing recurrence of thromboembolic events through coordinated treatment program.

    PubMed

    Menard, Michelle M; Smith, Don B; Taormina, Cristina

    2011-08-01

    The key to secondary stroke prevention often lies in improved control of traditional stroke risk factors. Studies have shown that there is an evidence-practice gap, for both physicians and patients, when it comes to adhering to national stroke prevention guidelines. We developed a program to reinforce stroke prevention messages for 1 year after a patient's ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Our results show encouraging improvement in our patients' adherence to treatment guidelines for 1 year after the event, as well as a reduction in recurrent strokes as compared with the number expected. PMID:21796042

  4. Behavioral Sciences in Secondary Schools: An Inquiry-Oriented Interdisciplinary Approach to the Human Behavioral Sciences in Social Studies. Professional Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Randall C.

    Trends in secondary-level behavioral science curriculum development, informational background, and strategies for teaching behavioral science concepts are provided in this book. Chapters one through three define the behavioral sciences and examine their changing role and status in social studies education. Chapters four through six develop…

  5. [Complex cardiac rehabilitation in a strategy of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Kałka, Dariusz; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    Due to the frequency of occurrence of cardiovascular disease and its course full of severe complications, patients with this condition make a special population. This group is the addressee of the preventive actions included in secondary prevention. The goal of these actions is a reduction of frequency of the occurrence of consecutive incidents connected with ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral artery disease. The actions put a special emphasis on the counteraction of significant and negative from the social-economic point of view phenomenon, such as disability and premature deaths. The key role within the frames of the integrated preventive procedure in the patients with cardiovascular disease plays the modification of physical activity, mainly realized as a part of a supervised physical training. The training is a basic element of a systematized cardiac rehabilitation. It was Hellerstain, who as a pioneer in using this kind of rehabilitation in the patients after acute coronary incidents, and in the 1950s began propagating a multi-disciplinary attitude to the cardiac rehabilitation programs. Since WHO's formulation of the first definition of cardiac rehabilitation in 1964, as a result of the achievements of modern invasive cardiology, cardiosurgery and pharmacotherapy, the procedures of treatment of the patients with acute coronary syndrome changed radically. Moreover, a time of their hospitalization has shortened significantly. This fact had an influence on created by many scientific associations the successive development of the standardized process of convalescence, which is cardiac rehabilitation. The Board of Polish Society of Cardiology (PTK), appreciating the rank of the issue, appointed a group of experts to work on the standards of the cardiac rehabilitation, which were published in 2004 in the journal "Folia Cardiologica". Based on the modified in 2003 requirements established by The Working Group of Rehabilitation and Effort

  6. Sustainability of Gains Made in a Primary School HIV Prevention Programme in Kenya into the Secondary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2010-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is whether the beneficial effects of Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH), an HIV prevention programme delivered in Kenyan primary schools, continue once students move on to secondary schools. Questionnaires were completed in December 2005 and January 2006 by all form 1-3 students in 154 randomly…

  7. Barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation in stroke: consumer participation in secondary prevention design.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Olive C; Doody, Catherine; Ni Choisdealbh, Cliodhna; Blake, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore community-dwelling stroke patients' perceived barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation for secondary disease prevention, as well as their preferred means for risk-reduction information dissemination and motivators to participation in healthy-lifestyle interventions. Four focus groups (5-6 stroke survivors per group) were defined from community support groups. Key questions addressed barriers to healthy-lifestyle adoption, preferred methods for receiving information and factors that would engage participants in a risk-reduction programme. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using a framework approach. Twenty-two participants, 12 men, 10 women, mean age 71.4 (53-87) years, were included in the study. Three overarching themes emerged as barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation: physical, mental and environmental. Exercise participation difficulties spread across all three themes; healthy eating and smoking cessation concentrated in environmental and mental dimensions. Talks (discussions) were noted as participants' preferred method of information provision. Risk-reduction programmes considered attractive were stroke specific, convenient and delivered by healthcare professionals and involved both social and exercise components. Many stroke patients appear unable to adopt healthy-lifestyle changes through advice alone because of physical, mental and environmental barriers. Risk-reduction programmes including interactive education should be specifically tailored to address barriers currently experienced and extend beyond the stroke survivor to others in their environment who influence lifestyle choices. PMID:23873221

  8. Barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation in stroke: consumer participation in secondary prevention design.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Olive C; Doody, Catherine; Ni Choisdealbh, Cliodhna; Blake, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore community-dwelling stroke patients' perceived barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation for secondary disease prevention, as well as their preferred means for risk-reduction information dissemination and motivators to participation in healthy-lifestyle interventions. Four focus groups (5-6 stroke survivors per group) were defined from community support groups. Key questions addressed barriers to healthy-lifestyle adoption, preferred methods for receiving information and factors that would engage participants in a risk-reduction programme. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using a framework approach. Twenty-two participants, 12 men, 10 women, mean age 71.4 (53-87) years, were included in the study. Three overarching themes emerged as barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation: physical, mental and environmental. Exercise participation difficulties spread across all three themes; healthy eating and smoking cessation concentrated in environmental and mental dimensions. Talks (discussions) were noted as participants' preferred method of information provision. Risk-reduction programmes considered attractive were stroke specific, convenient and delivered by healthcare professionals and involved both social and exercise components. Many stroke patients appear unable to adopt healthy-lifestyle changes through advice alone because of physical, mental and environmental barriers. Risk-reduction programmes including interactive education should be specifically tailored to address barriers currently experienced and extend beyond the stroke survivor to others in their environment who influence lifestyle choices.

  9. Guideline on the prevention of secondary central nervous system lymphoma: British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Andrew; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cwynarski, Kate; Lyttelton, Matthew; McKay, Pam; Montoto, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use.

  10. Mind-body fitness: encouraging prospects for primary and secondary prevention.

    PubMed

    La Forge, R

    1997-04-01

    In recent years health promotion programs have generated many worthwhile psychologic and physiologic benefits but frequently with less than optimal long-term adherence. Incorporating approaches such as mind-body exercise with existing health promotion and cardiac rehabilitation services can improve self-efficacy and long-term adherence to healthy behaviors as well as improve personal stress management skills. Mind-body exercise couples muscular activity with an internally directed focus so that the participant produces a temporary self-contemplative mental state. This internal focus is in contrast to conventional body-centered aerobic and muscular fitness exercise in which there is little or no mindful component. Research on mind-body exercise programs such as yoga and tai chi reveal they have significant mental and physical value. There also are numerous primary and secondary preventive indications for cardiovascular disease in which mind-body exercise can play a primary or complementary role. Mind-body exercise programs will be a welcome and necessary addition to evolving disease management models that focus on self-care and decreased health care use.

  11. Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: secondary prevention of stroke guidelines, update 2014.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Shelagh B; Wein, Theodore H; Lindsay, M Patrice; Buck, Brian; Cote, Robert; Ellis, Paul; Foley, Norine; Hill, Michael D; Jaspers, Sharon; Jin, Albert Y; Kwiatkowski, Brenda; MacPhail, Carolyn; McNamara-Morse, Dana; McMurtry, Michael S; Mysak, Tania; Pipe, Andrew; Silver, Karen; Smith, Eric E; Gubitz, Gord

    2015-04-01

    Every year, approximately 62,000 people with stroke and transient ischemic attack are treated in Canadian hospitals. The 2014 update of the Canadian Secondary Prevention of Stroke guideline is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for clinicians in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. Notable changes in this 5th edition include an emphasis on treating the highest risk patients who present within 48 h of symptom onset with transient or persistent motor or speech symptoms, who need to be transported to the closest emergency department with capacity for advanced stroke care; a recommendation for brain and vascular imaging (of the intra- and extracranial vessels) to be completed urgently using computed tomography/computed tomography angiography; prolonged cardiac monitoring for patients with suspective cardioembolic stroke but without evidence for atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram or holter monitoring; and de-emphasizing the need for routine echocardiogram. The Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations include a range of supporting materials such as implementation resources to facilitate the adoption of evidence to practice, and related performance measures to enable monitoring of uptake and effectiveness of the recommendations using a standardized approach. The guidelines further emphasize the need for a systems approach to stroke care, involving an interprofessional team, with access to specialists regardless of patient location, and the need to overcome geographical barriers to ensure equity in access within a universal health-care system. PMID:25535808

  12. Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: secondary prevention of stroke guidelines, update 2014.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Shelagh B; Wein, Theodore H; Lindsay, M Patrice; Buck, Brian; Cote, Robert; Ellis, Paul; Foley, Norine; Hill, Michael D; Jaspers, Sharon; Jin, Albert Y; Kwiatkowski, Brenda; MacPhail, Carolyn; McNamara-Morse, Dana; McMurtry, Michael S; Mysak, Tania; Pipe, Andrew; Silver, Karen; Smith, Eric E; Gubitz, Gord

    2015-04-01

    Every year, approximately 62,000 people with stroke and transient ischemic attack are treated in Canadian hospitals. The 2014 update of the Canadian Secondary Prevention of Stroke guideline is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for clinicians in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. Notable changes in this 5th edition include an emphasis on treating the highest risk patients who present within 48 h of symptom onset with transient or persistent motor or speech symptoms, who need to be transported to the closest emergency department with capacity for advanced stroke care; a recommendation for brain and vascular imaging (of the intra- and extracranial vessels) to be completed urgently using computed tomography/computed tomography angiography; prolonged cardiac monitoring for patients with suspective cardioembolic stroke but without evidence for atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram or holter monitoring; and de-emphasizing the need for routine echocardiogram. The Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations include a range of supporting materials such as implementation resources to facilitate the adoption of evidence to practice, and related performance measures to enable monitoring of uptake and effectiveness of the recommendations using a standardized approach. The guidelines further emphasize the need for a systems approach to stroke care, involving an interprofessional team, with access to specialists regardless of patient location, and the need to overcome geographical barriers to ensure equity in access within a universal health-care system.

  13. Health system barriers and facilitators to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amitava; Khandelwal, Shweta; Nambiar, Lavanya; Saxena, Malvika; Peck, Victoria; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Faria Neto, Jose Rocha; Quinto, Katherine Curi; Smyth, Andrew; Leong, Darryl; Werba, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. Methods Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease). Studies considered at least one of β blockers, statins, angiotensin–renin system blockers and aspirin. Relevant databases were searched from 1 January 1966 until 1 October 2015. Full texts were screened for inclusion by 2 independent reviewers. Results Of 2246 screened articles, 25 studies were included (12 trials, 11 cohort studies, 1 cross-sectional study and 1 case–control study) with 132 140 individuals overall (smallest n=30, largest n=63 301). 3 studies included upper middle-income countries, 1 included a low middle-income country and 21 (84%) included high-income countries (9 in the USA). Studies concerned established CVD (n=4), cerebrovascular disease (n=7) and coronary heart disease (n=14). Three studies considered persistence and adherence. Quantity and quality of evidence was limited for adherence, persistence and across drug classes. Studies were concerned with governance and delivery (n=19, including 4 trials of fixed-dose combination therapy, FDC), intellectual resources (n=1), human resources (n=1) and health system financing (n=4). Full prescription coverage, reduced copayments, FDC and counselling were facilitators associated with higher adherence. Conclusions High-quality evidence on health system barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention medications for CVD is lacking, especially for low-income settings. Full prescription coverage

  14. SY 08-2 HYPERTENSION MANAGEMENT FOR SECONDARY PREVENTION OF STROKE.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is known to frequently recur in patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease, and the control of hypertension is extremely important for the treatment of those patients. The robust relationship between the recurrent cerebrovascular disease and blood pressure control has been demonstrated in large-scale clinical studies. The antihypertensive drug therapy significantly reduces the recurrence rate of all types of cerebrovascular disease, incidences of myocardial infarction and all vascular events. Evidence suggests that any class of antihypertensive drugs including diuretics, Ca channel blockers, ARBs, and ACE inhibitors are shown to be similarly effective for the secondary prevention of stroke, except in some small study such as MOSES. Thus, most of the benefit obtained from drugs can be ascribed to a decrease in blood pressure.Then, how far should blood pressure be lowered? Target of blood pressure control has been somewhat controversial, since an excessive reduction of blood pressure might exacerbate cerebral ischemia in the area perfused by cerebral artery with a significant stenosis. In fact, some Japanese clinical study has shown that in patients with impaired perfusion demonstrated by PET-CT, the risk of recurrent stroke was high when the systolic blood pressure was <130 mmHg. In those without impaired perfusion, this risk may be high at a high blood pressure level. In the study involving patients with carotid artery stenosis, the risk of cerebrovascular disease significantly increased in a group in which the systolic blood pressure decreased to 140 mmHg among patients with symptomatic, 70% or greater stenosis of the bilateral carotid arteries (accounting for 2 to 3%), whereas there was no increase in this risk even when the systolic blood pressure decreased to 140 mmHg in patients with 70% or greater unilateral carotid artery stenosis. In the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) Study, among patients with symptomatic

  15. SY 08-2 HYPERTENSION MANAGEMENT FOR SECONDARY PREVENTION OF STROKE.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is known to frequently recur in patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease, and the control of hypertension is extremely important for the treatment of those patients. The robust relationship between the recurrent cerebrovascular disease and blood pressure control has been demonstrated in large-scale clinical studies. The antihypertensive drug therapy significantly reduces the recurrence rate of all types of cerebrovascular disease, incidences of myocardial infarction and all vascular events. Evidence suggests that any class of antihypertensive drugs including diuretics, Ca channel blockers, ARBs, and ACE inhibitors are shown to be similarly effective for the secondary prevention of stroke, except in some small study such as MOSES. Thus, most of the benefit obtained from drugs can be ascribed to a decrease in blood pressure.Then, how far should blood pressure be lowered? Target of blood pressure control has been somewhat controversial, since an excessive reduction of blood pressure might exacerbate cerebral ischemia in the area perfused by cerebral artery with a significant stenosis. In fact, some Japanese clinical study has shown that in patients with impaired perfusion demonstrated by PET-CT, the risk of recurrent stroke was high when the systolic blood pressure was <130 mmHg. In those without impaired perfusion, this risk may be high at a high blood pressure level. In the study involving patients with carotid artery stenosis, the risk of cerebrovascular disease significantly increased in a group in which the systolic blood pressure decreased to 140 mmHg among patients with symptomatic, 70% or greater stenosis of the bilateral carotid arteries (accounting for 2 to 3%), whereas there was no increase in this risk even when the systolic blood pressure decreased to 140 mmHg in patients with 70% or greater unilateral carotid artery stenosis. In the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) Study, among patients with symptomatic

  16. Applying epidemiologic concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention to the elimination of racial disparities in asthma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Christine L M; Williams, L Keoki; Ownby, Dennis R; Saltzgaber, Jacquelyn; Johnson, Christine C

    2006-02-01

    Despite medical and scientific advances, racial and ethnic disparities persist in US asthma morbidity and mortality rates. Progress in the elimination of these disparities will involve disentangling the contribution of social constructs, such as race, socioeconomic status, and culture, from that of the physical environment and genetic susceptibility. One approach to reducing asthma disparities is through the traditional disease prevention stages of intervention. As such, primary prevention targets reductions in asthma incidence; secondary prevention is the mitigation of established disease and involves disease detection, management, and control; and tertiary prevention is the reduction of complications caused by severe disease. Once causative factors at each level of disease prevention are understood, this knowledge can be translated into clinical practice and public health policy.

  17. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills for the Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Zhang, Junhua; Yao, Chen; Liu, Baoyan; Gao, Xiumei; Ren, Ming; Cao, Hongbao; Dai, Guohua; Weng, Weiliang; Zhu, Sainan; Wang, Hui; Xu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Boli

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several types of drugs have been recommended for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). However, these conventional strategies have several limitations, such as low adherence, high cost, and side effects during long time use. Novel approaches to this problem are still needed. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness and safety of Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ), a multi-ingredient Chinese patent medicine, for the secondary prevention of MI. Methods and Findings. A total of 3505 eligible patients were randomly assigned to QSYQ group (1746 patients) or aspirin group (1759). Patients took their treatments for 12 months. The final follow-up visit took place 6 months after the end of the trial drugs. The 12-month and 18-month estimated incidences of the primary outcome were 2.98% and 3.67%, respectively, in the QSYQ group. The figures were 2.96% and 3.81% in the aspirin group. No significant difference was identified between the groups. Conclusions. This trial did not show significant difference of primary and secondary outcomes between aspirin and QSYQ in patients who have had an MI. Though inconclusive, the result suggests that QSYQ has similar effects to aspirin in the secondary prevention of MI. PMID:23935677

  18. Coordinator-based systems for secondary prevention in fragility fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Marsh, D; Akesson, K; Beaton, D E; Bogoch, E R; Boonen, S; Brandi, M-L; McLellan, A R; Mitchell, P J; Sale, J E M; Wahl, D A

    2011-07-01

    The underlying causes of incident fractures--bone fragility and the tendency to fall--remain under-diagnosed and under-treated. This care gap in secondary prevention must be addressed to minimise both the debilitating consequences of subsequent fractures for patients and the associated economic burden to healthcare systems. Clinical systems aimed at ensuring appropriate management of patients following fracture have been developed around the world. A systematic review of the literature showed that 65% of systems reported include a dedicated coordinator who acts as the link between the orthopaedic team, the osteoporosis and falls services, the patient and the primary care physician. Coordinator-based systems facilitate bone mineral density testing, osteoporosis education and care in patients following a fragility fracture and have been shown to be cost-saving. Other success factors included a fracture registry and a database to monitor the care provided to the fracture patient. Implementation of such a system requires an audit of existing arrangements, creation of a network of healthcare professionals with clearly defined roles and the identification of a 'medical champion' to lead the project. A business case is needed to acquire the necessary funding. Incremental, achievable targets should be identified. Clinical pathways should be supported by evidence-based recommendations from national or regional guidelines. Endorsement of the proposed model within national healthcare policies and advocacy programmes can achieve alignment of the objectives of policy makers, professionals and patients. Successful transformation of care relies upon consensus amongst all participants in the multi-disciplinary team that cares for fragility fracture patients.

  19. [Challenges in care of trauma patient in Spain. The need for implementation of scientific evidence including secondary prevention].

    PubMed

    Fernández Mondéjar, E; Alvarez, F J; González Luque, J C

    2014-01-01

    The mortality of trauma patients has improved significantly in recent decades due to a combination of factors: medical care, educational campaigns and structural changes. Generalization of out-of hospital emergence medical services and the hospital care in specific centers for traumatized has undoubtedly contributed to this decline, but other factors such as periodic campaigns to prevent workplace and traffic accidents, as well as improvements in the road network have played a key role. The challenge now is to continue to decrease mortality, for which is essential an analysis of the situation to detect potential areas of improvement. The application of diagnostic or therapeutic actions with scientific evidence is associated with lower mortality, but as in other areas of medicine, the application of scientific evidence in trauma patients is barely 50%. Moreover, nearly 90% of trauma deaths occur in the crash site or in the first 72h of hospitalization, the vast majority as a result of injuries incompatible with life. In these circumstances it is clear that prevention is the most cost-effective activity. As medical practitioners, our role in prevention is mainly focused on the secondary prevention to avoid recidivism, for which it is necessary to identify risk factor (frequently alcohol, illegal drugs, psychotropic medication etc.) and implement a brief motivational intervention. This activity can reduce recidivism by nearly 50%. In Spain, the activity in this field is negligible therefore measures should be implemented for dissemination of secondary prevention in trauma.

  20. Dyslipidemia Management for Secondary Prevention in Women with Cardiovascular Disease: What Can We Expect From Non-pharmacologic Strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Whelton, Seamus; Chow, Grant V.; Ashen, Dominique; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women and the treatment of dyslipidemia is a cornerstone of secondary prevention. Pharmacologic therapy with statins can lower LDL-C by 30–50% and reduce the risk of recurrent coronary heart disease in both men and women. While significant reductions in LDL-C can be achieved with statin therapy, diet and lifestyle modification remain an essential part of the treatment regimen for cardiovascular disease. Moreover, a large proportion of the U.S. population is sedentary, overweight, and does not consume a heart-healthy diet. Non-pharmacologic treatment strategies also improve other cardiovascular risk factors and are generally easily accessible. In this review, we examine the effect of non-pharmacologic therapy on lipids as part of the secondary prevention strategy of cardiovascular disease in women. PMID:23110241

  1. Stroke survivors', caregivers' and GPs' attitudes towards a polypill for the secondary prevention of stroke: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, James; Graffy, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky; Mant, Jonathan; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand the perspectives of stroke survivors, caregivers and general practitioners (GPs) on a polypill approach, consisting of blood pressure and cholesterol-lowering therapies, with or without aspirin, for the secondary prevention of stroke. Methods A qualitative interview study was undertaken in 5 GP surgeries in the East of England. 28 survivors of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) were interviewed, 14 of them with a caregiver present, along with a convenience sample of 5 GPs, to assess attitudes towards a polypill and future use. Topic guides explored participants attitudes, potential uptake and long-term use, management of polypill medication and factors influencing the decision to prescribe. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Key themes are presented and illustrated with verbatim quotes. Results The analysis identified 3 key themes: polypill benefits, polypill concerns and polypill lessons for implementation. Stroke/TIA survivors were positive about the polypill concept and considered it acceptable in the secondary prevention of stroke. Perceived benefits of a polypill included convenience resulting in improved adherence and reduced burden of treatment. Caregivers felt that a polypill would improve medication-taking practices, and GPs were open to prescribing it to those at increased cardiovascular risk. However, concerns raised included whether a polypill provided equivalent therapeutic benefit, side effects through combining medications, consequences of non-adherence, lack of flexibility in regulating dosage, disruption to current treatment and suitability to the wider stroke population. Conclusions Participants acknowledged potential advantages in a polypill approach for secondary prevention of stroke; however, significant concerns remain. Further research on the efficacy of a polypill is needed to reassure practitioners whose concerns around inflexibility and treatment suitability are likely to influence the

  2. Barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke: a qualitative interview study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, James; Graffy, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky; Mant, Jonathan; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Medications are highly effective at reducing risk of recurrent stroke, but success is influenced by adherence to treatment. Among survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA), adherence to medication is known to be suboptimal. Aim To identify and report barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke/TIA. Design and setting A qualitative interview study was conducted within general practice surgeries in the East of England, UK. Method Patients were approached by letter and invited to take part in a qualitative research study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with survivors of stroke, caregivers, and GPs to explore their perspectives and views around secondary prevention and perceived barriers to medication adherence. Key themes were identified using a grounded theory approach. Verbatim quotes describing the themes are presented here. Results In total, 28 survivors of stroke, including 14 accompanying caregivers and five GPs, were interviewed. Two key themes were identified. Patient level barriers included ability to self-care, the importance people attach to a stroke event, and knowledge of stroke and medication. Medication level barriers included beliefs about medication and beliefs about how pills work, medication routines, changing medications, and regimen complexity and burden of treatment. Conclusion Patients who have had a stroke are faced with multiple barriers to taking secondary prevention medications in UK general practice. This research suggests that a collaborative approach between caregivers, survivors, and healthcare professionals is needed to address these barriers and facilitate medication-taking behaviour. PMID:27215572

  3. Dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention: the first year experience from a multicenter short-term registry

    PubMed Central

    Krogias, Christos; Sands, Kara A.; Sharma, Vijay K.; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; Shiue, Harn; Mitsoglou, Athina; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Athanasiadis, Dimitrios; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Piperidou, Charitomeni; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are growing concerns for the side effects of dabigatran etexilate (dabigatran), including higher incidence of dyspepsia and gastrointestinal bleeding. We conducted a multicenter early implementation study to prospectively evaluate the safety, efficacy and adherence to dabigatran for secondary stroke prevention. Methods: Consecutive atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) received dabigatran for secondary stroke prevention during their hospital stay according to American Heart Association recommendations at five tertiary care stroke centers. The study population was prospectively followed and outcomes were documented. The primary and secondary safety outcomes were major hemorrhage and all other bleeding events respectively defined according to RE-LY trial methodology. Results: A total of 78 AF patients (mean age 71 ± 9years; 54% men; 81% IS, 19% TIA; median CHADS2 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, age >75 years, prior stroke or TIA); range 2–5) score 4 were treated with dabigatran [(110mg bid (74%); 150mg bid (26%)]. During a mean follow-up period of 7 ± 5 months (range 1–18) we documented no cases of IS, TIA, intracranial hemorrhage, systemic embolism or myocardial infarction in AF patients treated with dabigatran. There were two (2.6%) major bleeding events (lower gastrointestinal bleeding) and two (2.6%) minor bleedings [hematuria (n = 1) and rectal bleeding (n = 1)]. Dabigatran was discontinued in 26% of the study population with high cost being the most common reason for discontinuation (50%). Discussion: Our pilot data indicate that dabigatran appears to be safe for secondary stroke prevention during the first year of implementation of this therapy. However, high cost may limit the long-term treatment of AF patients with dabigatran, leading to early discontinuation. PMID:24790645

  4. The Prevention and Mending of Burnout among Secondary School Teachers. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Will J. G.; Gerrichhauzen, John; Tomic, Welco

    This paper examines research on teacher burnout, using the self-efficacy theory as the framework. It explains that designing a program to help teachers improve classroom management and thus prevent classroom disorder may contribute to the prevention of burnout. Chapter 1 introduces the issue of teacher burnout. Chapter 2 discusses burnout…

  5. Expanding the value of qualitative theories of illness experience in clinical practice: a grounded theory of secondary heart disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Ononeze, V; Murphy, A W; MacFarlane, A; Byrne, M; Bradley, C

    2009-06-01

    Qualitative theories of illness experience are about the individual interpretations of the psychosocial and cultural aspects of living with illness. Thus, they contribute to a better understanding of health and health care provision. In this paper, we examine how a grounded theory (GT) of heart disease experience can inform secondary prevention. In-depth interviews of individual experience of heart disease were conducted with 26 patients, using GT iterative data collection and analysis framework. A GT was compiled from data and examined within a sociocultural framework to ascertain how experience influenced health behaviour. Despite individual contextual variations, the theory of 'keeping it going' describes the study sample's common attitude to living with heart disease. The theory was adequate in explaining secondary cardiac behaviour, because it identified the aspects of patients' beliefs and attitudes which are key to effective secondary prevention. The assessment of the impact of illness experience on health behaviour within a sociocultural framework helped to articulate the strong influence of social and contextual factors. The study offers an appropriate explanatory framework for encouraging health behaviour change. It emphasizes the importance of interventions being relevant to individual perceptions and interpretations. It provides a framework for designing and evaluating cardiac interventions and the theoretical principles which underpin them.

  6. Resources for Interdisciplinary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Julie Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Resources for interdisciplinary studies (IDS) appear in a multitude of print publications, online forums, and the "fugitive" or "gray" literature of conference papers, reports, and curriculum materials. The quantity is not surprising, since interdisciplinary discussions have expanded as new fields and approaches emerged across all domains of…

  7. Dabigatran for the Treatment and Secondary Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism; A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, J.; de Jong, L. A.; Kappelhoff, B. S.; Dvortsin, E. P.; Voorhaar, M.; Postma, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dabigatran was proven to have similar effect on the prevention of recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and a lower risk of bleeding compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness (CE) of dabigatran for the treatment and secondary prevention in patients with VTE compared to VKAs in the Dutch setting. Methods Previously published Markov model was modified and updated to assess the CE of dabigatran and VKAs for the treatment and secondary prevention in patients with VTE from a societal perspective in the base-case analysis. The model was populated with efficacy and safety data from major dabigatran trials (i.e. RE-COVER, RECOVER II, RE-MEDY and RE-SONATE), Dutch specific costs, and utilities derived from dabigatran trials or other published literature. Univariate, probabilistic sensitivity and a number of scenario analyses evaluating various decision-analytic settings (e.g. the perspective of analysis, use of anticoagulants only for treatment or only for secondary prevention, or comparison to no treatment) were tested on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results In the base-case scenario, patients on dabigatran gained an additional 0.034 quality adjusted life year (QALY) while saving €1,598. Results of univariate sensitivity analysis were quite robust. The probability that dabigatran is cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000/QALY was 98.1%. From the perspective of healthcare provider, extended anticoagulation with dabigatran compared to VKAs was estimated at €2,158 per QALY gained. The ICER for anticoagulation versus no treatment in patients with equipoise risk of recurrent VTE was estimated at €33,379 per QALY gained. Other scenarios showed dabigatran was cost-saving. Conclusion From a societal perspective, dabigatran is likely to be a cost-effective or even cost-saving strategy for treatment and secondary prevention of VTE compared to VKAs in the

  8. Secondary prevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in areas where smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing are prevalent.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Lun; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2010-06-01

    Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  9. Strategies for Prevention and Intervention of Drug Abuse among Students in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…

  10. Prevention Rather than Cure? Primary or Secondary Intervention for Dealing with Media Exposure to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of primary versus secondary intervention in moderating state anxiety and state anger from media-based exposure to terrorism. Two hundred participants, allocated to a terrorism or nonterrorism media exposure and to antecedent or subsequent therapeutic or control intervention, were assessed for state anxiety and…

  11. Primary care organisational interventions for secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Edel; Vellinga, Akke; Byrne, Molly; Cupples, Margaret E; Murphy, Andrew W; Buckley, Brian; Smith, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Background Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Aim To determine the long-term impact of organisational interventions for secondary prevention of IHD. Design and setting Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies from CENTRAL, MEDLINE®, Embase, and CINAHL published January 2007 to January 2013. Method Searches were conducted for randomised controlled trials of patients with established IHD, with long-term follow-up, of cardiac secondary prevention programmes targeting organisational change in primary care or community settings. A random-effects model was used and risk ratios were calculated. Results Five studies were included with 4005 participants. Meta-analysis of four studies with mortality data at 4.7–6 years showed that organisational interventions were associated with approximately 20% reduced mortality, with a risk ratio (RR) for all-cause mortality of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 0.93), and a RR for cardiac-related mortality of 0.74 (95% CI = 0.58 to 0.94). Two studies reported mortality data at 10 years. Analysis of these data showed no significant differences between groups. There were insufficient data to conduct a meta-analysis on the effect of interventions on hospital admissions. Additional analyses showed no significant association between organisational interventions and risk factor management or appropriate prescribing at 4.7–6 years. Conclusion Cardiac secondary prevention programmes targeting organisational change are associated with a reduced risk of death for at least 4–6 years. There is insufficient evidence to conclude whether this beneficial effect is maintained indefinitely. PMID:26120136

  12. [Primary Prevention during Interaction of Teachers and Students--An Interdisciplinary Modular Programme According to Psychic and Psychosomatic Disorders in the Setting of Vocational Schools].

    PubMed

    Haufe, E; Winkelmann, C; Hacker, W; Scheuch, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the project was the development of a modular primary preventive programme according to psychic and psychosomatic disorders in the setting of vocational schools and the evaluation of the corresponding interventions. Preventive strategies were integrated in the basic and further education of teachers and a concept for their occupational medical care. These strategies with long-term effects were supplemented by interventions to promote health and competence directly in the field.

