Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow
Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.
1996-11-01
A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment.
Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow
Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.
1996-07-01
A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment.
Interfacial shear stress distribution in model composites. I - A Kevlar 49 fibre in an epoxy matrix
Jahankhani, H.; Galiotis, C. )
1991-05-01
The technique of Laser Raman Spectroscopy has been applied in the study of aramid fibers, such as Kevlar 49, and aramid/epoxy interfaces. A linear relationship has been found between Raman frequencies and strain upon loading a single Kevlar 49 filament in air. Model composites of single Kevlar 49 fibers embedded in epoxy resins have been fabricated and subjected to various degrees of mechanical deformation. The transfer lengths for reinforcement have been measured at various levels of applied tensile load and the dependence of transfer length upon applied matrix strain has been established. Finally, by balancing the tensile and the shear forces acting along the interface, the interfacial shear stress (ISS) distribution along the embedded fiber was obtained. 52 refs.
Interfacial Shear Rheology of Coffee Samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Läuger, Jörg; Heyer, Patrick
2008-07-01
Both oscillatory and rotational measurements on the film formation process and on interfacial rheological properties of the final film of coffee samples with different concentrations are presented. As higher the concentration as faster the film formation process is, whereas the concentration does not have a large effect on the visco-elastic properties of the final films. Two geometries, a biconical geometry and a Du Noüy ring have been employed. The presented results show that interfacial shear rheology allows detailed investigations on coffee films. Although with a Du Noüy ring it is possible to measure the qualitative behavior and relative differences only the biconical geometry is sensitive enough to test weak films and to reveal real absolute values for the interfacial shear rheological quantities.
Shear Wave Propagation Across Filled Joints with the Effect of Interfacial Shear Strength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. C.; Liu, T. T.; Li, H. B.; Liu, Y. Q.; Liu, B.; Xia, X.
2015-07-01
The thin-layer interface model for filled joints is extended to analyze shear wave propagation across filled rock joints when the interfacial shear strength between the filling material and the rocks is taken into account. During the wave propagation process, the two sides of the filled joint are welded with the adjacent rocks first and slide on each other when the shear stress on the joint is greater than the interfacial shear strength. By back analysis, the relation between the shear stress and the relative tangential deformation of the filled joints is obtained from the present approach, which is shown as a cycle parallelogram. Comparison between the present approach and the existing method based on the zero-thickness interface model indicates that the present approach is efficient to analyze shear wave propagation across rock joints with slippery behavior. The calculation results show that the slippery behavior of joints is related to the interfacial failure. In addition, the interaction between the shear stress wave and the two sides of the filling joint influences not only the wave propagation process but also the dynamic response of the filled joint.
Functionalization enhancement on interfacial shear strength between graphene and polyethylene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yikuang; Duan, Fangli; Mu, Xiaojing
2016-11-01
Pull-out processes were simulated to investigate the interfacial mechanical properties between the functionalized graphene sheet (FGS) and polyethylene (PE) matrix by using molecular dynamics simulation with ReaxFF reactive force field. The interfacial structure of polymer and the interfacial interaction in the equilibrium FGS/PE systems were also analyzed to reveal the enhancement mechanism of interfacial shear strength. We observed the insertion of functional groups into polymer layer in the equilibrium FGS/PE systems. During the pull-out process, some interfacial chains were attached on the FGS and pulled out from the polymer matrix. The behavior of these pulled out chains was further analyzed to clarify the different traction action of functional groups applied on them. The results show that the traction effect of functional groups on the pulled-out chains is agreement with their enhancement influence on the interfacial shear strength of the FGS/PE systems. They both are basically dominated by the size of functional groups, suggesting the enhancement mechanism of mechanical interlocking. However, interfacial binding strength also exhibits an obvious influence on the interfacial shear properties of the hybrid system. Our simulation show that geometric constrains at the interface is the principal contributor to the enhancement of interfacial shear strength in the FGS/PE systems, which could be further strengthened by the wrinkled morphology of graphene in experiments.
KENT,MICHAEL S.; YIM,HYUN; MATHESON,AARON J.; COGDILL,C.; NELSON,GERALD C.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID
2000-05-16
The relationships between fundamental interfacial interactions, energy dissipation mechanisms, and fracture stress or fracture toughness in a glassy thermoset/inorganic solid joint are not well understood. This subject is addressed with a model system involving an epoxy adhesive on a polished silicon wafer containing its native oxide. The proportions of physical and chemical interactions at the interface, and the in-plane distribution, are varied using self-assembling monolayers of octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODTS). The epoxy interacts strongly with the bare silicon oxide surface, but forms only a very weak interface with the methylated tails of the ODTS monolayer. The fracture stress is examined as a function of ODTS coverage in the napkin-ring (pure shear) loading geometry. The relationship between fracture stress and ODTS coverage is catastrophic, with a large change in fracture stress occurring over a narrow range of ODTS coverage. This transition in fracture stress does not correspond to a wetting transition of the epoxy. Rather, the transition in fracture stress corresponds to the onset of deformation in the epoxy, or the transition from brittle to ductile fracture. The authors postulate that the transition in fracture stress occurs when the local stress that the interface can support becomes comparable to the yield stress of the epoxy. The fracture results are independent of whether the ODTS deposition occurs by island growth (T{sub dep} = 10 C) or by homogeneous growth (T{sub dep} = 24 C).
Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct
Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M.; Murao, Y.
1995-09-01
Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.
Fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution in an interfacial shearing flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balaraj, Vignesh; McBride, Samantha; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan
2015-11-01
Although the association of fibril plaques with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's is well established, in-depth understanding of the roles played by various physical factors in seeding and growth of fibrils is far from well known. Of the numerous factors affecting this complex phenomenon, the effect of fluid flow and shear at interfaces is paramount as it is ubiquitous and the most varying factor in vivo. Many amyloidogenic proteins have been found to denature upon contact at hydrophobic interfaces due to the self-assembling nature of protein in its monomeric state. Here, fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution is studied in an interfacial shearing flow. The transient surface rheological response of the insulin solution to the flow and its effect on the bulk fibrillization process has been quantified. Minute differences in hydrophobic characteristics between two variants of insulin- Human recombinant and Bovine insulin are found to result in very different responses. Results presented will be in the form of fibrillization assays, images of fibril plaques formed, and changes in surface rheological properties of the insulin solution. The interfacial velocity field, measured from images (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), is compared with computations. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Interfacial shear rheology of DPPC under physiologically relevant conditions.
Hermans, Eline; Vermant, Jan
2014-01-07
Lipids, and phosphatidylcholines in particular, are major components in cell membranes and in human lung surfactant. Their ability to encapsulate or form stable layers suggests a significant role of the interfacial rheological properties. In the present work we focus on the surface rheological properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Literature results are confusing and even contradictory; viscosity values have been reported differ by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, even both purely viscous and gel-like behaviours have been described. Assessing the literature critically, a limited experimental window has been explored correctly, which however does not yet include conditions relevant for the physiological state of DPPC in vivo. A complete temperature and surface pressure analysis of the interfacial shear rheology of DPPC is performed, showing that the monolayer behaves as a viscoelastic liquid with a domain structure. At low frequencies and for a thermally structured monolayer, the interaction of the molecules within the domains can be probed. The low frequency limit of the complex viscosity is measured over a wide range of temperatures and surface pressures. The effects of temperature and surface pressure on the low frequency viscosity can be analysed in terms of the effects of free molecular area. However, at higher frequencies or following a preshear at high shear rates, elasticity becomes important; most probably elasticity due to defects at the edge of the domains in the layer is probed. Preshearing refines the structure and induces more defects. As a result, disagreeing interfacial rheology results in various publications might be due to different pre-treatments of the interface. The obtained dataset and scaling laws enable us to describe the surface viscosity, and its dependence under physiological conditions of DPPC. The implications on functioning of lung surfactants and lung surfactant replacements will be discussed.
Two interfacial shear strength calculations based on the single fiber composite test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhandarov, S. F.; Pisanova, E. V.
1996-07-01
The fragmentation of a single fiber embedded in a polymer matrix upon stretching (SFC test) provides valuable information on the fiber-matrix bond strength (τ), which determines stress transfer through the interface and, thus, significantly affects the mechanical properties of the composite material. However, the calculated bond strength appears to depend on data interpretation, i.e., on the applied theoretical model, since the direct result of the SFC test is the fiber fragment length distribution rather than the τ value. Two approaches are used in SFC testing for calculation of the bond strength: 1) the Kelly-Tyson model, in which the matrix is assumed to be totally elastic and 2) the Cox model using the elastic constants of the fiber and the matrix. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare these two approaches employing theory as well as the experimental data of several authors. The dependence of the tensile stress in the fiber and the interfacial shear stress on various factors has been analyzed. For both models, the mean interfacial shear stress in the fragment of critical length (lc) was shown to satisfy the same formula (τ) = (σcD)/2lc, where D is the fiber diameter and σc is the tensile strength of a fiber at gauge length equal to lc. However, the critical lengths from the Kelly-Tyson approach and Cox model are differently related to the fragment length distribution parameters such as the mean fragment length. This discrepancy results in different (τ) values for the same experimental data set. While the main parameter in the Kelly-Tyson model assumed constant for a given fiber-matrix pair is the interfacial shear strength, the ultimate (local) bond strength τult may be seen as the corresponding parameter in the Cox model. Various τult values were obtained for carbon fiber-epoxy matrix systems by analyzing the data of continuously monitored single fiber composite tests. Whereas the mean value of the interfacial shear stress calculated in
Interfacial Shear Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate
Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2011-05-01
Recent developments on decreasing the operating temperature for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have enabled the use of high temperature ferritic alloys as interconnect materials. Oxide scale will inevitably grow on the ferritic interconnects in a high temperature oxidation environment of SOFCs. The growth of the oxide scale induces growth stresses in the scale layer and on the scale/substrate interface. These growth stresses combined with the thermal stresses induced upon stacking cooling by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation, which may lead to serious cell performance degradation. Hence the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this paper, we applied an integrated experimental/modeling methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the SS 441 metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in details.
Shear-induced interfacial assembly of Janus particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezvantalab, Hossein; Connington, Kevin W.; Shojaei-Zadeh, Shahab
2016-11-01
We investigate the hydrodynamics of spherical Janus particles at the interface between two immiscible fluids using a multicomponent lattice-Boltzmann method. The Cahn-Hilliard model is used to evolve the composition for this binary system of incompressible fluids, while the particle-fluid interactions are taken into account by adding a supplemental force to recover the appropriate wettability at solid boundaries. We evaluate the capillary-induced interactions between multiple Janus particles at a sheared interface and demonstrate the possibility of directing their assembly. In response to the flow, all particles approach a steady orientation resulting from the balance between shear-induced torque and the resistance due to preferred wetting. At sufficiently large shear rates leading to strong capillary dipoles, the particles rearrange and form chains normal to the shear direction. For the particle sizes considered, an intermediate window of surface coverage between 32% and 65% is found to give effective alignment with order parameters in the range of 0.7-1.0. An interesting feature of this directed assembly method is that the structure is preserved after removing the flow field: Janus particles only rotate to upright orientation without disintegrating the chains. This approach can enable directing a randomly oriented or distributed cluster of Janus particles into an ordered structure with controllable rheological properties.
On the breakup of a thin liquid film subject to interfacial shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saber, Hamed H.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.
2004-02-01
The breakup of a thin non-evaporating liquid film that is either flowing down or climbing on a vertical or inclined surface and subject to cocurrent or countercurrent interfacial shear (or gas flow) is investigated analytically. Analytical expressions for the dimensionless liquid film thickness, Delta_{scriptsizemin}, and wetting rate, Gamma_{scriptsizemin}, at breakup are derived based on the minimization of the total energy of a stable rivulet, formed following the film breakup. For a downflowing liquid film, increasing the cocurrent interfacial shear (or gas velocity) or decreasing the equilibrium contact angle, theta_{o}, decreases both Delta_{scriptsizemin} and Gamma _{scriptsizemin}, below their values with zero interfacial shear. Conversely, increasing the countercurrent interfacial shear or theta_{o}, increases both Delta_{scriptsizemin} and Gamma_{scriptsizemin}, above their values with zero interfacial shear. The predictions of Delta _{scriptsizemin} and Gamma _{scriptsizemin} for a climbing water film on a vertical surface are in good agreement with reported experimental data for a wide range of cocurrent gas velocities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Na, Wonjin; Lee, Geunsung; Sung, Minchang; Yu, Woong-Ryeol
2016-10-01
The tensile strength of unidirectional fiber composites is interpreted as an initiation and propagation of crack inside, and the crack propagation is the result of fiber fracture and load transfer to surroundings. After the fiber fracture the load is carried by matrix in shear loading, so the load transfer capacity is expected to increase according to improved interfacial shear strength (IFSS). In theoretical study the extreme IFSS can make enhanced property, reaching to rule of mixture, however experiments have demonstrated that optimum interfacial shear strength exists in tensile strength. This can be explained by the effect of multiple fracture. When a fiber is broken, it induces concurrent breakage of surrounding fibers due to stress concentration. This `multiple fracture' phenomenon is important to determine the tensile strength of fiber composites. In this study, the tensile and flexural strength of unidirectional carbon fiber composites were predicted considering the interfacial shear strength. First, the effect of interfacial shear strength on the load transfer to surrounding fibers (i.e., local stress concentration) when a fiber is broken was analyzed using finite element method, determining the stress concentration factor of each surrounding fiber. Based on the stress concentration factor, the `multiple fracture number' was calculated using statistical prediction approach. Using the multiple fracture number, the tensile strength of unidirectional fiber composites is predicted, the validity of which is investigated using carbon fiber/nylon 6 composites.
Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.
Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.
2013-09-01
This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.
Liu, Lu; Qi, Wei; Schwartz, Daniel K; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F
2013-08-01
We investigated the effects of excipients in solutions of keratinocyte growth factor 2 (KGF-2) on protein aggregation during agitation as well as on interfacial shear rheology at the air-water interface. Samples were incubated with or without agitation, and in the presence or absence of the excipients heparin, sucrose, or polysorbate 80 (PS80). The effect of excipients on the extent of protein aggregation was determined by UV-visible spectroscopy and micro-flow imaging. Interfacial shear rheology was used to detect the gelation time and strength of protein gels at the air-water interface. During incubation, protein particles of size ≥1 μm and insoluble aggregates formed faster for KGF-2 solutions subjected to agitation. Addition of either heparin or sucrose promoted protein aggregation during agitation. In contrast, PS80 substantially inhibited agitation-induced KGF-2 aggregation but facilitated protein particulate formation in quiescent solutions. The combination of PS80 and heparin or sucrose completely prevented protein aggregation during both nonagitated and agitated incubations. Interfacial rheological measurements showed that KGF-2 in buffer alone formed an interfacial gel within a few minutes. In the presence of heparin, KGF-2 interfacial gels formed too quickly for gelation time to be determined. KGF-2 formed gels in about 10 min in the presence of sucrose. The presence of PS80 in the formulation inhibited gelation of KGF-2. Furthermore, the interfacial gels formed by the protein in the absence of PS80 were reversible when PS80 was added to the samples after gelation. Therefore, there is a correspondence between formulations that exhibited interfacial gelation and formulations that exhibited agitation-induced aggregation.
Interfacial Shear Strength of Cast and Directionally Solidified Nial-Sapphire Fiber Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tewari, S. N.; Asthana, R.; Noebe, R. D.
1993-01-01
The feasibility of fabricating intermetallic NiAl-sapphire fiber composites by casting and zone directional solidification has been examined. The fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths measured using a fiber push-out technique in both cast and directionally solidified composites are greater than the strengths reported for composites fabricated by powder cloth process using organic binders. Microscopic examination of fibers extracted from cast, directionally solidified (DS), and thermally cycled composites, and the high values of interfacial shear strengths suggest that the fiber-matrix interface does not degrade due to casting and directional solidification. Sapphire fibers do not pin grain boundaries during directional solidification, suggesting that this technique can be used to fabricate sapphire fiber reinforced NiAl composites with single crystal matrices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Tian-Bao; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Xu, Liang; Wang, Lin-Feng; Wang, Hui
2011-10-01
A shear-induced phase transition from disorder to lamellar ordering in amorphous carbon films are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Formation of well-separated graphene-like interfacial layers is observed with large interlayer distances, diminishing and ultimately vanishing interlayer bonds, which provides a near-frictionless sliding plane. The steady-state velocity accommodation mode after the running-in stage is interfacial sliding between the graphene-like layers, which explains the experimentally observed graphitization and formation of carbon-rich transfer layers. A superlow friction or superlubricity regime with friction coefficient of approximately 0.01 originates from the extremely large repulsive and low shear interactions across the sliding interface.
Investigation of interfacial shear strength in SiC/Si3N4 composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eldridge, J. I.; Bhatt, R. T.; Kiser, J. D.
1991-01-01
A fiber push-out technique was used to determine fiber/matrix interfacial shear strength (ISS) for silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) composites in the as-fabricated condition and after consolidation by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). In situ video microscopy and acoustic emission detection greatly aided the interpretation of push-out load/displacement curves.
Bulk flow coupled to a viscous interfacial film sheared by a rotating knife edge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghunandan, Aditya; Rasheed, Fayaz; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan
2015-11-01
The measurement of the interfacial properties of highly viscous biofilms, such as DPPC (the primary component of lung surfactant), present on the surface of liquids (bulk phase) continues to attract significant attention. Most measurement techniques rely on shearing the interfacial film and quantifying its viscous response in terms of a surface (excess) viscosity at the air-liquid interface. The knife edge viscometer offers a significant advantage over other approaches used to study highly viscous films as the film is directly sheared by a rotating knife edge in direct contact with the film. However, accurately quantifying the viscous response is non-trivial and involves accounting for the coupled interfacial and bulk phase flows. Here, we examine the nature of the viscous response of water insoluble DPPC films sheared in a knife edge viscometer over a range of surface packing, and its influence on the strength of the coupled bulk flow. Experimental results, obtained via Particle Image Velocimetry in the bulk and at the surface (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), are compared with numerical flow predictions to quantify the coupling across hydrodynamic flow regimes, from the Stokes flow limit to regimes where flow inertia is significant. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Measurement of interfacial shear strength in SiC-fiber/Si3N4 composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laughner, James W.; Bhatt, Rham T.
1989-01-01
An indentation method for measuring shear strength in brittle matrix composites was applied to SiC-fiber/Si3N4-matrix samples. Three methods were used to manufacture the composites: reaction bonding of a Si/SiC preform, hot-pressing, and nitrogen-overpressure sintering. An indentation technique developed by Marshall for thin specimens was used to measure the shear strength of the interface and the interfacial friction stresses. This was done by inverting the sample after the initial push through and retesting the pushed fibers. SEM observations showed that the shear strength was determined by the degree of reaction between the fiber and the matrix unless the fiber was pushed out of its (well-bonded) sheath.
Sorption and Interfacial Rheology Study of Model Asphaltene Compounds.
Pradilla, Diego; Simon, Sébastien; Sjöblom, Johan; Samaniuk, Joseph; Skrzypiec, Marta; Vermant, Jan
2016-03-29
The sorption and rheological properties of an acidic polyaromatic compound (C5PeC11), which can be used to further our understanding of the behavior of asphaltenes, are determined experimentally. The results show that C5PeC11 exhibits the type of pH-dependent surface activity and interfacial shear rheology observed in C6-asphaltenes with a decrease in the interfacial tension concomitant with the elastic modulus when the pH increases. Surface pressure-area (Π-A) isotherms show evidence of aggregation behavior and π-π stacking at both the air/water and oil/water interfaces. Similarly, interactions between adsorbed C5PeC11 compounds are evidenced through desorption experiments at the oil/water interface. Contrary to indigenous asphaltenes, adsorption is reversible, but desorption is slower than for noninteracting species. The reversibility enables us to create layers reproducibly, whereas the presence of interactions between the compounds enables us to mimic the key aspects of interfacial activity in asphaltenes. Shear and dilatational rheology show that C5PeC11 forms a predominantly elastic film both at the liquid/air and the liquid/liquid interfaces. Furthermore, a soft glassy rheology model (SGR) fits the data obtained at the liquid/liquid interface. However, it is shown that the effective noise temperature determined from the SGR model for C5PeC11 is higher than for indigenous asphaltenes measured under similar conditions. Finally, from a colloidal and rheological standpoint, the results highlight the importance of adequately addressing the distinction between the material functions and true elasticity extracted from a shear measurement and the apparent elasticity measured in dilatational-pendant drop setups.
Behr, Sebastian; Jungblut, Laura; Swain, Michael V; Schneider, Gerold A
2016-10-12
The common tensile lap-shear test for adhesive joints is inappropriate for brittle substrates such as glasses or ceramics where stress intensifications due to clamping and additional bending moments invalidate results. Nevertheless, bonding of glasses and ceramics is still important in display applications for electronics, in safety glass and ballistic armor, for dental braces and restoratives, or in recently developed bioinspired composites. To mechanically characterize adhesive bondings in these fields nonetheless, a novel approach based on the so-called Schwickerath test for dental sintered joints is used. This new method not only matches data from conventional analysis but also uniquely combines the accurate determination of interfacial shear strength and toughness in one simple test. The approach is verified for sapphire-epoxy joints that are of interest for bioinspired composites. For these, the procedure not only provides quantitative interfacial properties for the first time, it also exemplarily suggests annealing of sapphire at 1000 °C for 10 h for mechanically and economically effective improvements of the interfacial bond strength and toughness. With increases of strength and toughness from approximately 8 to 29 MPa and from 2.6 to 35 J/m(2), respectively, this thermal modification drastically enhances the properties of unmodified sapphire-epoxy interfaces. At the same time, it is much more convenient than wet-chemical approaches such as silanization. Hence, besides the introduction of a new testing procedure for adhesive joints of brittle or expensive substrates, a new and facile annealing process for improvements of the adhesive properties of sapphire is suggested and quantitative data for the mechanical properties of sapphire-epoxy interfaces that are common in synthetic nacre-inspired composites are provided for the first time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajlane, A.; Miettinen, A.; Madsen, B.; Beauson, J.; Joffe, R.
2016-07-01
The interfacial shear strength of short regenerated cellulose fibre/polylactide composites was characterized by means of an industry-friendly adhesion test method. The interfacial shear strength was back-calculated from the experimental tensile stress-strain curves of composites by using a micro-mechanical model. The parameters characterizing the microstructure of the composites, e.g. fibre length and orientation distributions, used as input in the model were obtained by micro-tomography. The investigation was carried out on composites with untreated and surface treated fibres with various fibre weight contents (5wt%, 10wt%, and 15wt% for untreated fibres, and 15wt% for treated fibres). The properties of fibres were measured by an automated single fibre tensile test method. Based on these results, the efficiency of the fibre treatment to improve fibre/matrix adhesion is evaluated, and the applicability of the method to measure the interfacial shear strength is discussed. The results are compared with data from previous work, and with other results from the literature.
Model colloid system for interfacial sorption kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salipante, Paul; Hudson, Steven
2014-11-01
Adsorption kinetics of nanometer scale molecules, such as proteins at interfaces, is usually determined through measurements of surface coverage. Their small size limits the ability to directly observe individual molecule behavior. To better understand the behavior of nanometer size molecules and the effect on interfacial kinetics, we use micron size colloids with a weak interfacial interaction potential as a model system. Thus, the interaction strength is comparable to many nanoscale systems (less than 10 kBT). The colloid-interface interaction potential is tuned using a combination of depletion, electrostatic, and gravitational forces. The colloids transition between an entropically trapped adsorbed state and a desorbed state through Brownian motion. Observations are made using an LED-based Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) setup. The observed adsorption and desorption rates are compared theoretical predictions based on the measured interaction potential and near wall particle diffusivity. This experimental system also allows for the study of more complex dynamics such as nonspherical colloids and collective effects at higher concentrations.
Interfacial slip on a transverse-shear mode acoustic wave device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Jonathan S.; Hayward, Gordon L.
2003-12-01
This article describes a mathematical relationship between the slip parameter α and the slip length b for a slip boundary condition applied to the transverse-shear model for a quartz-crystal acoustic wave device. The theory presented here reduces empirical determination of slip to a one-parameter fit. It shows that the magnitude and phase of the slip parameter, which describes the relative motion of the surface and liquid in the transverse-shear model, can be linked to the slip length. Furthermore, the magnitude and phase of the slip parameter are shown to depend on one another. An experiment is described to compare the effects of liquid-surface affinity on the resonant properties of a transverse-shear mode wave device by applying different polar and nonpolar liquids to surfaces of different polarity. The theory is validated with slip values determined from the transverse-shear model and compared to slip length values from literature. Agreement with literature values of slip length is within one order of magnitude.
Study of Sub-interfacial Quasi-static Crack Propagation Using Shearing Interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hansuk; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar
Cracks on the interface between two materials have been extensively studied in view of their applications to failure processes in composite materials [1-3]. In this work, we look at the case of cracks that are off but close to an interface. Some early studies have indicated that under certain circumstances such sub-interfacial cracks tend to grow along a path that is parallel to the interface at a characteristic distance from the interface depending on the loading and material properties of the two materials. In this study, we optically map crack-tip stress fields for cracks that start off the interface, and track them as they subsequently propagate off the interface. The optical technique that was developed in our laboratory and which is used in this study will be explained. This shearing interferometer is used in conjunction with a 1000 frame/sec video camera. The resulting fringe patterns are evaluated to obtain information about the stress-state during initiation and propagation. The conditions for crack propagation parallel to the interface are explained. The experimental results are compared with crack trajectories predicted by finite element simulations.
Zhang, Weijie; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Hao, Dingjun; Bian, Weiguo; Jin, Zhongmin
2015-01-01
Interface integration between chondral phase and osseous phase is crucial in engineered osteochondral scaffolds. However, the integration was poorly understood and commonly failed to meet the need of osteochondral scaffolds. In this paper, a biphasic polyethylene glycol (PEG)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold with enhanced interfacial integration was developed. The chondral phase was a PEG hydrogel. The osseous phase was a β-TCP ceramic scaffold. The PEG hydrogel was directly cured on the ceramic interface layer by layer to fabricate osteochondral scaffolds by 3D printing technology. Meanwhile, a series of interface structure were designed with different interface pore area percentages (0/10/20/30/40/50/60%), and interfacial shear test was applied for interface structure optimization (n=6 samples/group). The interfacial shear strength of 30% pore area group was nearly three folds improved compared with that of 0% pore area percentage group, and more than fifty folds improved compared with that of traditional integration (5.91±0.59 kPa). In conclusion, the biomimetic PEG/β-TCP scaffolds with interface structure enhanced integration show promising potential application for osteochondral tissue engineering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yuwei; Meng, Linghui; Fan, Liquan; Wu, Guangshun; Ma, Lichun; Zhao, Min; Huang, Yudong
2016-01-01
Using molten urea as the solvent, carbon fibers were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction in 15 min to improve their interfacial bonding with epoxy resin. The surface functionalization was quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed that the relative surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups increased from an initial percentage of 3.17-10.41%. Mechanical property test results indicated that the aryl diazonium reaction in this paper could improve the interfacial shear strength by 66%. Meanwhile, the technique did not adopt any pre-oxidation step to produce functional groups prior to grafting and was shown to maintain the tensile strength of the fibers. This methodology provided a rapid, facile and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized carbon fibers in large quantities with an eco-friendly method.
Interfacial micromechanics in fibrous composites: design, evaluation, and models.
Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Xuan; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei
2014-01-01
Recent advances of interfacial micromechanics in fiber reinforced composites using micro-Raman spectroscopy are given. The faced mechanical problems for interface design in fibrous composites are elaborated from three optimization ways: material, interface, and computation. Some reasons are depicted that the interfacial evaluation methods are difficult to guarantee the integrity, repeatability, and consistency. Micro-Raman study on the fiber interface failure behavior and the main interface mechanical problems in fibrous composites are summarized, including interfacial stress transfer, strength criterion of interface debonding and failure, fiber bridging, frictional slip, slip transition, and friction reloading. The theoretical models of above interface mechanical problems are given.
Finite element modelling of fabric shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Hua; Clifford, Mike J.; Long, Andrew C.; Sherburn, Martin
2009-01-01
In this study, a finite element model to predict shear force versus shear angle for woven fabrics is developed. The model is based on the TexGen geometric modelling schema, developed at the University of Nottingham and orthotropic constitutive models for yarn behaviour, coupled with a unified displacement-difference periodic boundary condition. A major distinction from prior modelling of fabric shear is that the details of picture frame kinematics are included in the model, which allows the mechanisms of fabric shear to be represented more accurately. Meso- and micro-mechanisms of deformation are modelled to determine their contributions to energy dissipation during shear. The model is evaluated using results obtained for a glass fibre plain woven fabric, and the importance of boundary conditions in the analysis of deformation mechanisms is highlighted. The simulation results show that the simple rotation boundary condition is adequate for predicting shear force at large deformations, with most of the energy being dissipated at higher shear angles due to yarn compaction. For small deformations, a detailed kinematic analysis is needed, enabling the yarn shear and rotation deformation mechanisms to be modelled accurately.
Cantrell, John H.
2015-03-15
The chemical treatment of carbon fibers used in carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites greatly affects the fraction of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed at the fiber-matrix interface. The H-bonds are major contributors to the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength and play a direct role in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composite. The H-bond contributions τ to the ILSS and magnitudes K{sub N} of the fiber-matrix interfacial stiffness moduli of seven carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites, subjected to different fiber surface treatments, are calculated from the Morse potential for the interactions of hydroxyl and carboxyl acid groups formed on the carbon fiber surfaces with epoxy receptors. The τ calculations range from 7.7 MPa to 18.4 MPa in magnitude, depending on fiber treatment. The K{sub N} calculations fall in the range (2.01 – 4.67) ×10{sup 17} N m{sup −3}. The average ratio K{sub N}/|τ| is calculated to be (2.59 ± 0.043) × 10{sup 10} m{sup −1} for the seven composites, suggesting a nearly linear connection between ILSS and H-bonding at the fiber-matrix interfaces. The linear connection indicates that τ may be assessable nondestructively from measurements of K{sub N} via a technique such as angle beam ultrasonic spectroscopy.
Modeling of shear localization in materials
Lesuer, D.; LeBlanc, M.; Riddle, B.; Jorgensen, B.
1998-02-11
The deformation response of a Ti alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, has been studied during shear localization. The study has involved well-controlled laboratory tests involving a double-notch shear sample. The results have been used to provide a comparison between experiment and the predicted response using DYNA2D and two material models (the Johnson-Cook model and an isotropic elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic model). The work will serve as the basis for the development of a new material model which represents the different deformation mechanisms active during shear localization.
Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems
Yarbro, Stephen Lee
1996-11-01
Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.
Analytical and numerical modeling of non-collinear shear wave mixing at an imperfect interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ziyin; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled
2016-02-01
Non-collinear shear wave mixing at an imperfect interface between two solids can be exploited for nonlinear ultrasonic assessment of bond quality. In this study we developed two analytical models for nonlinear imperfect interfaces. The first model uses a finite nonlinear interfacial stiffness representation of an imperfect interface of vanishing thickness, while the second model relies on a thin nonlinear interphase layer to represent an imperfect interface region. The second model is actually a derivative of the first model obtained by calculating the equivalent interfacial stiffness of a thin isotropic nonlinear interphase layer in the quasi-static approximation. The predictions of both analytical models were numerically verified by comparison to COMSOL finite element simulations. These models can accurately predict the excess nonlinearity caused by interface imperfections based on the strength of the reflected and transmitted mixed longitudinal waves produced by them under non-collinear shear wave interrogation.
Steel shear walls, behavior, modeling and design
Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan
2008-07-08
In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only 'strip model', forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of
Roberts, Simon A; Kellaway, Ian W; Taylor, Kevin M G; Warburton, Brian; Peters, Kevin
2005-08-26
The adsorption of two model proteins, catalase and lysozyme, to phospholipid monolayers spread at the air-water interface has been studied using a combined surface pressure-interfacial shear rheology technique. Monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DPPG) and DPPC:DPPG (7:3) were spread on a phosphate buffer air-water interface at pH 7.4. Protein solutions were introduced to the subphase and the resultant changes in surface pressure and interfacial storage and loss moduli were recorded with time. The results show that catalase readily adsorbs to all the phospholipid monolayers investigated, inducing a transition from liquid-like to gel-like rheological behaviour in the process. The changes in surface rheology as a result of the adsorption of catalase increase in the order DPPC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.
1990-01-01
The influence of fiber/matrix interface microstructure and interfacial shear strength on the mechanical properties of a fiber-reinforced ceramic composite was evaluated. The composite consisted of approximately 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 microns diameter SiC fibers (Textron SCS-6) in a reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix (SiC/RBSN). The interface microstructure was varied by controlling the composite fabrication conditions and by heat treating the composite in an oxidizing environment. Interfacial shear strength was determined by the matrix crack spacing method. The results of microstructural examination indicate that the carbon-rich coating provided with the as-produced SiC fibers was stable in composites fabricated at 1200 C in a nitrogen or in a nitrogen plus 4 percent hydrogen mixture for 40 hr. However this coating degraded in composites fabricated at 1350 C in N2 + 4 percent H2 for 40 and 72 hr and also in composites heat treated in an oxidizing environment at 600 C for 100 hr after fabrication at 1200 C in a nitrogen. It was determined that degradation occurred by carbon removal which in turn had a strong influence on interfacial shear strength and other mechanical properties. Specifically, as the carbon coating was removed, the composite interfacial shear strength, primary elastic modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate tensile strength decreased, but the first matrix cracking strain remained nearly the same.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jungkyu; Headings, Leon; Dapino, Marcelo; Baur, Jeffery; Tandon, Gyaneshwar
2015-03-01
Shape memory composites (SMCs) based on shape memory alloys (SMAs) and shape memory polymers (SMPs) allow many design possibilities due to their controllable temperature-dependent mechanical properties. The complementary characteristics of SMAs and SMPs can be utilized in systems with shape recovery created by the SMA and shape fixity provided by the SMP. In this research, three SMC operating regimes are identified and the behavior of SMC structures is analyzed by focusing on composite shape fixity and interfacial stresses. Analytical models show that SMPs can be used to adequately fix the shape of SMA actuators and springs. COMSOL finite element simulations are in agreement with analytical expressions for shape fixity and interfacial stresses. Analytical models are developed for an end-coupled linear SMP-SMA two-way actuator and the predicted strain is shown to be in good agreement with experimental test results.
Physical models of tissue in shear fields.
Carstensen, Edwin L; Parker, Kevin J
2014-04-01
This review considers three general classes of physical as opposed to phenomenological models of the shear elasticity of tissues. The first is simple viscoelasticity. This model has a special role in elastography because it is the language in which experimental and clinical data are communicated. The second class of models involves acoustic relaxation, in which the medium contains inner time-dependent systems that are driven through the external bulk medium. Hysteresis, the phenomenon characterizing the third class of models, involves losses that are related to strain rather than time rate of change of strain. In contrast to the vast efforts given to tissue characterization through their bulk moduli over the last half-century, similar research using low-frequency shear data is in its infancy. Rather than a neat summary of existing facts, this essay is a framework for hypothesis generation-guessing what physical mechanisms give tissues their shear properties.
Shear-Driven Reconnection in Kinetic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Black, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Germaschewski, K.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Bessho, N.
2015-12-01
The explosive energy release in solar eruptive phenomena is believed to be due to magnetic reconnection. In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the event resides in the strongly sheared magnetic field of a filament channel. The pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field countered by a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection disrupts this force balance; therefore, it is critical for understanding CME/flare initiation, to model the onset of reconnection driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are dominant in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is challenging, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. Plasma instabilities can arise nonetheless. In the work presented here, we show that we can control this instability and generate a predicted out-of-plane magnetic flux. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356.
Maas, Michael; Bodnar, Pedro Marcus; Hess, Ulrike; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch
2013-10-01
The synthesis of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds is essential for biomedical applications such as bone tissue engineering and replacement. One way to induce macroporosity, which is needed to support bone in-growth, is to use protein additives as foaming agents. Another reason to use protein additives is the potential to introduce a specific biofunctionality to the synthesized scaffolds. In this work, we study the rheological properties of a hydroxyapatite suspension system with additions of the proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LSZ) and fibrinogen (FIB). Both the rheology of the bulk phase as well as the interfacial shear rheology are studied. The bulk rheological data provides important information on the setting behavior of the thixotropic suspension, which we find to be faster with the addition of FIB and LSZ and much slower with BSA. Foam bubble stabilization mechanisms can be rationalized via interfacial shear rheology and we show that it depends on the growth of interfacial films at the suspension/air interface. These interfacial films support the stabilization of bubbles within the ceramic matrix and thereby introduce macropores. Due to the weak interaction of the protein molecules with the hydroxyapatite particles of the suspension, we find that BSA forms the most stable interfacial films, followed by FIB. LSZ strongly interacts with the hydroxyapatite particles and thus only forms thin films with very low elastic moduli. In summary, our study provides fundamental rheological insights which are essential for tailoring hydroxyapatite/protein suspensions in order to synthesize scaffolds with controlled porosities.
Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoder, Dennis A.; DeBonis, James R.; Georgiadis, Nicolas J.
2013-01-01
The modeling of turbulent free shear flows is crucial to the simulation of many aerospace applications, yet often receives less attention than the modeling of wall boundary layers. Thus, while turbulence model development in general has proceeded very slowly in the past twenty years, progress for free shear flows has been even more so. This paper highlights some of the fundamental issues in modeling free shear flows for propulsion applications, presents a review of past modeling efforts, and identifies areas where further research is needed. Among the topics discussed are differences between planar and axisymmetric flows, development versus self-similar regions, the effect of compressibility and the evolution of compressibility corrections, the effect of temperature on jets, and the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers for reacting shear flows. Large eddy simulation greatly reduces the amount of empiricism in the physical modeling, but is sensitive to a number of numerical issues. This paper includes an overview of the importance of numerical scheme, mesh resolution, boundary treatment, sub-grid modeling, and filtering in conducting a successful simulation.
Interfacial Microstructure Evolution and Shear Behavior of Au-Sn/Ni- xCu Joints at 350°C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, J.; Wang, R. C.; Wang, M.; Liu, H. S.
2017-04-01
Interfacial reaction and shear behavior of the joints between Au-29Sn (at.%) solder and Ni- xCu ( x = 20 at.%, 40 at.%, 60 at.%, and 80 at.%) substrate alloys soldered at 350°C for various durations were investigated in this study. The results show that α(Au) is the common reaction product at the solder/substrate interfaces after a short-time reaction regardless of Cu content. As soldering goes on, another new Ni3Sn2 layer forms at the interface company with ordering of the α(Au) phase, AuCu I/Ni3Sn2 bi-layers formed at the Au-Sn/Ni-20Cu interface, or with AuCu III/Ni3Sn2 bi-layers at the Au-Sn/Ni-40Cu interface. If the content of Cu in the substrate is higher than 40 at.%, periodic layered structure and discontinuous Ni3Sn2 layers appear. In the couple of Au-Sn/Ni-60Cu, AuCu I + AuCu III/Ni3Sn2/α(Au) can be observed while AuCu3/Ni3Sn2/α(Au) forms in the couple of Au-Sn/Ni-80Cu. Shear fracture always occurs in the region near the Ni-20Cu substrate in Au-Sn/Ni-20Cu joints, whereas it appears in the reaction layer for the joint of higher Cu content. The shear strength of Au-Sn/Ni-60Cu and Au-Sn/Ni-80Cu joints achieves about 55 MPa as α(Au) phase forms but decreases remarkably due to pore formation after soldering for a long duration. Whereas, the shear strength of Au-Sn/Ni-40Cu joints can reach 62 MPa as the α(Au) phase forms at an early stage, and maintains above 52 MPa even soldered for a long duration because of the adequate thick α(Au) and AuCu III layer adjacent to substrate provides good bonding. The reason why the soldering joint of Au-Sn/Ni-40Cu possesses higher strength and a better stability exists is that high Ni concentration in α(Au) and the continuous Ni3Sn2 layer inhibit formation of Kirkendall pores.
Compressible homogeneous shear: Simulation and modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1992-01-01
Compressibility effects were studied on turbulence by direct numerical simulation of homogeneous shear flow. A primary observation is that the growth of the turbulent kinetic energy decreases with increasing turbulent Mach number. The sinks provided by compressible dissipation and the pressure dilatation, along with reduced Reynolds shear stress, are shown to contribute to the reduced growth of kinetic energy. Models are proposed for these dilatational terms and verified by direct comparison with the simulations. The differences between the incompressible and compressible fields are brought out by the examination of spectra, statistical moments, and structure of the rate of strain tensor.
Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Definition.
1978-02-01
11 . Lewellen , W. S., G. G. Will iamson , and N. E . Teske . “Es tima tes of the Low Level Win d Shear and Turbulence in the Vicinity of Kennedy...E. Teske . “Model Predictions of Wind and Turbines Profiles Associated wi th an Ensemble of Aircraf t Accidents ,” NASA CR-2884, July 1977. 37 2—21
Modeling shear wave splitting observations from Iceland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Y. V.; Li, A.; Ito, G.; Hung, S.
2010-12-01
The goal of this research is to investigate the sources of shear-wave splitting in Iceland using synthetic waveforms generated from a variety of models. We employ a pseudospectral method in waveform modeling that allows 3-D heterogeneity and anisotropy. Several 1-D and 2-D models have been tested for a vertically propagating plane shear wave. For the two-layer models with horizontal symmetry axes, our results show that the apparent fast direction is towards the fast orientation in the upper layer. This experiment may explain why shear wave splitting measurements tend to be correlated with surface geology. We have also tested models with lateral anisotropic variations including a dike and a plume. The anisotropic boundary can be well resolved based on the change of fast directions and delay times. The splitting parameters near the boundary are affected by the laterally varied structure and the affected distance depends on wavelength, which is about 40 km for periods of 4-6 s and 50 km for periods of 8-10 s. We are currently performing experiments on a radial flow model from a plume stem. Synthetic shear-wave splitting measurements will be conducted from two more realistic geodynamic models. The first one is the “radial flow” model with low Rayleigh number. The pounding plume material is much thicker than the lithosphere and therefore does not strongly “feel” the lithosphere thickening away from the axis. Thus the plume spreads as fast away from the axis as it does along it. The other one is the “channel flow” model with high Rayleigh number. In this model the plume stem is much narrower and the thickness of the pounding plume material beneath the lithosphere much thinner. Thus the very low viscosity plume material is channeled more along axis by the thickening lithosphere. Combing the synthetic with the observed splitting results, we expect to determine the best geodynamic models for Iceland that fit seismic constraints.
Modeling Interfacial Adsorption of Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Xin
2014-11-01
Numerous natural and industrial processes demand advances in our fundamental understanding of colloidal adsorption at liquid interfaces. Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we model the interfacial adsorption of core-shell nanoparticles at the water-oil interface. The solid core of the nanoparticle encompasses beads arranged in an fcc lattice structure and its surface is uniformly grafted with polymer chains. The nanoparticles bind to the interface from either phase to minimize total surface energy. With a single nanoparticle, we demonstrate detailed kinetics of different stages in the adsorption process. Prominent effect of grafted polymer chains is characterized by varying molecular weight and polydispersity of the chains. We also preload nanoparticles straddling the interface to reveal the influence of nanoparticle surface density on further adsorption. Importantly, these studies show how surface-grafted polymer chains can alter the interfacial behavior of colloidal particles and provide guidelines for designing on-demand Pickering emulsion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wentao; Fan, Minyu; Li, Jinlong; Tao, Jie
2016-03-01
The corrugated sandwich structure, consisting of a CP Ti (commercially pure titanium) core between two Ti-6Al-4V face sheets, was brazed using pasty Ti-37.5Zr-15Cu-10Ni as filler alloy, at the temperature of 870°C for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. The effect of brazing time on the microstructure and elemental distribution of the brazed joints was examined by means of SEM, EDS, and XRD analyses. It was found that various intermetallic phases were formed in the brazed joints, following a brazing time of 5 min, and their contents were decreased by the increment of brazing time, while prolonged brazing time resulted in a fine, acicular Widmanstätten microstructure throughout the entire joint. In addition, shear testing was performed in the brazed corrugated specimens in order to indirectly assess the quality of the joints. The debonding between CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V was observed in the specimen brazed for 5 min and the fracture of the CP Ti corrugated core occurred after 30 min of brazing time. Additionally, when brazed for 10 min or 20 min, brittle intermetallic compounds in the joints and the grain growth of the base metal were controllable. Therefore, the sandwich structures failed without debonding in the joints or fracture within the base metal, demonstrating a good combination of strength and ductility.
Modelling interfacial cracking with non-matching cohesive interface elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Vinh Phu; Nguyen, Chi Thanh; Bordas, Stéphane; Heidarpour, Amin
2016-11-01
Interfacial cracking occurs in many engineering problems such as delamination in composite laminates, matrix/interface debonding in fibre reinforced composites etc. Computational modelling of these interfacial cracks usually employs compatible or matching cohesive interface elements. In this paper, incompatible or non-matching cohesive interface elements are proposed for interfacial fracture mechanics problems. They allow non-matching finite element discretisations of the opposite crack faces thus lifting the constraint on the compatible discretisation of the domains sharing the interface. The formulation is based on a discontinuous Galerkin method and works with both initially elastic and rigid cohesive laws. The proposed formulation has the following advantages compared to classical interface elements: (i) non-matching discretisations of the domains and (ii) no high dummy stiffness. Two and three dimensional quasi-static fracture simulations are conducted to demonstrate the method. Our method not only simplifies the meshing process but also it requires less computational demands, compared with standard interface elements, for problems that involve materials/solids having a large mismatch in stiffnesses.
Flocculation of model algae under shear.
Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy B.
2010-11-01
We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the flocculation of model algae particles under shear. We study the evolution of the cluster size distribution as well as the steady-state distribution as a function of shear rates and algae interaction parameters. Algal interactions are modeled through a DLVO-type potential, a combination of a HS colloid potential (Everaers) and a yukawa/colloid electrostatic potential. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation is explored. Cluster strucuture is determined from the algae-algae radial distribution function as well as the structure factor. DLVO parameters including size, salt concentration, surface potential, initial volume fraction, etc. are varied to model different species of algae under a variety of environmental conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asthana, R.; Tiwari, R.; Tewari, S. N.
1995-01-01
Sapphire-reinforced NiAl matrix composites with chromium or tungsten as alloying additions were synthesized using casting and zone directional solidification (DS) techniques and characterized by a fiber pushout test as well as by microhardness measurements. The sapphire-NiAl(Cr) specimens exhibited an interlayer of Cr rich eutectic at the fiber-matrix interface and a higher interfacial shear strength compared to unalloyed sapphire-NiAl specimens processed under identical conditions. In contrast, the sapphire-NiAl(W) specimens did not show interfacial excess of tungsten rich phases, although the interfacial shear strength was high and comparable to that of sapphire-NiAl(Cr). The postdebond sliding stress was higher in sapphire-NiAl(Cr) than in sapphire-NiAl(W) due to interface enrichment with chromium particles. The matrix microhardness progressively decreased with increasing distance from the interface in both DS NiAl and NiAl(Cr) specimens. The study highlights the potential of casting and DS techniques to improve the toughness and strength of NiAl by designing dual-phase microstructures in NiAl alloys reinforced with sapphire fibers.
Modeling interfacial charge transport of quantum dots using cyclic voltammetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobias, Andrew K.; Jones, Marcus
2011-10-01
Quantum dot applications are numerous and range from photovoltaic devices and lasers, to bio labeling. Complexities in the electronic band structure of quantum dots create the necessity for analysis techniques that can accurately and reproducibly provide their absolute band energies. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a novel candidate for these studies and has the potential to become a useful tool in engineering new nanocrystal technology, by providing information necessary for predicting and modeling interfacial charge transfer to and from quantum dots. Advancing from previous reports of nanocrystal CV, a carbon paste electrode was utilized in an attempt to increase measured current by ensuring intimate contact between nanocrystals and the electrode. Our goal was to investigate band energies and model nanocrystal-molecule electron transfer systems.
Molecular-orbital model for metal-sapphire interfacial strength
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, K. H.; Pepper, S. V.
1982-01-01
Self-consistent-field X-Alpha scattered-wave cluster molecular-orbital models have been constructed for transition and noble metals (Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag) in contact with a sapphire (Al2O3) surface. It is found that a chemical bond is established between the metal d-orbital electrons and the nonbonding 2p-orbital electrons of the oxygen anions on the Al2O3 surface. An increasing number of occupied metal-sapphire antibonding molecular orbitals explains qualitatively the observed decrease of contact shear strength through the series Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag.
Theoretical approaches to modeling interfacial structure and EXAFS data
Schenter, G.K.; McCarthy, M.I.; Chacon-Taylor, M.R.
1997-12-31
Understanding the molecular scale processes that control the fate and transport of contaminant metals through the subsurface is a key goal of molecular environmental research. Extended Xray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra is a powerful experimental technique for determining the structure of solvated metal ions at mineral interfaces. The interpretation of these data is aided by theoretical models of the interfacial chemistry and physics. Using ab initio based potential models and classical mechanics simulations, we are able to predict the structure of (M+)aq/mineral interfaces. We will discuss both the development of the ab initio based classical electrostatic potentials for modeling the interaction between molecules and surfaces and the simulation techniques used to model dynamical processes of ions at water/mineral interfaces. This information is then used as input for calculations of the corresponding EXAFS spectra as a function of temperature and surface topology. Theoretical predicted spectra for Na+(H2O)n clusters on MgO (001) will be presented, emphasizing trends in the observed EXAFS spectra with cluster size, temperature, and surface topology (flat surface, edge and corner MgO sites).
Modeling shear band interaction in 1D torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partom, Yehuda; Hanina, Erez
2017-01-01
When two shear bands are being formed at close distance from each other they interact, and further development of one of them may be quenched down. As a result there should be a minimum distance between shear bands. In the literature there are at least three analytical models for this minimum distance. Predictions of these models do not generally agree with each other and with test results. Recently we developed a 1D numerical scheme to predict the formation of shear bands in a torsion test of a thin walled pipe. We validated our code by reproducing results of the pioneering experiments of Marchand and Duffy, and then used it to investigate the mechanics of shear localization and shear band formation. We describe our shear band code in a separate publication, and here we use it only as a tool to investigate the interaction between two neighboring shear bands during the process of their formation. We trigger the formation of shear bands by specifying two perturbations of the initial strength. We vary the perturbations in terms of their amplitude and/or their width. Usually, the stronger perturbation triggers a faster developing shear band, which then prevails and quenches the development of the other shear band. We change the distance between the two shear bands and find, that up to a certain distance one of the shear bands becomes fully developed, and the other stays only partially developed. Beyond this distance the two shear bands are both fully developed. Finally, we check the influence of certain material and loading parameters on the interaction between the two shear bands, and compare the results to predictions of the analytical models from the literature.
Numerical modeling of shear band formation in PBX-9501
Dey, T.N.; Kamm, J.R.
1998-12-31
Adiabatic shear bands in explosives may be a source of ignition and lead to detonation. Three possible mechanisms leading to shear banding are (1) thermal softening, (2) mechanical softening due to microcracking, and (3) quasi-granular constitutive response. The latter two mechanisms can lead to shear band formation in PBXs at nominal strains much smaller than those required for the thermal softening mechanism. The authors study formation of shear bands with models including the latter two mechanisms under unconfined compression. Statistical variation of numerical results is similar to that observed in some experiments. However, the commonly used methods of calibrating constitutive models can be misleading because of effects due to shear band formation. One model currently being used for studies of shear band formation and ignition in PBX 9501 was calibrated in this way and may need re-examination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marietta-Tondin, Olivier
present in this resin system, such as molecular wrapping around the SWNTs. Second, existing MD simulation models of nanotube pullout are analyzed and modified to examine the energy of certain material systems more correctly, and to characterize interfacial shear strength in SWNT/polymer composites. The interfacial bonding and load transfer behaviors between the different SWNTs' configurations (open end, capped end, functionalized end) and three different matrices (polystyrene, polyethylene and Epon862) were examined using the modified models. The results of the modified models effectively reveal the effects of different tube configurations and resin matrices on the interfacial strength during a simulated pullout. Finally, we use MD simulation to investigate the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of individual SWNTs, SWNT ropes, as well as SWNT nanocomposites. Experiments were also carried out in order to gain further insight in the results. It is found that, while the CTE of individual nanotubes is of low negative value, the CTE of the same tubes within a rope or a nanocomposite can significantly change. We also find that SWNTs can be utilized to tailor the CTE of the Epon862 resin system, depending on the functionalization of the SWNTs prior to their introduction in the resin. Finally, a new twisting vibration mode was revealed in SWNT ropes that should prove critical in further SWNT rope studies utilizing MD simulation.
The role of protein content on the steady and oscillatory shear rheology of model synovial fluids.
Zhang, Z; Barman, S; Christopher, G F
2014-08-28
Recent studies have debated the role of protein content on the bulk rheology of synovial fluid; in particular, it has been questioned if proteins aggregate or interact with hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid to enhance bulk rheology, or if observed effects were due to systematic measurement error caused by interfacial rheology, stemming from protein adsorption to the interface. Utilizing several techniques to ensure results reflect only bulk rheology, an examination of the role of bovine serum albumin and γ-globulin on model synovial fluid rheology has been undertaken. When interfacial rheology caused by protein adsorption to the interface is abrogated, the bulk rheology of a model synovial fluid composed of bovine serum albumin, γ-globulin, and hyaluronic acid is found to be dominated solely by the hyaluronic acid over a wide range of shear rates, strains and frequencies. These results show that the previously reported enhanced rheological properties of model synovial fluids are solely due to interfacial rheology and not from any type of protein aggregation/interaction in bulk solution.
Shear heating in continental strike-slip shear zones:model and field examples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Ricard, Yannick; Battaglia, Jean; Lacassin, Robin
1999-01-01
A two-layer (crust and upper mantle), finite difference steady-state thermomechanical model of a long-lived (several million years) lithospheric strike-slip fault is presented, and its predictions compared with field observations from various major fault zones. In order to estimate the maximum amount of shear heating, all mechanical energy is assumed to be dissipated in heat, in ductile as well as in brittle layers. Deformation follows a friction law in the brittle layer(s), and a power-flow law in the ductile one(s). Variations of several independent parameters and their influence on the thermo-mechanical state of the fault zone and on shear heating are systematically explored. Shear heating is found to be more important in fault zones affecting an initially cold lithosphere, and increases with slip rate, friction coefficient and stiffness of materials. In extreme cases (slip rate of 10 cm yr^-1, stiff lithosphere), shear heating could lead to temperature increases close to 590 degC at the Moho, and 475 degC at 20 km depth. For more common cases, shear heating leads to smaller temperature increases, but can still explain high-grade metamorphic conditions encountered in strike-slip shear zones. However, modelled temperature conditions often fall short of those observed. This could be due to heat transport by mechanisms more efficient than conduction. Common syntectonic emplacement of granitic melts in ductile strike-slip shear zones can be explained by lower crust partial melting induced by shear heating in the upper mantle. Besides slip rate, the possibility of such melting depends mostly on the upper mantle rheology and on the fertility of the lower crust: for hard upper mantle and highly fertile lower crust, partial melting could occur at rates of 1 cm yr^-1, while in most cases it would result from the breakdown of micas for slip rates over 3 cm yr^-1. As a result of shear heating, partial melting of the upper mantle could occur in the presence of small amounts
Modeling and implementation of wind shear data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frost, Walter
1987-01-01
The problems of implementing the JAWS wind shear data are discussed. The data sets are described from the view of utilizing them in an aircraft performance computer program. Then, some of the problems of nonstandard procedures are described in terms of programming the equations of aircraft motion when the effects of temporal and spatially variable winds are included. Finally, some of the computed effects of the various wind shear terms are shown.
A model of Barchan dunes including lateral shear stress.
Schwämmle, V; Herrmann, H J
2005-01-01
Barchan dunes are found where sand availability is low and wind direction quite constant. The two dimensional shear stress of the wind field and the sand movement by saltation and avalanches over a barchan dune are simulated. The model with one dimensional shear stress is extended including surface diffusion and lateral shear stress. The resulting final shape is compared to the results of the model with a one dimensional shear stress and confirmed by comparison to measurements. We found agreement and improvements with respect to the model with one dimensional shear stress. Additionally, a characteristic edge at the center of the windward side is discovered which is also observed for big barchans. Diffusion effects reduce this effect for small dunes.
