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Sample records for interferon induced thyroiditis

  1. INTERFERON INDUCED THYROIDITIS

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases that develop as a result of interactions between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic and environmental triggers contributing to AITD. The major environmental triggers of AITD include iodine, smoking, medications, pregnancy, and possibly stress. In this review we will focus on two well-documented environmental triggers of AITD, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon alpha (IFNa) therapy. Chronic HCV infection has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of clinical and subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (i.e. the presence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid subjects). Moreover, IFNa therapy of chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical or clinical thyroiditis in up to 40% of cases which can be autoimmune, or non-autoimmune thyroiditis. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) in chronic HCV patients may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HCV and interferon induced thyroiditis have been well characterized, the mechanisms causing these conditions are still poorly understood. PMID:20022216

  2. Interferon-induced sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Cláudia; Freire, Ricardo; Alves, Ana; Oliveira, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a rare side effect of interferon therapy that has been reported over the last years. We present the case of a 43-year-old man presenting with systemic sarcoidosis during treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Skin lesions, which were found to be associated with asymptomatic bilateral hilar lymph nodes and pulmonary nodules, were the sole clinical manifestation of the disease. Stopping therapy resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. PMID:22696628

  3. [Alpha interferon induced hyperthyroidism: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Maiga, I; Valdes-Socin, H; Thiry, A; Delwaide, J; Sidibe, A T; Beckers, A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with alpha interferon in hepatitis C triggers a thyroid autoimmunity in a variable percentage of cases (2-8%). This complication raises some questions about its screening, the possibility to continue anti-viral therapy and thyroid treatment. Alpha interferon has an immunomodulatory effect on the thyroid, but also an inhibitory effect on thyroid hormone synthesis. This explains the occurrence of cases of thyroid dysfunction, which often remain undetected because of their latency. Factors predicting thyroid dysfunction with interferon use are: female sex, history of thyroid disease and previous autoimmunity. Several clinical aspects are encountered including hypothyroidism (the most frequent depending on the series) and hyperthyroidism related to Graves' disease. For their detection, a cooperation between general practionners, gastroenterologists and endocrinologists is mandatory thyroid function tests are requested before, during and after treatment,with alpha interferon. Therapeutic aspects of thyroid disorders range from simple monitoring to symptomatic treatment, such as thyroxine prescription in the presence of hypothyroidism. Antithyroid drugs radioactive iodine or thyroid surgery are used in cases of severe or persistent Graves' disease induced by alpha interferon. PMID:26376567

  4. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yoshino, Koji; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    Nivolumab (ONO-4538) is an anti-programmed death-1 specific monoclonal antibody, which has become a standard treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma. Nivolumab induces autoimmune adverse events, defined as immune-related adverse events. Herein, we report a case of nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in the clinical setting. Fourteen patients were treated with nivolumab at our institute, of which three developed thyroid dysfunction, an incidence higher than previously reported in the initial clinical trials. Interestingly, one patient achieved complete remission; suggesting that in some patients, the occurrence of immune-related adverse events, including thyroid dysfunction, might reflect the drug's antitumour efficacy. No patient died or discontinued nivolumab treatment owing to thyroid dysfunction. Although thyroid dysfunction first appeared to be asymptomatic, two of the three patients developed symptoms related to hypothyroidism soon after, requiring hormone replacement therapy. Another patient developed hyperthyroidism that was initially asymptomatic; the patient subsequently developed myalgia with fever >39.5°C after two additional courses of nivolumab. Treatment with nivolumab was therefore discontinued, and treatment with prednisolone was initiated. Symptoms resolved within a few days, and thyroid function normalized. Thyroid dysfunction is sometimes difficult to diagnose because its symptoms similar to those of many other diseases. In addition, thyroid-related immune-related adverse events may present with unique symptoms such as myalgia with high fever, abruptly worsening patients' quality of life. Consequently, thyroid dysfunction should be considered as a possible immune-related adverse event. Thus, it is important to test for thyroid dysfunction at baseline and before the administration of each nivolumab dose if possible. PMID:27012985

  5. HLA-D subregion expression by thyroid epithelium in autoimmune thyroid diseases and induced in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, I; Pujol-Borrell, R; Abdul-Karim, B A; Hammond, L J; Feldmann, M; Bottazzo, G F

    1987-01-01

    Human thyroid epithelial cells (thyrocytes) express HLA Class II molecules in autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). Normal thyrocytes do not express Class II, but can be induced to do so by culture with interferon-gamma (gamma-IFN). We have examined HLA-D subregion expression in sections and monolayers of thyroid by indirect immunofluorescence using appropriate monoclonal antibodies. The results indicate that, in ATD, the incidence and intensity of Class II subregion expression by thyrocytes varies between patients, and follows the pattern DR greater than DP greater than DQ. The same hierarchy is observed in cultured normal thyrocytes treated with gamma-IFN: strong induction of Class II, and of DP and DQ in particular, requires relatively high concentrations of gamma-IFN or additional factors such as thyroid stimulating hormone. These findings suggest that HLA-D subregion expression by thyrocytes in on-going ATD is determined by the levels of disease related factors in the affected tissue. PMID:3117460

  6. Thyroiditis after treatment with interleukin-2 and interferon alpha-2a.

    PubMed Central

    Pichert, G.; Jost, L. M.; Zöbeli, L.; Odermatt, B.; Pedia, G.; Stahel, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    Serial thyroid functions studies were carried out in patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma treated with interleukin-2 (3 MU m-2 by continuous infusion days 1-4) and interferon alpha-2a (6 MU m-2 subcutaneously on days 1 and 4), both given on alternate weeks. The results on eight patients who completed at least three cycles of treatment are described. Four patients developed thyroid dysfunction with a hyperthyroid phase of 2 weeks followed by a hypothyroid phase ranging from 12 to 24 weeks. Two patients became clinically symptomatic and required treatment. Fine-needle aspirates of the thyroid were obtained in three patients with thyroid dysfunction. The cytology revealed a mixed cellular infiltrate with lymphocytes and histiocytes, and immunocytochemical staining showed strong HLA-DR expression of all thyrocytes, both suggestive of an autoimmune thyroiditis. One patient with thyroiditis developed anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, the serology of all other patients was normal. Patients with thyroid dysfunction tended to have higher in vivo stimulated lytic activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells and had significantly higher levels of CD16 positive blood cells as compared to euthyroid patients. The possibility of autoimmune thyroiditis should be anticipated in future trails combining interleukin-2 and interferon alpha-2a. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2390468

  7. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases. PMID:27276725

  8. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  9. [Thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  10. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Graves' Disease in One Patient: The Extremes of Thyroid Dysfunction Associated with Interferon Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bishay, R H; Chen, R C Y

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease associated with interferon therapy can manifest as destructive thyroiditis, Graves' Hyperthyroidism, and autoimmune (often subclinical) hypothyroidism, the latter persisting in many patients. There are scare reports of a single patient developing extremes of autoimmune thyroid disease activated by the immunomodulatory effects of interferon. A 60-year-old man received 48 weeks of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic HCV. Six months into treatment, he reported fatigue, weight gain, and slowed cognition. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was 58.8 mIU/L [0.27-4.2], fT4 11.1 pmol/L [12-25], and fT3 4.2 pmol/L [2.5-6.0] with elevated anti-TPO (983 IU/mL [<35]) and anti-TG (733 U/mL [<80]) antibodies. He commenced thyroxine with initial clinical and biochemical resolution but developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with weight loss and tremor 14 months later. Serum TSH was <0.02 mIU/L, fT4 54.3 pmol/L, and fT3 20.2 pmol/L, with an elevated TSH receptor (TRAb, 4.0 U/L [<1.0]), anti-TPO (1,163 IU/mL) and anti-TG (114 U/mL) antibodies. Technetium scan confirmed Graves' Disease with bilateral diffuse increased tracer uptake (5.9% [0.5-3.5%]). The patient commenced carbimazole therapy for 6 months. Treatment was ceased following spontaneous clinical and biochemical remission (TSH 3.84 mIU/L, fT4 17pmol/L, fT3 4.5 pmol/L, and TRAb <1 U/L). This raises the need to monitor thyroid function closely in patients both during and following completion of interferon treatment. PMID:27042364

  11. Inhibition of sup 125 I organification and thyroid hormone release by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in human thyrocytes in suspension culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Satoh, T.; Shizume, K.; Ozawa, M.; Han, D.C.; Imamura, H.; Tsushima, T.; Demura, H.; Kanaji, Y.; Ito, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in patients with subacute thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis, human thyroid follicles were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and the effects of these cytokines on thyroid function were studied in vitro. When human thyrocytes were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum and TSH for 5-8 days, the cells incorporated 125I, synthesized de novo (125I)iodotyrosines and (125I)iodothyronines, and secreted (125I)T4 and (125I)T3 into the medium. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibited 125I incorporation and (125I)iodothyronine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory effect was detected at 10 pg/ml. Electron microscopic examination revealed a marked decrease in lysosome formation in IL-1-treated thyrocytes. TNF alpha and IFN gamma also inhibited thyroid function in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, when thyrocytes were cultured with IL-1, TNF alpha and IFN gamma, these cytokines more than additively inhibited thyroid function. Although the main mechanism of 131I uptake suppression in the thyroid gland in subacute thyroiditis is due to cellular damage and suppression of TSH release, our present findings suggest that IL-1, TNF alpha, and IFN gamma produced in the inflammatory process within the thyroid gland further inhibit iodine incorporation and at least partly account for the decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in destruction-induced hyperthyroidism.

  12. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, K.L.; Robb, P.K.; Caldarelli, D.D.; Templeton, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    A 23-year-old white man presented with a thyroid mass 12 years after receiving high-dose radiotherapy for a T2 and N1 lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx. Following subtotal thyroidectomy, a histopathologic examination revealed liposarcoma of the thyroid gland. The relationship between sarcomas and irradiation is described and Cahan and colleagues' criteria for radiation-induced sarcomas are reviewed. To our knowledge, we are presenting the first such case of a radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

  13. Treatment of trypanosome-infected mice with exogenous interferon, interferon inducers, or antibody to interferon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that mice resistant to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (the B10.BR/SgSnJ strain) produces, upon infection by this parasite, two peaks of serum interferon (IFN), while the susceptible mice (C3HeB/FeJ) produces no IFN. In the present study, survival times were compared for B10.BR/SgSnJ, C3HeB/FeJ, and CBA/J (an intermediately resistant strain) mice that were injected, prior to infection with the parasite, with either of the following three preparations (1) IFN-gamma, (2) an antibody to IFN-gamma and (3) polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (to induce IFN-alpha/beta). No effect on the survival times of mice by any of these preparations could be demonstrated, contrary to some previous reports.

  14. Thyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Treated with the Combined Pegylated Interferon-Ribavirin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Iman; Eid, Yara; El-Sayed, Mohammad; Marzaban, Raghda; Abdul-Kareem, Shaimaa

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an Egyptian serious national health problem. The combination of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) with ribavirin (RIB) was considered the established therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and it was associated with several adverse effects, including thyroid dysfunction (TD). The aim of this work was to study TD in CHC patients receiving PEG-IFN+ RIB therapy. This retrospective study included 100 adult patients attending the outpatient clinics at AL-Kahera Al-Fatemya hospital and were eligible candidates for PEG-IFN+ RIB therapy. Thyroid hormonal profile (thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine) was done before initiation of treatment (week 0) and at weeks 12, 24, 48, and 72. The incidence of TD was more evident by the end of treatment (week 48); it was found to be 35%, mostly in the form of hypothyroidism, while the least incidence was detected by week 12 (2%), all in the form of hyperthyroidism. Generally, hypothyroidism was higher than hyperthyroidism in multiple folds. Thyroid profile was not significantly related to viral load. PMID:27333271

  15. Thyroid Echography-induced Thyroid Storm and Exacerbation of Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Naomi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Saito, Hideki; Nomura, Hidekimi; Isomura, Daichi; Okada, Hisayuki; Sugiura, Ryo; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm affect cardiac circulation in some conditions. Several factors including trauma can induce thyroid storms. We herein describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who experienced a thyroid storm and exacerbation of acute heart failure on thyroid echography. She initially demonstrated a good clinical course after medical rate control for atrial fibrillation; however, thyroid echography for evaluating hyperthyroidism led to a thyroid storm and she collapsed. A multidisciplinary approach stabilized her thyroid hormone levels and hemodynamics. Thus, the medical staff should be prepared for a deterioration in the patient's condition during thyroid echography in heart failure patients with hyperthyroidism.

  16. Thyroid Echography-induced Thyroid Storm and Exacerbation of Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Naomi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Saito, Hideki; Nomura, Hidekimi; Isomura, Daichi; Okada, Hisayuki; Sugiura, Ryo; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm affect cardiac circulation in some conditions. Several factors including trauma can induce thyroid storms. We herein describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who experienced a thyroid storm and exacerbation of acute heart failure on thyroid echography. She initially demonstrated a good clinical course after medical rate control for atrial fibrillation; however, thyroid echography for evaluating hyperthyroidism led to a thyroid storm and she collapsed. A multidisciplinary approach stabilized her thyroid hormone levels and hemodynamics. Thus, the medical staff should be prepared for a deterioration in the patient's condition during thyroid echography in heart failure patients with hyperthyroidism. PMID:27522996

  17. N-acetylcysteine and 15 deoxy-{delta}12,14-prostaglandin J2 exert a protective effect against autoimmune thyroid destruction in vivo but not against interleukin-1{alpha}/interferon {gamma}-induced inhibitory effects in thyrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Sylvie; Colin, Ides M; Decallonne, Brigitte; Clinckspooor, Isabelle; Many, Marie-Christine; Denef, Jean-François; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial for thyroid hormonogenesis, and their production is kept under tight control. Oxidative stress (OS) is toxic for thyrocytes in an inflammatory context. In vitro, Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines have already been shown to decrease thyroid-specific protein expression. In the present study, OS level and its impact on thyroid function were analyzed in vitro in Th1 cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1alpha/interferon [IFN] gamma)-incubated thyrocytes (rat and human), as well as in vivo in thyroids from nonobese diabetic mice, a model of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and prostaglandin, 15 deoxy-(Delta12,14)-prostaglandinJ2 (15dPGJ2), were used for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, respectively. ROS production and OS were increased in IL-1alpha/IFNgamma-incubated thyrocytes and in destructive thyroiditis. In vitro, NAC not only reduced ROS production below control levels, but further decreased the expression of thyroid-specific proteins in addition to IL-1alpha/IFNgamma-inhibitory effects. Thus, besides ROS, other intracellular intermediaries likely mediate Th1 cytokine effects. In vivo, NAC and 15dPGJ2 reduced OS and the immune infiltration, thereby leading to a restoration of thyroid morphology. It is therefore likely that NAC and 15dPGJ2 mainly exert their protective effects by acting on infiltrating inflammatory cells rather than directly on thyrocytes.

  18. Radiation-induced thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Maxon, H.R.

    1985-09-01

    Ionizing radiation has been demonstrated to result in a number of changes in the human thyroid gland. At lower radiation dose levels (between 10 and 1500 rads), benign and malignant neoplasms appear to be the dominant effect, whereas at higher dose levels functional changes and thyroiditis become more prevalent. In all instances, the likelihood of the effect is related to the amount and type of radiation exposure, time since exposure, and host factors such as age, sex, and heredity. The author's current approach to the evaluation of patients with past external radiation therapy to the thyroid is discussed. The use of prophylactic thyroxine (T4) therapy is controversial. While T4 therapy may not be useful in preventing carcinogenesis when instituted many years after radiation exposure, theoretically T4 may block TSH secretion and stimulation of damaged cells to undergo malignant transformation when instituted soon after radiation exposure.

  19. The DNA Damage Response Induces Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Brzostek-Racine, Sabrina; Gordon, Chris; Van Scoy, Sarah; Reich, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    This study reveals a new complexity in the cellular response to DNA damage: activation of interferon (IFN) signaling. The DNA damage response involves the rapid recruitment of repair enzymes, and the activation of signal transducers that regulate cell cycle checkpoints and cell survival. To understand the link between DNA damage and innate cellular defense that occurs in response to many viral infections, we evaluated the effects of agents such as etoposide that promote double-stranded DNA breaks. Treatment of human cells with etoposide led to the induction of IFN-stimulated genes, and the IFN-α and IFN-λ genes. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), known to be activated in response to DNA damage, was shown to be a key regulator of this IFN gene induction. Expression of an NF-κB subunit, p65/RelA was sufficient for induction of the human IFN-λ1 gene. In addition, NF-κB was required for the induction of the IFN regulatory factors-1 and -7 that are able to stimulate expression of the IFN-α and IFN-λ genes. Cells that lack the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), lack the ability to induce the IFN genes following DNA damage. Breaks in DNA are generated during normal physiological processes of replication, transcription, and recombination, as well as by external genotoxic agents or infectious agents. The significant finding of IFN production as a stress response to DNA damage provides a new perspective on the role of IFN signaling. PMID:22013119

  20. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Natalie; Babur, Muhammad; Resch, Julia; Williams, Kaye J.; Brabant, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intratumoural hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a transcription factor activated by hypoxia that regulates the expression of genes that promote tumour cell survival, progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. In addition to hypoxia, HIF-1 can be activated by growth factor-signalling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases- (MAPK-) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases- (PI3K-) signalling cascades. Mutations in these pathways are common in thyroid carcinoma and lead to enhanced HIF-1 expression and activity. Here, we summarise current data that highlights the potential role of both hypoxia and MAPK/PI3K-induced HIF-1 signalling in thyroid carcinoma progression, metastatic characteristics, and the potential role of HIF-1 in thyroid carcinoma response to radiotherapy. Direct or indirect targeting of HIF-1 using an MAPK or PI3K inhibitor in combination with radiotherapy may be a new potential therapeutic target to improve the therapeutic response of thyroid carcinoma to radiotherapy and reduce metastatic burden. PMID:21765994

  1. Differential effects of human interferon alpha and interferon gamma on xenografted human thyroid tissue in severe combined immunodeficient mice and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Enomoto, T; Fornasier, V; Resetkova, E; Volpé, R

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the in vivo effects of human interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) administration on human thyroid tissue xenografted into two mouse strains: severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and nude mice. Human lymphocytes survive in SCID mice but are lysed in nude mice. Thyroid tissues from Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or paranodular [normal, (N)] tissue was xenografted into SCID mice (0.8 g/mouse) pretreated with anti-asialo GM-1 antiserum and radiation and also into nude mice. One week after xenografting, SCID and nude mice were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with IFN-alpha intraperitoneally (2,000 units/mouse) three times weekly; group B was treated with IFN-gamma similarly; group C was treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) only (control). Autologous human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were added to mice receiving N xenografts. Blood was taken every 2 weeks for levels of IgG and thyroid antibodies (TAb). After 6 weeks of treatment, mice were sacrificed, and xenograft thyrocyte histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression were measured. In addition, thyrocyte cultures were stimulated in vitro with 200 units/ml of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma or PBS (control). SCID mice xenografted with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in group A showed a significantly higher TAb production than group C, whereas in group B, TAb production was not statistically increased compared to control (group C). SCID mice xenografted with N did not produce TAb in any group, nor did nude mice xenografted with AITD. Thyrocyte HLA-DR expression was markedly increased in group A and B in SCID mice xenografted with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and N tissue compared to group C. In contrast, only group B (IFN-gamma) showed an increase in thyrocyte HLA-DR in nude mice. In the in vitro studies, only IFN-gamma (not IFN-alpha) stimulated

  2. STUDIES INTO THE MECHANISMS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE INDUCED THYROID CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies into the Mechanisms of Potassium Bromate Induced Thyroid Carcinogenesis.

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) occurs in finished drinking water as a by-product of the ozonation disinfection process and has been found to induce thyroid follicular cell tumors in the rat after ...

  3. Interferon induces natural killer cell blastogenesis in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biron, C. A.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Welsh, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Interferon (IFN), types beta and gamma, and IFN inducers polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, all stimulated the generation of blast-natural killer (NK) cells in mouse spleens, Blast-NK cells were characterized on the basis of size, 3H-thymidine uptake, and NK cell markers These data indicate that in addition to augmenting NK cell-mediated lysis, IFN may regulate NK cell proliferation in vivo.