  13. UV-induced occupational skin cancer: possibilities of secondary individual prevention in the "Dermatologist's Procedure".

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter; Blome, Otto; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig

    2013-07-01

    Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as a "quasi occupational disease" according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII typically develops on chronically UV-damaged skin from actinic keratoses. After the Medical Scientific Committee of the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs has confirmed the legal criteria for acknowledging UV-induced SCC as an occupational disease, it is expected that the condition will be added to the official list of occupational diseases issued by the Federal Government in the near future. The Social Accident Insurance is required by law (§3 Occupational Disease Regulation) to prevent these tumors by "all appropriate means". There are excellent therapeutic and preventive measures for the management of actinic keratoses to avoid the development of SCC. The "Dermatologist's Procedure" according to §§ 41-43 of the agreement between the Social Accident Insurance and the Federal Medical Association was established in Germany in 1972 to take preventive measures in insured persons with skin lesions possibly developing into an occupational disease, or worsening it, or leading to a recurrence of it This procedure proved to be very successful in the prevention of severe and/or recurring skin diseases forcing a worker to leave his job. On the basis of this agreement, the Social Accident Insurance has the instruments to independently provide preventive measures for the new occupational skin disease SCC induced by natural UV light according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII.

  14. Update: Acute coronary syndromes (IX). Secondary prevention strategies for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan; Miralles-Vicedo, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main health problem in Europe and the rest of the world and is the leading cause of death and health care expenditure. By reducing mortality and ischemic event recurrence, prevention strategies play a fundamental role in patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome. Although these prevention strategies have focused with great success on high-risk individuals, they should also be used in the general population, which is showing an increase in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other comorbidities that may reverse this trend toward reduced mortality. The present article consists of an up-to-date review of the main cardiovascular prevention measures, particularly the new developments of the last year, as well as the particularities of these measures when they are targeted at patients with a prior acute coronary syndrome.

  15. Reduced substance use as a secondary benefit of an indicated cognitive-behavioral adolescent depression prevention program.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M; Marti, C Nathan

    2012-09-01

    Our first aim was to test whether a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program reduces substance use escalation over 2-year follow-up relative to two active comparison interventions and a brochure assessment control. Our second aim examined whether reductions in depressive symptoms mediate intervention effects, as posited by the affect-regulation model of substance use. In this indicated prevention trial, 341 high school adolescents at risk for depression because of the presence of elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a Group CB intervention, group supportive-expressive group intervention, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control condition. Participants in Group CB had significantly lower rates of substance use compared with brochure control participants at both 1- and 2-year follow-up and lower substance use at 2-year follow-up relative to bibliotherapy participants; no other condition differences were significant. Mediational analyses suggested that reductions in depressive symptoms from baseline to posttest accounted for changes in substance use over 2 years for participants in Group CB relative to brochure control participants but did not mediate effects relative to those receiving bibliotherapy. Results suggest that a secondary benefit of this CB group indicated depression prevention program is lower rates of long-term substance use. Findings supported the hypothesis that, relative to a nonactive comparison condition, reductions in depressive symptoms mediated the effects of Group CB prevention on substance use escalation.

  16. Reduced Substance Use as a Secondary Benefit of an Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Adolescent Depression Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Our first aim was to test whether a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program reduces substance use escalation over 2-year follow-up relative to two active comparison interventions and a brochure assessment control. Our second aim examined whether reductions in depressive symptoms mediate intervention effects, as posited by the affect-regulation model of substance use. In this indicated prevention trial, 341 high school adolescents at risk for depression due to the presence of elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control condition. Participants in group CB had significantly lower rates of substance use compared to brochure control participants at both 1- and 2-year follow-up and lower substance use at 2-year follow-up relative to bibliotherapy participants; no other condition differences were significant. Mediational analyses suggested that reductions in depressive symptoms from baseline to post-test accounted for changes in substance use over two years for participants in group CB relative to brochure control participants but did not mediate effects relative to those receiving bibliotherapy. Results suggest that a secondary benefit of this CB group indicated depression prevention program is lower rates of long-term substance use. Findings supported the hypothesis that, relative to a non-active comparison condition, reductions in depressive symptoms mediated the effects of group CB prevention on substance use escalation. PMID:22564206

  17. Dropout Prevention Intervention with Secondary Students: A Pilot Study of Project GOAL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Pyle, Nicole; Fall, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Project GOAL is a systematic dropout prevention model including individual and peer-mediated group interventions for at-risk students. This article provides an overview of the Project GOAL model and describes a 2-year experimental pilot study of Project GOAL with a cohort of eighth-and ninth-grade students in a low-income school district in the…

  18. A Review of Eating Disorders in Athletes: Recommendations for Secondary School Prevention and Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The current review aims to evaluate the literature on eating disorders and athletes with the purpose of making recommendations for sport psychologists and other relevant personnel on how to proceed in identifying, managing, and preventing eating disorders in school settings. Whereas the intention of this review is to make recommendations for…

  19. Secondary Prevention with College Drinkers: Evaluation of an Alcohol Skills Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated prevention approaches for young adults (n=36) at risk for alcohol problems. Subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral alcohol skills training, didactic alcohol information program, or assessment only. Found significant reduction over one year in alcohol consumption for total sample; directional findings consistently favored…

  20. Stress-Prevention in Secondary Schools: Online- versus Face-to-Face-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the evaluation of an internet-delivered stress-prevention program for adolescents as a possible alternative for school-based implementation of mental health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 904 adolescents in grades eight and nine were assigned to four treatment conditions…

  1. Using EQUIP for Educators to Prevent Peer Victimization in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Kevin; Granizo, Laura; del Barrio, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Peer victimization has received much attention from researchers and educators over the last decade, since it is a problem that affects children and adolescents. As more time-extensive programs do not seem to be used in schools, in this article the "EQUIP" program for "Educators" is proposed as an instrument for the prevention of peer bullying and…

  2. Laying the Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Effort Aimed at Prevention of Pregnancy among Middle School Students. Phase IV: Revised Curriculum. Final Report. July 1981 to June 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of West Florida, Pensacola.

    This revised curriculum, developed for use in Florida middle schools, is a comprehensive family life education course. The content of the course was determined (1) through a "Needs Assessment Inventory for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention," which was sent to more than 1,200 home economics teachers in Florida (and returned by the majority of them), and…

  3. Laying the Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Effort Aimed at Prevention of Pregnancy among Middle School Students. Final Report, from July 1978 to June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Betty R.; And Others

    This report presents results of a project to provide useful information for planning pregnancy prevention programs. It focuses on five project objectives: (1) identification of factors associated with adolescent sexual behavior, contraceptive behavior, and pregnancy; (2) development of instructional objectives or skills associated with pregnancy…

  4. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  5. Fostering primary and secondary prevention in public policy for pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, P B; Kutzner, S K

    1989-01-01

    The diverse factors associated with sexuality among adolescents and the specific issues related to contraception in this developmentally diverse group result in complexity in policy formation. The future of an adolescent may be determined solely on the basis of access to supportive physical and emotional services funded by public and private sector monies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present contemporary and social policies regarding pregnant adolescent health care. Suggestions as to how these policies can be translated into public adolescent health models are provided. The strategies will be related to primary and secondary public policy interventions. PMID:10304496

  6. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes: The Role of the Statins.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Evangelos; Troupis, Theodoros; Mazarakis, Antonios; Kyriakos, Giorgos; Troupis, Georgios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Poor prognosis is strongly associated with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and, even though a number of treatment strategies are available, the incidence of subsequent serious complications after an acute event is still high. Statins are hypolipidemic factors and recent studies have demonstrated that they have a protective role during the process of atherogenesis and that they reduce mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. This review tries to reveal the function of the statins as a component of the primary and secondary action of acute coronary syndrome and to describe the lifestyle changes that have the same effect as the use of statins.

  7. Sucrose prevents protein fibrillation through compaction of the tertiary structure but hardly affects the secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Nídia; Franquelim, Henri G; Lopes, Carlos; Tavares, Evandro; Macedo, Joana A; Christiansen, Gunna; Otzen, Daniel E; Melo, Eduardo P

    2015-11-01

    Amyloid fibers, implicated in a wide range of diseases, are formed when proteins misfold and stick together in long rope-like structures. As a natural mechanism, osmolytes can be used to modulate protein aggregation pathways with no interference with other cellular functions. The osmolyte sucrose delays fibrillation of the ribosomal protein S6 leading to softer and less shaped-defined fibrils. The molecular mechanism used by sucrose to delay S6 fibrillation was studied based on the two-state unfolding kinetics of the secondary and tertiary structures. It was concluded that the delay in S6 fibrillation results from stabilization and compaction of the slightly expanded tertiary native structure formed under fibrillation conditions. Interestingly, this compaction extends to almost all S6 tertiary structure but hardly affects its secondary structure. The part of the S6 tertiary structure that suffered more compaction by sucrose is known to be the first part to unfold, indicating that the native S6 has entered the unfolding pathway under fibrillation conditions.

  8. Prevention at school level. Hong Kong: a kit for secondary school teachers.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The Social Studies (Secondary) Curriculum Development Team in Hong Kong began work on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education in 1987. Since then, a teaching kit consisting of four parts has been prepared as a reference for secondary school teachers. The kit provides basic information on AIDS and suggests student activities that cultivate fuller understanding and healthy attitudes in students. Part I, Reference Materials for Teachers, consists of information sheets, a glossary of terms, and a list of materials on AIDS and other blood-borne diseases. Part II, Information Sheets for Students, like Part I, discusses one aspect of the disease per page; however, the information given is the minimum essential amount and the pages are illustrated for better understanding. Part III, Worksheets for Students, is experimental; teachers may use other exercises or activities. A key and audio-visual materials are provided. The latter illustrate Parts I and II; the ideas may be used for making posters or designing bulletin boards. Part IV, Overhead Transparencies, can be used for classroom teaching.

  9. Analyzing Direct Effects in Randomized Trials with Secondary Interventions: An Application to HIV Prevention Trials.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Michael; Jewell, Nicholas P; van der Laan, Mark; Shiboski, Steve; van der Straten, Ariane; Padian, Nancy

    2009-04-01

    The Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA) trial is a recently completed randomized trial that investigated the effect of diaphragm and lubricant gel use in reducing HIV infection among susceptible women. 5,045 women were randomly assigned to either the active treatment arm or not. Additionally, all subjects in both arms received intensive condom counselling and provision, the "gold standard" HIV prevention barrier method. There was much lower reported condom use in the intervention arm than in the control arm, making it difficult to answer important public health questions based solely on the intention-to-treat analysis. We adapt an analysis technique from causal inference to estimate the "direct effects" of assignment to the diaphragm arm, adjusting for condom use in an appropriate sense. Issues raised in the MIRA trial apply to other trials of HIV prevention methods, some of which are currently being conducted or designed. PMID:20827388

  10. Analyzing Direct Effects in Randomized Trials with Secondary Interventions: An Application to HIV Prevention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael; Jewell, Nicholas P.; van der Laan, Mark; Shiboski, Steve; van der Straten, Ariane; Padian, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA) trial is a recently completed randomized trial that investigated the effect of diaphragm and lubricant gel use in reducing HIV infection among susceptible women. 5,045 women were randomly assigned to either the active treatment arm or not. Additionally, all subjects in both arms received intensive condom counselling and provision, the “gold standard” HIV prevention barrier method. There was much lower reported condom use in the intervention arm than in the control arm, making it difficult to answer important public health questions based solely on the intention-to-treat analysis. We adapt an analysis technique from causal inference to estimate the “direct effects” of assignment to the diaphragm arm, adjusting for condom use in an appropriate sense. Issues raised in the MIRA trial apply to other trials of HIV prevention methods, some of which are currently being conducted or designed. PMID:20827388

  11. Lead-tainted crayons from China. Part 1: Secondary prevention in Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Arreola, P.; Fowler, C.; Schaller, K.; Weaver, Z.; Neumann, C.; Boyer, L.

    1996-03-01

    The Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) identified lead-containing crayons from China as a likely source in the lead poisoning of an 11 month-old child. This finding sparked nationwide attention which, in coordination with data from the Oregon Health Division (OHD), led to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) recall of 13 brands of crayons. This paper describes the events leading to the recall and illustrates the role of public health agencies in a comprehensive childhood lead poisoning prevention program. In particular, background screening and surveillance were key to the identification of this previously unknown lead poisoning risk, lead-tainted crayons.

  12. [Statins in the secondary prevention of stroke: New evidence from the SPARCL Study].

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, Luis; Fernández-Moreno, María Del Carmen; López-Chozas, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Until recently there was little evidence that statin therapy reduced the risk of stroke recurrence. The SPARCL trial, published in 2006, was the first trial to show the benefits of statin therapy in preventing recurrent stroke. The SPARCL trial showed that treatment with atorvastatin 80mg/day reduced recurrent stroke in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Several post hoc analyses of different subgroups followed the SPARCL trial. They have not revealed any significant differences when patients were grouped by age, sex or type of stroke. The SPARCL trial has also helped to identify patients who may have a greater benefit from statins: Patients with carotid stenosis, with more intense lipid lowering, and those who achieve optimal levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, and blood pressure. The trial has also helped to identify individuals at high risk of new vascular events. Clearly there is a before and after in stroke prevention since the SPARCL trial was published. PMID:26150172

  13. Prevention of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws secondary to tooth extractions. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Limeres, Jacobo

    2016-01-01

    Background A study was made to identify the most effective protocol for reducing the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) following tooth extraction in patients subjected to treatment with antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs. Material and Methods A MEDLINE and SCOPUS search (January 2003 - March 2015) was made with the purpose of conducting a systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. All articles contributing information on tooth extractions in patients treated with oral or intravenous antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs were included. Results Only 13 of the 380 selected articles were finally included in the review: 11 and 5 of them offered data on patients treated with intravenous and oral bisphosphonates, respectively. No randomized controlled trials were found – all publications corresponding to case series or cohort studies. The prevalence of ONJ in the patients treated with intravenous and oral bisphosphonates was 6,9% (range 0-34.7%) and 0.47% (range 0-2.5%), respectively. The main preventive measures comprised local and systemic infection control. Conclusions No conclusive scientific evidence is available to date on the efficacy of ONJ prevention protocols in patients treated with antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs subjected to tooth extraction. Key words:Bisphosphonates, angiogenesis inhibitors, antiresorptive drugs, extraction, osteonecrosis. PMID:26827065

  14. Effects of Steroids and Curcumin on Prevention of Laryngeal Stenosis Secondary to Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Kamyar; Babaie, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad-Javad; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the preventive effects of corticosteroids and curcumin on subglottic stenosis in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one male German Shepherd dogs were used for this study. After standardized trauma to the subglottic area, the dogs were divided into three groups. Group A received curcumin (450 mg/ day) for 15 days; Group B received beclomethasone (2 puffs/day, 50 µg/dose) for 15 days; Group C received saline spray only. At 6 weeks after the injury, the larynx specimens were examined histopathologically to assess epithelialization, inflammation, and fibrosis. Results: Complete epithelial covering of the steroid-treated group was significantly less than that of the control group. Despite inflammation and fibrosis, there was no significant difference between the steroid and control groups. In the curcumin-treated group, there was no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Topically applied steroid decreases epithelialization after induced subglottic injury. It is recommended that further studies be conducted in order to investigate the effects of the two drugs on airway stenosis prevention.

  15. [Statins in the secondary prevention of stroke: New evidence from the SPARCL Study].

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, Luis; Fernández-Moreno, María Del Carmen; López-Chozas, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Until recently there was little evidence that statin therapy reduced the risk of stroke recurrence. The SPARCL trial, published in 2006, was the first trial to show the benefits of statin therapy in preventing recurrent stroke. The SPARCL trial showed that treatment with atorvastatin 80mg/day reduced recurrent stroke in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Several post hoc analyses of different subgroups followed the SPARCL trial. They have not revealed any significant differences when patients were grouped by age, sex or type of stroke. The SPARCL trial has also helped to identify patients who may have a greater benefit from statins: Patients with carotid stenosis, with more intense lipid lowering, and those who achieve optimal levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, and blood pressure. The trial has also helped to identify individuals at high risk of new vascular events. Clearly there is a before and after in stroke prevention since the SPARCL trial was published.

  16. Effects of Steroids and Curcumin on Prevention of Laryngeal Stenosis Secondary to Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Kamyar; Babaie, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad-Javad; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the preventive effects of corticosteroids and curcumin on subglottic stenosis in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one male German Shepherd dogs were used for this study. After standardized trauma to the subglottic area, the dogs were divided into three groups. Group A received curcumin (450 mg/ day) for 15 days; Group B received beclomethasone (2 puffs/day, 50 µg/dose) for 15 days; Group C received saline spray only. At 6 weeks after the injury, the larynx specimens were examined histopathologically to assess epithelialization, inflammation, and fibrosis. Results: Complete epithelial covering of the steroid-treated group was significantly less than that of the control group. Despite inflammation and fibrosis, there was no significant difference between the steroid and control groups. In the curcumin-treated group, there was no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Topically applied steroid decreases epithelialization after induced subglottic injury. It is recommended that further studies be conducted in order to investigate the effects of the two drugs on airway stenosis prevention. PMID:27602335

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Web-Based Training Program for Oral Health Care Providers on Secondary Prevention of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert; Zwald, Marissa L.; Shaw, Tracy; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although oral health care providers (OHP) are key in the secondary prevention of eating disorders (ED), the majority are not engaged in assessment, referral, and case management. This innovative pilot project developed and evaluated a web-based training program for dental and dental hygiene students and providers on the secondary prevention of ED. The intervention combined didactic and skill-based objectives to train OHP on ED and its oral health effects, OHP roles, skills in identifying the oral signs of ED, communication, treatment, and referral. Using a convenience sample of OHP (n=66), a pre-/post-test evaluated short-term outcomes and user satisfaction. Results revealed statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy (p<.001); knowledge of oral manifestations from restrictive behaviors (p<.001) and purging behaviors (p<.001); knowledge of oral treatment options (p<.001); and attitudes towards the secondary prevention of ED (p<.001). Most participants strongly agreed or agreed that the program provided more information (89 percent) and resources (89 percent) about the secondary prevention of ED than were currently available; 91 percent strongly agreed or agreed that they would access this program for information regarding the secondary prevention of ED. This pilot project provides unique training in the clinical evaluation, patient approach, referral, and oral treatment that takes a multidisciplinary approach to address ED. PMID:19491349

  18. Antiplatelet Agents for the Secondary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: A Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Weiming; Zhu, Qin; Lan, Qing; Zhao, Jizong

    2016-05-01

    Stroke can cause high morbidity and mortality, and ischemic stroke (IS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients have a high stroke recurrence rate. Antiplatelet agents are the standard therapy for these patients, but it is often difficult for clinicians to select the best therapy from among the multiple treatment options. We therefore performed a network meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of antiplatelet agents for secondary prevention of recurrent stroke. We systematically searched 3 databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane) for relevant studies published through August 2015. The primary end points of this meta-analysis were overall stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and fatal stroke. A total of 30 trials were included in our network meta-analysis and abstracted data. Among the therapies evaluated in the included trials, the estimates for overall stroke and hemorrhagic stroke for cilostazol (Cilo) were significantly better than those for aspirin (odds ratio [OR] = .64, 95% credibility interval [CrI], .45-.91; OR = .23, 95% CrI, .08-.58). The estimate for fatal stroke was highest for Cilo plus aspirin combination therapy, followed by Cilo therapy. The results of our meta-analysis indicate that Cilo significantly improves overall stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in IS or TIA patients and reduces fatal stroke, but with low statistical significance. Our results also show that Cilo was significantly more efficient than other therapies in Asian patients; therefore, future trials should focus on Cilo treatment for secondary prevention of recurrent stroke in non-Asian patients.

  19. Beta-blocker therapy after myocardial infarction: secondary prevention in all patients?

    PubMed

    Griggs, T; Adams, K; Narvarte, H; Sheps, D

    1985-01-01

    The ability of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs to prevent death in patients after myocardial infarction has been demonstrated by several large trials. However, the need to treat patients at low risk has been challenged. Retrospective analysis of the data from one of these studies plus results from many additional studies have shown that electrical, mechanical and ischemic complications after myocardial infarction imply a high risk of subsequent death or recurrent infarction. On the other hand, absence of complications with a negative exercise tolerance test, good exercise tolerance, absence of arrhythmias and normal increase of ejection fraction with exercise documents a very low risk. These considerations lead to the following practical implications: The physician should watch for any evidence of left ventricular dysfunction or arrhythmia. Any such complication justifies treatment or more intensive study. Patients without complications can be further characterized with exercise testing, exercise radionuclide blood pool ventriculography, and Holter monitoring. If these tests expose risk indicators, treatment or more study should again be recommended. Because the beta-blockers are probably life-saving in a considerable portion of the patients with moderate and high risk, the decision to treat or not to treat should be made with due, affirmative consideration. In those patients with a carefully documented uncomplicated course and who have a normal exercise test and appropriate increase in ventricular ejection fraction with stress, beta-blockade is probably of no benefit. Under these conditions, a physician and patient might logically decide not to use the drug.

  20. The prevalence of intolerance for low-dose acetylsalicylacid in the secondary prevention of atherothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tournoij, E; Peters, R J G; Langenberg, M; Kanhai, K J K; Moll, F L

    2009-05-01

    Daily low-dose acetylsalicylacid (ASA) is prescribed to patients with atherothrombosis frequently to prevent vascular complications. In reports on complications and side effects of low-dose ASA use in the literature there is a range of definitions. We explored the incidence, characteristics and consequences of symptoms suggestive of ASA intolerance in patients on low-dose ASA. General practitioners and specialists in 105 centres were asked to review their patient files for the last 10 consecutive patients who were prescribed ASA. Participating patients completed a questionnaire about their current ASA use (doctors completed the questionnaire together with the patients), use of co-medication and symptoms suggestive of ASA intolerance. A total of 947 patients were included in this study. Sixty patients (6.6%) had ceased ASA treatment, predominantly because of the occurrence of side effects suspected to be caused by ASA use. A quarter of the patients concomitantly used an anti-acid agent. Of the 947 patients, 271 (30.6%) indicated symptoms during ASA intake. The most common symptoms were related to the gastrointestinal tract (25.1%). In patients prescribed a low-dose of ASA monotherapy, side effects suggestive of intolerance are common. More awareness should be created to detect and treat these symptoms, because the occurrence of side effects is the most important reason for patients to discontinue ASA treatment. PMID:19297216

  1. Lithium prevents early cytosolic calcium increase and secondary injurious calcium overload in glycolytically inhibited endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bosche, Bert; Schäfer, Matthias; Graf, Rudolf; Härtel, Frauke V.; Schäfer, Ute; Noll, Thomas

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •We investigate free calcium as a central signalling element in endothelial cells. •Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduces cellular ATP. •This manoeuvre leads to a biphasic increase and overload of free calcium. •Pre-treatment with lithium for 24 h abolishes both phases of the calcium increase. •This provides a new strategy to protect endothelial calcium homeostasis and barrier function. -- Abstract: Cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is a central signalling element for the maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Under physiological conditions, it is controlled within narrow limits. Metabolic inhibition during ischemia/reperfusion, however, induces [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload, which results in barrier failure. In a model of cultured porcine aortic endothelial monolayers (EC), we addressed the question of whether [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload can be prevented by lithium treatment. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and ATP were analysed using Fura-2 and HPLC, respectively. The combined inhibition of glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by 2-desoxy-D-glucose (5 mM; 2-DG) plus sodium cyanide (5 mM; NaCN) caused a significant decrease in cellular ATP content (14 ± 1 nmol/mg protein vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg protein in the control, n = 6 culture dishes, P < 0.05), an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (278 ± 24 nM vs. 71 ± 2 nM in the control, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05), and the formation of gaps between adjacent EC. These observations indicate that there is impaired barrier function at an early state of metabolic inhibition. Glycolytic inhibition alone by 10 mM 2-DG led to a similar decrease in ATP content (14 ± 2 nmol/mg vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg in the control, P < 0.05) with a delay of 5 min. The [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} response of EC was biphasic with a peak after 1 min (183 ± 6 nM vs. 71 ± 1 nM, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05) followed by a sustained increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. A 24-h pre-treatment with 10 mM of lithium

  2. Prevention and Immunotherapy of Secondary Murine Alveolar Echinococcosis Employing Recombinant EmP29 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Hemphill, Andrew; Huber, Cristina Olivia; Spiliotis, Markus; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. An increasing understanding of immunological events that account for the metacestode survival in human and murine AE infection prompted us to undertake explorative experiments tackling the potential of novel preventive and/or immunotherapeutic measures. In this study, the immunoprotective and immunotherapeutic ability of recombinant EmP29 antigen (rEmP29) was assessed in mice that were intraperitoneally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For vaccination, three intraperitoneal injections with 20μg rEmP29 emulsified in saponin adjuvants were applied over 6 weeks. 2 weeks after the last boost, mice were infected, and at 90 days post-infection, rEmP29-vaccinated mice exhibited a median parasite weight that was reduced by 75% and 59% when compared to NaCl- or saponin–treated control mice, respectively. For immunotherapeutical application, the rEmP29 (20μg) vaccine was administered to experimentally infected mice, starting at 1 month post-infection, three times with 2 weeks intervals. Mice undergoing rEmP29 immunotherapy exhibited a median parasite load that was reduced by 53% and 49% when compared to NaCl- and saponin–treated control mice, respectively. Upon analysis of spleen cells, both, vaccination and treatment with rEmP29, resulted in low ratios of Th2/Th1 (IL-4/IFN-γ) cytokine mRNA and low levels of mRNA coding for IL-10 and IL-2. These results suggest that reduction of the immunosuppressive environment takes place in vaccinated as well as immunotreated mice, and a shift towards a Th1 type of immune response may be responsible for the observed increased restriction of parasite growth. The present study provides the first evidence that active immunotherapy may present a sustainable route for the control of AE. PMID:26053794

  3. Feasibility of Increased Navy Bean Powder Consumption for Primary and Secondary Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Erica C; Gundlach, Kerry A; Wdowik, Melissa; Rao, Sangeeta; Brown, Regina J; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Emerging evidence supports that increased consumption of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) reduces both the incidence and recurrence of adenomatous polyps or precancerous growths. Navy beans have been studied for dietary colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention in animal models. Our main objectives were to assess the feasibility of increased navy bean consumption in adults with and without history of CRC and to achieve intake amounts associated with chemoprevention. Methods: Seven meals and six snacks were developed for both the absence and inclusion of cooked navy bean powder (35grams/day). Sixteen healthy adults (7 non-cancer and 9 CRC survivors) completed the placebo-controlled, randomized, single-blinded dietary intervention trial. Participants consumed one study-provided meal and snack daily for 28 days, which accounted for approximately one-third of their total recommended caloric intake (meals = 202-483 kcal and snacks = 194-401 kcal). Participants also recorded three-day dietary food logs each week. Results: The addition of 35g of cooked navy bean powder (NBP) into foods provided 5-8% daily caloric intake. The compliance to the meal and snack intervention ranged from 89-100%. Non-cancer participants in the NBP group had a significant decrease in total caloric intake after week 4 (p≤0.0001). CRC survivors in the NBP group significantly increased total fiber intake by week 4 (p≤0.0001). Conclusions: NBP are feasible to include in meals for increased total fiber intake and for consuming the amount that is associated with CRC chemoprevention outcomes. These findings warrant further evaluation of NBP consumption in clinical nutrition trials for CRC control and prevention. PMID:25009453

  4. Life skills training as HIV/AIDS preventive strategy in secondary schools: evaluation of a large-scale implementation process.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maretha J

    2005-04-01

    A life skills and HIV/AIDS education programme was implemented in secondary schools as a strategy to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among school-going young people in South Africa. As part of a joint effort of the Departments of Health and Education, two teachers per school were trained to implement life skills training and HIV/AIDS education in schools as part of the school curriculum. The implementation of the intervention was evaluated in 24 schools in two educational districts in Gauteng province using an action research approach. Data about the implementation were gathered through interviews and focus group discussions with school principals, teachers and learners. A repeated measurement research design was used to assess the impact of the intervention in terms of knowledge, attitudes and reported risk behaviour in a sample of 667 learners representing learners from grades 8 to 12 from different population groups. Results showed that the programme was not implemented as planned in schools due to organisational problems in the schools, lack of commitment of the teachers and the principal, non-trusting relationships between teachers and learners, lack of resources and conflicting goals in the educational system. In an outcome evaluation over the period of a year it was found that learners' knowledge of HIV/AIDS increased and their attitudes were more positive although the changes may not be attributed to the programme alone. In the post-test more learners were sexually active, although preventive behaviour did not increase. The programme as implemented in the area did not succeed in changing high-risk behaviour patterns among school-going young people. From the evaluation of the intervention a few valuable lessons were learned about the content and implementation of HIV/AIDS preventive interventions, which could be useful in the implementation of various other HIV/AIDS preventive interventions in the community.

  5. Secondary syphilis in the oral cavity and the role of the dental surgeon in STD prevention, diagnosis and treatment: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Creta Elisa; Munerato, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilis has three clinical stages and may present various oral manifestations, mainly at the secondary stage. The disease mimics other more common oral mucosa lesions, going undiagnosed and with no proper treatment. Despite the advancements in medicine toward prevention, diagnosis, and treatment syphilis remains a public health problem worldwide. In this sense, dental surgeons should be able to identify the most common manifestations of the disease in the oral cavity, pointing to the role of this professional in prevention and diagnosis. This study describes a case series of seven patients with secondary syphilis presenting different oral manifestations. PMID:27208390

  6. Long-term secondary prevention programs after cardiac rehabilitation for the reduction of future cardiovascular events: focus on regular physical activity.

    PubMed

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Andrea; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo

    2009-05-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs are recognized as integral to the comprehensive care of patients with coronary heart disease, and as such are recommended in most contemporary clinical practice guidelines. The interventions are aimed at reducing disability, optimizing cardiovascular risk reduction by drug therapy and promoting healthy behavior. Healthy lifestyle habits must be recognized as capable of substantially reducing the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease. This review highlights the recommended components of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs, with special emphasis on regular physical activity.

  7. [Effectiveness of secondary preventive programs for patients with asthma and rhinitis in the baking industry].