St-Pierre, Jean-Philippe; Gan, Lu; Wang, Jian; Pilliar, Robert M; Grynpas, Marc D; Kandel, Rita A
2012-04-01
A major challenge for cartilage tissue engineering remains the proper integration of constructs with surrounding tissues in the joint. Biphasic osteochondral constructs that can be anchored in a joint through bone ingrowth partially address this requirement. In this study, a methodology was devised to generate a cell-mediated zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) between the in vitro-formed cartilage and a porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) bone substitute in an attempt to improve the mechanical integrity of that interface. To do so, a calcium phosphate (CaP) film was deposited on CPP by a sol-gel process to prevent the accumulation of polyphosphates and associated inhibition of mineralization as the substrate degrades. Cartilage formed in vitro on the top surface of CaP-coated CPP by deep-zone chondrocytes was histologically and biochemically comparable to that formed on uncoated CPP. Furthermore, the mineral in the ZCC was similar in crystal structure, morphology and length to that formed on uncoated CPP and native articular cartilage. The generation of a ZCC at the cartilage-CPP interface led to a 3.3-fold increase in the interfacial shear strength of biphasic constructs. Improved interfacial strength of these constructs may be critical to their clinical success for the repair of large cartilage defects.
Two-Fluid Models and Interfacial Area Transport in Microgravity Condition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ishii, Mamoru; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Vasavada, Shilp
2004-01-01
The objective of the present study is to develop a two-fluid model formulation with interfacial area transport equation applicable for microgravity conditions. The new model is expected to make a leapfrog improvement by furnishing the constitutive relations for the interfacial interaction terms with the interfacial area transport equation, which can dynamically model the changes of the interfacial structures. In the first year of this three-year project supported by the U.S. NASA, Office of Biological and Physics Research, the primary focus is to design and construct a ground-based, microgravity two-phase flow simulation facility, in which two immiscible fluids with close density will be used. In predicting the two-phase flow behaviors in any two-phase flow system, the interfacial transfer terms are among the most essential factors in the modeling. These interfacial transfer terms in a two-fluid model specify the rate of phase change, momentum exchange, and energy transfer at the interface between the two phases. For the two-phase flow under the microgravity condition, the stability of the fluid particle interface and the interfacial structures are quite different from those under normal gravity condition. The flow structure may not reach an equilibrium condition and the two fluids may be loosely coupled such that the inertia terms of each fluid should be considered separately by use of the two-fluid model. Previous studies indicated that, unless phase-interaction terms are accurately modeled in the two-fluid model, the complex modeling does not necessarily warrant an accurate solution.
SHEARING AND WATER RETENTION BEHAVIOR OF UNSATURATED LOAM WITH MODELING
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiyohara, Yukoh; Kazama, Motoki
Unsaturated triaxial tests were carried out to study deformation behavior, effective stress path and water retention property of consolidated loam during consolidation and shearing processes. Initial matric suction was set as 0, 50, and 90 kPa, and confining pressures (net normal stresses) were set as 100 kPa. Then shearing processes were done under undrained and drained conditions. We clarified the relation between void ratio and Van Genuchten model parameter by using water retention curve. To predict the unsaturated shearing behavior, a modified Cam Clay model considering void ratio dependent Van Genuchten parameter was proposed. Those numerical test results were agreed well with laboratory tests results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smialek, James L.
2002-01-01
An equation has been developed to model the iterative scale growth and spalling process that occurs during cyclic oxidation of high temperature materials. Parabolic scale growth and spalling of a constant surface area fraction have been assumed. Interfacial spallation of the only the thickest segments was also postulated. This simplicity allowed for representation by a simple deterministic summation series. Inputs are the parabolic growth rate constant, the spall area fraction, oxide stoichiometry, and cycle duration. Outputs include the net weight change behavior, as well as the total amount of oxygen and metal consumed, the total amount of oxide spalled, and the mass fraction of oxide spalled. The outputs all follow typical well-behaved trends with the inputs and are in good agreement with previous interfacial models.
Limitations of model-fitting methods for lensing shear estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voigt, L. M.; Bridle, S. L.
2010-05-01
Gravitational lensing shear has the potential to be the most powerful tool for constraining the nature of dark energy. However, accurate measurement of galaxy shear is crucial and has been shown to be non-trivial by the Shear TEsting Programme. Here, we demonstrate a fundamental limit to the accuracy achievable by model-fitting techniques, if oversimplistic models are used. We show that even if galaxies have elliptical isophotes, model-fitting methods which assume elliptical isophotes can have significant biases if they use the wrong profile. We use noise-free simulations to show that on allowing sufficient flexibility in the profile the biases can be made negligible. This is no longer the case if elliptical isophote models are used to fit galaxies made up of a bulge plus a disc, if these two components have different ellipticities. The limiting accuracy is dependent on the galaxy shape, but we find the most significant biases (~1 per cent of the shear) for simple spiral-like galaxies. The implications for a given cosmic shear survey will depend on the actual distribution of galaxy morphologies in the Universe, taking into account the survey selection function and the point spread function. However, our results suggest that the impact on cosmic shear results from current and near future surveys may be negligible. Meanwhile, these results should encourage the development of existing approaches which are less sensitive to morphology, as well as methods which use priors on galaxy shapes learnt from deep surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brewer, Luke Nathaniel
The next generation of high temperature materials for application in aerospace and power generation systems will be required to withstand temperatures well in excess of 1200°C, often in oxidizing atmospheres. Oxide-oxide directionally solidified eutectics (DSE's) have shown promise as high temperature ceramic materials, only to be limited by their lack of fracture toughness at room temperature. In the case of DSE oxide materials, the interfacial fracture behavior has been blamed for the poor performance in the past and is the subject of interest in this work. In this thesis, the solid solution, directionally solidified quaternary eutectic (SS-DSE), Co1-xNixO/ZrO2(CaO), is developed as a model system for the study of interfacial fracture in oxide-oxide DSE's. A variety of structural and mechanical characterization techniques are applied to investigate structure-property relationships for interfacial fracture behavior. The optical floating zone technique was employed for growing both the eutectic crystals and their single crystal counterparts, Co1-x NixO. Co1-xNixO/ZrO2(CaO) was shown to possess the necessary structural elements to serve as a model system for interfacial fracture. Lamellar microstructures were observed for all compositions. The crystallographic relationships between phases evolved as a model solid solution. Interdiffusion of chemical species was minimal, allowing the layers to treated independently. The core of this thesis is dedicated to studying the nature of interfacial fracture behavior in oxide eutectics. This study is motivated by the novel observation of extensive interfacial delamination for the system CoO/ZrO 2(CaO). A transition from interfacial delamination to interfacial penetration is observed for compositions of Co1-xNixO/ZrO 2(CaO) with x > 0.2. The residual stress state in these materials was investigated using X-ray and neutron diffraction-based techniques. The role of plasticity in interfacial fracture was explored using a
A model for shear response in swimming plankton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, Justin; Stastna, Marek
2017-02-01
Observations of zooplankton populations below their preferred light level have been attributed to a shear response. We propose a measure of shear based on the second invariant of the rate of strain tensor. This quantification allows the shear response mechanism to be modelled numerically. The importance of this mechanism is examined by modifying a light-biased stochastic swimming model of the run and tumble type for plankton moving in a velocity field induced by internal waves in a channel. It is found that a model which includes the mechanisms of settling, biased swimming, and a "freeze in shear" response predicts aggregation of plankton populations below their preferred light level, which is consistent with acoustic data observations. Depending on the geometry of the high shear region, the population is either shifted downward, or aggregates as a thin layer along the bottom boundary of the high shear region. A pair of timescales is defined in order to determine which of these two cases will occur.
A General Shear-Dependent Model for Thrombus Formation
Humphrey, Jay D.
2017-01-01
Modeling the transport, activation, and adhesion of platelets is crucial in predicting thrombus formation and growth following a thrombotic event in normal or pathological conditions. We propose a shear-dependent platelet adhesive model based on the Morse potential that is calibrated by existing in vivo and in vitro experimental data and can be used over a wide range of flow shear rates (100<γ˙<28,000s-1). We introduce an Eulerian-Lagrangian model where hemodynamics is solved on a fixed Eulerian grid, while platelets are tracked using a Lagrangian framework. A force coupling method is introduced for bidirectional coupling of platelet motion with blood flow. Further, we couple the calibrated platelet aggregation model with a tissue-factor/contact pathway coagulation cascade, representing the relevant biology of thrombin generation and the subsequent fibrin deposition. The range of shear rates covered by the proposed model encompass venous and arterial thrombosis, ranging from low-shear-rate conditions in abdominal aortic aneurysms and thoracic aortic dissections to thrombosis in stenotic arteries following plaque rupture, where local shear rates are extremely high. PMID:28095402
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcelroy, Paul M.; Lawson, Daniel D.
1990-01-01
Adhesion and interfacial stress between metal films and structural composite material substrates is discussed. A theoretical and conceptual basis for selecting coating materials for composite mirror substrates is described. A phenomenological model that interrelates cohesive tensile strength of thin film coatings and interfacial peeling stresses is presented. The model serves as a basis in determining gradiated materials response and compatibility of composite substrate and coating combinations. Parametric evaluation of material properties and geometrical factors such as coating thickness are used to determine the threshold stress levels for maintaining adhesion at the different interfaces.
Interfacial free energy adjustable phase field crystal model for homogeneous nucleation.
Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Huang, Yunhao
2016-05-18
To describe the homogeneous nucleation process, an interfacial free energy adjustable phase-field crystal model (IPFC) was proposed by reconstructing the energy functional of the original phase field crystal (PFC) methodology. Compared with the original PFC model, the additional interface term in the IPFC model effectively can adjust the magnitude of the interfacial free energy, but does not affect the equilibrium phase diagram and the interfacial energy anisotropy. The IPFC model overcame the limitation that the interfacial free energy of the original PFC model is much less than the theoretical results. Using the IPFC model, we investigated some basic issues in homogeneous nucleation. From the viewpoint of simulation, we proceeded with an in situ observation of the process of cluster fluctuation and obtained quite similar snapshots to colloidal crystallization experiments. We also counted the size distribution of crystal-like clusters and the nucleation rate. Our simulations show that the size distribution is independent of the evolution time, and the nucleation rate remains constant after a period of relaxation, which are consistent with experimental observations. The linear relation between logarithmic nucleation rate and reciprocal driving force also conforms to the steady state nucleation theory.
Tavakoli-Keshe, Roumteen; Phillips, Jonathan J; Turner, Richard; Bracewell, Daniel G
2014-01-01
Relative stability of therapeutic antibody candidates is currently evaluated primarily through their response to thermal degradation, yet this technique is not always predictive of stability in manufacture, shipping, and storage. A rotating disk shear device is proposed that produces defined shear conditions at a known solid–liquid interface to measure stability in this environment. Five variants of IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies were created using combinations of two discrete triple amino acid sequence mutations denoted TM and YTE. Antibodies were ranked for stability based on shear device output (protein decay coefficient, PDC), and compared with accelerated thermal stability data and the melting temperature of the CH2 domain (Tm1) from differential scanning calorimetry to investigate technique complimentarity. Results suggest that the techniques are orthogonal, with thermal methods based on intramolecular interaction and shear device stability based on localized unfolding revealing less stable regions that drive aggregation. Molecular modeling shows the modifications’ effects on the antibody structures and indicates a possible role for Fc conformation and Fab-Fc docking in determining suspended protein stability. The data introduce the PDC value as an orthogonal stability indicator, complementary to traditional thermal methods, allowing lead antibody selection based on a more full understanding of process stability. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:437–444, 2014 PMID:24357426
A model for the interfacial kinetics of phospholipase D activity on long-chain lipids.
Majd, Sheereen; Yusko, Erik C; Yang, Jerry; Sept, David; Mayer, Michael
2013-07-02
The membrane-active enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond in phospholipids and plays a critical role in cell signaling. This catalytic reaction proceeds on lipid-water interfaces and is an example of heterogeneous catalysis in biology. Recently we showed that planar lipid bilayers, a previously unexplored model membrane for these kinetic studies, can be used for monitoring interfacial catalytic reactions under well-defined experimental conditions with chemical and electrical access to both sides of the lipid membrane. Employing an assay that relies on the conductance of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin A to monitor PLD activity, the work presented here reveals the kinetics of hydrolysis of long-chain phosphatidylcholine lipids in situ. We have developed an extension of a basic kinetic model for interfacial catalysis that includes product activation and substrate depletion. This model describes the kinetic behavior very well and reveals two kinetic parameters, the specificity constant and the interfacial quality constant. This approach results in a simple and general model to account for product accumulation in interfacial enzyme kinetics.
Analytical Model of Shear of 4-harness Satin Weave Fabrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lu; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James
2004-06-01
Trellis shear is the main deformation mode in the thermo-stamping process of woven fabric composites. To model the shear properties of woven fabrics analytically, the equilibrium equation of the unit cell of a 4-harness satin weave glass/polypropylene woven fabric is studied. Frictional resistance moment and lateral compaction resistance moment are then predicted by studying the geometry of the unit cell. Then the model is used to predict the load versus shear angle curves in the picture frame test to reduce or eliminate the test itself. A parametric study is carried out to determine the sensitivity of the friction coefficient. To validate the model, picture-frame experimental results are presented. A very close correlation is observed between the model predictions and the experimental results. Results of plain weave fabrics are included to show the analytical model's ability to predict the effect of weave pattern. Results from an international benchmark testing are also presented to help establish the test standards for experimental characterization of the shear properties of woven fabrics in the thermo-stamping process.
A theoretical model of sheath fold morphology in simple shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reber, Jacqueline E.; Dabrowski, Marcin; Galland, Olivier; Schmid, Daniel W.
2013-04-01
Sheath folds are highly non-cylindrical structures often associated with shear zones. The geometry of sheath folds, especially cross-sections perpendicular to the stretching direction that display eye-patterns, have been used in the field to deduce kinematic information such as shear sense and bulk strain type. However, how sheath folds form and how they evolve with increasing strain is still a matter of debate. We investigate the formation of sheath folds around a weak inclusion acting as a slip surface in simple shear by means of an analytical model. We systematically vary the slip surface orientation and shape and evaluate the impact on the evolving eye-pattern. In addition we compare our results to existing classifications. Based on field observations it has been suggested that the shear sense of a shear zone can be determined by knowing the position of the center of an eye-pattern and the closing direction of the corresponding sheath fold. In our modeled sheath folds we can observe for a given strain that the center of the eye-structure is subject to change in height with respect to the upper edge of the outermost closed contour for different cross-sections perpendicular to the shear direction. This results in a large variability in layer thickness, questioning the usefulness of sheath folds as shear sense indicators. The location of the center of the eye structure, however, is largely invariant to the initial configurations of the slip surface as well as to strain. It has been suggested that the ratio of the aspect ratio of the innermost and outermost closed contour in eye-patterns could be linked to the bulk strain type based on filed observations. We apply this classification to our modeled sheath folds and we observe that the values of the aspect ratios of the closed contours within the eye-pattern are dependent on the strain and the cross-section location. The ratio (R') of the aspect ratios of the outermost closed contour (Ryz) and the innermost closed
Modeling the behavior of confined colloidal particles under shear flow.
Mackay, F E; Pastor, K; Karttunen, M; Denniston, C
2014-11-21
We investigate the behavior of colloidal suspensions with different volume fractions confined between parallel walls under a range of steady shears. We model the particles using molecular dynamics (MD) with full hydrodynamic interactions implemented through the use of a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) fluid. A quasi-2d ordering occurs in systems characterized by a coexistence of coupled layers with different densities, order, and granular temperature. We present a phase diagram in terms of shear and volume fraction for each layer, and demonstrate that particle exchange between layers is required for entering the disordered phase.
Modelling the effect of shear strength on isentropic compression experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, Stuart; Howell, Peter; Ockendon, John; Ockendon, Hilary
2017-01-01
Isentropic compression experiments (ICE) are a way of obtaining equation of state information for metals undergoing violent plastic deformation. In a typical experiment, millimetre thick metal samples are subjected to pressures on the order of 10 - 102 GPa, while the yield strength of the material can be as low as 10-2 GPa. The analysis of such experiments has so far neglected the effect of shear strength, instead treating the highly plasticised metal as an inviscid compressible fluid. However making this approximation belies the basic elastic nature of a solid object. A more accurate method should strive to incorporate the small but measurable effects of shear strength. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical model for elastoplasticity at high stress which allows for both compressibility and the shear strength of the material. In the limit of zero yield stress this model reproduces the hydrodynamic models currently used to analyse ICEs. Numerical solutions of the governing equations will then be presented for problems relevant to ICEs in order to investigate the effects of shear strength compared with a model based purely on hydrodynamics.
Tests Of Shear-Flow Model For Acoustic Impedance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrot, Tony L.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.
1992-01-01
Tests described in report conducted to validate two-dimensional shear-flow analytical model for determination of acoustic impedance of acoustic liner in grazing-incidence, grazing-flow environment by use of infinite-waveguide method. Tests successful for both upstream and downstream propagations. Work has potential for utility in testing of engine ducts in commercial aircraft.
Specific shear-dependent viscoelastic third-grade fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carapau, Fernando; Correia, Paulo; Grilo, Luis M.
2016-12-01
A specific modified constitutive equation for a third-grade fluid is proposed so that the model be suitable for applications where shear-thinning or shear-thickening may occur. For that, we use the Cosserat theory approach reducing the exact three-dimensional equations to a system depending only on time and on a single spatial variable. This one-dimensional system is obtained by integrating the linear momentum equation over the cross-section of the tube, taking a velocity field approximation provided by the Cosserat theory. From this reduced system, we obtain the unsteady equations for the wall shear stress and mean pressure gradient depending on the volume flow rate, Womersley number, viscoelastic coefficient and flow index over a finite section of the tube geometry with constant circular cross-section.
A stochastic subgrid model for sheared turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoglio, J. P.
A new subgrid model for homogeneous turbulence is proposed. The model is used in a method of Large Eddy Simulation coupled with an E.D.Q.N.M. prediction of the statistical properties of the small scales. The model is stochastic in order to allow a 'disaveraging' of the informations provided by the E.D.Q.N.M. closure. It is based on stochastic amplitude equations for two-point closures. It allows backflow of energy from the small scales, introduces stochasticity into L.E.S., and is well adapted to nonisotropic fields. A few results are presented here.
Material characterization and modeling with shear ography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Workman, Gary L.; Callahan, Virginia
1993-01-01
Shearography has emerged as a useful technique for nondestructible evaluation and materials characterization of aerospace materials. A suitable candidate for the technique is to determine the response of debonds on foam-metal interfaces such as the TPS system on the External Tank. The main thrust is to develop a model which allows valid interpretation of shearographic information on TPS type systems. Confirmation of the model with shearographic data will be performed.
Nonlinear Reynolds stress model for turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barton, J. Michael; Rubinstein, R.; Kirtley, K. R.
1991-01-01
A nonlinear algebraic Reynolds stress model, derived using the renormalization group, is applied to equilibrium homogeneous shear flow and fully developed flow in a square duct. The model, which is quadratically nonlinear in the velocity gradients, successfully captures the large-scale inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the flows studied. The ratios of normal stresses, as well as the actual magnitudes of the stresses are correctly predicted for equilibrium homogeneous shear flow. Reynolds normal stress anisotropy and attendant turbulence driven secondary flow are predicted for a square duct. Profiles of mean velocity and normal stresses are in good agreement with measurements. Very close to walls, agreement with measurements diminishes. The model has the benefit of containing no arbitrary constants; all values are determined directly from the theory. It seems that near wall behavior is influenced by more than the large scale anisotropy accommodated in the current model. More accurate near wall calculations may well require a model for anisotropic dissipation.
Modeling and analysis of electrorheological suspensions in shear flow.
Seo, Youngwook P; Seo, Yongsok
2012-02-14
A model capable of describing the flow behavior of electrorheological (ER) suspensions under different electric field strengths and over the full range of shear rates is proposed. Structural reformation in the low shear rate region is investigated where parts of a material are in an undeformed state, while aligned structures reform under the shear force. The model's predictions were compared with the experimental data of some ER fluids as well as the CCJ (Cho-Choi-Jhon) model. This simple model's predictions of suspension flow behavior with subsequent aligned structure reformation agreed well with the experimental data, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The proposed model plausibly predicted the static yield stress, whereas the CCJ model and the Bingham model predicted only the dynamic yield stress. The master curve describing the apparent viscosity was obtained by appropriate scaling both axes, which showed that a combination of dimensional analysis and flow curve analysis using the proposed model yielded a quantitatively and qualitatively precise description of ER fluid rheological behavior based on relatively few experimental measurements.
Characterizing and Modeling Brittle Bi-material Interfaces Subjected to Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anyfantis, Konstantinos N.; Berggreen, Christian
2014-12-01
This work is based on the investigation, both experimentally and numerically, of the Mode II fracture process and bond strength of bondlines formed in co-cured composite/metal joints. To this end, GFRP-to-steel double strap joints were tested in tension, so that the bi-material interface was subjected to shear with debonding occurring under Mode II conditions. The study of the debonding process and thus failure of the joints was based both on stress and energy considerations. Analytical formulas were utilized for the derivation of the respective shear strength and fracture toughness measures which characterize the bi-material interface, by considering the joint's failure load, geometry and involved materials. The derived stress and toughness magnitudes were further utilized as the parameters of an extrinsic cohesive law, applied in connection with the modeling the bi-material interface in a finite element simulation environment. It was concluded that interfacial fracture in the considered joints was driven by the fracture toughness and not by strength considerations, and that LEFM is well suited to analyze the failure of the joint. Additionally, the double strap joint geometry was identified and utilized as a characterization test for measuring the Mode II fracture toughness of brittle bi-material interfaces.
Maenz, Stefan; Hennig, Max; Mühlstädt, Mike; Kunisch, Elke; Bungartz, Matthias; Brinkmann, Olaf; Bossert, Jörg; Kinne, Raimund W; Jandt, Klaus D
2016-04-01
Biodegradable calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are promising materials for minimally invasive treatment of bone defects. However, CPCs have low mechanical strength and fracture toughness. One approach to overcome these limitations is the modification of the CPC with reinforcing fibers. The matrix-fiber interfacial shear strength (ISS) is pivotal for the biomechanical properties of fiber-reinforced CPCs. The aim of the current study was to control the ISS between a brushite-forming CPC and degradable PLGA fibers by oxygen plasma treatment and to analyze the impact of the ISS alterations on its bulk mechanical properties. The ISS between CPC matrix and PLGA fibers, tested in a single-fiber pull-out test, increased up to 2.3-fold to max. 3.22±0.92MPa after fiber oxygen plasma treatment (100-300W, 1-10min), likely due to altered surface chemistry and morphology of the fibers. This ISS increase led to more efficient crack bridging and a subsequent increase of the post-peak residual strength at biomechanically relevant, moderate strains (up to 1%). At the same time, the work of fracture significantly decreased, possibly due to an increased proportion of fractured fibers unable to further absorb energy by frictional sliding. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were not affected by the oxygen plasma treatment. This study shows for the first time that the matrix-fiber ISS and some of the resulting mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced CPCs can be improved by chemical modifications such as oxygen plasma treatment, generating the possibility of avoiding catastrophic failures at the implant site and thus enhancing the applicability of biodegradable CPCs for the treatment of (load-bearing) bone defects.
Transient shear flow of model lithium lubricating greases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.
2009-03-01
This paper deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behavior of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate and the viscosity of the base oil, according to a RSM statistical design. Moreover, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations were carried out. The transient stress response can be successfully described by the generalized Leider-Bird model based on two exponential terms. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. The stress overshoot, τ max , depends linearly on both variables in the whole shear rate range studied, although the effect of base oil viscosity on this parameter is opposite at low and high shear rates. Special attention has been given to the first part of the stress-growth curve. In this sense, it can be deduced that the “yielding” energy density not only depends on grease composition, but also on shear rate. Moreover, an interesting asymptotic tendency has been found for both the “yielding” energy density and the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of these parameters have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.
Shear-free anisotropic cosmological models in {f (R)} gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abebe, Amare; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-04-01
We study a class of shear-free, homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models with imperfect matter sources in the context of f( R) gravity. We show that the anisotropic stresses are related to the electric part of the Weyl tensor in such a way that they balance each other. We also show that within the class of orthogonal f( R) models, small perturbations of shear are damped, and that the electric part of the Weyl tensor and the anisotropic stress tensor decay with the expansion as well as the heat flux of the curvature fluid. Specializing in locally rotationally symmetric spacetimes in orthonormal frames, we examine the late-time behaviour of the de Sitter universe in f( R) gravity. For the Starobinsky model of f( R), we study the evolutionary behavior of the Universe by numerically integrating the Friedmann equation, where the initial conditions for the expansion, acceleration and jerk parameters are taken from observational data.
Modeling of Mesoscale Variability in Biofilm Shear Behavior
Barai, Pallab; Kumar, Aloke; Mukherjee, Partha P.
2016-01-01
Formation of bacterial colonies as biofilm on the surface/interface of various objects has the potential to impact not only human health and disease but also energy and environmental considerations. Biofilms can be regarded as soft materials, and comprehension of their shear response to external forces is a key element to the fundamental understanding. A mesoscale model has been presented in this article based on digitization of a biofilm microstructure. Its response under externally applied shear load is analyzed. Strain stiffening type behavior is readily observed under high strain loads due to the unfolding of chains within soft polymeric substrate. Sustained shear loading of the biofilm network results in strain localization along the diagonal direction. Rupture of the soft polymeric matrix can potentially reduce the intercellular interaction between the bacterial cells. Evolution of stiffness within the biofilm network under shear reveals two regimes: a) initial increase in stiffness due to strain stiffening of polymer matrix, and b) eventual reduction in stiffness because of tear in polymeric substrate. PMID:27806068
Sinusoidal Forcing of Interfacial Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasheed, Fayaz; Raghunandan, Aditya; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan
2015-11-01
Fluid transport, in vivo, is accomplished via pumping mechanisms of the heart and lungs, which results in biological fluids being subjected to oscillatory shear. Flow is known to influence biological macromolecules, but predicting the effect of shear is incomplete without also accounting for the influence of complex interfaces ubiquitous throughout the body. Here, we investigated the oscillatory response of the structure of aqueous interfacial films using a cylindrical knife edge viscometer. Vitamin K1 was used as a model monolayer because its behaviour has been thoroughly quantified and it doesn't show any measurable hysteresis. The monolayer was subjected to sinusoidal forcing under varied conditions of surface concentrations, periodic frequencies, and knife edge amplitudes. Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV) data was collected using Brewster Angle Microscopy(BAM), revealing the influence of oscillatory interfacial shear stress on the monolayer. Insights were gained as to how the velocity profile dampens at specific distances from the knife edge contact depending on the amplitude, frequency, and concentration of Vitamin K1. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Mathematical Modeling of Intravascular Blood Coagulation under Wall Shear Stress
Rukhlenko, Oleksii S.; Dudchenko, Olga A.; Zlobina, Ksenia E.; Guria, Georgy Th.
2015-01-01
Increased shear stress such as observed at local stenosis may cause drastic changes in the permeability of the vessel wall to procoagulants and thus initiate intravascular blood coagulation. In this paper we suggest a mathematical model to investigate how shear stress-induced permeability influences the thrombogenic potential of atherosclerotic plaques. Numerical analysis of the model reveals the existence of two hydrodynamic thresholds for activation of blood coagulation in the system and unveils typical scenarios of thrombus formation. The dependence of blood coagulation development on the intensity of blood flow, as well as on geometrical parameters of atherosclerotic plaque is described. Relevant parametric diagrams are drawn. The results suggest a previously unrecognized role of relatively small plaques (resulting in less than 50% of the lumen area reduction) in atherothrombosis and have important implications for the existing stenting guidelines. PMID:26222505
Constitutive Modeling for Particle-Dispersed Composites with Degradation Due to Interfacial Damage
Chang, Huajian
2002-07-01
The composite materials are susceptible to interfacial delamination. The overall properties of composites will degrade dramatically if the interface between the particles and the matrix material undertakes interfacial damage. In present paper, the effects of interfacial delamination on the macro properties of composites are evaluated by the Equivalent Inclusion Method (EIM) with some modifications and supplementation on the conventional one, which was originally proposed by Eshelby. The meso-local behaviors of particle, matrix, as well as their interface are theoretically modeled, and the relationships between these behaviors and the macro stress/stress field are established. Upon modeling the damaged interface with spring layers and making equivalent of stress and strain inside a real particle to those inside the corresponding virtual inclusion, a modified Eshelby tensor and the damage-relevant tensor of the inclusions are derived explicitly. These tensors can be conveniently incorporated into the constitutive model, and make it available to assess the effects of delamination. Some numerical calculations are carried out to verify the performance of the present model. (author)
François, Marianne M.
2015-05-28
A review of recent advances made in numerical methods and algorithms within the volume tracking framework is presented. The volume tracking method, also known as the volume-of-fluid method has become an established numerical approach to model and simulate interfacial flows. Its advantage is its strict mass conservation. However, because the interface is not explicitly tracked but captured via the material volume fraction on a fixed mesh, accurate estimation of the interface position, its geometric properties and modeling of interfacial physics in the volume tracking framework remain difficult. Several improvements have been made over the last decade to address these challenges.more » In this study, the multimaterial interface reconstruction method via power diagram, curvature estimation via heights and mean values and the balanced-force algorithm for surface tension are highlighted.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Ye; Huang, Zaixing; Qiang, Lei; Gao, Jun
2015-11-01
In a multivalent salt solution, a segment of DNA is modeled as an elastic rod subjected to the interfacial traction. The shooting method is used to calculate the equilibrium configurations of condensed DNA under the action of the longitudinal end-force and interfacial traction simultaneously. The results show that the shapes of DNA are mainly determined by the competition between the interfacial energy and elastic strain energy of stretching. The change of end-to-end distance with the longitudinal end-force is consistent with the worm-like chain (WLC) model. The higher the concentration is, the stronger the condensation of DNA.
Modeling and database for melt-water interfacial heat transfer
Farmer, M.T.; Spencer, B.W.; Schneider, J.P.; Bonomo, B.; Theofanous, G.
1992-04-01
A mechanistic model is developed to predict the transition superficial gas velocity between bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes in a sparged molten pool with a coolant overlayer. The model has direct applications in the analysis of ex-vessel severe accidents, where molten corium interacts with concrete, thereby producing sparging concrete decomposition gases. The analysis approach embodies thermal, mechanical, and hydrodynamic aspects associated with incipient crust formation at the melt/coolant interface. The model is validated against experiment data obtained with water (melt) and liquid nitrogen (coolant) simulants. Predictions are then made for the critical gas velocity at which crust formation will occur for core material interacting with concrete in the presence of water.
Modeling and database for melt-water interfacial heat transfer
Farmer, M.T.; Spencer, B.W. ); Schneider, J.P. ); Bonomo, B. ); Theofanous, G. )
1992-01-01
A mechanistic model is developed to predict the transition superficial gas velocity between bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes in a sparged molten pool with a coolant overlayer. The model has direct applications in the analysis of ex-vessel severe accidents, where molten corium interacts with concrete, thereby producing sparging concrete decomposition gases. The analysis approach embodies thermal, mechanical, and hydrodynamic aspects associated with incipient crust formation at the melt/coolant interface. The model is validated against experiment data obtained with water (melt) and liquid nitrogen (coolant) simulants. Predictions are then made for the critical gas velocity at which crust formation will occur for core material interacting with concrete in the presence of water.
Microscopic Origin of Shear Relaxation in a Model Viscoelastic Liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashwin, J.; Sen, Abhijit
2015-02-01
An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τMex of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γc of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τLC converges to τMex and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ ≫Γc, i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τMex→τM (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.
Modeling of Interfacial Modification Effects on Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotube Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.
2006-01-01
The effect of functionalization of carbon nanotubes on the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites has been studied using a multi-scale modeling approach. These results predict that grafting linear hydrocarbon chains to the surface of a single wall carbon nanotube with covalent chemical bonds should result in a significant increase in the thermal conductivity of these nanocomposites. This is due to the decrease in the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between the single wall carbon nanotube and the surrounding polymer matrix upon chemical functionalization. The nanocomposites studied here consist of single wall carbon nanotubes in a bulk poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) matrix. The nanotubes are functionalized by end-grafting linear hydrocarbon chains of varying length to the surface of the nanotube. The effect which this functionalization has on the interfacial thermal resistance is studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Interfacial thermal resistance values are calculated for a range of chemical grafting densities and with several chain lengths. These results are subsequently used in an analytical model to predict the resulting effect on the bulk thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite.
Interfacial reactions of ozone with surfactant protein B in a model lung surfactant system.
Kim, Hugh I; Kim, Hyungjun; Shin, Young Shik; Beegle, Luther W; Jang, Seung Soon; Neidholdt, Evan L; Goddard, William A; Heath, James R; Kanik, Isik; Beauchamp, J L
2010-02-24
Oxidative stresses from irritants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone (O(3)) can cause dysfunction of the pulmonary surfactant (PS) layer in the human lung, resulting in chronic diseases of the respiratory tract. For identification of structural changes of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) due to the heterogeneous reaction with O(3), field-induced droplet ionization (FIDI) mass spectrometry has been utilized. FIDI is a soft ionization method in which ions are extracted from the surface of microliter-volume droplets. We report structurally specific oxidative changes of SP-B(1-25) (a shortened version of human SP-B) at the air-liquid interface. We also present studies of the interfacial oxidation of SP-B(1-25) in a nonionizable 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol (POG) surfactant layer as a model PS system, where competitive oxidation of the two components is observed. Our results indicate that the heterogeneous reaction of SP-B(1-25) at the interface is quite different from that in the solution phase. In comparison with the nearly complete homogeneous oxidation of SP-B(1-25), only a subset of the amino acids known to react with ozone are oxidized by direct ozonolysis in the hydrophobic interfacial environment, both with and without the lipid surfactant layer. Combining these experimental observations with the results of molecular dynamics simulations provides an improved understanding of the interfacial structure and chemistry of a model lung surfactant system subjected to oxidative stress.
An air-water interfacial area based variable tortuosity model for unsaturated sands
Khaleel, Raziuddin; Saripalli, Prasad
2006-05-01
Based on Kozeny-Carman equation for saturated media permeability, a new model is developed for the prediction of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, K as a function of moisture content, ?. The K(???) estimates are obtained using laboratory measurements of moisture retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and a saturation-dependent tortuosity based on the immiscible fluid (air-water) interfacial area. Tortuosity (?a) for unsaturated media is defined as aaw/aaw,o (ratio of the specific air-water interfacial area of a real and the corresponding idealized porous medium). A correspondence between the real and idealized media is established by using the laboratory-measured soil moisture retention curve to calculate the interfacial area. The general trend in prediction of ?a as a function water saturation is in agreement with similar recent predictions based on diffusion theory. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities measured for a number of coarse-textured, repacked Hanford sediments agree well with predictions based on the modified Kozeny-Carman relation. Because of the use of saturated hydraulic conductivity, a slight bias is apparent in measured and predicted K at low ?. While the modified Kozeny-Carman relation was found to be reasonably accurate in predicting K(??) for the repacked, sandy soils considered in this study, a further testing of the new model for undisturbed sediments and other soil textures would be useful.
Shear stress transmission model for the flagellar rotary motor.
Mitsui, Toshio; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
2008-09-01
Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that the mean strength of Coulomb field produced by a proton passing the channel is very strong in the Mot assembly so that the Mot assembly can be a shear force generator and induce the flagellar rotation. The model gives clear calculation results in agreement with experimental observations, e g., for the characteristic torque-velocity relationship of the flagellar rotation.
A review of Reynolds stress models for turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.
1995-01-01
A detailed review of recent developments in Reynolds stress modeling for incompressible turbulent shear flows is provided. The mathematical foundations of both two-equation models and full second-order closures are explored in depth. It is shown how these models can be systematically derived for two-dimensional mean turbulent flows that are close to equilibrium. A variety of examples are provided to demonstrate how well properly calibrated versions of these models perform for such flows. However, substantial problems remain for the description of more complex turbulent flows where there are large departures from equilibrium. Recent efforts to extend Reynolds stress models to nonequilibrium turbulent flows are discussed briefly along with the major modeling issues relevant to practical naval hydrodynamics applications.
Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Porcar, Lionel
2014-09-01
The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response.
1982-04-23
malathion . The effect of surfactant structure and model fluid on the adsorption process were catalogued with the aid of the Szyszkowski equation and the...the interfacial tension to low values by the surfactant when combined with the kinetic energy of the flow process assists in significant erosion of...methyl salicylate, malathion and ortho- dichlorobenzene. The interfacial tension properties of the fluids used are shown in Table 3. The surface tension
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
MASKED AREAS IN SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS: A FORWARD MODELING APPROACH
Bard, D.; Kratochvil, J. M.; Dawson, W.
2016-03-10
The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance.
MASKED AREAS IN SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS: A FORWARD MODELING APPROACH
Bard, D.; Kratochvil, J. M.; Dawson, W.
2016-03-09
The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance.
Random shearing direction models for isotropic turbulent diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majda, Andrew J.
1994-06-01
Recently, a rigorous renormalization theory for various scalar statistics has been developed for special modes of random advection diffusion involving random shear layer velocity fields with long-range spatiotemporal correlations. New random shearing direction models for isotropic turbulent diffusion are introduced here. In these models the velocity field has the spatial second-order statistics of an arbitrary prescribed stationary incompressible isotropic random field including long-range spatial correlations with infrared divergence, but the temporal correlations have finite range. The explicit theory of renormalization for the mean and second-order statistics is developed here. With ɛ the spectral parameter, for -∞<ɛ<4 and measuring the strength of the infrared divergence of the spatial spectrum, the scalar mean statistics rigorously exhibit a phase transition from mean-field behavior for ɛ<2 to anomalous behavior for ɛ with 2<ɛ<4 as conjectured earlier by Avellaneda and the author. The universal inertial range renormalization for the second-order scalar statistics exhibits a phase transition from a covariance with a Gaussian functional form for ɛ with ɛ<2 to an explicit family with a non-Gaussian covariance for ɛ with 2<ɛ<4. These non-Gaussian distributions have tails that are broader than Gaussian as ɛ varies with 2<ɛ<4 and behave for large values like exp(- C c | x|4-ɛ), with C c an explicit constant. Also, here the attractive general principle is formulated and proved that every steady, stationary, zero-mean, isotropic, incompressible Gaussian random velocity field is well approximated by a suitable superposition of random shear layers.
An improved turbulence model for rotating shear flows*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagano, Yasutaka; Hattori, Hirofumi
2002-01-01
In the present study, we construct a turbulence model based on a low-Reynolds-number non-linear k e model for turbulent flows in a rotating channel. Two-equation models, in particular the non-linear k e model, are very effective for solving various flow problems encountered in technological applications. In channel flows with rotation, however, the explicit effects of rotation only appear in the Reynolds stress components. The exact equations for k and e do not have any explicit terms concerned with the rotation effects. Moreover, the Coriolis force vanishes in the momentum equation for a fully developed channel flow with spanwise rotation. Consequently, in order to predict rotating channel flows, after proper revision the Reynolds stress equation model or the non-linear eddy viscosity model should be used. In this study, we improve the non-linear k e model so as to predict rotating channel flows. In the modelling, the wall-limiting behaviour of turbulence is also considered. First, we evaluated the non-linear k e model using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) database for a fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. Next, we assessed the non-linear k e model at various rotation numbers. Finally, on the basis of these assessments, we reconstruct the non-linear k e model to calculate rotating shear flows, and the proposed model is tested on various rotation number channel flows. The agreement with DNS and experiment data is quite satisfactory.
A generic model for transport in turbulent shear flows
Newton, Andrew P. L.; Kim, Eun-Jin
2011-05-15
Turbulence regulation by large-scale shear flows is crucial for a predictive modeling of transport in plasma. In this paper the suppression of turbulent transport by large-scale flows is studied numerically by measuring the turbulent diffusion D{sub t} and scalar amplitude
The microchannel flow model under shear stress and higher frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, K. J.
2017-04-01
The microchannel flow model provides a framework for considering the effect of the vascular bed on the time domain and frequency domain response of soft tissues. The derivation originates with a single small fluid-filled vessel in an elastic medium under uniaxial compression. A fractal branching vasculature is also assumed to be present in the tissue under consideration. This note considers two closely related issues. First, the response of the element under compression or shear as a function of the orientation of the fluid-filled vessel is considered. Second, the transition from quasistatic (Poiseuille’s Law) to dynamic (Womersley equations) fluid flow is examined to better predict the evolution of behavior at higher frequencies. These considerations expand the conceptual framework of the microchannel flow model, particularly the range and limits of validity.
The microchannel flow model under shear stress and higher frequencies.
Parker, Kevin J
2017-02-24
The microchannel flow model provides a framework for considering the effect of the vascular bed on the time domain and frequency domain response of soft tissues. The derivation originates with a single small fluid filled vessel in an elastic medium under uniaxial compression. A fractal branching vasculature is also assumed to be present in the tissue under consideration. This short technical note considers two closely related issues. First, the response of the element under compression or shear as a function of the orientation of the fluid-filled vessel is considered. Second, the transition from quasistatic (Poiseuille's Law) to dynamic (Womersley equations) fluid flow is examined to better predict the evolution of behavior at higher frequencies. These considerations expand the conceptual framework of the microchannel flow model, particularly the range and limits of validity.
Cummings, Oneka T; Wick, Collin D
2013-08-14
New molecular models that incorporated polarizable interactions with electrostatic damping were developed to better understand the interfacial properties of aqueous electrolyte systems. The models were parameterized to give free energies of aqueous solvation and the change in activity with respect to concentration in agreement with experiment. Specifically, we investigated NaCl, NaBr, and NaI systems, finding anion propensity for the air-water interface was reduced in comparison with previously developed polarizable models. This coincided with a more negative surface excess than that given by previously developed polarizable models. Furthermore, we investigated the interfacial properties of SrCl2 aqueous systems, finding that strontium had a moderate enhancement in interfacial density in comparison with bulk, while still having a fairly large negative surface excess, in agreement with experimental results.
Leong, Fong Yew
2013-01-01
Previous studies have reported persistent rotational behavior between adherent cell-cell pairs cultured on micropatterned substrates, and this rotation is often accompanied by a sigmoidal deflection of the cell-cell interface. Interestingly, the cell-cell rotation runs in the opposite reference frame from what could be expected of single cell locomotion. Specifically, the rotation of the cell pair consists of each individual cell protruding from the inwardly regressive arm of the cell-cell interface, and retracting from the other outwardly protrusive arm. To this author’s knowledge, the cause of this elusive behavior has not yet been clarified. Here, we propose a physical model based on particle dynamics, accounting for actomyosin forcing, viscous dissipation, and cortical tension. The results show that a correlation in actomyosin force vectors leads to both persistent rotational behavior and interfacial deflection in a simulated cell cluster. Significantly, the model, without any artificial cues, spontaneously and consistently reproduces the same rotational reference frame as experimentally observed. Further analyses show that the interfacial deflection depends predominantly on cortical tension, whereas the cluster rotation depends predominantly on actomyosin forcing. Together, these results corroborate the hypothesis that both rotational and morphological phenomena are, in fact, physically coupled by an intracellular torque of a common origin. PMID:24268142
Leong, Fong Yew
2013-11-19
Previous studies have reported persistent rotational behavior between adherent cell-cell pairs cultured on micropatterned substrates, and this rotation is often accompanied by a sigmoidal deflection of the cell-cell interface. Interestingly, the cell-cell rotation runs in the opposite reference frame from what could be expected of single cell locomotion. Specifically, the rotation of the cell pair consists of each individual cell protruding from the inwardly regressive arm of the cell-cell interface, and retracting from the other outwardly protrusive arm. To this author's knowledge, the cause of this elusive behavior has not yet been clarified. Here, we propose a physical model based on particle dynamics, accounting for actomyosin forcing, viscous dissipation, and cortical tension. The results show that a correlation in actomyosin force vectors leads to both persistent rotational behavior and interfacial deflection in a simulated cell cluster. Significantly, the model, without any artificial cues, spontaneously and consistently reproduces the same rotational reference frame as experimentally observed. Further analyses show that the interfacial deflection depends predominantly on cortical tension, whereas the cluster rotation depends predominantly on actomyosin forcing. Together, these results corroborate the hypothesis that both rotational and morphological phenomena are, in fact, physically coupled by an intracellular torque of a common origin.
Size effect model on kinetics of interfacial reaction between Sn-xAg-yCu solders and Cu substrate
Huang, M. L.; Yang, F.
2014-01-01
The downsizing of solder balls results in larger interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) grains and less Cu substrate consumption in lead-free soldering on Cu substrates. This size effect on the interfacial reaction is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically analyzed using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder balls. The interfacial reaction between the Sn-xAg-yCu solders and Cu substrates is a dynamic response to a combination of effects of interfacial IMC growth, Cu substrate consumption and composition variation in the interface zone. A concentration gradient controlled (CGC) kinetics model is proposed to explain the combined effects. The concentration gradient of Cu at the interface, which is a function of solder volume, initial Cu concentration and reaction time, is the root cause of the size effect. We found that a larger Cu concentration gradient results in smaller Cu6Sn5 grains and more consumption of Cu substrate. According to our model, the growth kinetics of interfacial Cu6Sn5 obeys a t1/3 law when the molten solder has approached the solution saturation, and will be slower otherwise due to the interfering dissolution mechanism. The size effect introduced in this model is supported by a good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. Finally, the scope of application of this model is discussed. PMID:25408359
Critical transition for the edge shear layer formation: Comparison of model and experiment
Carreras, B. A.; Garcia, L.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.
2006-12-15
The experimental results for the emergence of the plasma edge shear flow layer in TJ-II [C. Alehaldre et al.Fusion Technol. 17, 131 (1990)] can be explained using a simple model for a second-order transition based on the sheared flow amplification by Reynolds stress and turbulence suppression by shearing. In the dynamics of the model, the resistive interchange instability is used. This model gives power dependence on density gradients before and after the transition, consistent with experiment.
Vascular wall shear stress in zebrafish model of early atherosclerosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Woorak; Seo, Eunseok; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon
2016-11-01
Although atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, the role of hemodynamic force has strong influence on the outbreak of the disease. Low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) is associated with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Many researchers have investigated relationships between WSS and the occurrence of atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo models. However, these models possess technological limitations in mimicking real biophysiological conditions and monitoring the temporal progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, a hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model was established as a novel model to resolve these technical limitations. WSS in blood vessels of 15 days post-fertilisation zebrafish was measured using a micro PIV technique, and the spatial distribution of lipids inside blood vessels was quantitatively visualized using a confocal microscopy. As a result, lipids are mainly deposited in the regions of low WSS. The oscillating WSS is not induced by blood flows in the zebrafish disease model. The present hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model would be useful for understanding the effect of WSS on the early stage of atherosclerosis. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under a Grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).
Multiscale model for predicting shear zone structure and permeability in deforming rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleary, Paul W.; Pereira, Gerald G.; Lemiale, Vincent; Piane, Claudio Delle; Clennell, M. Ben
2016-04-01
A novel multiscale model is proposed for the evolution of faults in rocks, which predicts their internal properties and permeability as strain increases. The macroscale model, based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), predicts system scale deformation by a pressure-dependent elastoplastic representation of the rock and shear zone. Being a continuum method, SPH contains no intrinsic information on the grain scale structure or behaviour of the shear zone, so a series of discrete element method microscale shear cell models are embedded into the macroscale model at specific locations. In the example used here, the overall geometry and kinematics of a direct shear test on a block of intact rock is simulated. Deformation is imposed by a macroscale model where stresses and displacement rates are applied at the shear cell walls in contact with the rock. Since the microscale models within the macroscale block of deforming rock now include representations of the grains, the structure of the shear zone, the evolution of the size and shape distribution of these grains, and the dilatancy of the shear zone can all be predicted. The microscale dilatancy can be used to vary the macroscale model dilatancy both spatially and temporally to give a full two-way coupling between the spatial scales. The ability of this model to predict shear zone structure then allows the prediction of the shear zone permeability using the Lattice-Boltzmann method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bair, S.; Winer, W. O.
1980-01-01
Research related to the development of the limiting shear stress rheological model is reported. Techniques were developed for subjecting lubricants to isothermal compression in order to obtain relevant determinations of the limiting shear stress and elastic shear modulus. The isothermal compression limiting shear stress was found to predict very well the maximum traction for a given lubricant. Small amounts of side slip and twist incorporated in the model were shown to have great influence on the rising portion of the traction curve at low slide-roll ratio. The shear rheological model was also applied to a Grubin-like elastohydrodynamic inlet analysis for predicting film thicknesses when employing the limiting shear stress model material behavior.
Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghan, S. J.
1984-01-01
An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.
A Model for Shear Layer Effects on Engine Noise Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, V.
2004-01-01
Prediction of aircraft engine noise is an important aspect of addressing the issues of community noise and cabin noise control. The development of physics based methodologies for performing such predictions has been a focus of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA). A recent example of code development in this area is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. Included within the code is a duct radiation model that is based on the solution of FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation with a penetrable data surface. Testing of this equation for many acoustic problems has shown it to provide generally better results than the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces. Currently, the data surface is taken to be the inlet or exhaust plane for inlet or aft-fan cases, respectively. While this provides reasonable results in many situations, these choices of data surface location lead to a few limitations. For example, the shear layer between the bypass ow and external stream can refract the sound waves radiated to the far field. Radiation results can be improved by including this effect, as well as the rejection of the sound in the bypass region from the solid surface external to the bypass duct surrounding the core ow. This work describes the implementation, and possible approximation, of a shear layer boundary condition within CDUCT-LaRC. An example application also illustrates the improvements that this extension offers for predicting noise radiation from complex inlet and bypass duct geometries, thereby providing a means to evaluate external treatments in the vicinity of the bypass duct exhaust plane.
Zhou, Sheng-Yang; Niu, Ben; Xie, Xu-Long; Ji, Xu; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming
2017-03-02
The challenge of hitherto elaborating a feasible pathway to overcome the conflicts between strength and toughness of polylactide (PLA) still remains among academia and industry. In the current work, a unique hierarchal structure of flexible poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) in-situ nanofibrils integrating with abundant PLA shish-kebabs as strong building block was disclosed and expresses its capability to availably conquer this dilemma. Substantially simultaneous enhancement on tensile strength, impact strength and elongation at break could be achieved up to 91.2 MPa, 14.9 KJ/m(2) and 15.7 % respectively compared with pure PLA (61.5 MPa, 4.3 KJ/m(2), and 6.2 %). Through investigating the phase (and crystalline) morphology and molecular chain behavior in PLA/PBAT system, the formation mechanism of this structure facilitated by a coupling effect of PBAT flexible phase and shear flow was definitely elucidated. The dispersed phase of PBAT would be more inclined to existing as a fibrillar form within PLA matrix benefiting from low interfacial tension. Interestingly, this phase morphology with large specific surface area changes the crystallization behavior of PLA significantly, once introducing an intense shear flow (~10(3) s(-1)), in-situ shear-formed nanofibrils of PBAT would show strong coupling effect with shear flow on PLA crystallization: they can not only induce abundant shish-kebabs of PLA at its interfaces, which possesses lengthened shish and more densely arranged kebabs; its hysteretic relaxation of PBAT phase can further retard the relaxation of PLA chains, which can well prevent the collapse of established shish. Of immense significance is this particular hierarchical-architecture composed by flexible nanofibers (PBAT) and rigid shish-kebabs (PLA) provides significant guidance for the simultaneous reinforcement and toughness of polymer materials.
Paul, Shirshendu; Katiyar, Amit; Sarkar, Kausik; Chatterjee, Dhiman; Shi, William T.; Forsberg, Flemming
2010-01-01
Two nonlinear interfacial elasticity models—interfacial elasticity decreasing linearly and exponentially with area fraction—are developed for the encapsulation of contrast microbubbles. The strain softening (decreasing elasticity) results from the decreasing association between the constitutive molecules of the encapsulation. The models are used to find the characteristic properties (surface tension, interfacial elasticity, interfacial viscosity and nonlinear elasticity parameters) for a commercial contrast agent. Properties are found using the ultrasound attenuation measured through a suspension of contrast agent. Dynamics of the resulting models are simulated, compared with other existing models and discussed. Imposing non-negativity on the effective surface tension (the encapsulation experiences no net compressive stress) shows “compression-only” behavior. The exponential and the quadratic (linearly varying elasticity) models result in similar behaviors. The validity of the models is investigated by comparing their predictions of the scattered nonlinear response for the contrast agent at higher excitations against experimental measurement. All models predict well the scattered fundamental response. The nonlinear strain softening included in the proposed elastic models of the encapsulation improves their ability to predict subharmonic response. They predict the threshold excitation for the initiation of subharmonic response and its subsequent saturation. PMID:20550283
Robb, Paul D; Finnie, Michael; Craven, Alan J
2012-07-01
High angle annular dark field (HAADF) image simulations were performed on a series of AlAs/GaAs interfacial models using the frozen-phonon multislice method. Three general types of models were considered-perfect, vicinal/sawtooth and diffusion. These were chosen to demonstrate how HAADF image measurements are influenced by different interfacial structures in the technologically important III-V semiconductor system. For each model, interfacial sharpness was calculated as a function of depth and compared to aberration-corrected HAADF experiments of two types of AlAs/GaAs interfaces. The results show that the sharpness measured from HAADF imaging changes in a complicated manner with thickness for complex interfacial structures. For vicinal structures, it was revealed that the type of material that the probe projects through first of all has a significant effect on the measured sharpness. An increase in the vicinal angle was also shown to generate a wider interface in the random step model. The Moison diffusion model produced an increase in the interface width with depth which closely matched the experimental results of the AlAs-on-GaAs interface. In contrast, the interface width decreased as a function of depth in the linear diffusion model. Only in the case of the perfect model was it possible to ascertain the underlying structure directly from HAADF image analysis.
Gu, Qing; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Romsted, Laurence S
2013-06-15
Kinetic results obtained in cationic and anionic emulsions show for the first time that pseudophase kinetic models give reasonable estimates of the partition constants of reactants, here t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) between the oil and interfacial region, P(O)(I), and the water and interfacial region, P(W)(I), and of the interfacial rate constant, k(I), for the reaction with an arenediazonium ion in emulsions containing a 1:1 volume ratio of a medium chain length triglyceride, MCT, and aqueous acid or buffer. The results provide: (a) an explanation for the large difference in pH, >4 pH units, required to run the reaction in CTAB (pH 1.54, added HBr) and SDS (pH 5.71, acetate buffer) emulsions; (b) reasonable estimates of PO(I) and k(I) in the CTAB emulsions; (c) a sensible interpretation of added counterion effects based on ion exchange in SDS emulsions (Na(+)/H3O(+) ion exchange in the interfacial region) and Donnan equilibrium in CTAB emulsions (Br(-) increasing the interfacial H3O(+)); and (d) the significance of the effect of the much greater solubility of TBHQ in MCT versus octane, 1000/1, as the oil. These results should aid in interpreting the effects of ionic surfactants on chemical reactivity in emulsions in general and in selecting the most efficient antioxidant for particular food applications.
Garrido, J M; Algaba, J; Míguez, J M; Mendiboure, B; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A I; Piñeiro, M M; Blas, F J
2016-04-14
We have determined the interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran (THF) from direct simulation of the vapor-liquid interface. The molecules are modeled using six different molecular models, three of them based on the united-atom approach and the other three based on a coarse-grained (CG) approach. In the first case, THF is modeled using the transferable parameters potential functions approach proposed by Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen [J. Chem. Phys. 77, 5073 (1982)] and a new parametrization of the TraPPE force fields for cyclic alkanes and ethers [S. J. Keasler et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 11234 (2012)]. In both cases, dispersive and coulombic intermolecular interactions are explicitly taken into account. In the second case, THF is modeled as a single sphere, a diatomic molecule, and a ring formed from three Mie monomers according to the SAFT-γ Mie top-down approach [V. Papaioannou et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 054107 (2014)]. Simulations were performed in the molecular dynamics canonical ensemble and the vapor-liquid surface tension is evaluated from the normal and tangential components of the pressure tensor along the simulation box. In addition to the surface tension, we have also obtained density profiles, coexistence densities, critical temperature, density, and pressure, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying special attention to the comparison between the estimations obtained from different models and literature experimental data. The simulation results obtained from the three CG models as described by the SAFT-γ Mie approach are able to predict accurately the vapor-liquid phase envelope of THF, in excellent agreement with estimations obtained from TraPPE model and experimental data in the whole range of coexistence. However, Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen model presents significant deviations from experimental results. We also compare the predictions for surface tension as obtained from simulation results for all the models with
Effects of vertical shear in modelling horizontal oceanic dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanotte, A. S.; Corrado, R.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Schipa, I.; Santoleri, R.