  4. Iodine-induced thyroid blockade: role of selenium and iodine in the thyroid and pituitary glands.

    PubMed

    Basalaeva, Nadezdha L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the content of iodine and selenium in the thyroid and pituitary glands of rats under iodine-induced blockade of the thyroid gland. Electron probe microanalysis, wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and point analysis were used in this investigation. We also determined the expression of sodium iodide symporter and caspase 32 in the thyroid and pituitary glands and the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the pituitary. The samples for iodine analysis must be thoroughly dehydrated, and for this purpose, we developed a method that produced samples of constant mass with minimal loss of substrate (human thyroid gland was used for the investigation). Normal levels of iodine and selenium were found in the thyroid, pituitary, ovaries, testes hypothalamus, and pancreas of healthy rats. The levels of iodine and selenium in I- or Se-positive points and the percentage of positive points in most of these organs were similar to those of controls (basal level), except for the level of iodine in the thyroid gland and testes. Blockade of the thyroid gland changed the iodine level in iodine-positive points of the thyroid and the pituitary glands. On the sixth day of blockage, the iodine level in iodine-positive points of the thyroid gradually decreased to the basal level followed by an abrupt increase on the seventh day, implying a rebound effect. The opposite was found in the pituitary, in which the level of iodine in iodine-positive points increased during the first 6 days and then abruptly decreased on the seventh day. Expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone in the pituitary decreased during the first 5 days but sharply increased on the sixth day, with a minimum level of iodine in the thyroid and maximum in the pituitary, before normalization of the iodine level in both glands preceding the rebound effect. The expression of sodium iodide symporter increased during the first 4 days of blockage and then decreased in both

  5. Association between genetic mutations and the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with interferon alpha

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable progress was made by the introduction of interferon to the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This treatment, however, is associated with the risk of developing or exacerbating autoimmune diseases, with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis being one of them. The aim of our study was to evaluate the predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus during IFN-alpha therapy, depending on the presence of polymorphisms in the promoter region of CTLA-4C (−318)T gene and in exon 1 of A49G gene as well as C1858T transition of PTPN22 gene. Methods The study was conducted in 149 patients aged between 18 and 70 years (mean of 43.9 years), including 82 men and 67 women. Control group for the assessment of the distribution of analyzed polymorphism of genotypes consisted of 200 neonates, from whom umbilical blood was drawn for the tests. The patients were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of 114 patients without thyroid impairment before and during IFN-alpha therapy, group 2 contained 9 patients with AT with the onset prior to IFN-alpha treatment, and group 3 comprised 26 patients with AT starting after the beginning of IFN-alpha therapy. Results The frequency of C1858Tand C(−318)T genotypes observed in the study group did not differ significantly from control group. A significant difference, however, was found for A49G polymorphism. Conclusions No association was demonstrated between the occurrence of autoimmune thyroiditis with the onset during IFN-alpha therapy and the presence of polymorphisms within CTLA-4 C(−318)T gene in the promoter region and A49G in exon 1, as well as C1858T transition of PTPN22 gene. PMID:23072316

  6. Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid is used to treat the symptoms of hypothyroidism (a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, ...

  7. Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. Postpartum thyroiditis, which causes ... hormone levels in the blood) followed by temporary hypothyroidism, is a common cause of thyroid problems after ...

  8. microRNA control of interferons and interferon induced anti-viral activity.

    PubMed

    Sedger, Lisa M

    2013-12-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are spontaneously produced in response to virus infection. They act by binding to IFN-receptors (IFN-R), which trigger JAK/STAT cell signalling and the subsequent induction of hundreds of IFN-inducible genes, including both protein-coding and microRNA genes. IFN-induced genes then act synergistically to prevent virus replication and create an anti-viral state. miRNA are therefore integral to the innate response to virus infection and are important components of IFN-mediated biology. On the other hand viruses also encode miRNAs that in some cases interfere directly with the IFN response to infection. This review summarizes the important roles of miRNAs in virus infection acting both as IFN-stimulated anti-viral molecules and as critical regulators of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes. It also highlights how recent knowledge in RNA editing influence miRNA control of virus infection.

  9. Radiation induced thyroid neoplasms 1920 to 1987: A vanishing problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, M.P.; Goetowski, P.G.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    Radiation for benign diseases has been implicated as an etiologic factor in thyroid cancer. From 1930-60, over 2 million children may have been exposed to therapeutic radiation and it is estimated that up to 7% may develop thyroid cancer after a 5-40 year latency. Thyroid stimulating hormone, secondary to radioinduced hypothyroidism, has been implicated as causative in animals. Such data has led to expensive screening programs in high risk patients. Because of a decline in irradiation for benign diseases in children over the last 2 decades, we questioned whether the incidence of radiation induced thyroid neoplasms (RITN) was also decreasing. Twenty-six of 227 patients (11%) with thyroid malignancies seen at our institution from 1974-87 had a history of previous head and neck irradiation. These included 13 papillary, 3 follicular, and 7 mixed carcinomas as well as 2 lymphomas and 1 synovial cell sarcoma. None of these 26 patients had abnormal thyroid function tests at presentation. Mean latency from irradiation to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was 25.4 years (6-55 year range). Compared to the reported increasing incidence of RITN from 1940-70, there appears to be a significant decrease since 1970. Based on our analysis, the use of expensive screening programs in high risk populations may no longer be warranted. Additionally, the routine use of thyroid replacement in previously irradiated chemically hypothyroid patients is not recommended.30 references.

  10. [Polyenzymatic activation of cellular hydrolases induced by interferon; its role in cytolysis and other cellular manifestations induced by interferon].

    PubMed

    Zagury, D; Mazière, J C; Morgan, D; Fouchard, M; Gagne, I; Hosli, P

    1982-01-25

    Interferon (IFN) treatment of human effector T cells activates CMC directed against K562 targets. An increase of the activity of the different hydrolytic enzymes tested (hexosaminidase and acid-phosphatase) measured in the effector cell population parallels cytolysis activation. IFN and IFN inducers (PIC) treatment of cultured murine L-929 cells generate molecular mediated cytolysis. An increase of hydrolytic enzyme activity (hexosaminidase; B-glucuronidase, acid and alkalin phosphatases) precedes cell lysis. Thus, in both cytolytic systems, IFN induced a polyenzymatic activation of hydrolases. This activation is similar to coordinate enzyme induction discovered by Hosli [16] in pathological and experimental instances, when absorbed substrates cannot be hydrolyzed by lack of specific enzymes. Activation of hydrolytic enzymes induced by IFN which determines its enhancing effect on CMC and on fibroblast autolysis [17] could speculatively explain other effects of IFN such as antiviral action, diminution of cell protein synthesis, inhibition of cell division or molecular alterations of cell surface. PMID:6177383

  11. Interferon-Inducible GTPases in Host Resistance, Inflammation and Disease.

    PubMed

    Pilla-Moffett, Danielle; Barber, Matthew F; Taylor, Gregory A; Coers, Jörn

    2016-08-28

    Cell-autonomous immunity is essential for host organisms to defend themselves against invasive microbes. In vertebrates, both the adaptive and the innate branches of the immune system operate cell-autonomous defenses as key effector mechanisms that are induced by pro-inflammatory interferons (IFNs). IFNs can activate cell-intrinsic host defenses in virtually any cell type ranging from professional phagocytes to mucosal epithelial cells. Much of this IFN-induced host resistance program is dependent on four families of IFN-inducible GTPases: the myxovirus resistance proteins, the immunity-related GTPases, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), and the very large IFN-inducible GTPases. These GTPase families provide host resistance to a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens through the sequestration of microbial proteins, manipulation of vesicle trafficking, regulation of antimicrobial autophagy (xenophagy), execution of intracellular membranolytic pathways, and the activation of inflammasomes. This review discusses our current knowledge of the molecular function of IFN-inducible GTPases in providing host resistance, as well as their role in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory Crohn's disease. While substantial advances were made in the recent past, few of the known functions of IFN-inducible GTPases have been explored in any depth, and new functions await discovery. This review will therefore highlight key areas of future exploration that promise to advance our understanding of the role of IFN-inducible GTPases in human diseases. PMID:27181197

  12. RelA-Induced Interferon Response Negatively Regulates Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kochupurakkal, Bose S.; Wang, Zhigang C.; Hua, Tony; Culhane, Aedin C.; Rodig, Scott J.; Rajkovic-Molek, Koraljka; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Richardson, Andrea L.; Biswas, Debajit K.; Iglehart, J. Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Both oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities are attributed to the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway. Moreover, NF-kB may positively or negatively regulate proliferation. The molecular determinants of these opposing roles of NF-kB are unclear. Using primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) as a model, we show that increased RelA levels and consequent increase in basal transcriptional activity of RelA induces IRF1, a target gene. Induced IRF1 upregulates STAT1 and IRF7, and in consort, these factors induce the expression of interferon response genes. Activation of the interferon pathway down-regulates CDK4 and up-regulates p27 resulting in Rb hypo-phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest. Stimulation of HMEC with IFN-γ elicits similar phenotypic and molecular changes suggesting that basal activity of RelA and IFN-γ converge on IRF1 to regulate proliferation. The anti-proliferative RelA-IRF1-CDK4 signaling axis is retained in ER+/HER2- breast tumors analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Using immuno-histochemical analysis of breast tumors, we confirm the negative correlation between RelA levels and proliferation rate in ER+/HER2- breast tumors. These findings attribute an anti-proliferative tumor-suppressor role to basal RelA activity. Inactivation of Rb, down-regulation of RelA or IRF1, or upregulation of CDK4 or IRF2 rescues the RelA-IRF1-CDK4 induced proliferation arrest in HMEC and are points of disruption in aggressive tumors. Activity of the RelA-IRF1-CDK4 axis may explain favorable response to CDK4/6 inhibition observed in patients with ER+ Rb competent tumors. PMID:26460486

  13. Component(s) of Sendai virus that can induce interferon in mouse spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y; Hosaka, Y

    1983-01-01

    To identify the active component of Sendai virus that induces interferon in mouse spleen cells, infectious and noninfectious viruses, envelope particles derived from them, and isolated hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins were examined for interferon induction. The interaction between membranous structures containing Sendai virus HN glycoprotein and the receptors on the cell surface was shown to be sufficient for interferon induction in mouse spleen cells, suggesting that the actual inducer of interferon in mouse spleen cells is the HN glycoprotein of Sendai virus. When mouse spleen cells were stimulated in vitro with Sendai virus grown in eggs or LLC-MK2 cells or with membranous structures containing glycoproteins obtained from these viruses, interferon could be detected in the culture fluid. Furthermore, isolated HN glycoprotein per se could induce interferon in the cells. A linear correlation was found between the titer of interferon induced and the hemagglutinating activity of the membranous structure containing the HN glycoprotein. It was concluded from these findings that HN glycoprotein was the active component of Sendai virus responsible for interferon induction in mouse spleen cells and that viral RNA and F glycoprotein were not required. The results also showed that the interaction between HN glycoprotein and receptors on the cell surface triggered production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). Although when Sendai virus was incubated at 56 degrees C for 5 min it lost its hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities, it induced a considerable amount of interferon in the culture fluid of mouse spleen cells. The interferon-inducing ability of heat-inactivated virus could be absorbed with mouse spleen cells but not with sheep erythrocytes or mouse erythrocytes, indicating that the inactivated virus retained ability to bind to mouse lymphoid cells. PMID:6301988

  14. [Clinical procedure in amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Różycka-Kosmalska, Monika; Michalak, Renata; Kosmalski, Marcin; Ptaszyński, Paweł; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Zieleniewski, Wojciech; Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug frequently used in everyday clinical practice. Its mechanism of action involves the interaction with many receptors, including those in the cardiac conduction system. Amiodarone usefulness is protect in the treatment of a variety of tachyarrhythmias, both benign and life-threatening. In contrast to other antiarrhythmic drugs, amiodarone is characterized by high therapeutic efficacy, both in patients with normal and impaired left ventricular systolic function. A significant limitation of its is associated with side effects including thyroid gland dysfunction. Disturbances of this organ associated with amiodarone are an important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. They may contribute to the occurrence of both Amiodarone- Induced Thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and Amiodarone-Induced Hypothyroidism (AIH). The risk of such complications should be considered for each patient individually, taking into account thyroid function at the beginning of pharmacotherapy. Appropriate procedure, both before and after treatment allows a rapid diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disturbances. It seems that the best parameter used to assess the hormonal imbalance during amiodarone therapy is the concentration of the free triiodothyronine (fT3). The evaluation of thyroid function should be performed before starting pharmacotherapy, and then repeated every six months. In the case of a thyroid dysfunction, assessment must be performed immediately according to standard diagnostic and therapeutic regimens. Despite abnormal thyroid function, high efficiency of amiodarone and relatively small risk of thyroid damage allows continuation therapy. Amiodarone therapy requires a care from both cardiologist and endocrinologist. The aim of this paper is to present the state of art of evaluation of the thyroid function and procedures implemented in care of thyroid dysfunction before and during treatment with amiodarone. PMID:26891437

  15. Endogenous interferon-β-inducible gene expression and interferon-β-treatment are associated with reduced T cell responses to myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Börnsen, Lars; Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Hedegaard, Chris; Søndergaard, Helle B; Krakauer, Martin; Hesse, Dan; Nielsen, Claus H; Sorensen, Per S; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Autoreactive CD4+ T-cells are considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, exogenous and endogenous type I interferons restrict disease severity. Recombinant interferon-β is used for treatment of multiple sclerosis, and some untreated multiple sclerosis patients have increased expression levels of type I interferon-inducible genes in immune cells. The role of endogenous type I interferons in multiple sclerosis is controversial: some studies found an association of high expression levels of interferon-β-inducible genes with an increased expression of interleukin-10 and a milder disease course in untreated multiple sclerosis patients, whereas other studies reported an association with a poor response to treatment with interferon-β. In the present study, we found that untreated multiple sclerosis patients with an increased expression of interferon-β-inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients had decreased CD4+ T-cell reactivity to the autoantigen myelin basic protein ex vivo. Interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients had increased IL10 and IL27 gene expression levels in monocytes in vivo. In vitro, neutralization of interleukin-10 and monocyte depletion increased CD4+ T-cell reactivity to myelin basic protein while interleukin-10, in the presence or absence of monocytes, inhibited CD4+ T-cell reactivity to myelin basic protein. Our findings suggest that spontaneous expression of interferon-β-inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from untreated multiple sclerosis patients and treatment with interferon-β are associated with reduced myelin basic protein-induced T-cell responses. Reduced myelin basic protein-induced CD4+ T-cell autoreactivity in interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients may be mediated by monocyte-derived interleukin-10.

  16. Interferon gamma induces retrograde dendritic retraction and inhibits synapse formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Jung; Beck, Hiroko Nagasawa; Lein, Pamela J; Higgins, Dennis

    2002-06-01

    The expression of interferon gamma (IFNgamma) increases after neural injury, and it is sustained in chronic inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. To understand how exposure to this proinflammatory cytokine might affect neural function, we examined its effects on cultures of neurons derived from the central and peripheral nervous systems. IFNgamma inhibits initial dendritic outgrowth in cultures of embryonic rat sympathetic and hippocampal neurons, and this inhibitory effect on process growth is associated with a decrease in the rate of synapse formation. In addition, in older cultures of sympathetic neurons, IFNgamma also selectively induces retraction of existing dendrites, ultimately leading to an 88% decrease in the size of the arbor. Dendritic retraction induced by IFNgamma represents a specific cellular response because it occurs without affecting axonal outgrowth or cell survival, and it is not observed with tumor necrosis factor alpha or other inflammatory cytokines. IFNgamma-induced dendritic retraction is associated with the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and expression of a dominant-negative STAT1 construct attenuates the inhibitory effect of IFNgamma. Moreover, retrograde dendritic retraction is observed when distal axons are selectively exposed to IFNgamma. These data imply that IFNgamma-mediated STAT1 activation induces both dendritic atrophy and synaptic loss and that this occurs both at the sites of IFNgamma release and at remote loci. Regressive actions of IFNgamma on dendrites may contribute to the neuropathology of inflammatory diseases.

  17. [Virus infections and interferon inducers in the complex therapy].

    PubMed

    Romantsov, M G; Ershov, F I; Kovalenko, A L; Sukhanov, D S; Liberanskaia, O M

    2013-01-01

    Interferon inductors of various chemical groups, belonging to antivirals, and induction of several types of endogenous interferon in blood serum are described. Cycloferon was shown efficient in the complex treatment of chronic hepatitis C, tuberculosis in HIV-infected subjects, arbovirus diseases, influenza and acute respiratory virus infections. PMID:24757825

  18. Interferon-induced 2'-5' adenylate synthetase in vivo and interferon production in vitro by lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus patients with and without circulating interferon

    SciTech Connect

    Preble, O.T.; Rothko, K.; Klippel, J.H.; Friedman, R.M.; Johnston, M.I.

    1983-06-01

    The interferon (IFN)-induced enzyme 2-5A synthetase was elevated in mononuclear cells from both serum IFN-positive and -negative systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This suggests that a much higher percentage of patients than previously thought produce endogenous IFN. These results may partly explain findings that mononuclear cells from SLE patients are deficient in IFN production in vitro in response to certain IFN inducers. Although normal lymphocytes can produce an acid-labile alpha IFN after stimulation with C. parvum in vitro, the reason for endogenous production of this unusual alpha IFN by SLE patients remains unknown.

  19. Probable involvement of p11 with interferon alpha induced depression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiqiang; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Lili; Ding, Huaxia; Zhang, Jingjing; Song, Chen; Zhang, Yanfei; Xia, Namei; Li, Mingfang; Liang, Yinming; Hu, Xianzhang; Luan, Haojiang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the major side effects of interferon alpha (IFN-α) treatment, but the molecular mechanism underlying IFN-α-induced depression remains unclear. Several studies have shown that the serotonin receptors 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 play key roles in the anti-depression effects associated with p11 (S100A10). We investigated the effects of IFN-α on the regulation of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in mice and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-sy5y). We found that intraperitoneal injection with IFN-α in Balb/c mice resulted in an increased immobility in FST and TST, and potently lowered the protein levels of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in the hippocampus or cingulate gyrus. IFN-α significantly down-regulated the protein levels of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in SH-sy5y cells, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our study revealed that over-expression of p11 could prevent the IFN-α-induced down-regulation of 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4. The results indicated that IFN-α treatment resulted in p11 down-regulation, which subsequently decreased 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in vitro or in vivo. Our findings suggested that p11 might be a potential regulator on 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 as well as a predictor of or a therapeutic target for IFN-α-induced depression. PMID:26821757

  20. Interferon-γ-Induced Necrosis: An Antitumor Biotherapeutic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ—like the well-known antitumor biotherapeutic IFN-α—is a powerful antiproliferative and immune modulatory cytokine, but mixed results from clinical trials, together with issues of systemic toxicity, have dampened enthusiasm for its use in the treatment of cancer. We suggest that at least 2 factors reduce the antitumor efficacy of IFN-γ: (1) poorly understood survival mechanisms that protect most tumor cells from IFN-γ-induced direct cytotoxicity, and (2) the short half-life of IFN-γ in serum. In this review, we outline avenues to overcome both these limitations. First, we have identified the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as a protective mechanism against IFN-γ-induced necrosis, and disabling NF-κB allows IFN-γ to trigger RIP1 kinase-dependent programmed necrosis (or necroptosis) in otherwise resistant cells. Second, we propose that fusing IFN-γ to tumor-specific antibodies will stabilize IFN-γ in serum and target this cytokine to tumor cells. We expect that such IFN-γ–antibody chimeras (called immunocytokines), when combined with agents that neutralize tumor-intrinsic survival signals such as NF-κB, will exert potent tumoricidal activity with minimized systemic side effects. Although this review will focus on exploiting IFN-γ-induced necrosis for treatment of renal cell carcinoma, these approaches are also directly applicable to several human cancers in which IFNs have shown therapeutic potential. PMID:23570383

  1. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, E.; Avia, M.; Rangel, G.; de Molina, A.; Alejo, A.; Sevilla, N.

    2016-01-01

    Ovine interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a unique type I interferon with low toxicity and a broad host range in vivo. We report the generation of a nonreplicative recombinant adenovirus expressing biologically active IFN-τ. Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent lethality and disease induced by highly virulent hv-PR8 influenza virus by activating the interferon response and preventing viral replication. PMID:26739058

  2. Interferon-inducible GTPase: a novel viral response protein involved in rabies virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Hualei; Jin, Hongli; Cao, Zengguo; Feng, Na; Zhao, Yongkun; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Qian; Zhao, Guoxing; Yan, Feihu; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tiecheng; Gao, Yuwei; Tu, Changchun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-05-01

    Rabies virus infection is a major public health concern because of its wide host-interference spectrum and nearly 100 % lethality. However, the interactions between host and virus remain unclear. To decipher the authentic response in the central nervous system after rabies virus infection, a dynamic analysis of brain proteome alteration was performed. In this study, 104 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified, and intermediate filament, interferon-inducible GTPases, and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 16C were the three outstanding groups among these proteins. Interferon-inducible GTPases were prominent because of their strong upregulation. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR showed distinct upregulation of interferon-inducible GTPases at the level of transcription. Several studies have shown that interferon-inducible GTPases are involved in many biological processes, such as viral infection, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and autophagy. These findings indicate that interferon-inducible GTPases are likely to be a potential target involved in rabies pathogenesis or the antiviral process.