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, R; Nolting, H D; Rosenau, C; Stauder, J; Vonier, J

    1998-11-01

    Since 1992 the German industrial professional association for the food industry and gastronomy (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gaststätten), which is responsible for statutory accident insurance has been offering a specific patient education programme to bakers suffering from occupationally induced obstructive pulmonary disease or allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, who do not quit their jobs and wish to continue working as bakers. The programme aims at preventing aggravation of the disease 74 male bakers with a mean duration of illness of 10 years on entering the programme were examined between 1 and 5 years (mean: 2.9) after participating in the patient education seminar. For a subpopulation of 55 of these patients spirometric measurements were available for the time before programme entry and at follow-up. Data on time spent at the bakehouse, prevalence of symptoms, frequency of symptoms at the site of working and during leisure hours, sleep disturbances and emergency situations were collected at the follow-up examination both for the time before programme entry and at follow-up, respectively. Direct ratings of the amount of changes in distress caused by the disease and of the quality of life were also obtained. The prevalence of 8 of the 9 most frequently reported symptoms decreased significantly, e.g. dysponoea from 70% to 42% and fear of suffocation from 30% to 3%. Participants reported on highly significant reductions in the frequency of disease-specific complaints during work and outside the working place, sleep disturbances and situations requiring immediate medical intervention. Between 64% and 85% of the patients experienced improvement of distress, physical and work performance, private and family life, and ability for self-management. Lung function did not deteriorate: mean FEV1 was 88% (+/- 23) at first and 90% (+/- 19) at second measurement. These results could not be explained by changes in medication. It is concluded that the programme is

  8. Investigating Bogs: An Interdisciplinary Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.; Schneider, Lois

    1995-01-01

    Presents the case for the use of bogs as ideal sites for hundreds of interdisciplinary lessons that combine chemistry, geology, various branches of biology, and wetlands archaeology. Includes general guidelines to aid in the design of interdisciplinary bog studies. (DDR)

  9. Interdisciplinary Exercises in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastonguay, Paul R.

    1975-01-01

    Lists a series of thought questions to stimulate a student to undertake his own interdisciplinary exercises to correlate his learnings in his own way. The statements are designed to challenge the mind, in order to develop a personal framework on topics such as life, the meaning of man, and the evolution and bondage of social structure. (BR)

  10. Planning for Interdisciplinary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso

    2007-01-01

    This article examines trends in university planning and management concerning interdisciplinary research. The analysis of institutional documents of 99 research universities reveals regularities in the types of approaches employed. In addition to the traditional approach of creating centers and institutes, universities have taken actions to…

  11. Charting the Territory: Interdisciplinary Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Douglas O.

    Although enrollment in interdisciplinary studies is increasing in the two-year college, much remains to be done in defining and planning interdisciplinary programs. A valuable distinction can be made between interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary studies. The first refers to exploring significant relationships between or among unrelated…

  12. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  13. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  14. Ticagrelor versus genotype-driven antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crespin, Daniel J.; Federspiel, Jerome J.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Jonas, Daniel E.; Rossi, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clopidogrel’s effectiveness is likely reduced significantly for prevention of thrombotic events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients exhibiting a decreased ability to metabolize clopidogrel into its active form. A genetic mutation responsible for this reduced effectiveness is detectable by genotyping. Ticagrelor is not dependent on gene-based metabolic activation and demonstrated greater clinical efficacy than clopidogrel in a recent secondary prevention trial. In 2011, clopidogrel will lose its patent protection and likely will be substantially less expensive than ticagrelor. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor compared with a genotype-driven selection of antiplatelet agents. Methods A hybrid decision tree/Markov model was used to estimate the 5-year medical costs (in 2009 US$) and outcomes for a cohort of ACS patients enrolled in Medicare receiving either genotype-driven or ticagrelor-only treatment. Outcomes included life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Data comparing the clinical performance of ticagrelor and clopidogrel were derived from the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes trial. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for universal ticagrelor was $10,059 per QALY compared to genotype-driven treatment, and was most sensitive to the price of ticagrelor and the hazard ratio for death for ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel. The ICER remained below $50,000 per QALY until a monthly ticagrelor price of $693 or a 0.93 hazard ratio for death for ticagrelor relative to clopidogrel. In probabilistic analyses, universal ticagrelor was below $50,000 per QALY in 97.7% of simulations. Conclusion Prescribing ticagrelor universally increases quality-adjusted life years for ACS patients at a cost below a typically accepted threshold. PMID:21669373

  15. Systematic Review of the Effect of Diet and Exercise Lifestyle Interventions in the Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Judith A.; Smith, Susan M.; Hart, Nigel; Cupples, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of lifestyle interventions within secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine their effectiveness and included randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, in primary care or community settings, with a minimum follow-up of three months, published since 1990. 21 trials with 10,799 patients were included; the interventions were multifactorial (10), educational (4), psychological (3), dietary (1), organisational (2), and exercise (1). The overall results for modifiable risk factors suggested improvements in dietary and exercise outcomes but no overall effect on smoking outcomes. In trials that examined mortality and morbidity, significant benefits were reported for total mortality (in 4 of 6 trials; overall risk ratio (RR) 0.75 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.65, 0.87)), cardiovascular mortality (3 of 8 trials; overall RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.47, 0.84)), and nonfatal cardiac events (5 of 9 trials; overall RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.55, 0.84)). The heterogeneity between trials and generally poor quality of trials make any concrete conclusions difficult. However, the beneficial effects observed in this review are encouraging and should stimulate further research. PMID:21197445

  16. Long-term prognosis of women after myocardial infarction. SPRINT Study Group. Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israeli Nifedipine Trial.

    PubMed

    Benderly, M; Behar, S; Reicher-Reiss, H; Boyko, V; Goldbourt, U

    1997-07-15

    Women sustaining myocardial infarction fare worse than men during hospitalization. Reports on long-term survival in women surviving an acute myocardial infarction are controversial. The Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israeli Nifedipine Trial (SPRINT) registry includes 5,839 consecutive myocardial infarction patients who were hospitalized in 13 coronary care units in Israel between 1981 and 1983. The authors examined sex differences in the long-term survival of 4,808 hospital survivors (1,120 women and 3,688 men). Women exhibited a significantly poorer long-term survival than men. After age adjustment, differences between men and women decreased, leaving a survival probability difference of 11% at the end of 12 years of follow-up. In a subgroup analysis, women exhibited poorer survival than men in a comparison of patients with and without periinfarction congestive heart failure or a history of myocardial infarction preceding the index infarction. The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios associated with female sex in diabetic and nondiabetic patients were 1.46 and 1.13, respectively. In conclusion, a cumulative survival disadvantage for women in comparison with men is still evident after 12 years of follow-up. The mortality difference is diminished but not erased after age adjustment or multivariate adjustment for confounders. The authors' results are compatible with a hypothesis that the main factor underlying the increased long-term mortality in women after myocardial infarction, besides older age, is diabetes mellitus.

  17. [Risky alcohol drinking surveyed at a GP unit. Secondary prevention of alcohol problems in primary care patients].

    PubMed

    Eriksson, G; Spak, F; Andersson, C

    2000-03-01

    This article describes an implementation of secondary prevention of alcohol abuse at a GP unit in southern Gothenburg, Sweden. During several periods between 1994 and 1996, screening for alcohol problems was performed using either AUDIT or a 4-item instrument called SWAG. In one part of the study, screening was simultaneously carried out using gamma-GT and MCV. The main object of screening efforts was to stimulate interest for alcohol-related conditions, and this goal was reached. The staff was trained in treatment techniques such as motivational interviewing (MI), bio-feedback using gamma-GT and delivery of concise information. Simple methods to determine level of motivation were used for treatment stratification. Some doctors reported that they had insufficient time for adequate MI treatment, and therefore a condensed model was sometimes used. A nurse-staffed treatment unit was started and successfully promoted work with alcohol problem. Attempts were made to spread these methods to other GP units in the region and this was partially successful, although support from the central primary care administration was not secured.

  18. Early pressure dressing for the prevention of subdural effusion secondary to decompressive craniectomy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang-Zhu; Li, Wen; Liu, Kai-Ge; Wu, Wei; Lu, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Mao-De

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of early pressure dressing on the prevention of postoperative subdural effusion secondary to decompressive craniectomy (DC) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Patients with STBI who had undergone DC for refractory increased intracranial pressure between January 2008 and December 2011 (n = 169) were randomly divided into early pressure dressing (n = 82) and control (n = 87) groups. Early pressure dressing with an elastic bandage or general wrapping (control treatment) was applied 7 to 10 days after DC. Patients' age, sex, preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score, incidence rate of subdural effusion, hospitalization time, and postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale score were compared between groups. Intracranial pressure was measured immediately before and on the day after pressure dressing. No significant difference in age, sex, preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score, or postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale score was observed between groups (P > 0.05). Subdural effusion incidence rates were significantly lower in the early pressure dressing group than those in the control group (χ² = 5.449, P = 0.021), and a larger proportion of patients in the early pressure dressing group was hospitalized for 30 days or less (χ² = 5.245, P = 0.027). Early pressure dressing 7 to 10 days after DC, which is a noninvasive, simple procedure, reduced the incidence rate of subdural effusion and shortened hospitalization time after DC for STBI.

  19. [The important role of secondary prevention of congenital defects in decreasing early fetal losses in the Czech Republic in 1989].

    PubMed

    Kucera, J

    1991-01-01

    The secondary prevention (SP) of congenital defects (CDs) is an unplanned factor in infant mortality. The department of medical genetics (DMGs) is the tool for achieving the possible lowest mortality of infants by such unplanned measures. However, the functioning of this service is seriously limited by the insufficient number of workers and technical equipment. For instance, in 1987 in Prague there were 6.9 medical genetics positions/1 million inhabitants and in other provinces as low as 1/1 million, averaging 3.2 in the Czech Republic. 85% of these positions are filled in Prague and only 12% in Southern Moravia, averaging 40%. The situation is similar with positions requiring higher education and middle-level education. 73% and 99%, respectively, of these are filled in Prague vs. 12% and 21%, respectively, in the Northern Czech province. Starting in 1985, an SP effort made strides against early losses of infants, and perinatal mortality decreased to under 10/1000. By 1990, at least 270-280 defective births of fetuses were prevented, a rate of 9.4/1000, close to the European peak. DMGs screened abnormal phenotypes starting 1985; there were 67 such SP cases equaling .49/1000 live births. In 1987, the number was 115 or .88/1000 neonates. By 1989, it was 209 or 1.63/1000. Out of the 209 aborted fetuses there were 42 anencephalic, 38 sublethal defects of the central nervous system, 20 sublethal and lethal defects of the urinary system, 13 cases of omphalocele, 30 cases of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and 26 aneuploids. Out of 128,356 births in 1989 there were 209 unborn fetuses or a rate of 1.63/1000. At least 120 but more than 140 of these would have been born dead or died, within hours or within a few days after birth producing a rate of .94-1.09/1000. Without DMGs, prenatal mortality in 1989 would have been 10.3 or 10.4/1000 instead of 9.4/1000. PMID:1884415

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of a Home Based Intervention for Secondary Prevention of Readmission with Chronic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Joshua; Carrington, Melinda; Chan, Yih-Kai; Pollicino, Christine; Dubrowin, Natalie; Stewart, Simon; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to consider the cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led, home-based intervention (HBI) in cardiac patients with private health insurance compared to usual post-discharge care. A within trial analysis of the Young @ Heart multicentre, randomized controlled trial along with a micro-simulation decision analytical model was conducted to estimate the incremental costs and quality adjusted life years associated with the home based intervention compared to usual care. For the micro-simulation model, future costs, from the perspective of the funder, and effects are estimated over a twenty-year time horizon. An Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio, along with Incremental Net Monetary Benefit, is evaluated using a willingness to pay threshold of $50,000 per quality adjusted life year. Sub-group analyses are conducted for men and women across three age groups separately. Costs and benefits that arise in the future are discounted at five percent per annum. Overall, home based intervention for secondary prevention in patients with chronic heart disease identified in the Australian private health care sector is not cost-effective. The estimated within trial incremental net monetary benefit is -$3,116 [95% CI: -11,145, $4,914]; indicating that the costs outweigh the benefits. However, for males and in particular males aged 75 years and above, home based intervention indicated a potential to reduce health care costs when compared to usual care (within trial: -$10,416 [95% CI: -$26,745, $5,913]; modelled analysis: -$1,980 [95% CI: -$22,843, $14,863]). This work provides a crucial impetus for future research to understand for whom disease management programs are likely to benefit most. PMID:26657844

  1. Preparing High School Students for the Interdisciplinary Nature of Modern Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Fostering interdisciplinary learning in biology will require significant changes in the way one teaches science to K-12 students. The perspective on interdisciplinary biology teaching and learning in this essay is based on the author's experiences as a former research cell biologist, high school science teacher, and developer of secondary science…

  2. A Strange and Wonderful Interdisciplinary Juxtaposition: Using Mathematical Ideas to Teach English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Byung-In

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary concepts and methodology are increasingly common in today's secondary schools. However, many interdisciplinary lessons combine courses in related areas (e.g., English with history or science with mathematics). This article examines the use of mathematical ideas in the teaching of literature and writing. Employing mathematical…

  3. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  4. Teachers in an Interdisciplinary Learning Community: Engaging, Integrating, and Strengthening K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardré, Patricia L.; Ling, Chen; Shehab, Randa L.; Nanny, Mark A.; Nollert, Matthias U.; Refai, Hazem; Ramseyer, Christopher; Herron, Jason; Wollega, Ebisa D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the inputs (processes and strategies) and outputs (perceptions, skill development, classroom transfer, disciplinary integration, social networking, and community development) of a yearlong, interdisciplinary teacher learning and development experience. Eleven secondary math and science teachers partnered with an…

  5. Population-based prevention of obesity: the need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance: a scientific statement from American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Interdisciplinary Committee for Prevention (formerly the expert panel on population and prevention science).

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Obarzanek, Eva; Stettler, Nicolas; Bell, Ronny; Field, Alison E; Fortmann, Stephen P; Franklin, Barry A; Gillman, Matthew W; Lewis, Cora E; Poston, Walker Carlos; Stevens, June; Hong, Yuling

    2008-07-22

    Obesity is a major influence on the development and course of cardiovascular diseases and affects physical and social functioning and quality of life. The importance of effective interventions to reduce obesity and related health risks has increased in recent decades because the number of adults and children who are obese has reached epidemic proportions. To prevent the development of overweight and obesity throughout the life course, population-based strategies that improve social and physical environmental contexts for healthful eating and physical activity are essential. Population-based approaches to obesity prevention are complementary to clinical preventive strategies and also to treatment programs for those who are already obese. This American Heart Association scientific statement aims: 1) to raise awareness of the importance of undertaking population-based initiatives specifically geared to the prevention of excess weight gain in adults and children; 2) to describe considerations for undertaking obesity prevention overall and in key risk subgroups; 3) to differentiate environmental and policy approaches to obesity prevention from those used in clinical prevention and obesity treatment; 4) to identify potential targets of environmental and policy change using an ecological model that includes multiple layers of influences on eating and physical activity across multiple societal sectors; and 5) to highlight the spectrum of potentially relevant interventions and the nature of evidence needed to inform population-based approaches. The evidence-based experience for population-wide approaches to obesity prevention is highlighted.

  6. Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; McCormack Brown, Kelli R.; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

    2013-01-01

    Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51–0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed. PMID:23564725

  7. Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    DeBate, Rita D; Severson, Herbert H; Cragun, Deborah L; Gau, Jeff M; Merrell, Laura K; Bleck, Jennifer R; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William

    2013-06-01

    Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51-0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed. PMID:23564725

  8. Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    DeBate, Rita D; Severson, Herbert H; Cragun, Deborah L; Gau, Jeff M; Merrell, Laura K; Bleck, Jennifer R; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William

    2013-06-01

    Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51-0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed.

  9. CYP2C19 Metabolizer Status and Clopidogrel Efficacy in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) Study

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Caitrin W; McClure, Leslie A; Mitchell, Braxton D; Gong, Yan; Horenstein, Richard B; Lewis, Joshua P; Field, Thalia S; Talbert, Robert L; Benavente, Oscar R; Johnson, Julie A; Shuldiner, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of the CYP2C19 genotype on clopidogrel efficacy has been studied widely, with data suggesting reduced clopidogrel efficacy in loss-of-function variant carriers taking clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention; however, data are limited regarding the association between CYP2C19 genetic variants and outcomes in stroke patients. We investigated whether CYP2C19 metabolizer status affects the risk of recurrent stroke or major bleeding in subcortical stroke patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Methods and Results CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 were genotyped in 522 patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy from the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) study. CYP2C19 metabolizer status was inferred from genotype, and associations with the risk of recurrent stroke and major bleeding were assessed in the overall cohort and by race/ethnic group with logistic regression modeling. In the overall cohort, there were no differences in outcomes by CYP2C19 metabolizer status (recurrent stroke, odds ratio 1.81 [95% CI 0.76 to 4.30]; major bleeding, odds ratio 0.67 [95% CI 0.22 to 2.03]). In white participants, those with CYP2C19 intermediate or poor metabolizer status had higher odds of recurrent stroke (odds ratio 5.19 [95% CI 1.08 to 24.90]) than those with extensive or ultrarapid metabolizer status, but there was no evidence of difference in major bleeding. Conclusions There were significant differences in recurrent stroke by CYP2C19 genotype-inferred metabolizer status in white subcortical stroke patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel, consistent with cardiovascular studies on CYP2C19 and clopidogrel; however, the bleeding risk that led to early termination of the antiplatelet arm of the SPS3 trial does not appear to be explained by CYP2C19 genotype. This study was relatively underpowered; therefore, these findings should be interpreted with caution and

  10. Highly purified omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are effective as adjunct therapy for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Verboom, Cees N

    2006-12-01

    Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione was the first large randomized trial to produce evidence that a pharmaceutical preparation of highly purified omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), administered as an adjunct to other accepted interventions, had a favorable effect on hard clinical end-points in post-myocardial infarction patients. Much of the 20% all-cause mortality benefit recorded during the study could be attributed to a 45% reduction in sudden death--a fatal outcome that traditionally has proved resistant to medical intervention. These results were obtained with an omega-3 PUFA dose of 1 g/day, which is much lower than was routinely being used at the time the study was initiated (e.g. 4 g/day for hypertriglyceridemia). One consequence of this low-dose regimen was that the tolerability profile of omega-3 PUFAs during GISSI-Prevenzione was considered highly satisfactory, with low adverse event incidence rates and low rates of discontinuation due to adverse events. Time-course analysis established that much of the survival benefit of omega-3 PUFA treatment in GISSI-Prevenzione was realized during the early months of the trial. The beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA treatment were observed on top of standard, secondary pharmacological prevention therapy like anti-platelet agents, statins, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The benefits of omega-3 PUFA therapy were also apparent in patients at all standards of adherence to a healthy diet and may have been augmented in patients with the best dietary profile. Patients with diabetes mellitus (approximately 15% of the study cohort) appeared to benefit from omega-3 PUFAs to at least the same extent as the general study population; the treatment effect on sudden death was progressively more pronounced as left ejection fraction declined. Cost-effectiveness analyses undertaken from a third-party payer perspective for Italy

  11. The Development of Interdisciplinary Teaching Approaches among Pre-service Science and Mathematics Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda Martins, Dominique

    This study sought to understand how a group of pre-service teachers in a combined secondary science and mathematics teaching methods course conceptualized and experienced interdisciplinary approaches to teaching. Although knowing how to plan interdisciplinary activities is an essential teaching practice in Quebec, these pre-service teachers faced many challenges during the process of learning to teach with this approach. By using two interdisciplinary frameworks (Nikitina, 2005; Boix Mansilla & Duraising, 2007), I qualitatively analyzed the development of the pre-service teachers' prior and emerging ideas about interdisciplinarity and their ability to plan interdisciplinary teaching activities. The provincial curriculum and issues related to time greatly shaped students' conceptions about interdisciplinarity in the classroom and constrained their ability to plan for and envision the enactment of interdisciplinary lessons in secondary science and mathematics classes. In addition, images of themselves as content-specialists, self-efficacy beliefs in relation to interdisciplinary teaching, and student learning as a source of teacher motivation emerged as key factors promoting or interrupting the development of interdisciplinary teaching approaches. Examination of these factors highlights the need for teacher-education programs to provide opportunities for pre-service teachers to explore how they see themselves as educators, increase their instructional self-efficacy beliefs, and motivate them to teach in an interdisciplinary fashion. Keywords: interdisciplinary teaching, student-teachers, curriculum, teacher-education program, self-efficacy, motivation.

  12. Promoting Interdisciplinary Research among Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Elena; Zhao, Weinan; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing recognition of the importance of interdisciplinary research, many faculty have increased their efforts to form interdisciplinary research teams. Oftentimes, attempts to put together such teams are hampered because faculty have a limited picture of the research interests and expertise of their colleagues. This paper reports on…

  13. LEAH interdisciplinary training program.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Cynthia L; Rickert, Vaughn D

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the Leadership Education in Adolescent Health (LEAH) interdisciplinary training program in the United States. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau authorized by legislation provides monies to train leaders in adolescent health through a competitive grant process. Currently, seven academic medical centers have funding to provide leadership in adolescent health (LEAH) training in five core disciplines: medicine, nursing, psychology, social work and nutrition. LEAH training programs both ensure high clinical competence in core disciplines serving adolescents and prepare trainees for leadership positions in adolescent health and public health care realms. Together, these programs trained almost 1000 long-term trainees across these five disciplines, and graduates from these programs are working in 45 of the 50 states within the United States. About 90% of these graduates are working with maternal and child/adolescent health populations, and almost all have held leadership positions in the areas of public health, advocacy, public policy, academic medical centers and/or clinical care settings.

  14. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  15. Aspirin underuse, non-compliance or cessation: definition, extent, impact and potential solutions in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Wu, Yangfeng; Serrano, Carlos V; Frati, Giacomo; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Abbate, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Despite momentous breakthroughs in unraveling the pathophysiology of many chronic conditions and developing novel therapeutic agents, everyday clinical practice is still fraught with inadequate or inappropriate use of treatments with proven benefits. Aspirin is a paradigmatic example, as it is used for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and appears to have a beneficial impact on cancer risk. Yet, underuse, non-compliance or cessation of aspirin are not uncommon, may have an important clinical impact, and are not aggressively prevented or managed. Increasing the awareness of the extent and impact of aspirin underuse, non-compliance or cessation, and intensifying efforts at preventing them are worthy goals likely to yield significant benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide, and possibly also on cancer outcomes. PMID:25577751

  16. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a multinational medical-student-delivered smoking prevention programme for secondary schools in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the multinational medical-student-delivered tobacco prevention programme for secondary schools for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among adolescents aged 11–15 years in Germany at half year follow-up. Setting We used a prospective quasi-experimental study design with measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months postintervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 8 German secondary schools. The participants were split into intervention and control classes in the same schools and grades. Participants A total of 1474 eligible participants of both genders at the age of 11–15 years were involved within the survey for baseline assessment of which 1200 completed the questionnaire at 6-month follow-up (=longitudinal sample). The schools participated voluntarily. The inclusion criteria were age (10–15 years), grade (6–8) and school type (regular secondary schools). Intervention Two 60 min school-based modules delivered by medical students. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary end point was the difference from t1 to t2 of the smoking prevalence in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t2 in the intervention group (difference of differences approach). The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups were studied as secondary outcome measures. Results In the control group, the percentage of students who claimed to be smokers doubled from 4.2% (t1) to 8.1% (t2), whereas it remained almost the same in the intervention group (7.1% (t1) to 7.4% (t2); p=0.01). The likelihood of quitting smoking was almost six times higher in the intervention group (total of 67 smokers at t1; 27 (4.6%) and 7 (1.1%) in the control group; OR 5.63; 95% CI 2.01 to 15.79; p<0.01). However, no primary preventive effect was found. Conclusions We report a significant secondary preventive (smoking cessation) effect at 6-month follow-up. Long-term evaluation is planned. PMID:26384722

  17. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François; Heuschmann, Peter; Hoffmann, Uwe; Verschuren, Monique; Halcox, Julian; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Saner, Hugo; Wood, David; Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Benzer, Werner; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Dendale, Paul; Gaita, Dan; McGee, Hannah; Mendes, Miguel; Niebauer, Josef; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac patients after an acute event and/or with chronic heart disease deserve special attention to restore their quality of life and to maintain or improve functional capacity. They require counselling to avoid recurrence through a combination of adherence to a medication plan and adoption of a healthy lifestyle. These secondary prevention targets are included in the overall goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac rehabilitation can be viewed as the clinical application of preventive care by means of a professional multi-disciplinary integrated approach for comprehensive risk reduction and global long-term care of cardiac patients. The CR approach is delivered in tandem with a flexible follow-up strategy and easy access to a specialized team. To promote implementation of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation, the CR Section of the EACPR (European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation) has recently completed a Position Paper, entitled 'Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: A condition-oriented approach'. Components of multidisciplinary CR for seven clinical presentations have been addressed. Components include patient assessment, physical activity counselling, exercise training, diet/nutritional counselling, weight control management, lipid management, blood pressure monitoring, smoking cessation, and psychosocial management. Cardiac rehabilitation services are by definition multi-factorial and comprehensive, with physical activity counselling and exercise training as central components in all rehabilitation and preventive interventions. Many of the risk factor improvements occurring in CR can be mediated through exercise training programmes. This call-for-action paper presents the key components of a CR programme: physical activity counselling and exercise training. It summarizes current evidence-based best practice for the wide range of patient presentations of interest to the general cardiology community.

  18. Translating curcumin to the clinic for lung cancer prevention: evaluation of the preclinical evidence for its utility in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Howells, Lynne M; Mahale, Jagdish; Sale, Stewart; McVeigh, Laura; Steward, William P; Thomas, Anne; Brown, Karen

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is responsible for over one million deaths worldwide each year. Smoking cessation for lung cancer prevention remains key, but it is increasingly acknowledged that prevention strategies also need to focus on high-risk groups, including ex-smokers, and patients who have undergone resection of a primary tumor. Models for chemoprevention of lung cancer often present conflicting results, making rational design of lung cancer chemoprevention trials challenging. There has been much focus on use of dietary bioactive compounds in lung cancer prevention strategies, primarily due to their favorable toxicity profile and long history of use within the human populace. One such compound is curcumin, derived from the spice turmeric. This review summarizes and stratifies preclinical evidence for chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin in models of lung cancer, and adjudges the weight of evidence for use of curcumin in lung cancer chemoprevention strategies. PMID:24939419

  19. [Geriatrics - an interdisciplinary challenge].

    PubMed

    Nau, Roland; Djukic, Marija; Wappler, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    The care of elderly patients will continue to challenge the healthcare system over the next decades. As a rule geriatric patients suffer from multimorbidities with complex disease patterns, and the ability to cope with everyday life is severely reduced. Treatment is provided by a multiprofessional geriatric team, and the primary goal is improvement of functional status, quality of life in the social environment and autonomy by employing a holistic approach. In Germany geriatric care is provided by physicians from various medical specialties (e.g. general practitioners, internists, neurologists and psychiatrists). In the training for the subspecialty clinical geriatrics, these specialties enjoy equal rights. Recent efforts to establish a qualification as physician for internal medicine and geriatrics have initiated a discussion to make the suitability for qualification as a geriatrician dependent on the medical specialty. Geriatric patients benefit from multidisciplinary cooperation. Neurologists possess great expertise in the treatment of patients with dementia, depression, delirium, consequences of degenerative spinal cord diseases and vertebral bone fractures, stroke, Parkinson's syndrome, epileptic seizures, vertigo and dizziness, neuropathies, lesions of peripheral nerves and in the multimodal therapy of pain. To function in a position of responsibility in a geriatric department, neurologists need skills in general internal medicine. These are acquired either on a geriatric ward or during specialization as a neurologist by full time secondment to large neurological or interdisciplinary intensive care units. PMID:27167886

  20. How interdisciplinary is nanotechnology?

    PubMed Central

    Youtie, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Facilitating cross-disciplinary research has attracted much attention in recent years, with special concerns in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Although policy discourse has emphasized that nanotechnology is substantively integrative, some analysts have countered that it is really a loose amalgam of relatively traditional pockets of physics, chemistry, and other disciplines that interrelate only weakly. We are developing empirical measures to gauge and visualize the extent and nature of interdisciplinary interchange. Such results speak to research organization, funding, and mechanisms to bolster knowledge transfer. In this study, we address the nature of cross-disciplinary linkages using “science overlay maps” of articles, and their references, that have been categorized into subject categories. We find signs that the rate of increase in nano research is slowing, and that its composition is changing (for one, increasing chemistry-related activity). Our results suggest that nanotechnology research encompasses multiple disciplines that draw knowledge from disciplinarily diverse knowledge sources. Nano research is highly, and increasingly, integrative—but so is much of science these days. Tabulating and mapping nano research activity show a dominant core in materials sciences, broadly defined. Additional analyses and maps show that nano research draws extensively upon knowledge presented in other areas; it is not constricted within narrow silos. PMID:21170124

  1. Health Promotion and Industry: Where Interdisciplinary Research Meets Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Thomas C.; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation research in work-site health promotion offers an opportunity to test the effectiveness of work-site health promotion and disease prevention programs. Based on an evaluation of the research, an interdisciplinary approach to data collection and analysis is suggested, and policy implications are outlined. (TJH)

  2. Interdisciplinary Research: Transcending Departmental Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignataro, Louis J.; McShane, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The Transportation Training and Research Center of the Polytechnic Institute of New York is discussed, along with some issues that must be considered when interdisciplinary research is to be performed at an academic institution. (BB)

  3. Evidence-Based Integrated Environmental Solutions For Secondary Lead Smelters: Pollution Prevention And Waste Minimization Technologies And Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization...

  4. Do the Effects of Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in PAD Patients Differ from Other Atherosclerotic Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Poredos, Pavel; Jezovnik, Mateja Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered a generalized disease. Similar or identical etiopathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors are involved in various atherosclerotic diseases, and the positive effects of preventive measures on atherogenesis in different parts of the arterial system were shown. However, until know, great emphasis has been placed on the aggressive pharmacological management of coronary artery disease (CHD), while less attention has been devoted to the management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), despite its significant morbidity and mortality. Data on the efficacy of preventive measures in PAD patients have mostly been gained from subgroup analyses from studies devoted primarily to the management of coronary patients. These data have shown that treatment of risk factors for atherosclerosis with drugs can reduce cardiovascular events also in patients with PAD. The effects of some preventive procedures in PAD patients differ from coronary patients. Aspirin as a basic antiplatelet drug has been shown to be less effective in PAD patients than in coronary patients. The latest Antithrombotic Trialists’ Collaboration (ATC) meta-analysis demonstrates no benefit of aspirin in reducing cardiovascular events in PAD. Statins reduce cardiovascular events in all three of the most frequently presented cardiovascular diseases, including PAD to a comparable extent. Recent studies indicate that in PAD patients, in addition to a reduction in cardiovascular events, statins may have some hemodynamic effects. They prolong walking distance and improve quality of life. Similarly, angiotensin enzyme inhibitors are also effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events in coronary, cerebrovascular, as well as PAD patients and show positive effects on the walking capacity of patients with intermittent claudication. In PAD patients, the treatment of hypertension and diabetes also effectively prevents cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As PAD patients are at a highest

  5. Efficacy of a secondary adolescent pregnancy prevention program: an ecological study before, during and after implementation of the Second Chance Club.