2016-02-01
The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of the South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observation and model data. In situ current measurements reveal that vertical gradients of horizontal velocities in the upper mixing layer decorrelate quite fast ( ˜ 1 day), whereas an eddy-permitting ocean model, such as the Mediterranean Forecasting System, tends to overestimate such decorrelation time because of finite resolution effects. Horizontal dispersion, simulated by the Mediterranean sea Forecasting System, is mostly affected by: (1) unresolved scale motions, and mesoscale motions that are largely smoothed out at scales close to the grid spacing; (2) poorly resolved time variability in the profiles of the horizontal velocities in the upper layer. For the case study we have analysed, we show that a suitable use of deterministic kinematic parametrizations is helpful to implement realistic statistical features of tracer dispersion in two and three dimensions. The approach here suggested provides a functional tool to control the horizontal spreading of small organisms or substance concentrations, and is thus relevant for marine biology, pollutant dispersion as well as oil spill applications.
Fiber bundle models for stress release and energy bursts during granular shearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani; Cohen, Denis
2012-12-01
Fiber bundle models (FBMs) offer a versatile framework for representing transitions from progressive to abrupt failure in disordered material. We report a FBM-based description of mechanical interactions and associated energy bursts during shear deformation of granular materials. For strain-controlled shearing, where elements fail in a sequential order, we present analytical expressions for strain energy release and failure statistics. Results suggest that frequency-magnitude characteristics of fiber failure vary considerably throughout progressive shearing. Predicted failure distributions were in good agreement with experimentally observed shear stress fluctuations and associated bursts of acoustic emissions. Experiments also confirm a delayed release of acoustic emission energy relative to shear stress buildup, as anticipated by the model. Combined with data-rich acoustic emission measurements, the modified FBM offers highly resolved contact-scale insights into granular media dynamics of shearing processes.
On Markov modelling of near-wall turbulent shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, A. M.
1999-11-01
The role of Reynolds number in determining particle trajectories in near-wall turbulent shear flow is investigated in numerical simulations using a second-order Lagrangian stochastic (LS) model (Reynolds, A.M. 1999: A second-order Lagrangian stochastic model for particle trajectories in inhomogeneous turbulence. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. (In Press)). In such models, it is the acceleration, velocity and position of a particle rather than just its velocity and position which are assumed to evolve jointly as a continuous Markov process. It is found that Reynolds number effects are significant in determining simulated particle trajectories in the viscous sub-layer and the buffer zone. These effects are due almost entirely to the change in the Lagrangian integral timescale and are shown to be well represented in a first-order LS model by Sawford's correction footnote Sawford, B.L. 1991: Reynolds number effects in Lagrangian stochastic models of turbulent dispersion. Phys Fluids, 3, 1577-1586). This is found to remain true even when the Taylor-Reynolds number R_λ ~ O(0.1). This is somewhat surprising because the assumption of a Markovian evolution for velocity and position is strictly applicable only in the large Reynolds number limit because then the Lagrangian acceleration autocorrelation function approaches a delta function at the origin, corresponding to an uncorrelated component in the acceleration, and hence a Markov process footnote Borgas, M.S. and Sawford, B.L. 1991: The small-scale structure of acceleration correlations and its role in the statistical theory of turbulent dispersion. J. Fluid Mech. 288, 295-320.
Turbulence Model Comparisons for Shear Layers and Axisymmetric Jets.
1979-10-01
Reacting Shear Layer Resulting from Nitric Oxide and Ozone Combustion .................... 91 36. Temperature Profile Prediction for Reacting Shear Layer...Measured and predicted temperature distribution in shear layers between nitric oxide and ozone. :, , \\ 1 8 0 1W W K U 2 J U E 7 WJWDK40 26 JUNE 79...pu 2 dy + f udy - Uo2 pudy (A5) y* y* y* so that 6 Tmax x =f (v’ 2 - pu 2 )dy +j Qu(U -u) dy (A6) y . y 2 Similarly if we consider the bottom half
Shear Modulus for Nonisotropic, Open-Celled Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.
2008-01-01
An equation for the shear modulus for nonisotropic, open-celled foams in the plane transverse to the elongation (rise) direction is derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model with the most general geometric description. The shear modulus was found to be a function of the unit cell dimensions, the solid material properties, and the cell edge cross-section properties. The shear modulus equation reduces to the relation derived by others for isotropic foams when the unit cell is equiaxed.
A test of the double-shearing model of flow for granular materials
Savage, J.C.; Lockner, D.A.
1997-01-01
The double-shearing model of flow attributes plastic deformation in granular materials to cooperative slip on conjugate Coulomb shears (surfaces upon which the Coulomb yield condition is satisfied). The strict formulation of the double-shearing model then requires that the slip lines in the material coincide with the Coulomb shears. Three different experiments that approximate simple shear deformation in granular media appear to be inconsistent with this strict formulation. For example, the orientation of the principal stress axes in a layer of sand driven in steady, simple shear was measured subject to the assumption that the Coulomb failure criterion was satisfied on some surfaces (orientation unspecified) within the sand layer. The orientation of the inferred principal compressive axis was then compared with the orientations predicted by the double-shearing model. The strict formulation of the model [Spencer, 1982] predicts that the principal stress axes should rotate in a sense opposite to that inferred from the experiments. A less restrictive formulation of the double-shearing model by de Josselin de Jong [1971] does not completely specify the solution but does prescribe limits on the possible orientations of the principal stress axes. The orientations of the principal compression axis inferred from the experiments are probably within those limits. An elastoplastic formulation of the double-shearing model [de Josselin de Jong, 1988] is reasonably consistent with the experiments, although quantitative agreement was not attained. Thus we conclude that the double-shearing model may be a viable law to describe deformation of granular materials, but the macroscopic slip surfaces will not in general coincide with the Coulomb shears.
Dividing phases in two-phase flow and modeling of interfacial drag
Narumo, T.; Rajamaeki, M.
1997-07-01
Different models intended to describe one-dimensional two-phase flow are considered in this paper. The following models are introduced: conventional six-equation model, conventional model equipped with terms taking into account nonuniform transverse velocity distribution of the phases, several virtual mass models and a model in which the momentum equations have been derived by using the principles of Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The dynamics of the models have been tested by comparing their characteristic velocities to each other and against experimental data. The results show that the SFAV-model makes a hyperbolic system and predicts the propagation velocities of disturbances with the same order of accuracy as the best tested virtual mass models. Furthermore, the momentum interaction terms for the SFAV-model are considered. These consist of the wall friction terms and the interfacial friction term. The authors model wall friction with two independent terms describing the effect of each fluid on the wall separately. In the steady state, a relationship between the slip velocity and friction coefficients can be derived. Hence, the friction coefficients for the SFAV-model can be calculated from existing correlations, viz. from a drift-flux correlation and a wall friction correlation. The friction model was tested by searching steady-state distributions in a partial BWR fuel channel and comparing the relaxed values with the drift-flux correlation, which agreed very well with each other. In addition, response of the flow to a sine-wave disturbance in the water inlet flux was calculated as function of frequency. The results of the models differed from each other already with frequency of order 5 Hz, while the time constant for the relaxation, obtained from steady-state distribution calculation, would have implied significant differences appear not until with frequency of order 50 Hz.
Ductile fracture model in the shearing process of zircaloy sheet for nuclear fuel spacer grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jaeyoon; Kim, Naksoo; Lee, Hyungyil
2012-04-01
Features of sheared edges are predicted based on material properties of Zircaloy obtained from the tensile test and ductile fracture model such as the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) and Johnson-Cook models. The sheared edges formations are numerically analyzed in each ductile model. An appropriate ductile fracture model is selected to study the relative depth of sheared edges with respect to process parameters. The tendency of failure parameters that are affected by sheared edges and fracture duration is investigated. We applied changes on parameters of failure models to show that the punch force curve and the ratio of characteristic lengths could be coincided, which led us to conclude that the GTN and Johnson-Cook models are equivalent. In the Johnson-Cook model, however, the characteristic length of the sheared edges does not change as each failure parameter reaches a critical value. Hence, the FE prediction model for forming defects is developed using the GTN failure model. Finally, the characteristic length of sheared edges have been measured using the FE prediction model for shearing process parameters such as punch velocities, clearance, and tool wear. Our results showed that the punch-die clearance is the most significant factor that affects forming defects when compared to other factors.
Lin, Liqiang; Zeng, Xiaowei
2015-01-01
The focus of this work is to investigate spall fracture in polycrystalline materials under high-speed impact loading by using an atomistic-based interfacial zone model. We illustrate that for polycrystalline materials, increases in the potential energy ratio between grain boundaries and grains could cause a fracture transition from intergranular to transgranular mode. We also found out that the spall strength increases when there is a fracture transition from intergranular to transgranular. In addition, analysis of grain size, crystal lattice orientation and impact speed reveals that the spall strength increases as grain size or impact speed increases. PMID:26435546
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumder, D. P.; Dhar, A. K.
2015-08-01
A fourth order nonlinear evolution equation, which is a good starting point for the study of nonlinear water waves as first pointed out by Dysthe (1979) is derived for gravity waves propagating at the interface of two superposed fluids of infinite depth in the presence of air flowing over water and a basic current shear. A stability analysis is then made for a uniform Stokes gravity wave train. Graphs are plotted for the maximum growth rate of instability and for wave number at marginal stability against wave steepness for different values of air flow velocity and basic current shears. Significant deviations are noticed from the results obtained from the third order evolution equation, which is the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Numerical model for the shear rheology of two-dimensional wet foams with deformable bubbles.
Kähärä, T; Tallinen, T; Timonen, J
2014-09-01
Shearing of two-dimensional wet foam is simulated using an introduced numerical model, and results are compared to those of experiments. This model features realistically deformable bubbles, which distinguishes it from previously used models for wet foam. The internal bubble dynamics and their contact interactions are also separated in the model, making it possible to investigate the effects of the related microscale properties of the model on the macroscale phenomena. Validity of model assumptions was proved here by agreement between the simulated and measured Herschel-Bulkley rheology, and shear-induced relaxation times. This model also suggests a relationship between the shear stress and normal stress as well as between the average degree of bubble deformation and applied shear stress. It can also be used to analyze suspensions of bubbles and solid particles, an extension not considered in this work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillies, John A.; Nickling, William G.; King, James; Lancaster, Nicholas
2010-09-01
This paper explores the effect that large roughness elements (0.30 m × 0.26 m × 0.36 m) may have on entrainment of sediment by Martian winds using a shear stress partitioning approach based on a model developed by Raupach et al. (Raupach, M.R., Gillette, D.A., Leys, J.F., 1993. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion threshold. Journal of Geophysical Research 98(D2), 3023-3029). This model predicts the shear stress partitioning ratio defined as the percent reduction in shear stress on the intervening surface between the roughness elements as compared to the surface in the absence of those elements. This ratio is based on knowledge of the geometric properties of the roughness elements, the characteristic drag coefficients of the elements and the surface, and the assumed effect these elements have on the spatial distribution of the mean and maximum shear stresses. On Mars, unlike on Earth, the shear stress partitioning caused by roughness can be non-linear in that the drag coefficients for the surface as well as for the roughness itself show Reynolds number dependencies for the reported range of Martian wind speeds. The shear stress partitioning model of Raupach et al. is used to evaluate how conditions of the Martian atmosphere will affect the threshold shear stress ratio for Martian surfaces over a range of values of roughness density. Using, as an example, a 125 µm diameter particle with an estimated threshold shear stress on Mars of ≈ 0.06 N m - 2 (shear velocity, u* ≈ 2 m s - 1 on a smooth surface), we evaluate the effect of roughness density on the threshold shear stress ratio for this diameter particle. In general, on Mars higher regional shear stresses are required to initiate particle entrainment for surfaces that have the same physical roughness as defined by the roughness density term ( λ) compared with terrestrial surfaces mainly because of the low Martian atmospheric density.
A multiscale transport model for Lennard-Jones binary mixtures based on interfacial friction.
Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N R
2016-08-21
We propose a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic transport model for non-reacting binary mixtures in slit shaped nanochannels. The coupled species momentum equations contain viscous dissipation and interspecies friction term of Maxwell-Stefan form. Species partial viscosity variations in the confinement are modeled using the van der Waals one fluid approximation and the local average density method. Species specific macroscopic friction coefficient based Robin boundary conditions are provided to capture the species wall slip effects. The value of this friction coefficient is computed using a species specific generalized Langevin formulation. Gravity driven flow of methane-hydrogen and methane-argon mixtures confined between graphene slit shaped nanochannels are considered as examples. The proposed model yields good quantitative agreement with the velocity profiles obtained from the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The mixtures considered are observed to behave as single species pseudo fluid, with the interfacial friction displaying linear dependence on molar composition of the mixture. The results also indicate that the different species have different slip lengths, which remain unchanged with the channel width.
A multiscale transport model for Lennard-Jones binary mixtures based on interfacial friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N. R.
2016-08-01
We propose a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic transport model for non-reacting binary mixtures in slit shaped nanochannels. The coupled species momentum equations contain viscous dissipation and interspecies friction term of Maxwell-Stefan form. Species partial viscosity variations in the confinement are modeled using the van der Waals one fluid approximation and the local average density method. Species specific macroscopic friction coefficient based Robin boundary conditions are provided to capture the species wall slip effects. The value of this friction coefficient is computed using a species specific generalized Langevin formulation. Gravity driven flow of methane-hydrogen and methane-argon mixtures confined between graphene slit shaped nanochannels are considered as examples. The proposed model yields good quantitative agreement with the velocity profiles obtained from the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The mixtures considered are observed to behave as single species pseudo fluid, with the interfacial friction displaying linear dependence on molar composition of the mixture. The results also indicate that the different species have different slip lengths, which remain unchanged with the channel width.
Colosqui, Carlos E; Kavousanakis, Michail E; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G
2013-01-01
We present a model based on the lattice Boltzmann equation that is suitable for the simulation of dynamic wetting. The model is capable of exhibiting fundamental interfacial phenomena such as weak adsorption of fluid on the solid substrate and the presence of a thin surface film within which a disjoining pressure acts. Dynamics in this surface film, tightly coupled with hydrodynamics in the fluid bulk, determine macroscopic properties of primary interest: the hydrodynamic slip; the equilibrium contact angle; and the static and dynamic hysteresis of the contact angles. The pseudo-potentials employed for fluid-solid interactions are composed of a repulsive core and an attractive tail that can be independently adjusted. This enables effective modification of the functional form of the disjoining pressure so that one can vary the static and dynamic hysteresis on surfaces that exhibit the same equilibrium contact angle. The modeled fluid-solid interface is diffuse, represented by a wall probability function that ultimately controls the momentum exchange between solid and fluid phases. This approach allows us to effectively vary the slip length for a given wettability (i.e., a given static contact angle) of the solid substrate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colosqui, Carlos E.; Kavousanakis, Michail E.; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.
2013-01-01
We present a model based on the lattice Boltzmann equation that is suitable for the simulation of dynamic wetting. The model is capable of exhibiting fundamental interfacial phenomena such as weak adsorption of fluid on the solid substrate and the presence of a thin surface film within which a disjoining pressure acts. Dynamics in this surface film, tightly coupled with hydrodynamics in the fluid bulk, determine macroscopic properties of primary interest: the hydrodynamic slip; the equilibrium contact angle; and the static and dynamic hysteresis of the contact angles. The pseudo-potentials employed for fluid-solid interactions are composed of a repulsive core and an attractive tail that can be independently adjusted. This enables effective modification of the functional form of the disjoining pressure so that one can vary the static and dynamic hysteresis on surfaces that exhibit the same equilibrium contact angle. The modeled fluid-solid interface is diffuse, represented by a wall probability function that ultimately controls the momentum exchange between solid and fluid phases. This approach allows us to effectively vary the slip length for a given wettability (i.e., a given static contact angle) of the solid substrate.
Transient Shear Flow of Model Lithium Lubricating Greases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.
2008-07-01
This work deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behaviour of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of lithium grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying lithium 12-hydroxystearate concentration and base oil viscosity. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. Moreover, an asymptotic tendency has been found for the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of this parameter have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.
Computer modelling of bone's adaptation: the role of normal strain, shear strain and fluid flow.
Tiwari, Abhishek Kumar; Prasad, Jitendra
2017-04-01
Bone loss is a serious health problem. In vivo studies have found that mechanical stimulation may inhibit bone loss as elevated strain in bone induces osteogenesis, i.e. new bone formation. However, the exact relationship between mechanical environment and osteogenesis is less clear. Normal strain is considered as a prime stimulus of osteogenic activity; however, there are some instances in the literature where osteogenesis is observed in the vicinity of minimal normal strain, specifically near the neutral axis of bending in long bones. It suggests that osteogenesis may also be induced by other or secondary components of mechanical environment such as shear strain or canalicular fluid flow. As it is evident from the literature, shear strain and fluid flow can be potent stimuli of osteogenesis. This study presents a computational model to investigate the roles of these stimuli in bone adaptation. The model assumes that bone formation rate is roughly proportional to the normal, shear and fluid shear strain energy density above their osteogenic thresholds. In vivo osteogenesis due to cyclic cantilever bending of a murine tibia has been simulated. The model predicts results close to experimental findings when normal strain, and shear strain or fluid shear were combined. This study also gives a new perspective on the relation between osteogenic potential of micro-level fluid shear and that of macro-level bending shear. Attempts to establish such relations among the components of mechanical environment and corresponding osteogenesis may ultimately aid in the development of effective approaches to mitigating bone loss.
Modelling the Shear Behaviour of Rock Joints with Asperity Damage Under Constant Normal Stiffness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indraratna, Buddhima; Thirukumaran, Sivanathan; Brown, E. T.; Zhu, Song-Ping
2015-01-01
The shear behaviour of a rough rock joint depends largely on the surface properties of the joint, as well as the boundary conditions applied across the joint interface. This paper proposes a new analytical model to describe the complete shear behaviour of rough joints under constant normal stiffness (CNS) boundary conditions by incorporating the effect of damage to asperities. In particular, the effects of initial normal stress levels and joint surface roughness on the shear behaviour of joints under CNS conditions were studied, and the analytical model was validated through experimental results. Finally, the practical application of the model to a jointed rock slope stability analysis is presented.
Two-phase interfacial area and flow regime modeling in FLOWTRAN-TF code
Smith, F.G. III; Lee, S.Y.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.
1992-01-01
FLOWTRAN-TF is a new two-component, two-phase thermal-hydraulics code to capture the detailed assembly behavior associated with loss-of-coolant accident analyses in multichannel assemblies of the SRS reactors. The local interfacial area of the two-phase mixture is computed by summing the interfacial areas contributed by each of three flow regimes. For smooth flow regime transitions, the code uses an interpolation technique in terms of component void fraction for each basic flow regime.
Two-phase interfacial area and flow regime modeling in FLOWTRAN-TF code
Smith, F.G. III; Lee, S.Y.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.
1992-12-31
FLOWTRAN-TF is a new two-component, two-phase thermal-hydraulics code to capture the detailed assembly behavior associated with loss-of-coolant accident analyses in multichannel assemblies of the SRS reactors. The local interfacial area of the two-phase mixture is computed by summing the interfacial areas contributed by each of three flow regimes. For smooth flow regime transitions, the code uses an interpolation technique in terms of component void fraction for each basic flow regime.
An alternative assessment of second-order closure models in turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.; Gatski, Thomas B.
1994-01-01
The performance of three recently proposed second-order closure models is tested in benchmark turbulent shear flows. Both homogeneous shear flow and the log-layer of an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer are considered for this purpose. An objective analysis of the results leads to an assessment of these models that stands in contrast to that recently published by other authors. A variety of pitfalls in the formulation and testing of second-order closure models are uncovered by this analysis.
Solution of the complete Curtiss-Bird model for polymeric liquids subjected to simple shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephanou, Pavlos S.; Kröger, Martin
2016-03-01
The complete kinetic theory model for concentrated polymer solutions and melts proposed by Curtiss and Bird is solved for shear flow: (a) analytically by providing a solution for the single-link (or configurational) distribution function as a real basis spherical harmonics expansion and then calculating the materials functions in shear flow up to second order in the dimensionless shear rate and, (b) numerically via the execution of Brownian dynamics simulations. These two methods are actually complementary to each other as the former is accurate only for small dimensionless shear rates where the latter produces results with increasingly large uncertainties. The analytical expansions of the material functions with respect to the dimensionless shear rate reduce to those of the extensively studied, simplified Curtiss-Bird model when ɛ' = 0, and to the rigid rod when ɛ' = 1. It is known that the power-law behavior at high shear rates is very different for these two extremal cases. We employ Brownian dynamics simulation to not only recover the limiting cases but to find a gradual variation of the power-law behaviors at large dimensionless shear rates upon varying ɛ'. The fact that experimental data are usually located between these two extremes strongly advocates the significance of studying the solution of the Curtiss-Bird model. This is exemplified in this work by comparing the solution of this model with available rheological data for semiflexible biological systems that are clearly not captured by the original Doi-Edwards or simplified Curtiss-Bird models.
Spontaneous formation of permanent shear bands in a mesoscopic model of flowing disordered matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martens, Kirsten; Bocquet, Lydéric; Barrat, Jean-Louis
2012-02-01
In this presentation we propose a coherent scenario of the formation of permanent shear bands in the flow of yield stress materials. Within a minimalistic mesoscopic model we investigate the spatial organisation of plasticity. The most important parameter is the typical time needed to regain the original structure after a local rearrangement. In agreement with a recent mean field study [Coussot et al., Eur. Phys. J. E, 2010, 33, 183] we observe a spontaneous formation of permanent shear bands, when this restructuring time is large compared to the typical stress release time in a rearrangement. This heterogeneous flow behaviour is different in nature from the transient dynamical heterogeneities that one observes in the small shear rate limit in flow without shear-banding [Martens et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2011, 106, 156001]. We analyse the dependence of the shear bands on system size, shear rate and restructuring time. Further we rationalise the scenario within a mean field version of the model, that explains the instability of the homogeneous flow below a critical shear rate. Our study therefore strongly supports the idea that the characteristic time scales involved in the local dynamics are at the physical origin of permanent shear bands.
An unload-induced direct-shear model for granular gouge friction in rock discontinuities.
Wu, Wei; Zou, Yang; Li, Xing; Zhao, Jian
2014-09-01
The experimental study introduces an unload-induced direct-shear model to investigate the frictional slip of a layer of simulated granular gouges induced by the combination of a decreasing normal stress and a constant shear stress. A frictional equilibrium state of the gouge layer is initially established under fixed normal and shear stresses. The normal stress is proposed to decrease at a constant unloading rate to induce the frictional slip of the gouge layer, and the shear stress is proposed to keep a constant value during the test. A displacement meter and load cells synchronously measure the slip displacement and the applied normal and shear stresses, respectively. The normal and shear stresses sharply decrease with the frictional slip, owing to damage of gouge contacts. The frictional slip is then gradually arrested with new formation of gouge contacts. A greater initial shear stress induces larger normal and shear stress reductions and a smaller slip displacement. The strain energy stored in the discontinuous system before the frictional slip is found to affect the slip displacement. The advantages and the limitations of this model are discussed at the end.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhongqiu; Qi, Fengsheng; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa
2015-04-01
An inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) model based on the Eulerian-Eulerian approach has been developed to describe the polydispersed bubbly flow inside the continuous-casting mold. A laboratory scale mold has been simulated using four different turbulence closure models (modified k - ɛ, RNG k - ɛ, k - ω, and SST) with the purpose of critically comparing their predictions of bubble Sauter mean diameter distribution with previous experimental data. Furthermore, the influences of all the interfacial momentum transfer terms including drag force, lift force, virtual mass force, wall lubrication force, and turbulent dispersion force are investigated. The breakup and coalescence effects of the bubbles are modeled according to the bubble breakup by the impact of turbulent eddies while for bubble coalescence by the random collisions driven by turbulence and wake entrainment. It has been found that the modified k - ɛ model shows better agreement than other models in predicting the bubble Sauter mean diameter profiles. Further, simulations have also been performed to understand the sensitivity of different interfacial forces. The appropriate drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, virtual mass force coefficient, and turbulent dispersion force coefficient are chosen in accordance with measurements of water model experiments. However, the wall lubrication force does not have much effect on the current polydispersed bubbly flow system. Finally, the MUSIG model is then used to estimate the argon bubble diameter in the molten steel of the mold. The argon bubble Sauter mean diameter generated in molten steel is predicted to be larger than air bubbles in water for the similar conditions.
Flow properties of particles in a model annular shear cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X.; Zhu, H. P.; Yu, A. B.
2012-05-01
In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and rheological properties of solid flow in a shear cell under conditions relevant to those in an annular cell, we performed a series of discrete particle simulations of slightly polydispersed spheres from quasi-static to intermediate flow regimes. It is shown that the average values of stress tensor components are uniformly distributed in the cell space away from the stationary walls; however, some degree of inhomogeneity in their spatial distributions does exist. A linear relationship between the (internal/external) shear and normal stresses prevails in the shear cell and the internal and external friction coefficients can compare well with each other. It is confirmed that annular shear cells are reasonably effective as a method of measuring particle flow properties. The so-called I-rheology proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] is rigorously tested in this cell system. The results unambiguously display that the I-rheology can effectively describe the intermediate flow regime with a high correlation coefficient. However, significant deviations take place when it is applied to the quasi-static regime, which corresponds to very small values of inertial number.
A constitutive model for layer development in shear zones near the brittle-ductile transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montési, Laurent G. J.
2007-04-01
The microstructure of ductile shear zones differs from that of surrounding wall rocks. In particular, compositional layering is a hallmark of shear zones. As layered rocks are weaker than their isotropic protolith when loaded in simple shear, layering may hold the key to explain localization of ductile deformation onto ductile shear zones. I propose here a constitutive model for layer development. A two-level mixing theory allows the strength of the aggregate to be estimated at intermediate degrees of layering. A probabilistic failure model is introduced to control how layers develop in a deforming aggregate. This model captures one of the initial mechanism of phase interconnection identified experimentally by Holyoke and Tullis (2006a, 2006b), fracturing of load bearing grains. This model reproduces the strength evolution of these experiments and can now be applied to tectonic modeling.
Li, Shen; Bradley, Philip
2013-08-01
When proteins bind to their DNA target sites, ordered water molecules are often present at the protein-DNA interface bridging protein and DNA through hydrogen bonds. What is the role of these ordered interfacial waters? Are they important determinants of the specificity of DNA sequence recognition, or do they act in binding in a primarily nonspecific manner, by improving packing of the interface, shielding unfavorable electrostatic interactions, and solvating unsatisfied polar groups that are inaccessible to bulk solvent? When modeling details of structure and binding preferences, can fully implicit solvent models be fruitfully applied to protein-DNA interfaces, or must the individualistic properties of these interfacial waters be accounted for? To address these questions, we have developed a hybrid implicit/explicit solvation model that specifically accounts for the locations and orientations of small numbers of DNA-bound water molecules, while treating the majority of the solvent implicitly. Comparing the performance of this model with that of its fully implicit counterpart, we find that explicit treatment of interfacial waters results in a modest but significant improvement in protein side-chain placement and DNA sequence recovery. Base-by-base comparison of the performance of the two models highlights DNA sequence positions whose recognition may be dependent on interfacial water. Our study offers large-scale statistical evidence for the role of ordered water for protein-DNA recognition, together with detailed examination of several well-characterized systems. In addition, our approach provides a template for modeling explicit water molecules at interfaces that should be extensible to other systems.
Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.
2016-01-01
Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808
Qu, Tao; Verma, Devendra; Alucozai, Milad; Tomar, Vikas
2015-10-01
The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have a significant effect on their mechanical properties. This work presents a quantification of the interface stress as a function of interface chemical changes (water, organic molecules) in chitin-calcite (CHI-CAL) interfaces using classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. NEMD is used to investigate interface stress as a function of applied strain based on the virial stress formulation. SMD is used to understand interface separation mechanism and to calculate interfacial shear stress based on a viscoplastic interfacial sliding model. Analyses indicate that interfacial shear stress combined with shear viscosity can result in variations to the mechanical properties of the examined interfacial material systems. It is further verified with Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell viscoelastic analytical models representing viscous interfaces and outer matrix. Further analyses show that overall mechanical deformation depends on maximization of interface shear strength in such materials. This work establishes lower and upper bounds of interface strength in the interfaces examined.
Verruto, Vincent J; Kilpatrick, Peter K
2008-11-18
The ever-increasing worldwide demand for energy has led to the upgrading of heavy crude oil and asphaltene-rich feedstocks becoming viable refining options for the petroleum industry. Traditional problems associated with these feedstocks, particularly stable water-in-petroleum emulsions, are drawing increasing attention. Despite considerable research on the interfacial assembly of asphaltenes, resins, and naphthenic acids, much about the resulting interfacial films is not well understood. Here, we describe the use of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to elucidate interfacial film properties from model emulsion systems. Modeling the SANS data with both a polydisperse core/shell form factor as well as a thin sheet approximation, we have deduced the film thickness and the asphaltenic composition within the stabilizing interfacial films of water-in-model oil emulsions prepared in toluene, decalin, and 1-methylnaphthalene. Film thicknesses were found to be 100-110 A with little deviation among the three solvents. By contrast, asphaltene composition in the film varied significantly, with decalin leading to the most asphaltene-rich films (30% by volume of the film), while emulsions made in toluene and methylnaphthalene resulted in lower asphaltenic contents (12-15%). Through centrifugation and dilatational rheology, we found that trends of decreasing water resolution (i.e., increasing emulsion stability) and increasing long-time dilatational elasticity corresponded with increasing asphaltene composition in the film. In addition to the asphaltenic composition of the films, here we also deduce the film solvent and water content. Our analyses indicate that 1:1 (O/W) emulsions prepared with 3% (w/w) asphaltenes in toluene and 1 wt % NaCl aqueous solutions at pH 7 and pH 10 resulted in 80-90 A thick films, interfacial areas around 2600-3100 cm (2)/mL, and films that were roughly 25% (v/v) asphaltenic, 60-70% toluene, and 8-12% water. The increased asphaltene and water film
Dynamics of model blood cells in shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podgorski, Thomas; Callens, Natacha; Minetti, Christophe; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Misbah, Chaouqi
The dynamics of a vesicle suspension in shear flow was investigated by digital holographic microscopy [1] in parabolic flights and in the MASER 11 sounding rocket. Vesicles are lipid membranes which mimic the mechanical behaviour of cells, such as red blood cells in flow. In a simple shear flow between parallel walls, a lift force of purely viscous origin pushes vesicles away from walls. Our parabolic flight experiments [2] reveal that the lift velocity in a dilute suspen-sion is well described by theoretical predictions by Olla. As vesicles gather near the center of the flow chamber due to lift forces from both walls, one expects hydrodynamic interactions of pairs of vesicles to result in shear induced diffusion in the suspension. The BIOMICS experi-ment in the MASER 11 sounding rocket revealed a complex spatial structure of a polydisperse vesicle suspension due to the interplay between lift forces from the walls and hydrodynamic interactions. These phenomena have a strong impact on the structure and rheology of blood in small vessels, and a precise knowledge of the dynamics of migration and diffusion of soft particles in flow can lead to alternative ways to separate and sort blood cells. 1. Dubois, F., Schockaert, C., Callens, N., Yourrassowsky, C., "Focus plane detection criteria in digital holography microscopy by amplitude analysis", Opt. Express, Vol. 14, pp 5895-5908, 2006 2. Callens, N., Minetti, C., Coupier, G., Mader, M.-A., Dubois, F., Misbah, C., Podgorski, T., "Hydrodynamics lift of vesicles under shear flow in microgravity", Europhys. Lett., Vol. 83, p. 24002, 2008
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules
2015-11-01
The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.
Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim
2015-07-01
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albaret, T.; Tanguy, A.; Boioli, F.; Rodney, D.
2016-05-01
In this paper we perform quasistatic shear simulations of model amorphous silicon bulk samples with Stillinger-Weber-type potentials. Local plastic rearrangements identified based on local energy variations are fitted through their displacement fields on collections of Eshelby spherical inclusions, allowing determination of their transformation strain tensors. The latter are then used to quantitatively reproduce atomistic stress-strain curves, in terms of both shear and pressure components. We demonstrate that our methodology is able to capture the plastic behavior predicted by different Stillinger-Weber potentials, in particular, their different shear tension coupling. These calculations justify the decomposition of plasticity into shear transformations used so far in mesoscale models and provide atomic-scale parameters that can be used to limit the empiricism needed in such models up to now.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Zhen; Guo, Jian-Gang
2016-12-01
Two interfacial failure modes, shear sliding and buckling, of graphene on a flexible substrate subjected to uniaxial compression are investigated. The shear sliding starts at the edge region, and buckling starts at the middle region of graphene. Using shear-lag cohesive zone models and finite element (FE) simulations, the critical strain and maximum strain of graphene are predicted for the interfacial sliding failure. Then, the critical strain for the onset of buckling is derived via the theory of continuum mechanics with the van der Waals (vdW) interaction between graphene and the substrate surface taken into consideration. By comparison of the two critical failure strains and maximum strain of graphene, it is found that there exists a critical length of graphene. As the graphene length is larger than it, interfacial failure goes through four stages of development with increasing loading, including sliding and buckling. Conversely, the buckling of graphene will not occur. Finally, the influence of the interfacial adhesion energy and geometric size of graphene on the critical strains for interfacial sliding and buckling are discussed.
Forward modeling of ice topography on Mars to infer basal shear stress conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, M. E.; Pelletier, J. D.
2008-01-01
Understanding the history of ice caps on Mars could reveal important information about Martian geologic and climatic history. To do this, an ice reconstruction model is needed that operates over complex topography and can be constrained with a limited number of free parameters. In this study we developed a threshold-sliding model for ice cap morphology based on the classic model of Nye later incorporated into the models of Reeh and colleagues. We have updated the Nye-Reeh model with a new numerical algorithm. Although the model was originally developed to model perfectly plastic deformation, it is applicable to any ice body that deforms when a threshold basal shear stress is exceeded. The model requires three inputs: a digital elevation model of bed topography, a ``mask'' grid that defines the position of the ice terminus, and a function defining the threshold basal shear stress. To test the robustness of the model, the morphology of the Greenland ice sheet is reconstructed using an empirical equation between threshold basal shear stress and ice surface slope. The model is then used to reconstruct the morphology of ice draping impact craters on the margins of the south polar layered deposits using an inferred constant basal shear stress of ~0.6 bar for the majority of the examples. This inferred basal shear stress value is almost 1/3 of the average basal shear stress calculated for the Greenland ice sheet. What causes this lower basal shear stress value on Mars is unclear but could involve the strain-weakening behavior of ice.
Perspective: The Asakura Oosawa model: A colloid prototype for bulk and interfacial phase behavior
Binder, Kurt; Virnau, Peter; Statt, Antonia
2014-10-14
In many colloidal suspensions, the micrometer-sized particles behave like hard spheres, but when non-adsorbing polymers are added to the solution a depletion attraction (of entropic origin) is created. Since 60 years the Asakura-Oosawa model, which simply describes the polymers as ideal soft spheres, is an archetypical description for the statistical thermodynamics of such systems, accounting for many features of real colloid-polymer mixtures very well. While the fugacity of the polymers (which controls their concentration in the solution) plays a role like inverse temperature, the size ratio of polymer versus colloid radii acts as a control parameter to modify the phase diagram: when this ratio is large enough, a vapor-liquid like phase separation occurs at low enough colloid packing fractions, up to a triple point where a liquid-solid two-phase coexistence region takes over. For smaller size ratios, the critical point of the phase separation and the triple point merge, resulting in a single two-phase coexistence region between fluid and crystalline phases (of “inverted swan neck”-topology, with possibly a hidden metastable phase separation). Furthermore, liquid-crystalline ordering may be found if colloidal particles of non-spherical shape (e.g., rod like) are considered. Also interactions of the particles with solid surfaces should be tunable (e.g., walls coated by polymer brushes), and interfacial phenomena are particularly interesting experimentally, since fluctuations can be studied in the microscope on all length scales, down to the particle level. Due to its simplicity this model has become a workhorse for both analytical theory and computer simulation. Recently, generalizations addressing dynamic phenomena (phase separation, crystal nucleation, etc.) have become the focus of studies.
Perspective: The Asakura Oosawa model: A colloid prototype for bulk and interfacial phase behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binder, Kurt; Virnau, Peter; Statt, Antonia
2014-10-01
In many colloidal suspensions, the micrometer-sized particles behave like hard spheres, but when non-adsorbing polymers are added to the solution a depletion attraction (of entropic origin) is created. Since 60 years the Asakura-Oosawa model, which simply describes the polymers as ideal soft spheres, is an archetypical description for the statistical thermodynamics of such systems, accounting for many features of real colloid-polymer mixtures very well. While the fugacity of the polymers (which controls their concentration in the solution) plays a role like inverse temperature, the size ratio of polymer versus colloid radii acts as a control parameter to modify the phase diagram: when this ratio is large enough, a vapor-liquid like phase separation occurs at low enough colloid packing fractions, up to a triple point where a liquid-solid two-phase coexistence region takes over. For smaller size ratios, the critical point of the phase separation and the triple point merge, resulting in a single two-phase coexistence region between fluid and crystalline phases (of "inverted swan neck"-topology, with possibly a hidden metastable phase separation). Furthermore, liquid-crystalline ordering may be found if colloidal particles of non-spherical shape (e.g., rod like) are considered. Also interactions of the particles with solid surfaces should be tunable (e.g., walls coated by polymer brushes), and interfacial phenomena are particularly interesting experimentally, since fluctuations can be studied in the microscope on all length scales, down to the particle level. Due to its simplicity this model has become a workhorse for both analytical theory and computer simulation. Recently, generalizations addressing dynamic phenomena (phase separation, crystal nucleation, etc.) have become the focus of studies.
Asymmetric magnetic reconnection with out-of-plane shear flows in a two dimensional hybrid model
Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Xian-Qu; Liu, Yue
2015-05-15
Effects of out-of-plane shear flows on asymmetric magnetic reconnect are investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) hybrid model with an initial Harris sheet equilibrium. It is found that the out-of-plane flow with an in-plane shear can significantly change the asymmetric reconnection process as well as the related geometry. The magnetic flux, out-of-plane magnetic field, in-plane flow vorticity, plasma density, and the reconnection rate are discussed in detail. The results are in comparison with the cases without the shear flows to further understand the effect.
Accurate prediction of wall shear stress in a stented artery: newtonian versus non-newtonian models.
Mejia, Juan; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Olivier F
2011-07-01
A significant amount of evidence linking wall shear stress to neointimal hyperplasia has been reported in the literature. As a result, numerical and experimental models have been created to study the influence of stent design on wall shear stress. Traditionally, blood has been assumed to behave as a Newtonian fluid, but recently that assumption has been challenged. The use of a linear model; however, can reduce computational cost, and allow the use of Newtonian fluids (e.g., glycerine and water) instead of a blood analog fluid in an experimental setup. Therefore, it is of interest whether a linear model can be used to accurately predict the wall shear stress caused by a non-Newtonian fluid such as blood within a stented arterial segment. The present work compares the resulting wall shear stress obtained using two linear and one nonlinear model under the same flow waveform. All numerical models are fully three-dimensional, transient, and incorporate a realistic stent geometry. It is shown that traditional linear models (based on blood's lowest viscosity limit, 3.5 Pa s) underestimate the wall shear stress within a stented arterial segment, which can lead to an overestimation of the risk of restenosis. The second linear model, which uses a characteristic viscosity (based on an average strain rate, 4.7 Pa s), results in higher wall shear stress levels, but which are still substantially below those of the nonlinear model. It is therefore shown that nonlinear models result in more accurate predictions of wall shear stress within a stented arterial segment.
Ambler, Michael; Vorselaars, Bart; Allen, Michael P; Quigley, David
2017-02-21
We apply the capillary wave method, based on measurements of fluctuations in a ribbon-like interfacial geometry, to determine the solid-liquid interfacial free energy for both polytypes of ice I and the recently proposed ice 0 within a mono-atomic model of water. We discuss various choices for the molecular order parameter, which distinguishes solid from liquid, and demonstrate the influence of this choice on the interfacial stiffness. We quantify the influence of discretisation error when sampling the interfacial profile and the limits on accuracy imposed by the assumption of quasi one-dimensional geometry. The interfacial free energies of the two ice I polytypes are indistinguishable to within achievable statistical error and the small ambiguity which arises from the choice of order parameter. In the case of ice 0, we find that the large surface unit cell for low index interfaces constrains the width of the interfacial ribbon such that the accuracy of results is reduced. Nevertheless, we establish that the interfacial free energy of ice 0 at its melting temperature is similar to that of ice I under the same conditions. The rationality of a core-shell model for the nucleation of ice I within ice 0 is questioned within the context of our results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambler, Michael; Vorselaars, Bart; Allen, Michael P.; Quigley, David
2017-02-01
We apply the capillary wave method, based on measurements of fluctuations in a ribbon-like interfacial geometry, to determine the solid-liquid interfacial free energy for both polytypes of ice I and the recently proposed ice 0 within a mono-atomic model of water. We discuss various choices for the molecular order parameter, which distinguishes solid from liquid, and demonstrate the influence of this choice on the interfacial stiffness. We quantify the influence of discretisation error when sampling the interfacial profile and the limits on accuracy imposed by the assumption of quasi one-dimensional geometry. The interfacial free energies of the two ice I polytypes are indistinguishable to within achievable statistical error and the small ambiguity which arises from the choice of order parameter. In the case of ice 0, we find that the large surface unit cell for low index interfaces constrains the width of the interfacial ribbon such that the accuracy of results is reduced. Nevertheless, we establish that the interfacial free energy of ice 0 at its melting temperature is similar to that of ice I under the same conditions. The rationality of a core-shell model for the nucleation of ice I within ice 0 is questioned within the context of our results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolau, Bruno G.; Garcia Rey, Natalia; Dlott, Dana
2014-06-01
Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy was used to probe electrochemical processes taking place at the interface between metal anodes and the liquid phase in model lithium ion systems. Lithium ion batteries have been extensively studied and characterized by numerous techniques. However, the mechanisms behind many properties are still unclear due to the lack of techniques that can directly probe them in situ. The formation of the electrode passivating layer known as solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is one such example. During the first charging cycle of a battery, some of the electrolyte undergoes reduction at the electrode surface forming an electrically isolating barrier that prevents the subsequent reduction of more electrolyte molecules. The SFG selection rules suppress signals from molecules in centrosymmetric environments such as electrolyte layers, so SFG is a selective probe of interfacial environments such as the SEI. In this study, ethylene carbonate's (EC) response to potential cycling was observed. EC is commonly used as a high permittivity solvent in batteries and is widely believed to be the main component of the SEI in its reduced form, lithium ethylene dicarbonyl. EC's carbonyl stretch (1850 cm-1) was measured in conjunction with cyclic voltammetry experiments. The SFG intensity showed remarkable agreement with the changing potential, as seen in the figure below. The shoulders on each side of the peaks in (a) are especially interesting, as they correspond to the potentials where lithium metal is oxidized and reduced. Vibrational modes found at 1300-1400 cm-1, usually assigned to the reduced form of EC, are also being studied in order to provide more information on the nature of the SEI.
Tomography from the next generation of cosmic shear experiments for viable f(R) models
Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Cardone, Vincenzo F. E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it
2011-07-01
We present the cosmic shear signal predicted by two viable cosmological models in the framework of modified-action f(R) theories. We use f(R) models where the current accelerated expansion of the Universe is a direct consequence of the modified gravitational Lagrangian rather than Dark Energy (DE), either in the form of vacuum energy/cosmological constant or of a dynamical scalar field (e.g. quintessence). We choose Starobinsky's (St) and Hu and Sawicki's (HS) f(R) models, which are carefully designed to pass the Solar System gravity tests. In order to further support — or rule out — f(R) theories as alternative candidates to the DE hypothesis, we exploit the power of weak gravitational lensing, specifically of cosmic shear. We calculate the tomographic shear matrix as it would be measured by the upcoming ESA Cosmic Vision Euclid satellite. We find that in the St model the cosmic shear signal is almost completely degenerate with ΛCDM, but it is easily distinguishable in the HS model. Moreover, we compute the corresponding Fisher matrix for both the St and HS models, thus obtaining forecasts for their cosmological parameters. Finally, we show that the Bayes factor for cosmic shear will definitely favour the HS model over ΛCDM if Euclid measures a value larger than ∼ 0.02 for the extra HS parameter n{sub HS}.
Modelling flow and heat transfer in two-fluid interfacial flows, with applications to drops and jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdi-Nejad, Vala
2003-10-01
A two-dimensional, axi-symmetric model is developed to calculate flow and heat transfer in a two-fluid system. The model uses one set of the governing equations combined with a volume tracking method on a fixed structured mesh to model the simultaneous movement of mass, momentum and energy across cell boundaries. Both first and second-order methods are used to approximate temperature fields with sharp gradients that exist near a fluid-fluid interface. The model is first used to simulate the effect of surrounding air during a droplet impact. Bubble entrapment is observed in both numerical simulation and experimental photographs. The impact of water, n-heptane and molten nickel droplets on a solid surface is simulated. When a droplet approaches another surface, air in the gap between them was forced out. Increased air pressure below the droplet creates a depression in its surface, in which air is trapped. Different behaviors observed for water and n-heptane simulations are attributed to differences in wetting behavior. Next, to demonstrate the capabilities of the model, the interfacial heat transfer from molten tin droplets falling in an oil bath is modelled. The development of vortices behind droplets is simulated and the effect of fluid recirculation and oil thermal conductivity on heat dissipation is studied. The thesis concludes with application of the model to a study of interfacial heat transfer during jet break up. It is demonstrated that the change of fluid properties associated with interfacial heat transfer affects the jet break up and the resulting droplet size. It is also shown that obtaining a desirable droplet size during jet break up not only depends on hydrodynamic conditions such as nozzle diameter, jet initial velocity, and pressure, but also on thermal conditions such as the initial jet temperature and the surrounding fluid thermal properties.
Application of a Reynolds stress turbulence model to the compressible shear layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.; Balakrishnan, L.
1990-01-01
Theoretically based turbulence models have had success in predicting many features of incompressible, free shear layers. However, attempts to extend these models to the high-speed, compressible shear layer have been less effective. In the present work, the compressible shear layer was studied with a second-order turbulence closure, which initially used only variable density extensions of incompressible models for the Reynolds stress transport equation and the dissipation rate transport equation. The quasi-incompressible closure was unsuccessful; the predicted effect of the convective Mach number on the shear layer growth rate was significantly smaller than that observed in experiments. Having thus confirmed that compressibility effects have to be explicitly considered, a new model for the compressible dissipation was introduced into the closure. This model is based on a low Mach number, asymptotic analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, and on direct numerical simulation of compressible, isotropic turbulence. The use of the new model for the compressible dissipation led to good agreement of the computed growth rates with the experimental data. Both the computations and the experiments indicate a dramatic reduction in the growth rate when the convective Mach number is increased. Experimental data on the normalized maximum turbulence intensities and shear stress also show a reduction with increasing Mach number.
Variable aspect ratio method in the Xu-White model for shear-wave velocity estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Jun-Yu; Yue, Cheng-Qi; Liang, Yi-Qiang; Song, Zhi-Xiang; Ling, Su; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Wei
2013-06-01
Shear-wave velocity logs are useful for various seismic interpretation applications, including bright spot analyses, amplitude-versus-offset analyses and multicomponent seismic interpretations. This paper presents a method for predicting the shear-wave velocity of argillaceous sandstone from conventional log data and experimental data, based on Gassmann's equations and the Xu-White model. This variable aspect ratio method takes into account all the influences of the matrix nature, shale content, porosity size and pore geometry, and the properties of pore fluid of argillaceous sandstone, replacing the fixed aspect ratio assumption in the conventional Xu-White model. To achieve this, we first use the Xu-White model to derive the bulk and shear modulus of dry rock in a sand-clay mixture. Secondly, we use Gassmann's equations to calculate the fluid-saturated elastic properties, including compressional and shear-wave velocities. Finally, we use the variable aspect ratio method to estimate the shear-wave velocity. The numerical results indicate that the variable aspect ratio method provides an important improvement in the application of the Xu-White model for sand-clay mixtures and allows for a variable aspect ratio log to be introduced into the Xu-White model instead of the constant aspect ratio assumption. This method shows a significant improvement in predicting velocities over the conventional Xu-White model.
Daneshmand, Farhang; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Amabili, Marco
2011-07-07
Wave propagation along the microtubules is one of the issues of major concern in various microtubule cellular functions. In this study, the general wave propagation behavior in protein microtubules is investigated based on a first-order shear deformation shell theory for orthotropic materials, with particular emphasis on the role of strongly anisotropic elastic properties of microtubules. According to experimental observation, the first-order shear deformation theory is used for the modeling of microtubule walls. A general displacement representation is introduced and a type of coupled polynomial eigenvalue problem is developed. Numerical examples describe the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia on wave velocities in orthotropic microtubules. Finally, the influences of the microtubule shear modulus, axial external force, effective thickness and material temperature dependency on wave velocities along the microtubule protofilaments, helical pathway and radial directions are elucidated. Most results presented in the present investigation have been absent from the literature for the wave propagation in microtubules.
A method for three-dimensional modeling of wind-shear environments for flight simulator applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bray, R. S.
1984-01-01
A computational method for modeling severe wind shears of the type that have been documented during severe convective atmospheric conditions is offered for use in research and training flight simulation. The procedure was developed with the objectives of operational flexibility and minimum computer load. From one to five, simple down burst wind models can be configured and located to produce the wind field desired for specific simulated flight scenarios. A definition of related turbulence parameters is offered as an additional product of the computations. The use of the method to model several documented examples of severe wind shear is demonstrated.
Shear-flexible finite-element models of laminated composite plates and shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Mathers, M. D.
1975-01-01
Several finite-element models are applied to the linear static, stability, and vibration analysis of laminated composite plates and shells. The study is based on linear shallow-shell theory, with the effects of shear deformation, anisotropic material behavior, and bending-extensional coupling included. Both stiffness (displacement) and mixed finite-element models are considered. Discussion is focused on the effects of shear deformation and anisotropic material behavior on the accuracy and convergence of different finite-element models. Numerical studies are presented which show the effects of increasing the order of the approximating polynomials, adding internal degrees of freedom, and using derivatives of generalized displacements as nodal parameters.
Strain localization in a shear transformation zone model for amorphous solids.
Manning, M L; Langer, J S; Carlson, J M
2007-11-01
We model a sheared disordered solid using the theory of shear transformation zones (STZs). In this mean-field continuum model the density of zones is governed by an effective temperature that approaches a steady state value as energy is dissipated. We compare the STZ model to simulations by Shi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 185505 (2007)], finding that the model generates solutions that fit the data, exhibit strain localization, and capture important features of the localization process. We show that perturbations to the effective temperature grow due to an instability in the transient dynamics, but unstable systems do not always develop shear bands. Nonlinear energy dissipation processes interact with perturbation growth to determine whether a material exhibits strain localization. By estimating the effects of these interactions, we derive a criterion that determines which materials exhibit shear bands based on the initial conditions alone. We also show that the shear band width is not set by an inherent diffusion length scale but instead by a dynamical scale that depends on the imposed strain rate.
Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions. PMID:25591921
Effect of nanoscale patterned interfacial roughness on interfacial toughness.
Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mook, William M.; Kennedy, Marian S.; Bahr, David F.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.
2007-09-01
The performance and the reliability of many devices are controlled by interfaces between thin films. In this study we investigated the use of patterned, nanoscale interfacial roughness as a way to increase the apparent interfacial toughness of brittle, thin-film material systems. The experimental portion of the study measured the interfacial toughness of a number of interfaces with nanoscale roughness. This included a silicon interface with a rectangular-toothed pattern of 60-nm wide by 90-nm deep channels fabricated using nanoimprint lithography techniques. Detailed finite element simulations were used to investigate the nature of interfacial crack growth when the interface is patterned. These simulations examined how geometric and material parameter choices affect the apparent toughness. Atomistic simulations were also performed with the aim of identifying possible modifications to the interfacial separation models currently used in nanoscale, finite element fracture analyses. The fundamental nature of atomistic traction separation for mixed mode loadings was investigated.
Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows
Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.
2014-05-15
We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.
Application of a shear-modified GTN model to incremental sheet forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Jacob; Malhotra, Rajiv; Liu, W. K.; Cao, Jian
2013-12-01
This paper investigates the effects of using a shear-modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model, which is based on the mechanics of voids, for simulating material behavior in the incremental forming process. The problem chosen for analysis is a simplified version of the NUMISHEET 2014 incremental forming benchmark test. The implications of the shear-modification of the model specifically for incremental sheet forming processes are confirmed using finite element analysis. It is shown that including the shear term has a significant effect on fracture timing in incremental forming, which is not well reflected in the observed tensile test simulations for calibration. The numerical implementation and the need for comprehensive calibration of the model are briefly discussed.
Wang, Yang; Weng, George J.; Meguid, Shaker A.; Hamouda, Abdel Magid
2014-05-21
A continuum model that possesses several desirable features of the electrical conduction process in carbon-nanotube (CNT) based nanocomposites is developed. Three basic elements are included: (i) percolation threshold, (ii) interface effects, and (iii) tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity. We approach the first one through the selection of an effective medium theory. We approach the second one by the introduction of a diminishing layer of interface with an interfacial conductivity to build a 'thinly coated' CNT. The third one is introduced through the observation that interface conductivity can be enhanced by electron tunneling which in turn can be facilitated with the formation of CNT networks. We treat this last issue in a continuum fashion by taking the network formation as a statistical process that can be represented by Cauchy's probability density function. The outcome is a simple and yet widely useful model that can simultaneously capture all these fundamental characteristics. It is demonstrated that, without considering the interface effect, the predicted conductivity would be too high, and that, without accounting for the additional contribution from the tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity, the predicted conductivity beyond the percolation threshold would be too low. It is with the consideration of all three elements that the theory can fully account for the experimentally measured data. We further use the developed model to demonstrate that, despite the anisotropy of the intrinsic CNT conductivity, it is its axial component along the CNT direction that dominates the overall conductivity. This theory is also proved that, even with a totally insulating matrix, it is still capable of delivering non-zero conductivity beyond the percolation threshold.
Magnetic Field Shear in Kinetic Models Steps Toward Understanding Magnetic Reconnection Drivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Black, Carrie; Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, Rick; Karpen, Judith
2015-11-01
In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the eruptive event resides in a strongly sheared magnetic. A pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field and a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection disrupts this force balance; therefore, it is critical for understanding CME/flare initiation, to model the onset of reconnection driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are dominant in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is challenging, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. Plasma instabilities can arise nonetheless. Here, we show that we can control this instability and generate a predicted out-of-plane magnetic flux. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356.