  3. Interferon-inducible GTPase: a novel viral response protein involved in rabies virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Hualei; Jin, Hongli; Cao, Zengguo; Feng, Na; Zhao, Yongkun; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Qian; Zhao, Guoxing; Yan, Feihu; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tiecheng; Gao, Yuwei; Tu, Changchun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-05-01

    Rabies virus infection is a major public health concern because of its wide host-interference spectrum and nearly 100 % lethality. However, the interactions between host and virus remain unclear. To decipher the authentic response in the central nervous system after rabies virus infection, a dynamic analysis of brain proteome alteration was performed. In this study, 104 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified, and intermediate filament, interferon-inducible GTPases, and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 16C were the three outstanding groups among these proteins. Interferon-inducible GTPases were prominent because of their strong upregulation. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR showed distinct upregulation of interferon-inducible GTPases at the level of transcription. Several studies have shown that interferon-inducible GTPases are involved in many biological processes, such as viral infection, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and autophagy. These findings indicate that interferon-inducible GTPases are likely to be a potential target involved in rabies pathogenesis or the antiviral process. PMID:26906695

  4. Adenovirus infection reverses the antiviral state induced by human interferon.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1987-04-01

    HeLa cells treated with human lymphoblastoid interferon do not synthesize poliovirus proteins. The antiviral state against poliovirus is reversed if cells are previously infected with adenovirus type 5. A late gene product seems to be involved in this reversion, since no effect is observed at early stages of infection or in the presence of aphidicolin.

  5. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Wang, Weixing; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  6. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  7. Interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins in inflammasome activation and host defense.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bae-Hoon; Chee, Jonathan D; Bradfield, Clinton J; Park, Eui-Soon; Kumar, Pradeep; MacMicking, John D

    2016-05-01

    Traditional views of the inflammasome highlight the assembly of pre-existing core components shortly after infection or tissue damage. Emerging work, however, suggests that the inflammasome machinery is also subject to 'tunable' or inducible signals that might accelerate its autocatalytic properties and dictate where inflammasome assembly takes place in the cell. Many of these signals operate downstream of interferon receptors to elicit inflammasome regulators, including a new family of interferon-induced GTPases called 'guanylate-binding proteins' (GBPs). Here we investigate the critical roles of interferon-induced GBPs in directing inflammasome subtype-specific responses and their consequences for cell-autonomous immunity to a wide variety of microbial pathogens. We discuss emerging mechanisms of action and the potential effect of these GBPs on predisposition to sepsis and other infectious or inflammatory diseases. PMID:27092805

  8. Interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins in inflammasome activation and host defense.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bae-Hoon; Chee, Jonathan D; Bradfield, Clinton J; Park, Eui-Soon; Kumar, Pradeep; MacMicking, John D

    2016-05-01

    Traditional views of the inflammasome highlight the assembly of pre-existing core components shortly after infection or tissue damage. Emerging work, however, suggests that the inflammasome machinery is also subject to 'tunable' or inducible signals that might accelerate its autocatalytic properties and dictate where inflammasome assembly takes place in the cell. Many of these signals operate downstream of interferon receptors to elicit inflammasome regulators, including a new family of interferon-induced GTPases called 'guanylate-binding proteins' (GBPs). Here we investigate the critical roles of interferon-induced GBPs in directing inflammasome subtype-specific responses and their consequences for cell-autonomous immunity to a wide variety of microbial pathogens. We discuss emerging mechanisms of action and the potential effect of these GBPs on predisposition to sepsis and other infectious or inflammatory diseases.

  9. Transcriptome analysis reveals a classical interferon signature induced by IFNλ4 in human primary cells.

    PubMed

    Lauber, C; Vieyres, G; Terczyńska-Dyla, E; Anggakusuma; Dijkman, R; Gad, H H; Akhtar, H; Geffers, R; Vondran, F W R; Thiel, V; Kaderali, L; Pietschmann, T; Hartmann, R

    2015-09-01

    The IFNL4 gene is negatively associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. The activity of IFNλ4 has an important causal role in the pathogenesis, but the molecular details are not fully understood. One possible reason for the detrimental effect of IFNλ4 could be a tissue-specific regulation of an unknown subset of genes. To address both tissue and subtype specificity in the interferon response, we treated primary human hepatocytes and airway epithelial cells with IFNα, IFNλ3 or IFNλ4 and assessed interferon mediated gene regulation using transcriptome sequencing. Our data show a surprisingly similar response to all three subtypes of interferon. We also addressed the tissue specificity of the response, and identified a subset of tissue-specific genes. However, the interferon response is robust in both tissues with the majority of the identified genes being regulated in hepatocytes as well as airway epithelial cells. Thus we provide an in-depth analysis of the liver interferon response seen over an array of interferon subtypes and compare it to the response in the lung epithelium. PMID:26066369

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals a classical interferon signature induced by IFNλ4 in human primary cells.

    PubMed

    Lauber, C; Vieyres, G; Terczyńska-Dyla, E; Anggakusuma; Dijkman, R; Gad, H H; Akhtar, H; Geffers, R; Vondran, F W R; Thiel, V; Kaderali, L; Pietschmann, T; Hartmann, R

    2015-09-01

    The IFNL4 gene is negatively associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. The activity of IFNλ4 has an important causal role in the pathogenesis, but the molecular details are not fully understood. One possible reason for the detrimental effect of IFNλ4 could be a tissue-specific regulation of an unknown subset of genes. To address both tissue and subtype specificity in the interferon response, we treated primary human hepatocytes and airway epithelial cells with IFNα, IFNλ3 or IFNλ4 and assessed interferon mediated gene regulation using transcriptome sequencing. Our data show a surprisingly similar response to all three subtypes of interferon. We also addressed the tissue specificity of the response, and identified a subset of tissue-specific genes. However, the interferon response is robust in both tissues with the majority of the identified genes being regulated in hepatocytes as well as airway epithelial cells. Thus we provide an in-depth analysis of the liver interferon response seen over an array of interferon subtypes and compare it to the response in the lung epithelium.

  11. Interferon γ-inducible protein (IFI) 16 transcriptionally regulates type i interferons and other interferon-stimulated genes and controls the interferon response to both DNA and RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mikayla R; Sharma, Shruti; Atianand, Maninjay; Jensen, Søren B; Carpenter, Susan; Knipe, David M; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A

    2014-08-22

    The interferon γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) has recently been linked to the detection of nuclear and cytosolic DNA during infection with herpes simplex virus-1 and HIV. IFI16 binds dsDNA via HIN200 domains and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator)-binding kinase-1 (TBK1)-dependent phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and transcription of type I interferons (IFNs) and related genes. To better understand the role of IFI16 in coordinating type I IFN gene regulation, we generated cell lines with stable knockdown of IFI16 and examined responses to DNA and RNA viruses as well as cyclic dinucleotides. As expected, stable knockdown of IFI16 led to a severely attenuated type I IFN response to DNA ligands and viruses. In contrast, expression of the NF-κB-regulated cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β was unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells, suggesting that the role of IFI16 in sensing these triggers was unique to the type I IFN pathway. Surprisingly, we also found that knockdown of IFI16 led to a severe attenuation of IFN-α and the IFN-stimulated gene retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in response to cyclic GMP-AMP, a second messenger produced by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) as well as RNA ligands and viruses. Analysis of IFI16 knockdown cells revealed compromised occupancy of RNA polymerase II on the IFN-α promoter in these cells, suggesting that transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is dependent on IFI16. These results indicate a broader role for IFI16 in the regulation of the type I IFN response to RNA and DNA viruses in antiviral immunity.

  12. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima...

  13. Drug-induced lupus: Including anti-tumour necrosis factor and interferon induced.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Fernández, S; Ahijón-Lana, M; Isenberg, D A

    2014-05-01

    Drug-induced lupus erythematosus is defined as a syndrome with clinical and serological features similar to systemic lupus erythematosus that is temporally related to continuous drug exposure and which resolves after discontinuation of this drug. More than 90 drugs, including biological modulators such as tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors and interferons, have been identified as likely 'culprits'. While there are no standard diagnostic criteria for drug-induced lupus erythematosus, guidelines that can help to distinguish drug-induced lupus erythematosus from systemic lupus erythematosus have been proposed and several different patterns of drug-induced lupus erythematosus are emerging. Distinguishing drug-induced lupus erythematosus from systemic lupus erythematosus is important because the prognosis of drug-induced lupus erythematosus is usually good when the drug is withdrawn. This review discusses the differences between drug-induced lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus, the mechanisms of action of drug-induced lupus erythematosus and drugs that are usually associated with drug-induced lupus erythematosus, with particular focus on the biological treatments.

  14. Selective Hyper-responsiveness of the Interferon System in Major Depressive Disorders and Depression Induced by Interferon Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo-Becerra, Carolina; Erim, Yesim; Kis, Bernhard; Wang, Bo; Scherbaum, Norbert; Gerken, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Background Though an important percentage of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) undergoing interferon (IFN) therapy develop depressive symptoms, the role of the IFN system in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders is not well understood. Methods 50 patients with HCV infection were treated with standard combination therapy (pegylated IFN-α2a/ribavirin). IFN-induced gene expression was analyzed to identify genes which are differentially regulated in patients with or without IFN-induced depression. For validation, PBMC from 22 psychiatric patients with a severe depressive episode (SDE) and 11 controls were cultivated in vitro with pegylated IFN-α2a and gene expression was analyzed. Results IFN-induced depression in HCV patients was associated with selective upregulation of 15 genes, including 6 genes that were previously described to be relevant for major depressive disorders or neuronal development. In addition, increased endogenous IFN-production and selective hyper-responsiveness of these genes to IFN stimulation were observed in SDE patients. Conclusions Our data suggest that selective hyper-responsiveness to exogenous (IFN therapy) or endogenous (depressive disorders) type I IFNs may lead to the development of depressive symptoms. These data could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to treat IFN-induced and major depressive disorders. PMID:22701688

  15. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  16. Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, M.C.; Dake, M.D.; Okerlund, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response.

  17. Viperin: a multifunctional, interferon-inducible protein that regulates virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jun-Young; Yaneva, Rakina; Cresswell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viperin is an interferon-inducible protein that inhibits the replication of a variety of viruses by apparently diverse mechanisms. In some circumstances it also plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways. Its expression in mitochondria, revealed by infection with human cytomegalovirus, also affects cellular metabolic pathways. We review here the current status of our understanding of this unusual molecule. PMID:22177558

  18. 99mTc Sestamibi Thyroid Scan in Amiodarone-Induced Thyrotoxicosis Type I.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niraj R; Tamara, Luis A; Lee, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) type I describes inducement of clinical hyperthyroidism by excessive thyroidal iodine in the setting of latent Graves disease, and therapy differs from that used for AIT type II. A 65-year-old man previously on amiodarone for atrial fibrillation developed clinical hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis of AIT was made, but the type was not clear. Tc sestamibi thyroid scan showed diffusely increased uptake and retention in an enlarged thyroid gland, a pattern consistent with AIT type I. Methimazole was initiated and controlled the thyrotoxicosis. I iodide thyroid scan and uptake study performed later was consistent with Graves disease.

  19. Type I Interferons Induce T Regulatory 1 Responses and Restrict Humoral Immunity during Experimental Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Ryan A.; Guthmiller, Jenna J.; Graham, Amy C.; Burke, Bradly E.; Carr, Daniel J.J.

    2016-01-01

    CD4 T cell-dependent antibody responses are essential for limiting Plasmodium parasite replication and the severity of malaria; however, the factors that regulate humoral immunity during highly inflammatory, Th1-biased systemic infections are poorly understood. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we show that Plasmodium infection-induced type I interferons limit T follicular helper accumulation and constrain anti-malarial humoral immunity. Mechanistically we show that CD4 T cell-intrinsic type I interferon signaling induces T-bet and Blimp-1 expression, thereby promoting T regulatory 1 responses. We further show that the secreted effector cytokines of T regulatory 1 cells, IL-10 and IFN-γ, collaborate to restrict T follicular helper accumulation, limit parasite-specific antibody responses, and diminish parasite control. This circuit of interferon-mediated Blimp-1 induction is also operational during chronic virus infection and can occur independently of IL-2 signaling. Thus, type I interferon-mediated induction of Blimp-1 and subsequent expansion of T regulatory 1 cells represent generalizable features of systemic, inflammatory Th1-biased viral and parasitic infections that are associated with suppression of humoral immunity. PMID:27732671

  20. Interferon alpha-inducible protein 6 regulates NRASQ61K-induced melanomagenesis and growth

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Romi; Forloni, Matteo; Bisserier, Malik; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Yang, Qiaohong; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the NRAS oncogene are present in up to 20% of melanoma. Here, we show that interferon alpha-inducible protein 6 (IFI6) is necessary for NRASQ61K-induced transformation and melanoma growth. IFI6 was transcriptionally upregulated by NRASQ61K, and knockdown of IFI6 resulted in DNA replication stress due to dysregulated DNA replication via E2F2. This stress consequentially inhibited cellular transformation and melanoma growth via senescence or apoptosis induction depending on the RB and p53 pathway status of the cells. NRAS-mutant melanoma were significantly more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of DNA replication stress-inducing drugs, and knockdown of IFI6 increased sensitivity to these drugs. Pharmacological inhibition of IFI6 expression by the MEK inhibitor trametinib, when combined with DNA replication stress-inducing drugs, blocked NRAS-mutant melanoma growth. Collectively, we demonstrate that IFI6, via E2F2 regulates DNA replication and melanoma development and growth, and this pathway can be pharmacologically targeted to inhibit NRAS-mutant melanoma. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16432.001 PMID:27608486

  1. Interferon gamma blocks the growth of Toxoplasma gondii in human fibroblasts by inducing the host cells to degrade tryptophan.

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferkorn, E R

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of human fibroblasts with human recombinant gamma interferon blocked the growth of Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Growth of the parasite was measured by a plaque assay 7 days after infection or by the incorporation of [3H]uracil 1 or 2 days after infection. The antitoxoplasma activity induced in the host cells by gamma interferon was strongly dependent upon the tryptophan concentration of the medium. Progressively higher minimal inhibitory concentrations of gamma interferon were observed as the tryptophan concentration in the culture medium was increased. Treatment with gamma interferon did not make the cells impermeable to tryptophan. The kinetics of [3H]tryptophan uptake into the acid-soluble pools of control and gamma interferon-treated cultures were identical during the first 48 sec. Thereafter uptake of [3H]tryptophan into the acid-soluble pool of control fibroblasts reached the expected plateau after 96 sec. In contrast, uptake of [3H]tryptophan continued for at least 12 min in the gamma interferon-treated cultures. At that time, the acid-soluble pool of the gamma interferon-treated cultures contained 8 times the radioactivity of the control cultures. This continued accumulation was the result of rapid intracellular degradation of [3H]tryptophan into kynurenine and N-formylkynurenine that leaked slowly from the cells. These two metabolites were also recovered from the medium of cultures treated for 1 or 2 days with gamma interferon. Human recombinant alpha and beta interferons, which have no antitoxoplasma activity, did not induce any detectable degradation of tryptophan. Several hypotheses are presented to explain how the intracellular degradation of tryptophan induced by gamma interferon could restrict the growth of an obligate intracellular parasite. Images PMID:6422465

  2. Interferon-induced ISG15 pathway: an ongoing virus–host battle

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Collins, Mark; Hsiang, Tien-Ying; Krug, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    ISG15 is an interferon-induced ubiquitin-like protein that is conjugated to target proteins via the sequential action of three enzymes that are also induced by interferon. Unlike ubiquitin, which is highly conserved, the sequence of ISG15 varies between species. ISG15 conjugation inhibits many viruses, and free (unconjugated) ISG15 can also act as an antiviral protein. Here we focus on the antiviral role of ISG15 conjugation and on countermeasures employed by several viruses. The countermeasure by influenza B virus is unique in that it exhibits species-specificity. Only the antiviral activity of human and non-human primate ISG15s can be blocked, providing one possible explanation for the restriction of influenza B virus to humans. PMID:23414970

  3. Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Host Cell Entry of Ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wrensch, Florian; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Markus; Lu, Kai; Takada, Ayato; Winkler, Michael; Simmons, Graham; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly pathogenic in humans and nonhuman primates and pose a severe threat to public health. The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins can restrict entry of ebolaviruses, influenza A viruses, and other enveloped viruses. However, the breadth and mechanism of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins are incompletely understood. Here, we employed ebolavirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped vectors and ebolavirus-like particles to address this question. We show that IFITM proteins inhibit the cellular entry of diverse ebolaviruses and demonstrate that type I interferon induces IFITM protein expression in macrophages, major viral targets. Moreover, we show that IFITM proteins block entry of influenza A viruses and ebolaviruses by different mechanisms and provide evidence that antibodies and IFITM proteins can synergistically inhibit cellular entry of ebolaviruses. These results provide insights into the role of IFITM proteins in infection by ebolaviruses and suggest a mechanism by which antibodies, though poorly neutralizing in vitro, might contribute to viral control in vivo.

  4. Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Host Cell Entry of Ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wrensch, Florian; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Markus; Lu, Kai; Takada, Ayato; Winkler, Michael; Simmons, Graham; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly pathogenic in humans and nonhuman primates and pose a severe threat to public health. The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins can restrict entry of ebolaviruses, influenza A viruses, and other enveloped viruses. However, the breadth and mechanism of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins are incompletely understood. Here, we employed ebolavirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped vectors and ebolavirus-like particles to address this question. We show that IFITM proteins inhibit the cellular entry of diverse ebolaviruses and demonstrate that type I interferon induces IFITM protein expression in macrophages, major viral targets. Moreover, we show that IFITM proteins block entry of influenza A viruses and ebolaviruses by different mechanisms and provide evidence that antibodies and IFITM proteins can synergistically inhibit cellular entry of ebolaviruses. These results provide insights into the role of IFITM proteins in infection by ebolaviruses and suggest a mechanism by which antibodies, though poorly neutralizing in vitro, might contribute to viral control in vivo. PMID:26034199

  5. Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein–Mediated Inhibition of Host Cell Entry of Ebolaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Florian; Karsten, Christina B.; Gnirß, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Markus; Lu, Kai; Takada, Ayato; Winkler, Michael; Simmons, Graham; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly pathogenic in humans and nonhuman primates and pose a severe threat to public health. The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins can restrict entry of ebolaviruses, influenza A viruses, and other enveloped viruses. However, the breadth and mechanism of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins are incompletely understood. Here, we employed ebolavirus glycoprotein–pseudotyped vectors and ebolavirus-like particles to address this question. We show that IFITM proteins inhibit the cellular entry of diverse ebolaviruses and demonstrate that type I interferon induces IFITM protein expression in macrophages, major viral targets. Moreover, we show that IFITM proteins block entry of influenza A viruses and ebolaviruses by different mechanisms and provide evidence that antibodies and IFITM proteins can synergistically inhibit cellular entry of ebolaviruses. These results provide insights into the role of IFITM proteins in infection by ebolaviruses and suggest a mechanism by which antibodies, though poorly neutralizing in vitro, might contribute to viral control in vivo. PMID:26034199

  6. Thyroid iodine content and serum thyroglobulin: cues to the natural history of destruction-induced thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Smallridge, R.C.; De Keyser, F.M.; Van Herle, A.J.; Butkus, N.E.; Wartofsky, L.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-eight patients with destructive thyroiditis were followed to study the natural history of healing of thyroid gland injury. All had sequential measurements of thyroidal iodine (/sup 127/I) content by fluorescent scanning (normal mean, 10.1 mg), 17 had serial serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements (normal, less than 21 ng/ml), and 13 had perchlorate discharge studies during the recovery phase. Seventeen patients had painful subacute thyroiditis (SAT), 9 had painless thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PTT), and 2 had postpartum thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PPT). Thyroidal iodine content decreased from a mean of 9.8 to a nadir of 3.8 mg in patients with SAT and from 8.5 to a nadir of 3.5 mg in patients with PTT. Mean serum Tg concentrations were highest (approximately 165 ng/ml) in both groups 1-3 months after the onset of symptoms. Abnormalities in both /sup 127/I content and Tg levels persisted for 2 or more yr in some individuals. No patient had detectable Tg antibodies by hemagglutination, but low titers were detected intermittently by sensitive RIA in 5 PTT patients. Microsomal antibodies were positive in only 1 of 16 SAT patients, but in 4 of 7 PTT patients and in both PPT patients. Three patients had positive perchlorate discharge tests (2 of 8 with SAT, 0 of 4 with PTT, and 1 of 1 with PPT). Permanent hypothyroidism occurred in 3 patients (2 with PTT; 1 with SAT and positive antibodies), but did not correlate with perchlorate results. HLA typing and serum immunoglobulin measurements were not useful for predicting the clinical course. These data indicate that several years may be necessary for complete resolution of destructive thyroiditis; many patients have evidence of thyroid injury persisting long after serum thyroid hormone and TSH levels become normal.