    PubMed

    Key, Janice D; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Judy, Natalie; McKinnon, Sarah A

    Teen mothers are at increased risk of subsequent adolescent births. Interventions to reduce secondary teen pregnancies are expensive and difficult to evaluate. An ecological evaluation compared change in the repeat teen birth rate in an intervention community in Charleston, South Carolina over time to state birth certificate data to determine the efficacy of a school-based pregnancy prevention program. Evaluation included comparison of birth rates for multigravida teens in the program's school catchment area (intervention zip codes) to selected state and community data before, during and after program implementation. The intervention community demonstrated a decrease in repeat teen births during the intervention period of the program with a rebound after it was discontinued. This trend differed from a 50% linear decrease across these time periods in the state. This low cost evaluation method may be useful for evaluation of teen pregnancy prevention programs with limited resources for program evaluation.

  6. More Is Not Always Better: Comprehensive Evaluation of a Summer Institute on Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction for School-Level Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Burns, Rebecca C.

    The Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction (ITI) project investigated the effects of interdisciplinary, teamed instruction on secondary school teaching and learning. It examined the effectiveness of a professional development model that facilitated the development, implementation, and evaluation of ITI. Through summer institutes and onsite…

  7. Blockade of calcium channels can prevent the onset of secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats.

    PubMed

    Sluka, K A

    1997-06-01

    Intradermal capsaicin injection in humans results in primary hyperalgesia to heat and mechanical stimuli applied near the injection site, as well as secondary mechanical hyperalgesia (increased pain from noxious stimuli) and mechanical allodynia (pain from innocuous stimuli) in an area surrounding the site of primary hyperalgesia. This study in rats tested the hypothesis that the secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia observed following intradermal injection of capsaicin was dependent upon activation of voltage sensitive calcium channels in the spinal cord. Responses to application of von Frey filaments of 10 mN and 90 mN bending forces were tested in all rats before and after injection of capsaicin into the plantar surface of a hindpaw. Animals were pretreated with L-type (nifedipine), N-type (omega-conotoxin GVIA) or P-type (omega-agatoxin IVA) calcium channels blockers through a microdialysis fiber implanted in the spinal dorsal horn prior to the injection of capsaicin. None of the calcium channel blockers had any affect on normal sensory or motor responses. However, all three blockers dose dependently prevented the development of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. The threshold to mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments was also increased significantly in animals treated with these calcium channel blockers when compared to articial cerebrospinal fluid control animals. These data suggest that calcium channels are important for the development of mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia that occurs following capsaicin injection. PMID:9211477

  8. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment planning in implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jivraj, Sajid A; Corrado, Paolo; Chee, Winston W L

    2005-04-01

    The practice of implant dentistry requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the knowledge, skills, and experience of all the disciplines of dentistry into a comprehensive treatment plan. The team must examine the anticipated restorative site to determine the suitability of the existing hard and soft tissues for implant placement. Deficiencies in hard and soft tissue, which prevent ideal implant placement, must be recognized and addressed to ensure a more predictable esthetic outcome. This article outlines a comprehensive interdisciplinary treatment philosophy designed for developing the foundation of optimal esthetics in implant dentistry. Cases are presented to illustrate the utility of interdisciplinary treatment in which specialists are recruited to enhance and improve a patient's dental function and esthetics. PMID:15915880

  9. Nailfold capillaroscopy microscopy - an interdisciplinary appraisal.

    PubMed

    Klein-Weigel, Peter Franz; Sunderkötter, Cord; Sander, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a method of great diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of primary versus secondary Raynaud´s phenomenon, of systemic sclerosis versus other so called connective tissue diseases and of additional diagnostic value in other entities. Rheumatologists, dermatologists, and angiologists in Germany have convened in an interdisciplinary working group in which they synergistically combined their expertise to develop a common nomenclature and standards for the technical performance of nailfold capillary microscopy. The article gives an overview of historical and technical aspects of capillaroscopy, morphologic findings, and disease-specific patterns. It also provides a critical appraisal of its significance in the diagnosis and sequelae of these interdisciplinarily-managed diseases including its performance in children and gives an excursion in the potential perspectives of capillaroscopy in less common indications. PMID:27594391

  10. Emerging interdisciplinary fields in the coming intelligence/convergence era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Dramatic advances are in the horizon resulting from rapid pace of development of several technologies, including, computing, communication, mobile, robotic, and interactive technologies. These advances, along with the trend towards convergence of traditional engineering disciplines with physical, life and other science disciplines will result in the development of new interdisciplinary fields, as well as in new paradigms for engineering practice in the coming intelligence/convergence era (post-information age). The interdisciplinary fields include Cyber Engineering, Living Systems Engineering, Biomechatronics/Robotics Engineering, Knowledge Engineering, Emergent/Complexity Engineering, and Multiscale Systems engineering. The paper identifies some of the characteristics of the intelligence/convergence era, gives broad definition of convergence, describes some of the emerging interdisciplinary fields, and lists some of the academic and other organizations working in these disciplines. The need is described for establishing a Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Ecosystem for facilitating interdisciplinary collaborations, and accelerating development of skilled workforce in the new fields. The major components of the ecosystem are listed. The new interdisciplinary fields will yield critical advances in engineering practice, and help in addressing future challenges in broad array of sectors, from manufacturing to energy, transportation, climate, and healthcare. They will also enable building large future complex adaptive systems-of-systems, such as intelligent multimodal transportation systems, optimized multi-energy systems, intelligent disaster prevention systems, and smart cities.

  11. Get Vaccinated! and Get Tested! Developing Primary and Secondary Cervical Cancer Prevention Videos for a Haitian Kreyòl-Speaking Audience.

    PubMed

    Frett, Brigitte; Aquino, Myra; Fatil, Marie; Seay, Julia; Trevil, Dinah; Fièvre, Michèle Jessica; Kobetz, Erin

    2016-05-01

    Although routine screening reduces cervical cancer rates between 60% and 90%, thousands of women worldwide are diagnosed with the disease on an annual basis because of inadequate screening. Haitian women in South Florida experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, with disease rates 4 times higher than the average for women in Miami. An ongoing community-based participatory research initiative to assess and reduce this burden has revealed that a complex interplay of factors contributes to a lack of access to screening in this community, including socioeconomics, language barriers, and traditional understandings of health and disease. In an effort to address some of these barriers and encourage uptake of primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies, 2 videos on cervical cancer prevention were created using a community-based participatory research framework. The video screenplays were created by a Haitian screenwriter using evidence-based medical information provided by academic researchers. The films feature Haitian actors speaking a Haitian Kreyòl dialogue with a storyline portraying friends and family discussing human papillomavirus disease and vaccination, Papanicolaou testing, and cervical cancer. Focus groups held with Haitian women in South Florida suggested that the films are engaging; feature relatable characters; and impact knowledge about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer development, and current prevention recommendations.

  12. Physics in an Interdisciplinary Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirela, Bulgariu

    2010-01-01

    Organizing information in a rigid system does not fit the necessity of shaping a general culture with the pupils de declared objective of any educational system. The contribution of each school subject is expressed not by what is specific to it, but by what it shares with other school subjects, what is generalized and transferable. It is on the basis of this general culture that we can achieve profound specializations with efficient and lasting results for the spiritual and material life of the individual and of the society which supports and integrates hem. A first situation which must be solved theoretically is to specify the objective and to define interdisciplinary. According to the dictionary of pedagogy, interdisciplinary is "a report of interpretation (cooperation- coordination) among the school subjects, among the structures of the educational content corresponding to the modern organization of the type of institute of education." Interdisciplinary does not mean only dealing with a phenomenon simultaneously from the points of view of several, but also a integrated and integral approach of this each science bringing its own conceptual system, way of thinking and specific methods of research and representation. In order to achieve a good interdisciplinary some exigencies have to be observed: •the teacher should have a thorough general cultural •the teacher should know the methodology of his particular discipline well but also the methodology of the other subjects in the curriculum area •the pupils should be aware of the existence of interdisciplinary of the school subjects •the achieving of some programs with themes of an interdisciplinary character.

  13. Engaging the Entire Care Cascade in Western Kenya: A Model to Achieve the Cardiovascular Disease Secondary Prevention Roadmap Goals.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Kamano, Jemima H; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Manji, Imran; Pastakia, Sonak; Kimaiyo, Sylvester N

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, with a substantial health and economic burden confronted by low- and middle-income countries. In low-income countries such as Kenya, there exists a double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and the CVD profile includes many nonatherosclerotic entities. Socio-politico-economic realities present challenges to CVD prevention in Kenya, including poverty, low national spending on health, significant out-of-pocket health expenditures, and limited outpatient health insurance. In addition, the health infrastructure is characterized by insufficient human resources for health, medication stock-outs, and lack of facilities and equipment. Within this socio-politico-economic reality, contextually appropriate programs for CVD prevention need to be developed. We describe our experience from western Kenya, where we have engaged the entire care cascade across all levels of the health system, in order to improve access to high-quality, comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable care for CVD and CVD risk factors. We report on several initiatives: 1) population-wide screening for hypertension and diabetes; 2) engagement of community resources and governance structures; 3) geographic decentralization of care services; 4) task redistribution to more efficiently use of available human resources for health; 5) ensuring a consistent supply of essential medicines; 6) improving physical infrastructure of rural health facilities; 7) developing an integrated health record; and 8) mobile health (mHealth) initiatives to provide clinical decision support and record-keeping functions. Although several challenges remain, there currently exists a critical window of opportunity to establish systems of care and prevention that can alter the trajectory of CVD in low-resource settings. PMID:26704963

  14. Engaging the Entire Care Cascade in Western Kenya: A Model to Achieve the Cardiovascular Disease Secondary Prevention Roadmap Goals.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Kamano, Jemima H; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Manji, Imran; Pastakia, Sonak; Kimaiyo, Sylvester N

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, with a substantial health and economic burden confronted by low- and middle-income countries. In low-income countries such as Kenya, there exists a double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and the CVD profile includes many nonatherosclerotic entities. Socio-politico-economic realities present challenges to CVD prevention in Kenya, including poverty, low national spending on health, significant out-of-pocket health expenditures, and limited outpatient health insurance. In addition, the health infrastructure is characterized by insufficient human resources for health, medication stock-outs, and lack of facilities and equipment. Within this socio-politico-economic reality, contextually appropriate programs for CVD prevention need to be developed. We describe our experience from western Kenya, where we have engaged the entire care cascade across all levels of the health system, in order to improve access to high-quality, comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable care for CVD and CVD risk factors. We report on several initiatives: 1) population-wide screening for hypertension and diabetes; 2) engagement of community resources and governance structures; 3) geographic decentralization of care services; 4) task redistribution to more efficiently use of available human resources for health; 5) ensuring a consistent supply of essential medicines; 6) improving physical infrastructure of rural health facilities; 7) developing an integrated health record; and 8) mobile health (mHealth) initiatives to provide clinical decision support and record-keeping functions. Although several challenges remain, there currently exists a critical window of opportunity to establish systems of care and prevention that can alter the trajectory of CVD in low-resource settings.

  15. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk Youth of Developing PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of Chronic PTSD provided within 30 days of exposure to a Potentially Traumatic Event (PTE). Method One-hundred-seventy-six 7-to-17 year old youth were recruited through telephone screening based on report of one new distressing posttraumatic stress symptom after a PTE. Of those, one-hundred-six youth were randomly assigned to the Intervention (n=53) or a four-session supportive Comparison condition (N=53). Group differences in symptom severity were assessed using repeated measures with mixed effects models of intervention group, time, and the interaction of intervention and time. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess treatment condition and any subsequent traumas experienced as predictors for Full and Partial PTSD diagnosis at 3 month follow-up. An exploratory chi-square analysis was performed to examine the differences in PTSD symptom criteria B, C, and D at follow-up Results At baseline, youth in both groups had similar demographics, past trauma exposures and symptom severity. At follow-up, the Intervention group demonstrated significantly fewer Full and Partial PTSD diagnoses than the Comparison group on a standardized diagnostic measure of PTSD. Also, there was a significant group by time interaction for TSCC Posttraumatic Stress and Anxiety Indices as the CFTSI group had significantly lower posttraumatic and anxiety scores than the Comparison group. Conclusions The results suggest that a caregiver-youth, brief preventative early intervention for youth exposed to a PTE is a promising approach to preventing Chronic PTSD. PMID:20868370

  16. The PRESLO study: evaluation of a global secondary low back pain prevention program for health care personnel in a hospital setting. Multicenter, randomized intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common low back pain represents a major public health problem in terms of its direct cost to health care and its socio-economic repercussions. Ten percent of individuals who suffer from low back pain evolve toward a chronic case and as such are responsible for 75 to 80% of the direct cost of low back pain. It is therefore imperative to highlight the predictive factors of low back pain chronification in order to lighten the economic burden of low back pain-related invalidity. Despite being particularly affected by low back pain, Hospices Civils de Lyon (HCL) personnel have never been offered a specific, tailor-made treatment plan. The PRESLO study (with PRESLO referring to Secondary Low Back Pain Prevention, or in French, PREvention Secondaire de la LOmbalgie), proposed by HCL occupational health services and the Centre Médico-Chirurgical et de Réadaptation des Massues – Croix Rouge Française, is a randomized trial that aims to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of a global secondary low back pain prevention program for the low back pain sufferers among HCL hospital personnel, a population at risk for recurrence and chronification. This program, which is based on the concept of physical retraining, employs a multidisciplinary approach uniting physical activity, cognitive education about low back pain and lumbopelvic morphotype analysis. No study targeting populations at risk for low back pain chronification has as yet evaluated the efficiency of lighter secondary prevention programs. Methods/Design This study is a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial proposed to all low back pain sufferers among HCL workers, included between October 2008 and July 2011 and followed over two years. The personnel following their usual treatment (control group) and those following the global prevention program in addition to their usual treatment (intervention group) are compared in terms of low back pain recurrence and the impairments measured at the

  17. Dropping the Ball and Falling Off the Care Wagon. Factors Correlating With Nonadherence to Secondary Fracture Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Manju; Cheen, Mcvin; Ying, Hao; Lau, Tang Ching; Tan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Health care systems and hospitals in several countries have implemented Fracture Liaison Services (FLSs). Success rates of FLSs with regard to osteoporosis assessment and treatment, fracture reduction, and adherence to osteoporosis medications have been reported by several groups including ours. A significant drop-out rate among patients in these programs may occur. This has not been evaluated before. We explored the factors correlating with nonadherence among a multiethnic population of patients in the FLS at our institution, the largest tertiary teaching hospital in South East Asia. Our secondary objective was to explore whether patients who defaulted follow-up visits continued to be compliant with medications. A retrospective analysis of our FLS's computerized database was performed. Of 938 patients followed up more than 2 years, 237 defaulted at various time points. A significant percentage of patients who dropped out of the program opined that it was because the follow-up visits were too time consuming. Non-Chinese patients were more likely than Chinese (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.98, 1.33-2.94), patients with primary school education and below were more likely than those with secondary school and above education (aHR = 1.65, 1.11-2.45) and those with nonvertebral and/or multiple fractures were more likely than those with spine fractures (aHR = 1.38, 1.06-1.81) to be nonadherent. A fraction of patients who defaulted continued to fill osteoporosis medication prescriptions. Median medication possession ratio among the patients who defaulted was 12.3% (interquartile range: 4.1%-36.7%) at 2 years. Persistence ranged from 15.1% to 20.8% and from 1.9% to 7.5% at 1 and 2 years, respectively after defaulting from the program. Our study, which to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind, provides insight into the factors correlating with nonadherence to FLSs. Knowledge of the challenges faced by patients may be of help to health care providers

  18. Phase III trials of new oral anticoagulants in the acute treatment and secondary prevention of VTE: comparison and critique of study methodology and results.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander T; Imfeld, Stephan; Rider, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The traditional treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been use of heparin and vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and although shown to be effective, they have numerous limitations. New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) including direct thrombin (factor IIa) inhibitors (dabigatran) and selective factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) have emerged as promising alternatives with the potential to overcome the limitations of traditional treatments. Clinical trials have been performed with a view to making significant changes to the acute, long-term and extended treatment of VTE. Data are now available on the efficacy and safety, including bleeding rates, of the NOACs in comparison with VKA in the acute treatment and secondary prevention of VTE as well as in comparison with placebo extended VTE treatment. This review compares and contrasts the design and results of the Phase III trials of NOACs in VTE and discusses the implications of the NOACs in terms of treatment strategies in VTE patients.

  19. The Challenge of Integration in Interdisciplinary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, Michele; John-Steiner, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Focused on an interdisciplinary graduate program in water resources management, this case study illustrates how theory-into-practice integration occurred in a field course and clarified students' expectations that faculty model interdisciplinary ways of knowing.

  20. Successful Components of Interdisciplinary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Katherine; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This article presents 10 ideas for developing successful interdisciplinary curricula as suggested in the allied health literature. Implementation of the ideas is illustrated by examples from a clinical geriatric course involving physical therapy, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, and medical students. (Author/CT)

  1. Interdisciplinary Guide to Career Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jean; And Others

    Designed as a component of a pilot career exploration program at Vale Middle School, Vale, Oregon, this interdisciplinary guide provides a model for teachers at the junior high and middle school level to use in relating all areas of the school curriculum to the four life roles advocated by the concept of career education (to become a responsible…

  2. Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Challenges to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam, Ed.; Grossman, Pam, Ed.

    The reputed merits of the interdisciplinary curriculum movement are explored in this collection of works by leading educators. Context is laid out in the introduction, "When Theory Meets Practice in the World of School," by Pam Grossman, Sam Wineburg, and Scott Beers. The chapters are as follows: (1) "On Disciplinary Lenses and Interdisciplinary…

  3. Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Harry

    The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

  4. Interdisciplinary Research Boosted by Serendipity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darbellay, Frédéric; Moody, Zoe; Sedooka, Ayuko; Steffen, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research can be defined as the practice of discovering new objects of knowledge beyond disciplinary borders. It often operates through the cross-fertilization and hybridization of concepts, theoretical frameworks, and methodological tools to enable the description, analysis, and understanding of the complexity of objects of study…

  5. Interdisciplinary Teaching and Disciplinary Reflexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laslett, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Examines how differences between history and sociology present challenges to teaching and practice utilizing an interdisciplinary approach. Observes historians emphasize development of literary writing skills whereas sociologists could benefit from greater attention to the role of writing. Advocates continuing efforts for interdisciplinary…

  6. Interdisciplinary Research and Information Overload.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Discusses information overload and examines several ways in which actual and potential overload affects research choices for the solo researcher in interdisciplinary areas. Topics include information overload and teamwork; entry barriers to certain specialties, including necessary background knowledge; and information utilization and knowledge…

  7. Victorian Era: An Interdisciplinary Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildart, Donna Mae; And Others

    Seventh grade students studied the Victorian period using a 4-6 week interdisciplinary unit that integrated language arts, mathematics, art, science, social studies, music, home economics, parents, and business into the program. The main goals were to help students understand the importance of all curriculum subjects; comprehend how subjects are…

  8. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  9. Content Connections: Creating Interdisciplinary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Basic Education.

    The interdisciplinary approach to education applies methods and language from more than one discipline to examine a central theme, issue, problem, topic, or experience, and is utilized in order to enhance the ability of students to acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of various disciplines. This guide to developing interddisciplinary…

  10. Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Adi; Kali, Yael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processes by which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that…

  11. Health Counseling: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, John H., Jr.; Guyton, Rick

    1985-01-01

    The Counselor Education and Health Education programs at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, recently cooperated in developing a curriculum to prepare health counselors. The goals and objectives of counselor education and of health education are so similar that an interdisciplinary health care specialization is a natural development. (MT)

  12. Interdisciplinary Collaboration in EHDI Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lauri; Houston, K. Todd; Hoffman, Jeff; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs were asked to complete a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the interdisciplinary area, 47 coordinators responded with 224 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  13. Interdisciplinary Methods in Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosens, Barbara; Fiedler, Fritz; Boll, Jan; Higgins, Lorie; Johnson, Gary; Kennedy, Brian; Strand, Eva; Wilson, Patrick; Laflin, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the face of a myriad of complex water resource issues, traditional disciplinary separation is ineffective in developing approaches to promote a sustainable water future. As part of a new graduate program in water resources, faculty at the University of Idaho have developed a course on interdisciplinary methods designed to prepare students for…

  14. Something Essential about Interdisciplinary Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    The integrative thinking essential to interdisciplinary inquiry requires not only critical reflection concerning the points of convergence and dissonance between disciplinary insights, but also something more personal and less predictable that this paper describes as "holding in relationship difference ways of knowing." Using the process…

  15. Using Principles of Complex Adaptive Systems to Implement Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Thomas E; Huebsch, Jacquelyn A; McGinnis, Paul; Nichols, Jolleen M; Parker, Emily D; Tillema, Juliana O; Maciosek, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Context: Primary care practice. Objective: To test whether the principles of complex adaptive systems are applicable to implementation of team-based primary care. Design: We used complex adaptive system principles to implement team-based care in a private, five-clinic primary care practice. We compared randomly selected samples of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes before system implementation (March 1, 2009, to February 28, 2010) and after system implementation (December 1, 2011, to March 31, 2013). Main Outcome Measures: Rates of patients meeting the composite goals for CHD (blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level < 100 mg/dL, tobacco-free, and using aspirin unless contraindicated) and diabetes (CHD goal plus hemoglobin A1c concentration < 8%) before and after the intervention. We also measured provider and patient satisfaction with preventive services. Results: The proportion of patients with CHD who met the composite goal increased from 40.3% to 59.9% (p < 0.0001) because documented aspirin use increased (65.2%–97.5%, p < 0.0001) and attainment of the cholesterol goal increased (77.0%–83.9%, p = 0.0041). The proportion of diabetic patients meeting the composite goal rose from 24.5% to 45.4% (p < 0.0001) because aspirin use increased (58.6%–97.6%, p < 0.0001). Increased percentages of patients meeting the CHD and diabetes composite goals were not significantly different (p = 0.2319). Provider satisfaction with preventive services delivery increased significantly (p = 0.0017). Patient satisfaction improved but not significantly. Conclusion: Principles of complex adaptive systems can be used to implement team-based care systems for patients with CHD and possibly diabetic patients. PMID:26784851

  16. Long-term use and cost-effectiveness of secondary prevention drugs for heart disease in Western Australian seniors (WAMACH): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, Anthony S; Knuiman, Matthew W; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Hobbs, Michael S T; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Hung, Joseph; Rankin, Jamie M; Nedkoff, Lee; Briffa, Thomas G; Ortiz, Michael; Gillies, Malcolm; Cordingley, Anne; Messer, Mitch; Gardner, Christian; Lopez, Derrick; Atkins, Emily; Mai, Qun; Sanfilippo, Frank M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Secondary prevention drugs for cardiac disease have been demonstrated by clinical trials to be effective in reducing future cardiovascular and mortality events (WAMACH is the Western Australian Medication Adherence and Costs in Heart disease study). Hence, most countries have adopted health policies and guidelines for the use of these drugs, and included them in government subsidised drug lists to encourage their use. However, suboptimal prescribing and non-adherence to these drugs remains a universal problem. Our study will investigate trends in dispensing patterns of drugs for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and will also identify factors influencing these patterns. It will also assess the clinical and economic consequences of non-adherence and the cost-effectiveness of using these drugs. Methods and analysis This population-based cohort study will use longitudinal data on almost 40 000 people aged 65 years or older who were hospitalised in Western Australia between 2003 and 2008 for coronary heart disease, heart failure or atrial fibrillation. Linking of several State and Federal government administrative data sets will provide person-based information on drugs dispensed precardiac and postcardiac event, reasons for hospital admission, emergency department visits, mortality and medical visits. Dispensed drug trends will be described, drug adherence measured and their association with future all-cause/cardiovascular events will be estimated. The cost-effectiveness of these long-term therapies for cardiac disease and the impact of adherence will be evaluated. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approvals have been obtained from the Department of Health (Western Australian #2011/62 and Federal) and the University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/1130), in addition to HREC approvals from all participating hospitals. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals and presented at local, national and

  17. Psychodynamic Motivation and Training program (PMT) for the secondary prevention in patients with stable coronary heart disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of feasibility and effects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonpharmacological secondary prevention of coronary heart disease is considered a safe and effective measure to substantially reduce mortality. Despite the effectiveness of lifestyle changes, the compliance rate of patients is very low mainly due to psychosocial barriers. Psychotherapeutic approaches that address how persons think about themselves and their behaviors appear to have a significant potential for improving health behavior. Methods/design Against this background, our study aims to examine the feasibility and effects of a Psychodynamic Motivation and Training program (PMT) as compared to one session of advice in exercise training (EX) and treatment as usual (TAU). For that purpose, 90 patients with stable coronary heart disease and a physically inactive lifestyle will be randomly assigned to the three groups (each with n = 30). The primary outcome is the change in the individual anaerobic threshold as determined by spiroergometry from baseline to six month follow-up. Secondary endpoints include change in endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, quality of life, symptoms of fatigue, illness perception and feasibility of the treatment approach. We hypothesize that physical fitness will improve more in PMT than in EX and TAU, with PMT and EX more than TAU, and that the effects will be more pronounced for participants with current mental or psychosocial distress. Discussion The results of the study will help to determine the effectiveness of a psychodynamic lifestyle change approach and to identify measures for designing specifically tailored interventions to improve compliance with cardiovascular prevention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01445808 PMID:24066805

  18. EVOLUTION—Taking Charge and Growing Stronger: The Design, Acceptability, and Feasibility of a Secondary Prevention Empowerment Intervention for Young Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, youth of 13–24 years account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections, with almost 1000 young men and women being infected per month. Young women account for 20% of those new infections. This article describes the design, feasibility, and acceptability of a secondary prevention empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV entitled EVOLUTION: Young Women Taking Charge and Growing Stronger. The nine session intervention aimed to reduce secondary transmission by enhancing social and behavioral skills and knowledge pertaining to young women's physical, social, emotional, and sexual well-being, while addressing the moderating factors such as sexual inequality and power imbalances. Process evaluation data suggest that EVOLUTION is a highly acceptable and feasible intervention for young women living with HIV. Participants reported enjoying both the structure and comprehensive nature of the intervention. Both participants and interventionists reported that the intervention was highly relevant to the lives of young women living with HIV since it not only provided opportunities for them to broaden their knowledge and risk reduction skills in HIV, but it also addressed important areas that impact their daily lives such as stressors, relationships, and their emotional and social well-being. Thus, this study demonstrates that providing a gender-specific, comprehensive group-based empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV appears to be both feasible and acceptable. PMID:24575438

  19. Pioglitazone for Secondary Prevention after Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: Rationale and Design of the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Viscoli, Catherine M.; Brass, Lawrence M.; Carolei, Antonio; Conwit, Robin; Ford, Gary A.; Furie, Karen L.; Gorman, Mark; Guarino, Peter D.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Lovejoy, Anne M.; Parsons, Mark W.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Ringleb, Peter; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Spence, J. David; Tanne, David; Young, Lawrence H.; Kernan, Walter N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recurrent vascular events remain a major source of morbidity and mortality after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial is evaluating an approach to secondary prevention based on the established association between insulin resistance and increased risk for ischemic vascular events. Specifically, IRIS will test the effectiveness of pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug of the thiazolidinedione class, for reducing the risk for stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) among insulin resistant, non-diabetic patients with a recent ischemic stroke or TIA. Design: Eligible patients for IRIS must have had insulin resistance defined by a Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance greater than 3.0 without meeting criteria for diabetes. Within 6 months of the index stroke or TIA, patients were randomly assigned to pioglitazone (titrated from 15mg to 45mg/day) or matching placebo and followed for up to 5 years. The primary outcome is time to stroke or MI. Secondary outcomes include time to stroke alone, acute coronary syndrome, diabetes, cognitive decline and all-cause mortality. Enrollment of 3876 participants from 179 sites in seven countries was completed in January, 2013. Participant follow-up will continue until July, 2015. Summary: The IRIS Trial will determine whether treatment with pioglitazone improves cardiovascular outcomes of non-diabetic, insulin-resistant patients with stroke or TIA. Results are expected in early 2016. PMID:25458644

  20. Protection of vulnerable adults: an interdisciplinary workshop.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Bantry-White, Eleanor; Glavin, Pauline

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports on the development, delivery, content and student evaluation of a comprehensive elder abuse and self-neglect workshop for public health nursing and social work students.The workshop provided an interdisciplinary shared learning experience for the students to prepare them for their critical role in safeguarding vulnerable adults. The aim of the workshop was to increase knowledge, awareness and understanding of roles and responsibilities and critical practice problems in the prevention and management of elder abuse and self-neglect. The shared learning approach provided clarity on roles and responsibility, valuing and respecting the contribution of each team member. The importance of building communication and trust with team members and clients was seen as critical. Through case studies and group discussion, assessment and practice skills were developed and awareness heightened on the complexity of the critical practice problems and ethical issues.

  1. Implantable Defibrillators for Secondary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Cardiac Surgery Patients With Perioperative Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Nageh, Maged F.; Kim, John J.; Chen, Lie‐Hong; Yao, Janis F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomized studies of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) have excluded sudden cardiac death survivors who had revascularization before or after an arrhythmic event. To evaluate the role of ICD and the effects of clinical variables including degree of revascularization, we studied cardiac surgery patients who had an ICD implanted for sustained perioperative ventricular arrhythmias. Methods and Results The electronic database for Southern California Kaiser Foundation hospitals was searched for patients who had cardiac surgery between 1999 and 2005 and an ICD implanted within 3 months of surgery. One hundred sixty‐four patients were identified; 93/164 had an ICD for sustained pre‐ or postoperative ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation requiring resuscitation. Records were reviewed for the following: presenting arrhythmia, ejection fraction, and degree of revascularization. The primary end point was total mortality (TM) and/or appropriate ICD therapy (ICD‐T), and secondary end points are TM and ICD‐T. During the mean follow up of 49 months, the primary endpoint of TM+ICD‐T and individual end points of TM and ICD‐T were observed in 52 (56%), 35 (38%), and 28 (30%) patients, respectively, with 55% of TM, and 23% of ICD‐T occurring within 2 years of implant. In multivariate risk analysis, none of the following was associated with any of the end points: incomplete revascularization, presenting ventricular arrhythmia, and timing of arrhythmias. Conclusion Our data supports the recent guidelines for ICD in this cohort of patients, as the presence of irreversible substrate and triggers of ventricular arrhythmias, cannot be reliably excluded even with complete revascularization. Further studies are needed to understand this complex group of patients. PMID:25146702

  2. The Efficacy of Surgical Treatment for the Secondary Prevention of Stroke in Symptomatic Moyamoya Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cong; Yu, Xiaobo; Li, Jianru; Chen, Jingyin; Wang, Lin; Chen, Gao

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of moyamoya disease (MMD) is controversial and often depends on the doctor's experience. In addition, the choice of surgical procedure to treat MMD can differ in many ways. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to determine whether surgical treatment of MMD is superior to conservative treatment and to provide evidence for the selection of an appropriate surgical treatment.The human case-control studies regarding the association of MMD treatment were systematically identified through online databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, and Springer Link). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined for the eligible studies. The fixed-effects model was performed when homogeneity was indicated. Alternatively, the random-effects model was utilized.This meta-analysis included 16 studies. Surgical treatment significantly reduced the risk of stroke (odds ratio (OR) of 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12-0.26, P < 0.01). A subgroup analysis showed that surgical treatment was more beneficial to hemorrhagic MMD (OR of 0.23, 95% CI, 0.15-0.38, P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between surgical treatment and conservative treatment on ischemic MMD treatment (OR of 0.45, 95% CI, 0.15-1.29, P = 0.14). Further analysis indicated that compared to direct bypass surgery, indirect bypass surgery had a lower efficacy on secondary stroke risk reduction (OR of 1.79, 95% CI, 1.14-2.82, P = 0.01), while no significant difference was detected for perioperative complications.Surgery is an effective treatment for symptomatic MMD patients, and direct bypass surgery may bring more benefits for these patients.