Vorvolakos, Katherine; Coburn, James C; Saylor, David M
2014-04-07
An aqueous hyaluronic acid (HA(aq)) pericellular coat, when mediating the tactile aspect of cellular contact inhibition, has three tasks: interface formation, mechanical signal transmission and interface separation. To quantify the interfacial adhesive behavior of HA(aq), we induce simultaneous interface formation and separation between HA(aq) and a model hydrophobic, hysteretic Si-SAM surface. While surface tension γ remains essentially constant, interface formation and separation depend greatly on concentration (5 ≤ C ≤ 30 mg mL(-1)), molecular weight (6 ≤ MW ≤ 2000 kDa) and interfacial velocity (0 ≤ V ≤ 3 mm s(-1)), each of which affect shear elastic and loss moduli G′ and G′′, respectively. Viscoelasticity dictates the mode of interfacial motion: wetting-dewetting, capillary necking, or rolling. Wetting-dewetting is quantified using advancing and receding contact angles θ(A) and θ(R), and the hysteresis between them, yielding data landscapes for each C above the [MW, V] plane. The landscape sizes, shapes, and curvatures disclose the interplay, between surface tension and viscoelasticity, which governs interfacial dynamics. Gel point coordinates modulus G and angular frequency ω appear to predict wetting-dewetting (G < 75 ω0.2), capillary necking (75 ω0.2 < G < 200 ω0.075) or rolling (G > 200ω0.075). Dominantly dissipative HA(aq) sticks to itself and distorts irreversibly before separating, while dominantly elastic HA(aq) makes contact and separates with only minor, reversible distortion. We propose the dimensionless number (G′V)/(ω(r)γ), varying from 10(-5) to 10(3) in this work, as a tool to predict the mode of interface formation-separation by relating interfacial kinetics with bulk viscoelasticity. Cellular contact inhibition may be thus aided or compromised by physiological or interventional shifts in [C, MW, V], and thus in (G′V)/(ω(r)γ), which affect both mechanotransduction and interfacial dynamics. These observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moharana, Sumedha; Bhalla, Suresh
2015-03-01
The impedance based structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have utilized the electro-mechanical coupling property of piezoelectric materials (piezo-impedance transducers), due to their self-sensing nature (ability to act both as actuators and sensors), and its diminutive in shape and size, cost effectiveness and ease of installation. The adhesive bond acts as an elastic medium which facilitates the transfer of stresses and strains developed due to piezo displacement and also couples the impedance of PZT patch with that of the host structure. The sensitivity of the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique can be enhanced by understanding shear mechanism phenomena of the adhesive layer. This paper reviews the existing shear lag models and discuss the recent advances in impedance based coupled piezo-structural model duly considering the shear lag effect with all responsible piezo-mechanical parameters.
A finite element method for shear stresses calculation in composite blade models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paluch, B.
1991-09-01
A finite-element method is developed for accurately calculating shear stresses in helicopter blade models, induced by torsion and shearing forces. The method can also be used to compute the equivalent torsional stiffness of the section, their transverse shear coefficient, and the position of their center of torsion. A grid generator method which is a part of the calculation program is also described and used to discretize the sections quickly and to condition the grid data reliably. The finite-element method was validated on a few sections composed of isotropic materials and was then applied to a blade model sections made of composite materials. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Suyue; Chang, Gary Han; Schirmer, Clemens; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2016-11-01
We construct a reduced-order model (ROM) to study the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) distributions in image-based patient-specific aneurysms models. The magnitude of WSS has been shown to be a critical factor in growth and rupture of human aneurysms. We start the process by running a training case using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation with time-varying flow parameters, such that these parameters cover the range of parameters of interest. The method of snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is utilized to construct the reduced-order bases using the training CFD simulation. The resulting ROM enables us to study the flow patterns and the WSS distributions over a range of system parameters computationally very efficiently with a relatively small number of modes. This enables comprehensive analysis of the model system across a range of physiological conditions without the need to re-compute the simulation for small changes in the system parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazemnezhad, Reza; Shokrollahi, Hassan; Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh
2014-05-01
In this study, sandwich beam model (SM) is proposed for free vibration analysis of bilayer graphene nanoribbons (BLGNRs) with interlayer shear effect. This model also takes into account the intralayer (in-plane) stretch of graphene nanoribbons. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the software LAMMPS and Adaptive Intermolecular Reactive Empirical Bond Order (AIREBO) potential are done to validate the accuracy of the sandwich model results. The MD simulation results include the two first frequencies of cantilever BLGNRs with different lengths and two interlayer shear moduli, i.e., 0.25 and 4.6 GPa. These two interlayer shear moduli, 0.25 and 4.6 GPa, can be obtained by sliding a small flake of graphene on a large graphene substrate when the parameter of E_LJ term in AIREBO potential, epsilon_CC, is set to be 2.84 and 45.44 meV, respectively. The SM results for a wide range of bending rigidity values show that the proposed model, i.e., the SM, predicts much better than the previous beam model in which the intralayer stretch is ignored. In addition, it is observed that the model can properly predict the natural frequencies of BLGNRs for various values of the bending rigidity and the interlayer shear modulus.
Nazemnezhad, Reza E-mail: rnazemnezhad@du.ac.ir; Shokrollahi, Hassan; Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh
2014-05-07
In this study, sandwich beam model (SM) is proposed for free vibration analysis of bilayer graphene nanoribbons (BLGNRs) with interlayer shear effect. This model also takes into account the intralayer (in-plane) stretch of graphene nanoribbons. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the software LAMMPS and Adaptive Intermolecular Reactive Empirical Bond Order (AIREBO) potential are done to validate the accuracy of the sandwich model results. The MD simulation results include the two first frequencies of cantilever BLGNRs with different lengths and two interlayer shear moduli, i.e., 0.25 and 4.6 GPa. These two interlayer shear moduli, 0.25 and 4.6 GPa, can be obtained by sliding a small flake of graphene on a large graphene substrate when the parameter of E-LJ term in AIREBO potential, epsilon-CC, is set to be 2.84 and 45.44 meV, respectively. The SM results for a wide range of bending rigidity values show that the proposed model, i.e., the SM, predicts much better than the previous beam model in which the intralayer stretch is ignored. In addition, it is observed that the model can properly predict the natural frequencies of BLGNRs for various values of the bending rigidity and the interlayer shear modulus.
Granular Shear Zone Formation: Acoustic Emission Measurements and Fiber-bundle Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani
2013-04-01
We couple the acoustic emissions method with conceptual models of granular material behavior for investigation of granular shear zone formation and to assess eminence of landslide hazard. When granular materials are mechanically loaded or sheared, they tend to produce discrete events of force network restructuring, and frictional interaction at grain contacts. Such abrupt perturbations within the granular lattice release part of the elastic energy stored in the strained material. Elastic waves generated by such events can be measured as acoustic emissions (AE) and may be used as surrogates for intermittent structural transitions associated with shear zone formation. To experimentally investigate the connection between granular shearing and acoustic signals we performed an array of strain-controlled shear-frame tests using glass beads. AE were measured with two different systems operating at two frequency ranges. High temporal resolution measurements of the shear stresses revealed the presence of small fluctuations typically associated with low-frequency (< 20 kHz) acoustic bursts. Shear stress jumps and linked acoustic signals give account of discrete events of grain network rearrangements and obey characteristic exponential frequency-size distributions. We found that statistical features of force jumps and AE events depend on mechanical boundary conditions and evolve during the straining process. Activity characteristics of high-frequency (> 30 kHz) AE events is linked to friction between grains. To interpret failure associated AE signals, we adapted a conceptual fiber-bundle model (FBM) that describes some of the salient statistical features of failure and associated energy production. Using FBMs for the abrupt mechanical response of the granular medium and an associated grain and force chain AE generation model provides us with a full description of the mechanical-acoustical granular shearing process. Highly resolved AE may serve as a diagnostic tool not only
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Yuen, D. A.
2003-11-01
Shear zones are the most ubiquitous features observed in planetary surfaces. They appear as a jagged network of faults at the observable brittle surface of planets and, in geological exposures of deeper rocks, they turn into smoothly braided networks of localized shear displacement leaving centimeter wide bands of "mylonitized", reduced grain sizes behind. The overall size of the entire shear network rarely exceeds kilometer scale at depth. Although mylonitic shear zones are only visible to the observer, when uplifted and exposed at the surface, they govern the mechanical behavior of the strongest part of the lithosphere below 10-15 km depth. Mylonitic shear zones dissect plates, thus allowing plate tectonics to develop on the Earth. We review the basic multiscale physics underlying mylonitic, ductile shear zone nucleation, growth and longevity and show that grain size reduction is a symptomatic cause but not necessarily the main reason for localization. We also discuss a framework for analytic and numerical modeling including the effects of thermal-mechanical couplings, thermal-elasticity, the influence of water and void-volatile feedback. The physics of ductile shear zones relies on feedback processes that turn a macroscopically homogenously deforming body into a heterogeneously slipping solid medium. Positive feedback can amplify strength heterogeneities by cascading through different scales. We define basic, intrinsic length scales of strength heterogeneity such as those associated with plasticity, grain size, fluid-inclusion and thermal diffusion length scale. For an understanding ductile shear zones we need to consider the energetics of deformation. Shear heating introduces a jerky flow phenomenon potentially accompanied by ductile earthquakes. Additional focusing due to grain size reduction only operates for a narrow parameter range of cooling rates. For the long time scale, deformational energy stored inside the shear zone through plastic dilation or
Modeling and calculation of turbulent transport in free-shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.; Abdol-Hamid, K.
1987-01-01
In this work the applicability of the combined bulk convection and gradient transport hypotheses for modeling turbulent diffusion is investigated. The resulting model equation, namely the one-equation model, is solved for free-shear flows by an implicit finite-difference method. Results indicate that significant improvements over previous models can be achieved with this new formulation of turbulent diffusion for both heat and momentum transport.
On modeling pressure diffusion in non-homogeneous shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.; Rogers, M. M.; Durbin, P.; Lele, S. K.
1996-01-01
New models are proposed for the 'slow and 'rapid' parts of the pressure diffusive transport based on the examination of DNS databases for plane mixing layers and wakes. The model for the 'slow' part is non-local, but requires the distribution of the triple-velocity correlation as a local source. The latter can be computed accurately for the normal component from standard gradient diffusion models, but such models are inadequate for the cross component. More work is required to remedy this situation.
2014-01-01
Introduction A mouse model of progeria derived by insertion of the human mutant LMNA gene (mLMNA), producing mutant lamin A, shows loss of smooth muscle cells in the media of the ascending aorta. We hypothesized that high shear stress, in the presence of mutant lamin A, induces this vasculopathy and tried to define the molecular and cellular basis for aortic vasculopathy. Methods Ascending and descending aortas from wild type (WT) and mLMNA+ mice were compared using proteomics, Western blots, PCR and immunostaining. To determine whether high fluidic shear stress, known to occur in the ascending aorta, contributed to the vasculopathy, we exposed descending aortas of mLMNA+ mice, with no apparent vasculopathy, to 75 dynes/cm2 shear stress for 30 minutes using a microfluidic system. Results When the mice were one year of age, expression of several mechanotransduction proteins in the ascending aorta, including vimentin, decreased in mLMNA+ mice but no decrease occurred in the descending aorta. High fluidic shear stress produced a significant reduction in vimentin of mLMNA+ mice but not in similarly treated WT mice. Conclusions The occurrence of mutant lamin A and high shear stress correlate with a reduction in the level of mechanotransduction proteins in smooth muscle cells of the media. Reduction of these proteins may contribute over time to development of vasculopathy in the ascending aorta in progeria syndrome. PMID:24661531
Pelipenko, Jan; Kristl, Julijana; Rošic, Romana; Baumgartner, Saša; Kocbek, Petra
2012-06-01
Interfacial rheological properties have yet to be thoroughly explored. Only recently, methods have been introduced that provide sufficient sensitivity to reliably determine viscoelastic interfacial properties. In general, interfacial rheology describes the relationship between the deformation of an interface and the stresses exerted on it. Due to the variety in deformations of the interfacial layer (shear and expansions or compressions), the field of interfacial rheology is divided into the subcategories of shear and dilatational rheology. While shear rheology is primarily linked to the long-term stability of dispersions, dilatational rheology provides information regarding short-term stability. Interfacial rheological characteristics become relevant in systems with large interfacial areas, such as emulsions and foams, and in processes that lead to a large increase in the interfacial area, such as electrospinning of nanofibers.
Prediction of free shear flows: A comparison of the performance of six turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Launder, B. E.; Morse, A.; Rodi, W.; Spalding, D. B.
1973-01-01
The performance is evaluated of three distinct classes of turbulence model. These classes are: (1) Turbulent-viscosity models in which the length scale of turbulence is found by way of algebraic formulas, (2) turbulent-viscosity models in which the length scale of turbulence is found from a partial differential equation of transport, and (3) models in which the shear stress itself is the dependent variable of a partial differential conservation equation. Two models were examined in each class; thus, six different models were tested. A complete mathematical statement of these models is provided and a brief commentary on the models is included.
Development of Shear Deformable Laminated Shell Element and Its Application to ANCF Tire Model
2015-04-24
Conference on Multibody Systems , Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control (MSNDC) MSNDC-10 Vehicle Dynamics Technical Publication DEVELOPMENT OF SHEAR...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ASME 2015 IDETC/CIE, 11th International Conference on Multibody Systems , Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control (MSNDC) 14. ABSTRACT See Report...United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1. INTRODUCTION An accurate modeling of the complex tire geometry and the
Chen, Xiao-Bo; Niu, Li-Sha; Shi, Hui-Ji
2008-09-01
By adding external velocity terms, the two-dimensional time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations are modified. Based on this, the phase separation in binary lipid membrane under externally imposed oscillatory shear flow is numerically modeled employing the Cell Dynamical System (CDS) approach. Considering shear flows with different frequencies and amplitudes, several aspects of such a phase evolving process are studied. Firstly, visualized results are shown via snapshot figures of the membrane shape. And then, the simulated scattering patterns at typical moments are presented. Furthermore, in order to more quantitatively discuss this phase-separation process, the time growth laws of the characteristic domain sizes in both directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow are investigated for each case. Finally, the peculiar rheological properties of such binary lipid membrane system have been discussed, mainly the normal stress difference and the viscoelastic complex shear moduli.
Shear-driven particle size segregation: Models, analysis, numerical solutions, and experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Lindsay Bard Hilbert
Granular materials segregate by particle size when subject to shear, as in avalanches. Particles roll and slide across one another, and other particles fall into the voids that form, with smaller particles more likely to fit than larger particles. Small particles segregate to the bottom of the sample, and larger particles are levered upward. These processes are known as kinetic sieving and squeeze expulsion. The evolution of the volume fraction of small particles (ratio of the volume of small particles to the total volume of the system) corresponds to the evolution of segregation in a binary mixture of particles and can be modeled by a nonlinear first order partial differential equation, provided the velocity or shear is a known function of position. In an avalanche, shear is approximately uniform in depth, however, in boundary driven shear, the velocity is nonlinear and a shear band forms adjacent to the boundary. We explore size segregation with a laboratory experiment and by analyzing a model. We classify solutions to a fundamental initial boundary value problem for avalanche flow in two space dimensions akin to a two dimensional Riemann problem. We describe three solution types; the initial condition determines which solution occurs. We also modify the partial differential equation to model segregation in a system experiencing nonuniform shear. We experimentally investigate size segregation using an annular Couette cell, which is constructed of concentric cylinders and has a moving lower boundary that imparts shear to the system and an upper confining boundary that is free to move vertically to accommodate changes in the volume of the system. Initially, the Couette cell contains a layer of large particles below a layer of small particles. The system dilates as shear begins, then contracts as the sample mixes, and again expands as the sample resegregates; the height of the system is prescribed by the amount of mixing or segregation. At the end of the experiment
Component-Based Model for Single-Plate Shear Connections with Pretension and Pinched Hysteresis.
Weigand, Jonathan M
2017-02-01
Component-based connection models provide a natural framework for modeling the complex behaviors of connections under extreme loads by capturing both the individual behaviors of the connection components, such as the bolt, shear plate, and beam web, and the complex interactions between those components. Component-based models also provide automatic coupling between the in-plane flexural and axial connection behaviors, a feature that is essential for modeling the behavior of connections under column removal. This paper presents a new component-based model for single-plate shear connections that includes the effects of pre-tension in the bolts and provides the capability to model standard and slotted holes. The component-based models are exercised under component-level deformations calculated from the connection demands via a practical rigid-body displacement model, so that the results of the presented modeling approach remains hand-calculable. Validation cases are presented for connections subjected to both seismic and column removal loading. These validation cases show that the component-based model is capable of predicting the response of single-plate shear connections for both seismic and column removal loads.
Component-Based Model for Single-Plate Shear Connections with Pretension and Pinched Hysteresis
Weigand, Jonathan M.
2016-01-01
Component-based connection models provide a natural framework for modeling the complex behaviors of connections under extreme loads by capturing both the individual behaviors of the connection components, such as the bolt, shear plate, and beam web, and the complex interactions between those components. Component-based models also provide automatic coupling between the in-plane flexural and axial connection behaviors, a feature that is essential for modeling the behavior of connections under column removal. This paper presents a new component-based model for single-plate shear connections that includes the effects of pre-tension in the bolts and provides the capability to model standard and slotted holes. The component-based models are exercised under component-level deformations calculated from the connection demands via a practical rigid-body displacement model, so that the results of the presented modeling approach remains hand-calculable. Validation cases are presented for connections subjected to both seismic and column removal loading. These validation cases show that the component-based model is capable of predicting the response of single-plate shear connections for both seismic and column removal loads. PMID:28133413
Ke, Y.; Ortola, S.; Beaucour, A.L.; Dumontet, H.
2010-11-15
An approach which combines both experimental techniques and micromechanical modelling is developed in order to characterise the elastic behaviour of lightweight aggregate concretes (LWAC). More than three hundred LWAC specimens with various lightweight aggregate types (5) of several volume ratios and three different mortar matrices (normal, HP, VHP) are tested. The modelling is based on iterative homogenisation process and includes the ITZ specificities experimentally observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In agreement with experimental measurements, the effects of mix design parameters as well as of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on concrete mechanical performances are quantitatively analysed. Confrontations with experimental results allow identifying the elastic moduli of LWA which are difficult to determine experimentally. Whereas the traditional empirical formulas are not sufficiently precise, predictions of LWAC elastic behaviours computed with the micromechanical models appear in good agreement with experimental measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smialek, James L.
2002-01-01
A cyclic oxidation interfacial spalling model has been developed in Part 1. The governing equations have been simplified here by substituting a new algebraic expression for the series (Good-Smialek approximation). This produced a direct relationship between cyclic oxidation weight change and model input parameters. It also allowed for the mathematical derivation of various descriptive parameters as a function of the inputs. It is shown that the maximum in weight change varies directly with the parabolic rate constant and cycle duration and inversely with the spall fraction, all to the 1/2 power. The number of cycles to reach maximum and zero weight change vary inversely with the spall fraction, and the ratio of these cycles is exactly 1:3 for most oxides. By suitably normalizing the weight change and cycle number, it is shown that all cyclic oxidation weight change model curves can be represented by one universal expression for a given oxide scale.
Viscoelastic shear zone model of a strike-slip earthquake cycle
Pollitz, F.F.
2001-01-01
I examine the behavior of a two-dimensional (2-D) strike-slip fault system embedded in a 1-D elastic layer (schizosphere) overlying a uniform viscoelastic half-space (plastosphere) and within the boundaries of a finite width shear zone. The viscoelastic coupling model of Savage and Prescott [1978] considers the viscoelastic response of this system, in the absence of the shear zone boundaries, to an earthquake occurring within the upper elastic layer, steady slip beneath a prescribed depth, and the superposition of the responses of multiple earthquakes with characteristic slip occurring at regular intervals. So formulated, the viscoelastic coupling model predicts that sufficiently long after initiation of the system, (1) average fault-parallel velocity at any point is the average slip rate of that side of the fault and (2) far-field velocities equal the same constant rate. Because of the sensitivity to the mechanical properties of the schizosphere-plastosphere system (i.e., elastic layer thickness, plastosphere viscosity), this model has been used to infer such properties from measurements of interseismic velocity. Such inferences exploit the predicted behavior at a known time within the earthquake cycle. By modifying the viscoelastic coupling model to satisfy the additional constraint that the absolute velocity at prescribed shear zone boundaries is constant, I find that even though the time-averaged behavior remains the same, the spatiotemporal pattern of surface deformation (particularly its temporal variation within an earthquake cycle) is markedly different from that predicted by the conventional viscoelastic coupling model. These differences are magnified as plastosphere viscosity is reduced or as the recurrence interval of periodic earthquakes is lengthened. Application to the interseismic velocity field along the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault suggests that the region behaves mechanically like a ???600-km-wide shear zone accommodating 50 mm/yr fault
Development of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yakhot, V.; Orszag, S. A.; Thangam, S.; Gatski, T. B.; Speziale, C. G.
1992-01-01
Turbulence models are developed by supplementing the renormalization group (RNG) approach of Yakhot and Orszag with scale expansions for the Reynolds stress and production of dissipation terms. The additional expansion parameter (eta) is the ratio of the turbulent to mean strain time scale. While low-order expansions appear to provide an adequate description of the Reynolds stress, no finite truncation of the expansion for the production of dissipation term in powers of eta suffices - terms of all orders must be retained. Based on these ideas, a new two-equation model and Reynolds stress transport model are developed for turbulent shear flows. The models are tested for homogeneous shear flow and flow over a backward facing step. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental data are excellent.
Development of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yakhot, V.; Thangam, S.; Gatski, T. B.; Orszag, S. A.; Speziale, C. G.
1991-01-01
Turbulence models are developed by supplementing the renormalization group (RNG) approach of Yakhot and Orszag with scale expansions for the Reynolds stress and production of dissipation terms. The additional expansion parameter (eta) is the ratio of the turbulent to mean strain time scale. While low-order expansions appear to provide an adequate description of the Reynolds stress, no finite truncation of the expansion for the production of dissipation term in powers of eta suffices - terms of all orders must be retained. Based on these ideas, a new two-equation model and Reynolds stress transport model are developed for turbulent shear flows. The models are tested for homogeneous shear flow and flow over a backward facing step. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental data are excellent.
Extensions of the Ferry shear wave model for active linear and nonlinear microrheology
Mitran, Sorin M.; Forest, M. Gregory; Yao, Lingxing; Lindley, Brandon; Hill, David B.
2009-01-01
The classical oscillatory shear wave model of Ferry et al. [J. Polym. Sci. 2:593-611, (1947)] is extended for active linear and nonlinear microrheology. In the Ferry protocol, oscillation and attenuation lengths of the shear wave measured from strobe photographs determine storage and loss moduli at each frequency of plate oscillation. The microliter volumes typical in biology require modifications of experimental method and theory. Microbead tracking replaces strobe photographs. Reflection from the top boundary yields counterpropagating modes which are modeled here for linear and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive laws. Furthermore, bulk imposed strain is easily controlled, and we explore the onset of normal stress generation and shear thinning using nonlinear viscoelastic models. For this paper, we present the theory, exact linear and nonlinear solutions where possible, and simulation tools more generally. We then illustrate errors in inverse characterization by application of the Ferry formulas, due to both suppression of wave reflection and nonlinearity, even if there were no experimental error. This shear wave method presents an active and nonlinear analog of the two-point microrheology of Crocker et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85: 888 - 891 (2000)]. Nonlocal (spatially extended) deformations and stresses are propagated through a small volume sample, on wavelengths long relative to bead size. The setup is ideal for exploration of nonlinear threshold behavior. PMID:20011614
A spatial model of wind shear and turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, C. W.; Sanborn, V. A.
1984-01-01
The purpose of the spatial model considered in the present investigation is to generate the wind environment for use by others for flight simulation. Winds and gusts are provided over any finite area (e.g., aircraft body) from which aircraft loads and moments may be calculated. Three-dimensional autospectral information and correlation are contained in the data. It is pointed out that the three-dimensionality as contained in the spatial model affords much greater realism than widely used one-dimensional models. The resulting simulated wind is a nonlinear, non-Gaussian combination of real atmospheric winds and Gaussian, three-dimensional turbulence modulated by gust intensities which may vary freely as desired over space. The turbulence as represented by a product of a varying gust intensity and simulated turbulence is nonlinear and non-Gaussian.
Interfacial Instabilities on a Droplet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalaal, Maziyar; Mehravaran, Kian
2013-11-01
The fragmentation of droplets is an essential stage of several natural and industrial applications such as fuel atomization and rain phenomena. In spite of its relatively long history, the mechanism of fragmentation is not clear yet. This is mainly due to small length and time scales as well as the non-linearity of the process. In the present study, two and three-dimensional numerical simulations have been performed to understand the early stages of the fragmentation of an initially spherical droplet. Simulations are performed for high Reynolds and a range of relatively high Weber numbers (shear breakup). To resolve the small-scale instabilities generated over the droplet, a second-order adaptive finite volume/volume of fluids (FV/VOF) method is employed, where the grid resolution is increased with the curvature of the gas-liquid interface as well as the vorticity magnitude. The study is focused on the onset and growth of interfacial instabilities. The role of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (in surface wave formation) and Rayleigh-Taylor instability (in azimuthal transverse modulation) are shown and the obtained results are compared with the linear instability theories for zero and non-zero vorticity layers. Moreover, the analogy between the fragmentation of a single drop and a co-axial liquid jet is discussed. The current results can be used for the further development of the current secondary atomization models.
Koteras, J.R.
1991-10-01
This report describes a joint shear model used in conjunction with a computational model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets. The joint shear model allows nonlinear behavior for both joint sets. Because nonlinear behavior is allowed for both joint sets, a great many cases must be considered to fully describe the joint shear behavior of the jointed medium. An extensive set of equations is required to describe the joint shear stress and slip displacements that can occur for all the various cases. This report examines possible methods for simplifying this set of equations so that the model can be implemented efficiently form a computational standpoint. The shear model must be examined carefully to obtain a computationally efficient implementation that does not lead to numerical problems. The application to fractures in rock is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs.
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce
2010-04-14
Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees-Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method.
Longtime behavior of one-dimensional biofilm models with shear dependent detachment rates.
Abbas, Fazal; Sudarsan, Rangarajan; Eberl, Hermann J
2012-04-01
We investigate the role of non shear stress and shear stressed based detachment rate functions for the longterm behavior of one-dimensional biofilm models. We find that the particular choice of a detachment rate function can affect the model prediction of persistence or washout of the biofilm. Moreover, by comparing biofilms in three settings: (i) Couette flow reactors, (ii) Poiseuille flow with fixed flow rate and (iii) Poiseuille flow with fixed pressure drop, we find that not only the bulk flow Reynolds number but also the particular mechanism driving the flow can play a crucial role for longterm behavior. We treat primarily the single species-case that can be analyzed with elementary ODE techniques. But we show also how the results, to some extent, can be carried over to multi-species biofilm models, and to biofilm models that are embedded in reactor mass balances.
Shear-free axial model in massive Brans-Dicke gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Manzoor, Rubab
2017-01-01
This paper explores the influences of dark energy on the shear-free axially symmetric evolution by considering self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity as a dark energy candidate. We describe energy source of the model and derive all the effective dynamical variables as well as effective structure scalars. It is found that scalar field is one of the sources of anisotropy and dissipation. The resulting effective structure scalars help to study the dynamics associated with dark energy in any axial configuration. In order to investigate shear-free evolution, we formulate a set of governing equations along with heat transport equation. We discuss consequences of shear-free condition upon different SBD fluid models like dissipative non-geodesic and geodesic models. For dissipative non-geodesic case, the rotational distribution turns out to be the necessary and sufficient condition for radiating model. The dissipation depends upon inhomogeneous expansion. The geodesic model is found to be irrotational and non-radiating. The non-dissipative geodesic model leads to FRW model for positive values of the expansion parameter.
Zhang, Yongliang; Romsted, Laurence S; Zhuang, Lanzhen; de Jong, Sander
2013-01-15
Chemical trapping is a powerful approach for obtaining experimental estimates of interfacial molarities of weakly basic nucleophiles in the interfacial regions of amphiphile aggregates. Here, we demonstrate that the chemical probe 4-hexadecyl-2,6-dimethylbenzenediazonium ion (16-ArN(2)(+)) reacts competitively with interfacial water, with the amide carbonyl followed by cleavage of the headgroups from the tail at the amide oxygen, and with the terminal carboxylate groups in micelles of two N-acyl amino-acid amphiphiles, sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate (SLS) and sodium N-lauroylglycinate (SLG), simple peptide bond model amphiphiles. Interfacial molarities (in moles per liter of interfacial volume) of these three groups were obtained from product yields, assuming that selectivity toward a particular nucleophile compared to water is the same in an aqueous reference solution and in the interfacial region. Interfacial carboxylate group molarities are ~1.5 M in both SLS and SLG micelles, but the concentration of the amide carbonyl for SLS micelles is ~4.6-5 times less (ca. 0.7 M) than that of SLG micelles (~3 M). The proton on the secondary N of SLG helps solubilize the amide bond in the aqueous region, but the methyl on the tertiary N of SLS helps solubilize the amide bond in the micellar core, reducing its reaction with 16-ArN(2)(+). Application of chemical trapping to proteins in membrane mimetic interfaces should provide insight into the topology of the protein within the interface because trapping of the amide carbonyl and cleavage at the C-N bond occurs only within the interface, and fragment characterization marks those peptide bonds located within the interface.
In Vitro Bone Cell Models: Impact of Fluid Shear Stress on Bone Formation
Wittkowske, Claudia; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Lacroix, Damien; Perrault, Cecile M.
2016-01-01
This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g., due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodeling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signaling factors, such as nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signaling, collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups, which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibers, which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models. PMID:27896266
Fragmentation dynamics within shear bands-a model for aging tectonic faults?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Åström, J. A.; Herrmann, H. J.; Timonen, J.
2001-03-01
A numerical model for packing of fragmenting blocks in a shear band is introduced, and its dynamics is compared with that of a tectonic fault. The shear band undergoes a slow aging process in which the blocks are being grinded by the shear motion and the compression. The dynamics of the model have the same statistical characteristics as the seismic activity in faults. The characteristic magnitude distribution of earthquakes appears to result from frictional slips at small and medium magnitudes, and from fragmentation of blocks at the largest magnitudes. Aftershocks to large-magnitude earthquakes are local recombinations of the fragments before they reach a new quasi-static equilibrium. The aftershocks satisfy Omori's law. Local precursor activity at a few times the normal background level appears at a short time before a major earthquake. Seismic gaps appear as a natural consequence of the aging process of a fault. Explanation of the heat flux and principal stress direction anomalies at the faults both involve the value of fracture stress of the blocks in the gouge. The final form of a tectonic fault is predicted to involve a gouge dominated by fine-grained and rather rounded blocks so that it cannot withstand large shear stresses.
Modeling the relaxation of polymer glasses under shear and elongational loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fielding, S. M.; Moorcroft, R. L.; Larson, R. G.; Cates, M. E.
2013-03-01
Glassy polymers show "strain hardening": at constant extensional load, their flow first accelerates, then arrests. Recent experiments under such loading have found this to be accompanied by a striking dip in the segmental relaxation time. This can be explained by a minimal nonfactorable model combining flow-induced melting of a glass with the buildup of stress carried by strained polymers. Within this model, liquefaction of segmental motion permits strong flow that creates polymer-borne stress, slowing the deformation enough for the segmental (or solvent) modes then to re-vitrify. Here, we present new results for the corresponding behavior under step-stress shear loading, to which very similar physics applies. To explain the unloading behavior in the extensional case requires introduction of a "crinkle factor" describing a rapid loss of segmental ordering. We discuss in more detail here the physics of this, which we argue involves non-entropic contributions to the polymer stress, and which might lead to some important differences between shear and elongation. We also discuss some fundamental and possibly testable issues concerning the physical meaning of entropic elasticity in vitrified polymers. Finally, we present new results for the startup of steady shear flow, addressing the possible role of transient shear banding.
Effect of fluid shear stress on portal vein remodeling in a rat model of portal hypertension.
Wen, Bin; Liang, Jian; Deng, Xin; Chen, Ran; Peng, Peichun
2015-01-01
Aims. To explore the effects and mechanisms of fluid shear stress on portal vein remodeling in a rat model of portal hypertension. Methods. Subcutaneous injections of CCl4 were given to establish a rat model of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Biomechanical technology was adopted to determine the dynamic changes of haemodynamic indices and fluid shear stress. Nitric oxide (NO), synthase (NOS), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) of the portal vein blood were measured. Changes in geometric structure and ultrastructure of the portal vein were observed using optical and electron microscopy. Results. After the CC14 injections, rat haemodynamics were notably altered. From week 4 onwards, PVP, PVF, and PVR gradually and significantly increased (P < 0.05 versus baseline). The fluid shear stress declined from week 4 onwards (P < 0.01 versus control group). NO, NOS, and ET-1 increased after repeated CCI4 injections. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed thickened portal vein walls, with increased inside and outside diameters. Electron microscopy revealed different degrees of endothelial cell degeneration, destruction of basement membrane integrity, proliferating, and hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Conclusions. Fluid shear stress not only influenced the biomechanical environment of the portal vein but also participated in vascular remodeling.
Soloway, Alexander G; Dahl, Peter H; Odom, Robert I
2015-10-01
Experimental measurements of Scholte waves from underwater explosions collected off the coast of Virginia Beach, VA in shallow water are presented. It is shown here that the dispersion of these explosion-generated Scholte waves traveling in the sandy seabed can be modeled using a power-law dependent shear wave speed profile and an empirical source model that determines the pressure time-series at 1 m from the source as a function of TNT-equivalent charge weight.
Shear-free spherically symmetric inhomogeneous cosmological model with heat flow and bulk viscosity
Deng, Y.; Mannheim, P.D. )
1990-07-15
An exact solution to the Einstein equations with a shear-free imperfect-fluid source is obtained. The solution approaches a locally flat Robertson-Walker one in the large-{ital t} limit and thus serves as a viable candidate for a realistic cosmological model. The model built out of this solution is found to be free of horizon, entropy, and flatness problems.
Salvucci, Fernando P; Perazzo, Carlos A; Barra, Juan G; Armentano, Ricardo L
2009-01-01
There is evidence that wall shear stress (WSS) is associated with vascular disease. In particular, it is widely accepted that vascular segments with low or oscillatory values of WSS are more probable to develop vascular disease. It is then necessary to establish a realistic model of the blood flow in blood vessels in order to determine precisely WSS. We proposed a numerical 1D model which takes into account the pulsatile nature of blood flow, the elasticity of the vessel, and its geometry. The model allows the calculation of shear stress. It was validated for stationary situations. Then, we computed the time-dependent WSS distribution from experimental data in the sheep thoracic aorta. Results showed that mean WSS calculated through steady flow and rigid walls models is overestimated. Peak WSS values for pulsatile flow must be considered since they resulted to be at least one order higher than mean values. Oscillations in shear stress in a period showed to be approximately of 40%. These findings show that the proposed model is suitable for estimating time-dependent WSS distributions, and confirm the need of using this kind of model when trying to evaluate realistic WSS in blood vessels.
Dynamic hysteresis modelling of entangled cross-linked fibres in shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piollet, Elsa; Poquillon, Dominique; Michon, Guilhem
2016-11-01
The objective of this paper is to characterize and model the vibration behaviour of entangled carbon fibres cross-linked with epoxy resin. The material is tested in shear, in a double lap configuration. Experimental testing is carried out for frequencies varying from 1 Hz to 80 Hz and for shear strain amplitudes ranging from 5 ·10-4 to 1 ·10-2. Measured shear stress-strain hysteresis loops show a nonlinear behaviour with a low frequency dependency. The hysteresis loops are decomposed in a linear part and three nonlinear parts: a dry friction hysteresis, a stiffening term and a stiction-like overshoot term. The Generalized Dahl Model is used in conjunction with other hysteresis models to develop an appropriate description of the measured hysteresis loops, based on the three nonlinear parts. In particular, a new one-state formulation of the Bliman-Sorine model is developed. A new identification procedure is also introduced for the Dahl model, based on the so-called backbone curve. The model is shown to capture well the complex shapes of the measured hysteresis loops at all amplitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kanhui; Latterman, Paul; Koch, Trystan; Hu, Vincent; Ho, Joyce; Mata, Matthew; Murisic, Nebojsa; Bertozzi, Andrea
2009-11-01
Different flow regimes observed in our experimental study of particle-laden thin film flows are characterized by differing particle concentration profiles. We develop a theoretical model for particle concentration in order to capture our experimental observations. Our model is based on equilibrium assumption and it incorporates all relevant physical mechanisms, including shear-induced particle migration and settling due to gravity. It leads to a coupled system of ordinary differential equations for particle volume fraction and shear, which are solved numerically for various parameter sets. We find excellent agreement between our numerical results and experimental data. Our model is not only successful in reproducing the experimentally observed regimes, but also in capturing the connection between these regimes and the experimental parameters.
Madhukar, Amit; Chen, Ying; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin
2017-03-14
The MRI-based computational model, previously validated by tagged MRI and HARP imaging analysis technique on in vivo human brain deformation, is employed to study transient wave dynamics during blunt head trauma. Three different constitutive models are used for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): incompressible solid elastic, viscoelastic and fluid-like elastic using an equation of state model. Three impact cases are simulated which indicate that the blunt impacts give rise not only to a fast pressure wave but also to a slow, and potentially much more damaging, shear (distortional) wave that converges spherically towards the brain center. The wave amplification due to spherical geometry is balanced by damping due to tissues' viscoelasticity and the heterogeneous brain structure, suggesting a stochastic competition of these two opposite effects. It is observed that this convergent shear wave is dependent on the constitutive property of the CSF whereas the peak pressure is not as significantly affected.
Mudawar, I.; Galloway, J.E.; Gersey, C.O.
1995-12-31
Pool boiling and flow boiling were examined for near-saturated bulk conditions in order to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) trigger mechanism for each. Photographic studies of the wall region revealed features common to both situations. At fluxes below CHF, the vapor coalesces into a wavy layer which permits wetting only in wetting fronts, the portions of the liquid-vapor interface which contact the wall as a result of the interfacial waviness. Close examination of the interfacial features revealed the waves are generated from the lower edge of the heater in pool boiling and the heater`s upstream region in flow boiling. Wavelengths follow predictions based upon the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability criterion. Critical heat flux in both cases occurs when the pressure force exerted upon the interface due to interfacial curvature, which tends to preserve interfacial contact with the wall prior to CHF, is overcome by the momentum of vapor at the site of the first wetting front, causing the interface to lift away from the wall. It is shown this interfacial lift-off criterion facilitates accurate theoretical modeling of CHF in pool boiling and in flow boiling in both straight and curved channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adnan Elshafei, M.; Alraiess, Fuzy
2013-03-01
In the current work, a finite element formulation is developed for modeling and analysis of isotropic as well as orthotropic composite beams with distributed piezoelectric actuators subjected to both mechanical and electrical loads. The proposed model is developed based on a simple higher order shear deformation theory where the displacement field equations in the model account for a parabolic distribution of the shear strain and the nonlinearity of in-plane displacements across the thickness and subsequently the shear correction factor is not involved. The virtual displacement method is used to formulate the equations of motion of the structure system. The model is valid for both segmented and continuous piezoelectric elements, which can be either surface bonded or embedded in the laminated beams. A two-node element with four mechanical degrees of freedom in addition to one electrical degree of freedom for each node is used in the finite element formulation. The electric potential is considered as a function of the thickness and the length of the beam element. A MATLAB code is developed to compute the static deformation and free vibration parameters of the beams with distributed piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results from the proposed model are compared with the available analytical results and the finite element results of other researchers.
Rogers, J.D.
1994-08-04
This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport.
A Pian-Sumihara type element for modeling shear bands at finite deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAuliffe, Colin; Waisman, Haim
2014-05-01
A monolithic numerical solution of a partial differential equation (PDE) model for shear bands, which includes a thermal softening rate dependent plastic flow rule and finite thermal conductivity, is presented. The formulation accounts for large deformation kinematics and includes incrementally objective treatment of the hypoplastic constitutive relations. Regularization is achieved by including finite thermal conductivity, which informs the PDE system of a length scale, governed by competition between shear heating and thermal diffusion. The monolithic solution scheme is then used to eliminate splitting errors during the solution of the discretized system. The scheme is presented in a general, mixed formulation, which allows for many choices of shape functions. We study and compare two elements, which have been implemented with the monolithic nonlinear solver: the Irreducible Shear Band Quad (ISBQ) and the Pian Sumihara Shear Band Quad (PSSBQ). ISBQ employs the same interpolation as an irreducible four node quad while PSSBQ is a mixed, assumed stress element. The algorithmic approximations to the Lie derivative and Jaumann rate of Kirchhoff stress are available in the literature for ISBQ type elements, and are derived in this paper for the PSSBQ. These expressions are used to achieve an incrementally objective formulation. It is found that the PSSBQ converges faster than the ISBQ with mesh refinement, and that the convergence of the ISBQ can be improved with a remeshing procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shokoohi, Shirin; Naderi, Ghasem
2016-01-01
To evaluate the prediction reliability of conventional morphology predicting models, polypropylene (PP)/polyamide6 (PA6)/ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) (70/15/15) ternary polymer blends compatibilized with Maleic-anhydride grafted EPDM (EPDM-g-MA) were prepared through melt blending using a twin screw extruder (TSE). Different EPDM/EPDM-g-MA ratios i.e. 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 were used to prepare the ternery blend PP/(EPDM-g-MA + EPDM)/PA6 samples. The effects of compatibilizer content on the microstructures and consequently mechanical properties of prepared ternary blends were studied. Direct microstructural observations were compared to the predictions of conventional phenomenological models including spreading coefficient, minimum relative free energy, and dynamic interfacial energy. A comparison depicted the relative inaccuracy of the existing models in predicting the morphology of the present ternary system due to the ignorance of some effective parameters and/or discomfit of model assumptions. A novel predictive model was developed considering parameters ignored in conventional models. A thorough investigation of the model's validation results showed a reasonable agreement between model predictions and direct microstructural observations.
The mode III crack problem in bonded materials with a nonhomogeneous interfacial zone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erdogan, F.; Joseph, P. F.; Kaya, A. C.
1991-01-01
The mode 3 crack problem for two bonded homogeneous half planes was considered. The interfacial zone was modelled by a nonhomogeneous strip in such a way that the shear modulus is a continuous function throughout the composite medium and has discontinuous derivatives along the boundaries of the interfacial zone. The problem was formulated for cracks perpendicular to the nominal interface and was solved for various crack locations in and around the interfacial region. The asymptotic stress field near the tip of a crack terminating at an interface was examined and it was shown that, unlike the corresponding stress field in piecewise homogeneous materials, in this case the stresses have the standard square root singularity and their angular variation was identical to that of a crack in a homogeneous medium. With application to the subcritical crack growth process in mind, the results given include mostly the stress intensity factors for some typical crack geometries and various material combinations.
The mode 3 crack problem in bonded materials with a nonhomogeneous interfacial zone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erdogan, Fazil; Kaya, A. C.; Joseph, P. F.
1988-01-01
The mode 3 crack problem for two bonded homogeneous half planes was considered. The interfacial zone was modelled by a nonhomogeneous strip in such a way that the shear modulus is a continuous function throughout the composite medium and has discontinuous derivatives along the boundaries of the interfacial zone. The problem was formulated for cracks perpendicular to the nominal interface and was solved for various crack locations in and around the interfacial region. The asymptotic stress field near the tip of a crack terminating at an interface was examined and it was shown that, unlike the corresponding stress field in piecewise homogeneous materials, in this case the stresses have the standard square root singularity and their angular variation was identical to that of a crack in a homogeneous medium. With application to the subcritical crack growth process in mind, the results given include mostly the stress intensity factors for some typical crack geometries and various material combinations.
A model for calculating polymer injectivity including the effects of shear degradation
Sorbie, K.S.; Roberts, L.J.
1984-04-01
Polymers are frequently injected into oil reservoirs in order to improve recovery. As they reduce the in-situ mobility of the aqueous phase (either by viscosity increase or permeability reduction), the fluid injectivity generally drops. It is very useful to be able to estimate in advance from a few laboratory measured quantities the injectivity of the polymer and whether the polymer is likely to be seriously degraded by the high shear experienced in the near-wellbore region. It is difficult to calculate the injectivity of the polymer solutions due to their complex rheological behaviour within porous media, especially when the polymer mechanically degrades. In this paper, the authors investigate one approach to calculating the injectivity of polymers in the general case where mechanical degradation occurs. A kinetic model for polymer degradation is proposed which is used to obtain the radial viscosity profile of the degrading polymer. This may in turn be used to calculate the steady-state pressure drops associated with the degrading polymer. The model is based on a discrete multicomponent representation of the polymer molecular weight distribution (MWD). During mechanical degradation, the MWD changes as higher components degrade into lower molecular weight fragments. The degradation rate of a given component of the MWD is related to the local shear/elongational stress within the porous medium and the concentration of the component (C /SUB i/ ). The model is used to match the results of experiments studying the shear degradation of polyacrylamide (PAM) in radial sandstone cores. The quantitative predictions of the model are very satisfactory. In addition, the model gives insight into the mechanism of shear degradation of polymers in porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barcos, L.; Díaz-Azpiroz, M.; Balanyá, J. C.; Expósito, I.; Jiménez-Bonilla, A.; Faccenna, C.
2016-07-01
The combination of analytical and analogue models gives new opportunities to better understand the kinematic parameters controlling the evolution of transpression zones. In this work, we carried out a set of analogue models using the kinematic parameters of transpressional deformation obtained by applying a general triclinic transpression analytical model to a tabular-shaped shear zone in the external Betic Chain (Torcal de Antequera massif). According to the results of the analytical model, we used two oblique convergence angles to reproduce the main structural and kinematic features of structural domains observed within the Torcal de Antequera massif (α = 15° for the outer domains and α = 30° for the inner domain). Two parallel inclined backstops (one fixed and the other mobile) reproduce the geometry of the shear zone walls of the natural case. Additionally, we applied digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) method to calculate the velocity field of the incremental deformation. Our results suggest that the spatial distribution of the main structures observed in the Torcal de Antequera massif reflects different modes of strain partitioning and strain localization between two domain types, which are related to the variation in the oblique convergence angle and the presence of steep planar velocity - and rheological - discontinuities (the shear zone walls in the natural case). In the 15° model, strain partitioning is simple and strain localization is high: a single narrow shear zone is developed close and parallel to the fixed backstop, bounded by strike-slip faults and internally deformed by R and P shears. In the 30° model, strain partitioning is strong, generating regularly spaced oblique-to-the backstops thrusts and strike-slip faults. At final stages of the 30° experiment, deformation affects the entire model box. Our results show that the application of analytical modelling to natural transpressive zones related to upper crustal deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldrin, John C.; Hopkins, Deborah; Datuin, Marvin; Warchol, Mark; Warchol, Lyudmila; Forsyth, David S.; Buynak, Charlie; Lindgren, Eric A.
2017-02-01
For model benchmark studies, the accuracy of the model is typically evaluated based on the change in response relative to a selected reference signal. The use of a side drilled hole (SDH) in a plate was investigated as a reference signal for angled beam shear wave inspection for aircraft structure inspections of fastener sites. Systematic studies were performed with varying SDH depth and size, and varying the ultrasonic probe frequency, focal depth, and probe height. Increased error was observed with the simulation of angled shear wave beams in the near-field. Even more significant, asymmetry in real probes and the inherent sensitivity of signals in the near-field to subtle test conditions were found to provide a greater challenge with achieving model agreement. To achieve quality model benchmark results for this problem, it is critical to carefully align the probe with the part geometry, to verify symmetry in probe response, and ideally avoid using reference signals from the near-field response. Suggested reference signals for angled beam shear wave inspections include using the `through hole' corner specular reflection signal and the full skip' signal off of the far wall from the side drilled hole.
Modeling shear-induced CHO cell damage in a rotary positive displacement pump.
Kamaraju, Hari; Wetzel, Kenneth; Kelly, William J
2010-01-01
Rotary lobe pumps are commonly used in the biotechnology industry for a variety of purposes. Shear damage to animal cells within the rotary lobe pump can adversely affect the product yield or purity during, for example, cell concentration via cross-flow filtration. In this research, CHO cells grown in 20-L bioreactors were fed to a rotary lobe pump in both single pass and recycle experiments were conducted at different RPMs and "slip" conditions. The results indicate that the slip flow rate more severely impacts the viability of the CHO cells than the pump RPM. A novel mathematical modeling approach is presented that predicts shear rates in all of the positive displacement pump's slip regions, and then predicts cell death vs. operating conditions. This model accounts for the complex flow situation that results from changes to RPM, backpressure and pump geometry (i.e., clearances).
Experimental validation of a two-dimensional shear-flow model for determining acoustic impedance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrott, Tony L.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.
1987-01-01
Tests were conducted to validate a two-dimensional shear-flow analytical model for determining the acoustic impedance of a liner test specimen in a grazing-incidence, grazing-flow environment. The tests were limited to a test specimen chosen to exhibit minimal effects of grazing flow so that the results obtained by using the shear-flow analytical model would be expected to match those obtained from normal-incidence impedance measurements. Impedances for both downstream and upstream sound propagation were generally consistent with those from normal-incidence measurements. However, sensitivity of the grazing-incidence impedance to small measurement or systematic errors in propagation constant varied dramatically over the range of test frequencies.
Mechanics of interfacial composite materials.
Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Abkarian, Manouk; Mahadevan, L; Stone, Howard A
2006-11-21
Recent experiments and simulations have demonstrated that particle-covered fluid/fluid interfaces can exist in stable nonspherical shapes as a result of the steric jamming of the interfacially trapped particles. The jamming confers the interface with solidlike properties. We provide an experimental and theoretical characterization of the mechanical properties of these armored objects, with attention given to the two-dimensional granular state of the interface. Small inhomogeneous stresses produce a plastic response, while homogeneous stresses produce a weak elastic response. Shear-driven particle-scale rearrangements explain the basic threshold needed to obtain the near-perfect plastic deformation that is observed. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous stress state of the interface is exhibited experimentally by using surfactants to destabilize the particles on the surface. Since the interfacially trapped particles retain their individual characteristics, armored interfaces can be recognized as a kind of composite material with distinct chemical, structural, and mechanical properties.
Wilson, James W; Ott, C Mark; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Pierson, Duane L; Nickerson, Cheryl A
2002-11-01
We have previously demonstrated that low-shear modeled microgravity (low-shear MMG) serves to enhance the virulence of a bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The Salmonella response to low-shear MMG involves a signaling pathway that we have termed the low-shear MMG stimulon, though the identities of the low-shear MMG stimulon genes and regulatory factors are not known. RpoS is the primary sigma factor required for the expression of genes that are induced upon exposure to different environmental-stress signals and is essential for virulence in mice. Since low-shear MMG induces a Salmonella acid stress response and enhances Salmonella virulence, we reasoned that RpoS would be a likely regulator of the Salmonella low-shear MMG response. Our results demonstrate that low-shear MMG provides cross-resistance to several environmental stresses in both wild-type and isogenic rpoS mutant strains. Growth under low-shear MMG decreased the generation time of both strains in minimal medium and increased the ability of both strains to survive in J774 macrophages. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found no evidence of induction of the RpoS regulon by low-shear MMG but did find that other genes were altered in expression under these conditions in both the wild-type and rpoS mutant strains. Our results indicate that, under the conditions of these studies, RpoS is not required for transmission of the signal that induces the low-shear MMG stimulon. Moreover, our studies also indicate that low-shear MMG can be added to a short list of growth conditions that can serve to preadapt an rpoS mutant for resistance to multiple environmental stresses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, James W.; Ott, C. Mark; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Pierson, Duane L.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.
2002-01-01
We have previously demonstrated that low-shear modeled microgravity (low-shear MMG) serves to enhance the virulence of a bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The Salmonella response to low-shear MMG involves a signaling pathway that we have termed the low-shear MMG stimulon, though the identities of the low-shear MMG stimulon genes and regulatory factors are not known. RpoS is the primary sigma factor required for the expression of genes that are induced upon exposure to different environmental-stress signals and is essential for virulence in mice. Since low-shear MMG induces a Salmonella acid stress response and enhances Salmonella virulence, we reasoned that RpoS would be a likely regulator of the Salmonella low-shear MMG response. Our results demonstrate that low-shear MMG provides cross-resistance to several environmental stresses in both wild-type and isogenic rpoS mutant strains. Growth under low-shear MMG decreased the generation time of both strains in minimal medium and increased the ability of both strains to survive in J774 macrophages. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found no evidence of induction of the RpoS regulon by low-shear MMG but did find that other genes were altered in expression under these conditions in both the wild-type and rpoS mutant strains. Our results indicate that, under the conditions of these studies, RpoS is not required for transmission of the signal that induces the low-shear MMG stimulon. Moreover, our studies also indicate that low-shear MMG can be added to a short list of growth conditions that can serve to preadapt an rpoS mutant for resistance to multiple environmental stresses.
Damping Models for Shear-Deformable Beam with Applications to Spacecraft Wiring Harness
2014-10-28
Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL /RVSV Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave., SE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Kirtland AFB, NM 87117...Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSV/Derek... AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2014-0189 AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2014-0189 DAMPING MODELS FOR SHEAR-DEFORMABLE BEAM WITH APPLICATIONS TO SPACECRAFT WIRING HARNESS
Physics-Based Multi-Scale Modeling of Shear Initiated Reactions in Energetic and Reactive Materials
2010-04-01
Physics-based Multi-scale Modeling of Shear Initiated Reactions in Energetic and Reactive Materials by John K. Brennan, Müge Fermen -Coker...Energetic and Reactive Materials John K. Brennan and Müge Fermen -Coker Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL and Linhbao Tran Shock...Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) John K. Brennan, Müge Fermen -Coker, and Linhbao Tran 5d
Physics-Based Multi-Scale Modeling of Shear Initiated Reactions in Energetic and Reactive Materials
2009-03-01
Phys. 1972, 5, 1921. 7. McQuarrie , D. A., Statistical Mechanics , Harper: New York, 1976. 8. Chase, M. W.; Davies, C. A.; Downey, J. R.; Frurip, D. J...munitions due to fragment impact. Present computational capabilities in continuum mechanics codes used by Army designers do not possess the capability to...into the continuum mechanics code CTH, and perform simulations for HEs and RMs. 2 Figure 1. Schematic of multi-scale shear initiation model. As
Van Epps, J Scott; Vorp, David A
2008-10-01
The biomechanical milieu of the coronary arteries is unique in that they experience mechanical deformations of twisting, bending, and stretching due to their tethering to the epicardial surface. Spatial variations in stresses caused by these deformations could account for the heterogeneity of atherosclerotic plaques within the coronary tree. The goal of this work was to utilize previously reported shear moduli to calculate a shear strain parameter for a Fung-type exponential model of the arterial wall and determine if this single constant can account for the observed behavior of arterial segments under torsion. A Fung-type exponential strain-energy function was adapted to include a torsional shear strain term. The material parameter for this term was determined from previously published data describing the relationship between shear modulus and circumferential stress and longitudinal stretch ratio. Values for the shear strain parameter were determined for three geometries representing the mean porcine left anterior descending coronary artery dimensions plus or minus one standard deviation. Finite element simulation of triaxial biomechanical testing was then used to validate the model. The mean value calculated for the shear strain parameter was 0.0759+/-0.0009 (N=3 geometries). In silico triaxial experiments demonstrated that the shear modulus is directly proportional to the applied pressure at a constant longitudinal stretch ratio and to the stretch ratio at a constant pressure. Shear moduli determined from these simulations showed excellent agreement to shear moduli reported in literature. Previously published models describing the torsional shear behavior of porcine coronary arteries require a total of six independent constants. We have reduced that description into a single parameter in a Fung-type exponential strain-energy model. This model will aid in the estimation of wall stress distributions of vascular segments undergoing torsion, as such information
Measurements of gap pressure and wall shear stress of a blood pump model.
Chua, L P; Akamatsu, T
2000-04-01
The centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller has shown its superiority as compared to other artificial hearts. However, there is still insufficient understanding of fluid mechanics related issues in the clearance gap. The design nature of the pump requires sufficient washout in the clearance between the impeller and stationary surfaces. As the gap is only 0.2 mm in width, it is very difficult to conduct measurements with present instrumentation. An enlarged model with 5:1 ratio of the pump has been designed and constructed according to specifications. Dimensionless gap pressure measurements of the model are very close to the prototype. The measurements of wall shear stress of the fluid flow in the clearance gap between the impeller face and inlet casing of a blood pump model were accomplished through hot-wire anemometry and rotating disk apparatus. Regions of relatively high and low shear stresses are identified. These correspond to spots where the likelihood of hemolysis and thrombus formation is high. With the use of dimensional analysis, it is found that the highest wall shear stress is equivalent to 146 Pa which is much lower than the threshold value of 400 Pa for hemolysis reported in the literature.