  7. Type I interferon induces necroptosis in macrophages during infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nirmal; McComb, Scott; Mulligan, Rebecca; Dudani, Renu; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Sad, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a virulent pathogen that induces rapid host death. Here we observed that host survival after infection with S. Typhimurium was enhanced in the absence of type I interferon signaling, with improved survival of mice deficient in the receptor for type I interferons (Ifnar1−/− mice) that was attributed to macrophages. Although there was no impairment in cytokine expression or inflammasome activation in Ifnar1−/− macrophages, they were highly resistant to S. Typhimurium–induced cell death. Specific inhibition of the kinase RIP1or knockdown of the gene encoding the kinase RIP3 prevented the death of wild-type macrophages, which indicated that necroptosis was a mechanism of cell death. Finally, RIP3-deficient macrophages, which cannot undergo necroptosis, had similarly less death and enhanced control of S. Typhimurium in vivo. Thus, we propose that S. Typhimurium induces the production of type I interferon, which drives necroptosis of macrophages and allows them to evade the immune response. PMID:22922364

  8. Two cases of interferon-alpha-induced sarcoidosis Koebnerized along venous drainage lines: new pathogenic insights and review of the literature of interferon-induced sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Buss, G; Cattin, V; Spring, P; Malinverni, R; Gilliet, M

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown origin commonly affecting the lung, the lymphoid system and the skin. We report here two cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in two former intravenous drug users following interferon (IFN)-α and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Both patients developed skin sarcoidosis along venous drainage lines of both forearms, coinciding with the areas of prior drug injections. The unique distribution of the skin lesions suggests that tissue damage induced by repeated percutaneous drug injections represents a trigger for the local skin manifestation of sarcoidosis. Interestingly, skin damage was recently found to induce the local expression IFN-α, a well-known trigger of sarcoidosis in predisposed individuals. Here we review the literature on sarcoidosis elicited in the context of IFN-α therapy and propose a new link between the endogenous expression of IFN-α and the induction of disease manifestations in injured skin.

  9. Thyroid Hormone T3 Counteracts STZ Induced Diabetes in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Madaro, Luca; Ranieri, Danilo; Lupoi, Lorenzo; Stigliano, Antonio; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Bouchè, Marina; Toscano, Vincenzo; Misiti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study intended to demonstrate that the thyroid hormone T3 counteracts the onset of a Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in wild type mice. To test our hypothesis diabetes has been induced in Balb/c male mice by multiple low dose Streptozotocin injection; and a group of mice was contemporaneously injected with T3. After 48 h mice were tested for glucose tolerance test, insulin serum levels and then sacrified. Whole pancreata were utilized for morphological and biochemical analyses, while protein extracts and RNA were utilized for expression analyses of specific molecules. The results showed that islets from T3 treated mice were comparable to age- and sex-matched control, untreated mice in number, shape, dimension, consistency, ultrastructure, insulin and glucagon levels, Tunel positivity and caspases activation, while all the cited parameters and molecules were altered by STZ alone. The T3-induced pro survival effect was associated with a strong increase in phosphorylated Akt. Moreover, T3 administration prevented the STZ-dependent alterations in glucose blood level, both during fasting and after glucose challenge, as well as in insulin serum level. In conclusion we demonstrated that T3 could act as a protective factor against STZ induced diabetes. PMID:21637761

  10. Mode of action and human relevance of pronamide-induced rat thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Papineni, Sabitha; Marty, M Sue; Rasoulpour, Reza J; LeBaron, Matthew J; Pottenger, Lynn H; Eisenbrandt, David L

    2015-04-01

    Pronamide, a selective, systemic, pre- and post-emergence herbicide, caused an increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell adenomas in a rat carcinogenicity study. Thyroid tumors, as well as liver and pituitary changes, were limited only to the high-dose group. The evidence for and against specific potential modes of action (MoAs) for rat thyroid follicular cell adenomas and their relevance to humans is discussed. Pronamide is not mutagenic and therefore, direct DNA reactivity is not relevant as a MoA. The hypothesized MoA for this effect is altered homeostasis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis mediated by the induction of hepatic enzymes, including uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Evaluation of data from a series of regulatory guideline and MoA studies aimed at identifying the causative and associated key events supported a UGT-mediated MoA in the development of thyroid follicular tumors. This MoA for pronamide-induced thyroid tumors in rats, which involves increased thyroid hormone metabolism/clearance, altered thyroid hormone homeostasis and HPT stimulation is not considered relevant to humans based on quantitative species differences, making rats markedly more sensitive than humans to thyroid perturbations. PMID:25707858

  11. Effects of a Model Inducer, Phenobarbital, on Thyroid Hormone Glucuronidation in Rat Hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vivo, hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations. This decrease in circulating TH occurs in part through extrathyroidal mechanisms. Specifically, through the induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes...

  12. Impact of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Propylthiouracil on Brain Development and Function.*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established, severe deficiencies leading to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degr...

  13. Baculovirus-mediated interferon alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis symptoms in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Y; Kaneko, H; Suzuki, H; Abe, T; Matsuura, Y; Takaku, H

    2008-07-01

    The wild-type baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) infects a range of mammalian cell types in vitro but does not replicate in these cells. The current study investigated the in vivo effect of AcMNPV in the mouse model of liver cirrhosis induced by the mutagen dimethylnitrosamine. Intraperitoneal injection of AcMNPV induced an immune response. The baculovirus was taken up by the liver and spleen where it suppressed liver injury and fibrosis through the induction of interferons. This study presents the first evidence of the feasibility of using baculovirus to treat liver cirrhosis. PMID:18369328

  14. Reversal of cadmium-induced thyroid dysfunction by selenium, zinc, or their combination in rat.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Fatima; Messaoudi, Imed; El Hani, Jihène; Baati, Tarek; Saïd, Khaled; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of combined treatment with zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) in reversing cadmium (Cd)-induced thyroid dysfunction compared to Se or Zn treatment alone in rats exposed to Cd. For this purpose, 30 adult male Wistar albino rats were equally divided into control and four treated groups receiving either 200 ppm Cd (as CdCl2), 200 ppm Cd + 500 ppm Zn (as ZnCl2), 200 ppm Cd + 0.1 ppm Se (as Na2SeO3), or 200 ppm Cd + 500 ppm Zn + 0.1 ppm Se in their drinking water for 35 days. The results showed that Cd exposure increased significantly the relative thyroid weight (RTW), the thyroid Cd concentration, and the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, whereas the serum thyroxine (T4) level was decreased compared to control rats. The treatment of Cd-exposed rats with Se alone only partially protected from the Cd-induced decrease in serum T4 level. The treatment of Cd-exposed animals with Zn alone partially protected against Cd-induced thyroid dysfunction by maintaining normal RTW and by decreasing Cd concentration in the thyroid. It also partially prevents Cd-induced decrease in serum T4 level. The combined treatment of Cd-exposed animals with Se and Zn induced a more significant decrease in the thyroid Cd concentration than the Zn supplement and a total correction of the RTW. This treatment was also more effective than that with Se or Zn alone in reversing Cd-induced decrease in serum T4 level and Cd-induced increase in serum TSH level. Se and Zn can have a synergistic role against Cd-induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:18685812

  15. Dengue virus infection induces interferon-lambda1 to facilitate cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lin; Wang, Mei-Yi; Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung

    2016-01-01

    A marked increase in the rate of dengue virus (DENV) infection has resulted in more than 212 deaths in Taiwan since the beginning of 2015, mostly from fatal outcomes such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The pathogenic mechanisms of these fatal manifestations are poorly understood. Cytokines induce an overwhelming immune reaction and thus have crucial roles. Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ), a newly identified IFN subtype, has antiviral effects, but its immunologic effects in DENV infection have not been investigated. In the present study, we show that DENV infection preferentially induced production of IFN-λ1 in human dendritic cells (DCs) and human lung epithelial cells. Virus nonstructural 1 (NS1) glycoprotein was responsible for the effect. DENV-induced production of IFN-λ1 was dependent on signaling pathways involving toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, interferon regulation factor (IRF)-3, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Blocking interaction between IFN-λ1 and its receptor IFN-λR1 through siRNA interference reduced DENV-induced DC migration towards the chemoattractants CCL19 and CCL21, by inhibiting CCR7 expression. Furthermore, IFN-λ1 itself induced CCR7 expression and DC migration. Our study presents the first evidence of the mechanisms and effects of IFN-λ1 induction in DENV-infected DCs and highlights the role of this cytokine in the immunopathogenesis of DENV infection. PMID:27456172

  16. Dengue virus infection induces interferon-lambda1 to facilitate cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Lin; Wang, Mei-Yi; Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung

    2016-01-01

    A marked increase in the rate of dengue virus (DENV) infection has resulted in more than 212 deaths in Taiwan since the beginning of 2015, mostly from fatal outcomes such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The pathogenic mechanisms of these fatal manifestations are poorly understood. Cytokines induce an overwhelming immune reaction and thus have crucial roles. Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ), a newly identified IFN subtype, has antiviral effects, but its immunologic effects in DENV infection have not been investigated. In the present study, we show that DENV infection preferentially induced production of IFN-λ1 in human dendritic cells (DCs) and human lung epithelial cells. Virus nonstructural 1 (NS1) glycoprotein was responsible for the effect. DENV-induced production of IFN-λ1 was dependent on signaling pathways involving toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, interferon regulation factor (IRF)-3, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Blocking interaction between IFN-λ1 and its receptor IFN-λR1 through siRNA interference reduced DENV-induced DC migration towards the chemoattractants CCL19 and CCL21, by inhibiting CCR7 expression. Furthermore, IFN-λ1 itself induced CCR7 expression and DC migration. Our study presents the first evidence of the mechanisms and effects of IFN-λ1 induction in DENV-infected DCs and highlights the role of this cytokine in the immunopathogenesis of DENV infection. PMID:27456172

  17. Stress-induced alterations in interferon production and class II histocompatibility antigen expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Cunnick, J. E.; Armfield, A. V.; Wood, P. G.; Rabin, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    Mild electric foot-shock has been shown to be a stressor that can alter immune responses. Male Lewis rats were exposed to one session of 16 5.0-s 1.6-mA foot-shocks. Production of interferon-gamma by splenocytes in response to concanavalin-A was decreased in spleens from the shocked rats compared to control spleens. Spleen cells from rats treated with nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and then shocked, showed dose-dependent attenuation of the suppression of interferon-gamma production. This suggests that catecholamines mediate shock-induced suppression of interferon-gamma production. The percentage of splenic mononuclear cells expressing class II histocompatibility (Ia) antigens on their surfaces from spleens of shocked rats was determined by flow cytometry. Significantly decreased class II positive mononuclear cells were present in the spleens of shocked rats in comparison to the spleens of control rats. This may reflect an alteration of cell trafficking or decreased production of class II antigens.

  18. SAHA-induced loss of tumor suppressor Pten gene promotes thyroid carcinogenesis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuguang; Kim, Dong Wook; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark C; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid cancer is on the rise. Novel approaches are needed to improve the outcome of patients with recurrent and advanced metastatic thyroid cancers. FDA approval of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, for the treatment of hematological malignancies led to the clinical trials of vorinostat for advanced thyroid cancer. However, patients were resistant to vorinostat treatment. To understand the molecular basis of resistance, we tested the efficacy of SAHA in two mouse models of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer: Thrb(PV/PV) and Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice. In both, thyroid cancer is driven by overactivation of PI3K-AKT signaling. However, the latter exhibit more aggressive cancer progression due to haplodeficiency of the tumor suppressor, the Pten gene. SAHA had no effects on thyroid cancer progression in Thrb(PV/PV) mice, indicative of resistance to SAHA. Unexpectedly, thyroid cancer progressed in SAHA-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice with accelerated occurrence of vascular invasion, anaplastic foci, and lung metastasis. Molecular analyses showed further activated PI3K-AKT in thyroid tumors of SAHA-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice, resulting in the activated effectors, p-Rb, CDK6, p21(Cip1), p-cSrc, ezrin, and matrix metalloproteinases, to increase proliferation and invasion of tumor cells. Single-molecule DNA analysis indicated that the wild-type allele of the Pten gene was progressively lost, whereas carcinogenesis progressed in SAHA-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice. Thus, this study has uncovered a novel mechanism by which SAHA-induced loss of the tumor suppressor Pten gene to promote thyroid cancer progression. Effectors downstream of the Pten loss-induced signaling may be potential targets to overcome resistance of thyroid cancer to SAHA.

  19. STRAIN ELASTOGRAPHY USING DOBUTAMINE-INDUCED CAROTID ARTERY PULSATION IN CANINE THYROID GLAND.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gahyun; Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Yu, Dohyeon; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disease is common in dogs and conventional ultrasonography is a standard diagnostic test for diagnosis and treatment planning. Strain elastography can provide additional information about tissue stiffness noninvasively after applying external or internal compression. However, natural carotid artery pulsations in the canine thyroid gland are too weak to maintain sufficient internal compression force. The objective of the present study was to describe the feasibility of strain elastography for evaluating the canine thyroid gland and the repeatability of dobutamine-induced carotid artery pulsation as an internal compression method. In seven healthy Beagle dogs, strain on each thyroid lobe was induced by external compression using the ultrasound probe and internal compression using carotid artery pulsation after dobutamine infusion. The thyroid appeared homogeneously green and the subcutaneous fat superficial to the thyroid lobe appeared blue. Strain values and strain ratios did not differ among dogs or between the left and right lobes. Interobserver repeatability was excellent for both compression methods. Intraobserver repeatability of the strain ratio measured using the carotid artery pulsation method (intraclass coefficient correlation = 0.933) was higher than that measured using the external compression method (0.760). Mean strain values of thyroid lobes for the external compression method (142.93 ± 6.67) differed from the internal method (147.31 ± 8.24; P < 0.05). Strain ratios between the two methods did not differ. Strain elastography was feasible for estimating thyroid stiffness in dogs. Carotid artery pulsation induced by dobutamine infusion can be used for canine thyroid strain elastography with excellent repeatability.

  20. The messenger RNA sequences in human fibroblast cells induced with poly rI.rC to produce interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Raj, N B; Pitha, P M

    1980-01-01

    Induction of human fibroblast cells with poly rI.rC induces interferon mRNA which can be translated into interferon precursor in wheat germ cell free system or in Xenopus oocytes into biologically active interferon. The extent of gene expression in the poly rI.rC induced cells was compared to that of the uninduced cells by hybridization of the mRNA to complementary DNA. Homologous template driven hybridization of cDNA revealed the presence of two clearly defined transitions in the total poly A RNA from the induced cells; abundant class and a scarce class comprising approximately 37,000 diverse species of RNA. Heterologus hybridization of the cDNA with total uninduced mRNA showed that the majority of the mRNA sequences are the same in both the induced and uninduced cells. The results of the hybridization using cDNA prepared to the fraction enriched for interferon mRNA, however, showed that about 4% of the sequences present in the interferon enriched fraction are not present in the uninduced cells. These differences may result from the poly rI.rC induced alterations in gene expression. PMID:6160473

  1. Hypoxia promotes thyroid differentiation of native murine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yipeng; Lu, Yunshu; Chen, Tong; Zhang, Shenglai; Chu, Bingfeng; Gong, Yurong; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a very common hormonal deficiency and the stem cell technology which developed in the recent years may offer a therapeutic strategy for treating this disorder. Hypoxia has been demonstrated to play an important role in embryonic formation and development and to modulate stem cell differentiation. However, the influence of oxygen tension on thyroid differentiation has not been studied. In this study, we used murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for thyroid cell differentiation under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and compared differentiation efficiency in morphology, function, gene and protein expression under both conditions. We found that hypoxia promoted adhesion and outgrowth of embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from murine iPS cells. Expression of endodermal markers (Foxa2 and Gata4) and thyroid transcription factors (Pax8 and Nkx2.1) was increased by hypoxia at both gene and protein levels during early-mid differentiation stages (p<0.05). And so were the thyroid specific markers NIS and TSHR at the end of the experiment (p<0.05). In addition, functional iodide uptake by differentiated cells was also increased after hypoxia. Thyroid differentiation from iPS cells is enhanced under hypoxia and this may involve hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) and their downstream gene FGF2. Our data offer a foundation for understanding thyroid development and provide a potentially more efficient way to use cell therapy for treating thyroid deficiency. PMID:27389981

  2. Transcription of interferon-stimulated genes is induced by adenovirus particles but is suppressed by E1A gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, N; Pine, R; Levy, D; Darnell, J E

    1988-01-01

    Interferon treatment of cell cultures results in the rapid transcriptional induction of a specific set of genes. In this paper we explore the effect of cellular infection by several adenoviruses, both wild type and mutant, on the expression of these genes. Infection with adenovirus induces the transcription of the interferon-stimulated genes in the absence of any protein synthesis. In fact, the inhibition of protein synthesis during a wild-type infection produces enhanced stimulation of transcription of these genes. Experiments with viral mutants indicate the ability to specifically suppress this transcription maps to the E1A gene. In addition, the E1A gene products are capable of suppressing the specific transcriptional induction of interferon-stimulated promoters during cotransfection experiments and therefore presumably during viral infection. The dual effect of adenovirus on the expression of interferon-stimulated genes may represent an example of action and evolutionary reaction between virus and host. Images PMID:2446013

  3. Carfilzomib potentiates CUDC-101-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisa; Boufraqech, Myriem; Lake, Ross; Kebebew, Electron

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, with no effective treatment currently available. Previously, we identified agents active against ATC cells, both in vitro and in vivo, using quantitative high-throughput screening of 3282 clinically approved drugs and small molecules. Here, we report that combining two of these active agents, carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, and CUDC-101, a histone deacetylase and multi-kinase inhibitor, results in increased, synergistic activity in ATC cells. The combination of carfilzomib and CUDC-101 synergistically inhibited cellular proliferation and caused cell death in multiple ATC cell lines harboring various driver mutations observed in human ATC tumors. This increased anti-ATC effect was associated with a synergistically enhanced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase 3/7 activity induced by the drug combination. Mechanistically, treatment with carfilzomib and CUDC-101 increased p21 expression and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein cleavage. Our results suggest that combining carfilzomib and CUDC-101 would offer an effective therapeutic strategy to treat ATC. PMID:26934320

  4. Posttranscriptional changes in growth factor-inducible gene regulation caused by antiproliferative interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, R A; Seshadri, T; Hann, S R; Campisi, J

    1990-01-01

    Growth factors stimulate quiescent fibroblasts to progress through G0/G1, in part by inducing the expression of genes whose products are necessary or permissive for cell proliferation. Interferons, by contrast, inhibit progress through G0/G1 by mechanisms that are poorly understood. We show, in BALB/c murine 3T3 fibroblasts (A31 cells), that alpha/beta-interferon (IFN) had no effect the growth factor-dependent induction of several messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs), including those encoding ornithine decarboxylase (odc), fibronectin and the c-fos and c-myc protooncogenes. However, IFN caused an abnormal accumulation of fibronectin and c-myc mRNA on polysomes and markedly increased the stability of c-myc mRNA. Moreover, despite high, induced levels of mRNA, IFN inhibited the serum-stimulated rise in odc enzyme activity and the increased rate of fibronectin protein synthesis. By contrast, IFN had no effect on c-fos protein synthesis, nor did it affect the synthesis of most, but not all, proteins detectable by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The data suggest IFN inhibits proliferation by suppressing the expression of a subset of growth factor-inducible genes through a selective, posttranscriptional mechanism. Images PMID:2100198

  5. Infection-induced type I interferons activate CD11b on B-1 cells for subsequent lymph node accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Waffarn, Elizabeth E.; Hastey, Christine J.; Dixit, Neha; Choi, Youn Soo; Cherry, Simon; Kalinke, Ulrich; Simon, Scott I.; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Innate-like B-1a lymphocytes rapidly redistribute to regional mediastinal lymph nodes (MedLN) during influenza infection to generate protective IgM. Here we demonstrate that influenza infection-induced type I interferons directly stimulate body cavity B-1 cells and are a necessary signal required for B-1 cell accumulation in MedLN. Vascular mimetic flow chamber studies show that type I interferons increase ligand-mediated B-1 cell adhesion under shear stress by inducing high-affinity conformation shifts of surface-expressed integrins. In vivo trafficking experiments identify CD11b as the non-redundant, interferon-activated integrin required for B-1 cell accumulation in MedLN. Thus CD11b on B-1 cells senses infection-induced innate signals and facilitates their rapid sequester into secondary lymphoid tissues, thereby regulating the accumulation of polyreactive IgM producers at sites of infection. PMID:26612263

  6. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  7. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  8. Disulfide Reduction in the Endocytic Pathway: Immunological Functions of Gamma-Interferon-Inducible Lysosomal Thiol Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is constitutively expressed in most antigen presenting cells and is interferon γ inducible in other cell types via signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Normally, N- and C-terminal propeptides are cleaved in the early endosome, and the mature protein resides in late endosomes and lysosomes. Correspondingly, GILT has maximal reductase activity at an acidic pH. Monocyte differentiation via Toll-like receptor 4 triggers secretion of a disulfide-linked dimer of the enzymatically active precursor, which may contribute to inflammation. GILT facilitates major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted processing through reduction of protein disulfide bonds in the endocytic pathway and is hypothesized to expose buried epitopes for MHC class II binding. GILT can also facilitate the transfer of disulfide-containing antigens into the cytosol, enhancing their cross-presentation by MHC class I. A variety of antigens are strongly influenced by GILT-mediated reduction, including hen egg lysozyme, melanocyte differentiation antigens, and viral envelope glycoproteins. In addition, GILT is conserved among lower eukaryotes and likely has additional functions. For example, GILT expression increases the stability of superoxide dismutase 2 and decreases reactive oxygen species, which correlates with decreased cellular proliferation. It is also a critical host factor for infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 657–668. PMID:21506690

  9. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research.