  3. Six-year follow-up of the SPHERE RCT: secondary prevention of heart disease in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, A W; Cupples, M E; Murphy, E; Newell, J; Scarrott, C J; Vellinga, A; Gillespie, P; Byrne, M; Kearney, C; Smith, S M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the long-term effectiveness of a complex intervention in primary care aimed at improving outcomes for patients with coronary heart disease. Design A 6-year follow-up of a cluster randomised controlled trial, which found after 18 months that both total and cardiovascular hospital admissions were significantly reduced in intervention practices (8% absolute reduction). Setting 48 general practices in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Participants 903 patients with established coronary heart disease at baseline in the original trial. Intervention The original intervention consisted of tailored practice and patient plans; training sessions for practitioners in medication prescribing and behavioural change; and regular patient recall system. Control practices provided usual care. Following the intervention period, all supports from the research team to intervention practices ceased. Outcome measures Primary outcome: hospital admissions, all cause and cardiovascular; secondary outcomes: mortality; blood pressure and cholesterol control. Results At 6-year follow-up, data were collected from practice records of 696 patients (77%). For those who had died, we censored their data at the point of death and cause of death was established. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control practices in either total (OR 0.83 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.28)) or cardiovascular hospital admissions (OR 0.91 (95% CI 0.49 to 1.65)). We confirmed mortality status of 886 of the original 903 patients (98%). There were no significant differences in mortality (15% in intervention and 16% in control) or in the proportions of patients above target control for systolic blood pressure or total cholesterol. Conclusions Initial significant differences in the numbers of total and cardiovascular hospital admissions were not maintained at 6 years and no differences were found in mortality or blood pressure and cholesterol control. Policymakers need

  4. 42 CFR 460.102 - Interdisciplinary team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interdisciplinary team. 460.102 Section 460.102... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.102 Interdisciplinary team. (a) Basic requirement. A PACE organization must meet the following requirements: (1) Establish an interdisciplinary team at each Pace center...

  5. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-10-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.

  6. The State of the Field: Interdisciplinary Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, William H.

    2013-01-01

    This chronological overview of the development of interdisciplinary theory starts with the pre-cursors of theory: the development and elaboration of the definition of interdisciplinary studies, influential but problematic images of interdisciplinary studies proposed by Donald Campbell and Erich Jantsch, and best practices in interdisciplinary…

  7. Interdisciplinary Studies in the Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Arianne

    This article explores the interdisciplinary course offerings at 164 institutions that participated in a 1998 curriculum analysis by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges. It examines interdisciplinary courses in the context of the total curriculum, and discusses examples of existing interdisciplinary programs, the benefits and…

  8. Multifactorial lifestyle interventions in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus--a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Angermayr, Lucia; Melchart, Dieter; Linde, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the available randomized trials of multifactorial lifestyle interventions in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Randomized trials investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions including the elements of diet, physical activity, and stress management in people at increased risk for or with manifest coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus were searched for in five electronic database and by citation tracking. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Exploratory effect size calculations were performed for a variety of laboratory and clinical outcome measures. Twenty-five trials including a total of 7,703 participants met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen trials were in patients with coronary heart disease, seven in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and three on primary prevention. The interventions varied greatly regarding concept, intensity, and providers. Compared to participants in "usual care" control groups, there were no consistent effects on lipid levels and blood pressure and small effects on body mass index and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Composite cardiac event rates were significantly less in the intervention groups of the few trials reporting these outcomes. Mortality was also lower in the intervention groups, but the difference was not statistically significant, and confidence intervals were wide. The evidence base for multifactorial lifestyle interventions is weak. Effects on surrogate measures seem minor, but there may be clinically relevant effects on major clinical endpoints. PMID:20652464

  9. Development of macaronic Hindi-English ‘Hinglish’ text message content for a coronary heart disease secondary prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Jay; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Purohit, Gaurav; Thakkar, Swetha; Sharma, Jitender; Verma, Sunilkumar; Parakh, Neeraj; Seth, Sandeep; Mishra, Sundeep; Yadav, Rakesh; Singh, Sandeep; Joshi, Rohina; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Text message based prevention programs have demonstrated reduction in cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CHD in selected populations. Customisation is important as behaviour change is influenced by culture and linguistic context. Objectives To customise a mobile phone text message program supporting behaviour and treatment adherence in CHD for delivery in North India. Methods We used an iterative process with mixed methods involving three phases: (1) Initial translation, (2) Review and incorporation of feedback including review by cardiologists in India to assess alignment with local guidelines and by consumers on perceived utility and clarity and (3) Pilot testing of message management software. Results Messages were translated in three ways: symmetrical translation, asymmetrical translation and substitution. Feedback from cardiologists and 25 patients was incorporated to develop the final bank. Patients reported Hinglish messages were easy to understand (93%) and useful (78%). The software located in Australia successfully delivered messages to participants based in Delhi-surrounds (India). Conclusions Our process for customisation of a text message program considered cultural, linguistic and the medical context of potential participants. This is important in optimising intervention fidelity across populations enabling examination of the generalisability of text message programs across populations. We also demonstrated the customised program was acceptable to patients in India and that a centralised cross-country delivery model was feasible. This process could be used as a guide for other groups seeking to customise their programs. Trial registration number TEXTMEDS Australia (Parent study)—ACTRN 12613000793718. PMID:27752288

  10. Dropout Prevention and Reentry Act of 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on S. 1525 to Amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to Provide Grants to Local Educational Agencies for Dropout Prevention Demonstration Projects (October 17, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document presents the text of the Senate hearing on the Dropout Prevention and Reentry Act of 1985, a bill designed to amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to provide grants to local educational agencies for dropout prevention demonstration projects. Testimony is delivered by Senators Stafford, Pell, Chafee, Bradley,…

  11. Head Start Evaluation and Research Center, Boston University. Report B-I, Primary and Secondary Prevention Studying Clinical Process and Disturbance with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Caroline; And Others

    Two groups of preschool children from the Boston area were selected to participate in a study of marginal emotional disorders, their diagnosis by an interdisciplinary team, and their effect upon a child's functioning in the preschool setting. The two groups of children who attended the diagnostic sessions consisted of 19 lower class Head Start…

  12. Interdisciplinary Irrigated Precision Farming Research

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, D F.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Sandra ); Duke, H R.; Westfall, D G.; Buchleiter, G W.; Westra, P; Peairs, F B.; Fleming, K

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service and Colorado State University are conducting an inter-disciplinary study that focuses on developing a clearer scientific understanding of the causes of yield variability. Two years of data have been collected from two commercial center pivot irrigated fields (72 and 52 ha). Cooperating farmers manage all farming operations for crop production and provide maps of the maise grown on the fields.

  13. Interdisciplinary approach to oral rehabilitation of patient with amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Oz, Ulas; Yilmaz, Hasan Guney

    2014-03-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary condition that affects the development of enamel, causing quantity, structural and compositional anomalies that involve all dentitions. Consequently, the effects can extend to both the primary and secondary dentitions. Patients with amelogenesis imperfecta may present with clinical difficulties, such as insufficient crown length, tooth sensitivity and orthodontic discrepancies, all of which can be resolved successfully with an interdisciplinary approach. This case report describes the interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of a 22-year-old patient with amelogenesis imperfecta. The proper alignment of anterior teeth and gingivo-cervical line was provided with orthodontic and periodontal treatments. All-ceramic crowns were placed on anterior, and metal-ceramic restorations were placed on posterior teeth to reduce sensitivity and improve esthetics with function. Improved esthetic appearance, reduced tooth sensitivity and the resolution of a potentially harmful psychosocial condition were achieved. Patient remained satisfied in the 12-month follow-up examination.

  14. The Search for a Renewed Vision of Secondary Education Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnin, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article is a summary of an interdisciplinary research project which had the objective of setting up and implementing "interdisciplinary training for policy dialogue in the field of education". This training focuses on the past, present and future of secondary education in various African and Latin American countries. In describing this work,…

  15. Effectiveness of interdisciplinary primary care approach to reduce disability in community dwelling frail older people: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Rossum, Erik; de Witte, Luc P; Ambergen, Antonius W; Hobma, Sjoerd O; Sipers, Walther; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether an interdisciplinary primary care approach for community dwelling frail older people is more effective than usual care in reducing disability and preventing (further) functional decline. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 12 general practices in the south of the Netherlands Participants 346 frail older people (score ≥5 on Groningen Frailty Indicator) were included; 270 (78%) completed the study. Interventions General practices were randomised to the intervention or control group. Practices in the control group delivered care as usual. Practices in the intervention group implemented the “Prevention of Care” (PoC) approach, in which frail older people received a multidimensional assessment and interdisciplinary care based on a tailor made treatment plan and regular evaluation and follow-up. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was disability, assessed at 24 months by means of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptomatology, social support interactions, fear of falling, and social participation. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months’ follow-up. Results 193 older people in the intervention group (six practices) received the PoC approach; 153 older people in the control group (six practices) received care as usual. Follow-up rates for patients were 91% (n=316) at six months, 86% (n=298) at 12 months, and 78% (n=270) at 24 months. Mixed model multilevel analyses showed no significant differences between the two groups with regard to disability (primary outcome) and secondary outcomes. Pre-planned subgroup analyses confirmed these results. Conclusions This study found no evidence for the effectiveness of the PoC approach. The study contributes to the emerging body of evidence that community based care in frail older people is a challenging task. More research in this field is needed. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31954692

  16. Chemical Industry: A New Interdisciplinary Course for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nae, Nehemia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced high school course which incorporates an industrial approach into the chemistry curriculum. Presents three case studies as examples taken from the local chemistry industry--the production of copper, bromine, and plastics. (CS)

  17. Rationale and design of a secondary prevention trial of lowering normal plasma cholesterol levels after acute myocardial infarction: the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events trial (CARE)

    PubMed

    Sacks, F M; Pfeffer, M A; Moye', L; Brown, L E; Hamm, P; Cole, T G; Hawkins, C M; Braunwald, E

    1991-12-01

    Recent clinical trials of primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease have demonstrated that lowering plasma cholesterol decreases the incidence of coronary heart disease in patients with elevated plasma cholesterol. However, it is not known whether patients with established coronary artery disease and normal plasma cholesterol can be benefited. Several previous prevention trials reviewed in this report found that patients who had plasma cholesterol levels at baseline in the upper portion of the eligibility range (e.g., greater than 240 mg/dl) received greater benefit from hypolipidemic diet or drug therapy than patients who had lower plasma cholesterol levels at baseline. The recent availability of drugs that are more potent and less prone to cause adverse reactions than previous regimens permits this important question to be addressed. The Cholesterol and Recurrent Events trial is testing whether pravastatin, a hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, will decrease the sum of fatal coronary heart disease and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in patients who have recovered from a MI and who have normal total cholesterol levels. Fatal cardiovascular disease and total mortality are important secondary end points. The trial is enrolling 4,000 men and women from 80 centers throughout North America, age 21 to 75 years, who have survived MI for 3 to 20 months, who have plasma total cholesterol less than 240 mg/dl (6.2 mmol/liter) and low-density cholesterol of 115 to 174 mg/dl (3.0 to 4.5 mmol/liter), and who are representative of the general population of patients with MI. Patients are randomized to either active or inactive drug therapy. Active therapy consists of pravastatin, 40 mg/day, designed to achieve an average decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of approximately 30%, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein of 5%. The average duration of follow-up will be greater than or equal to 5 years. To protect against a lower

  18. Dietary fatty acids in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous systematic reviews were not restricted to either primary or secondary prevention trials, this study aimed to investigate the effects of reduced and/or modified fat diets and dietary fatty acids on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events in participants with established coronary heart disease. Design Systematic review, meta-analysis and univariate/multivariate meta-regression. Eligibility and criteria for selecting studies Electronic searches for randomised controlled trials comparing reduced/modified fat diets versus control diets were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Data extraction Pooled effects were calculated using an inverse-variance random effect meta-analysis. Random effects univariate and multivariate meta-regressions were performed including changes in all types of dietary fatty acids. Results Overall, 12 studies enrolling 7150 participants were included in the present systematic review. No significant risk reduction could be observed considering all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.92, p=0.60; I2=59%) and cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.96, p=0.84; I2=69%), combined cardiovascular events (RR 0.85, p=0.30; I2=75%) and myocardial infarction (RR 0.76, p=0.13; I2=55%) comparing modified fat diets versus control diets. This results could be confirmed for the reduced fat versus control diets (RR 0.79, p=0.47; I2=0%), (RR 0.93, p=0.66; I2=0%), (RR 0.93, p=0.71; I2=57%) and (RR 1.18, p=0.26; I2=18%). The multivariate and univariate model showed no significant associations between the independent variables and the changes from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and linoleic acid. Sensitivity analyses did not reveal a significant risk reduction for any outcome parameter when polyunsaturated fat was increased in exchange for saturated fat. Conclusions The present systematic review provides no evidence (moderate quality evidence) for the beneficial effects of reduced

  19. Adiposity and response to an obesity prevention intervention in Pakistani and Bangladeshi primary school boys and girls: a secondary analysis using the BEACHeS feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cezard, Geneviève; Bansal, Narinder; Bhopal, Raj; Pallan, Miranda; Gill, Paramjit; Barrett, Timothy; Adab, Peymane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As a secondary analysis of the BEACHeS study, we hypothesised there would be sex differences in Pakistani and Bangladeshi school children when examining adiposity and their response to an obesity intervention. Design The Birmingham healthy Eating and Active lifestyle for CHildren Study (BEACHeS) was designed as a Phase II feasibility study of a complex intervention. Setting 8 primary schools with predominantly South Asian children in Birmingham, UK Participants 1090 pupils (aged 5–7 years old) from school year 1 and 2 were allocated at school level to receive an intervention. A total of 574 were enrolled in the study with consent. We focused on the 466 children of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin (50.6% boys). Intervention Delivered between 2007 and 2009, the 1-year obesity prevention intervention targeted school and family-based dietary and physical activities. Primary and secondary outcome measures and analysis Adiposity measures including skinfold thickness were compared by sex at baseline and follow-up. Gains in adiposity measures were compared between control and intervention arms in boys and in girls. Measures were compared using two-sample t tests and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests according to normality distribution. Results At baseline, girls had larger skinfold measures at all sites compared to boys although body mass index (BMI) was similar (eg, median subscapular skinfold 6.6 mm vs 5.7 mm; p<0.001). At follow-up, girls in the intervention group gained less weight and adiposity compared to respective controls (p<0.05 for weight, BMI, waist circumference, central and thigh skinfold) with a median total skinfold gain of 7.0 mm in the control group compared to 0.3 mm in the intervention group. Conclusions Our secondary analysis suggests differences in adiposity in Pakistani and Bangladeshi girls and boys and in the effect of the intervention reducing adiposity in girls. These preliminary findings indicate that including sex

  20. Removal of regulatory T cells prevents secondary chronic infection but increases the mortality of subsequent sub-acute infection in sepsis mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoya; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Xiaomin; Chang, Lingling; Liu, Shan-lu; Tong, Dewen; Zhang, Hai; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The immunosuppression following initial septic insult impairs resistance to secondary infection. Modulation of lymphocytes population may help to develop an effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia was employed as the initial septic insult. 24 hours later, mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce chronic or sub-acute peritonitis. Potential usefulness of T regs deletion antibody (anti-CD25) in improving LPS-induced immunosuppression and the survival of subsequent different infections were evaluated. LPS injection induced lymphocyte loss and led to decreased IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ, and weakened bacteria clearance upon chronic peritonitis at 24 h post-LPS, whereas reconstitution with lymphocytes reversed these changes. LPS-induced T regs expansion contributed to T and NK cells decrease in number and activity during sepsis. Depletion of T regs using anti-CD25 antibodies partly prevented lymphocyte loss and increased the responses of T and NK cells to subsequent stimulation, resulting in significantly increased bacterial clearance and survival in a 2-hit model of chronic peritonitis, but which significantly increased early mortality upon subsequently sub-acute infection. Yet, using lower dosage of anti-CD25 antibodies to moderate down-regulate T regs levels could partly improve bacterial clearance and survival in either chronic or sub-acute infection. These results demonstrate that using anti-CD25 antibodies to deplete T regs can ameliorate immunosuppression through increasing T cells and NK cells responses in sepsis, which is beneficial for preventing subsequently chronic infection, but will probably bring some deleterious effects for subsequent sub-acute infection. PMID:26918357

  1. Evaluating quality and its determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of heart disease and stroke in primary care: a study in an inner London Borough

    PubMed Central

    Dodhia, Hiten; Kun, Liu; Logan Ellis, Hugh; Crompton, James; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Williams, Helen; Hodgkinson, Anna; Balazs, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess quality of management and determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using multilevel regression models. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Inner London borough, with a primary care registered population of 378 000 (2013). Participants 48/49 participating general practices with 7869 patients on heart disease/stroke registers were included. Outcome measures (1) Recording of current total cholesterol levels and lipid control according to national evidence-based standards. (2) Assessment of quality by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, presence of other risks or comorbidity in meeting both lipid measurement and control standards. Results Some process standards were not met. Patients with a current cholesterol measurement >5 mmol/L were less likely to have a current statin prescription (adjusted OR=3.10; 95% CI 2.70 to 3.56). They were more likely to have clustering of other CVD risk factors. Women were significantly more likely to have raised cholesterol after adjustment for other factors (adjusted OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.53 to 1.98). Conclusions In this study, the key factor that explained poor lipid control in people with CVD was having no current prescription record of a statin. Women were more likely to have poorly controlled cholesterol (independent of comorbid risk factors and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation index and practice-level variation). Women with CVD should be offered statin prescription and may require higher statin dosage for improved control. PMID:26656014

  2. [Good practice in occupational health services--Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events].

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer's post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors. PMID:26536976

  3. [Good practice in occupational health services--Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events].

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer's post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors.

  4. Antiplatelet regimens in the long-term secondary prevention of transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke: an updated network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Peng-Peng; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Jin, Hang; Xing, Ying-Qi; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the comparative efficacy and safety of different antiplatelet regimens in patients with prior non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources As on 31 March 2015, all randomised controlled trials that investigated the effects of antiplatelet agents in the long-term (≥3 months) secondary prevention of non-cardioembolic transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke were searched and identified. Outcome measures The primary outcome measure of efficacy was serious vascular events (non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction and vascular death). The outcome measure of safety was any bleeding. Results A total of 36 randomised controlled trials (82 144 patients) were included. Network meta-analysis showed that cilostazol was significantly more effective than clopidogrel (OR 0.77, 95% credible interval 0.60–0.98) and low-dose (75–162 mg daily) aspirin (0.69, 0.55–0.86) in the prevention of serious vascular events. Aspirin (50 mg daily) plus dipyridamole (400 mg daily) and clopidogrel reduced the risk of serious vascular events compared with low-dose aspirin; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Furthermore, low-dose aspirin was as effective as higher daily doses. Cilostazol was associated with a significantly lower bleeding risk than most of the other regimens. Moreover, aspirin plus clopidogrel was associated with significantly more haemorrhagic events than other regimens. Direct comparisons showed similar results as the network meta-analysis. Conclusions Cilostazol was significantly more effective than aspirin and clopidogrel alone in the long-term prevention of serious vascular events in patients with prior non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Cilostazol was associated with a significantly lower bleeding risk than low-dose aspirin (75–162 mg daily) and aspirin (50 mg daily) plus

  5. [Secondary prevention of myocardial infraction].

    PubMed

    Grochulska, Agnieszka; Sawicka, Małgorzata

    2004-01-01

    Results of numerous epidemiological research prove that the development of civilization, density of population, constant changes of human diet based on increased consumption of processed, high-energy food rich in animal protein, sugar, saturated animal fat and change of life standard that is characterized by limiting physical activity and energy output and widespread pollution became favorable conditions (if not causative) increasing the rate circulatory system morbidity, including ischemic heart disease and myocardium infraction. The purpose of presented research is an attempt to answer a question how the patients after myocardium infraction self-estimate their previous style of life. The paper also tries to find the relation between family record of sickness with dietary preferences and physical activity. In purpose to collect the empiric material the scientists used a method of diagnostic soundings. The author's questionnaire was used as a technique of the survey that was performed on a group of 100 patients after myocardium infraction. The patients were chosen randomly and the survey was accomplished in hospitals of Słupsk and Koszalin. Taking care of proper health condition by patients after myocardium infraction is highly unsatisfactory. The results show that in spite of myocardium infraction, 30% of respondents still smoke, 30% use alcohol and 40% use inappropriate diet. Dietary references of the respondents prove the necessity of providing more education concerning healthy diet in everyday life. The respondents ceased systematic physical exercises and the majority of them (62%) does not exercise regularly (32% cured by preservative method and 30% invasion method).

  6. Dynamics explorer interdisciplinary scientist investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozyra, Janet U.; Nagy, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a final report on research activities and accomplishments that occurred during the funding period of 10-1-90 through 1-30-94. The focus of our interdisciplinary investigation during the Dynamics Explorer Mission was on the complex coupling processes that tap the magnetic-storm energy, stored in the ring current particle reservoir, and transport this energy into the subauroral, midlatitude and even equatorial ionospheric regions. The transport of energy through the inner magnetosphere and into the underlying ionospheric regions is a critical element in our understanding of the impact of solar and magnetic disturbances on upper atmospheric and ionospheric regions equatorward of the auroral zone.

  7. Interdisciplinary medical social work: a working taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Maramaldi, Peter; Sobran, Alexandra; Scheck, Lisa; Cusato, Natalie; Lee, Irene; White, Erina; Cadet, Tamara J

    2014-01-01

    Findings from a year-long exploratory study aimed at describing universal functions of medical social work with interdisciplinary teams in acute care settings are reported here. A universal taxonomy of interdisciplinary social work skills and competencies was empirically identified through a participatory action research framework. Findings support previous conceptual descriptions of medical social work's overarching and historical role to help interdisciplinary teams in acute care to consider patients' home environment, knowledge, beliefs, culture, and resources during assessment, treatment, and discharge planning. The empirically determined taxonomy reported is intended to provide social workers a framework with which to articulate and evaluate their core competencies on interdisciplinary medical teams.

  8. Teaching about Fascism: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfield, Claire

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university course which teaches the history of fascism and nazism through interdisciplinary methods: philosophy, film, literature, and art. Visiting lecturers include survivors of concentration camps. (KC)

  9. 7 CFR 610.5 - Interdisciplinary assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interdisciplinary assistance. Technical assistance is based on the principle that soil, water, plant, and related resources are interdependent and must be managed accordingly. Soil conservationists integrate the...

  10. 7 CFR 610.5 - Interdisciplinary assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interdisciplinary assistance. Technical assistance is based on the principle that soil, water, plant, and related resources are interdependent and must be managed accordingly. Soil conservationists integrate the...

  11. 7 CFR 610.5 - Interdisciplinary assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Interdisciplinary assistance. Technical assistance is based on the principle that soil, water, plant, and related resources are interdependent and must be managed accordingly. Soil conservationists integrate the...

  12. Decreasing prosthetic joint surgical site infections: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Elisa; Williams, Anne; Long, Martha

    2015-02-01

    As of October 2013, a hospital's base Medicare reimbursement will be penalized for patients readmitted within 30 days of undergoing elective total hip and knee arthroplasties. To respond to an increased incidence of prosthetic joint infections after these surgeries, members of an interdisciplinary project team at a 1,046-bed multihospital health care organization in the southeastern United States sought to identify factors that place patients at high risk for infection. Data showed that addressing the sterile environment, personnel issues, patient readiness for surgery, and system issues resulted in decreased rates of infection among patients who underwent hip replacement surgery (χ(2)1 = 3.057, P = .04). Additional outcomes included decreased reliance on immediate-use steam sterilization and a standardized method to educate perioperative and radiology department personnel regarding prevention of prosthetic joint infections. The team concluded that an interdisciplinary approach to process improvement is effective and economical. PMID:25645038

  13. Games-Based Learning as an Interdisciplinary Approach to Literacy across Curriculum for Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Literacy remains an area of concern in early secondary education in Scotland (ages 12-14), with recent research suggesting a continued decline in attainment levels. As literacy underpins learning, interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches to teaching literacy are now being emphasized through the new Curriculum for Excellence that aims to…

  14. Searching for Meaning--Science and Religious Education Teachers Collaborating in Interdisciplinary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Stephen; Hall, Stuart; Lowden, Kevin; Smith, Marjorie; Beaumont, Paul

    2014-01-01

    One of the aims of Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) in Scotland is greater inclusion of interdisciplinary learning and teaching in school education. There is, arguably, a limited amount of guidance in the CfE literature to advise and support secondary teachers in the practical implications of the planning, preparation and implementation of…

  15. Towards New Ideologies and Pedagogies of Multilingualism: Innovations in Interdisciplinary Language Education in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Korne, Haley

    2012-01-01

    Language is both a means and an end in educational systems. As a means to learning, it manifests itself in countless, shifting modalities; while as an end or objective of learning, it is often perceived as an autonomous, formal entity. Through a case study of an interdisciplinary secondary school project in Luxembourg, this paper explores the…

  16. [Promotion of physical activity for secondary prevention in patients with chronic diseases: the situation in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg].

    PubMed

    Lion, A; Urhausen, A; Delagardelle, C; Seil, R; Theisen, D

    2014-01-01

    The regular practice of physical activities has health benefits in healthy subjects (primary prevention) and in patients with non-communicable diseases (secondary prevention). This study aimed to perform a stocktaking of the physical activities programs for patients or individuals at risk in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. The organizations offering therapeutic physical activities (TPA) have been investigated. Eleven groups offering TPA adapted to different non-communicable diseases were characterized by their costs, instructors, participants and potential participants. These groups were divided into five main categories: cardiology, neurology, obesity, oncology, and orthopedics. During on-site meetings, 41 professionals, 192 participants and 34 potential participants have been interviewed during the period September 2013 to April 2014. The results show that about 40 hours of TPA, 17 hours of which in cardiology, are currently proposed every week, except during school holidays. The main TPA are gymnastics, aerobics, swimming, Nordic walking, cycling, and resistance training. The national coverage is quite low, especially for obesity, neurology and orthopedics. The costs is mainly related to the human resources, the gym being often borrowed but rarely available during school holidays. Between 200 and 400 individuals participate in the TPA. The average number of participants per hour is 8.9 (± 5.1), which represents only 50% of the maximal capacity estimated by the instructors (18.0 ± 8.2 participants per hour). The recruitment process is different according to the groups but the medical doctors and the physiotherapists are mainly involved in this process. However, the majority of the potential participants were not aware of the existence of the groups. The existence of these groups is a positive point, since it contributes to compensate for the current lack of concrete action of the public and private authorities. However, the current TPA offer is clearly

  17. Differential Benefit of Statin in Secondary Prevention of Acute Myocardial Infarction according to the Level of Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan; Kim, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The differential benefit of statin according to the state of dyslipidemia has been sparsely investigated. We sought to address the efficacy of statin in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) according to the level of triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on admission. Subjects and Methods Acute MI patients (24653) were enrolled and the total patients were divided according to level of triglyceride and HDL-C on admission: group A (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=11819), group B (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3329), group C (HDL-C<40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=6062), and group D (HDL-C<40 mg/dL & triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3443). We evaluated the differential efficacy of statin according to the presence or absence of component of dyslipidemia. The primary end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for 2 years. Results Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE in group A (hazard ratio=0.676; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.785; p<0.001). However, the efficacy of statin was not prominent in groups B, C, or D. In a propensity-matched population, the result was similar. In particular, the benefit of statin in group A was different compared with group D (interaction p=0.042) Conclusion The benefit of statin in patients with MI was different according to the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. In particular, because of the insufficient benefit of statin in patients with MI and dyslipidemia, a different lipid-lowering strategy is necessary in these patients. PMID:27275169

  18. Cost-effectiveness of febrile neutropenia prevention with primary versus secondary G-CSF prophylaxis for adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Younis, T; Rayson, D; Jovanovic, S; Skedgel, C

    2016-10-01

    The adoption of primary (PP) versus secondary prophylaxis (SP) of febrile neutropenia (FN), with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF), for adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) regimens in breast cancer (BC) could be affected by its "value for money". This systematic review examined (i) cost-effectiveness of PP versus SP, (ii) FN threshold at which PP is cost-effective including the guidelines 20 % threshold and (iii) potential impact of G-CSF efficacy assumptions on outcomes. The systematic review identified all cost-effectiveness/cost-utility analyses (CEA/CUA) involving PP versus SP G-CSF for AC in BC that met predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five relevant CEA/CUA were identified. These CEA/CUA examined different AC regimens (TAC = 2; FEC-D = 1; TC = 2) and G-CSF formulations (filgrastim "F" = 4; pegfilgrastim "P" = 4) with varying baseline FN-risk (range 22-32 %), mortality (range 1.4-6.0 %) and utility (range 0.33-0.47). The potential G-CSF benefit, including FN risk reduction with P versus F, varied among models. Overall, relative to SP, PP was not associated with good value for money, as per commonly utilized CE thresholds, at the baseline FN rates examined, including the consensus 20 % FN threshold, in most of these studies. The value for money associated with PP versus SP was primarily dependent on G-CSF benefit assumptions including reduced FN mortality and improved BC survival. PP G-CSF for FN prevention in BC patients undergoing AC may not be a cost-effective strategy at the guidelines 20 % FN threshold. PMID:27572552

  19. Effectiveness of a peer-led HIV prevention intervention in secondary schools in Rwanda: results from a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the HIV epidemic is levelling off in sub-Saharan Africa, it remains at an unacceptably high level. Young people aged 15-24 years remain particularly vulnerable, resulting in a regional HIV prevalence of 1.4% in young men and 3.3% in young women. This study assesses the effectiveness of a peer-led HIV prevention intervention in secondary schools in Rwanda on young people’s sexual behavior, HIV knowledge and attitudes. Methods In a non-randomized longitudinal controlled trial, fourteen schools were selected in two neighboring districts in Rwanda Bugesera (intervention) and Rwamagana (control). Students (n = 1950) in eight intervention and six control schools participated in three surveys (baseline, six and twelve months in the intervention). Analysis was done using linear and logistic regression using generalized estimation equations adjusted for propensity score. Results The overall retention rate was 72%. Time trends in sexual risk behavior (being sexually active, sex in last six months, condom use at last sex) were not significantly different in students from intervention and control schools, nor was the intervention associated with increased knowledge, perceived severity or perceived susceptibility. It did significantly reduce reported stigma. Conclusions Analyzing this and other interventions, we identified several reasons for the observed limited effectiveness of peer education: 1) intervention activities (spreading information) are not tuned to objectives (changing behavior); 2) young people prefer receiving HIV information from other sources than peers; 3) outcome indicators are not adequate and the context of the relationship in which sex occurs and the context in which sex occurs is ignored. Effectiveness of peer education may increase through integration in holistic interventions and redefining peer educators’ role as focal points for sensitization and referral to experts and services. Finally, we argue that a narrow focus on

  20. Cost-effectiveness of febrile neutropenia prevention with primary versus secondary G-CSF prophylaxis for adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Younis, T; Rayson, D; Jovanovic, S; Skedgel, C

    2016-10-01

    The adoption of primary (PP) versus secondary prophylaxis (SP) of febrile neutropenia (FN), with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF), for adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) regimens in breast cancer (BC) could be affected by its "value for money". This systematic review examined (i) cost-effectiveness of PP versus SP, (ii) FN threshold at which PP is cost-effective including the guidelines 20 % threshold and (iii) potential impact of G-CSF efficacy assumptions on outcomes. The systematic review identified all cost-effectiveness/cost-utility analyses (CEA/CUA) involving PP versus SP G-CSF for AC in BC that met predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five relevant CEA/CUA were identified. These CEA/CUA examined different AC regimens (TAC = 2; FEC-D = 1; TC = 2) and G-CSF formulations (filgrastim "F" = 4; pegfilgrastim "P" = 4) with varying baseline FN-risk (range 22-32 %), mortality (range 1.4-6.0 %) and utility (range 0.33-0.47). The potential G-CSF benefit, including FN risk reduction with P versus F, varied among models. Overall, relative to SP, PP was not associated with good value for money, as per commonly utilized CE thresholds, at the baseline FN rates examined, including the consensus 20 % FN threshold, in most of these studies. The value for money associated with PP versus SP was primarily dependent on G-CSF benefit assumptions including reduced FN mortality and improved BC survival. PP G-CSF for FN prevention in BC patients undergoing AC may not be a cost-effective strategy at the guidelines 20 % FN threshold.