Shen, Hui-Shen
2010-06-01
Buckling and postbuckling analysis is presented for axially compressed microtubules (MTs) embedded in an elastic matrix of cytoplasm. The microtubule is modeled as a nonlocal shear deformable cylindrical shell which contains small scale effects. The surrounding elastic medium is modeled as a Pasternak foundation. The governing equations are based on higher order shear deformation shell theory with a von Kármán-Donnell-type of kinematic nonlinearity and include the extension-twist and flexural-twist couplings. The thermal effects are also included and the material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. The small scale parameter e (0) a is estimated by matching the buckling load from their vibrational behavior of MTs with the numerical results obtained from the nonlocal shear deformable shell model. The numerical results show that buckling load and postbuckling behavior of MTs are very sensitive to the small scale parameter e (0) a. The results reveal that the MTs under axial compressive loading condition have an unstable postbuckling path, and the lateral constraint has a significant effect on the postbuckling response of a microtubule when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large.
Shear wave prediction using committee fuzzy model constrained by lithofacies, Zagros basin, SW Iran
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiroodi, Sadjad Kazem; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Lashkaripour, Golamreza; Ghanadian, Mostafa
2017-02-01
The main purpose of this study is to introduce the geological controlling factors in improving an intelligence-based model to estimate shear wave velocity from seismic attributes. The proposed method includes three main steps in the framework of geological events in a complex sedimentary succession located in the Persian Gulf. First, the best attributes were selected from extracted seismic data. Second, these attributes were transformed into shear wave velocity using fuzzy inference systems (FIS) such as Sugeno's fuzzy inference (SFIS), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference (ANFIS) and optimized fuzzy inference (OFIS). Finally, a committee fuzzy machine (CFM) based on bat-inspired algorithm (BA) optimization was applied to combine previous predictions into an enhanced solution. In order to show the geological effect on improving the prediction, the main classes of predominate lithofacies in the reservoir of interest including shale, sand, and carbonate were selected and then the proposed algorithm was performed with and without lithofacies constraint. The results showed a good agreement between real and predicted shear wave velocity in the lithofacies-based model compared to the model without lithofacies especially in sand and carbonate.
Shapiro, A. )
1992-12-01
Vertically sheared airflow over semi-infinite barriers is investigated with a simple hydrodynamical model. The idealized flow is steady, two-dimensional, neutrally buoyant, and inviscid, bounded on the bottom by a semi-infinite impermeable barrier and on the top by a rigid tropopause lid. With attention further restricted to an exponentially decreasing wind shear, the equations of motion (Euler's equations) reduce, without approximation, to a modified Poisson equation for a pseudo streamfunction and a formula for the Exner function. The free parameters characterizing the model's environment are the tropopause height, the density scale height, the wind speed at ground level, and the wind speed at tropopause level. Additional parameters characterize the barrier geometry. Exact solutions of the equations of motion are obtained for semi-infinite plateau barriers and for a barrier qualitatively resembling the shallow density current associated with some thunderstorm outflows. These solutions are noteworthy in that the reduction of a certain nondimensional shear parameter (through negative values) results in greater vertical parcel displacements over the barrier despite a corresponding reduction in the vertical velocity. This steepening tendency culminates in overturning motions associated with both upstream and down-stream steering levels. In this latter case the low-level inflow impinging on the barrier participates in a mixed jump and overturning updraft reminiscent of updrafts simulated in numerical convective models. Conversely, for large values of the nondimensional shear parameter, parcels undergo small vertical parcel displacements over the barrier despite large vertical velocities. This latter behavior may account for the finding that strong convergence along the leading edge of storm outflows does not always trigger deep convection even in unstable environments.
Toward a pointwise turbulence model for wall-bounded and free shear flows
Goldberg, U.C. )
1994-03-01
A modified version of the Baldwin-Barth two-equation turbulence model is proposed, in which the near-wall function is based on the ratio of the large eddy and the Kolmogorov time scales. This results in a model applicable to both wall-bounded and free shear flows which, nevertheless, does not require explicit knowledge of local distance to walls, rendering it useful within both structured and unstructured computational frameworks for flow predictions involving complex geometries. The new model's predictive capability is demonstrated through a number of flow cases.
Recalibration of the Shear Stress Transport Model to Improve Calculation of Shock Separated Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.
2013-01-01
The Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST) k . turbulence model is one of the most widely used two-equation Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models for aerodynamic analyses. The model extends Menter s baseline (BSL) model to include a limiter that prevents the calculated turbulent shear stress from exceeding a prescribed fraction of the turbulent kinetic energy via a proportionality constant, a1, set to 0.31. Compared to other turbulence models, the SST model yields superior predictions of mild adverse pressure gradient flows including those with small separations. In shock - boundary layer interaction regions, the SST model produces separations that are too large while the BSL model is on the other extreme, predicting separations that are too small. In this paper, changing a1 to a value near 0.355 is shown to significantly improve predictions of shock separated flows. Several cases are examined computationally and experimental data is also considered to justify raising the value of a1 used for shock separated flows.
Buckling and postbuckling of radially loaded microtubules by nonlocal shear deformable shell model.
Shen, Hui-Shen
2010-05-21
This paper presents an investigation on the buckling and postbuckling of microtubules (MTs) subjected to a uniform external radial pressure in thermal environments. The microtubule is modeled as a nonlocal shear deformable cylindrical shell which contains small scale effects. The governing equations are based on higher order shear deformation shell theory with a von Kármán-Donnell-type of kinematic nonlinearity and include the extension-twist and flexural-twist couplings. The thermal effects are also included and the material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. A singular perturbation technique is employed to determine the buckling pressure and postbuckling equilibrium paths. The small scale parameter e(0)a is estimated by matching the buckling pressure of MTs measured from the experiments with the numerical results obtained from the nonlocal shear deformable shell model. The numerical results show that buckling pressure and postbuckling behavior of MTs are very sensitive to the small scale parameter e(0)a. The results reveal that the 13_3 microtubule has a stable postbuckling path, whereas the 13_2 microtubule has an unstable postbuckling behavior due to the presence of skew angles.
Rohrer, C A; Roesner, L A
2006-01-01
Hydrologic and hydraulic modeling in the USEPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) were used to examine the effectiveness of typical stormwater management practices in reducing the potential for stream erosion. Fifty-year continuous simulations were used to produce flow duration curves and stream erosion rates for a variety of critical shear stress values representative of both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. An excess shear stress erosion potential index was used to evaluate changes in erosion between undeveloped conditions of a 10 hectare watershed and four variations of post-development stormwater control. Evaluation of flow duration curves showed that when development takes place, the duration of mid- to low-range discharges increase significantly, especially when detention practices are applied. In channels with low entrainment thresholds for bed and bank materials, e.g. sands and highly erodible clays, the significant increase of the duration of mid- to low-range discharges results in erosion potential index values greater than two regardless of the detention practices used. Overcontrol detention resulted in erosion potential index values of less than one, indicating a loss of erosion potential for bed materials such as most gravels (d(s) > 6 mm) and resistant clays that have critical shear stress values greater than four Pa.
Large deviation statistics of non-equilibrium fluctuations in a sheared model-fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolai, Pritha; Simha, Aditi
2016-08-01
We analyse the statistics of the shear stress in a one dimensional model fluid, that exhibits a rich phase behaviour akin to real complex fluids under shear. We show that the energy flux satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen FT across all phases in the system. The theorem allows us to define an effective temperature which deviates considerably from the equilibrium temperature as the noise in the system increases. This deviation is negligible when the system size is small. The dependence of the effective temperature on the strain rate is phase-dependent. It doesn’t vary much at the phase boundaries. The effective temperature can also be determined from the large deviation function of the energy flux. The local strain rate statistics obeys the large deviation principle and satisfies a fluctuation relation. It does not exhibit a distinct kink near zero strain rate because of inertia of the rotors in our system.
Pulsatile flows and wall-shear stresses in models simulating normal and stenosed aortic arches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Rong Fung; Yang, Ten-Fang; Lan, Y.-K.
2010-03-01
Pulsatile aqueous glycerol solution flows in the models simulating normal and stenosed human aortic arches are measured by means of particle image velocimetry. Three transparent models were used: normal, 25% stenosed, and 50% stenosed aortic arches. The Womersley parameter, Dean number, and time-averaged Reynolds number are 17.31, 725, and 1,081, respectively. The Reynolds numbers based on the peak velocities of the normal, 25% stenosed, and 50% stenosed aortic arches are 2,484, 3,456, and 3,931, respectively. The study presents the temporal/spatial evolution processes of the flow pattern, velocity distribution, and wall-shear stress during the systolic and diastolic phases. It is found that the flow pattern evolving in the central plane of normal and stenosed aortic arches exhibits (1) a separation bubble around the inner arch, (2) a recirculation vortex around the outer arch wall upstream of the junction of the brachiocephalic artery, (3) an accelerated main stream around the outer arch wall near the junctions of the left carotid and the left subclavian arteries, and (4) the vortices around the entrances of the three main branches. The study identifies and discusses the reasons for the flow physics’ contribution to the formation of these features. The oscillating wall-shear stress distributions are closely related to the featured flow structures. On the outer wall of normal and slightly stenosed aortas, large wall-shear stresses appear in the regions upstream of the junction of the brachiocephalic artery as well as the corner near the junctions of the left carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. On the inner wall, the largest wall-shear stress appears in the region where the boundary layer separates.
Models for viscosity and shear localization in bubble-rich magmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vona, Alessandro; Ryan, Amy G.; Russell, James K.; Romano, Claudia
2016-09-01
Bubble content influences magma rheology and, thus, styles of volcanic eruption. Increasing magma vesicularity affects the bulk viscosity of the bubble-melt suspension and has the potential to promote non-Newtonian behavior in the form of shear localization or brittle failure. Here, we present a series of high temperature uniaxial deformation experiments designed to investigate the effect of bubbles on the magma bulk viscosity. The starting materials are cores of natural rhyolitic obsidian synthesized to have variable vesicularity (ϕ = 0- 66%). The foamed cores were deformed isothermally (T = 750 °C) at atmospheric conditions using a high-temperature uniaxial press under constant displacement rates (strain rates between 0.5- 1 ×10-4 s-1) and to total strains of 10-40%. The viscosity of the bubble-free melt (η0) was measured by micropenetration and parallel plate methods to establish a baseline for experiments on the vesicle rich cores. At the experimental conditions, rising vesicle content produces a marked decrease in bulk viscosity that is best described by a two-parameter empirical equation: log10 ηBulk =log10 η0 - 1.47[ ϕ / (1 - ϕ) ] 0.48. Our parameterization of the bubble-melt rheology is combined with Maxwell relaxation theory to map the potential onset of non-Newtonian behavior (shear localization) in magmas as a function of melt viscosity, vesicularity, and strain rate. For low degrees of strain (i.e. as in our study), the rheological properties of vesicular magmas under different flow types (pure vs. simple shear) are indistinguishable. For high strain or strain rates where simple and pure shear viscosity values may diverge, our model represents a maximum boundary condition. Vesicular magmas can behave as non-Newtonian fluids at lower strain rates than unvesiculated melts, thereby, promoting shear localization and (explosive or non-explosive) magma fragmentation. The extent of shear localization in magma influences outgassing efficiency
Nonlinear model calibration of a shear wall building using time and frequency data features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asgarieh, Eliyar; Moaveni, Babak; Barbosa, Andre R.; Chatzi, Eleni
2017-02-01
This paper investigates the effects of different factors on the performance of nonlinear model updating for a seven-story shear wall building model. The accuracy of calibrated models using different data features and modeling assumptions is studied by comparing the time and frequency responses of the models with the exact simulated ones. Simplified nonlinear finite element models of the shear wall building are calibrated so that the misfit between the considered response data features of the models and the structure is minimized. A refined FE model of the test structure, which was calibrated manually to match the shake table test data, is used instead of the real structure for this performance evaluation study. The simplified parsimonious FE models are composed of simple nonlinear beam-column fiber elements with nonlinearity infused in them by assigning generated hysteretic nonlinear material behaviors to uniaxial stress-strain relationship of the fibers. Four different types of data features and their combinations are used for model calibration: (1) time-varying instantaneous modal parameters, (2) displacement time histories, (3) acceleration time histories, and (4) dissipated hysteretic energy. It has been observed that the calibrated simplified FE models can accurately predict the nonlinear structural response in the absence of significant modeling errors. In the last part of this study, the physics-based models are further simplified for casting into state-space formulation and a real-time identification is performed using an Unscented Kalman filter. It has been shown that the performance of calibrated state-space models can be satisfactory when reasonable modeling assumptions are used.
Modeling of Wall-Bounded Complex Flows and Free Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.
1994-01-01
Various wall-bounded flows with complex geometries and free shear flows have been studied with a newly developed realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. The model development is based on the invariant theory in continuum mechanics. This theory enables us to formulate a general constitutive relation for the Reynolds stresses. Pope was the first to introduce this kind of constitutive relation to turbulence modeling. In our study, realizability is imposed on the truncated constitutive relation to determine the coefficients so that, unlike the standard k-E eddy viscosity model, the present model will not produce negative normal stresses in any situations of rapid distortion. The calculations based on the present model have shown an encouraging success in modeling complex turbulent flows.
Experimental Tests and FEM Model for SFRC Beams under Flexural and Shear Loads
Colajanni, Piero; Spinella, Nino; La Mendola, Lidia; Priolo, Salvatore
2008-07-08
The complete load-vs-displacement curves obtained by four-point-bending tests on Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) beams are predicted by using a nonlinear finite element code based on the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) and the Disturbed Stress Field Model (DSFM) suitably adapted for SFRC elements. The effect of fibers on the shear-flexure response is taken into account, mainly incorporating tensile stress-strain analytical relationship for SFRC. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the model for prediction of the behavior of the tested specimens reinforced with light amount of stirrups or with fibers only.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salehi Taleghani, Sara; Zamani Meymian, Mohammad Reza; Ameri, Mohsen
2016-10-01
In the present research, we report fabrication, experimental characterization and theoretical analysis of semi and full flexible dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) manufactured on the basis of bare and roughened stainless steel type 304 (SS304) substrates. The morphological, optical and electrical characterizations confirm the advantage of roughened SS304 over bare and even common transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). A significant enhancement of about 51% in power conversion efficiency is obtained for flexible device (5.51%) based on roughened SS304 substrate compared to the bare SS304. The effect of roughening the SS304 substrates on electrical transport characteristics is also investigated by means of numerical modeling with regard to metal-semiconductor and interfacial resistance arising from the metallic substrate and nanocrystalline semiconductor contact. The numerical modeling results provide a reliable theoretical backbone to be combined with experimental implications. It highlights the stronger effect of series resistance compared to schottky barrier in lowering the fill factor of the SS304-based DSSCs. The findings of the present study nominate roughened SS304 as a promising replacement for conventional DSSCs substrates as well as introducing a highly accurate modeling framework to design and diagnose treated metallic or non-metallic based DSSCs.
Turbulence modeling of free shear layers for high-performance aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sondak, Douglas L.
1993-01-01
The High Performance Aircraft (HPA) Grand Challenge of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program involves the computation of the flow over a high performance aircraft. A variety of free shear layers, including mixing layers over cavities, impinging jets, blown flaps, and exhaust plumes, may be encountered in such flowfields. Since these free shear layers are usually turbulent, appropriate turbulence models must be utilized in computations in order to accurately simulate these flow features. The HPCC program is relying heavily on parallel computers. A Navier-Stokes solver (POVERFLOW) utilizing the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model was developed and tested on a 128-node Intel iPSC/860. Algebraic turbulence models run very fast, and give good results for many flowfields. For complex flowfields such as those mentioned above, however, they are often inadequate. It was therefore deemed that a two-equation turbulence model will be required for the HPA computations. The k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model was implemented on the Intel iPSC/860. Both the Chien low-Reynolds-number model and a generalized wall-function formulation were included.
Prediction of wall shear-stress fluctuations in wall-modeled large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, George; Howland, Michael; Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Moin, Parviz
2016-11-01
Wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES) is emerging as a viable and affordable tool for predicting mean flow statistics in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers. Recently, we examined the performance of two RANS-based wall models in prediction of wall pressure and shear stress fluctuations which are important in flow/structure interaction problems. Whereas the pressure statistics were predicted with reasonable accuracy, the magnitude of wall shear stress fluctuations was severely underestimated. The present study expands on this finding to characterize in more detail the capabilities of wall models for predicting τw'. Predictions of several wall models in high Reynolds number channel flows (Reτ = 2000) will be presented. Additionally, a recent empirical inner-outer model for τw' is reconstructed using channel flow DNS database , and it is coupled to WMLES to assess its performance as a predictive model in LES. The majority of this work was carried out during the 16th biannual Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) summer program, 2016. George Park was partially supported through NASA under the Subsonic Fixed-Wing Program (Grant No. NNX11AI60A).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui; Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng
2013-12-01
Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brædstrup, C. F.; Egholm, D. L.; Ugelvig, S. V.; Pedersen, V. K.
2015-10-01
Shear stress at the base of glaciers controls basal sliding and is therefore immensely important for glacial erosion and landscape evolution in arctic and high-altitude areas. However, the inaccessible nature of glacial beds complicates empirical studies of basal shear stress, and little is therefore known of its spatial and temporal distribution. In this study we seek to improve our understanding of basal shear stress using a higher-order numerical ice model (iSOSIA). In order to test the validity of the higher-order model, we first compare the detailed distribution of basal shear stress in iSOSIA and in a three-dimensional full-Stokes model (Elmer/ICE). We find that iSOSIA and Elmer/ICE predict similar first-order stress and velocity patterns, and that differences are restricted to local variations over length-scales on the order of the grid resolution. In addition, we find that subglacial shear stress is relatively uniform and insensitive to suble changes in local topographic relief. Following these initial stress benchmark experiments, we use iSOSIA to investigate changes in basal shear stress as a result of landscape evolution by glacial erosion. The experiments with landscape evolution show that subglacial shear stress decreases as glacial erosion transforms preglacial V-shaped valleys into U-shaped troughs. These findings support the hypothesis that glacial erosion is most efficient in the early stages of glacial landscape development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brædstrup, C. F.; Egholm, D. L.; Ugelvig, S. V.; Pedersen, V. K.
2016-02-01
Shear stress at the base of glaciers exerts a significant control on basal sliding and hence also glacial erosion in arctic and high-altitude areas. However, the inaccessible nature of glacial beds complicates empirical studies of basal shear stress, and little is therefore known of its spatial and temporal distribution. In this study we seek to improve our understanding of basal shear stress using a higher-order numerical ice model (iSOSIA). In order to test the validity of the higher-order model, we first compare the detailed distribution of basal shear stress in iSOSIA and in a three-dimensional full-Stokes model (Elmer/Ice). We find that iSOSIA and Elmer/Ice predict similar first-order stress and velocity patterns, and that differences are restricted to local variations at length scales of the order of the grid resolution. In addition, we find that subglacial shear stress is relatively uniform and insensitive to subtle changes in local topographic relief. Following the initial comparison studies, we use iSOSIA to investigate changes in basal shear stress as a result of landscape evolution by glacial erosion. The experiments with landscape evolution show that subglacial shear stress decreases as glacial erosion transforms preglacial V-shaped valleys into U-shaped troughs. These findings support the hypothesis that glacial erosion is most efficient in the early stages of glacial landscape development.
Peng, Bei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yihua; Yang, Longxiang; Zhang, Guocheng; Liu, Yaling
2015-12-01
Nanoparticles are regarded as promising carriers for targeted drug delivery and imaging probes. A fundamental understanding of the dynamics of polymeric nanoparticle targeting to receptor-coated vascular surfaces is therefore of great importance to enhance the design of nanoparticles toward improving binding ability. Although the effects of particle size and shear flow on the binding of nanoparticles to a vessel wall have been studied at the particulate level, a computational model to investigate the details of the binding process at the molecular level has not been developed. In this research, dissipative particle dynamics simulations are used to study nanoparticles with diameters of several nanometers binding to receptors on vascular surfaces under shear flow. Interestingly, shear flow velocities ranging from 0 to 2000 s(-1) had no effect on the attachment process of nanoparticles very close to the capillary wall. Increased binding energy between the ligands and wall caused a corresponding linear increase in bonding ability. Our simulations also indicated that larger nanoparticles and those of rod shape with a higher aspect ratio have better binding ability than those of smaller size or rounder shape.
Effect of Shear Deformation and Continuity on Delamination Modelling with Plate Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaessgen, E. H.; Riddell, W. T.; Raju, I. S.
1998-01-01
The effects of several critical assumptions and parameters on the computation of strain energy release rates for delamination and debond configurations modeled with plate elements have been quantified. The method of calculation is based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), and models that model the upper and lower surface of the delamination or debond with two-dimensional (2D) plate elements rather than three-dimensional (3D) solid elements. The major advantages of the plate element modeling technique are a smaller model size and simpler geometric modeling. Specific issues that are discussed include: constraint of translational degrees of freedom, rotational degrees of freedom or both in the neighborhood of the crack tip; element order and assumed shear deformation; and continuity of material properties and section stiffness in the vicinity of the debond front, Where appropriate, the plate element analyses are compared with corresponding two-dimensional plane strain analyses.
KENT,MICHAEL S.; YIM,HYUN; MATHESON,AARON J.; COGDILL,C.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID
2000-03-02
The relationship between the nature and spatial distribution of fundamental interfacial interactions and fracture stress/fracture toughness of a glassy adhesive-inorganic solid joint is not understood. This relationship is important from the standpoint of designing interfacial chemistry sufficient to provide the level of mechanical strength required for a particular application. In addition, it is also important for understanding the effects of surface contamination. Different types of contamination, or different levels of contamination, likely impact joint strength in different ways. Furthermore, the relationship is also important from the standpoint of aging. If interfacial chemical bonds scission over time due to the presence of a contaminant such as water, or exposure to UV, etc, the relationship between joint strength/fracture toughness and interface strength is important for predicting reliability with time. A fundamental understanding of the relationship between joint strength and fundamental interfacial interactions will give insight into these issues.
Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl
2013-01-01
An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem. PMID:23729844
Second moment closure modeling for rotating stably stratified turbulent shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Minsuk
The general linear second moment closure (SMC) turbulence model is considered for flows subjected to buoyancy and rotation. Model response to external forces are analyzed with the aid of structural equilibrium analysis. A closed form equilibrium solution for the anisotropy tensor bij, dispersion tensor Kij, dimensionless scalar variance q2 /k(S/Stheta )2, and the ratio of mean to turbulent time scale epsilon/ Sk is obtained. The variable of particular interest to bifurcation analysis, epsilon/Sk is shown as a function of the parameters characterizing the body forces: O/S (the ratio of the rotation rate to the mean shear rate) for rotation and Rig (the gradient Richardson number) for buoyancy; it determines the bifurcation surface in the epsilon/Sk-O/S-Rig space. It is shown, with the use of the closed form solution, that the conventional general linear models do not have a real and stable equilibrium solution when rotational and buoyant forces of certain magnitudes are simultaneously imposed on the flow. When this occurs, time integration of the turbulence model results in a diverging solution. A new model is proposed that removes this unphysical behavior. It ensures the existence of stable, real solutions for all combinations of rotation and buoyancy. Further improvements to the model are made through bifurcation analysis. Model constants are adjusted such that the model's bifurcation characteristics are in agreement with the physically observed onset of turbulence stabilization due to stable stratification. Experimental data and numerical simulation results for stably stratified homogeneous shear flow suggest the critical gradient Richardson number of Ricrg = 0.25, and the new model is able to predict it correctly. In connection with the bifurcation analysis of SMC models, rapid distortion theory (RDT) of turbulence is applied to rotating, stably stratified shear flow to provide the stability characteristics of such flows. It is shown that the RDT predictions are
A global shear velocity model of the mantle from normal modes and surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
durand, S.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.; Lambotte, S.
2013-12-01
We present a new global shear wave velocity model of the mantle based on the inversion of all published normal mode splitting functions and the large surface wave dataset measured by Debayle & Ricard (2012). Normal mode splitting functions and surface wave phase velocity maps are sensitive to lateral heterogeneities of elastic parameters (Vs, Vp, xi, phi, eta) and density. We first only consider spheroidal modes and Rayleigh waves and restrict the inversion to Vs, Vp and the density. Although it is well known that Vs is the best resolved parameter, we also investigate whether our dataset allows to extract additional information on density and/or Vp. We check whether the determination of the shear wave velocity is affected by the a priori choice of the crustal model (CRUST2.0 or 3SMAC) or by neglecting/coupling poorly resolved parameters. We include the major discontinuities, at 400 and 670 km. Vertical smoothing is imposed through an a priori gaussian covariance matrix on the model and we discuss the effect of coupling/decoupling the inverted structure above and below the discontinuities. We finally discuss the large scale structure of our model and its geodynamical implications regarding the amount of mass exchange between the upper and lower mantle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, David
2011-01-01
Models of the photospheric flows due to supergranulation are generated using an evolving spectrum of vector spherical harmonics up to spherical harmonic wavenumber l1500. Doppler velocity data generated from these models are compared to direct Doppler observations from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. The models are adjusted to match the observed spatial power spectrum as well as the wavenumber dependence of the cell lifetimes, differential rotation velocities, meridional flow velocities, and relative strength of radial vs. horizontal flows. The equatorial rotation rate as a function of wavelength matches the rotation rate as a function of depth as determined by global helioseismology. This leads to the conclusions that the cellular structures are anchored at depths equal to their widths, that the surface shear layer extends to at least 70 degrees latitude, and that the poleward meridional flow decreases in amplitude and reverses direction at the base of the surface shear layer (approx.35 Mm below the surface). Using the modeled flows to passively transport magnetic flux indicates that the observed differential rotation and meridional flow of the magnetic elements are directly related to the differential rotation and meridional flow of the convective pattern itself. The magnetic elements are transported by the evolving boundaries of the supergranule pattern (where the convective flows converge) and are unaffected by the weaker flows associated with the differential rotation or meridional flow of the photospheric plasma.
A model for the excitation of osteocytes by mechanical loading-induced bone fluid shear stresses.
Weinbaum, S; Cowin, S C; Zeng, Y
1994-03-01
A new experimentally testable hypothesis is advanced for the mechanosensory transduction mechanism by which communicating osteocytes sense the very small in vivo strains in the calcified matrix components of bone. We propose that the osteocytes, although not responsive to substantial fluid pressures, can be stimulated by relatively small fluid shear stresses acting on the membranes of their osteocytic processes. Biot's porous media theory is used to relate the combined axial and bending loads applied to a whole bone to the flow past the osteocytic processes in their canaliculi. In this theory, the bone pores of interest are the proteoglycan filled fluid annuli that surround the osteocytic processes in the canaliculi. We show that previously predicted fluid pore pressure relaxation times were a hundred-fold too short for the lacunar-canalicular porosity because they neglected the fluid drag associated with proteoglycan matrix on the surface membrane of the osteocyte and its cell processes. The recent theory developed in Tsay and Weinbaum [J. Fluid Mech. 226, 125-148 (1991)] for flow through cross-linked fiber filled channels is used to model the flow through this proteoglycan matrix. The predicted pore relaxation time, 1-2 s, closely corresponds to the times measured by Salzstein and Pollack [J. Biomechanics 20, 271-280 (1987)]. Furthermore, using this model, the magnitude of the predicted fluid induced shear stresses, 8-30 dyn cm-2, is shown to be similar to the fluid shear stresses measured in osteoblasts and other cells in which an intracellular Ca2+ shear stress response had been observed. This model is also used, in conjunction with anatomical data and the pore fluid pressure relaxation time data, to show that the spacing between the fibers is approximately 7 nm. The result is consistent with the notion that the canalicular pore space is filled with glycosaminoglycans that are ordered by albumin according to the model of Michel [J. Physiol. 404, 1-29 (1988
Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Lagroix, F.; Thomason, J.F.
2008-01-01
Wet-based portions of ice sheets may move primarily by shearing their till beds, resting in high sediment fluxes and the development of subglacial landforms. This model of glacier movement, which requires high bed shear strains, can be tested using till microstructural characteristics that evolve during till deformation. Here we examine the development of magnetic fabric using a ring shear device to defom two Wisconsin-age basal tills to shear strains as high as 70. Hysteresis experiments and the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of these tills on temperature demonstrate that anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) develops during shear due to the rotation of primarily magnetite particles that are silt sized or smaller. At moderate shear strains (???6-25), principal axes of maximum magnetic susceptibility develop a strong fabric (S1 eignevalues of 0.83-0.96), without further strengthening at higher strains, During deformation, directions of maximum susceptibility cluster strongly in the direction of shear and plunge 'up-glacier,' consistent with the behavior of pebbles and sand particles studied in earlier experiments. In contrast, the magnitude of AMS does not vary systematically with strain and is small relative to its variability among samples; this is because most magnetite grains are contained as inclusions in larger particles and hence do not align during shear. Although processes other than pervasive bed deformation may result in strong flow parallel fabrics, AMS fabrics provide a rapid and objective means of identifying basal tills that have not been sheared sufficiently to be compatible with the bed deformation model. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
Cao, Xuan; van Oosten, Anne; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Janmey, Paul A.; Wells, Rebecca G.
2016-01-01
Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G’ and G” and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver. PMID:26735954
The Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment - Interfacial Flow Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kundan, Akshay; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Plawsky, Joel L.
2015-01-01
Internal heat transfer coefficient of the CVB correlated to the presence of the interfacial flow region. Competition between capillary and Marangoni flow caused Flooding and not a Dry-out region. Interfacial flow region growth is arrested at higher power inputs. 1D heat model confirms the presence of interfacial flow region. 1D heat model confirms the arresting phenomena of interfacial flow region Visual observations are essential to understanding.
Material Models to Study the Bauschinger Effect on an Aluminum Shear Test Specimen
Cardoso, Rui P. R.; Gracio, Jose J.; Yoon, Jeong-Whan
2007-05-17
Sheet metal forming processes generally involve complex loadings and nonlinear material models. Combinations of drawing, re-drawing and/or reverse drawing operations commonly induce cyclic loads with non-proportional strain paths, leading to Bauschinger effects that can not be predicted by conventional isotropic hardening laws. In order to properly represent this effect, it is also required to accommodate an appropriate kinematic hardening model along with an anisotropic yield function. In this work, two different approaches will be used to predict the Bauschinger effect for an Aluminum shear test specimen: the rate dependent crystal plasticity model and a new combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model based on the two yield surfaces approach (loading and boundary yield surfaces), as recently proposed.
Chan, R W; Titze, I R
2000-01-01
The viscoelastic shear properties of human vocal fold mucosa (cover) were previously measured as a function of frequency [Chan and Titze, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 2008-2021 (1999)], but data were obtained only in a frequency range of 0.01-15 Hz, an order of magnitude below typical frequencies of vocal fold oscillation (on the order of 100 Hz). This study represents an attempt to extrapolate the data to higher frequencies based on two viscoelastic theories, (1) a quasilinear viscoelastic theory widely used for the constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic properties of biological tissues [Fung, Biomechanics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), pp. 277-292], and (2) a molecular (statistical network) theory commonly used for the rheological modeling of polymeric materials [Zhu et al., J. Biomech. 24, 1007-1018 (1991)]. Analytical expressions of elastic and viscous shear moduli, dynamic viscosity, and damping ratio based on the two theories with specific model parameters were applied to curve-fit the empirical data. Results showed that the theoretical predictions matched the empirical data reasonably well, allowing for parametric descriptions of the data and their extrapolations to frequencies of phonation.
Micromechanical study of concrete materials with interfacial transition zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambheera, Ramesh
This thesis describes analytical and finite element micromechanical studies for investigating the mechanical behavior of concrete materials. A concrete material is treated as a three phase composite consisting of aggregate, bulk paste and an interfacial transition zone around the aggregate. Experimental work on the microstructure of concrete has demonstrated the existence of interfacial transition zone and that this is the weakest link in the composite system of concrete material. Hence, the main focus of this thesis is to understand the role of the interfacial transition zone on the overall mechanical behavior of concrete materials. A four phase composite model consisting of aggregate, ITZ, bulk paste and an equivalent homogeneous medium is proposed to represent the concrete material. Analytical solutions are derived for the overall elastic moduli of the four phase composite model. The effects of volume fraction and the elastic moduli of the transition zone on the overall elastic moduli are investigated. The results obtained using the analytical model are in good agreement with those obtained from experiments. Analytical stress solutions are also derived for the four phase composite model subjected to uniaxial compression in two and three dimensions. The stress concentration and the tensile stress development in the interfacial transition zone are investigated. The effect of imperfect shear interfacial bond on the overall elastic moduli and on the stresses in the transition zone is also investigated. Basic concepts of damage mechanics are applied to model the damage in the transition zone. The effect of local damage in the transition zone on the overall damage in a concrete material is illustrated. For the specific case of uniaxial compression, the pre-peak stress-strain curves are generated. Computational analysis of micromechanical models of concrete materials requires efficient finite elements. This thesis proposes the use of hybrid finite elements for the
A simple lattice model for the effect of voids on slip avalanches in sheared granular materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahmen, K.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Uhl, J. T.
2009-12-01
It is well known that densely packed granular materials respond to slow shear with slip avalanches. Experiments and simulations show that the avalanche statistics depend strongly on the granular volume fraction v and grain shape related properties [1]. Previous studies have focused on force chain properties [2-6]. Here we use a mean field technique to construct an analytic model of the universal (i.e. detail-independent) slip avalanche statistics. For large v, and small frictional weakening ɛ, the model predicts solid-like behavior, with power-law avalanche size distributions and universal exponents and scaling functions. For large v and large ɛ it predicts mode switching between stick slip behavior and power law avalanche size distributions. For small v it predicts fluid-like flow. The results are presented in a (v, ɛ) phase diagram. They agree with published experiments [6-10] and simulations [2-4]. They complement recent studies on static properties, such as the shear modulus as a function of v near the jamming transition [2-4,7-10]. References: [1] V. Frette et al., “Avalanche Dynamics in a Pile of Rice”, Nature 379, 49-52 (1996). [2] E. Aharonov and D. Sparks, “Rigidity phase transition in granular packings”, Phys. Rev E, 60, 6890-6896 (1999). [3] E. Aharonov and D. Sparks, “Stick-slip motion in simulated granular layers”, J. Geophys. Res, 109, B09306 (2004). [4] E. Aharonov and D. Sparks, “Shear profiles and localization in simulations of granular materials”, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051302/1-12 (2002). [5] M.E. Cates, J.P. Wittmer, J.-P. Bouchaud, and P. Claudin, “Jamming, Force Chains, and Fragile Matter”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 1841 (1998) and references therein. [6
Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solano Canchaya, José G.; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice
2016-08-01
A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve.
Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties.
Solano Canchaya, José G; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice
2016-08-07
A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve.
Khanafer, Khalil M; Bull, Joseph L; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Berguer, Ramon
2007-01-01
The numerical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in use do not take into account the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the development of local turbulence. This study examines the influence of pulsatile, turbulent, non-Newtonian flow on fluid shear stresses and pressure changes under rest and exercise conditions. We numerically analyzed pulsatile turbulent flow, using simulated physiological rest and exercise waveforms, in axisymmetric-rigid aortic aneurysm models (AAMs). Discretization of governing equations was achieved using a finite element scheme. Maximum turbulence-induced shear stress was found at the distal end of an AAM. In large AAMs (dilated to undilated diameter ratio = 3.33) at peak systolic flow velocity, fluid shear stress during exercise is 70.4% higher than at rest. Our study provides a numerical, noninvasive method for obtaining detailed data on the forces generated by pulsatile turbulent flow in AAAs that are difficult to study in humans and in physical models. Our data suggest that increased flow turbulence results in increased shear stress in aneurysms. While pressure readings are fairly uniform along the length of an aneurysm, the kinetic energy generated by turbulence impacting on the wall of the distal half of the aneurysm increases fluid and wall shear stress at this site. If the increased fluid shear stress results in further dilation and hence further turbulence, wall stress may be a mechanism for aneurysmal growth and eventual rupture.
Turbulence Modeling Effects on the Prediction of Equilibrium States of Buoyant Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, C. Y.; So, R. M. C.; Gatski, T. B.
2001-01-01
The effects of turbulence modeling on the prediction of equilibrium states of turbulent buoyant shear flows were investigated. The velocity field models used include a two-equation closure, a Reynolds-stress closure assuming two different pressure-strain models and three different dissipation rate tensor models. As for the thermal field closure models, two different pressure-scrambling models and nine different temperature variance dissipation rate, Epsilon(0) equations were considered. The emphasis of this paper is focused on the effects of the Epsilon(0)-equation, of the dissipation rate models, of the pressure-strain models and of the pressure-scrambling models on the prediction of the approach to equilibrium turbulence. Equilibrium turbulence is defined by the time rate (if change of the scaled Reynolds stress anisotropic tensor and heat flux vector becoming zero. These conditions lead to the equilibrium state parameters. Calculations show that the Epsilon(0)-equation has a significant effect on the prediction of the approach to equilibrium turbulence. For a particular Epsilon(0)-equation, all velocity closure models considered give an equilibrium state if anisotropic dissipation is accounted for in one form or another in the dissipation rate tensor or in the Epsilon(0)-equation. It is further found that the models considered for the pressure-strain tensor and the pressure-scrambling vector have little or no effect on the prediction of the approach to equilibrium turbulence.
Bifurcation and stability in a model of moist convection in a shearing environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirer, H. N.
1980-01-01
The truncated spectral system (model I) of shallow moist two-dimensional convection discussed by Shirer and Dutton (1979) is expanded to eleven coefficients (model II) in order to include a basic wind. Cloud streets, the atmospheric analog of the solutions to model II, are typically observed in an environment containing a shearing basic motion field. Analysis of the branching behavior of solutions to mode II shows that, if the basic wind direction varies with height, very complex temporal behavior is possible as the modified Rayleigh number HR is increased sufficiently. The first convective solution is periodic, corresponding to a cloud band that propagates downwind; but secondary branching to a two-dimensional torus can occur for larger values of HR. Orientation band formulas are derived whose predictions generally agree with the results of previous studies.
A multiphase interfacial model for the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jerden, James L.; Frey, Kurt; Ebert, William
2015-07-01
The Fuel Matrix Dissolution Model (FMDM) is an electrochemical reaction/diffusion model for the dissolution of spent uranium oxide fuel. The model was developed to provide radionuclide source terms for use in performance assessment calculations for various types of geologic repositories. It is based on mixed potential theory and consists of a two-phase fuel surface made up of UO2 and a noble metal bearing fission product phase in contact with groundwater. The corrosion potential at the surface of the dissolving fuel is calculated by balancing cathodic and anodic reactions occurring at the solution interfaces with UO2 and NMP surfaces. Dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis of the groundwater are the major oxidizing agents that promote fuel dissolution. Several reactions occurring on noble metal alloy surfaces are electrically coupled to the UO2 and can catalyze or inhibit oxidative dissolution of the fuel. The most important of these is the oxidation of hydrogen, which counteracts the effects of oxidants (primarily H2O2 and O2). Inclusion of this reaction greatly decreases the oxidation of U(IV) and slows fuel dissolution significantly. In addition to radiolytic hydrogen, large quantities of hydrogen can be produced by the anoxic corrosion of steel structures within and near the fuel waste package. The model accurately predicts key experimental trends seen in literature data, the most important being the dramatic depression of the fuel dissolution rate by the presence of dissolved hydrogen at even relatively low concentrations (e.g., less than 1 mM). This hydrogen effect counteracts oxidation reactions and can limit fuel degradation to chemical dissolution, which results in radionuclide source term values that are four or five orders of magnitude lower than when oxidative dissolution processes are operative. This paper presents the scientific basis of the model, the approach for modeling used fuel in a disposal system, and preliminary
Formation of molten metal films during metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, Nai-Shang; Okada, Makoto; Prakash, Vikas
2004-09-01
The present paper describes results of plate-impact pressure-shear friction experiments conducted to study time-resolved growth of molten metal films during dry metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. By employing tribo-pairs comprising hard tool-steel against relatively low melt-point metals such as 7075-T6 aluminum alloys, interfacial friction stress ranging from 100 to 400 MPa and slip speeds of approximately 100 m/ s have been generated. These relatively high levels of friction stress combined with high slip-speeds generate conditions conducive for interfacial temperatures to approach the melting point of the lower melt point metal (Al alloy) comprising the tribo-pair. A Lagrangian finite element code is developed to understand the evolution of the thermo-mechanical fields and their relationship to the observed slip response. The code accounts for dynamic effects, heat conduction, contact with friction, and full thermo-mechanical coupling. At temperatures below the melting point the material is described as an isotropic thermally softening elastic-viscoplastic solid. For material elements with temperatures in excess of the melt point a purely Newtonian fluid constitutive model is employed. The results of the hybrid experimental-computational study provides new insights into the thermoelastic-plastic interactions during high speed metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. During the early part of frictional slip the coefficient of kinetic friction is observed to decrease with increasing slip velocity. During the later part transition in interfacial slip occurs from dry metal-on-metal sliding to the formation of molten Al films at the tribo-pair interface. Under these conditions the interfacial resistance approaches the shear strength of the molten aluminum alloy under normal pressures of approximately 1- 3 GPa and shear strain rates of ˜10 7 s-1. The results of the study indicate that under these extreme conditions molten
Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system.
Rycroft, Chris H; Orpe, Ashish V; Kudrolli, Arshad
2009-09-01
We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity-driven sheared granular flow with a discrete-element simulation performed in the same geometry. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross section and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index-matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The simulations use a Cundall-Strack contact model between the grains using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. We then perform a detailed comparison of the particle fluctuation properties as measured by the displacement probability distribution function and the mean square displacement. All in all, our study suggests a high level of quantitative agreement between the simulations and experiments.
A Fractal Model for the Shear Behaviour of Large-Scale Opened Rock Joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Oh, J.; Mitra, R.; Canbulat, I.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a joint constitutive model that represents the shear behaviour of a large-scale opened rock joint. Evaluation of the degree of opening is made by considering the ratio between the joint wall aperture and the joint amplitude. Scale dependence of the surface roughness is investigated by approximating a natural joint profile to a fractal curve patterned in self-affinity. Developed scaling laws show the slopes of critical waviness and critical unevenness tend to flatten with increased sampling length. Geometrical examination of four 400-mm joint profiles agrees well with the suggested formulations involving multi-order asperities and fractal descriptors. Additionally, a fractal-based formulation is proposed to estimate the peak shear displacements of rock joints at varying scales, which shows a good correlation with experimental data taken from the literature. Parameters involved in the constitutive law can be acquired by inspecting roughness features of sampled rock joints. Thus, the model can be implemented in numerical software for the stability analysis of the rock mass with opened joints.
Equivalent Plate Structural Modeling for Wing Shape Optimization Including Transverse Shear
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Livne, Eli
1994-01-01
A new technique for structural modeling of airplane wings is presented taking transverse shear effects into account. The kinematic assumptions of first-order shear deformation plate theory In combination with numerical analysis, where simple polynomials are used to define geometry, construction, and displacement approximations, lead to analytical expressions for elements of the stiffness and mass matrices and load vector. Contributions from the cover skins, spar and rib caps, and spar and rib webs are included as well as concentrated springs and concentrated masses. Limitations of wing modeling techniques based on classical plate theory are discussed, and the Improved accuracy of the new equivalent plate technique is demonstrated through comparison with finite element analysis and test results. Expressions for analytical derivatives of stiffness, mass, and load terms with respect to wing shape are given. Based on these, it is possible to obtain analytic sensitivities of displacements, stresses, and natural frequencies with respect to planform shape and depth distribution. This makes the new capability an effective structural tool for wing shape optimization.
Equivalent plate structural modeling for wing shape optimization including transverse shear
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Livne, Eli
1994-01-01
A new technique for structural modeling of airplanes wings is presented taking transverse shear effects into account. The kinematic assumptions of first-order shear deformation plate theory in combination with numerical analysis, where simple polynomials are used to define geometry, construction, and displacement approximations, lead to analytical expressions for elements of the stiffness and mass matrices and load vector. Contributions from the cover skins, spar and rib caps, and spar and rib webs are included as well as concentrated springs and concentrated masses. Limitations of wing modeling techniques based on classical plate theory are discussed, and the improved accuracy of the new equivalent plate technique is demonstrated through comparison with finite element analysis and test results. Expressions for analytical derivatives of stiffness, mass, and load terms with respect to wing shape are given. Based on these, it is possible to obtain analytic sensitivities of displacements, stresses, and natural frequencies with respect to planform shape and depth distribution. This makes the new capability an effective structural tool for wing shape optimization.
The application of low shear modeled microgravity to 3-D cell biology and tissue engineering.
Navran, Stephen
2008-01-01
The practice of cell culture has been virtually unchanged for 100 years. Until recently, life scientists have had to content themselves with two-dimensional cell culture technology. Clearly, living creatures are not constructed in two dimensions and thus it has become widely recognized that in vitro culture systems must become three dimensional to correctly model in vivo biology. Attempts to modify conventional 2-D culture technology to accommodate 3-D cell growth such as embedding cells in extracellular matrix have demonstrated the superiority of concept. Nevertheless, there are serious drawbacks to this approach including limited mass transport and lack of scalability. Recently, a new cell culture technology developed at NASA to study the effects of microgravity on cells has emerged to solve many of the problems of 3-D cell culture. The technology, the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) is a single axis clinostat consisting of a fluid-filled, cylindrical, horizontally rotating culture vessel. Cells placed in this environment are suspended by the resolution of the gravitational, centrifugal and Coriolis forces with extremely low mechanical shear. These conditions, which have been called "low shear modeled microgravity", enable cells to assemble into tissue-like aggregates with high mass transport of nutrients, oxygen and wastes. Examples of the use of the RWV for basic cell biology research and tissue engineering applications are discussed.
Kroupa, Martin; Vonka, Michal; Soos, Miroslav; Kosek, Juraj
2015-07-21
The coagulation process has a dramatic impact on the properties of dispersions of colloidal particles including the change of optical, rheological, as well as texture properties. We model the behavior of a colloidal dispersion with moderate particle volume fraction, that is, 5 wt %, subjected to high shear rates employing the time-dependent Discrete Element Method (DEM) in three spatial dimensions. The Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory was used to model noncontact interparticle interactions, while contact mechanics was described by the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory of adhesion. The obtained results demonstrate that the steady-state size of the produced clusters is a strong function of the applied shear rate, primary particle size, and the surface energy of the particles. Furthermore, it was found that the cluster size is determined by the maximum adhesion force between the primary particles and not the adhesion energy. This observation is in agreement with several simulation studies and is valid for the case when the particle-particle contact is elastic and no plastic deformation occurs. These results are of major importance, especially for the emulsion polymerization process, during which the fouling of reactors and piping causes significant financial losses.
Nonlinear modeling and testing of magneto-rheological fluids in low shear rate squeezing flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farjoud, Alireza; Ahmadian, Mehdi; Mahmoodi, Nima; Zhang, Xinjie; Craft, Michael
2011-08-01
A novel analytical investigation of magneto-rheological (MR) fluids in squeezing flows is performed and the results are validated with experimental test data. The squeeze flow of MR fluids has recently been of great interest to researchers. This is due to the large force capacity of MR fluids in squeeze mode compared to other modes (valve and shear modes), which makes the squeeze mode appropriate for a wide variety of applications such as impact dampers and engine mounts. Tested MR fluids were capable of providing a large range of controllable force along a short stroke in squeeze mode. A mathematical model was developed using perturbation techniques to predict closed-form solutions for velocity field, shear rate distribution, pressure distribution and squeeze force. Therefore, the obtained solutions greatly help with the design process of intelligent devices that use MR fluids in squeeze mode. The mathematical model also reduces the need for complicated and computationally expensive numerical simulations. The analytical results are validated by performing experimental tests on a novel MR device called an 'MR pouch' in an MR squeeze mode rheometer, both designed and built at CVeSS.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Hammond, Timothy; Allen, Pat; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.
2002-01-01
The low-shear environment of optimized rotation suspension culture allows both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells to assume physiologically relevant phenotypes that have led to significant advances in fundamental investigations of medical and biological importance. This culture environment has also been used to model microgravity for ground-based studies regarding the impact of space flight on eukaryotic and prokaryotic physiology. We have previously demonstrated that low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) under optimized rotation suspension culture is a novel environmental signal that regulates the virulence, stress resistance, and protein expression levels of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. However, the mechanisms used by the cells of any species, including Salmonella, to sense and respond to LSMMG and identities of the genes involved are unknown. In this study, we used DNA microarrays to elucidate the global transcriptional response of Salmonella to LSMMG. When compared with identical growth conditions under normal gravity (1 x g), LSMMG differentially regulated the expression of 163 genes distributed throughout the chromosome, representing functionally diverse groups including transcriptional regulators, virulence factors, lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes, iron-utilization enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. Many of the LSMMG-regulated genes were organized in clusters or operons. The microarray results were further validated by RT-PCR and phenotypic analyses, and they indicate that the ferric uptake regulator is involved in the LSMMG response. The results provide important insight about the Salmonella LSMMG response and could provide clues for the functioning of known Salmonella virulence systems or the identification of uncharacterized bacterial virulence strategies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.
2016-07-01
The aim of this article is to develop a robust macroscopic bi-axial model to capture self-accommodation, martensitic transformation/orientation/reorientation, normal-shear deformation coupling and asymmetric/anisotropic strain generation in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. By considering the volume fraction of martensite and its preferred direction as scalar and directional internal variables, constitutive relations are derived to describe basic mechanisms of accommodation, transformation and orientation/reorientation of martensite variants. A new definition is introduced for maximum recoverable strain, which allows the model to capture the effects of tension-compression asymmetry and transformation anisotropy. Furthermore, the coupling effects between normal and shear deformation modes are considered by merging inelastic strain components together. By introducing a calibration approach, material and kinetic parameters of the model are recast in terms of common quantities that characterize a uniaxial phase kinetic diagram. The solution algorithm of the model is presented based on an elastic-predictor inelastic-corrector return mapping process. In order to explore and demonstrate capabilities of the proposed model, theoretical predictions are first compared with existing experimental results on uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and combined tension-torsion tests. Afterwards, experimental results of uniaxial tension, compression, pure bending and buckling tests on {{NiTi}} rods and tubes are replicated by implementing a finite element method along with the Newton-Raphson and Riks techniques to trace non-linear equilibrium path. A good qualitative and quantitative correlation is observed between numerical and experimental results, which verifies the accuracy of the model and the solution procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Xia; Qi, Haiyang; Tao, Ye; Kikkawa, Takamaro
2016-12-01
The cohesive zone model being increasingly used in discrete fracture processes simulation is adopted to study the interfacial adhesion property of low dielectric constant film deposited on the silicon substrate in this work. The two parameters, maximum normal traction and normal interface characteristic length in cohesive zone model, are taken into account to calculate the theoretical surface acoustic wave dispersion curves. Broadband surface acoustic wave signals with effective frequency up to 200 MHz are generated by short pulse ultraviolet laser source and detected by a piezoelectric transducer. The interfacial adhesion properties of dense and porous films determined accurately by matching the experimental dispersion curves with the calculated theoretical dispersion curves are 10.7 PPa/m and 2.8 PPa/m, respectively. The results show that the adhesion quality of dense low dielectric constant film is better than that of the porous. The study exhibits that the adhesion properties determined by improved laser-generated surface acoustic wave technique have the same trends with the test results of the nanoscratch technique, which indicates that the surface acoustic wave technique with cohesive zone model is a promising and nondestructive method for determining interfacial adhesion properties between low dielectric constant film and substrate.
Chan, M.; Yen, T.F.
1980-11-01
A chemical equilibrium model for interfacial activity of crude in aqueous alkaline solution is proposed. The model predicts the observed effects of pH and concentrations of alkali and salt on the interfacial tension (IFT). The model proposed was shown to describe the observed effects of acid content, pH, and sodium ions on the interfacial activity of crude oil in water. Once the pH of the interface reaches the pKa of the acids, sometimes with the help of addition of some salt, the IFT experiences a sudden steep drop to the range of 10/sup -2/ dynes/cm. After that, further addition of sodium either in the form of NaOH or NaCl is going to increase the IFT due to a shift of equilibriumn to the formation of undissociated soap. This was confirmed by the difference in the observed effect of sodium on the IFT of the extracted soap molecules which are dissociated easily and those which are associated highly and precipitated easily. These soap molecules have dissociation constant values ranging from below 10/sup -2/ to above one. 13 references.
Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations
Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, Kideok D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.
2014-07-12
Describing the reactions that occur at the glass-water interface and control the development of the altered layer constitutes one of the main scientific challenges impeding existing models from providing accurate radionuclide release estimates. Radionuclide release estimates are a critical component of the safety basis for geologic repositories. The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products) represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most interface. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include geochemical simulations [i.e., classical reaction path simulations and glass reactivity in allowance for alteration layer (GRAAL) simulations], Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Finally, in this manuscript, we discuss the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass-water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers.
Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations
Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; ...
2014-07-12
Describing the reactions that occur at the glass-water interface and control the development of the altered layer constitutes one of the main scientific challenges impeding existing models from providing accurate radionuclide release estimates. Radionuclide release estimates are a critical component of the safety basis for geologic repositories. The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products) represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most interface. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed tomore » improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include geochemical simulations [i.e., classical reaction path simulations and glass reactivity in allowance for alteration layer (GRAAL) simulations], Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Finally, in this manuscript, we discuss the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass-water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardoen, Benoît; Levasseur, Séverine; Collin, Frédéric
2015-03-01
The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this zone remains a major issue, especially in the context of underground nuclear waste storage. Experimental studies on geomaterials indicate that localised deformation in shear band mode usually appears prior to fractures. Thus, the excavation damaged zone can be modelled by considering the development of shear strain localisation bands. In the classical finite element framework, strain localisation suffers a mesh-dependency problem. Therefore, an enhanced model with a regularisation method is required to correctly model the strain localisation behaviour. Among the existing methods, we choose the coupled local second gradient model. We extend it to unsaturated conditions and we include the solid grain compressibility. Furthermore, air ventilation inside underground galleries engenders a rock-atmosphere interaction that could influence the damaged zone. This interaction has to be investigated in order to predict the damaged zone behaviour. Finally, a hydro-mechanical modelling of a gallery excavation in claystone is presented and leads to a fairly good representation of the EDZ. The main objectives of this study are to model the fractures by considering shear strain localisation bands, and to investigate if an isotropic model accurately reproduces the in situ measurements. The numerical results provide information about the damaged zone extension, structure and behaviour that are in very good agreement with in situ measurements and observations. For instance, the strain localisation bands that develop in chevron pattern during the excavation and rock desaturation, due to air ventilation, are observed close to the gallery.
Anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the Earth's mantle: A global model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kustowski, B.; EkströM, G.; DziewońSki, A. M.
2008-06-01
We combine a new, large data set of surface wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body wave travel times to construct a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modeling approach is improved and more comprehensive compared to our earlier studies and involves the development and implementation of a new spherically symmetric reference model, simultaneous inversion for velocity and anisotropy, as well as discontinuity topographies, and implementation of nonlinear crustal corrections for waveforms. A comparison of our new three-dimensional model, S362ANI, with two other models derived from comparable data sets but using different techniques reveals persistent features: (1) strong, ˜200-km-thick, high-velocity anomalies beneath cratons, likely representing the continental lithosphere, underlain by weaker, fast anomalies extending below 250 km, which may represent continental roots, (2) weak velocity heterogeneity between 250 and 400 km depths, (3) fast anomalies extending horizontally up to 2000-3000 km in the mantle transition zone beneath subduction zones, (4) lack of strong long-wavelength heterogeneity below 650 km suggesting inhibiting character of the upper mantle-lower mantle boundary, and (5) slow-velocity superplumes beneath the Pacific and Africa. The shear wave radial anisotropy is strongest at 120 km depth, in particular beneath the central Pacific. Lateral anisotropic variations appreciably improve the fit to data that are predominantly sensitive to the uppermost and lowermost mantle but not to the waveforms that control the transition zone and midmantle depths. Tradeoffs between lateral variations in velocity and anisotropy are negligible in the uppermost mantle but noticeable at the bottom of the mantle.
Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations
Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, K. D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.