  10. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  11. Plasma exchange in the treatment of thyroid storm secondary to type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Zainudin, Sueziani Binte; Kaushik, Manish; Khor, Li Yan; Chng, Chiaw Ling

    2016-01-01

    Summary Type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm. Due to the rarity of the condition, little is known about the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of severe AIT. A 56-year-old male presented with thyroid storm 2months following cessation of amiodarone. Despite conventional treatment, his condition deteriorated. He underwent two cycles of plasma exchange, which successfully controlled the severe hyperthyroidism. The thyroid hormone levels continued to fall up to 10h following plasma exchange. He subsequently underwent emergency total thyroidectomy and the histology of thyroid gland confirmed type II AIT. Management of thyroid storm secondary to type II AIT can be challenging as patients may not respond to conventional treatments, and thyroid storm may be more harmful in AIT patients owing to the underlying cardiac disease. If used appropriately, plasma exchange can effectively reduce circulating hormones, to allow stabilisation of patients in preparation for emergency thyroidectomy. Learning points Type II AIT is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm and may not respond well to conventional thyroid storm treatment. Prompt diagnosis and therapy are important, as patients may deteriorate rapidly. Plasma exchange can be used as an effective bridging therapy to emergency thyroidectomy. This case shows that in type II AIT, each cycle of plasma exchange can potentially lower free triiodothyronine levels for 10h. Important factors to consider when planning plasma exchange as a treatment for thyroid storm include timing of each session, type of exchange fluid to be used and timing of surgery. PMID:27398220

  12. Interferon lambda induces antiviral response to herpes simplex virus 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Lopušná, K; Režuchová, I; Kabát, P; Kúdelová, M

    2014-01-01

    Lambda interferons (IFN-λ) are known to induce potent antiviral response in a wide variety of target cells. They activate the same intracellular signalling pathways and have similar biological activities as IFN-α/β, including antiviral activity, but signal via distinct receptor complex, which is expressed in a cell- and species-specific manner. IFN-λ was reported to induce in vitro marked antiviral activity against various RNA viruses, but corresponding data on DNA viruses are sparse. Therefore we examined the IFN-λ1 induced antiviral activity against two strains of herpes simplex virus 1, a highly pathogenic ANGpath and moderately pathogenic KOS. The antiviral response was determined in vitro in Vero cells, known as deficient in production of type I IFNs and in Vero E6 cells, responding to viral infection with abundant IFN-λ production, although deficient in production of type I IFNs. The results showed that IFN-λ1 induced in Vero cells higher antiviral activity against ANGpath strain than against KOS strain. In Vero E6 cells endogenous IFN-λ induced higher antiviral activity against ANGpath strain than against KOS strain, but because of the virus induction of IFN-λ expression the antiviral activity was detected later. The observed differences between the IFN-λ1-induced antiviral activities against viral strains of various pathogenicity suggest that virus attributes may play role in the antiviral state of cells induced by IFN-λ. PMID:25518713

  13. Interferon-α and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor cooperatively mediates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Chaohui; Qiu, Xiaoxin; Liu, Nianli; Yang, Darong; Xia, Man; Liu, Jingshi; Wang, Xiaohong; and others

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has recently been recognized to harbor therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of HCC, but it remains controversial as to whether IFN-α exerts direct cytotoxicity against HCC. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in HCC and is considered to play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the combined effect of a COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, and IFN-α on in vitro growth suppression of HCC using the hepatoma cell line HLCZ01 and the in vivo nude mouse xenotransplantation model using HLCZ01 cells. Treatment with celecoxib and IFN-α synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis was identified by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride and fluorescent staining. IFN-α upregulated the expression of TRAIL, while celecoxib increased the expression of TRAIL receptors. The combined regimen with celecoxib and IFN-α reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice. The regulation of IFN-α- and COX-2 inhibitor-induced cell death is impaired in a subset of TRAIL-resistant cells. The molecular mechanisms of HCC cells resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were explored using molecular biological and immunological methods. Interferon-α and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib synergistically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. These data suggest that IFN-α and celecoxib may offer a novel role with important implications in designing new therapeutics for TRAIL-resistant tumors. - Highlights: ●The cytotoxic effect of TRAIL on a developed HCC HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●IFN-α and celecoxib induced apoptosis in HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●The combined regime reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice model.

  14. Stimulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Beta Interferon Increases Necrotic Death of Macrophages upon Listeria monocytogenes Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Zwaferink, Heather; Stockinger, Silvia; Reipert, Siegfried; Decker, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Murine macrophage death upon infection with Listeria monocytogenes was previously shown to be increased by beta interferon, produced by the infected cells. We saw that interferon-upregulated caspase activation or other interferon-inducible, death-associated proteins, including TRAIL, protein kinase R, and p53, were not necessary for cell death. Macrophage death was reduced when inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited during infection, and iNOS-deficient macrophages were less susceptible to death upon infection than wild-type cells. The production of nitric oxide correlated with increased death, while no role was seen for iNOS in control of Listeria numbers during infection of resting macrophages. This indicates that the induction of iNOS by beta interferon in cells infected with L. monocytogenes contributes to cell death. Based on morphology, the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, and a lack of dependence on caspase 1, we characterize the type of cell death occurring and show that infected macrophages die by interferon-upregulated necrosis. PMID:18268032

  15. Interferon β induces clearance of mutant ataxin 7 and improves locomotion in SCA7 knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Chort, Alice; Alves, Sandro; Marinello, Martina; Dufresnois, Béatrice; Dornbierer, Jean-Gabriel; Tesson, Christelle; Latouche, Morwena; Baker, Darren P; Barkats, Martine; El Hachimi, Khalid H; Ruberg, Merle; Janer, Alexandre; Stevanin, Giovanni; Brice, Alexis; Sittler, Annie

    2013-06-01

    We showed previously, in a cell model of spinocerebellar ataxia 7, that interferon beta induces the expression of PML protein and the formation of PML protein nuclear bodies that degrade mutant ataxin 7, suggesting that the cytokine, used to treat multiple sclerosis, might have therapeutic value in spinocerebellar ataxia 7. We now show that interferon beta also induces PML-dependent clearance of ataxin 7 in a preclinical model, SCA7(266Q/5Q) knock-in mice, and improves motor function. Interestingly, the presence of mutant ataxin 7 in the mice induces itself the expression of endogenous interferon beta and its receptor. Immunohistological studies in brains from two patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 7 confirmed that these modifications are also caused by the disease in humans. Interferon beta, administered intraperitoneally three times a week in the knock-in mice, was internalized with its receptor in Purkinje and other cells and translocated to the nucleus. The treatment induced PML protein expression and the formation of PML protein nuclear bodies and decreased mutant ataxin 7 in neuronal intranuclear inclusions, the hallmark of the disease. No reactive gliosis or other signs of toxicity were observed in the brain or internal organs. The performance of the SCA7(266Q/5Q) knock-in mice was significantly improved on two behavioural tests sensitive to cerebellar function: the Locotronic® Test of locomotor function and the Beam Walking Test of balance, motor coordination and fine movements, which are affected in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 7. In addition to motor dysfunction, SCA7(266Q/5Q) mice present abnormalities in the retina as in patients: ataxin 7-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions that were reduced by interferon beta treatment. Finally, since neuronal death does not occur in the cerebellum of SCA7(266Q/5Q) mice, we showed in primary cell cultures expressing mutant ataxin 7 that interferon beta treatment improves Purkinje cell survival. PMID

  16. Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  17. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  18. Interferon-β gene transfer induces a strong cytotoxic bystander effect on melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Úrsula A; Gil-Cardeza, María L; Villaverde, Marcela S; Finocchiaro, Liliana M E; Glikin, Gerardo C

    2015-05-01

    A local gene therapy scheme for the delivery of type I interferons could be an alternative for the treatment of melanoma. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of interferon-β (IFNβ) gene lipofection on tumor cell lines derived from three human cutaneous and four canine mucosal melanomas. The cytotoxicity of human IFNβ gene lipofection resulted higher or equivalent to that of the corresponding addition of the recombinant protein (rhIFNβ) to human cells. IFNβ gene lipofection was not cytotoxic for only one canine melanoma cell line. When cultured as monolayers, three human and three canine IFNβ-lipofected melanoma cell lines displayed a remarkable bystander effect. As spheroids, the same six cell lines were sensitive to IFNβ gene transfer, two displaying a significant multicell resistance phenotype. The effects of conditioned IFNβ-lipofected canine melanoma cell culture media suggested the release of at least one soluble thermolabile cytotoxic factor that could not be detected in human melanoma cells. By using a secretion signal-free truncated human IFNβ, we showed that its intracellular expression was enough to induce cytotoxicity in two human melanoma cell lines. The lower cytoplasmatic levels of reactive oxygen species detected after intracellular IFNβ expression could be related to the resistance displayed by one human melanoma cell line. As IFNβ gene transfer was effective against most of the assayed melanomas in a way not limited by relatively low lipofection efficiencies, the clinical potential of this approach is strongly supported.

  19. Alpha interferon-induced antiviral response noncytolytically reduces replication defective adenovirus DNA in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Tianlun; Guo, Haitao; Block, Timothy M

    2007-12-01

    Although alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) is of benefit in the treatment of viral hepatitis B, HBV replication has been refractory to the cytokine in commonly used hepatocyte-derived cell lines. In search for a cell culture system to study the mechanism by which IFN-alpha inhibits HBV replication, we infected a variety of cell lines with an adenoviral vector containing a replication competent 1.3-fold genome length HBV DNA (AdHBV) and followed by incubation with IFN-alpha. We found that IFN-alpha efficiently decreased the level of HBV DNA replicative intermediates in AdHBV infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Further analysis revealed, surprisingly, that IFN-alpha did not directly inhibit HBV replication, rather the amount of adenovirus DNA in the nuclei of MDBK cells was reduced. As a consequence, HBV RNA transcription and DNA replication were inhibited. Experiments with adenoviral vector expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) further supported the notion that IFN-alpha treatment noncytolytically eliminated adenovirus DNA, but did not kill the vector infected MDBK cells. Our data suggest that IFN-alpha-induced antiviral program is able to discriminate host cellular DNA from episomal viral DNA and might represent a novel pathway of interferon mediate innate defense against DNA virus infections.

  20. Novel leptin OB3 peptide-induced signaling and progression in thyroid cancers: Comparison with leptin

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Lai, Hsuan-Yu; Ke, Chien-Chih; Crawford, Dana R.; Lee, Oscar K.; Fu, Earl; Mousa, Shaker A.; Grasso, Patricia; Liu, Leroy F.; Chang, Heng-Yu; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Lin, Hung-Yun; Davis, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity results in increased secretion of cytokines from adipose tissue and is a risk factor for various cancers. Leptin is largely produced by adipose tissue and cancer cells. It induces cell proliferation and may serve to induce various cancers. OB3-leptin peptide (OB3) is a new class of functional leptin peptide. However, its mitogenic effect has not been determined. In the present study, because of a close link between leptin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, OB3 was compared with leptin in different thyroid cancer cells for gene expression, proliferation and invasion. Neither agent stimulated cell proliferation. Leptin stimulated cell invasion, but reduced adhesion in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Activated ERK1/2 and STAT3 contributed to leptin-induced invasion. In contrast, OB3 did not affect expression of genes involved in proliferation and invasion. In vivo studies in the mouse showed that leptin, but not OB3, significantly increased circulating levels of thyrotropin (TSH), a growth factor for thyroid cancer. In summary, OB3 is a derivative of leptin that importantly lacks the mitogenic effects of leptin on thyroid cancer cells. PMID:27050378

  1. Investigating Chernobyl-induced thyroid cancer: Politics vs science

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-09-01

    Nearly ten years after the nuclear power plant disaster, scientists from around the world are trying to track the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer and treat the young victims. Their efforts seem promising, but a lack of coordination may stymie the research. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Enhancement of the antiviral and interferon-inducing activities of poly r(A-U) by carminic acid.

    PubMed

    Jamison, J M; Flowers, D G; Jamison, E; Kitareewan, S; Krabill, K; Rosenthal, K S; Tsai, C

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been designed to systematically examine the effects of carminic acid (CAR) on the antiviral/interferon-inducing activity of poly r(A-U), using the human foreskin fibroblast-vesicular stomatitis virus bioassay system. Modulation of the antiviral/interferon-inducing activity of poly r(A-U) by carminic acid was examined at fixed poly r(A-U) concentrations of 0.05 mM or 0.2 mM while varying the carminic acid concentrations to produce variable CAR/ribonucleotide ratios ranging from 1:16 to 2:1. Carminic acid and poly r(A-U) were tested individually at the concentrations employed in the CAR/poly r(A-U) combinations. Neither the carminic acid alone nor poly r(A-U) alone were effective antiviral agents/interferon inducers. The antiviral/interferon-inducing activity of poly r(A-U) was potentiated twelve-fold at CAR/ribonucleotide ratios in the region of 1/6 to 1/4. These results suggest a synergism between the poly r(A-U) and the carminic acid at the concentrations employed in this study. PMID:2451107

  3. Ikkepsilon regulates viral-induced interferon regulatory factor-3 activation via a redox-sensitive pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Indukuri, Hemalatha; Castro, Shawn M.; Liao, S.-M.; Feeney, Lee Ann; Dorsch, Marion; Coyle, Anthony J.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Brasier, Allan R.; Casola, Antonella . E-mail: ancasola@utmb.edu

    2006-09-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced chemokine gene expression occurs through the activation of a subset of transcription factors, including Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)-3. In this study, we have investigated the signaling pathway leading to RSV-induced IRF-3 activation and whether it is mediated by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Our results show that RSV infection induces expression and catalytic activity of IKK{epsilon}, a noncanonical IKK-like kinase. Expression of a kinase-inactive IKK{epsilon} blocks RSV-induced IRF-3 serine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and DNA-binding, leading to inhibition of RANTES gene transcription, mRNA expression and protein synthesis. Treatment of alveolar epithelial cells with antioxidants or with NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors abrogates RSV-induced chemokine secretion, IRF-3 phosphorylation and IKK{epsilon} induction, indicating that ROS generation plays a fundamental role in the signaling pathway leading to IRF-3 activation, therefore, identifying a novel molecular target for the development of strategies aimed to modify the inflammatory response associated with RSV infection of the lung.

  4. Mechanisms for Interferon-α-Induced Depression and Neural Stem Cell Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lian-Shun; Hitoshi, Seiji; Kaneko, Naoko; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Xia, Hongjing; Kalinke, Ulrich; Kudo, Koutaro; Kanba, Shigenobu; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2014-01-01

    Summary New neurons generated by the neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult hippocampus play an important role in emotional regulation and respond to the action of antidepressants. Depression is a common and serious side effect of interferon-α (IFN-α), which limits its use as an antiviral and antitumor drug. However, the mechanism(s) underlying IFN-induced depression are largely unknown. Using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests, we found that mice subjected to IFN-α treatment exhibited a depression-like phenotype. IFN-α directly suppressed NSC proliferation, resulting in the reduced generation of new neurons. Brain-specific mouse knockout of the IFN-α receptor prevented IFN-α-induced depressive behavioral phenotypes and the inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IFN-α suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis and induces depression via its receptor in the brain. These findings provide insight for understanding the neuropathology underlying IFN-α-induced depression and for developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of IFN-α-induced depressive effects. PMID:25068123

  5. Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells stimulated by virus-induced type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Agnes; Etchart, Nathalie; Rossmann, Cornelia; Ashton, Miranda; Hou, Sam; Gewert, Dirk; Borrow, Persephone; Tough, David F

    2003-10-01

    CD8+ T cell responses can be generated against antigens that are not expressed directly within antigen-presenting cells (APCs), through a process known as cross-priming. To initiate cross-priming, APCs must both capture extracellular antigen and receive specific activation signals. We have investigated the nature of APC activation signals associated with virus infection that stimulate cross-priming. We show that infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus induces cross-priming by a mechanism dependent on type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). Activation of cross-priming by IFN-alpha/beta was independent of CD4+ T cell help or interaction of CD40 and CD40 ligand, and involved direct stimulation of dendritic cells. These data identify expression of IFN-alpha/beta as a mechanism for the induction of cross-priming during virus infections. PMID:14502286

  6. Primate lentiviruses are differentially inhibited by interferon-induced transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Le Duff, Yann; Wang, Yimeng; Pan, Qinghua; Ding, Shilei; Zheng, Yi-Min; Liu, Shan-Lu; Liang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins inhibit the entry of a large number of viruses. Not surprisingly, many viruses are refractory to this inhibition. In this study, we report that different strains of HIV and SIV are inhibited by human IFITM proteins to various degrees, with SIV of African green monkeys (SIVAGM) being mostly restricted by human IFITM2. Interestingly, SIVAGM is as much inhibited by human IFITM2 as by IFITM3 of its own host African green monkeys. Our data further demonstrate that the entry of SIVAGM is impaired by human IFITM2 and that this inhibition is overcome by the cholesterol-binding compound amphotericin B that also overcomes IFITM inhibition of influenza A viruses. These results suggest that IFITM proteins exploit similar mechanisms to inhibit the entry of both pH-independent primate lentiviruses and the pH-dependent influenza A viruses. PMID:25463599

  7. Interferon-alpha induces transient upregulation of c-FLIP through NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Kanetaka, Yuki; Hayashida, Miho; Hoshika, Akinori; Yanase, Noriko; Mizuguchi, Junichiro

    2008-01-15

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) induces apoptosis in some cell types and promotes cell survival in other cell types, but the molecular mechanisms underlying distinct IFN-alpha-induced cell behaviours remain poorly understood. In the present study, we show that IFN-alpha induced the cellular FLICE (FADD-like interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme) inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which serves as a promoter of cell survival in human B lymphoma cells. IFN-alpha induction of transient upregulation of c-FLIP was partially abrogated by the NF-kappaB inhibitor BAY11-7082 (BAY). Pretreatment with BAY sensitized both Daudi and U266 cells to the IFN-alpha-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). IFN-alpha phosphorylated the PKC isoform PKCalpha at a threonine residue, and the PKCalpha/betaI inhibitor Go6976 abrogated upregulation of IFN-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity, leading to sensitization of cells to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis. To analyze the role of PKCalpha in the IFN-alpha-induced signaling, Daudi cells overexpressing a constitutively active mutant of PKCalpha (caPKCalpha) were used. The caPKCalpha-expressing Daudi cells were partially resistant to the IFN-alpha-induced loss of DeltaPsi(m), concomitant with elevated levels of c-FLIP protein. Together, these results demonstrate that IFN-alpha causes a transient upregulation of c-FLIP expression, at least through PKCalpha-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. The balance between IFN-alpha-induced pro-apoptotic and survival signals determines the cell fate. Thus, therapeutic intervention in this balance may be effective for treatment of patients with IFN-alpha-refractory tumours.

  8. Thyroid iodine content measured by x-ray fluorescence in amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, A.F.; Fragu, P.; Rougier, P.; Laurent, M.F.; Tubiana, M.; Savole, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis (IiT) is characterized by (a) a low radioiodine uptake, increased by exogenous TSH, and (b) a spontaneous evolution towards cure within a few months. An hypothetical pathogenesis of IiT is an initial inflation in the stores of thyroid hormones during iodine excess, followed by their sudden discharge into the circulation. Thyroid iodine content was measured by fluorescent scanning in 10 patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and in various control groups. Results were found to be high at the onset of the disease and to decrease during its course. The data agree with the hypothetical pathogenesis. Furthermore they may permit exclusion of a painless subacute thyroiditis, which is the main differential diagnosis of IiT.