  1. An Interdisciplinary Twist on Traditional Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattigan, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes some activities that include descriptions of four classic games, and also incorporates interdisciplinary concepts into the playing of traditional games. These activities can be played indoors or outside, in a gym or a classroom. A description of an interdisciplinary version of the game is included after the description of…

  2. Report on Teaching: 6. Interdisciplinary Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Change Magazine, New Rochelle, NY.

    This, the sixth and last Report on Teaching of "Change Magazine's" National Teaching Project, reviews the state of interdisciplinary studies in U.S. undergraduate study. Articles and authors included are: "An Integration of Knowledge and Experience" (Earl J. McGrath); "Interdisciplinary Studies: A MAtter of Definition" (L. Richard Meeth); "A…

  3. 7 CFR 610.5 - Interdisciplinary assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interdisciplinary assistance. 610.5 Section 610.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... Interdisciplinary assistance. Technical assistance is based on the principle that soil, water, plant, and...

  4. Engagement in Two Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newswander, Lynita K.; Borrego, Maura

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines two US interdisciplinary graduate programs which involve faculty and students from different disciplines. Haworth and Conrad's engagement theory of quality graduate education was applied. It was found that when interdisciplinary programs facilitate engagement by supporting diversity, participation, connections, and…

  5. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  6. Authentic Interdisciplinary Instruction: Raising the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This article addressed the need for authentic interdisciplinary instruction. Authentic interdisciplinary instruction is defined as a learning activity that simultaneously improves student performance related to grade-level standards in two or more disciplines (e.g., science and physical education). The process described for creating authentic…

  7. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  8. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  9. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…

  10. Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding Literary Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossanova, Altynay Zh.; Ismakova, Bibissara S.; Tapanova, Saule E.; Ayupova, Gulbagira K.; Gotting, Valentina V.; Kaltayeva, Gulnar K.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose is the implementation of the interdisciplinary approach to understanding and the construction of integrative models of understanding literary texts. The interdisciplinary methodological paradigm of studying text understanding, based on the principles of various sciences facilitating the identification of the text understanding…

  11. Toward an Interdisciplinary Science of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Linda J.; Fryling, Mitch J.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural events are of interest to scientists working in many scientific domains. Given this, an interdisciplinary science of culture may provide a more thorough understanding of cultural phenomena. However, interdisciplinary sciences depend upon the validity and vitality of the participating disciplines. This article reviews the nature of…

  12. Creating an Innovative Interdisciplinary Graduate Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Kathleen L.; Chen, Shi-Jie; Munroe, Donna J.; Naftzger, Jay R.; Selinger, Evan M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to a growing movement within higher education to provide interdisciplinary educational programs, this study describes the creation of an interdisciplinary graduate certificate program in healthcare policy and management. Building on prior research, we surveyed healthcare executives to examine their perceptions about the need for such a…

  13. Interdisciplinary Training: Preparing Counselors for Collaborative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, Jane E. Atieno; Geroski, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    This article utilizes one counselor education program's experience as a framework for exploring how to prepare counselors to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on an interdisciplinary training program that involves faculty and graduate students from counseling, social work, nursing, internal medicine and family medicine, the article explores…

  14. Student Socialization in Interdisciplinary Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Daniel; Borrego, Maura; Newswander, Lynita K.

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approaches are often seen as necessary for attacking the most critical challenges facing the world today, and doctoral students and their training programs are recognized as central to increasing interdisciplinary research capacity. However, the traditional culture and organization of higher education are ill-equipped to…

  15. Aesthetic Dialogue: Art and Interdisciplinary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellwege, Pamela

    1993-01-01

    Presents four interdisciplinary classroom lessons based on artworks found in the Saint Louis (MO) Art Museum. Provides background questions to help students and suggestions for an interdisciplinary approach. Includes full-page, color photographs of two paintings, a mural fragment, and a pre-Columbian pottery jar. (CFR)

  16. Interdisciplinary Doctoral Research Supervision: A Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanstone, Meredith; Hibbert, Kathy; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; McKenzie, Pam; Pitman, Allan; Lingard, Lorelei

    2013-01-01

    This scoping literature review examines the topic of interdisciplinary doctoral research supervision. Interdisciplinary doctoral research programs are expanding in response to encouragement from funding agencies and enthusiasm from faculty and students. In an acknowledgement that the search for creative and innovative solutions to complex problems…

  17. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an inter-disciplinary approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and...

  18. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an inter-disciplinary approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and...

  19. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an inter-disciplinary approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and...

  20. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an inter-disciplinary approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and...

  1. Reflections on Learning in Interdisciplinary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Asa; Kalman, Hildur

    2010-01-01

    In the present article, we will reflect on some didactic challenges and possibilities that emerge when teaching in interdisciplinary settings, and we will use and discuss the journey as a metaphor for learning. We argue that teaching in interdisciplinary studies rests on movements between different understandings, and that it gives ample…

  2. Teaching Art History in Interdisciplinary Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Leana

    This paper discusses how to teach art history in college level interdisciplinary courses. Today, art historians find themselves involved in teaching art history not only in art history curricula, but also in interdisciplinary studies, such as Ancient Greek Culture, Renaissance in France, and Women in Art. When teaching art history in…

  3. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Pereg, L.; Quinton, J. N.; Six, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-01-01

    The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, geologists, and physicists, amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. In more recent years this list has grown to include anthropologists, economists, engineers, medical professionals, military professionals, sociologists, and even artists. This approach has been strengthened and reinforced as current research continues to use experts trained in both soil science and related fields and by the wide array of issues impacting the world that require an in-depth understanding of soils. Of fundamental importance amongst these issues are biodiversity, biofuels/energy security, climate change, ecosystem services, food security, human health, land degradation, and water security, each representing a critical challenge for research. In order to establish a benchmark for the type of research that we seek to publish in each issue of SOIL, we have outlined the interdisciplinary nature of soil science research we are looking for. This includes a focus on the myriad ways soil science can be used to expand investigation into a more holistic and therefore richer approach to soil research. In addition, a selection of invited review papers are published in this first issue of SOIL that address the study of soils and the ways in which soil investigations are essential to other related fields. We hope that both this editorial and the papers in the first issue will serve as examples of the kinds of topics we would like to see published in SOIL and will stimulate excitement among our readers and authors to participate in this new venture.

  4. A Five-Year Follow-up on the Role of Educational Support in Preventing Dropout from Upper Secondary Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Airi M.; Holopainen, Leena K.; Savolainen, Hannu K.

    2015-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the role of word reading and mathematical difficulties measured in 9th grade as factors for receiving educational support for learning in upper secondary education in Grades 10 to 12 (from ages 16 to 19) and furthermore as predictors of dropout from upper secondary education within 5 years after…

  5. The concept of psychical trauma: a bridge in interdisciplinary space.

    PubMed

    Tutté, Juan Carlos

    2004-08-01

    The concept of trauma currently occupies a central position in interdisciplinary dialogue. Using the concept of psychical trauma as a bridge, the author attempts an interdisciplinary dialogue with psychiatry, biology and neuroscience. Beginning with the concept of psychical trauma in Freud, the author reviews the evolution of Freud's thinking, and links it with the ideas of Ferenczi and post-Freudian psychoanalytical authors. From a different framework, he considers the present state of research on post-traumatic stress disorder in current psychiatric nosography and attempts an interdisciplinary approximation to the concept of psychical trauma. Interesting ideas like the traumatic situation, trauma spectrum and psychopathological spectrum emerge, which enable a better understanding of the concept of psychical trauma through its relatedness, as a bridge connecting a broad psychopathological range extending from normality to psychosis. The ensuing possible relative loss of nosographical rigour is more than compensated by the resulting increased understanding and enlarged therapeutic possibilities. In the second part of the paper, the author attempts a dialogue with neuroscience, taking into account new advances in current research on emotion and memory, and making them compatible with the psychoanalytical concept of trauma. In this sense, the paper underlines the importance of emotion and crucially of memory, regarded as a fundamental axis of the subject explored in this paper. Here a substantial distinction which is pertinent for analytical work appears: declarative memories versus non-declarative or procedural memories. In a concluding discussion the author argues that, taking into account the implications of these current notions regarding a number of theoretical and technical aspects, psychoanalysis currently holds a privileged position, both in its potential for prevention and regarding the treatment of patients, in so far as, through interdisciplinary dialogue

  6. Use of aspirin for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients in an ambulatory care setting in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Fernández-de-Bobadilla, Jaime; Frías-Garrido, Xavier; Ruiz-Riera, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Background This study was conducted in order to determine the use of aspirin and to assess the achievement of therapeutic targets in diabetic patients according to primary (PP) or secondary prevention (SP). Methods This is a retrospective, observational study including patients ≥18 years with diabetes mellitus followed in four primary care centers. Measurements included demographics, use of aspirin and/or anticoagulant drugs, co-morbidities, clinical parameters and proportion of patient at therapeutic target (TT). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression model were used for significance. Results A total of 4,140 patients were analyzed, 79.1% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 77.7–80.5%) in PP and 20.9% (95% CI: 18.2–23.7%) in SP. Mean age was 64.1 (13.8) years, and 49.3% of patient were men (PP: 46.3, SP: 60.7, p = 0.001). Aspirin was prescribed routinely in 20.8% (95% CI: 19.4–22.2%) in PP and 60.8% (95% CI: 57.6–64.0%) in SP. Proportion of patient at TT was 48.0% for blood pressure and 59.8% for cholesterol. Use of aspirin was associated to increased age [OR = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00–1.02); p = 0.011], cardiovascular-risk factors [OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03–1.27); p = 0.013], LDL-C [OR = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06–1.88); p = 0.017] and higher glycated hemoglobin [OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22–1.89); p = 0.000] were covariates associated to the use of aspirin in PP. Conclusion Treatment with aspirin is underused for PP in patients with diabetes mellitus in Primary Care. Achievement of TT should be improved. PMID:17941978

  7. Global Education at Streetsville Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    In 1973 an innovative, interdisciplinary global studies course was instituted at a secondary school in Ontario. Designed for advanced students at the grade 13 level, the course emphasized science, language arts, and mathematics issues in terms of the world's environmental and social problems. Rationale for the course included an awareness of the…

  8. Is pretenure interdisciplinary research a career risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Mackey, K. R. M.; Cusack, D. F.; DeSantis, L. R. G.; Hartzell-Nichols, L.; Lutz, J. A.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Meyer, R.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Sorte, C. J. B.; Taylor, J. R.; White, S. A.

    2012-08-01

    Despite initiatives to promote interdisciplinary research, early-career academics continue to perceive professional risks to working at the interface between traditional disciplines. Unexpectedly, the inherent practical challenges of interdisciplinary scholarship, such as new methodologies and lexicons, are not the chief source of the perceived risk. The perception of risk is pervasive across disciplines, and it persists despite efforts to support career development for individuals with common interests [Mitchell and Weiler, 2011]. Suggestions that interdisciplinary work can go unrewarded in academia [Clark et al., 2011] foster a concern that targeting interdisciplinary questions, such as those presented by climate change, will pose problems for acquiring and succeeding in a tenure-track position. If self-preservation limits the questions posed by early-career academics, a perceived career risk is as damaging as a real one to new transdisciplinary initiatives. Thus, institutions should address the source of this perception whether real or specious.

  9. Evolution--A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, Pat; Keating, Joe

    1990-01-01

    Outlines an award-winning interdisciplinary unit of study (used in biology and English classrooms) that combines literature, mythology, religious history relating to origins, and Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. (RS)

  10. Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics: Standards Correlation Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku

    2015-01-01

    This guide outlines teacher preparation, professional association, and Common Core State Standards aligned to an "interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics" approach using Junior Achievement educational programs within a Math Methods course to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math.

  11. 42 CFR 460.102 - Interdisciplinary team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.102 Interdisciplinary team. (a) Basic requirement. A PACE...

  12. 42 CFR 460.102 - Interdisciplinary team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.102 Interdisciplinary team. (a) Basic requirement. A PACE...

  13. 42 CFR 460.102 - Interdisciplinary team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.102 Interdisciplinary team. (a) Basic requirement. A PACE...

  14. Interdisciplinary research has consistently lower funding success.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Dinnage, Russell; Hua, Xia

    2016-06-29

    Interdisciplinary research is widely considered a hothouse for innovation, and the only plausible approach to complex problems such as climate change. One barrier to interdisciplinary research is the widespread perception that interdisciplinary projects are less likely to be funded than those with a narrower focus. However, this commonly held belief has been difficult to evaluate objectively, partly because of lack of a comparable, quantitative measure of degree of interdisciplinarity that can be applied to funding application data. Here we compare the degree to which research proposals span disparate fields by using a biodiversity metric that captures the relative representation of different fields (balance) and their degree of difference (disparity). The Australian Research Council's Discovery Programme provides an ideal test case, because a single annual nationwide competitive grants scheme covers fundamental research in all disciplines, including arts, humanities and sciences. Using data on all 18,476 proposals submitted to the scheme over 5 consecutive years, including successful and unsuccessful applications, we show that the greater the degree of interdisciplinarity, the lower the probability of being funded. The negative impact of interdisciplinarity is significant even when number of collaborators, primary research field and type of institution are taken into account. This is the first broad-scale quantitative assessment of success rates of interdisciplinary research proposals. The interdisciplinary distance metric allows efficient evaluation of trends in research funding, and could be used to identify proposals that require assessment strategies appropriate to interdisciplinary research.

  15. Interdisciplinary research has consistently lower funding success.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Dinnage, Russell; Hua, Xia

    2016-06-30

    Interdisciplinary research is widely considered a hothouse for innovation, and the only plausible approach to complex problems such as climate change. One barrier to interdisciplinary research is the widespread perception that interdisciplinary projects are less likely to be funded than those with a narrower focus. However, this commonly held belief has been difficult to evaluate objectively, partly because of lack of a comparable, quantitative measure of degree of interdisciplinarity that can be applied to funding application data. Here we compare the degree to which research proposals span disparate fields by using a biodiversity metric that captures the relative representation of different fields (balance) and their degree of difference (disparity). The Australian Research Council's Discovery Programme provides an ideal test case, because a single annual nationwide competitive grants scheme covers fundamental research in all disciplines, including arts, humanities and sciences. Using data on all 18,476 proposals submitted to the scheme over 5 consecutive years, including successful and unsuccessful applications, we show that the greater the degree of interdisciplinarity, the lower the probability of being funded. The negative impact of interdisciplinarity is significant even when number of collaborators, primary research field and type of institution are taken into account. This is the first broad-scale quantitative assessment of success rates of interdisciplinary research proposals. The interdisciplinary distance metric allows efficient evaluation of trends in research funding, and could be used to identify proposals that require assessment strategies appropriate to interdisciplinary research. PMID:27357795

  16. Interdisciplinary Science in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, L. M.; Lopresti, V. C.; Papali, P.

    1993-05-01

    The practice of science is by its very nature interdisciplinary. Most school curricula, however, present science as a "layer cake" with one year each of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. Students are too often left with a fragmented, disjointed view of the sciences as separate and distinct bodies of information. The continuity of scientific thought and the importance of major ideas such as energy, rates of change, and the nature of matter are not seen. We describe two efforts to integrate the sciences in a middle school curriculum and in an introductory science course for prospective elementary teachers. Introductory physical science for eighth graders at the Park School has three major units: "Observing the Sky", "The Nature of Matter", and "The Nature of Light". The course moves from simple naked-eye observations of the Sun and Moon to an understanding of the apparent motions of the Sun and of the Earth's seasons. In "The Nature of Matter", students construct operational definitions of characteristic properties of matter such as density, boiling point, solubility, and flame color. They design and perform many experiments and conclude by separating a mixture of liquids and solids by techniques such as distillation and fractional crystallization. In studying flame tests, students learn that different materials have different color "signatures" and that the differences can be quantified with a spectroscope. They then observe solar absorption lines with their spectroscopes and discover which elements are present in the Sun. Teachers of young children are potentially some of the most powerful allies in increasing our country's scientific literacy, yet most remain at best uneasy about science. At Wheelock College we are designing a course to be called "Introduction to Natural Science" for elementary education majors. We will address special needs of many in this population, including science anxiety and poor preparation in mathematics. A broad conceptual

  17. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  18. Definitions of Interdisciplinary Research: Toward Graduate-Level Interdisciplinary Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Maura; Newswander, Lynita K.

    2010-01-01

    Combining the interdisciplinary studies (primarily humanities) literature with the content analysis of 129 successful National Science Foundation proposals written predominantly by science and engineering faculty members, the authors identify five categories of learning outcomes for interdisciplinary graduate education: disciplinary grounding,…

  19. Water Resources Research and Interdisciplinary Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    1990-09-01

    Water Resource Research was born under the watchful eye of Walter Langbein, a modern-day Renaissance man whose interests spanned not only hydrology but all of the earth sciences, and not only the earth sciences but all of science. From its founding in1965 to the present day, the editors of WRR have always seen the journal as a medium of interdisciplinary interaction. On this 25th anniversary of WRR, I thought it might be worthwhile to look back on the interdisciplinary successes and failures of the past quarter decade, in our journal and in our science. There is no question that research in water resources is an interdisciplinary endeavor. At my university we have a graduate program in interdisciplinary hydrology on the books, and on those occasions when we gather together, there are students and faculty there from as many as seven different departments: geography, geology, soil science, forestry, civil engineering, mining engineering, and bioresource engineering. In addition, our campus hosts the Westwater Research Institute where physical scientists can get involved in interdisciplinary research with social scientists from regional and community planning, resource management, resource economics, commerce, and law. I suspect that many campuses have a similar breadth of water resources interests. It is this breadth that WRR is designed to serve.

  20. Art and Fairy Tales in an Interdisciplinary Interplay: Teaching Interventions towards Negotiation and Subversion of Gender Roles and Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moula, Evangelia; Kabouropoulou, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary project under discussion is suitable to be addressed to students of either primary or secondary education and it interweaves the art of painting with fairy tales. The aims of the project are: the deeper understanding of the complexity of human nature and the sensitization of students regarding gender roles and stereotypes. On…

  1. The relevance of unrelated costs internal and external to the healthcare sector to the outcome of a cost-comparison analysis of secondary prevention: the case of general colorectal cancer screening in the German population.

    PubMed

    Tscheulin, Dieter K; Drevs, Florian

    2010-04-01

    The potential of secondary prevention measures, such as cancer screening, to produce cost savings in the healthcare sector is a controversial issue in healthcare economics. Potential savings are calculated by comparing treatment costs with the cost of a prevention program. When survivors' subsequent unrelated health care costs are included in the calculation, however, the overall cost of disease prevention rises. What have not been studied to date are the secondary effects of fatal disease prevention measures on social security systems. From the perspective of a policy maker responsible for a social security system budget, it is not only future healthcare costs that are relevant for budgeting, but also changes in the contributions to, and expenditures from, statutory pension insurance and health insurance systems. An examination of the effect of longer life expectancies on these insurance systems can be justified by the fact that European social security systems are regulated by the state, and there is no clear separation between the financing of individual insurance systems due to cross-subsidisation. This paper looks at how the results of cost-comparison analyses vary depending on the inclusion or exclusion of future healthcare and non-healthcare costs, using the example of colorectal cancer screening in the German general population. In contrast to previous studies, not only are future unrelated medical costs considered, but also the effects on the social security system. If a German colorectal cancer screening program were implemented, and unrelated future medical care were excluded from the cost-benefit analysis, savings of up to 548 million euros per year would be expected. The screening program would, at the same time, generate costs in the healthcare sector as well as in the social security system of 2,037 million euros per year. Because the amount of future contributions and expenditures in the social security system depends on the age and gender of the

  2. The relevance of unrelated costs internal and external to the healthcare sector to the outcome of a cost-comparison analysis of secondary prevention: the case of general colorectal cancer screening in the German population.

    PubMed

    Tscheulin, Dieter K; Drevs, Florian

    2010-04-01

    The potential of secondary prevention measures, such as cancer screening, to produce cost savings in the healthcare sector is a controversial issue in healthcare economics. Potential savings are calculated by comparing treatment costs with the cost of a prevention program. When survivors' subsequent unrelated health care costs are included in the calculation, however, the overall cost of disease prevention rises. What have not been studied to date are the secondary effects of fatal disease prevention measures on social security systems. From the perspective of a policy maker responsible for a social security system budget, it is not only future healthcare costs that are relevant for budgeting, but also changes in the contributions to, and expenditures from, statutory pension insurance and health insurance systems. An examination of the effect of longer life expectancies on these insurance systems can be justified by the fact that European social security systems are regulated by the state, and there is no clear separation between the financing of individual insurance systems due to cross-subsidisation. This paper looks at how the results of cost-comparison analyses vary depending on the inclusion or exclusion of future healthcare and non-healthcare costs, using the example of colorectal cancer screening in the German general population. In contrast to previous studies, not only are future unrelated medical costs considered, but also the effects on the social security system. If a German colorectal cancer screening program were implemented, and unrelated future medical care were excluded from the cost-benefit analysis, savings of up to 548 million euros per year would be expected. The screening program would, at the same time, generate costs in the healthcare sector as well as in the social security system of 2,037 million euros per year. Because the amount of future contributions and expenditures in the social security system depends on the age and gender of the

  3. Results From the Periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) Study: A Pilot Multicentered, Randomized, Controlled Trial to Study Effects of Periodontal Therapy in a Secondary Prevention Model of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Offenbacher, Steven; Beck, James D.; Moss, Kevin; Mendoza, Luisito; Paquette, David W.; Barrow, David A.; Couper, David J.; Stewart, Dawn D.; Falkner, Karen L.; Graham, Susan P.; Grossi, Sara; Gunsolley, John C.; Madden, Theresa; Maupome, Gerardo; Trevisan, Maurizio; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Genco, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background In the Periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) pilot study, periodontal therapy was provided as an intervention in a secondary cardiac event prevention model through five coordinated cardiac– dental centers. Methods Subjects were randomized to either community care or protocol provided scaling and root planing to evaluate effects on periodontal status and systemic levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Results After 6 months, there was a significant reduction in mean probing depth and extent of 4- or 5-mm pockets. However, there were no significant differences in attachment levels, bleeding upon probing, or extent of subgingival calculus comparing subjects assigned to protocol therapy (n = 151) to those assigned to community care (n = 152). Using intent-to-treat analyses, there was no significant effect on serum hs-CRP levels at 6 months. However, 48% of the subjects randomized to community care received preventive or periodontal treatments. Secondary analyses demonstrated that consideration of any preventive or periodontal care (i.e., any treatment) compared to no treatment showed a significant reduction in the percentage of people with elevated hs-CRP (values >3 mg/l) at 6 months. However, obesity nullified the periodontal treatment effects on hs-CRP reduction. The adjusted odds ratio for hs-CRP levels >3 mg/l at 6 months for any treatment versus no treatment among non-obese individuals was 0.26 (95%confidence interval: 0.09 to 0.72), adjusting for smoking, marital status, and gender. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated the critical role of considering obesity as well as rigorous preventive and periodontal care in trials designed to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:19186958

  4. [Interdisciplinary treatment concepts in chronic wounds].

    PubMed

    Coerper, S; Kerber, A; Schäffer, M; Becker, H D

    1998-01-01

    Interdisciplinary concepts for the treatment of chronic wounds are mandatory because of the multifactorial reasons causing ulceration. This is a report on 6 years' experience at the wound care unit in Tübingen. Patients with chronic wounds (mainly diabetic, venous, and ischemic ulcers) were treated primarily as outpatients according to a standardised and interdisciplinary wound care protocol. Quality control was guaranteed by a standardised wound documentation system. The evaluation of this data demonstrates an overall healing rate of 69% within 52 weeks (mean). Before patients were referred to Tübingen, unsuccessful therapy was characterised by a mean wound duration of 35 weeks. The results presented justify this interdisciplinary wound care unit. PMID:9931704

  5. Interdisciplinary research in climate and energy sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Goswami, Santonu; Gulledge, Jay; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-09-12

    Due to the complex nature of climate change, interdisciplinary research approaches involving knowledge and skills from a broad range of disciplines have been adopted for studying changes in the climate system as well as strategies for mitigating climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions reductions) and adapting to its impacts on society and natural systems. Harnessing of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels is widely regarded as a long-term mitigation strategy that requires the synthesis of knowledge from engineering, technology, and natural and social sciences. In this study, we examine how the adoption of interdisciplinary approaches has evolved over time and in different geographic regions. We conducted a comprehensive literature survey using an evaluation matrix of keywords, in combination with a word cloud analysis, to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of scholarly discourse about interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy research and development (R&D). Publications that discuss interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy have substantially increased over the last 60 years; it appears, however, that the nature, timing, and focus of these publications vary across countries and through time. Over the most recent three decades, the country-level contribution to interdisciplinary research for climate change has become more evenly distributed, but this was not true for renewable energy research, which remained dominated by the United Sates and a few other major economies. The research topics have also evolved: Water resource management was emphasized from 1990s to 2000s, policy and adaptation were emphasized from the 2000s to 2010 – 2013, while vulnerability became prominent during the most recent years (2010 – 2013). Lastly, our analysis indicates that the rate of growth of interdisciplinary research for renewable energy lags behind that for climate change, possibly because knowledge

  6. Interdisciplinary research in climate and energy sciences

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Goswami, Santonu; Gulledge, Jay; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-09-12

    Due to the complex nature of climate change, interdisciplinary research approaches involving knowledge and skills from a broad range of disciplines have been adopted for studying changes in the climate system as well as strategies for mitigating climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions reductions) and adapting to its impacts on society and natural systems. Harnessing of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels is widely regarded as a long-term mitigation strategy that requires the synthesis of knowledge from engineering, technology, and natural and social sciences. In this study, we examine how the adoption of interdisciplinary approaches has evolved over timemore » and in different geographic regions. We conducted a comprehensive literature survey using an evaluation matrix of keywords, in combination with a word cloud analysis, to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of scholarly discourse about interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy research and development (R&D). Publications that discuss interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy have substantially increased over the last 60 years; it appears, however, that the nature, timing, and focus of these publications vary across countries and through time. Over the most recent three decades, the country-level contribution to interdisciplinary research for climate change has become more evenly distributed, but this was not true for renewable energy research, which remained dominated by the United Sates and a few other major economies. The research topics have also evolved: Water resource management was emphasized from 1990s to 2000s, policy and adaptation were emphasized from the 2000s to 2010 – 2013, while vulnerability became prominent during the most recent years (2010 – 2013). Lastly, our analysis indicates that the rate of growth of interdisciplinary research for renewable energy lags behind that for climate change, possibly because knowledge

  7. An Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Programme: Description and Evaluation of Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Etlin, David; Corey, David; Lee, John W.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this archival report is to describe the essential elements of an intensive 8-week interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation programme (IPRP) with a cognitive–behavioural emphasis and the results that can be expected in treating patients with chronic pain conditions. Method: This report describes a private outpatient program providing treatment services to patients with long-term disabling pain arising from work- or accident-related musculoskeletal injuries. The cohort consists of 338 consecutive patients who completed the program over a 3-year period (patients discharged between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007). Results: Improvements in vocational status were noted in 75% of patients with chronic pain. Patients were also able to reduce their pain levels by approximately 16% and to reduce their levels of anxiety and depression by 13% and 17% respectively. At the same time, 61% of patients were able to reduce or eliminate their pain medications. Conclusions: Outcomes are consistent with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of chronic pain conditions. The published literature supports the efficacy of this interdisciplinary approach in highly disabled patients for whom effective treatment has been delayed. Early intervention in the subacute phase is recommended for prevention of long-term disability in patients with chronic pain. PMID:21886371

  8. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain ...