2014-07-12
The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products)represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries - pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most. The physico-chemical processes that control the development of this region have a significant impact on the long-term glass-water reaction. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include Geochemical Reaction Path simulations, Glass Reactivity in Allowance for Alteration Layer simulations, Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Discussed in this manuscript are the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers; thus providing the fundamental data needed to develop pore-scale equations that enable more accurate predictions of nuclear waste glass corrosion in a geologic repository.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rios, Celia; Dahm, Torsten; Jegen, Marion
2010-05-01
Seafloor compliance is the transfer function between pressure and vertical displacement at the seafloor Infragravity waves in the oceanic layer have long periods in the range of 30 - 500 s and obey a simple frequency-wavenumber relation. Seafloor compliance from infragravity waves can be analyzed with single station recordings to determinate sub-seafloor shear wave velocities. Previous studies in the Pacific Ocean have demonstrated that reliable near-surface shear wave profiles can be derived from infragravity wave compliance. However, these studies indicate that, beside the water depth the compliance measurements are limited by instrument sensitivity, calibration uncertainties and possibly other effects. In this work seafloor compliance and infragravity waves are observed at two different locations in the Atlantic Ocean: the Logatchev hydrothermal field at the Mid Atlantic Ridge and the Azores (Sao Miguel Island). The data was acquired with the broadband ocean compliance station developed at the University of Hamburg as well as ocean station from the German instrument pool for amphibian seismology (DEPAS) equipped with broadband seismometers and pressure sensors. Vertical velocity and pressure data were used to calculate power spectral densities and normalized compliance along two profiles (one in each location). Power spectral densities show a dominant peak at low frequencies (0.01-0.035Hz) limited by the expected cut-off frequency, which is dependent on the water depth at each station. The peak has been interpreted as a strong infragravity wave with values between 10-14 and 10-11 (m/s2)2/Hz and 104 and 106 (Pa2)2/Hz for acceleration and pressure respectively. The results show compliance values between 10-10 and 10-8 1/Pa and its estimations take into account the coherence between seismic and pressure signals in order to confirm that the seismic signals in the infragravity waves are caused by pressure sources. Shear wave velocity models, with depth resolution
Patel, Sandeep; Zhong, Yang; Bauer, Brad A; Davis, Joseph E
2009-07-09
We present results from molecular dynamics simulations of methanol-water solutions using charge equilibration force fields to explicitly account for nonadditive electronic interaction contributions to the potential energy. We study solutions across the concentration range from 0.1 to 0.9 methanol mole fraction. At dilute concentrations, methanol density is enhanced at the liquid-vapor interface, consistent with previous molecular dynamics and experimental studies. Interfacial thickness exhibits a monotonic increase with increasing methanol mole fraction, while surface tensions display monotonic decrease with methanol concentration, in qualitative agreement with experimental data and previous molecular dynamics predictions using polarizable force fields. In terms of interfacial structure, in keeping with predictions of traditional force fields, there is a unique preferential orientation of methanol molecules at the interface. Moreover, there is a free energetic preference for methanol molecules at the interface as evidenced by potential of mean force calculations. The pmf calculations suggest an interfacial state with 0.8 kcal/mol stability relative to the bulk, again in qualitative agreement with previous simulation and experimental studies. Interfacial potentials based on double integration of total charge density range from -610 to -330 mV over the dilute to concentrated regimes, respectively. The preponderance of methanol at the interface at all mole fractions gives rise to a dominant methanol contribution to the total interfacial potential. Interestingly, there is a transition of the water surface potential contribution from negative to positive upon the transition from methanol mole fraction of 0.1 to 0.2. The dipole and quadrupole contributions to the water component of the total interfacial potential are effectively of equal magnitude and opposite sign, thus cancelling one another. We compute the in-plane component of the dielectric permittivity along the
Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo
2015-01-01
Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV–Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growth of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity. Morphological analysis by Bio-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bio-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) did not reveal much difference between normal and low shear modeled microgravity grown S. pyogenes. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, hygromycin, rifampicin indicates that the bacterium is resistant to hygromycin. Further S. pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity was found to be more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin as compared with normal gravity grown S. pyogenes. The bacteria were tested for the acid, osmotic, temperature and oxidative cross stress resistances. The gene expression of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity analyzed by microarray revealed upregulation of 26 genes and down regulation of 22 genes by a fold change of 1.5. PMID:26858535
Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo
2016-01-01
Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growth of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity. Morphological analysis by Bio-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bio-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) did not reveal much difference between normal and low shear modeled microgravity grown S. pyogenes. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, hygromycin, rifampicin indicates that the bacterium is resistant to hygromycin. Further S. pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity was found to be more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin as compared with normal gravity grown S. pyogenes. The bacteria were tested for the acid, osmotic, temperature and oxidative cross stress resistances. The gene expression of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity analyzed by microarray revealed upregulation of 26 genes and down regulation of 22 genes by a fold change of 1.5.
Lesman, Ayelet; Blinder, Yaron; Levenberg, Shulamit
2010-02-15
Novel tissue-culture bioreactors employ flow-induced shear stress as a means of mechanical stimulation of cells. We developed a computational fluid dynamics model of the complex three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of a porous scaffold incubated in a direct perfusion bioreactor. Our model was designed to predict high shear-stress values within the physiological range of those naturally sensed by vascular cells (1-10 dyne/cm(2)), and will thereby provide suitable conditions for vascular tissue-engineering experiments. The model also accounts for cellular growth, which was designed as an added cell layer grown on all scaffold walls. Five model variants were designed, with geometric differences corresponding to cell-layer thicknesses of 0, 50, 75, 100, and 125 microm. Four inlet velocities (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 cm/s) were applied to each model. Wall shear-stress distribution and overall pressure drop calculations were then used to characterize the relation between flow rate, shear stress, cell-layer thickness, and pressure drop. The simulations showed that cellular growth within 3D scaffolds exposes cells to elevated shear stress, with considerably increasing average values in correlation to cell growth and inflow velocity. Our results provide in-depth analysis of the microdynamic environment of cells cultured within 3D environments, and thus provide advanced control over tissue development in vitro.
Minale, Mario; Caserta, Sergio; Guido, Stefano
2010-01-05
In this work, the microconfined shear deformation of a droplet in an equiviscous non-Newtonian immiscible fluid is investigated by modeling and experiments. A phenomenological model based on the assumption of ellipsoidal shape and taking into account wall effects is proposed for systems made of non-Newtonian second-order fluids. The model, without any adjustable parameters, is tested by comparison with experiments under simple shear flow performed in a sliding plate apparatus, where the ratio between the distance between the confining walls and the droplet radius can be varied. The agreement between model predictions and experimental data is good both in steady state shear and in transient drop retraction upon cessation of flow. The results obtained in this work are relevant for microfluidics applications where non-Newtonian fluids are used.
Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Ou, Shanxing
2010-01-01
In order to efficiently and effectively reconstruct 3D medical images and clearly display the detailed information of inner structures and the inner hidden interfaces between different media, an Improved Volume Rendering Optical Model (IVROM) for medical translucent volume rendering and its implementation using the preintegrated Shear-Warp Volume Rendering algorithm are proposed in this paper, which can be readily applied on a commodity PC. Based on the classical absorption and emission model, effects of volumetric shadows and direct and indirect scattering are also considered in the proposed model IVROM. Moreover, the implementation of the Improved Translucent Volume Rendering Method (ITVRM) integrating the IVROM model, Shear-Warp and preintegrated volume rendering algorithm is described, in which the aliasing and staircase effects resulting from under-sampling in Shear-Warp, are avoided by the preintegrated volume rendering technique. This study demonstrates the superiority of the proposed method.
Crystal nucleation and cluster-growth kinetics in a model glass under shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mokshin, Anatolii V.; Barrat, Jean-Louis
2010-08-01
Crystal nucleation and growth processes induced by an externally applied shear strain in a model metallic glass are studied by means of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, in a range of temperatures. We observe that the nucleation-growth process takes place after a transient, induction regime. The critical cluster size and the lag-time associated with this induction period are determined from a mean first-passage time analysis. The laws that describe the cluster-growth process are studied as a function of temperature and strain rate. A theoretical model for crystallization kinetics that includes the time dependence for nucleation and cluster growth is developed within the framework of the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami scenario and is compared with the molecular dynamics data. Scalings for the cluster-growth laws and for the crystallization kinetics are also proposed and tested. The observed nucleation rates are found to display a nonmonotonic strain rate dependency.
Shear wave dispersion behaviors of soft, vascularized tissues from the microchannel flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, K. J.; Ormachea, J.; McAleavey, S. A.; Wood, R. W.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Miller, R. K.
2016-07-01
The frequency dependent behavior of tissue stiffness and the dispersion of shear waves in tissue can be measured in a number of ways, using integrated imaging systems. The microchannel flow model, which considers the effects of fluid flow in the branching vasculature and microchannels of soft tissues, makes specific predictions about the nature of dispersion. In this paper we introduce a more general form of the 4 parameter equation for stress relaxation based on the microchannel flow model, and then derive the general frequency domain equation for the complex modulus. Dispersion measurements in liver (ex vivo) and whole perfused placenta (post-delivery) correspond to the predictions from theory, guided by independent stress relaxation measurements and consideration of the vascular tree structure.
Shear wave dispersion behaviors of soft, vascularized tissues from the microchannel flow model.
Parker, K J; Ormachea, J; McAleavey, S A; Wood, R W; Carroll-Nellenback, J J; Miller, R K
2016-07-07
The frequency dependent behavior of tissue stiffness and the dispersion of shear waves in tissue can be measured in a number of ways, using integrated imaging systems. The microchannel flow model, which considers the effects of fluid flow in the branching vasculature and microchannels of soft tissues, makes specific predictions about the nature of dispersion. In this paper we introduce a more general form of the 4 parameter equation for stress relaxation based on the microchannel flow model, and then derive the general frequency domain equation for the complex modulus. Dispersion measurements in liver (ex vivo) and whole perfused placenta (post-delivery) correspond to the predictions from theory, guided by independent stress relaxation measurements and consideration of the vascular tree structure.
Numerical modelling of shear-dependent mass transfer in large arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rappitsch, Gerhard; Perktold, Karl; Pernkopf, Elisabeth
1997-10-01
A numerical scheme for the simulation of blood flow and transport processes in large arteries is presented. Blood flow is described by the unsteady 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian fluids; solute transport is modelled by the advection-diffusion equation. The resistance of the arterial wall to transmural transport is described by a shear-dependent wall permeability model. The finite element formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations is based on an operator-splitting method and implicit time discretization. The streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method is applied for stabilization of the advective terms in the transport equation and in the flow equations. A numerical simulation is carried out for pulsatile mass transport in a 3D arterial bend to demonstrate the influence of arterial flow patterns on wall permeability characteristics and transmural mass transfer. The main result is a substantial wall flux reduction at the inner side of the curved region.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, R. M.; Loveland, M. E.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M. L.; Bankston, C. P.; Leduc, H.; Kummer, J. T.
1990-01-01
Mixed mass-transport and kinetic control of sodium ion reduction at porous inert electrodes on sodium beta-double-prime alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) ceramic in a high-temperature electrochemical cell has been observed and modeled. The high ionic conductivity of BASE and the reversibility of the liquid sodium/BASE anodic half-cell led to assignment of potential-dependent (nonohmic) resistances to kinetic and mass-transport processes associated with the porous electrode. The morphology of these electrodes and typical sodium gas pressures are consistent with Knudsen, or free-molecular, flow through the electrode.
Modeling of Long-Term Fate of Mobilized Fines due to Dam-Embankment Interfacial Dislocations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glascoe, L. G.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Kanarska, Y.; Lomov, I.; Antoun, T. H.
2011-12-01
Transverse cracks in embankment dams can develop as a result of post-construction settlements, earthquake deformations, or anthropogenic loads such as emplaced explosives. During these dislocations, fine particles are released from the damaged zones and can create unwanted inertial erosion and piping through the transverse cracks. These processes are equally critical to the overall stability of the dam. We present numerical results related to the problem of the fluid flow, transport, and filtration of particulates from damaged zones between the concrete sections of a gravity dam and the embankment wraparound sections. The model solves simultaneously the flow, attachment, and washout of fine particles within a wraparound heterogeneous porous media. We used a state-of-the-art finite element method with adaptive mesh refinement to capture 1) the interface between water dense with fines and clear water, and 2) the non-linearity of the free surface itself. A few scenarios of sediment entrapment in the filter layers of a gravity dam were considered. Several parameterizations of the filtration model and constitutive laws of soil behavior were also investigated. Through these analyses, we concluded that the attachment kinetic isotherm is the key function of the model. More parametric studies need to be conducted to assess the sensitivity of the kinetic isotherm parameters on the overall stability of the embankment. These kinetic parameters can be obtained, for example, through numerical micro- and meso-scale studies. It is worth mentioning that the current model, for the more realistic non-linear kinetic isotherms, has predicted a self-rehabilitation of the breached core with retention of 50% of the mobilized fines using a very conservative filtration length. A more realistic value should exceed the assumed one, resulting in a retention exceeding 50%. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under
The Use of Mouse Models to Investigate Shear Bond Strength in Amelogenesis Imperfecta
Pugach, M.K.; Ozer, F.; Li, Y.; Sheth, K.; Beasley, R.; Resnick, A.; Daneshmehr, L.; Kulkarni, A.B.; Bartlett, J.D.; Gibson, C.W.; Lindemeyer, R.G.
2011-01-01
Patients with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) have defective enamel; therefore, bonded restorations of patients with AI have variable success rates. To distinguish which cases of AI may have good clinical outcomes with bonded materials, we evaluated etching characteristics and bond strength of enamel in mouse models, comparing wild-type (WT) with those having mutations in amelogenin (Amelx) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (Mmp20), which mimic 2 forms of human AI. Etched enamel surfaces were compared for roughness by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Bonding was compared through shear bond strength (SBS) studies with 2 different systems (etch-and-rinse and self-etch). Etched enamel surfaces of incisors from Amelx knock-out (AmelxKO) mice appeared randomly organized and non-uniform compared with WT. Etching of Mmp20KO surfaces left little enamel, and the etching pattern was indistinguishable from unetched surfaces. SBS results were significantly different when AmelxKO and Mmp20KO enamel surfaces were compared. A significant increase in SBS was measured for all samples when the self-etch system was compared with the etch-and-rinse system. We have developed a novel system for testing shear bond strength of mouse incisors with AI variants, and analysis of these data may have important clinical implications for the treatment of patients with AI. PMID:21917602
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Lakshmanan, B.
1993-01-01
A high-speed shear layer is studied using compressibility corrected Reynolds stress turbulence model which employs newly developed model for pressure-strain correlation. MacCormack explicit prediction-corrector method is used for solving the governing equations and the turbulence transport equations. The stiffness arising due to source terms in the turbulence equations is handled by a semi-implicit numerical technique. Results obtained using the new model show a sharper reduction in growth rate with increasing convective Mach number. Some improvements were also noted in the prediction of the normalized streamwise stress and Reynolds shear stress. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naghipour, P.; Pineda, E. J.; Arnold, S.
2014-01-01
Lightning is a major cause of damage in laminated composite aerospace structures during flight. Due to the dielectric nature of Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs), the high energy induced by lightning strike transforms into extreme, localized surface temperature accompanied with a high-pressure shockwave resulting in extensive damage. It is crucial to develop a numerical tool capable of predicting the damage induced from a lightning strike to supplement extremely expensive lightning experiments. Delamination is one of the most significant failure modes resulting from a lightning strike. It can be extended well beyond the visible damage zone, and requires sophisticated techniques and equipment to detect. A popular technique used to model delamination is the cohesive zone approach. Since the loading induced from a lightning strike event is assumed to consist of extreme localized heating, the cohesive zone formulation should additionally account for temperature effects. However, the sensitivity to this dependency remains unknown. Therefore, the major focus point of this work is to investigate the importance of this dependency via defining various temperature dependency profiles for the cohesive zone properties, and analyzing the corresponding delamination area. Thus, a detailed numerical model consisting of multidirectional composite plies with temperature-dependent cohesive elements in between is subjected to lightning (excessive amount of heat and pressure) and delamination/damage expansion is studied under specified conditions.
Roudgar, A; Narasimachary, S P; Eikerling, M
2006-10-19
We utilize ab initio quantum mechanical calculations in order to explore structural conformations and cooperative mechanisms at a minimally hydrated 2D array of flexible acidic surface groups. This system serves as a model for rationalizing interactions and correlations of protons and water with ionized side chains that are affixed to hydrophobic polymer aggregates in polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs). The model exhibits two basic minimum energy configurations upon varying the separation of surface groups from 5 to 12 A. In the "upright" structure at small separation, surface groups are fully dissociated and oriented perpendicular to the basal plane. Together with hydronium ions (H3O+) they form a highly ordered network with long-range correlations. At larger separations we found the transition to a "tilted" structure with cluster-like conformation of surface groups. This structure retains only short-range correlations. Moreover, we investigated the strength of water binding to the minimally hydrated structures. At small separations between surface groups, an additional water molecule interacts only weakly with the minimally hydrated array (binding energy < 0.1 eV) while the energy needed to remove one water molecule exceeds 1 eV. This shows that the minimally hydrated systems are very stable. Ideally, these studies would expedite the design of cheap, highly performing PEMs for fuel cells, with a major focus on membranes that could operate stably at minimal hydration and elevated temperatures (>120 degrees C).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raeesi, Behrooz; Piri, Mohammad
2009-10-01
SummaryWe use a three-dimensional mixed-wet random pore-scale network model to investigate the impact of wettability and trapping on the relationship between interfacial area, capillary pressure and saturation in two-phase drainage and imbibition processes. The model is a three-dimensional network of interconnected pores and throats of various geometrical shapes. It allows multiple phases to be present in each capillary element in wetting and spreading layers, as well as occupying the center of the pore space. Two different random networks that represent the pore space in Berea and a Saudi Arabia reservoir sandstone are used in this study. We allow the wettability of the rock surfaces contacted by oil to alter after primary drainage. The model takes into account both contact angle and trapping hystereses. We model primary oil drainage and water flooding for mixed-wet conditions, and secondary oil injection for a water-wet system. The total interfacial area for pores and throats are calculated when the system is at capillary equilibrium. They include contributions from the arc menisci (AMs) between the bulk and corner fluids, and from the main terminal menisci (MTMs) between different bulk fluids. We investigate hysteresis in these relationships by performing water injection into systems of varying wettability and initial water saturation. We show that trapping and contact angle hystereses significantly affect the interfacial area. In a strongly water-wet system, a sharp increase is observed at the beginning of water flood, which shifts the area to a higher level than primary drainage. As we change the wettability of the system from strongly water-wet to strongly oil-wet, the trapped oil saturation decreases significantly. Starting water flood from intermediate water saturations, greater than the irreducible water saturation, can also affect the non-wetting phase entrapment, resulting in different interfacial area behaviors. This can increase the interfacial area
Efficient formulation of scale separation for multi-scale modeling of interfacial flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, J.; Hu, X. Y.; Adams, N. A.
2016-03-01
We propose an efficient formulation of the scale-separation approach which has been developed by Han et al. [10] for multi-scale sharp interface modeling of multi-phase flows based on the level-set technique. Instead of shifting the entire level-set field twice as in the original method, the improved method identifies the non-resolved interface structures from two auxiliary level-sets close to the interface. Non-resolved structures are separated from the interface by a localized re-distancing method, which increases the computational efficiency considerably compared to the original global reinitialization procedure. Several tests for two-phase flow problems, involving simple and complex interface structures, are carried out to show that the present method maintains sharper interface structures than the original method, and achieves effective scale-separation.
Turbulence Modeling for the Simulation of Transition in Wall Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawford, Michael E.
2007-01-01
Our research involves study of the behavior of k-epsilon turbulence models for simulation of bypass-level transition over flat surfaces and turbine blades. One facet of the research has been to assess the performance of a multitude of k-epsilon models in what we call "natural transition", i.e. no modifications to the k-e models. The study has been to ascertain what features in the dynamics of the model affect the start and end of the transition. Some of the findings are in keeping with those reported by others (e.g. ERCOFTAC). A second facet of the research has been to develop and benchmark a new multi-time scale k-epsilon model (MTS) for use in simulating bypass-level transition. This model has certain features of the published MTS models by Hanjalic, Launder, and Schiestel, and by Kim and his coworkers. The major new feature of our MTS model is that it can be used to compute wall shear flows as a low-turbulence Reynolds number type of model, i.e. there is no required partition with patching a one-equation k model in the near-wall region to a two-equation k-epsilon model in the outer part of the flow. Our MTS model has been studied extensively to understand its dynamics in predicting the onset of transition and the end-stage of the transition. Results to date indicate that it far superior to the standard unmodified k-epsilon models. The effects of protracted pressure gradients on the model behavior are currently being investigated.
BWR Refill-Reflood Program, Task 4. 7 - model development: basic models for the BWR version of TRAC
Andersen, J G.M.; Chu, K H; Shaug, J C
1983-09-01
TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) is a computer code for best estimate analysis of the thermal hydraulic conditions in a reactor system. The constitutive correlations for shear and heat transfer developed for the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) version of TRAC are described. A universal flow regime map has been developed to tie the regimes for shear and heat transfer into a consistent package. New models in the areas of interfacial shear, interfacial heat transfer and thermal radiation have been introduced. Improvements have also been made to the constitutive correlations and the numerical methods. All the models have been implemented into the GE version TRACB02 and extensively tested against data.
How does interfacial rheology govern soap bubble cluster dynamics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Biance, Anne-Laure; Hohler, Reinhard
2009-11-01
Aqueous foams are concentrated dispersions of gas bubbles in a soapy solution. These complex fluids exhibit solid-like or liquid-like mechanical behaviors, depending on the applied shear. When it is increased beyond a yield strain, neighbor switching bubble rearrangements called T1 events are triggered and plastic flow sets in. We study experimentally the dynamics of such strain induced T1s in 3D bubble clusters that we consider as model systems of 3D foams. To determine the hydrodynamics and physico-chemistry that set the duration of T1s, we use foaming solutions of a wide range of well characterized bulk and interfacial rheological properties. At low shear rates, the T1 duration is set by a balance between surface tension and surface viscous forces in qualitative agreement with previous studies of T1s in 2D foams [1] and we present a simple physical model that explains our 3D findings. Moreover, above a characteristic shear rate, rearrangement dynamics are driven by the applied strain. By combining all our results, we link the transition from intermittent to continous flow dynamics in foams to the rheology of the gas-liquid interfaces. [4pt] [1] M. Durand, H. A. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 2226101 (2006).
A grillage model for predicting wrinkles in annular graphene under circular shearing
Zhang, Z.; Duan, W. H.; Wang, C. M.
2013-01-07
This paper is concerned with a Timoshenko grillage model for modeling the wrinkling phenomenon in annular graphene under circular shearing applied at its inner edge. By calibrating the grillage model results against the molecular mechanics (MM) results, the grillage model comprising beams of elliptical cross-section orientated along the carbon-carbon bond has section dimensions of 0.06 nm for the major axis length and 0.036 nm for the minor axis length. Moreover, the beams are connected to one another at 0.00212 nm from the geometric centric. This eccentric connection of beams allows the proposed grillage model to cater for the cross-couplings among bonds that produce the out-of-plane wrinkling pattern. The out-of-plane to in-plane bending stiffnesses' ratio is 0.36, and the cross bending stiffness provided by the ellipse eccentricity is 0.025 times that of the in-plane bending stiffness. Besides furnishing identical wave numbers as well as amplitudes and wavelengths that are in good agreement with MM results, the grillage model can capture wrinkling patterns with a boundary layer, whereas plate and membrane models could not mimic the boundary layer.
A model of the interfacial processes inhibiting the environmental degradation of Al-Cu alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kearns, Jeffery Robert
(Cr(Ill)-Fe-CN6) was found in the CCC bulk not just at the outermost surface. A new model for CCC on Al-Cr alloys is proposed. The model is based on the sol-gel-like nascent CCC that limits the transport of IMC dissolution products.
Nonequilibrium transport in the Anderson-Holstein model with interfacial screening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perfetto, Enrico; Stefanucci, Gianluca
Image charge effects in nanoscale junctions with strong electron-phonon coupling open the way to unexplored physical scenarios. Here we present a comprehensive study of the transport properties of the Anderson-Holstein model in the presence of dot-lead repulsion. We propose an accurate many-body approach to deal with the simultaneous occurrence of the Franck-Condon blockade and the screening-induced enhancement of the polaron mobility. Remarkably, we find that a novel mechanism of negative differential conductance origins from the competition between the charge blocking due to the electron-phonon interaction and the charge deblocking due to the image charges. An experimental setup to observe this phenomenon is discussed. References [1]E. Perfetto, G. Stefanucci and M. Cini, Phys. Rev. B 85, 165437 (2012). [2] E. Perfetto and G. Stefanucci, Phys. Rev. B 88, 245437 (2013). [3] E. Perfetto and G. Stefanucci, Journal of Computational Electronics 14, 352 (2015). E.P. and G.S. acknowledge funding by MIUR FIRB Grant No. RBFR12SW0J.
Cowsill, Benjamin J; Zhao, Xiubo; Waigh, Thomas A; Eapen, Saji; Davies, Robert; Laux, Valerie; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V Trevor; Lu, Jian R
2014-05-27
Experimental studies of antibody adsorption and antigen binding that mimicked pregnancy test immunoassays have been performed using neutron reflectivity studies of a model antibody/antigen system immobilized on the silica/water interface. The study revealed the nature of the antibody/antigen interaction and also the importance of a blocking protein, in this case human serum albumin (HSA), that enhances the immunoassay's specificity and efficiency. Of central importance to this study has been the use of a perdeuterated human serum albumin (d-HSA), providing contrast that highlights the orientation and position of the blocking agent within the adsorbed layer. It was found that the adsorbed HSA filled the gaps between the preadsorbed antibodies on the substrate, with decreased adsorption occurring as a function of increased antibody surface coverage. In addition, the antigen binding capacity of the adsorbed antibodies was investigated as a function of antibody surface coverage. The amount of specifically bound antigen was found to saturate at approximately 0.17 mg/m(2) and became independent of the antibody surface coverage. The ratio of bound antigen to immobilized antibody decreased with increased antibody surface coverage. These results are of importance for a full understanding of immunoassay systems that are widely used in clinical tests and in the detection of environmental contaminants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Jianzhong; Shen, Fang; Guo, Wenyun; Chen, Changsheng; Ding, Pingxing
2015-12-01
Simulating the sediment transport in a high-turbidity region with spatially varying bed properties is challenging. A comprehensive strategy that integrates multiple methods is applied here to retrieve the critical shear stress for erosion, which plays a major role in suspended sediment dynamics in the Changjiang Estuary (CE). Time-series of sea surface suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were retrieved from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite data at hourly intervals (for 8 h each day) and combined with hydrodynamic modeling of high-resolution CE Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (CE-FVCOM) to estimate the near-bed critical shear stress in the clay-dominated bed region (plasticity index > 7%). An experimental algorithm to determine the in situ critical shear stress via the plasticity index method was also used to verify the GOCI-derived critical shear stress. Implemented with this new critical shear stress, the sediment transport model significantly improved the simulation of the distribution and spatial variability of the SSC during the spring and neap tidal cycles in the CE. The results suggest that a significant lateral water exchange between channels and shoals occurred during the spring flood tide, which led to a broader high-SSC area in the CE throughout the water column.
Rouze, Ned C; Wang, Michael H; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathy R
2013-11-15
Elastic properties of materials can be measured by observing shear wave propagation following localized, impulsive excitations and relating the propagation velocity to a model of the material. However, characterization of anisotropic materials is difficult because of the number of elasticity constants in the material model and the complex dependence of propagation velocity relative to the excitation axis, material symmetries, and propagation directions. In this study, we develop a model of wave propagation following impulsive excitation in an incompressible, transversely isotropic (TI) material such as muscle. Wave motion is described in terms of three propagation modes identified by their polarization relative to the material symmetry axis and propagation direction. Phase velocities for these propagation modes are expressed in terms of five elasticity constants needed to describe a general TI material, and also in terms of three constants after the application of two constraints that hold in the limit of an incompressible material. Group propagation velocities are derived from the phase velocities to describe the propagation of wave packets away from the excitation region following localized excitation. The theoretical model is compared to the results of finite element (FE) simulations performed using a nearly incompressible material model with the five elasticity constants chosen to preserve the essential properties of the material in the incompressible limit. Propagation velocities calculated from the FE displacement data show complex structure that agrees quantitatively with the theoretical model and demonstrates the possibility of measuring all three elasticity constants needed to characterize an incompressible, TI material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saffari, Nader; Ong, Chuon-Szen
2001-04-01
The work reported here is on the characterization of the interfacial properties between plasma-sprayed Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates as used in cement-less hip orthopaedic implants. The phase velocity dispersion for the first Rayleigh-type mode for the coating-substrate system has been shown to be sensitive to the interfacial stiffness. Different interfacial conditions between the coating and substrate have been obtained by cyclic loading of the specimens in a four-point bend fatigue machine. The measured interfacial stiffness is then correlated with the interfacial fracture strength obtained by standard destructive shear tests.
Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F
2014-08-19
The study of particle laden interfaces has increased significantly due to the increasing industrial use of particle stabilized foams and Pickering emulsions, whose bulk rheology and stability are highly dependent on particle laden interface's interfacial rheology, which is a function of interfacial microstructure. To understand the physical mechanisms that dictate interfacial rheology of particle laden interfaces requires correlating rheology to microstructure. To achieve this goal, a double wall ring interfacial rheometer has been modified to allow real time, simultaneous interfacial visualization and shear rheology measurements. The development of this tool is outlined, and its ability to provide novel and unique measurements is demonstrated on a sample system. This tool has been used to examine the role of microstructure on the steady shear rheology of densely packed, aggregated particle laden interfaces at three surface concentrations. Through examination of the rheology and analysis of interfacial microstructure response to shear, a transition from shear thinning due to aggregated cluster breakup to yielding at a slip plane within the interface has been identified. Interestingly, it is found that aggregated interfaces transition to yielding well before they reached a jammed state. Furthermore, these systems undergo significant shear induced order when densely packed. These results indicate that the mechanics of these interfaces are not simply jammed or unjammed and that the interfacial rheology relationship with microstructure can give us significant insight into understanding how to engineer particle laden interfaces in the future. By examining both rheology and microstructure, the mechanisms that dictate observed rheology are now understood and can be used to predict and control the rheology of the interface.
Mechanobiology of interfacial growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciarletta, P.; Preziosi, L.; Maugin, G. A.
2013-03-01
A multiscale analysis integrating biomechanics and mechanobiology is today required for deciphering the crosstalk between biochemistry, geometry and elasticity in living materials. In this paper we derive a unified thermomechanical theory coupling growth processes with mass transport phenomena across boundaries and/or material interfaces. Inside a living system made by two contiguous bodies with varying volumes, an interfacial growth mechanism is considered to force fast but continuous variations of the physical fields inside a narrow volume across the material interface. Such a phenomenon is modelled deriving homogenized surface fields on a growing non-material discontinuity, possibly including a singular edge line. A number of balance laws is derived for imposing the conservation of the thermomechanical properties of the biological system. From thermodynamical arguments we find that the normal displacement of the non-material interface is governed by the jump of a new form of material mechanical-energy flux, also involving the kinetic energies and the mass fluxes. Furthermore, the configurational balance indicates that the surface Eshelby tensor is the tangential stress measure driving the material inhomogeneities on the non-material interface. Accordingly, stress-dependent evolution laws for bulk and interfacial growth processes are derived for both volume and surface fields. The proposed thermomechanical theory is finally applied to three biological system models. The first two examples are focused on stress-free growth problems, concerning the morphogenesis of animal horns and of seashells. The third application finally deals with the stress-driven surface evolution of avascular tumours with heterogeneous structures. The results demonstrate that the proposed theory can successfully model those biological systems where growth and mass transport phenomena interact at different length-scales. Coupling biological, mechanical and geometrical factors, the proposed
Turbulent transport model of wind shear in thunderstorm gust fronts and warm fronts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewellen, W. S.; Teske, M. E.; Segur, H. C. O.
1978-01-01
A model of turbulent flow in the atmospheric boundary layer was used to simulate the low-level wind and turbulence profiles associated with both local thunderstorm gust fronts and synoptic-scale warm fronts. Dimensional analyses of both type fronts provided the physical scaling necessary to permit normalized simulations to represent fronts for any temperature jump. The sensitivity of the thunderstorm gust front to five different dimensionless parameters as well as a change from axisymmetric to planar geometry was examined. The sensitivity of the warm front to variations in the Rossby number was examined. Results of the simulations are discussed in terms of the conditions which lead to wind shears which are likely to be most hazardous for aircraft operations.
Mechanics of shear banding in a regularized two-dimensional model of a granular medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, G. W.; Hammond, J.
2012-10-01
A regularized two-dimensional model for the buckling of force chains is presented, comprising identical rigid discs sitting initially in a conventional close-packed arrangement. As linear elastic constitutive laws are used throughout, the only nonlinearity in the system comes from large rotations as the resulting force chains are obliged to buckle under imposed end-shortening. The evolving deflected shapes are seen to develop and interact in a highly complex bifurcation structure. Analysis by the nonlinear continuation code Auto exposes at realistic load levels an energy landscape rich in local minima. A number of such states are identified, amongst them families of solutions with the familiar appearance of shear bands over a finite number of discs. A well-known "snakes and ladders" pattern is identified as the mechanism for the addition of extra discs to increase the width of the band.
Testing geodynamic models of lowermost mantle flow with a regional shear wave splitting data set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, H. A.; Long, M. D.
2015-12-01
Global flow models rely on a number of assumptions, including composition, temperature, viscosity, and deformation mechanism. In the upper mantle, flow models and their associated assumptions can be tested and refined with observations of seismic anisotropy, which is treated as a proxy for flow direction. Beneath the transition zone, direct observations of seismic anisotropy are scarce, except for in the lowermost ~250 km of the mantle. In this study, we utilize a comprehensive, previously published (Ford et al., 2015) shear wave splitting study in order to test a three-dimensional global geodynamic flow model (Walker et al., 2011). Our study focuses on a region of the lowermost mantle along the eastern edge of the African Superplume beneath the Afar region. We find that our observations are fit by a model which invokes slip along the (010) plane of post-perovskite with flow directed down and to the southwest. Critically, we demonstrate the ability of a regional data set to interrogate models of lower mantle flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Neil; Siegert, Martin
2014-05-01
Basal freeze-on, deformation and ice crystal fabric re-organisation have been invoked to explain thick, massive englacial units observed in the lower ice column of both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Whilst recognised as having very different rheological properties to overlying meteoric ice, studies assessing the impact of these basal units on the large-scale flow of an ice sheet have so far been limited. We report the discovery of a previously unknown, extensive (100 km long, more than 25 km wide, and up to 1 km thick) englacial unit of near-basal ice beneath the onset zone of the Institute Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Using radio-echo sounding observations, we describe the form and physical characteristics of this englacial unit, and its impact on the stratigraphy and internal deformation of the overlying ice. The lower englacial unit, characterised by a highly-deformed to massive structure, is inferred to be rheologically distinct from the overlying ice column. The overlying ice contains a series of englacial 'whirlwind' features, which are traceable and exhibit longitudinal continuity between flow-orthogonal radar lines. In our data, these whirlwinds are the representation of englacial layer buckling, and therefore provide robust evidence for enhanced ice flow. The interface between the primary ice units is sharp and abrupt, and at a macro-scale is characterised by a series of high-amplitude long-wavelength undulations. Immediately above this interface, whirlwind features are deformed and display evidence for flow-orthogonal horizontal shear, consistent with the deformation of the overlying ice across the basal ice unit. This phenomenon is not a local process, it is observed above the entirety of the currently mapped extent of the basal ice, nor is it dependent on flight orientation, the direction of shear is consistent regardless of flight orientation. These findings have clear significance for our understanding and ability to realistically model ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaluzienski, L. M.; Hamilton, G. S.; Koons, P. O.; Arcone, S. A.; Ray, L.; Lever, J.; Fastook, J.; Walker, B.
2015-12-01
Sub-ice-shelf circulation plays a fundamental role in ice shelf mass budget. The shape of the underside of an ice shelf is important, such that the presence of basal crevasses can significantly modulate the transfer of heat at the ice-ocean interface. In situ observations of basal crevasses are challenging to obtain, but surface-based ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys can be used to determine crevasse location and orientation. Here, we use GPR methods to map the internal structures in the McMurdo Shear Zone (SZ) which marks the boundary between the Ross Ice Shelf and the slower-moving McMurdo Ice Shelf. Radar surveys with 200 MHz and 400 MHz antennas reveal the presence of crevasses both in the upper firn and within a zone of accreted marine ice at a depth of approximately 170 meters. A spatial correspondence between near-surface and basal crevasses suggests that both are formed locally by lateral shearing. A combination of three dimensional higher order and Shallow Shelf Approximation ice flow equations within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) are used to test this hypothesis. This model estimates the detailed velocity field of the SZ and is constrained by GPS-derived observations of surface motion. The distribution and orientations of surface crevasses is consistent with the gradients in velocity field predicted by the model. Though a wider range of orientation angles exists for crevasses within the basal regime, the average strike angle is consistent with firn crevassing and we conclude that the marine ice coevally fractured with the firn layer.
Long, M; Goldsmith, H L; Tees, D F; Zhu, C
1999-02-01
A model was constructed to describe previously published experiments of shear-induced formation and breakage of doublets of red cells and of latexes cross-linked by receptor-ligand bonds (. Biophys. J. 65:1318-1334; Tees and Goldsmith. 1996. Biophys. J. 71:1102-1114;. Biophys. J. 71:1115-1122). The model, based on McQuarrie's master equations (1963. J. Phys. Chem. 38:433-436), provides unifying treatments for three distinctive time periods in the experiments of particles in a Couette flow in which a doublet undergoes 1) formation upon two-body collision between singlets; 2) evolution of bonds at low shear rate; and 3) break-up at high shear rate. Neglecting the applied force at low shear rate, the probability of forming a doublet per collision as well as the evolution of probability distribution of bonds in a preformed doublet were solved analytically and found to be in quite good agreement with measurements. At high shear rate with significant force acting to accelerate bond dissociation, the predictions for break-up of doublets were obtained numerically and compared well with data in both individual and population studies. These comparisons enabled bond kinetic parameters for three types of particles cross-linked by two receptor-ligand systems to be calculated, which agreed well with those computed from Monte Carlo simulations. This work can be extended to analyze kinetics of receptor-ligand binding in cell aggregates, such as those of neutrophils and platelets in the circulation.
Finite Element Modeling of Dynamic Shear Rupture Experiments Along Non-Planar Faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Templeton, E. L.; Baudet, A.; Bhat, H. S.; Rice, J. R.
2004-12-01
The study of dynamically propagating shear cracks along weak paths like faults is of great interest for the study of earthquakes. We adapted the ABAQUS/Explicit dynamic finite element program to analyze the nucleation and propagation of shear cracks along a non-planar, kinked, weak path corresponding to the one that was used in recent laboratory fracture studies by Rousseau and Rosakis [JGR, 2003]. Their experiments involved impact loading of thin plates of Homalite-100, a photoelastically sensitive brittle polymer, which had been cut along a kinked path and then weakly glued back together everywhere except along a starter notch near the impact site. Under different conditions, propagation speeds were observed in both the sub-Rayleigh and intersonic (supershear) regimes. Strain gage recordings and high speed photography of isochromatic lines (lines of constant difference between the in-plane principal strains) provided characterization of the transient deformation fields associated with the impact and fracture propagation. For the finite element analyses, we implemented a slip-weakening failure model through an option in the ABAQUS program allowing user defined constitutive relations. The analyses of impact loading and of rupture nucleation and propagation were then carried out in the 2D framework of plane stress. In a first set of studies of nucleation and propagation of rupture along a straight fault, we determined after some trial and error an appropriate CFL number, and examined different element types and layouts, finding that the most acceptable results were obtained for low order elements. We used constant strain triangles, arrayed in groups of four to effectively form four-sided elements with corner nodes and one internal node. The studies also showed that to obtain representations of slip rate and shear stress near the propagating rupture tip that were relatively free from numerical oscillations, it was necessary to have element side lengths of order Ro/50
Numerical Investigation of the Formation and Detachment of Droplets from Pores in a Shear Flow Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feigl, Kathleen; Tanner, Franz X.; Windhab, Erich J.
2010-09-01
The formation and detachment behavior of droplets from a pore opening into a simple shear field within a channel gap is investigated using numerical simulations. The mathematical model consists of the governing equations for an incompressible two-phase flow problem with a moving contact line. These equations are numerically solved using the volume-of-fluid method implemented in the open source software OpenFOAM. A parameter study was performed to determine the effect of relevant dimensionless parameters on the formation and detachment behavior of the droplets. These dimensionless parameters involve the pore size, pore flow rate, gap shear rate, interfacial tension, and the viscosity and density of the two fluid phases. For the parameter range considered in this study, different degrees of jetting behavior were observed. Also, the sizes of the detached droplets were seen to decrease as the gap shear rate increased, and increase with the pore flow rate, with the gap shear rate having a larger effect.
Experiments on differential diffusion of temperature and salinity across a sheared density interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, P. Ryan; Rehmann, Chris
2005-11-01
Differential diffusion of two stably stratified scalars with different molecular diffusivities in a turbulent flow can affect ocean circulation modeling and the interpretation of ocean mixing experiments. In past work we used rapid distortion theory to evaluate the effect of a mean shear on differential diffusion. The present work compares those theoretical results with results from laboratory experiments. In the experiments, an Odell-Kovasnay recirculating flume and disk pump was used to drive a warm, fresh water upper layer over the cold, salty quiescent lower layer. Bulk measurements based on the evolution of the scalar profiles and instantaneous interfacial flux measurements were employed to quantify scalar mixing across the sheared interface. Results from the experiments compare well with predictions of the theory. For weakly turbulent, strongly stratified flows, differential diffusion is found to decrease with increasing shear. However, for more energetic flows, differential diffusion is found to increase with increasing shear.
A coupled damage-plasticity model for the cyclic behavior of shear-loaded interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.
2015-12-01
The present work proposes a novel thermodynamically consistent model for the behavior of interfaces under shear (i.e. mode-II) cyclic loading conditions. The interface behavior is defined coupling damage and plasticity. The admissible states' domain is formulated restricting the tangential interface stress to non-negative values, which makes the model suitable e.g. for interfaces with thin adherends. Linear softening is assumed so as to reproduce, under monotonic conditions, a bilinear mode-II interface law. Two damage variables govern respectively the loss of strength and of stiffness of the interface. The proposed model needs the evaluation of only four independent parameters, i.e. three defining the monotonic mode-II interface law, and one ruling the fatigue behavior. This limited number of parameters and their clear physical meaning facilitate experimental calibration. Model predictions are compared with experimental results on fiber reinforced polymer sheets externally bonded to concrete involving different load histories, and an excellent agreement is obtained.
Escherichia coli biofilms formed under low-shear modeled microgravity in a ground-based system.
Lynch, S V; Mukundakrishnan, K; Benoit, M R; Ayyaswamy, P S; Matin, A
2006-12-01
Bacterial biofilms cause chronic diseases that are difficult to control. Since biofilm formation in space is well documented and planktonic cells become more resistant and virulent under modeled microgravity, it is important to determine the effect of this gravity condition on biofilms. Inclusion of glass microcarrier beads of appropriate dimensions and density with medium and inoculum, in vessels specially designed to permit ground-based investigations into aspects of low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), facilitated these studies. Mathematical modeling of microcarrier behavior based on experimental conditions demonstrated that they satisfied the criteria for LSMMG conditions. Experimental observations confirmed that the microcarrier trajectory in the LSMMG vessel concurred with the predicted model. At 24 h, the LSMMG Escherichia coli biofilms were thicker than their normal-gravity counterparts and exhibited increased resistance to the general stressors salt and ethanol and to two antibiotics (penicillin and chloramphenicol). Biofilms of a mutant of E. coli, deficient in sigma(s), were impaired in developing LSMMG-conferred resistance to the general stressors but not to the antibiotics, indicating two separate pathways of LSMMG-conferred resistance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babanouri, Nima; Karimi Nasab, Saeed
2015-05-01
This paper deals with the structural analysis of rock fracture roughness, and accordingly, a method is developed for estimating/predicting the post-shearing 3D geometry of the fracture surface. For this purpose, surfaces of three natural rock fractures were digitized and studied before and after the direct shear test. The variogram analysis of the surfaces indicated a strong non-linear trend in the topography data. Hence, the spatial variability of the rock fracture surfaces was decomposed to: one deterministic component, characterized by a high-order polynomial representing the large-scale undulations, and one stochastic component, described by the variogram of residuals representing the small-scale roughness. Using an image-processing technique, a total of 343 damage zones with different sizes, shapes, initial roughness characteristics, local stress fields, and/or asperity strength values were spatially located and clustered. In order to characterize the overall spatial structure of the degraded zones, the concept of the `pseudo-zonal variogram' was introduced. The results showed that the spatial continuity at the damage zones increases due to the asperity degradation. The increase in the variogram range is anisotropic and tends to be higher along the shearing. Consequently, the direction of maximum continuity rotates towards the shear direction. After modeling the evolution of the spatial structure with shearing and detecting boundaries of the degraded areas, a methodology was presented to provide a regression-kriging estimate of the morphology of sheared surfaces. The proposed method can be considered as a cost-free and reasonably accurate alternative to expensive techniques of scanning the rock fracture surface after the shear test.
Exploring German Bight coastal morphodynamics based on modelled bed shear stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kösters, Frank; Winter, Christian
2014-02-01
The prediction of large-scale coastal and estuarine morphodynamics requires a sound understanding of the relevant driving processes and forcing factors. Data- and process-based methods and models suffer from limitations when applied individually to investigate these systems and, therefore, a combined approach is needed. The morphodynamics of coastal environments can be assessed in terms of a mean bed elevation range (BER), which is the difference of the lowest to highest seabed elevation occurring within a defined time interval. In this study of the coastal sector of the German Bight, North Sea, the highly variable distribution of observed BER for the period 1984-2006 is correlated to local bed shear stresses based on hindcast simulations with a well-validated high-resolution (typically 1,000 m in coastal settings) process-based numerical model of the North Sea. A significant correlation of the 95th percentile of bed shear stress and BER was found, explaining between 49 % and 60 % of the observed variance of the BER under realistic forcing conditions. The model then was applied to differentiate the effects of three main hydrodynamic drivers, i.e. tides, wind-induced currents, and waves. Large-scale mapping of these model results quantify previous qualitative suggestions: tides act as main drivers of the East Frisian coast, whereas waves are more relevant for the morphodynamics of the German west coast. Tidal currents are the main driver of the very high morphological activity of the tidal channels of the Ems, Weser and Elbe estuaries, the Jade Bay, and tidal inlets between the islands. This also holds for the backbarrier tidal flats of the North Frisian Wadden Sea. The morphodynamics of the foreshore areas of the barrier island systems are mainly wave-driven; in the deeper areas tides, waves and wind-driven currents have a combined effect. The open tidal flats (outer Ems, Neuwerker Watt, Dithmarschen Bight) are affected by a combination of tides, wind
Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system
Rycroft, Chris; Orpe, Ashish; Kudrolli, Arshad
2009-01-15
We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity driven sheared granular flow with a computational model performed with the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). To our knowledge, this is the first thorough test of the LAMMPS model with a laboratory granular flow. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross-section, and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The boundary imposes a packing order, and the grains are observed to flow in layers which get progressively more disordered with distance from the walls. The computations use a Cundall--Strack contact model between the grains, using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies, and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. After appropriate scaling, we find that the mean velocity of the grains and the number density as a function of flow cross-section observed in the experiments and the simulations are in excellent agreement. The mean flow profile is observed to be unchanged over a broad range of coefficient of friction, except near the smooth wall. We show that the flow profile is not sensitive to atleast 10\\percent polydispersity in particle size. Because the grain elasticity used is smaller in the computations as compared with glass grains, wave-like features can be noted over short time scales in the mean velocity and the velocity auto-correlations measured in the simulations. These wave features occur over an intermediate timescale larger than the particle interaction but smaller than the
Stably stratified shear turbulence: A new model for the energy dissipation length scale
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V. M.
1994-01-01
A model is presented to compute the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation length scale l(sub epsilon) in a stably stratified shear flow. The expression for l(sub epsilon) is derived from solving the spectral balance equation for the turbulent kinetic energy. The buoyancy spectrum entering such equation is constructed using a Lagrangian timescale with modifications due to stratification. The final result for l(sub epsilon) is given in algebraic form as a function of the Froude number Fr and the flux Richardson number R(sub f), l(sub epsilon) = l(sub epsilon)(Fr, R(sub f). The model predicts that for R(sub f) less than R(sub fc), l(sub epsilon) decreases with stratification. An attractive feature of the present model is that it encompasses, as special cases, some seemingly different models for l(sub epsilon) that have been proposed in the past by Deardorff, Hunt et al., Weinstock, and Canuto and Minotti. An alternative form for the dissipation rate epsilon is also discussed that may be useful when one uses a prognostic equation for the heat flux. The present model is applicable to subgrid-scale models, which are needed in large eddy simulations (LES), as well as to ensemble average models. The model is applied to predict the variation of l(sub epsilon) with height z in the planetary boundary layer. The resulting l(sub epsilon) versus z profile reproduces very closely the nonmonotonic profile of l(sub epsilon) exhibited by many LES calculations, beginning with the one by Deardorff in 1974.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, D. Harley; Leal, L. Gary; García-Cervera, Carlos J.; Ceniceros, Hector D.
2007-02-01
We consider the behavior of the Doi-Marrucci-Greco (DMG) model for nematic liquid crystalline polymers in planar shear flow. We found the DMG model to exhibit dynamics in both qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations reported by Larson and Mead [Liq. Cryst. 15, 151 (1993)] for the Ericksen number and Deborah number cascades. For increasing shear rates within the Ericksen number cascade, the DMG model displays three distinct regimes: stable simple shear, stable roll cells, and irregular structure accompanied by disclination formation. In accordance with experimental observations, the model predicts both ±1 and ±1/2 disclinations. Although ±1 defects form via the ridge-splitting mechanism first identified by Feng, Tao, and Leal [J. Fluid Mech. 449, 179 (2001)], a new mechanism is identified for the formation of ±1/2 defects. Within the Deborah number cascade, with increasing Deborah number, the DMG model exhibits a streamwise banded texture, in the absence of disclinations and roll cells, followed by a monodomain wherein the mean orientation lies within the shear plane throughout the domain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.
1994-01-01
The Reynolds numbers that characterize geophysical and astrophysical turbulence (Re approximately equals 10(exp 8) for the planetary boundary layer and Re approximately equals 10(exp 14) for the Sun's interior) are too large to allow a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fundamental Navier-Stokes and temperature equations. In fact, the spatial number of grid points N approximately Re(exp 9/4) exceeds the computational capability of today's supercomputers. Alternative treatments are the ensemble-time average approach, and/or the volume average approach. Since the first method (Reynolds stress approach) is largely analytical, the resulting turbulence equations entail manageable computational requirements and can thus be linked to a stellar evolutionary code or, in the geophysical case, to general circulation models. In the volume average approach, one carries out a large eddy simulation (LES) which resolves numerically the largest scales, while the unresolved scales must be treated theoretically with a subgrid scale model (SGS). Contrary to the ensemble average approach, the LES+SGS approach has considerable computational requirements. Even if this prevents (for the time being) a LES+SGS model to be linked to stellar or geophysical codes, it is still of the greatest relevance as an 'experimental tool' to be used, inter alia, to improve the parameterizations needed in the ensemble average approach. Such a methodology has been successfully adopted in studies of the convective planetary boundary layer. Experienc e with the LES+SGS approach from different fields has shown that its reliability depends on the healthiness of the SGS model for numerical stability as well as for physical completeness. At present, the most widely used SGS model, the Smagorinsky model, accounts for the effect of the shear induced by the large resolved scales on the unresolved scales but does not account for the effects of buoyancy, anisotropy, rotation, and stable stratification. The
Patel, Sandeep; Zhong, Yang; Bauer, Brad A.; Davis, Joseph E.
2014-01-01
We present results from molecular dynamics simulations of methanol-water solutions using charge equilibration force fields to explicitly account for non-additive electronic interaction contributions to the potential energy. We study solutions across the concentration range from 0.1 to 0.9 methanol mole fraction. At dilute concentrations, methanol density is enhanced at the liquid-vapor interface, consistent with previous molecular dynamics and experimental studies. Interfacial thickness exhibits a monotonic increase with increasing methanol mole fraction, while surface tensions display monotonic decrease with methanol concentration, in qualitative agreement with experimental data and previous molecular dynamics predictions using polarizable force fields. In terms of interfacial structure, in keeping with predictions of traditional force fields, there is a unique preferential orientation of methanol molecules at the interface. Moreover, there is a free energetic preference for methanol molecules at the interface as evidenced by potential of mean force calculations. The pmf calculations suggest an interfacial state with 0.8 kcal/mole stability relative to the bulk, again, in qualitative agreement with previous simulation and experimental studies. Interfacial potentials based on double integration of total charge density range from −610 mV to −330 mV over the dilute to concentrated regimes, respectively. The preponderance of methanol at the interface at all mole fractions gives rise to a dominant methanol contribution to the total interfacial potential. Interestingly, there is a transition of the water surface potential contribution from negative to positive upon the transition from methanol mole fraction of 0.1 to 0.2. The dipole and quadrupole contributions to the water component of the total interfacial potential are effectively of equal magnitude and opposite sign, thus canceling one another. We compute the in-plane component of the dielectric permittivity
Modelling the impulse diffraction field of shear waves in transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatelin, Simon; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Bernal, Miguel; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2015-05-01
The generation of shear waves from an ultrasound focused beam has been developed as a major concept for remote palpation using shear wave elastography (SWE). For muscular diagnostic applications, characteristics of the shear wave profile will strongly depend on characteristics of the transducer as well as the orientation of muscular fibers and the tissue viscoelastic properties. The numerical simulation of shear waves generated from a specific probe in an anisotropic viscoelastic medium is a key issue for further developments of SWE in fibrous soft tissues. In this study we propose a complete numerical tool allowing 3D simulation of a shear wave front in anisotropic viscoelastic media. From the description of an ultrasonic transducer, the shear wave source is simulated by using Field’s II software and shear wave propagation described by using the Green’s formalism. Finally, the comparison between simulations and experiments are successively performed for both shear wave velocity and dispersion profile in a transverse isotropic hydrogel phantom, in vivo forearm muscle and in vivo biceps brachii.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Draper, M.; Guggeri, A.; Usera, G.
2016-09-01
Wind energy has become cost competitive in recent years for several reasons. Among them, wind turbines have become more efficient, increasing its size, both rotor diameter and tower height. This growth in size makes the prediction of the wind flow through wind turbines more challenging. To avoid the computational cost related to resolve the blade boundary layer as well as the atmospheric boundary layer, actuator models have been proposed in the past few years. Among them, the Actuator Line Model (ALM) has shown to reproduce with reasonable accuracy the wind flow in the wake of a wind turbine with moderately computational cost. However, its use to simulate the flow through wind farms requires a spatial resolution and a time step that makes it unaffordable in some cases. The present paper aims to assess the ALM with coarser resolution and larger time step than what is generally recommended, taking into account an atmospheric sheared and turbulent inflow condition and comparing the results with the Actuator Disk Model with Rotation (ADM-R) and experimental data. To accomplish this, a well known wind tunnel campaign is considered as validation case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shen, Yu-I.; Tan, Scott; Gerecht, Sharon
2014-05-01
Studying human vascular disease in conventional cell cultures and in animal models does not effectively mimic the complex vascular microenvironment and may not accurately predict vascular responses in humans. We utilized a microfluidic device to recapitulate both shear stress and O2 levels in health and disease, establishing a microfluidic vascular model (μVM). Maintaining human endothelial cells (ECs) in healthy-mimicking conditions resulted in conversion to a physiological phenotype namely cell elongation, reduced proliferation, lowered angiogenic gene expression and formation of actin cortical rim and continuous barrier. We next examined the responses of the healthy μVM to a vasotoxic cancer drug, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), in comparison with an in vivo mouse model. We found that 5-FU does not induce apoptosis rather vascular hyperpermeability, which can be alleviated by Resveratrol treatment. This effect was confirmed by in vivo findings identifying a vasoprotecting strategy by the adjunct therapy of 5-FU with Resveratrol. The μVM of ischemic disease demonstrated the transition of ECs from a quiescent to an activated state, with higher proliferation rate, upregulation of angiogenic genes, and impaired barrier integrity. The μVM offers opportunities to study and predict human ECs with physiologically relevant phenotypes in healthy, pathological and drug-treated environments.