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  10. The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Padalko, Elizaveta; Nuyens, Dieter; De Palma, Armando; Verbeken, Erik; Aerts, Joeri L; De Clercq, Erik; Carmeliet, Peter; Neyts, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Viral replication, as well as an immunopathological component, is assumed to be involved in coxsackie B virus-induced myocarditis. We evaluated the efficacy of the interferon inducer Ampligen on coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis in C3H/HeNHsd mice. The efficacy of Ampligen was compared with that of the interferon inducer poly(inosinic acid)-poly(cytidylic acid) [poly(IC)], alpha interferon 2b (INTRON A), and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (PEG-INTRON-alpha-2b). Ampligen at 20 mg/kg of body weight/day was able to reduce the severity of virus-induced myocarditis, as assessed by morphometric analysis, by 98% (P = 3.0 x 10(-8)). When poly(IC) was administered at 15 mg/kg/day, it reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 93% (P = 5.6 x 10(-5)). Alpha interferon 2b (1 x 10(5) U/day) and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (5 x 10(5) U/day) were less effective and reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 66% (P = 0.0009) and 78% (P = 0.0002), respectively. The observed efficacies of Ampligen and poly(IC) were corroborated by the observation that the drugs also markedly reduced the virus titers in the heart, as detected by (i) quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and (ii) titration for infectious virus content. Whereas the electrocardiograms for untreated mice with myocarditis were severely disturbed, the electrocardiographic parameters were normalized in Ampligen- and poly(IC)-treated mice. Even when start of treatment with Ampligen was delayed until day 2 postinfection, a time at which lesions had already appeared in untreated control animals, a marked protective effect on the development of viral myocarditis (as assessed at day 6 postinfection) was still noted.

  11. Radioiodine-induced thyroid storm. Case report and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, M.T.; Kidd, G.S.; Dodson, L.E. Jr.; Hofeldt, F.D.

    1983-08-01

    Thyroid storm developed following radioiodine therapy in a 43-year-old man with Graves' disease, weight loss, myopathy, severe thyrotoxic hypercalcemia, and a pituitary adenoma. The hypercalcemia may have been a significant, and previously unreported, predisposing factor for the radioiodine-associated thyroid storm. This case and 15 other well-documented cases of radioiodine-associated storm found in the literature are reviewed, as are several other cases of less severe exacerbations of thyrotoxicosis associated with radioiodine therapy. Although not often seen, these complications are often fatal. High-risk patients, such as the elderly, those with severe thyrotoxicosis, and those with significant underlying diseases, may benefit from preventive measures such as the judicious use of thyrostatic medications during the periods before and after isotope administration.

  12. Neddylation is required for herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1)-induced early phase interferon-beta production

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueying; Ye, Zhenjie; Pei, Yujun; Qiu, Guihua; Wang, Qingyang; Xu, Yunlu; Shen, Beifen; Zhang, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-β) play essential roles in the host innate immune response to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection. The transcription of type I interferon genes is controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members including IRF3. NF-κB activation depends on the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB), which triggers its ubiqitination and degradation. It has been reported that neddylation inhibition by a pharmacological agent MLN4924 potently suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production with the accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα. However, the role of neddylation in type I interferon expression remains unknown. Here, we report that neddylation inhibition with MLN4924 or upon UBA3 deficiency led to accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα, impaired IκBα degradation, and impaired NF-κB nuclear translocation in the early phase of HSV-1 infection even though phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were not affected. The blockade of NF-κB nuclear translocation by neddylation inhibition becomes less efficient at the later time points of HSV-1 infection. Consequently, HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production significantly decreased upon MLN4924 treatment and UBA3 deficiency. NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 mimicked the effects of neddylation inhibition in the early phase of HSV-1 infection. Moreover, the effects of neddylation inhibition on HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production diminished in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23. Thus, neddylation contributes to HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production through, at least partially, promoting NF-κB activation. PMID:27593482

  13. Neddylation is required for herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1)-induced early phase interferon-beta production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueying; Ye, Zhenjie; Pei, Yujun; Qiu, Guihua; Wang, Qingyang; Xu, Yunlu; Shen, Beifen; Zhang, Jiyan

    2016-09-01

    Type I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-β) play essential roles in the host innate immune response to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection. The transcription of type I interferon genes is controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members including IRF3. NF-κB activation depends on the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB), which triggers its ubiqitination and degradation. It has been reported that neddylation inhibition by a pharmacological agent MLN4924 potently suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production with the accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα. However, the role of neddylation in type I interferon expression remains unknown. Here, we report that neddylation inhibition with MLN4924 or upon UBA3 deficiency led to accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα, impaired IκBα degradation, and impaired NF-κB nuclear translocation in the early phase of HSV-1 infection even though phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were not affected. The blockade of NF-κB nuclear translocation by neddylation inhibition becomes less efficient at the later time points of HSV-1 infection. Consequently, HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production significantly decreased upon MLN4924 treatment and UBA3 deficiency. NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 mimicked the effects of neddylation inhibition in the early phase of HSV-1 infection. Moreover, the effects of neddylation inhibition on HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production diminished in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23. Thus, neddylation contributes to HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production through, at least partially, promoting NF-κB activation. PMID:27593482

  14. Human Cytomegalovirus Exploits Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Proteins To Facilitate Morphogenesis of the Virion Assembly Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Maorong; Xuan, Baoqin; Shan, Jiaoyu; Pan, Deng; Sun, Yamei; Shan, Zhao; Zhang, Jinping; Yu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have been identified to be key effector molecules in the host type I interferon defense system. The invasion of host cells by a large range of RNA viruses is inhibited by IFITMs during the entry step. However, the roles of IFITMs in DNA virus infections have not been studied in detail. In this study, we report that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a large human DNA virus, exploits IFITMs to facilitate the formation of the virion assembly compartment (vAC) during infection of human fibroblasts. We found that IFITMs were expressed constitutively in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC5 cells). HCMV infection inhibited IFITM protein accumulation in the later stages of infection. Overexpression of an IFITM protein in MRC5 cells slightly enhanced HCMV production and knockdown of IFITMs by RNA interference reduced the virus titer by about 100-fold on day 8 postinfection, according to the findings of a virus yield assay at a low multiplicity of infection. Virus gene expression and DNA synthesis were not affected, but the typical round structure of the vAC was not formed after the suppression of IFITMs, thereby resulting in defective virion assembly and the production of less infectious virion particles. Interestingly, the replication of herpes simplex virus, a human herpesvirus that is closely related to HCMV, was not affected by the suppression of IFITMs in MRC5 cells. These results indicate that IFITMs are involved in a specific pathway required for HCMV replication. IMPORTANCE HCMV is known to repurpose the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) viperin and tetherin to facilitate its replication. Our results expand the range of ISGs that can be exploited by HCMV for its replication. This is also the first report of a proviral function of IFITMs in DNA virus replication. In addition, whereas previous studies showed that IFITMs modulate virus entry, which is a very early stage in the virus life cycle, we

  15. Interferon-γ Protects from Staphylococcal Alpha Toxin-Induced Keratinocyte Death through Apolipoprotein L1.

    PubMed

    Brauweiler, Anne M; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen that frequently infects the skin, causing lesions and cell destruction through its primary virulence factor, alpha toxin. Here we show that interferon gamma (IFN-?) protects human keratinocytes from cell death induced by staphylococcal alpha toxin. We find that IFN-? prevents alpha toxin binding and reduces expression of the alpha toxin receptor, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). We determine that the mechanism for IFN-?-mediated resistance to alpha toxin involves the induction of autophagy, a process of cellular adaptation to sublethal damage. We find that IFN-? potently stimulates activation of the primary autophagy effector, light chain 3 (LC3). This process is dependent on upregulation of apolipoprotein L1. Depletion of apolipoprotein L1 by small interfering RNA significantly increases alpha toxin-induced lethality and inhibits activation of light chain 3. We conclude that IFN-? plays a significant role in protecting human keratinocytes from the lethal effects of staphylococcal alpha toxin through apolipoprotein L1-induced autophagy.

  16. Protective effects of macrophage-derived interferon against encephalomyocarditis virus-induced diabetes mellitus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, K; Ogiso, Y; Takeda, M; Lee, M J; Itagaki, S; Doi, K

    1995-12-01

    The involvement of macrophages in protection against diabetes mellitus in mice of BALB/c (susceptible) and C57BL (resistant) strains infected with the B (non-diabetogenic) or D (highly diabetogenic) variant of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus was examined. Pretreatment with the B variant of EMC virus (EMC-B), avirulent interferon (IFN) inducer, or Corynebacterium parvum inhibited diabetes in BALB/c mice infected with the D variant of EMC virus (EMC-D). Treatment of C57BL mice with carrageenan to compromise macrophage function rendered C57BL mice susceptible to EMC-D-induced diabetes. In macrophage culture for BALB/c mice, EMC-B induced IFN at an earlier stage than did EMC-D. The C57BL mouse-derived macrophages produced more IFN than did BALB/c mouse-derived macrophages after stimulation with EMC-D. Moreover, C. parvum increased IFN production in macrophage cultures from BALB/c mice, whereas carrageenan inhibited that in macrophage cultures from C57BL mice. These results suggest that IFN derived from macrophages may have an important role in protecting mice against EMC virus infection. PMID:8746525

  17. An inhibitory alternative splice isoform of Toll-like receptor 3 is induced by type I interferons in human astrocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jin-Won; Yang, Eun-Jeon; Kim, Se Hoon; Choi, In-Hong

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA. It stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokine and interferon production. Here we reported the expression of a novel isoform of TLR3 in human astrocyte cell lines whose message is generated by alternative splicing. The isoform represents the N-terminus of the protein. It lacks many of the leucine-rich repeat domains, the transmembrane domain, and the intracellular Toll/interferon-1 receptor domain of TLR3. Type I interferons (interferon-α and interferon-β) induced the expression of this isoform. Exogenous overexpression of this isoform inhibited interferon regulatory factor 3, signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, and Inhibitor of kappa Bα signaling following stimulation. This isoform of TLR3 also inhibited the production of chemokine interferon-γ-inducible protein 10. Our study clearly demonstrated that the expression of this isoform of TLR3 was a negative regulator of signaling pathways and that it was inducible by type I interferons. We also found that this isoform could modulate inflammation in the brain.

  18. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Kine; Bjånesøy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10.

  19. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Bjånesøy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S.; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10. PMID:25978633

  20. TRIADIMEFON INDUCES RAT THYROID TUMORS THROUGH A NON-TSH MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are a class of fungicides used as agricultural and pharmaceutical products which inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis. Members of this class are hepatotoxic and cause mouse hepatocellular tumors and/or rat thyroid follicular cell tumors. Triadimefon-induced rat thyroid tumor...

  1. Change of iodine load and thyroid homeostasis induced by ammonium perchlorate in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Xia; Ding, Miao-Hong; Liu, Qin; Peng, Kai-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Ammonium perchlorate (AP), mainly used as solid propellants, was reported to interfere with homeostasis via competitive inhibition of iodide uptake. However, detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, AP was administered at 0, 130, 260 and 520 mg/kg every day to 24 male SD rats for 13 weeks. The concentrations of iodine in urine, serum thyroid hormones levels, total iodine, relative iodine and total protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in thyroid tissues were measured, respectively. Our results showed that high-dose perchlorate induced a significant increase in urinary iodine and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), with a decrease of total iodine and relative iodine content. Meanwhile, free thyroxine (FT4) was decreased and CAT activity was remarkably increased. Particularly, the CAT activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that CAT might be enhanced to promote the synthesis of iodine, resulting in elevated urinary iodine level. Furthermore, these findings suggested that iodine in the urine and CAT activity in the thyroid might be used as biomarkers for exposure to AP, associated with thyroid hormone indicators such as TSH, FT4.

  2. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not inhibit interferon synthesis in infected chickens but can override the interferon-induced antiviral state.

    PubMed

    Penski, Nicola; Härtle, Sonja; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Krohmann, Carsten; Ruggli, Nicolas; Schusser, Benjamin; Pfann, Michael; Reuter, Antje; Gohrbandt, Sandra; Hundt, Jana; Veits, Jutta; Breithaupt, Angele; Kochs, Georg; Stech, Jürgen; Summerfield, Artur; Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Kaspers, Bernd; Staeheli, Peter

    2011-08-01

    From infection studies with cultured chicken cells and experimental mammalian hosts, it is well known that influenza viruses use the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) to suppress the synthesis of interferon (IFN). However, our current knowledge regarding the in vivo role of virus-encoded NS1 in chickens is much more limited. Here, we report that highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtypes H5N1 and H7N7 lacking fully functional NS1 genes were attenuated in 5-week-old chickens. Surprisingly, in diseased birds infected with NS1 mutants, the IFN levels were not higher than in diseased birds infected with wild-type virus, suggesting that NS1 cannot suppress IFN gene expression in at least one cell population of infected chickens that produces large amounts of the cytokine in vivo. To address the question of why influenza viruses are highly pathogenic in chickens although they strongly activate the innate immune system, we determined whether recombinant chicken alpha interferon (IFN-α) can inhibit the growth of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in cultured chicken cells and whether it can ameliorate virus-induced disease in 5-week-old birds. We found that IFN treatment failed to confer substantial protection against challenge with highly pathogenic viruses, although it was effective against viruses with low pathogenic potential. Taken together, our data demonstrate that preventing the synthesis of IFN is not the primary role of the viral NS1 protein during infection of chickens. Our results further suggest that virus-induced IFN does not contribute substantially to resistance of chickens against highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  3. Highly Pathogenic New World and Old World Human Arenaviruses Induce Distinct Interferon Responses in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga A.; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Seregin, Alexey V.; Ronca, Shannon; Koma, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arenavirus family includes several important pathogens that cause severe and sometimes fatal diseases in humans. The highly pathogenic Old World (OW) arenavirus Lassa fever virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF) disease in humans. LASV infections in severe cases are generally immunosuppressive without stimulating interferon (IFN) induction, a proinflammatory response, or T cell activation. However, the host innate immune responses to highly pathogenic New World (NW) arenaviruses are not well understood. We have previously shown that the highly pathogenic NW arenavirus, Junin virus (JUNV), induced an IFN response in human A549 cells. Here, we report that Machupo virus (MACV), another highly pathogenic NW arenavirus, also induces an IFN response. Importantly, both pathogenic NW arenaviruses, in contrast to the OW highly pathogenic arenavirus LASV, readily elicited an IFN response in human primary dendritic cells and A549 cells. Coinfection experiments revealed that LASV could potently inhibit MACV-activated IFN responses even at 6 h after MACV infection, while the replication levels of MACV and LASV were not affected by virus coinfection. Our results clearly demonstrated that although all viruses studied herein are highly pathogenic to humans, the host IFN responses toward infections with the NW arenaviruses JUNV and MACV are quite different from responses to infections with the OW arenavirus LASV, a discovery that needs to be further investigated in relevant animal models. This finding might help us better understand various interplays between the host immune system and highly pathogenic arenaviruses as well as distinct mechanisms underlying viral pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Infections of humans with the highly pathogenic OW LASV are accompanied by potent suppression of interferon or proinflammatory cytokine production. In contrast, infections with the highly pathogenic NW arenavirus JUNV are associated with high levels of IFNs and

  4. Regulation of the stability of poly(I)xpoly(C)-induced human fibroblast interferon mRNA: selective inactivation of interferon mRNA and lack of involvement of 2',5'-oligo(A) synthetase activation during the shutoff of interferon production.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, P B; Gupta, S L

    1980-06-01

    The inactivation of interferon mRNA during the shutoff phase of interferon production in poly(I)xpoly(C)-induced human fibroblast cultures is selective. We have determined that the shutoff of interferon production, which takes place from 3 to 8 hr after the beginning of induction, is not associated with an appreciable declined in the rate of bulk cellular protein synthesis or of cellular protein secretion. While the amount of translatable interferon mRNA declined markedly during the shutoff phase, the level of translatable bulk cellular mRNA and the stability of [3H]uridine-labeled mRNA were unaffected. Superinduction with actinomycin D selectively stabilized interferon mRNA with no apparent effect on the stability of bulk cellular mRNA. Furthermore, an activation of the 2',5'-oligo(A) synthetase/endonuclease system does not appear to be involved in the shutoff phenomenon. Uninduced FS-4 cells contained a low basal level of 2'5'-oligo(A) synthetase activity, which was unchanged in poly(I)xpoly(C)-induced cells during the shutoff phase. Treatment of FS-4 cells with interferon for 16-18 hr prior to induction increased the enzyme activity by approximately 200-fold. However, this did not inhibit interferon production after induction with poly(I)xpoly(C) alone or after superinduction with cycloheximide or actinomycin D or both. Furthermore, the rates of decay of interferon production were comparable in cells with either a basal or an increased level of 2',5'-oligo(A) synthetase. Thus a 200-fold increase in 2',5'-oligo(A) synthetase level did not affect either the stability of interferon mRNA or the efficacy of interferon superinduction by metabolic inhibitors.

  5. Mechanism underlying defective interferon gamma-induced IDO expression in non-obese diabetic mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Tabatabaei, Azadeh; Jalili, Reza Baradar; Li, Yunyuan; Kilani, Ruhangiz T; Moeen Rezakhanlou, Alireza; Ghahary, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) can locally suppress T cell-mediated immune responses. It has been shown that defective self-tolerance in early prediabetic female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be attributed to the impaired interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)- induced IDO expression in dendritic cells of these animals. As IFN-γ can induce IDO in both dendritic cells and fibroblasts, we asked the question of whether there exists a similar defect in IFN-γ-induced IDO expression in NOD mice dermal fibroblasts. To this end, we examined the effect of IFN-γ on expression of IDO and its enzymatic activity in NOD dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that fibroblasts from either prediabetic (8 wks of age) female or male, and diabetic female or male (12 and 24 wks of age respectively) NOD mice failed to express IDO in response to IFN-γ treatment. To find underlying mechanisms, we scrutinized the IFN- γ signaling pathway and investigated expression of other IFN-γ-modulated factors including major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and type I collagen (COL-I). The findings revealed a defect of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation in NOD cells relative to that of controls. Furthermore, we found an increase in MHC-I and suppression of COL-I expression in fibroblasts from both NOD and control mice following IFN-γ treatment; indicating that the impaired response to IFN-γ in NOD fibroblasts is specific to IDO gene. Finally, we showed that an IFN-γ-independent IDO expression pathway i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated-c-Jun kinase is operative in NOD mice fibroblast. In conclusion, the findings of this study for the first time indicate that IFN-γ fails to induce IDO expression in NOD dermal fibroblasts; this may partially be due to defective STAT1 phosphorylation in IFN-γ-induced-IDO signaling pathway.