  9. Impacted Teeth: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina; Zadurska, Małgorzata; Czochrowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    A tooth normally erupts when half to three-quarters of its final root length has developed. Tooth impaction is usually diagnosed well after this period and is generally asymptomatic. It is principally for this reason that patients seek treatment later than optimal. Tooth impaction is a common problem in daily orthodontic practice and, in most cases, it is recognized by chance in a routine dental examination. Therefore, it is very important that dental practitioners are aware of this condition, since early detection and intervention may help to prevent many harmful complications. The treatment of impacted teeth requires multidisciplinary cooperation between orthodontists, oral surgeons and sometimes periodontists. Orthodontic treatment and surgical exposure of impacted teeth are performed in order to bring the impacted tooth into the line of the arch. The treatment is long, more complicated and challenging. This article presents an overview of the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and complications associated with the management of impacted teeth. PMID:27629748

  10. Aggregated Interdisciplinary Databases and the Needs of Undergraduate Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Barbara; Gilbert, Julie; Fry, Amy Ray

    2008-01-01

    After seeing growing frustration among inexperienced undergraduate researchers searching a popular aggregated interdisciplinary database, the authors questioned whether the leading interdisciplinary databases are serving undergraduates' needs. As a preliminary exploration of this question, the authors queried vendors, analyzed their marketing…

  11. Robotics and Design: An Interdisciplinary Crash Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonarini, A.; Romero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors designed and ran a crash course on emotional robotics involving students from both the Information Engineering School and the Design School of Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. The course consisted of two intensive days of short introductory lessons and lab activity, done in interdisciplinary groups and supported by a well-equipped…

  12. Interdisciplinary Teacher Education in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Roberta; And Others

    The Children's House at Mankato State College serves as a teacher training facility with five major objectives: a) to develop an interdisciplinary program for pre- and in-service education for professional personnel; b) to provide teacher trainees with the opportunity to structure the environment for optimal child learning; c) to provide trainees…

  13. Physical Theory in Biology: An Interdisciplinary Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Charles J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which explores the relationships between physics and biology in terms of their conceptual structures and mathematical frameworks. Highlights the course content, its system of cross-disciplinary literature resources, and several innovative aspects of the method used for evaluating students. (Author/GA)

  14. Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Introduction to Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    An introduction is provided to the Interdisciplinary Studies (IDS) Program at Valencia Community College (VCC), a 2-year general education core curriculum divided into four courses. A description of VCC is followed by an overview of the program, which integrates the arts, philosophy, religion, English, mathematics, social sciences, and physical…

  15. Context in an Interdisciplinary Algebra Writing Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mathematics in real-word contexts is a strategy to make math relevant for undergraduate students. However, very little research exists on students' methods of integrating contextual and mathematical knowledge through writing. This study uses an interdisciplinary writing assignment to investigate the relationship between students' written…

  16. Interdisciplinary Teaching with Students as Inventors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Barbara E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a middle school level interdisciplinary science project in which students create and display their own inventions. Considers the role of science, math, language arts, writing, social studies, and computer science in the project. Describes the process whereby students become inventors and present their work. (JPB)

  17. Fundreds in Arkansas: An Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porte, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Fundreds in Arkansas, an interactive cooperative in Arkansas to promote and support Mel Chin's nationwide interdisciplinary artwork, Operation Paydirt (The Fundred Dollar Bill Project). The artwork involves communities and educational institutions across the country, healthcare professionals, engineers, urban planners, and…

  18. Structures and Strategies of Interdisciplinary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Carole L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the information processes and work situations of interdisciplinary scientists, focusing on structural and strategic elements of information exchange between intellectual domains. Interview data reveal that scientists undertake individual and cooperative boundary-crossing research. Four research modes are identified and associated with…

  19. Interagency, Interdisciplinary Service Coordination: A Training Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochhar, Carol A.

    This text is designed to assist state, regional, and local education agencies and other collaborating agencies to improve interdisciplinary and interagency service coordination for children, youth, and adults with disabilities in accordinace with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and other related statutes. The training guide…

  20. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  1. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  2. 7 CFR 610.5 - Interdisciplinary assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interdisciplinary assistance. 610.5 Section 610.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Conservation Operations §...

  3. Spanish for Nurses: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Elizabeth R.

    Courses in Spanish for nurses at Loretto Heights College in Colorado combine language instruction, cross-cultural studies, instruction in medical problems particular to certain groups, medical systems and philosophy, and participation in a college-wide interdisciplinary program entitled "Values in Concert." In this program, sets of three courses…

  4. Interdisciplinary Teams for High Schools. Fastback 416.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spies, Paul

    A learning team comprises two or more teachers of any two or more subject areas who seek to create a small, cohesive learning community. Interdisciplinary learning teams are vehicles that can empower school community members. This first part of this handbook introduces the learning team concept, discusses issues to consider in implementing…

  5. Multicultural Training in Spirituality: An Interdisciplinary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hage, Sally M.; Hopson, Amy; Siegel, Matthew; Payton, Gregory; DeFanti, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Is spiritual diversity a neglected dimension in preparation for multicultural competency? The authors present an interdisciplinary overview of research related to multicultural training in spirituality and religion to address this issue. Findings indicate that counseling program leaders have minimal preparation in spiritual and religious diversity…

  6. Ion Beam Analysis Techniques in Interdisciplinary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-12-31

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  7. Ion beam analysis techniques in interdisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-11-16

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  8. The Challenges of Interdisciplinary Epistemology in Neuroaesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, James

    2011-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics is a burgeoning new interdisciplinary research space in which cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy intersect in order to better inform our understanding of aesthetic experience. The purpose of this study is to analyze high-profile work in neuroaesthetics in the light of recent research into interdisciplinary…

  9. The World through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Helen; Bannon, Bryan; Isard, Jeremy; Stonebraker, Phoebe; Royer, Dana; Yohe, Gary; Chernoff, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Scholars and teachers have long struggled to respond to the growing demand for interdisciplinary approaches to complex social issues. They come to the table with their own disciplinary perspectives (scholars more rigidly than students, perhaps), but they also recognize the limitations of investigating social issues through a single disciplinary…

  10. Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Teacher's Guide: Part IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for the last of four courses in Valencia Community College's Interdisciplinary Studies program, a 2-year core general education curriculum which chronologically examines the major developments in the evolution of human knowledge. The guide provides an introductory overview of the semester's content (i.e., the…

  11. Interdisciplinary Education in a Cluster College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzek, James C.; Carr, Gene

    This paper provides a brief overview of Oakton Community College's (OCC) cluster organization, which is believed to foster offering of true interdisciplinary education. OCC is organized into four learning clusters, each of 30 full-time and 40 part-time faculty, 1,500 students, and headed by a dean. Each cluster is semi-autonomous; authority is…

  12. Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Teacher's Guide: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for the first of four courses in Valencia Community College's Interdisciplinary Studies Program, a 2-year core general education curriculum which chronologically examines the major developments in the evolution of human knowledge. The guide provides an introductory overview of the semester's topic (i.e., the…

  13. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…

  14. An English and Social Studies Interdisciplinary Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Gloria Siegel

    1991-01-01

    Describes the format for an interdisciplinary program of English/social studies (ESP) for eleventh grade honor students developed by the Coconut Creek High School (Florida). Promotes a thematic context for innovation and relies on cooperative learning. Provides the teacher-developed goals for the ESP program including learning outcome, present…

  15. Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Teacher's Guide: Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for the third of four courses in Valencia Community College's Interdisciplinary Studies program, a 2-year core general education curriculum which chronologically examines the major developments in the evolution of human knowledge. The guide provides an introductory overview of the course's topic (i.e., Western…

  16. Interdisciplinary Teaming as an Induction Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Hart, Laurie E.

    2005-01-01

    The role of interdisciplinary teaming in the induction of new teachers was examined at two middle level schools through the perceptions of three participant groups: new teachers, mentors, and principals. Data collected through a mixed-method design indicated that participants perceived inter disciplinary teams as an integral part of the induction…

  17. Enriching Social Work through Interdisciplinary Disability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Irene; Quaglia, Christine; Leslie, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This paper recommends that faculties of Social Work incorporate Disability Studies in their curriculum by embracing its interdisciplinary deconstructionist perspective. Disability Studies encourages Social Work to move beyond person-in--the-environment and anti-oppressive approaches to find more effective ways of removing barriers for persons with…

  18. Institutional Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glied, Sherry; Bakken, Suzanne; Formicola, Allan; Gebbie, Kristine; Larson, Elaine L.

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity has become the model of scholarly inquiry generally espoused by many who seek federal research funding. Interdisciplinary research centers pose challenges to academic settings and to investigators. In a conference of directors of diverse research centers at a single research university we found that the challenges facing…

  19. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  20. Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Teacher's Guide: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for the second of four courses in Valencia Community College's Interdisciplinary Studies Program, a 2-year core general education curriculum which chronologically examines the major developments in the evolution of human knowledge. The guide provides an introductory overview of the semester's topic (i.e., the…

  1. Using Interdisciplinary Arts Education to Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorimer, Maureen Reilly

    2009-01-01

    Amid crossing currents of educational expectations pressing on principals, the author advocates for enhancing inclusion of the visual and performing arts. Although electives and clubs provide arts exposure to a selected few, many students do not receive consistent and high-quality arts experiences. Carefully planned, interdisciplinary arts…

  2. Interdisciplinary Curriculum Reform in the Changing University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In response to the current demands and trends within education, the disciplines as one of the core long-standing organizing structures within knowledge production and transmission are questioning and shifting what and how they teach. Universities are increasingly offering interdisciplinary subjects and programmes as an alternative to or alongside…

  3. Sustained Change: Institutionalizing Interdisciplinary Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Maura; Boden, Daniel; Newswander, Lynita K.

    2014-01-01

    We employ Scott's three pillars of institutions (regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive) to investigate how higher education organizations change to support interdisciplinary graduate education. Using document analysis and case study approaches, we illustrate how strategies which address both policies and cultural norms are most…

  4. Whales and Whaling--An Interdisciplinary Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines the content of this interdisciplinary course and includes a list of the texts being used. Parts one and two are concerned with the biology of the whale and other marine mammals, while part three covers the whaling industry and related topics. (MA)

  5. Highlights of Programmatic, Interdisciplinary Research on Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of research topics and findings from an interdisciplinary, programmatic line of research on writing over the past 25 years is presented. The cross-sectional assessment studies (grades 1 to 9) showed which measures uniquely explained variance in handwriting, spelling, and composing and thus validated their use in assessment. These and…

  6. Developing Interdisciplinary Units: Strategies and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jacqueline; Czerniak, Charlene

    1994-01-01

    A theme of sharks is used to illustrate the process of developing interdisciplinary units for middle school instruction, including a model for teams of teachers to follow. As activities evolve, a concept map is created to illustrate relationships and integration of ideas and activities for various disciplines. (Contains 10 references.) (MKR)

  7. Three Interdisciplinary Studies on IT Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantman, Sonia Vilvovsky

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides interdisciplinary insights into the role of client's internal collaborative experience in managing communication during a complex outsourced project, building a quality client-vendor relationship and ultimately achieving success in the project. Each of the three studies in this dissertation identifies a gap in…

  8. Interdisciplinary Approach: A Lever to Business Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmak, Jamil; Bélanger, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The advances in interdisciplinary studies are driving universities to utilize their available resources to efficiently enable development processes and provide increasing examples of research while gradually allocating the disciplines' resources. Ultimately, this trend asks universities to provide a platform of integrated disciplines, along with…

  9. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 1502.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an inter... environmental design arts (section 102(2)(A) of the Act). The disciplines of the preparers shall be...

  10. Why and How to Be Interdisciplinary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalke, Anne; Grobstein, Paul; McCormack, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Interdisciplinary conversations are fast becoming a central feature of academic and intellectual life. In this article, the authors present the different perspectives of a literary scholar, a biologist, and a physicist, as well as the voices of other professionals in other disciplines who have worked together under the auspices of the six-year-old…

  11. Facilitating Interdisciplinary Learning: Lessons from Project Kaleidoscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Elrod, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Many major funding organizations, policymakers, government agencies, and other higher education stakeholders want higher education to encourage interdisciplinary learning so that students graduate with the requisite skills to take on complex jobs in science, policy, business, and industry. Calls for this kind of change have been most urgent within…

  12. Space Perception: A Topic of Interdisciplinary Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramm, Kenneth R.; Kramm, Deborah A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents space perception as an important interdisciplinary topic. A unit on space perception in a senior-level animal behavior course is described. The unit is introduced with a survey of how the students describe areas around them. The survey is followed by a discussion on personal space. (HM)

  13. Creating Socially Networked Knowledge through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuk, Eric; Hoetzlein, Rama; Kim, David; Panko, Julia

    2012-01-01

    We report on the experience of creating a socially networked system, the Research-oriented Social Environment (RoSE), for representing knowledge in the form of relationships between people, documents, and groups. Developed as an intercampus, interdisciplinary project of the University of California, this work reflects on a collaboration between…

  14. Improving Teaching Practice through Interdisciplinary Dialog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardetti, Fabiana A.; Orgnero, M. Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a self-study of interdisciplinary work that has generated profound changes in our teaching practices. The research grew out of an interest in exploring the nature of our work and the practices that contribute to its success. Our self-study revealed that our work process consists of five stages and is the product…

  15. Teaching Primary Health Care: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzina, Paul; Keogh, Johann J.; Keogh, Mariana

    1998-01-01

    Nursing and radiology students (n=15) at the University of Malta who completed an interdisciplinary module on primary health care reported they found the theoretical material applicable to practice; the module enabled them to learn about their potential role in primary health care. (SK)

  16. Interdisciplinary pilot project in a rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Cox, P D; Beaton, C; Bossers, A; Pepper, J; Gage, M

    1999-01-01

    This project qualitatively evaluated the planning, implementation, and outcome of an interdisciplinary model of clinical education. Expectations of physiotherapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and speech-language pathology (SLP) students and clinicians were assessed to determine whether the model allowed for the acquisition of the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills needed for current practice. Students from OT (n = 5), PT (n = 3), and SLP (n = 1) undertook normally scheduled five-to-eight-week clinical placements, beginning on the same start date. All students were at intermediate or senior levels in their programs. Discipline-specific activities were supervised by clinical instructors from the disciplines. Interdisciplinary sessions during the first five weeks covered cross-disciplinary activities related to clinical reasoning, interviewing techniques, professionalism, and communication skills for team reporting. Themes related to the clinical experience were derived from student and supervisor responses to pre-and post-placement questionnaires, post-placement focus group interviews, and student journals. The response to the model was positive. The students felt they had gained insights into developing interdisciplinary skills, although they did feel that some discipline-specific needs were not met. The instructors were less enthusiastic but, given better planning and communication before the placement, welcomed the opportunity to try it again. PMID:10189608

  17. Interdisciplinary Research: Practising the In-Between

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This article will demonstrate that practice-led photographic research offers an example of dialogical encounter. Through recourse to an outline of my own practice and the experience of completing a practice-led doctoral thesis, the article will account for photographic practice and interdisciplinary research in terms of dialogism. This will…

  18. The Interdisciplinary Nature of Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    This article is an introduction to "Oceanaids." An Oceanaid is a list of ideas for the teacher on how he or she may incorporate interdisciplinary topics from the marine sciences into everyday classes, regardless of the subject matter or pupil age. A typical Oceanaid, Marine Mammals, is included. (Author/BB)

  19. Analyzing Learning at Work: An Interdisciplinary Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David Thornton

    2007-01-01

    Experience in the workplace represents a significant domain for the analysis of learning. Based on many years of research on high-school and college interns, the article proposes a set of interdisciplinary ideas and strategies for conducting such an analysis. The core argument is that learning is the construction, enhancement or reorganization of…

  20. The State of the Field: Interdisciplinary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the process of interdisciplinary research has expanded considerably over the last decades. The purpose of this brief paper is to take stock of where we are and where we are going. The first section addresses definitional issues and discusses the relationship between teaching and research. The second section discusses potential…

  1. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  2. Of Mice and Men: Interdisciplinary Unit. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck Middle School, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    "Of Mice and Men" is developed as an interdisciplinary unit to be team taught by math, science, language arts, and social studies teachers and team guidance counselors. Developed as an individualized program for middle school students, a variety of supplementary materials is provided to exemplify the types of activities suggested for students.…

  3. QUANTA: An Interdisciplinary Learning Community (Four Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avens, Cynthia; Zelley, Richard

    QUANTA is a year-long interdisciplinary program at Daytona Beach Community College (Florida) that seeks to establish a learning community of students and teachers. Three courses (English, Pyschology, and Humanities) are integrated around a common theme each semester of the freshman year, and are taught using a collaborative teaching model. This…

  4. Teacher Education in an Interdisciplinary Cohort Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Interdisciplinary Cohort Model of Teacher Preparation at the University of Kentucky. It has been successful in preparing business and marketing teachers in a one-year period, has made educational foundations an integral part of classroom practice, and fostered collaboration between business and marketing…

  5. Small Worlds: Biography in the Interdisciplinary Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David

    2008-01-01

    The interdisciplinary survey inherits from more traditional survey courses the weaknesses embodied in the survey textbook. The standard textbook presentation gives students the impression that each figure's music, art, or literature is the product of the "spirit of the age." Well-chosen biographies temper that presentation by drawing attention to…

  6. Synergistic Knowledge Development in Interdisciplinary Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Shorna R.; La Lopa, Joseph Mick; Ross-Davis, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Problem solving, interpersonal skills, information literacy, and critical and independent thinking are essential qualities that employers seek, yet many undergraduates lack. We structured an interdisciplinary classroom and experiential learning environment where students from three undergraduate courses (Hospitality and Tourism Management,…

  7. Interdisciplinary Research toward a Theory of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beaugrande, Robert

    Recent developments in such fields as linguistics, logic, information theory, computer science, speech act theory, and psychology can lead to a greater interdisciplinary understanding of the process of writing (defined as purposeful activity involving language use in special modes). Purposes for writing, which may be correlated with the many…

  8. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  9. Starting to Uncover the Mystery of Interdisciplinary Research in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    The multidisciplinary nature of kinesiology seems to be an ideal configuration for conducting interdisciplinary research. Proposed as a potential solution to overcome fragmentation, interdisciplinary research has a role within kinesiology that remains unknown. In this study, we explored kinesiologists' perceptions of interdisciplinary research,…

  10. Teaching and Learning in Interdisciplinary Higher Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelt, Elisabeth J. H.; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Luning, Pieternel A.; Mulder, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary higher education aims to develop boundary-crossing skills, such as interdisciplinary thinking. In the present review study, interdisciplinary thinking was defined as the capacity to integrate knowledge of two or more disciplines to produce a cognitive advancement in ways that would have been impossible or unlikely through single…

  11. Interdisciplinary Courses and Curricula in the Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Arianne

    This digest defines interdisciplinary courses, presents the benefits and challenges of offering them in the community college, and describes six existing interdisciplinary courses at community colleges around the country. Interdisciplinary courses are characterized by the following: they tend to be highly innovative; they incorporate concepts and…

  12. From Surprise Parties to Mapmaking: Undergraduate Journeys toward Interdisciplinary Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Carolyn; Leonard, Jeannie Brown

    2010-01-01

    As educators in academic programs featuring interdisciplinary learning, the authors can attest that helping undergraduate students in an interdisciplinary studies major engage in interdisciplinary learning--that is, draw from two or more disciplines to advance understanding of a problem, question, or phenomenon--is no mean feat. Consequently, the…

  13. [Secondary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  14. The Menefee model for patient-focused interdisciplinary team collaboration.

    PubMed

    Menefee, Kathy S

    2014-11-01

    The conversion to electronic plans of care in a community hospital setting offered an opportunity to design an interdisciplinary, collaborative model for patient-focused care. The performance improvement initiative began with the development of evidence-based interdisciplinary plans of care and concluded with a consistent and effective process for patient engagement and daily interdisciplinary team rounding. Benefits include reduced readmission rates, higher patient satisfaction, and improved interdisciplinary team collaboration. This project demonstrates how an interdisciplinary model that includes patient-centered, nurse-led care plan rounding was created, implemented, and measured.

  15. SoSTI Course: An Elective Science Course for Thai Upper Secondary School Non-Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruekpramool, Chaninan; Phonphok, Nason; White, Orvil L.; Musikul, Kusalin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to develop the interdisciplinary SoSTI (science of sound in traditional Thai musical instruments) course for Thai non-science upper secondary school students to study the students' attitudes toward science before and after studying from the course. The SoSTI course development is based on the interdisciplinary concept model and…

  16. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5′-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20–24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5′, but not 3′-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5′ to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3′-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5′-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5′-cleavage fragments. PMID:26464441

  17. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, Menas

    2004-01-01

    The report spans the three year period beginning in June of 2001 and ending June of 2004. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center's (JIESIC) primary purpose has been to carry out research in support of the Global Change Data Center and other Earth science laboratories at Goddard involved in Earth science, remote sensing and applications data and information services. The purpose is to extend the usage of NASA Earth Observing System data, microwave data and other Earth observing data. JIESIC projects fall within the following categories: research and development; STW and WW prototyping; science data, information products and services; and science algorithm support. JIESIC facilitates extending the utility of NASA's Earth System Enterprise (ESE) data, information products and services to better meet the science data and information needs of a number of science and applications user communities, including domain users such as discipline Earth scientists, interdisciplinary Earth scientists, Earth science applications users and educators.

  18. [Interdisciplinary emergency room - key to success?].

    PubMed

    Kirsch, M; Zahn, P; Happel, D; Gries, A

    2014-09-01

    In Germany, which is also faced with a scarcity of resources, the concept of central, interdisciplinary emergency rooms ("Zentrale Notfallaufnahme", ZNA) is being developed as an answer to the complex demands of modern emergency medicine with increasing numbers of patients and complexity of the medical conditions. This autonomous institution is the first point of contact for all emergency patients. The central tasks of the ZNA are triage and the interdisciplinary primary treatment of patients. The establishment of the ZNA includes specific facilities (treatment rooms, short stay units, resuscitation rooms, triage and management areas, integration of the premises on site) as well as specific processes (triage systems, specific standard operating procedures) and training for the staff (European Curriculum for Emergency Medicine). It could be shown that by establishing a ZNA along with all its structures the satisfaction of the patients (including shorter waiting times), resource management (intensive care capacity), and patient outcome could be significantly improved.

  19. Interdisciplinary Integrated Engineering Development Course in HITACHI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Masahiro

    As an example of interdisciplinary education for engineers in private companies, IED (Integrated Engineering Development) course at HITACHI Ltd. is presented. To help 30 years old or so promising engineers create a new product based on a new technology, one year term course is designed for four types of engineers; mechanical, electric & electronic, information software, and digital systems. Each course has core basic technologies plus related supplementary subjects to promote an interdisciplinary integrated engineer. Not only lectures given by university professors but heavy duty home work is also given by senior engineers of HITACHI to make them apply basic theory to practical problems. Furthermore, self development planning, leadership development program and technology-marketing project are introduced to promote human skills and business sense needed for technology leaders in company.

  20. Interdisciplinary education approach to the human science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhang, Nian

    2012-06-01

    We introduced human sciences as components, and integrated them together as an interdisciplinary endeavor over decades. This year, we built a website to maintain systematically the educational research service. We captured the human sciences in various components in the SPIE proceedings over the last decades, which included: (i) ears & eyes like adaptive wavelets, (ii) brain-like unsupervised learning independent component analysis (ICA); (iii) compressive sampling spatiotemporal sparse information processing, (iv) nanoengineering approach to sensing components, (v) systems biology measurements, and (vi) biomedical wellness applications. In order to serve the interdisciplinary community better, our system approach is based on that the former recipients invited the next recipients to deliver their review talks and panel discussions. Since only the former recipients of each component can lead the nomination committees and make the final selections, we also create a leadership award which may be nominated by any conference attendance, to be approved by the conference organization committee.

  1. The Use of Extemporaneous Ethics in the Formulation of Interdisciplinary Team Impressions and Recommendations for Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tommie

    The paper traces the evolution of psychiatric care for children from an intrapsychic orientation to a new conceptual perspective provided by systems theory and the accompanying relational formulation of conflict. The interdisciplinary process prevents a challenge to professionals' collaboration and respect for other fields and mandates critical…

  2. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested.

  3. Interdisciplinary Teaching Enhances Learning across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Debbie Galante

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students don't think they're musical, and even if they do, they may still question how taking a music class now might help them in the future. Interdisciplinary teaching--an educational style that takes in elements of more than one subject at a time--can be a major help in such cases. In the words of Elizabeth Ann McAnally, general music…

  4. Treatment of crown dilaceration: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Naidu, P

    2010-01-01

    Trauma to primary teeth can result in a wide range of disturbances to the underlying permanent teeth, such as dilaceration. Root dilacerations occur more commonly than crown dilacerations. This paper is a report of an 11-year-old girl with a missing maxillary left anterior tooth. Past history revealed premature loss of primary maxillary anterior teeth due to trauma. Radiographic examination revealed crown dilaceration of permanent maxillary left central incisor. An interdisciplinary approach in the management of this child is presented herewith.

  5. Interdisciplinary approach to palatally impacted canine

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ashish; Loomba, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Sharma, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. The article highlights the salient features and various surgical and orthodontic considerations to approach cases with impacted canines. It is exemplified with a case in which a palatally impacted canine and a highly placed canine in the buccal vestibule have been surgically intervened and orthodontically extruded with sequential traction and aligned in the arch. PMID:22442552

  6. The role of additional computed tomography in the decision-making process on the secondary prevention in patients after systemic cerebral thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Szczuchniak, Wiktor; Nyka, Walenty M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with ischemic stroke undergoing intravenous (iv)-thrombolysis are routinely controlled with computed tomography on the second day to assess stroke evolution and hemorrhagic transformation (HT). However, the benefits of an additional computed tomography (aCT) performed over the next days after iv-thrombolysis have not been determined. Methods We retrospectively screened 287 Caucasian patients with ischemic stroke who were consecutively treated with iv-thrombolysis from 2008 to 2012. The results of computed tomography performed on the second (control computed tomography) and seventh (aCT) day after iv-thrombolysis were compared in 274 patients (95.5%); 13 subjects (4.5%), who died before the seventh day from admission were excluded from the analysis. Results aCTs revealed a higher incidence of HT than control computed tomographies (14.2% vs 6.6%; P=0.003). Patients with HT in aCT showed higher median of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission than those without HT (13.0 vs 10.0; P=0.01) and higher presence of ischemic changes >1/3 middle cerebral artery territory (66.7% vs 35.2%; P<0.01). Correlations between presence of HT in aCT and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission (rpbi 0.15; P<0.01), and the ischemic changes >1/3 middle cerebral artery (phi=0.03) existed, and the presence of HT in aCT was associated with 3-month mortality (phi=0.03). Conclusion aCT after iv-thrombolysis enables higher detection of HT, which is related to higher 3-month mortality. Thus, patients with severe middle cerebral artery infarction may benefit from aCT in the decision-making process on the secondary prophylaxis. PMID:26730196

  7. Interdisciplinary information design with an empowerment strategy.

    PubMed

    Barlach, Anders; Engberg, Axel; Pallesen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    An innovative research into a model for ICT enabled Empowerment. By deliberate use of ICT and a feedback-focused communication model in a prototyping process, e-health information based on an empowerment strategy is evaluated. Overall a risk-driven spiral model is applied for Progress and Complexity handling in order to ensure success. The process model devised has a proactive approach to interdisciplinary teamwork, organisational web maturity, and the post-modern user's interaction with ICT. The research is performed and evaluated in cooperation with an interdisciplinary team of health professionals, and voluntary groups of patients from an athletic clinic in a Danish University Hospital.Results are as follows: INDIVIDUAL LEVEL: Empowerment is evaluated as successful using Empiric reception analysis, based on social and humanistic sciences, and showing traces of Empowerment from the patient's perspective. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: Nursing Informatics becomes a tool in the interdisciplinary understanding, allowing the nurses to take responsibility for core nursing themes regarding the healthy and the diseased phases of the patients' lives. Iterative modelling ensuring the results is evident and derived from the patient's perspective.

  8. How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools.

    PubMed

    Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda

    2015-01-01

    The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart

  9. [Prevention of dementia].

    PubMed

    Urakami, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    The dementia prevention consists of three steps, primary prevention of dementia is to prevent from normal and mild cognitive impairment to dementia, secondary prevention is early detection and early treatment of dementia, and tertiary prevention is three stages of progress prevention of dementia. Primary prevention of dementia had been considered impossible until recently, but potential scientific evidence has been shown recently. The fact that 4.62 million people are person with dementia and 400 million people are person with mild cognitive impairment are considered to be urgent problem and we must intend to perform dementia prevention from primary to tertiary prevention thoroughly. We perform dementia screening using touch panel type computer and we recommend person with mild cognitive impairment to join dementia prevention classroom. Therefore, we can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia (primary prevention). Early diagnosis and introduction to the specialized medical institution are needed if you find early stage of dementia and treat early (secondary prevention). To prevent progression by the appropriate drug treatment and care for dementia is required (tertiary prevention).

  10. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections prevent the need for surgery in patients with sciatica secondary to lumbar disc herniation: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Neil A.; McKeon, Melissa D.; Abraham, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The median orthopedic surgery wait time in Canada is 33.7 weeks, thus alternative treatments for pathologies such as lumbar disc herniations (LDH) are needed. We sought to determine whether transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) alleviate or merely delay the need for surgery. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with LDH who received TFESIs between September 2006 and July 2008. Patient demographics, level and side of pathology, workers’ compensation status, levels injected, treatment outcome and time from referral to treatment were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was the need for versus the avoidance of surgery. Results We included 91 patients in our analysis. Time from family physician referral to injection was 123 (standard deviation [SD] 88) days; no significant differences in wait times were found between TFESI patients and those requiring surgery. In all, 51 patients (22 women, 29 men) with a mean age of 45.8 (SD 10.2) years avoided surgery following TFESI, whereas 40 patients (16 women, 24 mean) with a mean age of 43.1 (SD 12.0) years proceeded to surgery within 189 (SD 125) days postinjection. In all, 15 patients received multiple injections, and of these, 9 did not require surgical intervention. Age, sex and level/side of pathology did not influence the treatment outcome. Workers’ compensation status influenced outcome significantly; these patients demonstrated less benefit from TFESI. Conclusion Transforaminal epidural steroid injections are an important treatment tool, preventing the need for surgery in 56% of patients with LDH. PMID:23351495

  11. The role of vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary prevention. A position paper from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on peripheral circulation: Endorsed by the Association for Research into Arterial Structure and Physiology (ARTERY) Society.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Aboyans, Victor; Brodmann, Marianne; Cífková, Renata; Cosentino, Francesco; De Carlo, Marco; Gallino, Augusto; Landmesser, Ulf; Laurent, Stéphane; Lekakis, John; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Naka, Katerina K; Protogerou, Athanasios D; Rizzoni, Damiano; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Van Bortel, Luc; Weber, Thomas; Yamashina, Akira; Zimlichman, Reuven; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Cockcroft, John; O'Rourke, Michael; Park, Jeong Bae; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Sillesen, Henrik; Townsend, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    While risk scores are invaluable tools for adapted preventive strategies, a significant gap exists between predicted and actual event rates. Additional tools to further stratify the risk of patients at an individual level are biomarkers. A surrogate endpoint is a biomarker that is intended as a substitute for a clinical endpoint. In order to be considered as a surrogate endpoint of cardiovascular events, a biomarker should satisfy several criteria, such as proof of concept, prospective validation, incremental value, clinical utility, clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness, ease of use, methodological consensus, and reference values. We scrutinized the role of peripheral (i.e. not related to coronary circulation) noninvasive vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention. Most of the biomarkers examined fit within the concept of early vascular aging. Biomarkers that fulfill most of the criteria and, therefore, are close to being considered a clinical surrogate endpoint are carotid ultrasonography, ankle-brachial index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; biomarkers that fulfill some, but not all of the criteria are brachial ankle pulse wave velocity, central haemodynamics/wave reflections and C-reactive protein; biomarkers that do no not at present fulfill essential criteria are flow-mediated dilation, endothelial peripheral arterial tonometry, oxidized LDL and dysfunctional HDL. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether a specific vascular biomarker is overly superior. A prospective study in which all vascular biomarkers are measured is still lacking. In selected cases, the combined assessment of more than one biomarker may be required.