Simulations of a stretching bar using a plasticity model from the shear transformation zone theory
Rycroft, Chris H.; Gibou, Frederic
2010-06-05
An Eulerian simulation is developed to study an elastoplastic model of amorphous materials that is based upon the shear transformation zone theory developed by Langer and coworkers. In this theory, plastic deformation is controlled by an effective temperature that measures the amount of configurational disorder in the material. The simulation is used to model ductile fracture in a stretching bar that initially contains a small notch, and the effects of many of the model parameters are examined. The simulation tracks the shape of the bar using the level set method. Within the bar, a finite difference discretization is employed that makes use of the essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme. The system of equations is moderately stiff due to the presence of large elastic constants, and one of the key numerical challenges is to accurately track the level set and construct extrapolated field values for use in boundary conditions. A new approach to field extrapolation is discussed that is second order accurate and requires a constant amount of work per gridpoint.
Kirby, Patrick; Buerk, Donald G.; Parikh, Jaimit; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Jaron, Dov
2015-01-01
We developed a mass transport model for a parallel-plate flow chamber apparatus to predict the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP) produced by cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and investigated how the net rates of production, degradation, and mass transport for these three chemical species vary with changes in wall shear stress (τw). These simulations provide an improved understanding of experimental results obtained with parallel-plate flow chambers and allows quantitative analysis of the relationship between τw, adenine nucleotide concentrations, and NO produced by ECs. Experimental data obtained after altering ATP and ADP concentrations with apyrase were analyzed to quantify changes in the rate of NO production (RNO). The effects of different isoforms of apyrase on ATP and ADP concentrations and nucleotide-dependent changes in RNO could be predicted with the model. A decrease in ATP was predicted with apyrase, but an increase in ADP was simulated due to degradation of ATP. We found that a simple proportional relationship relating a component of RNO to the sum of ATP and ADP provided a close match to the fitted curve for experimentally measured changes in RNO with apyrase. Estimates for the proportionality constant ranged from 0.0067 to 0.0321 μM/s increase in RNO per nM nucleotide concentration, depending on which isoform of apyrase was modeled, with the largest effect of nucleotides on RNO at low τw (< 6 dyn/cm2). PMID:26529478
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Chuan; Botto, Lorenzo
2015-11-01
The adsorption of solid particles to fluid interfaces is exploited in several multiphase flow technologies, and plays a fundamental role in the dynamics of particle-laden drops. A fundamental question is how the particles modify the effective mechanical properties of the interface. Using a fast Eulerian-Lagrangian model for interfacial colloids, we have simulated a pendant drop whose surface is covered with spherical particles having short-range repulsion. The interface curvature induces non-uniform and anisotropic interfacial stresses, which we calculate by an interfacial extension of the Irving-Kirkwood formula. The isotropic component of this stress, related to the effective surface tension, is in good agreement with that calculated by fitting the drop shape to the Young-Laplace equation. The anisotropic component, related to the interfacial shear elasticity, is highly non uniform: small at the drop apex, significant along the drop sides. The reduction in surface tension can be substantial even below maximum surface packing. We illustrate this point by simulating phase-coarsening of a two-phase mixture in which the presence of interfacial particles ``freezes'' the coarsening process, for surface coverage well below maximum packing This work is supported by the EU through the Marie Curie Grant FLOWMAT (618335).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhevlakov, A. P.; Zatsepina, M. E.; Kirillovskii, V. K.
2014-06-01
The principles of transformation of a Foucault shadowgram into a quantitative map of wave-front deformation based on creation of a system of isophotes are unveiled. The presented studies and their results prove that there is a high degree of correspondence between a Foucault shadowgram and the geometrical model of a shear interferogram with respect to displaying wave-front deformations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, C. W.
1984-01-01
A three dimensional model which combines measurements of wind shear in the real atmosphere with three dimensional Monte Carlo simulated turbulence was developed. The wind field over the body of an aircraft can be simulated and all aerodynamic loads and moments calculated.
Model-based control of transitional and turbulent wall-bounded shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moarref, Rashad
Turbulent flows are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. Dissipation of kinetic energy by turbulent flow around airplanes, ships, and submarines increases resistance to their motion (drag). In this dissertation, we have designed flow control strategies for enhancing performance of vehicles and other systems involving turbulent flows. While traditional flow control techniques combine physical intuition with costly numerical simulations and experiments, we have developed control-oriented models of wall-bounded shear flows that enable simulation-free and computationally-efficient design of flow controllers. Model-based approach to flow control design has been motivated by the realization that progressive loss of robustness and consequential noise amplification initiate the departure from the laminar flow. In view of this, we have used the Navier-Stokes equations with uncertainty linearized around the laminar flow as a control-oriented model for transitional flows and we have shown that reducing the sensitivity of fluctuations to external disturbances represents a powerful paradigm for preventing transition. In addition, we have established that turbulence modeling in conjunction with judiciously selected linearization of the flow with control can be used as a powerful control-oriented model for turbulent flows. We have illustrated the predictive power of our model-based control design in three concrete problems: preventing transition by (i) a sensorless strategy based on traveling waves and (ii) an optimal state-feedback controller based on local flow information; and (iii) skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flows by transverse wall oscillations. We have developed analytical and computational tools based on perturbation analysis (in the control amplitude) for control design by means of spatially- and temporally- periodic flow manipulation in problems (i) and (iii), respectively. In problem (ii), we have utilized tools for designing structured optimal state
Lateral heterogeneity scales in regional and global upper mantle shear velocity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meschede, Matthias; Romanowicz, Barbara
2015-02-01
We analyse the lateral heterogeneity scales of recent upper mantle tomographic shear velocity (Vs) global and regional models. Our goal is to constrain the spherical harmonics power spectrum over the largest possible range of scales to get an estimate of the strength and statistical distribution of both long and small-scale structure. We use a spherical multitaper method to obtain high quality power spectral estimates from the regional models. After deconvolution of the employed taper functions, we combine global and regional spectral estimates from scales of 20 000 to around 200 km (degree 100). In contrast to previous studies that focus on linear power spectral densities, we interpret the logarithmic power per harmonic degree l as heterogeneity strength at a particular depth and horizontal scale. Throughout the mantle, we observe in recent global models, that their low degree spectrum is anisotropic with respect to Earth's rotation axis. We then constrain the uppermost mantle spectrum from global and regional models. Their power spectra transfer smoothly into each other in overlapping spectral bands, and model correlation is in general best in the uppermost 250 km (i.e. the `heterosphere'). In Europe, we see good correlation from the largest scales down to features of about 500 km. Detailed analysis and interpretation of spectral shape in this depth range shows that the heterosphere has several characteristic length scales and varying spectral decay rates. We interpret these as expressions of different physical processes. At larger depths, the correlation between different models drops, and the power spectrum exhibits strong small scale structure whose location and strength is not as well resolved at present. The spectrum also has bands with elevated power that likely correspond to length scales that are enhanced due to the inversion process.
An interfacial stress sensor for biomechanical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundara-Rajan, K.; Bestick, A.; Rowe, G. I.; Klute, G. K.; Ledoux, W. R.; Wang, H. C.; Mamishev, A. V.
2012-08-01
This paper presents a capacitive sensor that measures interfacial forces in prostheses and is promising for other biomedical applications. These sensors can be integrated into prosthetic devices to measure both normal and shear stress simultaneously, allowing for the study of prosthetic limb fit, and ultimately for the ability to better adapt prosthetics to individual users. A sensing cell with a 1.0 cm2 spatial resolution and a measurement range of 0-220 kPa of shear and 0-2 MPa of pressure was constructed. The cell was load tested and found to be capable of isolating the applied shear and pressure forces. This paper discusses the construction of the prototype, the mechanical and electrode design, fabrication and characterization. The work presented is aimed at creating a class of adaptive prosthetic interfaces using a capacitive sensor.
Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report
Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.
2002-07-01
In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Chong; Wang, Xianyan
2016-01-01
Through numerically solving the appropriate wave equations, propagation of biosonar signals in a Chinese river dolphin (baiji) was studied. The interfacial waves along the rostrum-tissue interfaces, including both compressional (longitudinal) and shear (transverse) waves in the solid rostrum through fluid-solid coupling were examined. The baiji's rostrum was found to effect acoustic beam formation not only as an interfacial wave generator but also as a sound reflector. The wave propagation patterns in the solid rostrum were found to significantly change the wave movement through the bone. Vibrations in the rostrum, expressed in solid displacement, initially increased but eventually decreased from posterior to anterior sides, indicating a complex physical process. Furthermore, the comparisons among seven cases, including the combination of (1) the rostrum, melon, and air sacs; (2) rostrum-air sacs; (3) rostrum-melon; (4) only rostrum; (5) air sacs-melon; (6) only air sacs; and (7) only melon revealed that the cases including the rostrum were better able to approach the complete system by inducing rostrum-tissue interfacial waves and reducing the differences in main beam angle and -3 dB beam width. The interfacial waves in the rostrum were considered complementary with reflection to determine the obbligato role of the rostrum in the baiji's biosonar emission. The far-field beams formed from complete fluid-solid models and non-fluid-solid models were compared to reveal the effects brought by the consideration of shear waves of the solid structures of the baiji. The results may provide useful information for further understanding the role of the rostrum in this odontocete species.
Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Chong; Wang, Xianyan
2016-01-01
Through numerically solving the appropriate wave equations, propagation of biosonar signals in a Chinese river dolphin (baiji) was studied. The interfacial waves along the rostrum-tissue interfaces, including both compressional (longitudinal) and shear (transverse) waves in the solid rostrum through fluid-solid coupling were examined. The baiji's rostrum was found to effect acoustic beam formation not only as an interfacial wave generator but also as a sound reflector. The wave propagation patterns in the solid rostrum were found to significantly change the wave movement through the bone. Vibrations in the rostrum, expressed in solid displacement, initially increased but eventually decreased from posterior to anterior sides, indicating a complex physical process. Furthermore, the comparisons among seven cases, including the combination of (1) the rostrum, melon, and air sacs; (2) rostrum-air sacs; (3) rostrum-melon; (4) only rostrum; (5) air sacs-melon; (6) only air sacs; and (7) only melon revealed that the cases including the rostrum were better able to approach the complete system by inducing rostrum-tissue interfacial waves and reducing the differences in main beam angle and -3 dB beam width. The interfacial waves in the rostrum were considered complementary with reflection to determine the obbligato role of the rostrum in the baiji's biosonar emission. The far-field beams formed from complete fluid-solid models and non-fluid-solid models were compared to reveal the effects brought by the consideration of shear waves of the solid structures of the baiji. The results may provide useful information for further understanding the role of the rostrum in this odontocete species.
PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian
2012-11-01
The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.
Low-shear modelled microgravity alters expression of virulence determinants of Staphylococcus aureus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosado, Helena; Doyle, Marie; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.
2010-02-01
Microbiological monitoring of air and surfaces within the ISS indicate that bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are found with high frequency. Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogen with the capacity to cause severe debilitating infection, constitutes a significant proportion of these isolates. Experiments conducted during short-term flight suggest that growth in microgravity leads to increases in bacterial antibiotic resistance and to cell wall changes. Growth under low-shear modelled microgravity (LSMMG) indicated that a reduced gravitational field acts as an environmental signal for expression of enhanced bacterial virulence in gram-negative pathogens. We therefore examined the effect of simulated microgravity on parameters of antibiotic susceptibility and virulence in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates RF1, RF6 and RF11; these strains were grown in a high aspect ratio vessel under LSMMG and compared with cells grown under normal gravity (NG). There were no significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci grown under LSMMG compared to NG. LSMMG-induced reductions in synthesis of the pigment staphyloxanthin and the major virulence determinant α-toxin were noted. Significant changes in global gene expression were identified by DNA microarray analysis; with isolate RF6, the expression of hla and genes of the regulatory system saeR/saeS were reduced approximately two-fold. These data provide strong evidence that growth of S. aureus under modelled microgravity leads to a reduction in expression of virulence determinants.
Finite-difference modeling of SH-wave conversions in shallow shear-wave refraction surveying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mi, Binbin; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian
2015-08-01
The shallow shear-wave refraction method works successfully in an area with a series of horizontal layers. Complex near-surface geology, however, may not fit into the assumption of a series of horizontal layers. It is theoretically inevitable that a plane SH-wave undergoes wave-type conversions along an interface in an area of non-horizontal layers. One real example has shown that the shallow SH-wave refraction method provides velocities of a converted wave rather than SH-wave. Moreover, it is impossible to identify the converted wave by refraction data itself. In this paper, we implement numerical simulation for conversion of SH- to P-wave in 3D heterogeneous medium with the finite-difference method. An SH-wave source excitation method that we give in the numerical simulation is testified, which can only generate SH-wave without P-wave. The numerical modeling results demonstrate that the conversion of the SH-wave to other wave-types will occur in an area of non-horizontal layers. All the converted P-wave arrivals are shown reversed polarity like S-wave arrivals in the modeling of reverse of the source and we have clarified the peculiar properties of converted P-waves from the S-wave. Our numerical simulation results confirm that velocities calculated from an SH-wave refraction survey are velocities of converted waves. Therefore, special attention should be paid to this pitfall in the real world.
Meng, Wei; Yu, Fengxu; Chen, Huaiqing; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, Eryong; Dian, Ke; Shi, Yingkang
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration polarization of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) at the surface of the carotid artery under conditions of steady flow and to establish its relationship with shear stress using an in vitro vascular simulation model of carotid bifurcation. Shear stress, HDL concentration at the surface, and the ratio of HDL concentration at the surface to concentration in bulk flow were measured at different locations within the model under high-speed (1.451 m/s) and low-speed (0.559 m/s) flow. HDL showed concentration polarization at the surface of the carotid artery model, particularly in the internal carotid artery sinus. With decreasing flow velocity, the shear stress at the surface also decreased, and HDL concentration polarization increased. The concentration polarization of HDL was negatively and strongly correlated with shear stress at both low- (r = -0.872, P < .001) and high-speed flow (r = -0.592, P = .0018).
Li, Long-Fei; Xiang, Cheng; Qin, Kai-Rong
2015-10-01
The calcium signaling plays a vital role in flow-dependent vascular endothelial cell (VEC) physiology. Variations in fluid shear stress and ATP concentration in blood vessels can activate dynamic responses of cytosolic-free [Formula: see text] through various calcium channels on the plasma membrane. In this paper, a novel dynamic model has been proposed for transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 [Formula: see text]-mediated intracellular calcium dynamics in VECs induced by fluid shear stress and ATP. Our model includes [Formula: see text] signaling pathways through P2Y receptors and [Formula: see text] channels (indirect mechanism) and captures the roles of the [Formula: see text] compound channels in VEC [Formula: see text] signaling in response to fluid shear stress (direct mechanism). In particular, it takes into account that the [Formula: see text] compound channels are regulated by intracellular [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] concentrations. The simulation studies have demonstrated that the dynamic responses of calcium concentration produced by the proposed model correlate well with the existing experimental observations. We also conclude from the simulation studies that endogenously released ATP may play an insignificant role in the process of intracellular [Formula: see text] response to shear stress.
Dodson, W.R.; Dimitrakopoulos, P.
2010-01-01
We develop a computationally efficient cytoskeleton-based continuum erythrocyte algorithm. The cytoskeleton is modeled as a two-dimensional elastic solid with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance that follows a material law (Skalak, R., A. Tozeren, R. P. Zarda, and S. Chien. 1973. Strain energy function of red blood cell membranes. Biophys. J. 13:245–264). Our modeling enforces the global area-incompressibility of the spectrin skeleton (being enclosed beneath the lipid bilayer in the erythrocyte membrane) via a nonstiff, and thus efficient, adaptive prestress procedure which accounts for the (locally) isotropic stress imposed by the lipid bilayer on the cytoskeleton. In addition, we investigate the dynamics of healthy human erythrocytes in strong shear flows with capillary number Ca = O(1) and small-to-moderate viscosity ratios 0.001 ≤ λ ≤ 1.5. These conditions correspond to a wide range of surrounding medium viscosities (4–600 mPa s) and shear flow rates (0.02–440 s−1), and match those used in ektacytometry systems. Our computational results on the cell deformability and tank-treading frequency are compared with ektacytometry findings. The tank-treading period is shown to be inversely proportional to the shear rate and to increase linearly with the ratio of the cytoplasm viscosity to that of the suspending medium. Our modeling also predicts that the cytoskeleton undergoes measurable local area dilatation and compression during the tank-treading of the cells. PMID:21044588
Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem
2016-09-18
Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices.
Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in HED blast-wave-driven shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Stefano, Carlos
2013-10-01
This talk describes work exploring the sensitivity to initial conditions of hydrodynamic mixing-layer growth due to shear flow in the high-energy-density regime. This work features an approach in two parts, experimental and theoretical. First, an experiment, conducted at the OMEGA-60 laser facility, seeks to measure the development of such a mixing layer. This is accomplished by placing a layer of low-density (initially of either 0.05 or 0.1 g/cm3, to vary the system's Atwood number) carbon foam against a layer of higher-density (initially 1.4 g/cm3) polyamide-imide that has been machined to a nominally-flat surface at its interface with the foam. Inherent roughness of this surface's finish is precisely measured and varied from piece to piece. Ten simultaneous OMEGA beams, comprising a 4.5 kJ, 1-ns pulse focused to a roughly 1-mm-diameter spot, irradiate a thin polycarbonate ablator, driving a blast wave into the foam, parallel to its interface with the polyamide-imide. The ablator is framed by a gold washer, such that the blast wave is driven only into the foam, and not into the polyamide-imide. The subsequent forward motion of the shocked foam creates the desired shear effect, and the system is imaged by X-ray radiography 35 ns after the beginning of the driving laser pulse. Second, a simulation is performed, intending to replicate the flow observed in the experiment as closely as possible. Using the resulting simulated flow parameters, an analytical model can be used to predict the evolution of the mixing layer, as well as track the motion of the fluid in the experiment prior to the snapshot seen in the radiograph. The ability of the model to predict growth of the mixing layer under the various conditions observed in the experiment is then examined. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE
Bioinspired design and interfacial failure of biomedical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahbar, Nima
The deformation mechanism of nacre as a model biological material is studied in this project. A numerical model is presented which consists of tensile pillars, shear pillars, asperities and aragonite platelets. It has been shown that the tensile pillars are the main elements that control the global stiffness of the nacre structure. Meanwhile, ultimate strength of the nacre structure is controlled by asperities and their behavior and the ratio of L/2D which is itself a function of the geometry of the platelets. Protein/shear pillars provide the glue which holds the assembly of entire system together, particularly in the direction normal to the platelets main axis. This dissertation also presents the results of a combined theoretical/computational and experimental effort to develop crack resistant dental multilayers that are inspired by the functionally graded dento-enamel junction (DEJ) structure that occurs between dentin and enamel in natural teeth. The complex structures of natural teeth and ceramic crowns are idealized using at layered configurations. The potential effects of occlusal contact are then modeled using finite element simulations of Hertzian contact. The resulting stress distributions are compared for a range of possible bioinspired, functionally graded architecture. The computed stress distributions show that the highest stress concentrations in the top ceramic layer of crown structures are reduced significantly by the use of bioinspired functionally graded architectures. The reduced stresses are shown to be associated with significant improvements (30%) in the pop-in loads over a wide range of clinically-relevant loading rates. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of bioinspired dental ceramic crown structures. The results of a combined experimental and computational study of mixed mode fracture in glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces that are relevant to dental restorations is also presented. The interfacial fracture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Castro, Marcelo Souza; Rodriguez, Oscar Mauricio Hernandez
2016-06-01
The study of the hydrodynamic stability of flow patterns is important in the design of equipment and pipelines for multiphase flows. The maintenance of a particular flow pattern becomes important in many applications, e.g., stratified flow pattern in heavy oil production avoiding the formation of emulsions because of the separation of phases and annular flow pattern in heat exchangers which increases the heat transfer coefficient. Flow maps are drawn to orientate engineers which flow pattern is present in a pipeline, for example. The ways how these flow maps are drawn have changed from totally experimental work, to phenomenological models, and then to stability analysis theories. In this work an experimental liquid-liquid flow map, with water and viscous oil as work fluids, drawn via subjective approach with high speed camera was used to compare to approaches of the same theory: the interfacial-tension-force model. This theory was used to drawn the wavy stratified flow pattern transition boundary. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches of the interfacial-tension-force model for transition boundaries of liquid-liquid flow patterns: (i) solving the wave equation for the wave speed and using average values for wave number and wave speed; and (ii) solving the same equation for the wave number and then using a correlation for the wave speed. The results show that the second approach presents better results.
Interfacial area transport in bubbly flow
Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; Revankar, S.T.
1997-12-31
In order to close the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analyses, the interfacial area concentration needs to be modeled as a constitutive relation. In this study, the focus was on the investigation of the interfacial area concentration transport phenomena, both theoretically and experimentally. The interfacial area concentration transport equation for air-water bubbly up-flow in a vertical pipe was developed, and the models for the source and sink terms were provided. The necessary parameters for the experimental studies were identified, including the local time-averaged void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble interfacial velocity, liquid velocity and turbulent intensity. Experiments were performed with air-water mixture at atmospheric pressure. Double-sensor conductivity probe and hot-film probe were employed to measure the identified parameters. With these experimental data, the preliminary model evaluation was carried out for the simplest form of the developed interfacial area transport equation, i.e., the one-dimensional transport equation.
Alexander, C. Scott; Ding, Jow -Lian; Asay, James Russell
2016-03-09
Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS) is a new experimental technique that provides a platform for direct measurement of material strength at extreme pressures. The technique employs an imposed quasi-static magnetic field and a pulsed power generator that produces an intense current on a planar driver panel, which in turn generates high amplitude magnetically induced longitudinal compression and transverse shear waves into a planar sample mounted on the drive panel. In order to apply sufficiently high shear traction to the test sample, a high strength material must be used for the drive panel. Molybdenum is a potential driver material for the MAPSmore » experiment because of its high yield strength and sufficient electrical conductivity. To properly interpret the results and gain useful information from the experiments, it is critical to have a good understanding and a predictive capability of the mechanical response of the driver. In this work, the inelastic behavior of molybdenum under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-shear ramp loading conditions is experimentally characterized. It is observed that an imposed uniaxial magnetic field ramped to approximately 10 T through a period of approximately 2500 μs and held near the peak for about 250 μs before being tested appears to anneal the molybdenum panel. In order to provide a physical basis for model development, a general theoretical framework that incorporates electromagnetic loading and the coupling between the imposed field and the inelasticity of molybdenum was developed. Based on this framework, a multi-axial continuum model for molybdenum under electromagnetic loading is presented. The model reasonably captures all of the material characteristics displayed by the experimental data obtained from various experimental configurations. Additionally, data generated from shear loading provide invaluable information not only for validating but also for guiding the development of the material
Alexander, C. Scott; Ding, Jow -Lian; Asay, James Russell
2016-03-09
Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS) is a new experimental technique that provides a platform for direct measurement of material strength at extreme pressures. The technique employs an imposed quasi-static magnetic field and a pulsed power generator that produces an intense current on a planar driver panel, which in turn generates high amplitude magnetically induced longitudinal compression and transverse shear waves into a planar sample mounted on the drive panel. In order to apply sufficiently high shear traction to the test sample, a high strength material must be used for the drive panel. Molybdenum is a potential driver material for the MAPS experiment because of its high yield strength and sufficient electrical conductivity. To properly interpret the results and gain useful information from the experiments, it is critical to have a good understanding and a predictive capability of the mechanical response of the driver. In this work, the inelastic behavior of molybdenum under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-shear ramp loading conditions is experimentally characterized. It is observed that an imposed uniaxial magnetic field ramped to approximately 10 T through a period of approximately 2500 μs and held near the peak for about 250 μs before being tested appears to anneal the molybdenum panel. In order to provide a physical basis for model development, a general theoretical framework that incorporates electromagnetic loading and the coupling between the imposed field and the inelasticity of molybdenum was developed. Based on this framework, a multi-axial continuum model for molybdenum under electromagnetic loading is presented. The model reasonably captures all of the material characteristics displayed by the experimental data obtained from various experimental configurations. Additionally, data generated from shear loading provide invaluable information not only for validating but also for guiding the development of the material model for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, C. S.; Ding, J. L.; Asay, J. R.
2016-03-01
Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS) is a new experimental technique that provides a platform for direct measurement of material strength at extreme pressures. The technique employs an imposed quasi-static magnetic field and a pulsed power generator that produces an intense current on a planar driver panel, which in turn generates high amplitude magnetically induced longitudinal compression and transverse shear waves into a planar sample mounted on the drive panel. In order to apply sufficiently high shear traction to the test sample, a high strength material must be used for the drive panel. Molybdenum is a potential driver material for the MAPS experiment because of its high yield strength and sufficient electrical conductivity. To properly interpret the results and gain useful information from the experiments, it is critical to have a good understanding and a predictive capability of the mechanical response of the driver. In this work, the inelastic behavior of molybdenum under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-shear ramp loading conditions is experimentally characterized. It is observed that an imposed uniaxial magnetic field ramped to approximately 10 T through a period of approximately 2500 μs and held near the peak for about 250 μs before being tested appears to anneal the molybdenum panel. In order to provide a physical basis for model development, a general theoretical framework that incorporates electromagnetic loading and the coupling between the imposed field and the inelasticity of molybdenum was developed. Based on this framework, a multi-axial continuum model for molybdenum under electromagnetic loading is presented. The model reasonably captures all of the material characteristics displayed by the experimental data obtained from various experimental configurations. In addition, data generated from shear loading provide invaluable information not only for validating but also for guiding the development of the material model for
Interfacial area transport equation for bubbly to cap-bubbly transition flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worosz, Theodore S.
To fully realize the benefit of the two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) as a constitutive model for the interfacial area concentration in the two-fluid model, it is imperative that models be developed to dynamically transition from one-group to two-group flows. With this in mind, the two-group IATE is derived in detail to establish new expansion source terms that correctly account for the effects of intergroup bubble transport. In addition to this theoretical effort, the state-of-the-art four-sensor conductivity probe is used to establish a reliable experimental database of local two-phase flow parameters to characterize one-group to two-group transition flows and to support model development. The experiments are performed in verticalupward air-water two-phase flow in a 5.08cm pipe. Additionally, the local conductivity probe is improved through systematic studies into: 1) signal "ghosting" electrical interference among probe sensors, 2) sampling frequency sensitivity, 3) measurement duration sensitivity, and 4) probe sensor orientation. Wake-dominated bubble transport characterizes the transition from onegroup to two-group flows. Therefore, the necessary intergroup and intragroup wake entrainment source terms that are required for two-group interfacial area transport in transition flows are developed. Furthermore, an approach is developed to initiate the shearing-off source and reduce the one-group interaction mechanisms as an established two-group flow develops. The new interfacial area transport model for one-group to two-group transition flows is evaluated against the experimental database. The model accurately captures the exchange of void fraction and interfacial area concentration between group-I and group-II in transition flows. Overall, the group-I void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted within +/-6% and +/-4%, respectively, of the experimental data. The group-II void fraction and interfacial area concentration are
Szczesny, Spencer E.; Elliott, Dawn M.
2015-01-01
Despite current knowledge of tendon structure, the fundamental deformation mechanisms underlying tendon mechanics and failure are unknown. We recently showed that a shear lag model, which explicitly assumed plastic interfibrillar load transfer between discontinuous fibrils, could explain the multiscale fascicle mechanics, suggesting that fascicle yielding is due to plastic deformation of the interfibrillar matrix. However, it is unclear whether alternative physical mechanisms, such as elastic interfibrillar deformation or fibril yielding, also contribute to fascicle mechanical behavior. The objective of the current work was to determine if plasticity of the interfibrillar matrix is uniquely capable of explaining the multiscale mechanics of tendon fascicles including the tissue post-yield behavior. This was examined by comparing the predictions of a continuous fibril model and three separate shear lag models incorporating an elastic, plastic, or elastoplastic interfibrillar matrix with multiscale experimental data. The predicted effects of fibril yielding on each of these models were also considered. The results demonstrated that neither the continuous fibril model nor the elastic shear lag model can successfully predict the experimental data, even if fibril yielding is included. Only the plastic or elastoplastic shear lag models were capable of reproducing the multiscale tendon fascicle mechanics. Differences between these two models were small, although the elastoplastic model did improve the fit of the experimental data at low applied tissue strains. These findings suggest that while interfibrillar elasticity contributes to the initial stress response, plastic deformation of the interfibrillar matrix is responsible for tendon fascicle post-yield behavior. This information sheds light on the physical processes underlying tendon failure, which is essential to improve our understanding of tissue pathology and guide the development of successful repair. PMID:25262202
The development of a tensile-shear punch correlation for yield properties of model austenitic alloys
Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G.; Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.
1997-08-01
The effective shear yield and maximum strengths of a set of neutron-irradiated, isotopically tailored austentic alloys were evaluated using the shear punch test. The dependence on composition and neutron dose showed the same trends as were observed in the corresponding miniature tensile specimen study conducted earlier. A single tensile-shear punch correlation was developed for the three alloys in which the maximum shear stress or Tresca criterion was successfully applied to predict the slope. The correlation will predict the tensile yield strength of the three different austenitic alloys tested to within {+-}53 MPa. The accuracy of the correlation improves with increasing material strength, to within {+-} MPa for predicting tensile yield strengths in the range of 400-800 MPa.
Direct handling of sharp interfacial energy for microstructural evolution
Hernández–Rivera, Efraín; Tikare, Veena; Noirot, Laurence; ...
2014-08-24
In this study, we introduce a simplification to the previously demonstrated hybrid Potts–phase field (hPPF), which relates interfacial energies to microstructural sharp interfaces. The model defines interfacial energy by a Potts-like discrete interface approach of counting unlike neighbors, which we use to compute local curvature. The model is compared to the hPPF by studying interfacial characteristics and grain growth behavior. The models give virtually identical results, while the new model allows the simulator more direct control of interfacial energy.
Muller, W J; Gerjarusek, S; Scherer, P W
1990-01-01
The problem of endotracheal erosion associated with neonatal high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is investigated through measurement of air velocity profiles in a scaled up model of the system. Fluid mechanical scaling principles are applied in order to construct a model within which velocity profiles are measured by hot-wire anemometry. The effects of two different jet geometries are investigated. Velocity gradients measured near the tracheal wall are used to measure the shear stresses caused by the jet flow on the wall. The Chilton-Colburn analogy between the transport of momentum and mass is applied to investigate tracheal drying caused by the high shear flow. Shear forces are seen to be more than two times higher for jets located near the endotracheal tube wall than for those located axisymmetrically in the center of the tube. Since water vapor fluxes are dependent on these shears, they are also higher for the asymmetric case. Fluxes are shown to be greatly dependent on the temperature and relative humidity of the inspired gas. Water from the tracheal surface may be depleted within one second if inspired gases are inadequately heated and humidified. It is recommended that the design of neonatal HFJV devices include delivery of heated (near body temperature), humidified (as close to 100% humidity as possible) gases through an axisymmetric jet to best avoid the problem of endotracheal erosion.
Formation of sheared G:A base pairs in an RNA duplex modelled after ribozymes, as revealed by NMR.
Katahira, M; Kanagawa, M; Sato, H; Uesugi, S; Fujii, S; Kohno, T; Maeda, T
1994-01-01
The thermal stability and structure of an RNA duplex, r(GGACGAGUCC)2, the base sequence of which was modelled after both a hammerhead ribozyme and a lead ribozyme, were studied by CD and NMR. We previously demonstrated that the corresponding DNA duplex, d(GGACGAGTCC)2, formed unique 'sheared' G:A base pairs, where an amino proton, instead of an imino proton, of G is involved in the hydrogen bonding, and G and A bases are arranged 'side by side' instead of 'head to head' (Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) 21, 5418-5424). CD melting profiles showed that the RNA duplex is thermally more stable than the corresponding DNA duplex. NMR studies revealed that sheared G:A base pairs are formed in the RNA duplex, too, although the overall structure of the RNA is the A form, which differs from the B form taken on by the corresponding DNA. A model building study confirmed that sheared G:A base pairs can be accommodated in the double helical structure of the A form. A difference between the RNA and DNA duplexes in the stacking interaction involving G:A mismatch bases is also suggested. The demonstration that sheared G:A base pairs can be formed not only in DNA but also in RNA suggests that this base pairing plays an important role regarding the RNA structure. PMID:7519767
Formation of sheared G:A base pairs in an RNA duplex modelled after ribozymes, as revealed by NMR.
Katahira, M; Kanagawa, M; Sato, H; Uesugi, S; Fujii, S; Kohno, T; Maeda, T
1994-07-25
The thermal stability and structure of an RNA duplex, r(GGACGAGUCC)2, the base sequence of which was modelled after both a hammerhead ribozyme and a lead ribozyme, were studied by CD and NMR. We previously demonstrated that the corresponding DNA duplex, d(GGACGAGTCC)2, formed unique 'sheared' G:A base pairs, where an amino proton, instead of an imino proton, of G is involved in the hydrogen bonding, and G and A bases are arranged 'side by side' instead of 'head to head' (Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) 21, 5418-5424). CD melting profiles showed that the RNA duplex is thermally more stable than the corresponding DNA duplex. NMR studies revealed that sheared G:A base pairs are formed in the RNA duplex, too, although the overall structure of the RNA is the A form, which differs from the B form taken on by the corresponding DNA. A model building study confirmed that sheared G:A base pairs can be accommodated in the double helical structure of the A form. A difference between the RNA and DNA duplexes in the stacking interaction involving G:A mismatch bases is also suggested. The demonstration that sheared G:A base pairs can be formed not only in DNA but also in RNA suggests that this base pairing plays an important role regarding the RNA structure.
Castro, Marcelo A; Ahumada Olivares, María C; Putman, Christopher M; Cebral, Juan R
2014-10-01
The aim of this work was to determine whether or not Newtonian rheology assumption in image-based patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) cerebrovascular models harboring cerebral aneurysms may affect the hemodynamics characteristics, which have been previously associated with aneurysm progression and rupture. Ten patients with cerebral aneurysms with lobulations were considered. CFD models were reconstructed from 3DRA and 4DCTA images by means of region growing, deformable models, and an advancing front technique. Patient-specific FEM blood flow simulations were performed under Newtonian and Casson rheological models. Wall shear stress (WSS) maps were created and distributions were compared at the end diastole. Regions of lower WSS (lobulation) and higher WSS (neck) were identified. WSS changes in time were analyzed. Maximum, minimum and time-averaged values were calculated and statistically compared. WSS characterization remained unchanged. At high WSS regions, Casson rheology systematically produced higher WSS minimum, maximum and time-averaged values. However, those differences were not statistically significant. At low WSS regions, when averaging over all cases, the Casson model produced higher stresses, although in some cases the Newtonian model did. However, those differences were not significant either. There is no evidence that Newtonian model overestimates WSS. Differences are not statistically significant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Huaiyu; Romanowicz, Barbara; Fischer, Karen M.; Abt, David
2011-03-01
Using a combination of long period seismic waveforms and SKS splitting measurements, we have developed a 3-D upper-mantle model (SAWum_NA2) of North America that includes isotropic shear velocity, with a lateral resolution of ˜250 km, as well as radial and azimuthal anisotropy, with a lateral resolution of ˜500 km. Combining these results, we infer several key features of lithosphere and asthenosphere structure. A rapid change from thin (˜70-80 km) lithosphere in the western United States (WUS) to thick lithosphere (˜200 km) in the central, cratonic part of the continent closely follows the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF). Changes with depth of the fast axis direction of azimuthal anisotropy reveal the presence of two layers in the cratonic lithosphere, corresponding to the fast-to-slow discontinuity found in receiver functions. Below the lithosphere, azimuthal anisotropy manifests a maximum, stronger in the WUS than under the craton, and the fast axis of anisotropy aligns with the absolute plate motion, as described in the hotspot reference frame (HS3-NUVEL 1A). In the WUS, this zone is confined between 70 and 150 km, decreasing in strength with depth from the top, from the RMF to the San Andreas Fault system and the Juan de Fuca/Gorda ridges. This result suggests that shear associated with lithosphere-asthenosphere coupling dominates mantle deformation down to this depth in the western part of the continent. The depth extent of the zone of increased azimuthal anisotropy below the cratonic lithosphere is not well resolved in our study, although it is peaked around 270 km, a robust result. Radial anisotropy is such that, predominantly, ξ > 1, where ξ= (Vsh/Vsv)2, under the continent and its borders down to ˜200 km, with stronger ξ in the bordering oceanic regions. Across the continent and below 200 km, alternating zones of weaker and stronger radial anisotropy, with predominantly ξ < 1, correlate with zones of small lateral changes in the fast axis direction of
A global horizontal shear velocity model of the upper mantle from multimode Love wave measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Tak; Priestley, Keith; Debayle, Eric
2016-10-01
Surface wave studies in the 1960s provided the first indication that the upper mantle was radially anisotropic. Resolving the anisotropic structure is important because it may yield information on deformation and flow patterns in the upper mantle. The existing radially anisotropic models are in poor agreement. Rayleigh waves have been studied extensively and recent models show general agreement. Less work has focused on Love waves and the models that do exist are less well-constrained than are Rayleigh wave models, suggesting it is the Love wave models that are responsible for the poor agreement in the radially anisotropic structure of the upper mantle. We have adapted the waveform inversion procedure of Debayle & Ricard to extract propagation information for the fundamental mode and up to the fifth overtone from Love waveforms in the 50-250 s period range. We have tomographically inverted these results for a mantle horizontal shear wave-speed model (βh(z)) to transition zone depths. We include azimuthal anisotropy (2θ and 4θ terms) in the tomography, but in this paper we discuss only the isotropic βh(z) structure. The data set is significantly larger, almost 500 000 Love waveforms, than previously published Love wave data sets and provides ˜17 000 000 constraints on the upper-mantle βh(z) structure. Sensitivity and resolution tests show that the horizontal resolution of the model is on the order of 800-1000 km to transition zone depths. The high wave-speed roots beneath the oldest parts of the continents appear to extend deeper for βh(z) than for βv(z) as in previous βh(z) models, but the resolution tests indicate that at least parts of these features could be artefacts. The low wave speeds beneath the mid-ocean ridges fade by ˜150 km depth except for the upper mantle beneath the East Pacific Rise which remains slow to ˜250 km depth. The resolution tests suggest that the low wave speeds at deeper depths beneath the East Pacific Rise are not solely due
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Cheong Khoo, Boo; Teck Lim, Chwee
2014-06-01
In the present paper, the dynamics of healthy and malaria-infected erythrocytes in the shear flow are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a particle-based method. A discrete model is developed, where the computational domain is discretized into a set of particles to represent the suspending liquid, as well as erythrocytes as suspended deformable particles. The particles on an erythrocyte surface are connected into a triangular network to represent the membrane. The interaction between any two particles is modelled by the DPD method, which conserves both mass and momentum. In order to validate this model, the deformation of a spherical capsule in the shear flow is firstly simulated, and a good agreement is found with previously published works. Then, the dynamics of a healthy biconcave erythrocyte in a shear flow is investigated. The results demonstrate that a healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tank-treading motion at a high capillary number, and a tumbling motion at a low capillary number or at a high viscosity ratio, internal (erythrocyte) to external fluids. Two other types of trembling motions, breathing with tumbling and swinging with tank-treading, are also found at an intermediate capillary number or viscosity ratio. Finally, the dynamics of malaria-infected erythrocyte in a shear flow is studied. At the same shear rate, if the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tumbling motion, the malaria-infected one will exhibit a tumbling motion only. If the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a trembling motion, the malaria-infected one cannot exhibit tank-treading motion. If the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tank-treading motion, the malaria-infected one will exhibit one of three dynamic motions: tumbling, trembling or tank-treading motion.
Neptune's Vertical Wind Shear Modeled with a Generalized Thermal Wind Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tollefson, J.
2015-12-01
We present observations of Neptune taken in the H-(1.4-1.8 μm) and K'-(2.0-2.4 μm) bands from the 10-m W.M. Keck II Telescope using NIRC2 coupled to the Adaptive Optics (AO) system. Images in both bands were taken on July 3, 2013 and August 20, 2014 over a span of 4-5 hours. We tracked the positions of dozens of bright atmospheric features over the observing nights and constructeded zonal wind profiles from changes in their longitudinal positions. We confirm evidence of dispersion in Neptune's zonal wind velocities about the smooth Voy- ager wind profile of Sromovsky et al. (1993) seen in Martin et al. (2012) and Fitzpatrick et al. (2014). In addition, we find significant differences between the wind speeds in the H- and K'- bands at the equatorial regions. To date, the thermal winds have been dismissed as a mechanism to explain these differences. However, these studies have relied on a simplified form of the thermal wind equation that assumes purely geostrophic flow and small Rossby numbers that are not applicable to Neptune. We present a model based on a generalized form of the thermal wind equation that explains the sign and magnitude of the observed vertical wind shear near the equator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Xiang; Chen, Jiale; Chan, Vincent S.; Zhuang, Ge; Li, Guoqiang; Deng, Zhao; Shi, Nan; Xu, Guoliang; Staebler, Gary M.; Guo, Wenfeng
2017-04-01
The optimization of a CFETR baseline scenario (Chan et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 023017) with an electron cyclotron (EC) wave and neutral beam (NB) is performed using a multi-dimensional code suite. TGLF and NEO are used to calculate turbulent and neoclassical transport. The evaluation of sources and sinks, as well as the current evolution, are performed using ONETWO, and the equilibrium is updated using EFIT. The pedestal is consistent with the EPED model. Rotation shear is controlled using NB. It has been found that both fusion gain Q and NB power deposited in the edge increase with decreasing NB energy, with NB providing current drive, torque, energy and particle source simultaneously. By using an optimized combination of two NBs, Q can be kept at a high level while the NB edge power is reduced. Pedestal collisionality is controlled to find an optimization path for Q by trading off between the pedestal density and temperature with the pedestal pressure fixed. It has been found that Q increases with pedestal collisionality, while the density peaking factor (DPF) remains almost unchanged. The invariance of DPF can be explained by the change of the dominant type of turbulence from the core to the edge (i.e. trapped electron mode in the core and ion temperature gradient mode at the edge), and collisionality has the opposite effect on particle transport for these two modes. A weaker dependence of DPF on collisionality makes a higher density operation more favorable for fusion gain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.
2016-01-01
The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.
Shear-lag model of diffusion-induced buckling of core-shell nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Yang, Fuqian
2016-07-01
The lithiation and de-lithiation during the electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can introduce local deformation in the active materials of electrodes, resulting in the evolution of local stress and strain in the active materials. Understanding the structural degradation associated with lithiation-induced deformation in the active materials is one of the important steps towards structural optimization of the active materials used in LIBs. There are various degradation modes, including swelling, cracking, and buckling especially for the nanowires and nanorods used in LIBs. In this work, a shear-lag model and the theory of diffusion-induced stress are used to investigate diffusion-induced buckling of core-shell nanowires during lithiation. The critical load for the onset of the buckling of a nanowire decreases with the increase of the nanowire length. The larger the surface current density, the less the time is to reach the critical load for the onset of the buckling of the nanowire.
Effects of bulk and free surface shear flows on amyloid fibril formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posada, David; Sorci, Mirco; Belfort, Georges; Hirsa, Amir
2008-11-01
Amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's, among others, are characterized by the conversion of monomers to oligomers (precursors) and then to amyloid fibrils. Besides factors such as concentration, pH, and ionic strength, evidence exists that shearing flow strongly influences amyloid formation in vitro. Also, during fibrillation in the presence of either gas or solid surfaces, both the polarity and roughness of the surfaces play a significant role in the kinetics of the fibrillation process. By studying the nucleation and growth of a model system (insulin fibrils) in a well-defined flow field, we can identify the flow and interfacial conditions that impact protein aggregation kinetics. The present flow system consists of an annular region, bounded by stationary inner and outer cylinders and driven by rotation of the floor, with either a hydrophobic (air) or hydrophilic (solid) interface. We show both the combined and separated effects of shear and interfacial hydrophobicity on the fibrillation process, and the use of interfacial shear viscosity as a parameter for quantifying the oligomerization process.
Characterization of interfacial waves in horizontal core-annular flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Sumit; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Singh, Ramesh; Tabor, Rico F.
2016-11-01
In this work, we characterize interfacial waves in horizontal core annular flow (CAF) of fuel-oil and water. Experimental studies on CAF were performed in an acrylic pipe of 15.5mm internal diameter, and the time evolution of the oil-water interface shape was recorded with a high speed camera for a range of different flow-rates of oil (Qo) and water (Qw). The power spectrum of the interface shape shows a range of notable features. First, there is negligible energy in wavenumbers larger than 2 π / a , where a is the thickness of the annulus. Second, for high Qo /Qw , there is no single dominant wavelength, as the flow in the confined annulus does not allow formation of a preferred mode. Third, for lower Qo /Qw , a dominant mode arises at a wavenumber of 2 π / a . We also observe that the power spectrum of the interface shape depends weakly on Qw, and strongly on Qo, perhaps because the net shear rate in the annulus appears to depend weakly on Qw as well. We also attempt to build a general empirical model for CAF by relating the interfacial stress (calculated via the mean pressure gradient) to the flow rate in the annulus, the annular thickness and the core velocity. Authors are thankful to Orica Mining Services (Australia) for the financial support.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson Chen, Abraham; Bergbreiter, Sarah
2017-02-01
Elastomer-based electroadhesion can be an effective method to provide tunable adhesion between robots and grasped objects or surfaces. However, there has been little work to develop models of electroadhesion and characterization of adhesive performance relative to these models. In this paper, a basic friction model is proposed to describe the critical shear force for a single electrode electroadhesive fabricated from conductive PDMS encased in parylene. The use of parylene results in thin dielectrics that require only tens of Volts to achieve shear pressures greater than 100 kPa. The experimental results gathered by characterizing voltage, dielectric thickness, adhesive area, and adhesive thickness follow the trends predicted by theory with some important deviations that are studied using high speed video capture of the soft adhesive failure.
An analysis of interfacial waves and air ingestion mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galimov, Azat
This research was focused on developing analytical methods with which to derive the functional forms of the various interfacial forces in two-fluid models [Galimov et al., 2004], and on the Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of traveling breaking waves and plunging liquid jets. Analytical results are presented for a stable stratified wavy two-phase flow and the associated interfacial force densities of a two-fluid model. In particular, the non-drag interfacial force density [Drew & Passman, 1998], the Reynolds stress tensor, and the term ( p˜cli -pcl)∇alphacl, which drives surface waves, were derived, where p˜cli is interfacial average pressure, pcl is the average pressure, and alphacl is the volume fraction of the continuous liquid phase. These functional forms are potentially useful for developing two-fluid model closure relations for computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) numerical solvers. Moreover, it appears that this approach can be generalized to other flow regimes (e.g., annular flows). A comparison of the analytical and ensemble-averaged DNS results show good agreement, and it appears that this approach can be used to develop phenomenological flow-regime-specific closure laws for two-fluid models [Lahey & Drew, 2004], [Lahey, 2005]. A successful 2-D DNS of breaking traveling waves was performed. These calculations had periodic boundary conditions and the physical parameters for air/water flow at atmospheric pressure, including a liquid/gas density ratio of 1,000 and representative surface tension and viscosities. Detailed 3-D DNS was also made for a plunging liquid jet. The processes of forming the liquid jet, the associated air cavity, capturing an initial large donut-shaped air bubble, and developing and breaking-up this bubble into smaller bubbles due to liquid shear, were shown. These simulations showed that the inertia of the liquid jet initially depressed the pool's surface and the toroidal liquid eddy formed subsequently resulted in air
Di Stefano, C. A. Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D.
2014-05-15
In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ∼50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description.
A global tomographic model of shear attenuation in the upper mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanowicz, B.
1995-07-01
We present a global three-dimensional model of shear attenuation in the upper mantle, based on the measurement of amplitudes of low-frequency (100-300s) Rayleigh waves observed at stations of the Geoscope and Iris networks. Attenuation coefficients are measured on R1 and R2 paths using a method which minimizes the effects of focussing due to propagation in a three-dimensional elastic Earth. Through a series of tests which, in particular, involve the computation of synthetic models of attenuation and focussing, we demonstrate that long wavelength lateral variations in attenuation in the first 400-500 km of the mantle can indeed be resolved. The model is obtained in a two-step procedure. The first step consists in the computation of maps of Rayleigh wave attenuation at different periods, using an inversion method without a priori parametrisation, which involves the introduction of a correlation length, chosen here at 3000 km to optimize the trade-off between resolution and variance in the model. In the second step, after corrections for shallow structure, an inversion with depth is performed, assuming lateral heterogeneity is confined to depths between 80 and 650 km. The resulting model presents lateral variations in Qβ that are correlated with tectonic features, in particular ridges and shields in the first 250 km of the upper mantle. Below that depth the pattern shifts and becomes correlated with the hotspot distribution, particularly so if the buoyancy strength of hotspots is taken into account. Two major low-velocity zones appear to be located in the central pacific and beneath northern Africa, in the depth range 300-500 km. This pattern seems to continue at greater depth, but resolution becomes insufficient below 500 km to draw definitive conclusions. The smooth lateral variations retrieved are on the order of ±50% down to 400 km. We propose an interpretation in terms of plume/lithosphere/ridge interaction in the upper mantle, arguing for deflection of the
A study of the dispersed flow interfacial heat transfer model of RELAP5/MOD2.5 and RELAP5/MOD3
Andreani, M.; Analytis, G.T.; Aksan, S.N.
1995-09-01
The model of interfacial heat transfer for the dispersed flow regime used in the RELAP5 computer codes is investigated in the present paper. Short-transient calculations of two low flooding rate tube reflooding experiments have been performed, where the hydraulic conditions and the heat input to the vapour in the post-dryout region were controlled for the predetermined position of the quench front. Both RELAP5/MOD2.5 and RELAP5/MOD3 substantially underpredicted the exit vapour temperature. The mass flow rate and quality, however, were correct and the heat input to the vapour was larger than the actual one. As the vapour superheat at the tube exit depends on the balance between the heat input from the wall and the heat exchange with the droplets, the discrepancy between the calculated and the measured exit vapour temperature suggested that the inability of both codes to predict the vapour superheat in the dispersed flow region is due to the overprediction of the interfacial heat transfer rate.
Minimal model for zero-inertia instabilities in shear-dominated non-Newtonian flows.
Boi, S; Mazzino, A; Pralits, J O
2013-09-01
The emergence of fluid instabilities in the relevant limit of vanishing fluid inertia (i.e., arbitrarily close to zero Reynolds number) has been investigated for the well-known Kolmogorov flow. The finite-time shear-induced order-disorder transition of the non-Newtonian microstructure and the corresponding viscosity change from lower to higher values are the crucial ingredients for the instabilities to emerge. The finite-time low-to-high viscosity change for increasing shear characterizes the rheopectic fluids. The instability does not emerge in shear-thinning or -thickening fluids where viscosity adjustment to local shear occurs instantaneously. The lack of instabilities arbitrarily close to zero Reynolds number is also observed for thixotropic fluids, in spite of the fact that the viscosity adjustment time to shear is finite as in rheopectic fluids. Renormalized perturbative expansions (multiple-scale expansions), energy-based arguments (on the linearized equations of motion), and numerical results (of suitable eigenvalue problems from the linear stability analysis) are the main tools leading to our conclusions. Our findings may have important consequences in all situations where purely hydrodynamic fluid instabilities or mixing are inhibited due to negligible inertia, as in microfluidic applications. To trigger mixing in these situations, suitable (not necessarily viscoelastic) non-Newtonian fluid solutions appear as a valid answer. Our results open interesting questions and challenges in the field of smart (fluid) materials.
Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro
2016-01-01
Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events. PMID:27255968
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro
2016-06-01
Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Kuan-Ying; Lu, I.-Hsin; Wu, Yuh-Renn
2016-03-01
A numerical model for PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell has been developed and the structure has been simulated and analyzed. The limiting factor leading to low open circuit voltage (Voc) in PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell is investigated. By adding a p-type silicon layer into the device to create an electric field in the silicon layer, the recombination at interface is improved and the Voc increases. The efficiency is improved to over 15% and more optimized work can be done in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Peng; Sun, Jianning; Shen, Lidu
2016-10-01
Following the parameterization of sheared entrainment obtained in the companion paper, Liu et al. (2016), the present study aims to further investigate the characteristics of entrainment, and develop a simple model for predicting the growth rate of a well-developed and sheared CBL. The relative stratification, defined as the ratio of the stratification in the free atmosphere to that in the entrainment zone, is found to be a function of entrainment flux ratio ( A e). This leads to a simple expression of the entrainment rate, in which A e needs to be parameterized. According to the results in Liu et al. (2016), A e can be simply expressed as the ratio of the convective velocity scale in the sheared CBL to that in the shear-free CBL. The parameterization of the convective velocity scale in the sheared CBL is obtained by analytically solving the bulk model with several assumptions and approximations. Results indicate that the entrainment process is influenced by the dynamic effect, the interaction between mean shear and environmental stratification, and one other term that includes the Coriolis effect. These three parameterizations constitute a simple model for predicting the growth rate of a well-developed and sheared CBL. This model is validated by outputs of LESs, and the results show that it performs satisfactorily. Compared with bulk models, this model does not need to solve a set of equations for the CBL. It is more convenient to apply in numerical models.
Montagnon, Emmanuel; Hadj-Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Cloutier, Guy
2013-04-07
This paper presents a semi-analytical model of shear wave scattering by a viscoelastic elliptical structure embedded in a viscoelastic medium, and its application in the context of dynamic elastography imaging. The commonly used assumption of mechanical homogeneity in the inversion process is removed introducing a priori geometrical information to model physical interactions of plane shear waves with the confined mechanical heterogeneity. Theoretical results are first validated using the finite element method for various mechanical configurations and incidence angles. Secondly, an inverse problem is formulated to assess viscoelastic parameters of both the elliptic inclusion and its surrounding medium, and applied in vitro to characterize mechanical properties of agar-gelatin phantoms. The robustness of the proposed inversion method is then assessed under various noise conditions, biased geometrical parameters and compared to direct inversion, phase gradient and time-of-flight methods. The proposed elastometry method appears reliable in the context of estimating confined lesion viscoelastic parameters.
Isotropic and anisotropic shear velocity model of the NA upper mantle using EarthScope data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leiva, J.; Clouzet, P.; French, S. W.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.
2013-12-01
The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage across the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous work, we present a new 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic shear wave model of the North American (NA) lithospheric mantle, using full waveform tomography and shorter-period (40 s) waveform data. Our isotropic velocity model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between major tectonic localities of the eastern NA continent, as evidenced in the geology, and seismic anomalies, suggesting recurring episodes of tectonic events not only are well exposed at the surface, but also leave persistent scars in the continental lithosphere mantle, marked by isotropic and radially anisotropic velocity anomalies that reach as deep as 100-150 km. In eastern North America, our Vs images distinguish the fast velocity cratonic NA from the deep rooted large volume high velocity blocks which are east of the continent rift margin and extend 200-300 km offshore into Atlantic. In between is a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the south and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. The lithosphere associated with this low velocity band is thinned likely due to combined effects of repeated rifting processes along the rift margin and northward extension of the Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. Deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin are proposed to represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia formation but left behind during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The anisotropy model takes advantage of the up-to-date SKS compilation in the continent and new splitting results from Greenland. The new joint waveform and SKS splitting data inversion is carried out with a 2
Modeling the curvature and interface shear stress of GaN-sapphire system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jia; Shi, Junjie; Wu, Jiejun; Liu, Huizhao
2016-03-01
The curvature and interface shear stress of GaN-sapphire system are studied by establishing the mechanical equations based on two main assumptions: (a) the thickness of GaN film can be compared to the thickness of sapphire substrate, and (b) the thickness of GaN film is non-uniform. Our results show that the curvature of GaN-sapphire system is a variable within the whole circular system. The interface shear stress changes direction around at the middle of radius for the circular system, and the curvature have an important effect on the interface shear stress due to the consideration of non-uniform thickness for GaN film.