  6. Interferons Induce CXCR3-cognate Chemokine Production by Human Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dengel, Lynn T.; Norrod, Allison G.; Gregory, Briana L.; Clancy-Thompson, Eleanor; Burdick, Marie D.; Strieter, Robert M.; Slingluff, Craig L.; Mullins, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Immune-mediated cancer regression requires tumor infiltration by Ag-specific effector T cells, but lymphocytes are commonly sparse in melanoma metastases. Activated T cells express CXCR3, whose cognate chemokines are CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and CXCL11/I-TAC. Little is known about expression of these chemokines in lymph node (LN) metastases of melanoma. We evaluated whether metastatic melanoma induces these CXCR3-cognate chemokines in human LN-derived tissues. Also, because these chemokines can be induced by interferon (IFN), we evaluated whether type I or II IFNs (IFN-α or IFN-γ, respectively) can modulate chemokine expression in an in vitro model of the human tumor microenvironment. Production of CXCL9-11 by melanoma-infiltrated nodes (MIN) was no different than tumor-free nodes (TFN); both produced less chemokine than activated LN (sentinel immunized nodes, SIN). These data suggest melanoma infiltration into LN neither induces nor reduces CXCL9-11. Stimulation with IFN-α or IFN-γ increased production of CXCL10-11 from MIN, but not TFN or SIN. IFN-γ also increased production of CXCL9 in MIN. In IFN-treated SIN, CD14+ cells were the primary source of CXCL9-11, whereas melanoma cells were the source of chemokine in MIN. Melanoma cells in MIN express IFN receptors. Consistent with these observations, multiple human melanoma lines expressed IFN receptors and produced CXCL9-11 in response to IFN treatment. Thus, melanoma infiltration of LN is insufficient to induce the production of CXCL9-11, but melanoma may be a significant source of IFN-induced chemokines. Collectively, these data suggest that IFN-α or IFN-γ may act in the tumor microenvironment to increase the chemotactic gradient for CXCR3+ T cells. PMID:20948440

  7. Gamma Interferon-Induced Guanylate Binding Protein 1 Is a Novel Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, Nicole; Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Liebl, Andrea; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lochnit, Günter; Ostler, Markus; Forster, Florian; Kunzelmann, Peter; Ince, Semra; Supper, Verena; Praefcke, Gerrit J. K.; Schubert, Dirk W.; Stockinger, Hannes; Herrmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) regulates immune defenses against viruses, intracellular pathogens, and tumors by modulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and vesicle trafficking processes. The large GTPase guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP-1) is among the cellular proteins that is the most abundantly induced by IFN-γ and mediates its cell biologic effects. As yet, the molecular mechanisms of action of GBP-1 remain unknown. Applying an interaction proteomics approach, we identified actin as a strong and specific binding partner of GBP-1. Furthermore, GBP-1 colocalized with actin at the subcellular level and was both necessary and sufficient for the extensive remodeling of the fibrous actin structure observed in IFN-γ-exposed cells. These effects were dependent on the oligomerization and the GTPase activity of GBP-1. Purified GBP-1 and actin bound to each other, and this interaction was sufficient to impair the formation of actin filaments in vitro, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence-monitored polymerization. Cosedimentation and band shift analyses demonstrated that GBP-1 binds robustly to globular actin and slightly to filamentous actin. This indicated that GBP-1 may induce actin remodeling via globular actin sequestering and/or filament capping. These results establish GBP-1 as a novel member within the family of actin-remodeling proteins specifically mediating IFN-γ-dependent defense strategies. PMID:24190970

  8. Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-03-13

    Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses. PMID:22371602

  9. Interferon gamma induces protective non-canonical signaling pathways in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lauren A; Henkins, Kristen M; Kulkarni, Apurva; Matullo, Christine M; Balachandran, Siddharth; Pattisapu, Anil K; Rall, Glenn F

    2015-10-01

    The signal transduction molecule, Stat1, is critical for the expression of type I and II interferon (IFN)-responsive genes in most cells; however, we previously showed that primary hippocampal mouse neurons express low basal Stat1, with delayed and attenuated expression of IFN-responsive genes. Moreover, IFNγ-dependent resolution of a neurotropic viral challenge in permissive mice is Stat1-independent. Here, we show that exogenous IFNγ has no deleterious impact on neuronal viability, and staurosporine-induced apoptosis in neurons is significantly blunted by the addition of IFNγ, suggesting that IFNγ confers a pro-survival signal in neurons. To identify the pathways induced by IFNγ in neurons, the activation of alternative signal transducers associated with IFNγ signaling was assessed. Rapid and pronounced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk1/2) was observed in neurons, compared to a modest response in fibroblasts. Moreover, the absence of Stat1 in primary fibroblasts led to enhanced Erk activation following IFNγ addition, implying that the cell-specific availability of signal transducers can diversify the cellular response following IFN engagement.

  10. The Interferon-Inducible Gene viperin Restricts West Nile Virus Pathogenesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Szretter, Kristy J.; Brien, James D.; Thackray, Larissa B.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Cresswell, Peter; Diamond, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) signaling coordinates an early antiviral program in infected and uninfected cells by inducing IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that modulate viral entry, replication, and assembly. However, the specific antiviral functions in vivo of most ISGs remain unknown. Here, we examined the contribution of the ISG viperin to the control of West Nile virus (WNV) in genetically deficient cells and mice. While modest increases in levels of WNV replication were observed for primary viperin−/− macrophages and dendritic cells, no appreciable differences were detected in deficient embryonic cortical neurons or fibroblasts. In comparison, viperin−/− adult mice infected with WNV via the subcutaneous or intracranial route showed increased lethality and/or enhanced viral replication in central nervous system (CNS) tissues. In the CNS, viperin expression was induced in both WNV-infected and adjacent uninfected cells, including activated leukocytes at the site of infection. Our experiments suggest that viperin restricts the infection of WNV in a tissue- and cell-type-specific manner and may be an important ISG for controlling viral infections that cause CNS disease. PMID:21880757

  11. Obatoclax kills anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by inducing lysosome neutralization and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Champa, Devora; Orlacchio, Arturo; Patel, Bindi; Ranieri, Michela; Shemetov, Anton A; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are very aggressive, almost invariably lethal neoplasms for which no effective treatment exists. These tumors are intrinsically resistant to cell death, even when their driver oncogenic signaling pathways are inhibited. We have undertaken a detailed analysis, in mouse and human thyroid cancer cells, of the mechanism through which Obatoclax, a pan-inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic proteins of the BCL2 family, effectively reduces tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that Obatoclax does not induce apoptosis, but rather necrosis of thyroid cancer cells, and that non-transformed thyroid cells are significantly less affected by this compound. Surprisingly, we show that Obatoclax rapidly localizes to the lysosomes and induces loss of acidification, block of lysosomal fusion with autophagic vacuoles, and subsequent lysosomal permeabilization. Notably, prior lysosome neutralization using different V-ATPase inhibitors partially protects cancer cells from the toxic effects of Obatoclax. Although inhibition of autophagy does not affect Obatoclax-induced cell death, selective down-regulation of ATG7, but not of ATG5, partially impairs Obatoclax effects, suggesting the existence of autophagy-independent functions for ATG7. Strikingly, Obatoclax killing activity depends only on its accumulation in the lysosomes, and not on its interaction with BCL2 family members. Finally, we show that also other lysosome-targeting compounds, Mefloquine and LLOMe, readily induce necrosis in thyroid cancer cells, and that Mefloquine significantly impairs tumor growth in vivo, highlighting a clear vulnerability of these aggressive, apoptosis-resistant tumors that can be therapeutically exploited. PMID:27144341

  12. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R. . E-mail: nerurkar@pbrc.hawaii.edu

    2006-02-20

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML.

  13. Delineating Chromosomal Breakpoints in Radiation-Induced Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Ito, Yuko; Kwan, Johnson; Smida, Jan; Weier, Jingly F.; Hieber, Ludwig; Lu, Chun-Mei; Lehmann, Lars; Wang, Mei; Kassabian, Haig J.; Zeng, Hui; O'Brien, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent translocations are well known hallmarks of many human solid tumors and hematological disorders, where patient- and breakpoint-specific information may facilitate prognostication and individualized therapy. In thyroid carcinomas, the proto-oncogenes RET and NTRK1 are often found to be activated through chromosomal rearrangements. However, many sporadic tumors and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) arising in patients with a history of exposure to elevated levels of ionizing irradiation do not carry these known abnormalities. We developed a rapid scheme to screen tumor cell metaphase spreads and identify candidate genes of tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression for subsequent functional studies. Using a series of overnight fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments with pools comprised of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, it now becomes possible to rapidly refine breakpoint maps and, within one week, progress from the low resolution Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) maps or Giemsa-banding (G-banding) karyotypes to fully integrated, high resolution physical maps including a list of candiate genes in the critical regions. PMID:22096618

  14. Acute Changes in Striatal Microstructure Predict the Development of Interferon-Alpha Induced Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Nicholas G.; Cooper, Ella A.; Tibble, Jeremy; Voon, Valerie; Critchley, Hugo D.; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a key mediator of antiviral immune responses used clinically for hepatitis C treatment. Though effective, IFN-α induces marked behavioral changes that, when severe, can appear indistinguishable from major depression. Curiously, fatigue and motivational impairment evolve rapidly, suggesting acute engagement of immune-brain communicatory pathways, yet mood impairments typically emerge later, after weeks of treatment. Whether this reflects prolonged modulation of motivational processes underpinning fatigue or separate neurobiological mechanisms is currently unclear. Methods Here, we used quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging, an advanced microstructural neuroimaging technique sensitive to effects of inflammation, in a prospective study design to measure acute brain changes to IFN-α and relate these to later development of discrete behavioral changes. Twenty-three patients initiating IFN-α treatment for hepatitis C underwent qMT imaging and blood sampling at baseline and 4 hours after their first IFN-α injection. Comprehensive behavioral and psychological assessments were completed at both scanning sessions and at treatment weeks 4, 8, 12, and 24. Results IFN-α injection stimulated an acute inflammatory cytokine response and evoked fatigue that peaked between 4 and 12 weeks, preceding mood change by 4 weeks. In the brain, IFN-α induced an acute change in striatal microstructure that additionally predicted development of fatigue but not mood symptoms. Conclusions Our findings highlight qMT as an in vivo biomarker of central effects of peripheral inflammation. We demonstrate exquisite sensitivity of the striatum to IFN-α, implicate striatal perturbation in IFN-α-induced fatigue, and dissociate this from mechanisms underlying IFN-α-induced mood symptoms, providing empirical support for distinct neural substrates mediating actions on motivation and mood. PMID:26169252

  15. Introduction of v-Ha-ras oncogene induces differentiation of cultured human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, T.; Mabry, M.; De Bustros, A.; Ihle, J.N.; Nelkin, B.D.; Baylin, S.B.

    1987-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an endocrine tumor of the thyroid C cells that expresses high levels of the neuroendocrine peptide hormone calcitonin. During tumor progression in the host, there is an apparent loss of differentiation in MTC cells that involves a consistent decrease in calcitonin content of the tumor cells associated with decreased expression of the calcitonin gene and/or changes in a mRNA alternative-processing pattern away from that characteristic of the parent thyroid C cell. The authors now report that introduction of the viral Harvey ras (v-Ha-ras) oncogene into cultured human MTC cells can reverse such changes in gene expression and can induce endocrine differentiation of the tumor cells. The expression of v-Ha-ras is associated with decreased cellular proliferation and DNA synthesis. There is a marked increase in the number of cytoplasmic secretory granules that are a classic feature of differentiated thyroid C cells. v-Ha-ras expression induces increased expression of the calcitonin gene and the processing of the primary gene transcript is shifted to favor calcitonin mRNA rather than calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNA production. These studies with cultured human MTC cells provide a model system to study the role of Ha-ras and related genes in neuroendocrine differentiation. The findings suggest an important approach for identifying genes in solid tumors whose altered expression may play a role in the impaired maturational capacity characteristic of cancer cells during tumor progression.

  16. Thyroid hormone regulates vitellogenin by inducing estrogen receptor alpha in the goldfish liver.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik R; Habibi, Hamid R

    2016-11-15

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is an egg-yolk precursor protein that is synthesized in the liver of oviparous species and taken up from the circulation by the ovary. It is well known that Vtg is induced by circulating estrogens. However, other endocrine factors that regulate the expression of Vtg are less well characterized; factors that might play significant roles, especially in seasonal spawners such as the goldfish which require increased quantities of Vtg for the development of hundreds of follicles. In this regard, thyroid hormones have been shown to cycle with the reproductive season. Therefore, we hypothesized that the thyroid hormones might influence the synthesis of Vtg. Treatment of female goldfish with triiodothyronine (T3) resulted in increased Vtg, an observation that was absent in males. Furthermore, T3 failed to induce Vtg in cultured hepatocytes of either sex. Interestingly however, T3 consistently up-regulated the expression of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). The T3 mediated upregulation of ERα requires the presence of both thyroid receptor (TR) α-1 and TRβ. When goldfish or cultured hepatocytes were treated with T3 followed by estradiol, there was a synergistic increase in Vtg, a response which is dependent on the presence of ERα. Therefore, by upregulating ERα, T3 serves to prime the liver to subsequent stimuli from estradiol. This cross-talk likely reveals an important physiologic mechanism by which thyroid hormones, whose circulating levels are high during early gonadal recrudescence, facilitate the production of large amounts of Vtg required for egg development. PMID:27585488

  17. Multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1)/interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) upregulates monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG) gene expression in B-cell malignancy.

    PubMed

    Uranishi, M; Iida, S; Sanda, T; Ishida, T; Tajima, E; Ito, M; Komatsu, H; Inagaki, H; Ueda, R

    2005-08-01

    MUM1 (multiple myeloma oncogene 1)/IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4) is a transcription factor that is activated as a result of t(6;14)(p25;q32) in multiple myeloma. MUM1 expression is seen in various B-cell lymphomas and predicts an unfavorable outcome in some lymphoma subtypes. To elucidate its role in B-cell malignancies, we prepared MUM1-expressing Ba/F3 cells, which proliferated until higher cellular density than the parental cells, and performed cDNA microarray analysis to identify genes whose expression is regulated by MUM1. We found that the expression of four genes including FK506-binding protein 3 (FKBP3), the monokine induced by interferon-gamma(MIG), Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule (Faim) and Zinc-finger protein 94 was altered in the MUM1-expressing cells. We then focused on MIG since its expression was immediately upregulated by MUM1. In reporter assays, MUM1 activated the MIG promoter in cooperation with PU.1, and the interaction between MUM1 and the MIG promoter sequence was confirmed. The expression of MIG was correlated with that of MUM1 in B-CLL cell lines, and treatment with neutralizing antibodies against MIG and its receptor, CXCR3, slightly inhibited the proliferation of two MUM1-expressing lines. These results suggest that MUM1 plays roles in the progression of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia by regulating the expression of various genes including MIG. Leukemia (2005) 19, 1471-1478. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2403833; published online 16 June 2005.

  18. Deficiency in type I interferon signaling prevents the early interferon-induced gene signature in pancreatic islets but not type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Quah, Hong Sheng; Miranda-Hernandez, Socorro; Khoo, Aimee; Harding, Ashley; Fynch, Stacey; Elkerbout, Lorraine; Brodnicki, Thomas C; Baxter, Alan G; Kay, Thomas W H; Thomas, Helen E; Graham, Kate L

    2014-03-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) have been implicated in the initiation of islet autoimmunity and development of type 1 diabetes. To directly test their involvement, we generated NOD mice deficient in type I IFN receptors (NOD.IFNAR1(-/-)). Expression of the type I IFN-induced genes Mx1, Isg15, Ifit1, Oas1a, and Cxcr4 was detectable in NOD islets as early as 1 week of age. Of these five genes, expression of Isg15, Ifit1, Oas1a, and Mx1 peaked at 3-4 weeks of age, corresponding with an increase in Ifnα mRNA, declined at 5-6 weeks of age, and increased again at 10-14 weeks of age. Increased IFN-induced gene expression was ablated in NOD.IFNAR1(-/-) islets. Loss of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) resulted in reduced islet expression of Mx1 at 2 weeks of age, but TLR2 or TLR9 deficiency did not change the expression of other IFN-induced genes in islets compared with wild-type NOD islets. We observed increased β-cell major histocompatibility complex class I expression with age in NOD and NOD.IFNAR1(-/-) mice. NOD.IFNAR1(-/-) mice developed insulitis and diabetes at a similar rate to NOD controls. These results indicate type I IFN is produced within islets in young mice but is not essential for the initiation and progression of diabetes in NOD mice.

  19. Protection against radiation-induced damage of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Perona, Marina; Dagrosa, María A; Pagotto, Romina; Casal, Mariana; Pignataro, Omar P; Pisarev, Mario A; Juvenal, Guillermo J

    2013-03-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have shown that the exposure to high external radiation doses increases thyroid neoplastic frequency, especially when given during childhood or adolescence. The use of radioprotective drugs may decrease the damage caused by radiation therapy and therefore could be useful to prevent the development of thyroid tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible application of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) as a radioprotector in the thyroid gland. Rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRTL-5) were exposed to different doses of γ irradiation with or without the addition of PTU, methimazole (MMI), reduced glutathione (GSH) and perchlorate (KClO4). Radiation response was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Apoptosis was quantified by nuclear cell morphology and caspase 3 activity assays. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using the fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also determined. Pretreatment with PTU, MMI and GSH prior to irradiation significantly increased the surviving cell fraction (SF) at 2 Gy (P < 0.05), while no effect was observed with KClO4. An increase in extracellular levels of cAMP was found only in PTU treated cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Cells incubated with agents that stimulate cAMP (forskolin and dibutyril cAMP) mimicked the effect of PTU on SF. Moreover, pretreatment with the inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89, abolished the radioprotective effect of PTU. PTU treatment diminished radiation-induced apoptosis and protected cells against radiation-induced ROS elevation and suppression of the antioxidant enzyme's activity. PTU was found to radioprotect normal thyroid cells through cAMP elevation and reduction in both apoptosis and radiation-induced oxidative stress damage.

  20. Involvement of the interferon-regulated antiviral proteins PKR and RNase L in reovirus-induced shutoff of cellular translation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer A; Schmechel, Stephen C; Williams, Bryan R G; Silverman, Robert H; Schiff, Leslie A

    2005-02-01

    Cellular translation is inhibited following infection with most strains of reovirus, but the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. The extent of host shutoff varies in a strain-dependent manner; infection with the majority of strains leads to strong host shutoff, while infection with strain Dearing results in minimal inhibition of cellular translation. A genetic study with reassortant viruses and subsequent biochemical analyses led to the hypothesis that the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PKR, is responsible for reovirus-induced host shutoff. To directly determine whether PKR is responsible for reovirus-induced host shutoff, we used a panel of reovirus strains and mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from knockout mice. This approach revealed that PKR contributes to but is not wholly responsible for reovirus-induced host shutoff. Studies with cells lacking RNase L, the endoribonuclease component of the interferon-regulated 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-RNase L system, demonstrated that RNase L also down-regulates cellular protein synthesis in reovirus-infected cells. In many viral systems, PKR and RNase L have well-characterized antiviral functions. An analysis of reovirus replication in cells lacking these molecules indicated that, while they contributed to host shutoff, neither PKR nor RNase L exerted an antiviral effect on reovirus growth. In fact, some strains of reovirus replicated more efficiently in the presence of PKR and RNase L than in their absence. Data presented in this report illustrate that the inhibition of cellular translation following reovirus infection is complex and involves multiple interferon-regulated gene products. In addition, our results suggest that reovirus has evolved effective mechanisms to avoid the actions of the interferon-stimulated antiviral pathways that include PKR and RNase L and may even benefit from their expression.