  12. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Drop Landing Across 3 Institutions: Implications for Multicenter Research for Secondary ACL-Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Bates, Nathaniel A.; DiCesare, Christopher A.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Thomas, Staci M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D.; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Noehren, Brian W.; McNally, Michael; Ford, Kevin R.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Context Due to the limitations of single-center studies in achieving appropriate sampling with relatively rare disorders, multicenter collaborations have been proposed to achieve desired sampling levels. However, documented reliability of biomechanical data is necessary for multicenter injury-prevention studies and is currently unavailable. Objective To measure the reliability of 3-dimensional (3D) biomechanical waveforms from kinetic and kinematic variables during a single-leg landing (SLL) performed at 3 separate testing facilities. Design Multicenter reliability study. Setting 3 laboratories. Patients 25 female junior varsity and varsity high school volleyball players who visited each facility over a 1-mo period. Intervention Subjects were instrumented with 43 reflective markers to record 3D motion as they performed SLLs. During the SLL the athlete balanced on 1 leg, dropped down off of a 31-cm-high box, and landed on the same leg. Kinematic and kinetic data from both legs were processed from 2 trials across the 3 laboratories. Main Outcome Measures Coefficients of multiple correlations (CMC) were used to statistically compare each joint angle and moment waveform for the first 500 ms of landing. Results Average CMC for lower-extremity sagittal-plane motion was excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .95, ankle .99). Average CMC for lower-extremity frontal-plane motion was also excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .80, ankle .93). Kinetic waveforms were repeatable in each plane of rotation (3-center mean CMC ≥.71), while knee sagittal-plane moments were the most consistent measure across sites (3-center mean CMC ≥.94). Conclusions CMC waveform comparisons were similar relative to the joint measured to previously published reports of between-sessions reliability of sagittal- and frontal-plane biomechanics performed at a single institution. Continued research is needed to further standardize technology and methods to help ensure that highly

  13. Fostering Interdisciplinary Communication between Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Kiersma, Mary E.; Keib, Carrie N.; Cailor, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate pharmacy and nursing student self-perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, faculty member perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, and changes in those skills after increasing the interdisciplinary education content. Design. Two cohorts of pharmacy and nursing (bachelors of science in nursing, BSN) students in respective, semester-long research courses engaged in active learning on interdisciplinary communication, with the second cohort receiving additional content on the topic. At semester completion, students presented a research project at an interdisciplinary poster session. Assessment. Self-, peer-, and faculty evaluations (4 items; 5-point Likert-type) assessing self-confidence and actual interdisciplinary communication skills were completed during the poster session. Overall, students responded they were “very confident” or “extremely confident” regarding the skills, with greater confidence reported by the second cohort. Faculty members agreed that students exhibited effective interdisciplinary communication skills, with stronger agreement for the second cohort. Conclusion. Including interdisciplinary education and experiences in a curriculum increases students’ interdisciplinary communication skills. Using multiple interdisciplinary experiences may result in greater increases in these skills. PMID:26430270

  14. Acceptability and Correlates of Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cervical Cancer among Medical Students in Southwest China: Implications for Cancer Education

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Zhao, Zhi-Mei; Sun, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wen, Qing-Lian; Liu, Kang; Song, Gui-Qin; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wen, Ying; Fu, Chun-Jing; Yang, Chun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To understand knowledge about, and acceptability of, cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccines among medical students; and to explore potential factors that influence their acceptability in China. Methods We conducted a survey among medical students at six universities across southwest China using a 58-item questionnaire regarding knowledge and perceptions of HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccines. Results We surveyed 1878 medical students with a mean age of 20.8 years (standard deviation: 1.3 years). Of these, 48.8% and 80.1% believed cervical cancer can be prevented by HPV vaccines and screening respectively, while 60.2% and 71.2% would like to receive or recommend HPV vaccines and screening. 35.4% thought HPV vaccines ought to be given to adolescents aged 13–18 years. 32% stated that women should start to undergo screening from the age of 25. 49.2% felt that women should receive screening every year. Concern about side effects (38.3% and 39.8%), and inadequate information (42.4% and 35.0%) were the most cited barriers to receiving or recommending HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Females were more likely to accept HPV vaccines (OR, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.47–2.35) or cervical cancer screening (OR, 3.69; 95% CI: 2.88–4.74). Students with a higher level of related knowledge were much more willing to receive or recommend vaccines (P<0.001) or screening (P<0.001). Students who showed negative or uncertain attitudes towards premarital sex were less likely to accept either HPV vaccines (OR, 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47–0.96), or screening (OR, 0.68; 0.47–0.10). Non-clinical students showed lower acceptability of cervical screening compared to students in clinical medicine (OR, 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56–0.96). Conclusions The acceptability of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening is relatively low among medical students in southwest China. Measures should be taken to improve knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of HPV vaccines and screening

  15. Using Prevention Science to Promote Children's Mental Health: The Founding of the Missouri Prevention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Puri, Rohini; Agarwal, Geetika

    2010-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated, now convincingly, that emotional and behavioral syndromes and many of their antecedent risks can be prevented. Much of this progress can be traced to the founding and expansion of the relatively young field called prevention science, an interdisciplinary field that emerged in the early 1990s to address the…

  16. Peer education for secondary stroke prevention in inner-city minorities: Design and methods of the Prevent Recurrence of All Inner-city Strokes through Education randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldfinger, Judith Z.; Kronish, Ian M.; Fei, Kezhen; Graciani, Albert; Rosenfeld, Peri; Lorig, Kate; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The highest risk for stroke is among survivors of strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIA). However, use of proven-effective cardiovascular medications to control stroke risk is suboptimal, particularly among the Black and Latino populations disproportionately impacted by stroke. Methods A partnership of Harlem and Bronx community representatives, stroke survivors, researchers, clinicians, outreach workers and patient educators used community-based participatory research to conceive and develop the Prevent Recurrence of All Inner-city Strokes through Education (PRAISE) trial. Using data from focus groups with stroke survivors, they tailored a peer-led, community-based chronic disease self-management program to address stroke risk factors. PRAISE will test, in a randomized controlled trial, whether this stroke education intervention improves blood pressure control and a composite outcome of blood pressure control, lipid control, and use of antithrombotic medications. Results Of the 582 survivors of stroke and TIA enrolled thus far, 81% are Black or Latino and 56% have an annual income less than $15,000. Many (33%) do not have blood pressures in the target range, and most (66%) do not have control of all three major stroke risk factors. Conclusions Rates of stroke recurrence risk factors remain suboptimal in the high risk, urban, predominantly minority communities studied. With a community-partnered approach, PRAISE has recruited a large number of stroke and TIA survivors to date, and may prove successful in engaging those at highest risk for stroke and reducing disparities in stroke outcomes in inner-city communities. PMID:22710563

  17. Office of Interdisciplinary Health Studies Education, East Carolina university.

    PubMed

    Greer, Annette G; Clay, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    The Office of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences Education resides organizationally within East Carolina University (ECU), Division of Health Sciences; ECU established this office in 1999. The mission of the office is fivefold: 1. promote the expansion of interdisciplinary training within and between Health Sciences and other health-related programs on campus; 2. promote innovative research opportunities across disciplines, in particular, projects regarding interdisciplinary health sciences education; 3. serve as a clearinghouse for information relative to existing and planned interdisciplinary activities and projects within the Division; 4. collaborate with units, and communities in establishing community partnerships for interdisciplinary rural health training; and 5. identify core curricular content across health-related disciplines, minimizing curricular redundancy while promoting interdisciplinary collaboration.

  18. Interdisciplinary Simulation Using the Cardiopulmonary Bypass Simulator (CPBS)?

    PubMed

    Mendel, Shaun

    2014-12-01

    Interdisciplinary education offerings between students of cardiovascular science and nurse anesthesia are uncommon despite the collaborative nature of these disciplines. The dual purpose of this article is to describe a method for interdisciplinary simulation and to report survey responses provided by participants. An interdisciplinary simulation session using concurrent use of the cardiopulmonary bypass simulator and the emergency care simulator is described. Interdisciplinary perceptions before and after the event were surveyed using the revised Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale. Statistically significant differences between baseline and final survey responses were observed in the total score and within the areas of competency and perception of cooperation. Emerging simulation technologies and novel combinations of existing devices can facilitate meaningful interdisciplinary educational opportunities for health science students.

  19. Chasing polys: Interdisciplinary affinity and its connection to physics identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Tyler D.

    This research is based on two motivations that merge by means of the frameworks of interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity. First, a goal of education is to develop interdisciplinary abilities in students' thinking and work. But an often ignored factor is students interests and beliefs about being interdisciplinary. Thus, this work develops and uses a framework called interdisciplinary affinity. It encompasses students interests in making connections across disciplines and their beliefs about their abilities to make those connections. The second motivation of this research is to better understand how to engage more students with physics. Physics identity describes how a student sees themselves in relation to physics. By understanding how physics identity is developed, researchers and educators can identify factors that increase interest and engagement in physics classrooms. Therefore, physics identity was used in conjunction with interdisciplinary affinity. Using a mixed methods approach, this research used quantitative data to identify the relationships interdisciplinary affinity has with physics identity and the physics classroom. These connections were explored in more detail using a case study of three students in a high school physics class. Results showed significant and positive relationships between interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity, including the individual interest and recognition components of identity. It also identified characteristics of physics classrooms that had a significant, positive relationship with interdisciplinary affinity. The qualitative case study highlighted the importance of student interest to the relationship between interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity. It also identified interest and mastery orientation as key to understanding the link between interdisciplinary affinity and the physics classroom. These results are a positive sign that by understanding interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity

  20. Interdisciplinary collaboration within Quebec Community Health Care Centres.

    PubMed

    Sicotte, Claude; D'Amour, Danielle; Moreault, Marie-Pierre

    2002-09-01

    Central to the success of many recent health system reforms is the implementation of new primary health care delivery models. The central characteristic common to these new models usually emphasises interdisciplinary collaboration. Using empirical research, this paper studies interdisciplinary collaboration among various groups of professionals within an original Canadian primary health care delivery model, the Quebec Community Health Care Centres (CCHCs). The entire population of more than 150 CHCCs have been surveyed. The goals of this study are (1) to measure the achieved intensity of inter-professional collaboration among Quebec CHCCs, and (2) to identify the organisational and professional factors fostering or limiting interdisciplinary collaboration. The results show that Quebec CHCCs have reached modest results in achieving interdisciplinary collaboration especially since interdisciplinary collaboration is a central objective that has been pursued for more than 25 years. This study demonstrates that the main factors associated with interdisciplinary collaboration are closely linked to work group internal dynamics. Interdisciplinary collaboration is linked to the simultaneous and antagonistic effect of some central intragroup process factors. Conflicting values and beliefs are present that both enhance and limit interdisciplinary collaboration. The presence of conflicting stimuli seriously undermines the strength of the CHCC work group's shared beliefs and strongly limits interdisciplinary collaboration. The results also stress the importance of administrative formalisation initiatives to enhance collaboration among different professions. The efficacy of formalisation in this context is based on its capacity to offer an articulated and operative interdisciplinary framework that can generate a counteractive effect to the traditional professional framework. It offers concrete rules that help align the work group beliefs with interdisciplinary values. The

  1. Undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interdisciplinary learning: a phenomenographic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Chien

    Engineers are expected to work with people with different disciplinary knowledge to solve real-world problems that are inherently complex, which is one of the reasons that interdisciplinary learning has become a common pedagogical practice in engineering education. However, empirical evidence on the impact of interdisciplinary learning on undergraduates is lacking. Regardless of the differences in the scope of methods used to assess interdisciplinary learning, frameworks of interdisciplinary learning are imperative for developing attainable outcomes as well as interpreting assessment data. Existing models of interdisciplinary learning have been either conceptual or based on research faculty members' experiences rather than empirical data. The study addressed the gap by exploring the different ways that undergraduate engineering students experience interdisciplinary learning. A phenomenographic methodological framework was used to guide the design, data collection, and data analysis of the study. Twenty-two undergraduate engineering students with various interdisciplinary learning experiences were interviewed using semi-structured protocols. They concretely described their experiences and reflected meaning associated with those experiences. Analysis of the data revealed eight qualitatively different ways that students experience interdisciplinary learning, which include: interdisciplinary learning as (A) no awareness of differences, (B) control and assertion, (C) coping with differences, (D) navigating creative differences, (E) learning from differences, (F) bridging differences, (G) expanding intellectual boundaries, and (H) commitment to holistic perspectives. Categories D through H represent a hierarchical structure of increasingly comprehensive way of experiencing interdisciplinary learning. Further analysis uncovered two themes that varied throughout the categories: (i) engagement with differences and (ii) purpose and integration. Students whose experiences lie

  2. [Retinal vein occlusion: an interdisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Hatz, Katja; Martinez, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion provide a common cause of significant visual reduction but also late ocular complications. The medical care of these patients pursue two goals: On the one hand vision threatening complications need to be identified and treated, and on the other hand treatable risk factors are need to be identified and treated. This paper summarizes the common ophthalmological therapeutic approaches as well as recommended medical evaluations carried out by the general practitioner. This supports the interdisciplinary approach in evaluating and treating retinal vein occlusions by ophthalmologists and the general practitioners/specialist in internal medicine. PMID:26982647

  3. Treatment of crown dilaceration: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Naidu, P

    2010-01-01

    Trauma to primary teeth can result in a wide range of disturbances to the underlying permanent teeth, such as dilaceration. Root dilacerations occur more commonly than crown dilacerations. This paper is a report of an 11-year-old girl with a missing maxillary left anterior tooth. Past history revealed premature loss of primary maxillary anterior teeth due to trauma. Radiographic examination revealed crown dilaceration of permanent maxillary left central incisor. An interdisciplinary approach in the management of this child is presented herewith. PMID:20215670

  4. Interdisciplinary Evidence-based Practice: Moving from Silos to Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Robin P.; Spring, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Despite the assumption that health care providers work synergistically in practice, professions have tended to be more exclusive than inclusive when it comes to educating students in a collaborative approach to interdisciplinary evidence-based practice (EBP). This article explores the state of academic and clinical training regarding interdisciplinary EBP, describes efforts to foster interdisciplinary EBP, and suggests strategies to accelerate the translation of EBP across disciplines. Moving from silos to synergy in interdisciplinary EBP will require a paradigm shift. Changes can be leveraged professionally and politically using national initiatives currently in place on improving quality and health care reform. PMID:21074648

  5. IEEN workshop report: Professionalism in interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Owens, John; Cribb, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Interdisciplinary and Empirical Ethics Network was established in 2012 with funding from the Wellcome Trust in order to facilitate critical and constructive discussion around the nature of the disciplinary diversity within bioethics and to consider the ongoing development of bioethics as an evolving field of interdisciplinary study. In April 2013, the Interdisciplinary and Empirical Ethics Network organized a workshop at the Centre for Public Policy Research, King’s College London, which discussed the nature and possibility of professionalism within interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics. This paper provides a report of that workshop. PMID:26097433

  6. Energy Use and the Environment. Concepts & Activities for the Classroom: Secondary Social Studies Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    As part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary environmental education program for elementary and secondary education in Hawaii, this teaching guide provides a variety of energy education activities for secondary social studies. An extensive introduction outlines the total program and how it fits into the general education program. It explains how…

  7. Skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kornek, Thomas; Augustin, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Prevention signifies the avoidance of diseases. It also includes the early detection of diseases and taking measures to avoid worsening of an existing disease. Prevention is divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The prevention of skin cancer is particularly important due to the rising incidence of skin cancer in recent years. In Germany, 195.000 new cases of skin cancer, including non melanoma skin cancer and melanoma are occurring. Therefore, skin cancer is among the most common cancer diseases. Primary prevention comprises the reduction of skin cancer risk behavior, including education about the danger of UV exposure and the right way of dealing with natural and artificial UV radiation. The implementation of a systematic skin cancer screening in Germany contributes to secondary prevention. First data from the initial project in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany's most northern state, indicate for the first time that the incidence and mortality of melanoma can be reduced by secondary prevention. For tertiary prevention, the national associations recommend a risk-adapted, evidence-based follow-up for all types of skin cancer. From the perspectives of the payers and from the patients, prevention is assessed positively. Prevention can contribute to a reduction of disease burden.

  8. Nutrition Education: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Revised Edition, 1978. Developed through an Inservice Program of the Nutrition Education Development Project. Administered by Luzerne Intermediate Unit 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Jane, Ed.; Armillay, Joy, Ed.

    This curriculum guide was developed to help teachers from pre-school through secondary grade levels provide an interdisciplinary approach to teaching nutrition. This guide begins with eleven instructional units, varying from two to twenty pages in length, on basic nutrition and other selected topics. Each unit includes some or all of the…

  9. New Challenges in Education: Retrospection of History of Education to the Future in the Interdisciplinary Dialogue among Didactics of Various School Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallová, Mária, Ed.; Guncaga, Ján, Ed.; Chanasová, Zuzana, Ed.; Chovancová, Michaela Moldová, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this scientific monograph is to show new and creative approaches to different school subjects in primary and secondary level. Methodology: Interdisciplinary and international comparative approaches were used. Now according to the 7th Framework Program, the preferred form of Science Education (www.scientix.eu) is preferred…

  10. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth’s hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  11. Interdisciplinary Professional Development: Astrolabes for Medievalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2014-06-01

    Astronomers and astronomy educators have significantly broadened the intended audience for their outreach activities, from the traditional venues of public schools, libraries and planetariums to national parks, coffee houses, and concert halls. At the same time, significant attention has been paid to improving the quality and relevance of professional development directed toward preservice and inservice science teachers. Many of our outreach and professional development programs have also become increasingly creative in their use of interdisciplinary connections to astronomy, such as cultural astronomy and the history of astronomy. This poster describes a specific example of interdisciplinary professional development directed at a different audience, humanities faculty and researchers, through hands-on workshops on the basic astronomical background and usage of an astrolabe conducted at the International Congress on Medieval Studies at Western Michigan University in 2013 and 2014. The goal was to explain the basic astronomy behind astrolabes (as well as their cultural relevance) to medieval scholars in history, literature, and other disciplines. The intention was to increase their comfort with manipulating and explaining astrolabes to a basic level where they could share their knowledge with their own college classes. In this way the relevance of astronomy to myriad human endeavors could be reinforced by humanities faculty within their own courses.

  12. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  13. International Interdisciplinary Research Institute Project in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, Paul

    2010-02-01

    The project of an interdisciplinary research institute in Senegal was initiated in 1993 in Senegal (West Africa) and became a template for a similar project in the US in 1999. Since then, numerous meetings and presentations have been held at various national and international institutions, workshops and conferences. The current development of this partnership includes drafts for a full design of all systems at each facility, as well as the physics, applied health and educational programs to be implemented. The Senegal facility was conceived for scientific capacity building and equally to act as a focal point aimed at using the local scientific expertise. An anticipated outcome would be a contribution to the reduction of an ever-growing brain drain process suffered by the country, and the African continent in general. The development of the project led also to a strong African orientation of the facility: built for international collaboration, it is to be a pan-African endeavor and to serve primarily African countries. The facility received a presidential approval in a 2003 meeting and will develop an interdisciplinary program centered on a strong materials science research which will also allow for the establishment of an advanced analytical (physical chemistry) laboratory. A central part of the facility will be linked to state-of-the art accelerator mass spectrometry, cyclotron and low energy electromagnetic accelerator systems. )

  14. Interdisciplinary care clinics in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Johns, Tanya S; Yee, Jerry; Smith-Jules, Terrian; Campbell, Ruth C; Bauer, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is substantial, and is associated with high hospitalization rates, premature deaths, and considerable health care costs. These factors provide strong rationale for quality improvement initiatives in CKD care. The interdisciplinary care clinic (IDC) has emerged as one solution to improving CKD care. The IDC team may include other physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and social workers--all working together to provide effective care to patients with chronic kidney disease. Studies suggest that IDCs may improve patient education and preparedness prior to kidney failure, both of which have been associated with improved health outcomes. Interdisciplinary care may also delay the progression to end-stage renal disease and reduce mortality. While most studies suggest that IDC services are likely cost-effective, financing IDCs is challenging and many insurance providers do not pay for all of the services. There are also no robust long-term studies demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of IDCs. This review discusses IDC models and its potential impact on CKD care as well as some of the challenges that may be associated with implementing these clinics. PMID:26458811

  15. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth's hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  16. Editorial "The Interdisciplinary Nature of SOIL"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Cerdá, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Pereg, L.; Quinton, J. N.; Six, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2014-09-01

    The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, geologists, and physicists amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. This approach has been strengthened and reinforced as current research continues to use experts trained in both soil science and related fields and by the wide array of issues impacting the world's biosphere that require an in-depth understanding of soils. Of fundamental importance amongst these issues are biodiversity, biofuels/energy security, climate change, ecosystem services, food security, human health, land degradation, and water security, each representing a critical challenge for research. In order to establish a benchmark for the type of research we seek to highlight in each issue of SOIL, here in this editorial, we outline the interdisciplinary nature of soil science research that we are seeking for in SOIL, with a focus on the myriad ways soil science can be used to expand investigation into a more holistic and therefore richer approach to soil research. In addition, we provide a selection of invited review papers in the first issue of SOIL that address the study of soils and the ways in which soil investigations are essential to other related fields. We hope that both this editorial and the first issue will serve as examples of the kinds of topics we would like to see published in SOIL and will stimulate excitement among our readers and authors to participate in this new venture.

  17. [Secondary dyslipidemias].

    PubMed

    Vargová, V; Pytliak, M; Mechírová, V

    2012-03-01

    Dyslipidemias rank among the most important preventabile factors of atherogenesis and its progression. This topic is increasingly being discussed as e.g. more than 50% of Slovak population die on atherosclerotic complications. According to etiology we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with origin in other disease or pathological state. Secondary dyslipidemias accompany various diseases, from common (endocrinopathies, renal diseases etc) to rare ones (thesaurismosis etc.) and represents one of symptoms of these diseases. Apart from particular clinical follow up of diagnosed dysipidemias, basic screening and secondary causes as well as treatment due to updated guidelines is recuired. In this review we present the most frequent dyslipidemias of clinical practice.

  18. The Nyanza Project: Interdisciplinary Research Training In Tropical Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. S.; Lezzar, K. E.; Michel, E.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Russell, J. M.; Nkotagu, H.; Kimirei, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Nyanza Project is a research training program for American and African students, run annually at Lake Tanganyika (LT), Tanzania. The Project`s objective is to provide undergraduates, graduate students and secondary school teachers with the skills to plan and conduct interdisciplinary research on various aspects of tropical lake studiees. At a time of rapid global change there is a pressing need for young scientists trained to investigate environmental processes in an interdisciplinary framework. Training students to understand long-term changes in water availability, water quality and the relationship of aquatic ecosystems to rapid climate change represents a critical element of this societal need. Waterbodies in the tropics are particularly useful proving grounds for training future researchers on the impacts of global change on natural waters, as they are very sensitive to environmental and climatic change. Moreover, they are likely to provide instructive bellwethers of changes to come in U.S. inland waters. Each year 17-22 undergraduates, 3-4 graduate students and one secondary school teacher are selected for the program from the US and Africa. To date (1998-2005), 89 undergraduate students, 24 graduate students, and 8 secondary school teachers from the US have participated through the Project`s NSF support and 58 African students (from Tanzania, Burundi, Zambia, Congo, Kenya, and Burkina Faso) have been funded to participate in the Nyanza Project through supporting grants from our non-NSF funding sources. The 7-week program comprises an initial two week intensive short course on all aspects of the LT system and project preparation period, followed by 5 weeks of directed research, written report preparation, and scientific meeting-styled presentations. Focal topics for Nyanza Project research include: 1) investigating East African paleoclimates using sediment cores and reflection seismic profiling, 2) mapping & interpreting the geologic structure and

  19. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  20. Fostering Interdisciplinary Thinking through an International Development Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Rachel L.; Esperanza, Jennifer; Phan, Diep

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of interdisciplinary pedagogy, disciplinary teaching remains the norm on most campuses, primarily due to cost and institutional constraints. Bridging the gap between literature on interdisciplinary teaching and active-learning techniques, this article describes an innovative and less costly…

  1. Dispelling the Myths: Student Teachers and Interdisciplinary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John

    2002-01-01

    An interdisciplinary outdoor program in Ontario has hosted student teachers for several years. A classroom teacher in the program describes program orientation for student teachers, student reactions to the student teacher, how student teachers can help interdisciplinary programs, qualities of an ideal student teacher, and recommendations to other…

  2. Integrating Interdisciplinary Research-Based Experiences in Biotechnology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Rupa S.; Wales, Melinda E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly interdisciplinary nature of today's scientific research is leading to the transformation of undergraduate education. In addressing these needs, the University of Houston's College of Technology has developed a new interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology laboratory curriculum. Using the pesticide degrading bacterium,…

  3. Ontological Metaphors for Negative Energy in an Interdisciplinary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Gouvea, Julia; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about energy in interdisciplinary settings that emphasize coherence among physics, chemistry, and biology leads to a more central role for chemical bond energy. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to chemical energy leads to modeling chemical bonds in terms of negative energy. While recent work on ontological metaphors for energy…

  4. An Interdisciplinary Model for Connecting Writing, Psychology, and Printmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Staci

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an effective model for a manageable interdisciplinary project that shows students the connections among art, English, and other disciplines; gives composition students an external audience for their writing; and emphasizes the importance of research in the process of creating arguments and art. This interdisciplinary project…

  5. Development of a Course Sequence for an Interdisciplinary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary curriculum development is challenging in the sense that materials from more than one discipline have to be integrated in a seamless manner. A faculty member has to develop expertise in multiple disciplines in order to teach an interdisciplinary course, or the course has to be team-taught. Both approaches are difficult to…

  6. Social Network Analysis to Evaluate an Interdisciplinary Research Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboelela, Sally W.; Merrill, Jacqueline A.; Carley, Kathleen M.; Larson, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    We sought to examine the growth of an interdisciplinary center using social network analysis techniques. Specific aims were to examine the patterns of growth and interdisciplinary connectedness of the Center and to identify the social network characteristics of its productive members. The setting for this study was The Center for Interdisciplinary…

  7. Work Measurements: Interdisciplinary Overlap in Manufacturing and Algebra I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing engineering provides a relevant context from which to envision interdisciplinary learning experiences because engineers integrate their knowledge and skills of manufacturing and algebra processes in order to plan the efficient manufacture of products. In this article, the author describes an interdisciplinary learning activity that…

  8. Review Article: The Interdisciplinary Research Project in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkes, Fikret; Butler, M. J. A.

    1975-01-01

    This article concerns an attempt to develop an interdisciplinary environment-oriented program in a Canadian graduate school. A problem-solving approach was utilized in a study of the environmental aspects of the pulp and paper industry. The success of this project coincided with a growing interdisciplinary trend in other universities. (MA)

  9. Doctoral Education and the Development of an Interdisciplinary Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Karri A.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is challenged to produce innovative, collaborative and interdisciplinary knowledge in response to increasing social demands. Faculty are often ill-prepared to engage in such work, raising questions as to the balance between disciplinary identity and interdisciplinary engagement. This article examines the experiences of 40 students…

  10. The Educational Design of Textbooks: A Text for Being Interdisciplinary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Clinton

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides insights into both the educational design of textbooks and interdisciplinary education. The author introduces two educational principles for textbook design--instructional alignment and balancing diversity and meaningful guidance for readers--and applies them to writing his own textbook chapter for being interdisciplinary. The…

  11. Inclusive and Exclusive Knowledge Practices in Interdisciplinary, International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tange, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a critical engagement with the principle of inclusion, as manifest in three international, interdisciplinary master programmes in Denmark. Initially, it is proposed that one focuses on the knowledge practices found in international, interdisciplinary education, asking to what extent these suggest inclusion in the sense that all…

  12. Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Sally A.

    While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

  13. Teaching Interdisciplinary Geriatrics Ambulatory Care: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brent C.; Remington, Tami L.; Foulk, Mariko A.; Whall, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Interdisciplinary health care training is advocated by numerous government and philanthropic organizations. Educators in the health professions are increasingly offering training in interdisciplinary health care in a variety of contexts, including ambulatory settings. This paper describes a three-year program to teach skills in interdisciplinary…

  14. The Impact of Flexible Interdisciplinary Block Scheduling on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplinger, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of a middle school flexible interdisciplinary block schedule would increase eighth-grade students' reading scores, as measured by the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (OAKS). A 90-minute middle school flexible interdisciplinary block schedule served as the independent variable and…

  15. Physical Education and Language Arts: An Interdisciplinary Teaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, John; Murata, Nathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Physical education is a prime content area for interdisciplinary learning. The movement components of physical education can be used as a medium through which children are provided with opportunities to practice and strengthen language skills. Cone, Werner, Cone, and Woods (1998, p. 4) agree: "interdisciplinary learning is an educational process…

  16. Preparing Students to Be Empathic Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Lynn; Gitchel, Dent; Higgins, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration is a key component of rehabilitation practice. It ensures that a holistic and coordinated approach to planning is implemented. Just as the therapeutic relationship is enhanced through empathic understanding and communication, so too is the effectiveness of the interdisciplinary rehabilitation team in achieving…

  17. Exploring Parental Involvement Strategies Utilized by Middle School Interdisciplinary Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Chris; Searby, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents present a unique collection of characteristics and challenges which middle school interdisciplinary teams were designed to address. This article describes a research study which explored parental involvement strategies employed by interdisciplinary teaching teams from three very different middle schools: an affluent suburban school, a…

  18. Mathematics in the Biology Classroom: A Model of Interdisciplinary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Keck, Robert; Patterson, Richard; Maki, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary course that develops essential mathematical modeling skills within an introductory biology setting. The course embodies recent recommendations regarding the need for interdisciplinary, inquiry-based mathematical preparation of undergraduates in the biological sciences. Evaluation indicates that the…

  19. Chaos: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Education in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Saebyok

    2009-01-01

    Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme…

  20. Use of Readers Theater to Enhance Interdisciplinary Geriatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, Nancy; Pardue, Karen T.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the design and implementation of an interdisciplinary geriatric educational project at a small New England University. A novel, affective teaching approach of Readers Theater is highlighted as a beginning classroom instructional strategy for interdisciplinary students. The physical and psychosocial considerations for health…