Shear Viscous Response of Molecularly Thin Liquid Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tschirhart, Charles; Troian, Sandra
2014-11-01
Fluids that exhibit Newtonian response at the macroscale can display interesting deviations at the nanoscale caused by internal fluid microstructure or conformational entropy reduction near an adjacent solid boundary. Such deviations signal the breakdown of the continuum and isotropic fluid approximations at molecular length scales. These effects are particularly pronounced near the interface separating a liquid film from a supporting solid substrate where molecular layering in the fluid can result in inhomogeneity in the shear viscosity. Here we describe ellipsometric measurements of the surface deformation of non-volatile liquid nanofilms subject to a constant interfacial shear stress. For simple Newtonian response, the slope of the deformation can be used to extract the value of the shear viscosity in ultrathin films, which in our experiments range from 2 - 200 nm in thickness. For complex films, we observe deviations from linear deformation which require augmentation of the analytic model normally used to describe the viscous response. These findings may be helpful for improved parametrization of the shear response of supported free surface films as well as course grained models for nanofluidic applications. Support from the Fred and Jean Felberg and Winifred and Robert Gardner Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships is gratefully acknowledged.
Response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to low shear modelled microgravity involves AlgU regulation.
Crabbé, Aurélie; Pycke, Benny; Van Houdt, Rob; Monsieurs, Pieter; Nickerson, Cheryl; Leys, Natalie; Cornelis, Pierre
2010-06-01
As a ubiquitous environmental organism that is occasionally part of the human flora, Pseudomonas aeruginosa could pose a health hazard for the immunocompromised astronauts during long-term missions. Therefore, insights into the behaviour of P. aeruginosa under spaceflight conditions were gained using two spaceflight-analogue culture systems: the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and the random position machine (RPM). Microarray analysis of P. aeruginosa PAO1 grown in the low shear modelled microgravity (LSMMG) environment of the RWV, compared with the normal gravity control (NG), revealed an apparent regulatory role for the alternative sigma factor AlgU (RpoE-like). Accordingly, P. aeruginosa cultured in LSMMG exhibited increased alginate production and upregulation of AlgU-controlled transcripts, including those encoding stress-related proteins. The LSMMG increased heat and oxidative stress resistance and caused a decrease in the oxygen transfer rate of the culture. This study also showed the involvement of the RNA-binding protein Hfq in the LSMMG response, consistent with its previously identified role in the Salmonella LSMMG and spaceflight response. The global transcriptional response of P. aeruginosa grown in the RPM was highly similar to that in NG. Fluid mixing was assessed in both systems and is believed to be a pivotal factor contributing to transcriptional differences between RWV- and RPM-grown P. aeruginosa. This study represents the first step towards the identification of virulence mechanisms of P. aeruginosa activated in response to spaceflight-analogue conditions, and could direct future research regarding the risk assessment and prevention of Pseudomonas infections during spaceflight and in immunocompromised patients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voyiadjis, George Z.; Samadi-Dooki, Aref
2016-06-01
Due to the lack of the long-range order in their molecular structure, amorphous polymers possess a considerable free volume content in their inter-molecular space. During finite deformation, these free volume holes serve as the potential sites for localized permanent plastic deformation inclusions which are called shear transformation zones (STZs). While the free volume content has been experimentally shown to increase during the course of plastic straining in glassy polymers, thermal analysis of stored energy due to the deformation shows that the STZ nucleation energy decreases at large plastic strains. The evolution of the free volume, and the STZs number density and nucleation energy during the finite straining are formulated in this paper in order to investigate the uniaxial post-yield softening-hardening behavior of the glassy polymers. This study shows that the reduction of the STZ nucleation energy, which is correlated with the free volume increase, brings about the post-yield primary softening of the amorphous polymers up to the steady-state strain value; and the secondary hardening is a result of the increased number density of the STZs, which is required for large plastic strains, while their nucleation energy is stabilized beyond the steady-state strain. The evolutions of the free volume content and STZ nucleation energy are also used to demonstrate the effect of the strain rate, temperature, and thermal history of the sample on its post-yield behavior. The obtained results from the model are compared with the experimental observations on poly(methyl methacrylate) which show a satisfactory consonance.
Alexandrov, Vitali Y.; Rosso, Kevin M.
2015-01-01
Goethite (α-FeOOH) surfaces represent one of the most ubiquitous redox-active interfaces in the environment, playing an important role in biogeochemical metal cycling and contaminant residence in the subsurface. Fe(II)-catalyzed recrystallization of goethite is a fundamental process in this context, but the proposed Fe(II)aq-Fe(III)goethite electron and iron atom exchange mechanism of recrystallization remains poorly understood at the atomic level. We examine the adsorption of aqueous Fe(II) and subsequent interfacial electron transfer (ET) between adsorbed Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) at the (110) and (021) goethite surfaces using density functional theory calculations including Hubbard U corrections (DFT+U) aided by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We investigate various surface sites for the adsorption of Fe2+(H2O)6 in different coordination environments. Calculated energies for adsorbed complexes at both surfaces favor monodentate complexes with reduced 4- and 5-fold coordination over higher-dentate structures and 6- fold coordination. The hydrolysis of H2O ligands is observed for some pre-ET adsorbed Fe(II) configurations. ET from the adsorbed Fe(II) into the goethite lattice is calculated to be energetically uphill always, but simultaneous proton transfer from H2O ligands of the adsorbed complexes to the surface oxygen species stabilizes post-ET states. We find that surface defects such as oxygen vacancies near the adsorption site also can stabilize post-ET states, enabling the Fe(II)aq-Fe(III)goethite interfacial electron transfer reaction implied from experiments to proceed.
Raben, Jaime S; Hariharan, Prasanna; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P
2016-03-01
We present advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) processing, post-processing, and uncertainty estimation techniques to support the validation of computational fluid dynamics analyses of medical devices. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Experimental measurements were performed using time-resolved PIV at five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2000, 5000, and 8000. Images included a twofold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were computed using radial basis functions. In addition, in-field spatially resolved pressure distributions, Reynolds stresses, and energy dissipation rates were computed from PIV measurements. Velocity measurement uncertainty was estimated directly from the PIV correlation plane, and uncertainty analysis for wall shear stress at each measurement location was performed using a Monte Carlo model. Local velocity uncertainty varied greatly and depended largely on local conditions such as particle seeding, velocity gradients, and particle displacements. Uncertainty in low velocity regions in the sudden expansion section of the nozzle was greatly reduced by over an order of magnitude when dynamic range enhancement was applied. Wall shear stress uncertainty was dominated by uncertainty contributions from velocity estimations, which were shown to account for 90-99% of the total uncertainty. This study provides advancements in the PIV processing methodologies over
Shear Thinning of Noncolloidal Suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Tanner, Roger I.; Ellero, Marco
2016-09-01
Shear thinning—a reduction in suspension viscosity with increasing shear rates—is understood to arise in colloidal systems from a decrease in the relative contribution of entropic forces. The shear-thinning phenomenon has also been often reported in experiments with noncolloidal systems at high volume fractions. However its origin is an open theoretical question and the behavior is difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations where shear thickening is typically observed instead. In this letter we propose a non-Newtonian model of interparticle lubrication forces to explain shear thinning in noncolloidal suspensions. We show that hidden shear-thinning effects of the suspending medium, which occur at shear rates orders of magnitude larger than the range investigated experimentally, lead to significant shear thinning of the overall suspension at much smaller shear rates. At high particle volume fractions the local shear rates experienced by the fluid situated in the narrow gaps between particles are much larger than the averaged shear rate of the whole suspension. This allows the suspending medium to probe its high-shear non-Newtonian regime and it means that the matrix fluid rheology must be considered over a wide range of shear rates.
Krommes, J.A.
1999-11-03
Highly simplified models of random flows interacting with background microturbulence are analyzed. In the limit of very rapid velocity fluctuations, it is shown rigorously that the fluctuation level of a passively advected scalar is not controlled by the rms shear. In a model with random velocities dependent only on time, the level of cross-correlations between the flows and the background turbulence regulates the saturation level. This effect is illustrated by considering a simple stochastic-oscillator model, both exactly and with analysis and numerical solutions of the direct-interaction approximation. Implications for the understanding of self-consistent turbulence are discussed briefly.
Plastic deformation of a model glass induced by a local shear transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priezjev, Nikolai V.
2015-03-01
The effect of a local shear transformation on plastic deformation of a three-dimensional amorphous solid is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. We consider a spherical inclusion, which is gradually transformed into an ellipsoid of the same volume and then converted back into the sphere. It is shown that at sufficiently large strain amplitudes, the deformation of the material involves localized plastic events that are identified based on the relative displacement of atoms before and after the shear transformation. We find that the density profiles of cage jumps decay away from the inclusion, which correlates well with the radial dependence of the local deformation of the material. At the same strain amplitude, the plastic deformation becomes more pronounced in the cases of weakly damped dynamics or large time scales of the shear transformation. We show that the density profiles can be characterized by the universal function of the radial distance multiplied by a dimensionless factor that depends on the friction coefficient and the time scale of the shear event.
Emulsions for interfacial filtration.
Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.
2006-11-01
We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.
1999-01-01
We develop and test a 1-point closure turbulence model with the following features: 1) we include the salinity field and derive the expression for the vertical turbulent diffusivities of momentum K(sub m) , heat K(sub h) and salt K(sub s) as a function of two stability parameters: the Richardson number R(sub i) (stratification vs. shear) and the Turner number R(sub rho) (salinity gradient vs. temperature gradient). 2) to describe turbulent mixing below the mixed layer (ML), all previous models have adopted three adjustable "background diffusivities" for momentum, heat and salt. We propose a model that avoids such adjustable diffusivities. We assume that below the ML, the three diffusivities have the same functional dependence on R( sub i) and R(sub rho) as derived from the turbulence model. However, in order to compute R(sub i) below the ML, we use data of vertical shear due to wave-breaking.measured by Gargett et al. The procedure frees the model from adjustable background diffusivities and indeed we employ the same model throughout the entire vertical extent of the ocean. 3) in the local model, the turbulent diffusivities K(sub m,h,s) are given as analytical functions of R(sub i) and R(sub rho). 5) the model is used in an O-GCM and several results are presented to exhibit the effect of double diffusion processes. 6) the code is available upon request.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ming; Elkibbi, Maya; Rial, José A.
2005-03-01
Shear wave splitting polarization (p) and delay time (Δt) observations are used to invert for fracture orientation and intensity of fracturing, simultaneously. By addressing the different levels of uncertainty involved in measurements of these two parameters, as well as their dissimilar relationships to fracture configuration, we have developed an inversion algorithm which reduces the primary double-response inversion to two connected single-response ones. We show that its inherent non-linearity complicates this problem, which therefore requires a more sophisticated attack than conventional inversion schemes. It will be shown that the construction of residue function contours in the model plane and the generation of surrogate data by simulation process are essential to this approach. We illustrate the capabilities of this technique by inverting shear wave splitting data from The Geysers geothermal reservoir in California. In principle the method should be useful for characterizing fractured reservoirs, whether geothermal or hydrocarbon.
Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L
2010-01-01
The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis which is a major leading cause of ischemic stroke. The impact of stenosis in the atherosclerotic carotid artery is to disturb the flow pattern and produce regions with high shear rate, turbulence, and recirculation, which are key hemodynamic factors associated with plaque rupture, clot formation, and embolism. In order to characterize the disturbed flow in the stenosed carotid artery, stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in a transparent model with 50% stenosis under pulsatile flow conditions. Simulated ECG gating of the flowrate waveform provides external triggering required for volumetric reconstruction of the complex flow patterns. Based on the three-component velocity data in the lumen region, volumetric shear-stress patterns were derived.
Bhole, Nikhil S; Huang, Fenfen; Maldarelli, Charles
2010-10-19
This study examines the transport of surfactant that occurs when an aqueous micellar phase is placed in contact with a clean oil phase in which the surfactant is soluble. Upon contact with oil, surfactant monomer on the aqueous side of the interface adsorbs onto the oil/water interface and subsequently desorbs into the oil and diffuses away from the surface. The depletion of aqueous monomer underneath the interface disturbs the monomer-micelle equilibrium, and aggregates break down to replenish the monomer concentration and accelerate the interfacial transport. The depletion of monomer and micelles drives the diffusive flux of these species toward the surface, and the combined effects of diffusion and aggregate kinetic disassembly, alongside kinetic adsorption and desorption at the interface and diffusion away from the interface into the oil, determine the interfacial transport rate. This interfacial transport is examined here in the quasi-static limit in which the diffusion of monomer and micelles in the aqueous phase is much slower than the time scale for micelle disassembly. In this limit, when the initial bulk concentration of micelles in the aqueous solution is small, the micelle diffusive flux to the surface cannot keep up with the micelle breakdown under the interface, and a micelle-free zone forms. This zone extends from the surface into the aqueous phase up to a boundary that demarcates the beginning of a zone, containing micelles, that extends further into the aqueous phase. Micelles diffuse from the micelle zone to the boundary, where they break down, causing the boundary to retreat. Released monomer diffuses through the micelle-free zone and partitions into the oil phase. The focus of this study is to verify this transport picture by visualizing the micelle-free zone and comparing the movement of the zone to predictions obtained from a transport model based on this two-zone picture. A small hydrophobic dye molecule (Nile red) is incorporated into the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Qingbin; Xia, Dan; Xue, Qingzhong; Yan, Keyou; Gao, Xili; Li, Qun
2009-01-01
In this study, the non-covalent association of single-walled nanotube (SWNT) with polyethylene (PE) molecule and the influence of sidewall modification on the interfacial bonding between the SWNTs and polymer were investigated using molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The model of interaction between the initially separated PE and SWNT fragments, which can be either wrapping or filling, was computed. The possible extension of polymers wrapping or filling SWNTs can be used to structurally bridge the SWNTs and polymers to significantly improve the load transfer between them when SWNTs are used to produce nanocomposites. The interfacial bonding characteristics between the single-walled nanotubes, on which -COOH, -CONH 2, -C 6H 11, or -C 6H 5 groups have been chemically attached, and the polymer matrix were also investigated by performing pullout simulations. The results show that appropriate functionalization of nanotubes at low densities of functionalized carbon atoms drastically increase their interfacial bonding and shear stress between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix, where chemisorption with -C 6H 5 groups to as little as 5.0% of the nanotube carbon atoms increases the shear stress by about 1700%. Furthermore, this suggests the possibility to use functionalized nanotubes to effectively reinforce other kinds of polymer-based materials as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carroll, L. J.; Feng, Q.; Pollock, T. M.
2008-06-01
Mechanisms of creep deformation in nickel-base superalloy single crystals in the directional coarsening regime have been studied in alloys with large variations in γ- γ' lattice misfit and phase composition, achieved by Ru additions and variable levels of Cr and Co. Interfacial dislocation spacings established by long-term annealing experiments under no externally applied stress indicate that the experimental alloys have high-temperature lattice misfits ranging from near-zero to as large as -0.65 pct. Variation in misfit influences the stress-induced directional coarsening (rafting) behavior during creep deformation at 950 °C and 290 MPa. In postcreep deformed material, the density of excess dislocations (defined as the dislocations beyond those necessary to relieve the lattice misfit) at the γ- γ' interfaces varied with alloy composition, with the most creep-resistant alloy containing the highest excess interfacial dislocation density. In the directional coarsening creep regime, continued deformation requires shearing of the γ' rafts and is strongly influenced by the resistance of the precipitates to shearing as well as the interfacial dislocation structure. A preliminary model for creep in the rafting regime is developed.
Matrix cracking of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites in shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajan, Varun P.; Zok, Frank W.
2014-12-01
The mechanics of cracking in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) under general loadings remains incomplete. The present paper addresses one outstanding aspect of this problem: the development of matrix cracks in unidirectional plies under shear loading. To this end, we develop a model based on potential energy differences upstream and downstream of a fully bridged steady-state matrix crack. Through a combination of analytical solutions and finite element simulations of the constituent stresses before and after cracking, we identify the dominant stress components that drive crack growth. We show that, when the axial slip lengths are much larger than the fiber diameter and when interfacial slip precedes cracking, the shear stresses in the constituents are largely unaffected by the presence of the crack; the changes that do occur are confined to a 'core' region within a distance of about one fiber diameter from the crack plane. Instead, the driving force for crack growth derives mainly from the axial stresses-tensile in the fibers and compressive in the matrix-that arise upon cracking. These stresses are well-approximated by solutions based on shear-lag analysis. Combining these solutions with the governing equation for crack growth yields an analytical estimate of the critical shear stress for matrix cracking. An analogous approach is used in deriving the critical stresses needed for matrix cracking under arbitrary in-plane loadings. The applicability of these results to cross-ply CMC laminates is briefly discussed.
On the hierarchy of interfacial dislocation structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balluffi, R. W.; Olson, G. B.
1985-04-01
Many different types of dislocations have been defined in dislocation models for grain boundaries and interphase boundaries. It is emphasized that there is no unique dislocation model for a boundary, and that the formal dislocation content depends upon the choice of the lattice correspondence relating the adjoining lattices. However, it is concluded that no problems of real physical significance arise from this lack of uniqueness. “Best≓, or most useful, descriptions often exist, and these are discussed. A hierarchy consisting of four different types of interfacial dislocations may be distinguished, which is useful in describing the dislocation content of interfaces. These entities are termed: (1) primary interfacial dislocations; (2) secondary interfacial dislocations; (3) coherency interfacial dislocations; and (4) translational interfacial dislocations. While there may be a lack of agreement on terminology in the literature, it is believed that these dislocation types are distinguishable and play unique roles in useful dislocation models for interfaces. Detailed descriptions of these dislocation types are given, and actual examples in real interfaces are presented. It is concluded that dislocation descriptions of interface structures become of purely formal significance in the limit of fully incoherent interfaces since the cores are then delocalized. The utility of various dislocation descriptions therefore depends on the degree to which various types of local coherency exist.
Weddell, Jared C; Kwack, JaeHyuk; Imoukhuede, P I; Masud, Arif
2015-01-01
Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF) constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS) is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.
Weddell, Jared C.; Kwack, JaeHyuk; Imoukhuede, P. I.; Masud, Arif
2015-01-01
Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF) constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS) is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model. PMID:25897758
Near Surface Shear Wave Velocity Model of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuler, S.; Craig, M. S.; Hayashi, K.; Galvin, J. L.; Deqiang, C.; Jones, M. G.
2015-12-01
Multichannel analysis of surface wave measurements (MASW) and microtremor array measurements (MAM) were performed at twelve sites across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to obtain high resolution shear wave velocity (VS) models. Deeper surveys were performed at four of the sites using the two station spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method. For the MASW and MAM surveys, a 48-channel seismic system with 4.5 Hz geophones was used with a 10-lb sledgehammer and a metal plate as a source. Surveys were conducted at various locations on the crest of levees, the toe of the levees, and off of the levees. For MASW surveys, we used a record length of 2.048 s, a sample interval of 1 ms, and 1 m geophone spacing. For MAM, ambient noise was recorded for 65.536 s with a sampling interval of 4 ms and 1 m geophone spacing. VS was determined to depths of ~ 20 m using the MASW method and ~ 40 m using the MAM method. Maximum separation between stations in the two-station SPAC surveys was typically 1600 m to 1800 m, providing coherent signal with wavelengths in excess of 5 km and depth penetration of as much as 2000 m. Measured values of VS30 in the study area ranged from 97 m/s to 257 m/s, corresponding to NEHRP site classifications D and E. Comparison of our measured velocity profiles with available geotechnical logs, including soil type, SPT, and CPT, reveals the existence of a small number of characteristic horizons within the upper 40m in the Delta: levee fill material, peat, transitional silty sand, and eolian sand at depth. Sites with a peat layer at the surface exhibited extremely low values of VS. Based on soil borings, the thickness of peat layers were approximately 0 m to 8 m. The VS for the peat layers ranged from 42 m/s to 150 m/s while the eolian sand layer exhibited VS ranging from of 220 m/s to 370 m/s. Soft near surface soils present in the region pose an increased earthquake hazard risk due to the potential for high ground accelerations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viegas, John R.; Rubesin, Morris W.
1991-01-01
Several recently published compressibility corrections to the standard k-epsilon turbulence model are used with the Navier-Stokes equations to compute the mixing region of a large variety of high speed flows. These corrections, specifically developed to address the weakness of higher order turbulence models to accurately predict the spread rate of compressible free shear flows, are applied to two stream flows of the same gas mixing under a large variety of free stream conditions. Results are presented for two types of flows: unconfined streams with either (1) matched total temperatures and static pressures, or (2) matched static temperatures and pressures, and a confined stream.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasov, B. G.; Sadovskii, V. M.
2016-10-01
Mathematical model of the equilibrium fan-structure formation between two elastic half-planes is constructed, simulating a shear rupture at stress conditions of seismogenic depths. The stress-strain state far from the fan-structure is analyzed with the help of solution of the problem on the Volterra edge dislocation resulted in estimation of the fan length. The model of formation of two differently directed fans due to the localized action of tangential stress, which pushes two edge dislocations with the antiparallel Burgers vectors, is proposed and analysed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherman, Christopher Scott
Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the
Omori, T; Ishikawa, T; Barthès-Biesel, D; Salsac, A-V; Walter, J; Imai, Y; Yamaguchi, T
2011-04-01
A capsule is a liquid drop enclosed by a solid, deformable membrane. To analyze the deformation of a capsule accurately, both the fluid mechanics of the internal and external fluids and the solid mechanics of the membrane must be solved precisely. Recently, many researchers have used discrete spring network models to express the membrane mechanics of capsules and biological cells. However, it is unclear whether such modeling is sufficiently accurate to solve for capsule deformation. This study examines the correlations between the mechanical properties of the discrete spring network model and continuum constitutive laws. We first compare uniaxial and isotropic deformations of a two-dimensional (2D) sheet, both analytically and numerically. The 2D sheet is discretized with four kinds of mesh to analyze the effect of the spring network configuration. We derive the relationships between the spring constant and continuum properties, such as the Young modulus, Poisson ratio, area dilation modulus, and shear modulus. It is found that the mechanical properties of spring networks are strongly dependent on the mesh configuration. We then calculate the deformation of a capsule under inflation and in a simple shear flow in the Stokes flow regime, using various membrane models. To achieve high accuracy in the flow calculation, a boundary-element method is used. Comparing the results between the different membrane models, we find that it is hard to express the area incompressibility observed in biological membranes using a simple spring network model.
Soulis, Johannes V; Giannoglou, George D; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Seralidou, Kypriani V; Parcharidis, George E; Louridas, George E
2008-01-01
The capabilities and limitations of various molecular viscosity models, in the left coronary arterial tree, were analyzed via: molecular viscosity, local and global non-Newtonian importance factors, wall shear stress (WSS) and wall shear stress gradient (WSSG). The vessel geometry was acquired using geometrically correct 3D intravascular ultrasound (3D IVUS). Seven non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models, plus the Newtonian one, were compared. The WSS distribution yielded a consistent LCA pattern for nearly all non-Newtonian models. High molecular viscosity, low WSS and low WSSG values occurred at the outer walls of the major bifurcation in proximal LCA regions. The Newtonian blood flow was found to be a good approximation at mid- and high-strain rates. The non-Newtonian Power Law, Generalized Power Law, Carreau and Casson and Modified Cross blood viscosity models gave comparable molecular viscosity, WSS and WSSG values. The Power Law and Walburn-Schneck models over-estimated the non-Newtonian global importance factor I(G) and under-estimated the area averaged WSS and WSSG values. The non-Newtonian Power Law and the Generalized Power Law blood viscosity models were found to approximate the molecular viscosity and WSS calculations in a more satisfactory way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Zewei; He, Guangyu; Zheng, Xiaoli; Dong, Chuanwan; Cao, Zicheng; Yang, Suju; Gu, Yi
2016-11-01
We present an improved geometric model of faulted detachment folding with pure shear that is characterized by core thickening and a ramp-discordant backlimb. The model includes a two-stage evolution: 1) detachment folding involving pure shear with fixed hinges, and 2) faulted detachment folding, in which the core of anticline thrusts above a break-through fault in forelimb by limb rotation. The growth strata patterns of the model are also discussed with respect to factors such as limb rotation, tectonic uplift rate, and sedimentation rate. A thrust-related fold, called a TBE thrust fold, in the Tarim Basin in NW China, is analyzed as an example of the theoretical model. The result indicates that the TBE thrust fold has undergone a two-stage evolution with shortening of a few hundred meters. Both the theoretical model and the actual example indicate that the shortening in the detachment folding stage takes up a large proportion of the total shortening. The structural restoration of the TBE thrust fold also provides new evidence that the formation of a series of thin-skinned structures in the SE Tarim Basin initiated in the Late Ordovician. The model may be applicable to lowamplitude faulted detachment folds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; LeBlanc, Carly L.; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Hammond, Timothy; Pierson, Duane L.
2003-01-01
Bacteria inhabit an impressive variety of ecological niches and must adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions. While numerous environmental signals have been examined for their effect on bacteria, the effects of mechanical forces such as shear stress and gravity have only been investigated to a limited extent. However, several important studies have demonstrated a key role for the environmental signals of low shear and/or microgravity in the regulation of bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis [Chem. Rec. 1 (2001) 333; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (2000) 33; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4090; J. Ind. Microbiol. 18 (1997) 22; Curr. Microbiol. 34(4) (1997) 199; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56(3-4) (2001) 384; Infect Immun. 68(6) (2000) 3147; Cell 109(7) (2002) 913; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(11) (2002) 5408; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99(21) (2002) 13807]. The response of bacteria to these environmental signals, which are similar to those encountered during prokaryotic life cycles, may provide insight into bacterial adaptations to physiologically relevant conditions. This review focuses on the current and potential future research trends aimed at understanding the effect of the mechanical forces of low shear and microgravity analogues on different bacterial parameters. In addition, this review also discusses the use of microgravity technology to generate physiologically relevant human tissue models for research in bacterial pathogenesis.
Nickerson, Cheryl A; Ott, C Mark; Wilson, James W; Ramamurthy, Rajee; LeBlanc, Carly L; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Hammond, Timothy; Pierson, Duane L
2003-07-01
Bacteria inhabit an impressive variety of ecological niches and must adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions. While numerous environmental signals have been examined for their effect on bacteria, the effects of mechanical forces such as shear stress and gravity have only been investigated to a limited extent. However, several important studies have demonstrated a key role for the environmental signals of low shear and/or microgravity in the regulation of bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis [Chem. Rec. 1 (2001) 333; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (2000) 33; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4090; J. Ind. Microbiol. 18 (1997) 22; Curr. Microbiol. 34(4) (1997) 199; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56(3-4) (2001) 384; Infect Immun. 68(6) (2000) 3147; Cell 109(7) (2002) 913; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(11) (2002) 5408; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99(21) (2002) 13807]. The response of bacteria to these environmental signals, which are similar to those encountered during prokaryotic life cycles, may provide insight into bacterial adaptations to physiologically relevant conditions. This review focuses on the current and potential future research trends aimed at understanding the effect of the mechanical forces of low shear and microgravity analogues on different bacterial parameters. In addition, this review also discusses the use of microgravity technology to generate physiologically relevant human tissue models for research in bacterial pathogenesis.
Experiments assigned to determine the acceleration of 8000kN shear laboratory model elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budiul Berghian, A.; Vasiu, T.; Abrudean, C.
2017-01-01
In this paper presents an experimental kinetics study by measuring accelerations using a bi-axial accelerometer constructed in the basis of a miniature integrated circuit, included in the class of micro-electrical and mechanical systems - MMA6261Q on the experimental installation reduced to the 1:5 dividing rule by comparison with the shear existent in exploitation, conceived and projected at the Faculty of Engineering in Hunedoara.
A Multi-Scale Modeling Framework for Shear Initiated Reactions in Energetic Materials
2013-07-01
sample problem is presented as a verification exercise. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Multi-scale, shear initiation, energetic materials, high explosives...systems. Requirements of energetic materials for future weapons have become increasingly stringent. It is desired to have high energy density output...towards self- sustaining reaction depends on the formation of local regions of elevated thermal energy; also referred to as hot spots. For high
Buchanan, Cara F; Verbridge, Scott S; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Rylander, Marissa Nichole
2014-01-01
Endothelial cells lining blood vessels are exposed to various hemodynamic forces associated with blood flow. These include fluid shear, the tangential force derived from the friction of blood flowing across the luminal cell surface, tensile stress due to deformation of the vessel wall by transvascular flow, and normal stress caused by the hydrodynamic pressure differential across the vessel wall. While it is well known that these fluid forces induce changes in endothelial morphology, cytoskeletal remodeling, and altered gene expression, the effect of flow on endothelial organization within the context of the tumor microenvironment is largely unknown. Using a previously established microfluidic tumor vascular model, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of normal (4 dyn/cm2), low (1 dyn/cm2), and high (10 dyn/cm2) microvascular wall shear stress (WSS) on tumor-endothelial paracrine signaling associated with angiogenesis. It is hypothesized that high WSS will alter the endothelial phenotype such that vascular permeability and tumor-expressed angiogenic factors are reduced. Results demonstrate that endothelial permeability decreases as a function of increasing WSS, while co-culture with tumor cells increases permeability relative to mono-cultures. This response is likely due to shear stress-mediated endothelial cell alignment and tumor-VEGF-induced permeability. In addition, gene expression analysis revealed that high WSS (10 dyn/cm2) significantly down-regulates tumor-expressed MMP9, HIF1, VEGFA, ANG1, and ANG2, all of which are important factors implicated in tumor angiogenesis. This result was not observed in tumor mono-cultures or static conditioned media experiments, suggesting a flow-mediated paracrine signaling mechanism exists with surrounding tumor cells that elicits a change in expression of angiogenic factors. Findings from this work have significant implications regarding low blood velocities commonly seen in the tumor vasculature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boerio, J.
1984-01-01
Interfacial bonding stability by in situ ellipsometry was investigated. It is found that: (1) gamma MPS is an effective primer for bonding ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) to aluminum; (2) ellipsometry is an effective in situ technique for monitoring the stability of polymer/metal interfaces; (3) the aluminized back surface of silicon wafers contain significant amounts of silicon and may have glass like properties.
Live imaging and modeling for shear stress quantification in the embryonic zebrafish heart.
Boselli, Francesco; Vermot, Julien
2016-02-01
Hemodynamic shear stress is sensed by the endocardial cells composing the inner cell layer of the heart, and plays a major role in cardiac morphogenesis. Yet, the underlying hemodynamics and the associated mechanical stimuli experienced by endocardial cells remains poorly understood. Progress in the field has been hampered by the need for high temporal resolution imaging allowing the flow profiles generated in the beating heart to be resolved. To fill this gap, we propose a method to analyze the wall dynamics, the flow field, and the wall shear stress of the developing zebrafish heart. This method combines live confocal imaging and computational fluid dynamics to overcome difficulties related to live imaging of blood flow in the developing heart. To provide an example of the applicability of the method, we discuss the hemodynamic frequency content sensed by endocardial cells at the onset of valve formation, and how the fundamental frequency of the wall shear stress represents a unique mechanical cue to endocardial, heart-valve precursors.
Flow visualization and wall shear stress of a flapping model hummingbird wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swanton, Erik W. M.; Vanier, Blake A.; Mohseni, Kamran
2010-09-01
The unsteady low Reynolds number aerodynamics of flapping flight was investigated experimentally through flow visualization by suspended particle imagery and wall shear stress measurement from micro-array hot-film anemometry. In conjunction, a mechanism was developed to create a flapping motion with three degrees of freedom and adjustable flapping frequency. The flapping kinematics and wing shape were selected for dynamic similarity to a hummingbird during hovering flight. Flow visualization was used to validate the anemometry observations of leading edge vortex (LEV) characteristics and to investigate the necessity of spanwise flow in LEV stability. The shear sensors determined LEV characteristics throughout the translation section of the stroke period for various wing speeds. It was observed that a minimum frequency between 2 and 3.5 Hz is required for the formation and stabilization of a LEV. The vortex strength peaked around 30% of the flapping cycle (corresponding to just past the translation midpoint), which agrees with results from previous studies conducted by others. The shear sensors also indicated a mild growth in LEV size during translation sections of the wing’s motion. This growth magnitude was nearly constant through a range of operating frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhin, Volodymyr; Sotnikov, Vladimir; Bauer, Bruno; Lindemuth, Irvin; Sheehey, Peter
2001-10-01
1D modeling of the initial state of wire explosions (“cold start” with updated SESAME tables) was examined using 1D version of the Eulerian Magnetohydrodynamic Radiative Code (MHRDR). Simulations were carried out for two regimes: with (black body radiative model) and without radiative losses. Results of the simulations revealed strong dependence of the time of explosion and expansion speed of the wire on the implemented radiative model. This shows that it is necessary to accurately include radiative losses to model “cold start” wire explosions. 2D modeling of the m=0 sausage instability with sheared axial flow. The MHRDR simulations were used to obtain the growth rate of the m=0 sausage instability in plasma column with initial Bennett equilibrium profile with and without shear flow. These growth rates appeared to be in good agreement with growth rates calculated from the linearized MHD equations.
Modulation of organic interfacial spin polarization by interfacial angle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Guang-ping; Ren, Jun-feng; Wang, Chuan-kui; Hu, Gui-chao
2017-01-01
Based on ab initio theory, we theoretically investigated the interfacial spin polarization by adsorbing a benzene-dithiolate molecule onto a nickel surface with different interfacial angles. A variable magnitude and even an inversion of the interfacial spin polarization are observed with the increase of the interfacial angle. The orbital analysis shows that the interfacial spin polarization is codetermined by two kinds of orbital hybridization between the molecule and the ferromagnet, the pz-d hybridization and the sp3-d hybridization, which show different dependence on the angle. These results indicate a new way to manipulate the spin polarization at organic spinterface.
Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber
Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A.
2010-03-11
This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.
Merino, Hilda; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Singla, Dinender K
2013-01-01
Recent studies suggest that disturbed blood flow-induced shear stress can induce atherosclerosis (ATH) in humans and animals without a high fat diet. Therefore, we hypothesize that partial ligation of the left carotid artery can generate disturbed blood flow and shear stress and would lead to ATH in a predisposed genetic model of Apo E(-/-) mice. The partial left carotid artery model was generated by ligating three out of four branches of the left carotid artery compared with controls which experienced similar surgery conditions but no ligation. Animals were sacrificed 2 weeks post-ligation and examined for plaque formation, infiltration of leukocytes, pro-inflammatory immune response, and blood flow velocity. Our findings suggest a significant (p < 0.05) increase in plaque formation and lipid deposition in the partial ligated animals compared with controls, confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O staining. Furthermore, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the number of M1 macrophages and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNFα, as compared with the control. Moreover, partial ligated carotid arteries demonstrated disturbed blood flow as their systolic velocity was significantly reduced. In conclusion, our data suggest that partial ligation of the left carotid artery induces disturbed flow and shear stress in the predisposed genetic model of Apo E(-/-) mice and leads to significantly developed ATH. Similarities to clinical patients who develop ATH independent of a high fat diet show that this could be a potential animal model to examine various parameters in ATH.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaessgen, E. H.; Riddell, W. T.; Raju, I. S.
2002-01-01
The effects of several critical assumptions and parameters on the computation of strain energy release rates for delamination and debond configurations modeled with plate elements have been quantified. The method of calculation is based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), and models of the upper and lower surface of the delamination or debond that use two-dimensional (2D) plate elements rather than three-dimensional (3D) solid elements. The major advantages of the plate element modeling technique are a smaller model size and simpler configurational modeling. Specific issues that are discussed include: constraint of translational degrees of freedom, rotational degrees of freedom or both in the neighborhood of the debond front, shear deformation assumptions; and continuity of material properties and section stiffness in the vicinity of the debond front. Where appropriate, the plate element analyses are compared with corresponding two-dimensional plane strain analyses.
Shear bands in concentrated bacterial suspensions under oscillatory shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Xiang; Samanta, Devranjan; Xu, Xinliang
2016-11-01
Bacterial suspensions show interesting rheological behaviors such as a remarkable "superfluidic" state with vanishing viscosity. Although the bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been systematically explored so far. Here, by combining confocal rheometry with PIV, we investigated the flow behaviors of concentrated E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. We found that concentrated bacterial suspensions exhibit strong non-homogeneous flow profiles at low shear rates, where shear rates vanish away from the moving shear plate. We characterized the shape of the nonlinear shear profiles at different applied shear rates and bacterial concentrations and activities. The shear profiles follow a simple scaling relation with the applied shear rates and the enstrophy of suspensions, unexpected from the current hydrodynamic models of active fluids. We demonstrated that this scaling relation can be quantitatively understood by considering the power output of bacteria at different orientations with respect to shear flows. Our experiments reveal a profound influence of shear flows on the locomotion of bacteria and provide new insights into the dynamics of active fluids. The research is funded by ACS Petroleum Research Fund (54168-DNI9) and by the David & Lucile Packard Foundation. X. X. acknowledges support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 11575020.
Leclerc, Gwladys E; Charleux, Fabrice; Ho Ba Tho, Marie-Christine; Bensamoun, Sabine F
2015-01-01
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), based on shear wave propagation generated by a specific driver, is a non-invasive exam performed in clinical practice to improve the liver diagnosis. The purpose was to develop a finite element (FE) identification method for the mechanical characterisation of phantom mimicking soft tissues investigated with MRE technique. Thus, a 3D FE phantom model, composed of the realistic MRE liver boundary conditions, was developed to simulate the shear wave propagation with the software ABAQUS. The assumptions of homogeneity and elasticity were applied to the FE phantom model. Different ranges of mesh size, density and Poisson's ratio were tested in order to develop the most representative FE phantom model. The simulated wave displacement was visualised with a dynamic implicit analysis. Subsequently, an identification process was performed with a cost function and an optimisation loop provided the optimal elastic properties of the phantom. The present identification process was validated on a phantom model, and the perspective will be to apply this method on abdominal tissues for the set-up of new clinical MRE protocols that could be applied for the follow-up of the effects of treatments.
Spong, Donald A
2013-01-01
The dynamics of energetic particle destabilized Alfve n frequency sweeping modes in tokamak reversed-shear safety factor discharges are modelled using a new Landau-closure model that includes coupling to geodesic acoustic wave dynamics and closure relations optimized for energetic particle Alfve n mode resonances. Profiles and equilibria are based upon reconstructions of a DIII-D discharge (#142111) in which a long sequence of frequency sweeping modes were observed. This model (TAEFL) has recently been included in a verification and validation study of n = 3 frequency sweeping modes for this case along with two gyrokinetic codes, GTC and GYRO. This paper provides a more detailed documentation of the equations and methods used in the TAEFL model and extends the earlier calculation to a range of toroidal mode numbers: n = 2 to 6. By considering a range of toroidal mode numbers and scanning over a range of safety factor profiles with varying qmin, both up-sweeping frequency (reversed-shear Alfve n eigenmode) and down-sweeping frequency (toriodal Alfve n eigenmode) modes are present in the results and show qualitative similarity with the frequency variations observed in the experimental spectrograms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sileny, J.
2012-12-01
Moment tensor (MT) has become a standard for description of seismic sources, both in earthquake seismology and for various types of induced seismicity. It is a general dipole source, but for practice it may be too general, its generality causing troubles during its reconstruction from noisy data in the inverse process, which may be additionally ill-conditioned due to inexact hypocenter location or availability of a rough velocity/attenuation model only. Then, the retrieved source may be biased. It seems reasonable to assume a simpler and intuitivelly more physical source model directly describing the physical phenomena anticipated in the particular focus. A simple combination of a shear slip with tensile crack or 1D implosion (STI) may be a good model both for natural earthquakes and induced events. The model simplification introduced is crucial in cases of depleted sensor configuration when the moment tensor fails, in single-azimuth monitoring in particular. This is just the case of application in oil and gas industry, where the monitoring of seismicity induced by hydrofracturing is typically performed from single monitoring borehole. Then, MT is able to provide constrained solutions only (e.g. deviatoric), but STI detects also non-shear component correctly, providing important information on increase of permeability of the reservoir.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spong, D. A.
2013-05-01
The dynamics of energetic particle destabilized Alfvén frequency sweeping modes in tokamak reversed-shear safety factor discharges are modelled using a new Landau-closure model that includes coupling to geodesic acoustic wave dynamics and closure relations optimized for energetic particle-Alfvén mode resonances. Profiles and equilibria are based upon reconstructions of a DIII-D discharge (#142111) in which a long sequence of frequency sweeping modes were observed. This model (TAEFL) has recently been included in a verification and validation study of n = 3 frequency sweeping modes for this case along with two gyrokinetic codes, GTC and GYRO. This paper provides a more detailed documentation of the equations and methods used in the TAEFL model and extends the earlier calculation to a range of toroidal mode numbers: n = 2 to 6. By considering a range of toroidal mode numbers and scanning over a range of safety factor profiles with varying qmin, both up-sweeping frequency (reversed-shear Alfvén eigenmode) and down-sweeping frequency (toriodal Alfvén eigenmode) modes are present in the results and show qualitative similarity with the frequency variations observed in the experimental spectrograms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caner, Ferhun C.; Bažant, Zdeněk P.
2014-03-01
The new theory presented in the preceding paper, which models the dynamic comminution of concrete due to very high shear strain rate, is now compared to recent test data on the penetration of projectiles through concrete walls of different thicknesses, ranging from 127 to 254 mm. These data are analyzed by an explicit finite element code using the new microplane constitutive model M7 for concrete, which was previously shown to provide the most realistic description of the quasi-static uni-, bi- and tri-axial test data with complex loading path and unloading. Model M7 incorporates the quasi-static strain rate effects due viscoelasticity and to the rate of cohesive crack debonding based on activation energy of bond ruptures, which are expected to extend to very high rates. Here model M7 is further enhanced by apparent viscosity capturing the energy dissipation due to the strain-rate effect of comminution. The maximum shear strain rates in the computations are of the order of 105 s-1. The simulations document that, within the inevitable uncertainties, the measured exit velocities of the projectiles can be matched quite satisfactorily and the observed shapes of the entry and exit craters can be reproduced correctly.
Review of interfacial layer's effect on thermal conductivity in nanofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotia, Ankit; Borkakoti, Sheeba; Deval, Piyush; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar
2017-01-01
An ordered liquid layer around the particle-liquid interface is called as interfacial layer. It has been observed that interfacial layer is an essential parameter for determining the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. The review attempts to summarize the prominent articles related to interfacial layer effect on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. First section of the paper discusses about various experimental approaches used to describe the effect of interfacial layer. Second section deals with about the mathematical models and assumed values regarding the thickness of interfacial layer by several authors. A review of previous works featuring mathematical investigations and experimental approaches seem to be suggesting that, interfacial layer have dominating effect on the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. Third section of the paper deals with various mathematical models available in open literature for interfacial layer thermal conductivity. In the last section, models for effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluids considering the interfacial layer and percentage deviations in the predictions of mathematical models have been discussed.
Ferko, Michael C.; Bhatnagar, Amit; Garcia, Mariana B.; Butler, Peter J.
2011-01-01
Hemodynamic forces applied at the apical surface of vascular endothelial cells may be redistributed to and amplified at remote intracellular organelles and protein complexes where they are transduced to biochemical signals. In this study we sought to quantify the effects of cellular material inhomogeneities and discrete attachment points on intracellular stresses resulting from physiological fluid flow. Steady-state shear- and magnetic bead-induced stress, strain, and displacement distributions were determined from finite-element stress analysis of a cell-specific, multicomponent elastic continuum model developed from multimodal fluorescence images of confluent endothelial cell (EC) monolayers and their nuclei. Focal adhesion locations and areas were determined from quantitative total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and verified using green fluorescence protein–focal adhesion kinase (GFP–FAK). The model predicts that shear stress induces small heterogeneous deformations of the endothelial cell cytoplasm on the order of <100 nm. However, strain and stress were amplified 10–100-fold over apical values in and around the high-modulus nucleus and near focal adhesions (FAs) and stress distributions depended on flow direction. The presence of a 0.4 μm glycocalyx was predicted to increase intracellular stresses by ~2-fold. The model of magnetic bead twisting rheometry also predicted heterogeneous stress, strain, and displacement fields resulting from material heterogeneities and FAs. Thus, large differences in moduli between the nucleus and cytoplasm and the juxtaposition of constrained regions (e.g. FAs) and unattached regions provide two mechanisms of stress amplification in sheared endothelial cells. Such phenomena may play a role in subcellular localization of early mechanotransduction events. PMID:17160699
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleksandrov, S. E.; Goldstein, R. V.
2012-11-01
A semianalytic solution of the problem on the compression of an annular layer of a plastic material obeying the double shear model on a cylindrical mandrel is obtained. The approximate statement of boundary conditions, which cannot be satisfied exactly in the framework of the constructed solution, is based on the same assumptions as the statement of the classical plasticity problem of compression of a material layer between rough plates (Prandtl's problem). It is assumed that the maximum friction law is satisfied on the inner surface of the layer. The solution is singular near this surface. The strain rate intensity factor is calculated, and its dependence on the process and material parameters is shown.
Pearson, Natalie C; Waters, Sarah L; Oliver, James M; Shipley, Rebecca J
2015-04-01
We present a simplified two-dimensional model of fluid flow, nutrient transport and cell distribution in a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor, with the aim of exploring how fluid flow can be used to control the distribution and yield of a cell population which is sensitive to both fluid shear stress and nutrient concentration. The cells are seeded in a scaffold in a layer on top of the hollow fibre, only partially occupying the extracapillary space. Above this layer is a region of free-flowing fluid which we refer to as the upper fluid layer. The flow in the lumen and upper fluid layer is described by the Stokes equations, whilst the flow in the porous fibre membrane is assumed to follow Darcy's law. Porous mixture theory is used to model the dynamics of and interactions between the cells, scaffold and fluid in the cell-scaffold construct. The concentration of a limiting nutrient (e.g. oxygen) is governed by an advection-reaction-diffusion equation in each region. Through exploitation of the small aspect ratio of each region and asymptotic analysis, we derive a coupled system of partial differential equations for the cell volume fraction and nutrient concentration. We use this model to investigate the effect of mechanotransduction on the distribution and yield of the cell population, by considering cases in which cell proliferation is either enhanced or limited by fluid shear stress and by varying experimentally controllable parameters such as flow rate and cell-scaffold construct thickness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saborowski, E.; Scholze, M.; Lindner, T.; Lampke, T.
2017-03-01
The lap shear test is a common method for determining the interlaminar shear strength of material compounds due to its simplicity with regard to specimen production and experimental realization. However, the obtained results strongly depend on the material pairing and the specimen geometry, which have a significant influence to the stress state within the interface during the experiment. A torsion test method using butt-bonded hollow cylinders seems more appropriate due to the expected more homogeneous shear stress distribution. The aim of this work is to compare both testing methods by experimental and numerical investigations. A comparative study with thermally joined aluminum-polyamide hybrid compounds was performed. The corresponding simulations were carried out with the commercial FE-software Abaqus™, using a user defined material model for the thermoplastic joining partner and the built-in cohesive behavior contact property for modelling interfacial damage.
Shu, Zhengyu; Duan, Mojie; Yang, Jiangke; Xu, Li; Yan, Yunjun
2009-01-01
Aspergillus niger lipase (ANL) is an important biocatalyst in the food processing industry. However, there is no report of its detailed three-dimensional structure because of difficulties in crystallization. In this article, based on experimental data and bioinformational analysis results, the structural features of ANL were simulated. Firstly, two recombinant ANLs expressed in Pichia pastoris were purified to homogeneity and their corresponding secondary structure compositions were determined by circular dichroism spectra. Secondly, the primary structure, the secondary structure and the three-dimensional structure of ANL were modeled by comparison with homologous lipases with known three-dimensional structures using the BioEdit software, lipase engineering database (http://www.led.uni-stuttgart.de/), PSIPRED server and SwissModel server. The predicted molecular structure of ANL presented typical features of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold including positioning of the putative catalytic triad residues and the GXSXG signature motif. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure of ANL with the X-ray three-dimensional structure of A. niger feruloyl esterase showed that the functional difference of interfacial activation between lipase and esterase was concerned with the difference in position of the lid. Our three-dimensional model of ANL helps to modify lipase structure by protein engineering, which will further expand the scope of application of ANL.
Crustal shear-wave velocity structure beneath Sumatra from receiver function modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Goyal, Ayush
2016-05-01
We estimated the shear-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs ratio of the crust beneath the Sumatra region by inverting stacked receiver functions from five three-component broadband seismic stations, located in diverse geologic setting, using a well known non-linear direct search approach, Neighborhood Algorithm (NA). Inversion results show significant variation of sediment layer thicknesses from 1 km beneath the backarc basin (station BKNI and PMBI) to 3-7 km beneath the coastal part of Sumatra region (station LHMI and MNAI) and Nias island (station GSI). Average sediment layer shear velocity (Vss) beneath all the stations is observed to be less (∼1.35 km/s) and their corresponding Vp/Vs ratio is very high (∼2.2-3.0). Crustal thickness beneath Sumatra region varies between 27 and 35 km, with exception of 19 km beneath Nias island, with average crustal Vs ∼3.1-3.4 km/s (Vp/Vs ∼1.8). It is well known that thick sediments with low Vs (and high Vp/Vs) amplify seismic waves even from a small-magnitude earthquake, which can cause huge damage in the zone. This study can provide the useful information of the crust for the Sumatra region. Since, Sumatra is an earthquake prone zone, which suffered the strong shaking of Great Andaman-Sumatra earthquake; this study can also be helpful for seismic hazard assessment.
Development of in vivo PIV methods for measurement of wall shear stress in embryonic animal models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiger, K.; Vennemann, P.; Lindken, R.; Westerweel, J.; Hierck, B. P.; Groenendijk, B.; Poelmann, R. E.; Ursem, N. T. C.; Stekelenburg-de Vos, S.; Ten Hagen, T. M. L.
2004-11-01
Measuring the spatially and temporally resolved plasma velocity of whole blood in vivo is desirable in many areas of biomedical research. A nonintrusive velocity measurement technique is needed that can measure instantaneous flow fields at sub-millimeter scales. In the current work, we report on our efforts to adapt Micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) to measure the plasma velocity in the beating heart of a chicken embryo. In the majority of previous work applying μPIV to hemodynamic flows, erythrocytes are used to trace the fluid motion. Resolving near-wall phenomena using this technique is limited by the relatively large size of the erythrocytes and near-wall shear migration effects. In the current work, fluorescent liposomes (D ≈ 400 nm) are added to the flow as a tracer. Because of their small dimension, the liposomes are expected to closely follow the movement of the blood-plasma, as well as maintain their near-wall concentrations under high-shear conditions. The μPIV system is phase-locked to the heart beat using a pulsed Doppler ultrasound probe to allow for ensemble averaging of the flow field properties. The measurements quantitatively resolve the velocity distribution in the developing ventricle and atrium of the embryo at nine different phases within the cardiac cycle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffie, Andreas Frank
Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky
Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spry, David James (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.
Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Ahmed, Sandeel; Eunson, John; Chopra, Ashok K.
2014-01-01
As their environments change, microbes experience various threats and stressors, and in the hyper-competitive microbial world, dynamism and the ability to rapidly respond to such changes allow microbes to outcompete their nutrient-seeking neighbors. Viewed in that light, the very difference between microbial life and death depends on effective stress-response mechanisms. In addition to the more commonly studied temperature, nutritional, and chemical stressors, research has begun to characterize microbial responses to physical stress, namely low-shear stress. In fact, microbial responses to low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), which emulates the microgravity experienced in space, have been studied quite widely in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Interestingly, LSMMG-induced changes in the virulence potential of several Gram-negative enteric bacteria, e.g., an increased enterotoxigenic Eschericia coli-mediated fluid secretion in ligated ileal loops of mice, an increased adherent invasive E. coli-mediated infectivity of Caco-2 cells, an increased Salmonella Typhimurium-mediated invasion of both epithelial and macrophage cells, and S. Typhimurium hypervirulence phenotype in BALB/c mice when infected by the intraperitoneal route. Although these were some examples where virulence of the bacteria was increased, there are instances where organisms became less virulent under LSMMG, e.g., hypovirulence of Yersinia pestis in cell culture infections and hypovirulence of methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. In general, a number of LSMMG-exposed bacteria (but not all) seemed better equipped to handle subsequent stressors such as osmotic shock, acid shock, heat shock, and exposure to chemotherapeutics. This mini-review primarily discusses both LSMMG-induced as well as bonafide spaceflight-specific alterations in bacterial virulence potential, demonstrating that pathogens
Rosenzweig, Jason A; Ahmed, Sandeel; Eunson, John; Chopra, Ashok K
2014-11-01
As their environments change, microbes experience various threats and stressors, and in the hypercompetitive microbial world, dynamism and the ability to rapidly respond to such changes allow microbes to outcompete their nutrient-seeking neighbors. Viewed in that light, the very difference between microbial life and death depends on effective stress response mechanisms. In addition to the more commonly studied temperature, nutritional, and chemical stressors, research has begun to characterize microbial responses to physical stress, namely low-shear stress. In fact, microbial responses to low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), which emulates the microgravity experienced in space, have been studied quite widely in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Interestingly, LSMMG-induced changes in the virulence potential of several Gram-negative enteric bacteria, e.g., an increased enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-mediated fluid secretion in ligated ileal loops of mice, an increased adherent invasive E. coli-mediated infectivity of Caco-2 cells, an increased Salmonella typhimurium-mediated invasion of both epithelial and macrophage cells, and S. typhimurium hypervirulence phenotype in BALB/c mice when infected by the intraperitoneal route. Although these were some examples where virulence of the bacteria was increased, there are instances where organisms became less virulent under LSMMG, e.g., hypovirulence of Yersinia pestis in cell culture infections and hypovirulence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. In general, a number of LSMMG-exposed bacteria (but not all) seemed better equipped to handle subsequent stressors such as osmotic shock, acid shock, heat shock, and exposure to chemotherapeutics. This mini-review primarily discusses both LSMMG-induced as well as bona fide spaceflight-specific alterations in bacterial virulence potential, demonstrating that pathogens
Röthlisberger Channel Model with Anti-Plane Shear Loading Superposed on In-Plane Compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, M. C.; Meyer, C. R.; Rice, J. R.
2014-12-01
The Röthlisberger channel (R-channel) is a commonly adopted model that balances creep closure by Nye 2D in-plane straining, driven by the ice overburden pressure, against the melt rate from viscous energy dissipation in turbulent flow within the channel. Perol and Rice (AGU abstr. C11B-0677, 2011; JGR 2014 in review) and Suckale et al. (JGR F003008, 2014) have conjectured that these R-Channels may exist at the beds of rapidly straining West Antarctic Ice Stream shear margins. That is expected as a result of melt generation and drainage from forming temperate ice, and the channels may interact through the bed hydrology to partially stabilize the shear margin against lateral expansion. However, at those locations the overburden stresses, driving in-plane flow, are supplemented by substantial anti-plane shear stresses. Similarly, R-channels in mountain glaciers are also subject to both in-plane and anti-plane stresses. These channels usually form in the downstream direction, where anti-plane shear effects arise horizontally from drag at lateral moraines and vertically from the downslope gravity component. Here we examine how superposed anti-plane loading can alter results of the Nye solution for a 2D R-channel. We use a combination of perturbation analyses and finite element methods, varying the amount of applied anti-plane stress. A closed-form solution is derived for imposing a small anti-plane perturbation, which has no effect at linear order on the Nye closure rate. Such effects become strong at more substantial perturbations, and the inplane stress and strain fields are then significantly altered from the Nye solution. We further extend our model to compute channel size in terms of the external stressing and flow rate. Understanding the effect of the ice flow on channel size and formation is important to subglacial hydrology, as well as a potentially vital component for our understanding of the formation and motion of ice streams found in West Antarctica.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan-Nan; Liu, Allen; Stone, Howard
2015-11-01
We investigate the gating of mechanosensing channels (Mscls) on vesicles and cell membranes under different flow conditions using a multiscale approach. At the cell level (microns), the membrane tension is calculated using a 3D two-component whole-cell membrane model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), including the cortex cytoskeleton and its interactions with the lipid bilayer. At the Mscl level (nanometers), we predict the relation between channel gating and the membrane tension obtained from a cell-level model using a semi-analytical model based on the bilayer hydrophobic mismatch energy. We systematically study the gating of Mscls of vesicles and cell membranes in constricted channel flows and shear flows, and explore the dependence of the gating on flow rate, cell shape and size. The results provide guidance for future experiments in inducing Mscl opening for various purposes such as drug delivery.