  1. Smac mimetic sensitizes renal cell carcinoma cells to interferon-α-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Michael; Eckhardt, Ines; Haferkamp, Axel; Fulda, Simone

    2016-05-28

    The prognosis of metastatic or relapsed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still very poor, highlighting the need for new treatment strategies. Here, we identify a cooperative antitumor activity of interferon-α (IFNα) together with the Smac mimetic BV6 that antagonizes antiapoptotic IAP proteins. BV6 and IFNα act together to reduce cell viability and to induce apoptosis in various RCC cell lines. Molecular studies revealed that BV6/IFNα co-treatment triggers apoptosis independently of autocrine/paracrine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)α signaling, since the TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel fails to rescue cell death. Importantly, knockdown of Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP)1 significantly decreases BV6/IFNα-mediated apoptosis, whereas the RIP1 kinase inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) provides no protection. This demonstrates that RIP1 protein is critically required for BV6/IFNα-induced apoptosis, while RIP1 kinase activity is dispensable, pointing to a scaffold function of RIP1. Consistently, BV6 and IFNα cooperate to trigger the interaction of RIP1, Fas-Associated Death Domain protein (FADD) and caspase-8 to form a cytosolic cell death complex that drives caspase activation. Addition of the broad-range caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) significantly protects RCC cells against BV6/IFNα-induced apoptosis, demonstrating that caspase activity is required for apoptosis. In conclusion, the combination approach of IFNα and BV6 represents a promising strategy for cooperative induction of apoptosis in RCC cells, which warrants further investigation. PMID:26912071

  2. Alpha Lipoic Acid Attenuates Radiation-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jung Hwa; Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Woo, Seung Hoon; Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae-Kwon; Jung, Myeong Hee; Kim, Jin Hyun; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of the thyroid to radiation during radiotherapy of the head and neck is often unavoidable. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on radiation-induced thyroid injury in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy controls (CTL), irradiated (RT), received ALA before irradiation (ALA + RT), and received ALA only (ALA, 100 mg/kg, i.p.). ALA was treated at 24 h and 30 minutes prior to irradiation. The neck area including the thyroid gland was evenly irradiated with 2 Gy per minute (total dose of 18 Gy) using a photon 6-MV linear accelerator. Greater numbers of abnormal and unusually small follicles in the irradiated thyroid tissues were observed compared to the controls and the ALA group on days 4 and 7 after irradiation. However, all pathologies were decreased by ALA pretreatment. The quantity of small follicles in the irradiated rats was greater on day 7 than day 4 after irradiation. However, in the ALA-treated irradiated rats, the numbers of small and medium follicles were significantly decreased to a similar degree as in the control and ALA-only groups. The PAS-positive density of the colloid in RT group was decreased significantly compared with all other groups and reversed by ALA pretreatment. The high activity index in the irradiated rats was lowered by ALA treatment. TGF-ß1 immunoreactivity was enhanced in irradiated rats and was more severe on the day 7 after radiation exposure than on day 4. Expression of TGF-ß1 was reduced in the thyroid that had undergone ALA pretreatment. Levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6) did not differ significantly between the all groups. This study provides that pretreatment with ALA decreased the severity of radiation-induced thyroid injury by reducing inflammation and fibrotic infiltration and lowering the activity index. Thus, ALA could be used to ameliorate radiation-induced thyroid injury. PMID:25401725

  3. Mechanisms Underlying Interferon-γ-Induced Priming of Microglial Reactive Oxygen Species Production.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nicholas G; Schilling, Tom; Miralles, Francesc; Eder, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Microglial priming and enhanced reactivity to secondary insults cause substantial neuronal damage and are hallmarks of brain aging, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. It is, thus, of particular interest to identify mechanisms involved in microglial priming. Here, we demonstrate that priming of microglia with interferon-γ (IFN γ) substantially enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following stimulation of microglia with ATP. Priming of microglial ROS production was substantially reduced by inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with SB203580, by increases in intracellular glutathione levels with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, by blockade of NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 activity with gp91ds-tat or by inhibition of nitric oxide production with L-NAME. Together, our data indicate that priming of microglial ROS production involves reduction of intracellular glutathione levels, upregulation of NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 and increases in nitric oxide production, and suggest that these simultaneously occurring processes result in enhanced production of neurotoxic peroxynitrite. Furthermore, IFNγ-induced priming of microglial ROS production was reduced upon blockade of Kir2.1 inward rectifier K+ channels with ML133. Inhibitory effects of ML133 on microglial priming were mediated via regulation of intracellular glutathione levels and nitric oxide production. These data suggest that microglial Kir2.1 channels may represent novel therapeutic targets to inhibit excessive ROS production by primed microglia in brain pathology. PMID:27598576

  4. Loss of interferon-induced Stat1 phosphorylation in activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Van De Wiele, C Justin; Marino, Julie H; Whetsell, Michael E; Vo, Stephen S; Masengale, Rhonda M; Teague, T Kent

    2004-03-01

    Modulation of cytokine responsiveness following T cell activation represents an important mechanism that shapes the fate of T cells after encounters with antigens. We activated T cells in mice with superantigen and assessed their ability to phosphorylate Stat1 in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IFN-alpha. After 4 h of activation in vivo, T cells became deficient in their ability to phosphorylate Stat1 in response to either cytokine. The loss of IFN sensitivity was accompanied by increased mRNA transcription for multiple suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes (SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS7). The transcript levels of these SOCS were elevated only during the early hours after activation and were at or below normal levels by 60 h. Likewise, the activation-induced inhibition of IFN-alpha signaling was transient, and sensitivity was restored by 3 days postactivation. The loss of sensitivity to IFN-gamma persisted, however, and was still evident at 3 days. These data suggest that SOCS-independent mechanisms specific for inhibition of IFN-gamma signaling may be present at later stages of the T cell response. The loss of Stat1 signaling may be a factor in differentiation of T cells during and after activation, and it could also represent a protective mechanism against the toxic effects of IFN-gamma during immune responses.

  5. Tumor-induced thymic atrophy: alteration in interferons and Jak/Stats signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Carrio, Roberto; Torroella-Kouri, Marta; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya; Lopez, Diana M

    2011-02-01

    The thymus is the major site of T cell differentiation and a key organ of the immune system. Thym atrophy has been observed in several model systems including aging, and tumor development. Previous results from our laboratory have reported that the thymic atrophy seen in mammary tumor bearers is associated with a severe depletion of CD4+CD8+ double positive immature cells and changes in the levels of cytokines expressed in the thymus microenvironment. Cytokines regulate numerous aspects of hematopoiesis via activation of the Jak/Stat pathways. In the present study we have used our mammary tumor model to investigate whether changes in the levels of cytokines in the thymus could affect the normal expression of the aforementioned pathways. RNA and protein analysis revealed an overexpression of the different members of interferons, a downregulation of most of the Jak/Stat pathways, and an increased expression of several suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOSC) in the thymuses of tumor bearers. Together, our data suggest that the impaired Jak/Stat signaling pathways observed in the whole thymus of tumor-bearing mice could be contributing to the abnormal T cell development and apoptosis observed during the tumor-induced thymic atrophy. PMID:21165556

  6. Mechanisms Underlying Interferon-γ-Induced Priming of Microglial Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nicholas G.; Schilling, Tom; Miralles, Francesc; Eder, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Microglial priming and enhanced reactivity to secondary insults cause substantial neuronal damage and are hallmarks of brain aging, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. It is, thus, of particular interest to identify mechanisms involved in microglial priming. Here, we demonstrate that priming of microglia with interferon-γ (IFN γ) substantially enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following stimulation of microglia with ATP. Priming of microglial ROS production was substantially reduced by inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with SB203580, by increases in intracellular glutathione levels with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, by blockade of NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 activity with gp91ds-tat or by inhibition of nitric oxide production with L-NAME. Together, our data indicate that priming of microglial ROS production involves reduction of intracellular glutathione levels, upregulation of NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 and increases in nitric oxide production, and suggest that these simultaneously occurring processes result in enhanced production of neurotoxic peroxynitrite. Furthermore, IFNγ-induced priming of microglial ROS production was reduced upon blockade of Kir2.1 inward rectifier K+ channels with ML133. Inhibitory effects of ML133 on microglial priming were mediated via regulation of intracellular glutathione levels and nitric oxide production. These data suggest that microglial Kir2.1 channels may represent novel therapeutic targets to inhibit excessive ROS production by primed microglia in brain pathology. PMID:27598576

  7. Interferon-Inducible Protein 16: Insight into the Interaction with Tumor Suppressor p53

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jack C.C.; Lam, Robert; Brazda, Vaclav; Duan, Shili; Ravichandran, Mani; Ma, Justin; Xiao, Ting; Tempel, Wolfram; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wang, Yun-Xing; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2011-08-24

    IFI16 is a member of the interferon-inducible HIN-200 family of nuclear proteins. It has been implicated in transcriptional regulation by modulating protein-protein interactions with p53 tumor suppressor protein and other transcription factors. However, the mechanisms of interaction remain unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of both HIN-A and HIN-B domains of IFI16 determined at 2.0 and 2.35 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Each HIN domain comprises a pair of tightly packed OB-fold subdomains that appear to act as a single unit. We show that both HIN domains of IFI16 are capable of enhancing p53-DNA complex formation and transcriptional activation via distinctive means. HIN-A domain binds to the basic C terminus of p53, whereas the HIN-B domain binds to the core DNA-binding region of p53. Both interactions are compatible with the DNA-bound state of p53 and together contribute to the effect of full-length IFI16 on p53-DNA complex formation and transcriptional activation.

  8. Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Christian; Hotter, Dominik; Gawanbacht, Ali; McLaren, Paul J; Kluge, Silvia F; Stürzel, Christina M; Mack, Katharina; Reith, Elisabeth; Engelhart, Susanne; Ciuffi, Angela; Hornung, Veit; Sauter, Daniel; Telenti, Amalio; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2016-04-13

    Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are an interferon (IFN)-inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with well-established activity against intracellular bacteria and parasites. Here we show that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by interfering with the processing and virion incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). GBP5 levels in macrophages determine and inversely correlate with infectious HIV-1 yield over several orders of magnitude, which may explain the high donor variability in macrophage susceptibility to HIV. Antiviral activity requires Golgi localization of GBP5, but not its GTPase activity. Start codon mutations in the accessory vpu gene from macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains conferred partial resistance to GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression. Our results identify GBP5 as an antiviral effector of the IFN response and may explain the increased frequency of defective vpu genes in primary HIV-1 strains. PMID:26996307

  9. Gamma interferon is a major mediator of antiviral defense in experimental measles virus-induced encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Finke, D; Brinckmann, U G; ter Meulen, V; Liebert, U G

    1995-01-01

    Measles virus infection of the central nervous system in the murine model of experimental measles virus-induced encephalitis is successfully controlled by virus-specific T-helper lymphocytes. T cells from BALB/c mice that are resistant to measles virus encephalitis proliferate well against measles virus in vitro, and bulk cultures recognize viral nucleocapsid and hemagglutinin as well as fusion proteins. The measles virus-specific T cells secrete large amounts of interleukin 2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) but no IL-4, IL-6, or IL-10, and hence the cytokine pattern is consistent with that of subtype 1 T-helper lymphocytes. In contrast, cells obtained from measles virus-infected susceptible C3H mice recognize measles virus proteins only weakly and secrete little IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Treatment of infected mice with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies has no effect on survival or virus clearance from the brain. Upon neutralization of IFN-gamma in vivo, the phenotype of measles virus-specific T-helper cells isolatable from BALB/c mice is reversed from subtype 1 to subtype 2-like. Anti-IFN-gamma antibody-treated BALB/c mice are susceptible to measles virus encephalitis, and viral clearance from the central nervous system is impaired. These results indicate that IFN-gamma plays a significant role in the control of measles virus infection of the central nervous system. PMID:7636992

  10. Liver-Specific Alpha 2 Interferon Gene Expression Results in Protection from Induced Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Delmastro, Paola; Salucci, Valentina; Paz, Odalys Gonzalez; Rovere, Patrizia; Ciliberto, Gennaro; La Monica, Nicola; Palombo, Fabio

    2000-01-01

    The current therapy for hepatitis B and C is based on systemic administration of recombinant human alpha interferon (r-hIFN-α). However, systemic delivery of r-hIFN-α is associated with severe side effects, but more importantly, it is effective in only a small percentage of patients. In an effort to maximize IFN-α antiviral efficacy, we have explored the therapeutic potential of murine IFN-α2 (mIFNα2) selectively expressed in the liver. To this end, we have developed a helper-dependent adenovirus vector (HD) containing the mIFN-α2 gene under the control of the liver-specific transthyretin promoter (HD-IFN). Comparison with a first-generation adenovirus carrying the same mIFN-α2 expression cassette indicates that at certain HD-IFN doses, induction of antiviral genes can be achieved in the absence of detectable circulating mIFN-α2. Challenge of injected mice with mouse hepatitis virus type 3 showed that HD-IFN provides high liver protection. Moreover, liver protection was also observed in acute nonviral liver inflammation hepatitis induced by concanavalin A at 1 month postinfection. These results hold promise for the development of a gene therapy treatment for chronic viral hepatitis based on liver-restricted expression of IFN-α2. PMID:10775620

  11. Interferon-γ-inducible Rab20 regulates endosomal morphology and EGFR degradation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pei, Gang; Schnettger, Laura; Bronietzki, Marc; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the molecular players that regulate changes in the endocytic pathway during immune activation. Here we investigate the role of Rab20 in the endocytic pathway during activation of macrophages. Rab20 is associated with endocytic structures, but the function of this Rab GTPase in the endocytic pathway remains poorly characterized. We find that in macrophages, Rab20 expression and endosomal association significantly increase after interferon-γ (IFN-γ) treatment. Moreover, IFN-γ and Rab20 expression induce a dramatic enlargement of endosomes. These enlarged endosomes are the result of homotypic fusion promoted by Rab20 expression. The expression of Rab20 or the dominant-negative mutant Rab20T19N does not affect transferrin or dextran 70 kDa uptake. However, knockdown of Rab20 accelerates epidermal growth factor (EGF) trafficking to LAMP-2-positive compartments and EGF receptor degradation. Thus this work defines a function for Rab20 in the endocytic pathway during immune activation of macrophages.

  12. Smac mimetic-induced upregulation of interferon-β sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Marschall, V; Fulda, S

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are frequently expressed at high levels in cancer cells and represent attractive therapeutic targets. We previously reported that the Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) mimetic BV6, which antagonizes IAP proteins, sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide (TMZ)-induced cell death in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. However, BV6-induced NF-κB target genes responsible for this synergistic interaction have remained elusive. Using whole-genome gene expression profiling, we here identify BV6-stimulated, NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of interferon-β (IFNβ) and IFN-mediated proapoptotic signaling as critical events that mediate BV6/TMZ-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of IFNβ significantly rescues cells from BV6/TMZ-induced cell death. Similarly, silencing of the corresponding receptor IFNα/β receptor (IFNAR) confers a significant protection against apoptosis, demonstrating that IFNβ and IFN signaling are required for BV6/TMZ-mediated cell death. Moreover, BV6 and TMZ cooperate to transcriptionally upregulate the proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 family proteins Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein) or Puma (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Knockdown of Bax or Puma significantly decreases BV6/TMZ-induced apoptosis, showing that both proteins are necessary for apoptosis. By identifying IFNβ as a key mediator of BV6/TMZ-induced apoptosis, our study provides novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of Smac mimetic-mediated chemosensitization with important implications for the development of novel treatment strategies for glioblastoma. PMID:26379193

  13. Complex Interplay between HIV-1 Capsid and MX2-Independent Alpha Interferon-Induced Antiviral Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bulli, Lorenzo; Apolonia, Luis; Kutzner, Juliane; Pollpeter, Darja; Goujon, Caroline; Herold, Nikolas; Schwarz, Sarah-Marie; Giernat, Yannick; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFNs), including IFN-α, upregulate an array of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and potently suppress Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in CD4+ T cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and dendritic cells. Recently, we and others identified ISG myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) as an inhibitor of HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, additional antiviral blocks exist upstream of nuclear import, but the ISGs that suppress infection, e.g., prior to (or during) reverse transcription, remain to be defined. We show here that the HIV-1 CA mutations N74D and A105T, both of which allow escape from inhibition by MX2 and the truncated version of cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6), as well as the cyclophilin A (CypA)-binding loop mutation P90A, all increase sensitivity to IFN-α-mediated inhibition. Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology, we demonstrate that the IFN-α hypersensitivity of these mutants in THP-1 cells is independent of MX2 or CPSF6. As expected, CypA depletion had no additional effect on the behavior of the P90A mutant but modestly increased the IFN-α sensitivity of wild-type virus. Interestingly, the infectivity of wild-type or P90A virus could be rescued from the MX2-independent IFN-α-induced blocks in THP-1 cells by treatment with cyclosporine (Cs) or its nonimmunosuppressive analogue SDZ-NIM811, indicating that Cs-sensitive host cell cyclophilins other than CypA contribute to the activity of IFN-α-induced blocks. We propose that cellular interactions with incoming HIV-1 capsids help shield the virus from recognition by antiviral effector mechanisms. Thus, the CA protein is a fulcrum for the dynamic interplay between cell-encoded functions that inhibit or promote HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 is the causative agent of AIDS. During acute HIV-1 infection, numerous proinflammatory cytokines are produced, including type I interferons (IFNs). IFNs can

  14. Tolerogen-induced interferon-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDCs) protect against EAE

    PubMed Central

    Huarte, Eduardo; Rynda-Apple, Agnieszka; Riccardi, Carol; Skyberg, Jerod A.; Golden, Sarah; Rollins, MaryClare F.; Ramstead, Andrew; Jackiw, Larissa O.; Maddaloni, Massimo; Pascual, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to link the innate and adaptive immune systems. Likewise, a new innate cell subset, interferon-producing killer DCs (IKDCs), shares phenotypic and functional characteristics with both DCs and NK cells. Here, we show IKDCs play an essential role in the resolution of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) upon treatment with the tolerizing agent, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), genetically fused to reovirus protein σ1 (termed MOG-pσ1). Activated IKDCs were recruited subsequent MOG-pσ1 treatment of EAE, and disease resolution was abated upon NK1.1 cell depletion. These IKDCs were able to kill activated CD4+ T cells and mature dendritic DCs, thus, contributing to EAE remission. In addition, IKDCs were responsible for MOG-pσ1-mediated MOG-specific regulatory T cell recruitment to the CNS. The IKDCs induced by MOG-pσ1 expressed elevated levels of HVEM for interactions with cognate ligand-positive cells: LIGHT+ NK and Teff cells and BTLA+ B cells. Further characterization revealed these activated IKDCs being MHC class IIhigh, and upon their adoptive transfer (CD11c+NK1.1+MHC class IIhigh), IKDCs, but not CD11c+NK1.1+MHC class IIintermediate/low (unactivated) cells, conferred protection against EAE. These activated IKDCs showed enhanced CD107a, PD-L1, and granzyme B expression and could present OVA, unlike unactivated IKDCs. Thus, these results demonstrate the interventional potency induced HVEM+ IKDCs to resolve autoimmune disease. PMID:22018711

  15. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Nathalie; Zeka, Bleranda; Schanda, Kathrin; Fujihara, Kazuo; Illes, Zsolt; Dahle, Charlotte; Reindl, Markus; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly affects spinal cord and optic nerves. Most patients harbor pathogenic autoantibodies, the so-called NMO-IgGs, which are directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) on astrocytes. When these antibodies gain access to the CNS, they mediate astrocyte destruction by complement-dependent and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who benefit from therapies involving type I interferons (I-IFN), NMO patients typically do not profit from such treatments. How is I-IFN involved in NMO pathogenesis? To address this question, we made gene expression profiles of spinal cords from Lewis rat models of experimental neuromyelitis optica (ENMO) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found an upregulation of I-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms, when the blood-brain barrier was open. With this treatment regimen, we could amplify possible effects of the I-IFN induced genes on the transmigration of infiltrating cells through the blood brain barrier, and on lesion formation and expansion, but could avoid effects of I-IFN on the differentiation of pathogenic T and B cells in the lymph nodes. We observed that I-IFN treated ENMO rats had spinal cord lesions with fewer T cells, macrophages/activated microglia and activated neutrophils, and less astrocyte damage than their vehicle treated counterparts, suggesting beneficial effects of I-IFN. PMID:26990978

  16. Identification of kinase fusion oncogenes in post-Chernobyl radiation-induced thyroid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ricarte-Filho, Julio C.; Li, Sheng; Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E.R.; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Voza, Francesca; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; Bogdanova, Tetyana; Thomas, Geraldine A.; Mason, Christopher E.; Fagin, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood markedly increases the risk of developing papillary thyroid cancer. We examined tissues from 26 Ukrainian patients with thyroid cancer who were younger than 10 years of age and living in contaminated areas during the time of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. We identified nonoverlapping somatic driver mutations in all 26 cases through candidate gene assays and next-generation RNA sequencing. We found that 22 tumors harbored fusion oncogenes that arose primarily through intrachromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, 23 of the oncogenic drivers identified in this cohort aberrantly activate MAPK signaling, including the 2 somatic rearrangements resulting in fusion of transcription factor ETS variant 6 (ETV6) with neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 3 (NTRK3) and fusion of acylglycerol kinase (AGK) with BRAF. Two other tumors harbored distinct fusions leading to overexpression of the nuclear receptor PPARγ. Fusion oncogenes were less prevalent in tumors from a cohort of children with pediatric thyroid cancers that had not been exposed to radiation but were from the same geographical regions. Radiation-induced thyroid cancers provide a paradigm of tumorigenesis driven by fusion oncogenes that activate MAPK signaling or, less frequently, a PPARγ-driven transcriptional program. PMID:24135138

  17. RIG-I Signaling Is Essential for Influenza B Virus-Induced Rapid Interferon Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Österlund, Pamela; Westenius, Veera; Latvala, Sinikka; Diamond, Michael S.; Gale, Michael; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza B virus causes annual epidemics and, along with influenza A virus, accounts for substantial disease and economic burden throughout the world. Influenza B virus infects only humans and some marine mammals and is not responsible for pandemics, possibly due to a very low frequency of reassortment and a lower evolutionary rate than that of influenza A virus. Influenza B virus has been less studied than influenza A virus, and thus, a comparison of influenza A and B virus infection mechanisms may provide new insight into virus-host interactions. Here we analyzed the early events in influenza B virus infection and interferon (IFN) gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. We show that influenza B virus induces IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation and IFN-λ1 gene expression with faster kinetics than does influenza A virus, without a requirement for viral protein synthesis or replication. Influenza B virus-induced activation of IRF3 required the fusion of viral and endosomal membranes, and nuclear accumulation of IRF3 and viral NP occurred concurrently. In comparison, immediate early IRF3 activation was not observed in influenza A virus-infected macrophages. Experiments with RIG-I-, MDA5-, and RIG-I/MDA5-deficient mouse fibroblasts showed that RIG-I is the critical pattern recognition receptor needed for the influenza B virus-induced activation of IRF3. Our results show that innate immune mechanisms are activated immediately after influenza B virus entry through the endocytic pathway, whereas influenza A virus avoids early IRF3 activation and IFN gene induction. IMPORTANCE Recently, a great deal of interest has been paid to identifying the ligands for RIG-I under conditions of natural infection, as many previous studies have been based on transfection of cells with different types of viral or synthetic RNA structures. We shed light on this question by analyzing the earliest step in innate immune recognition of

  18. Implications of interferon-induced tryptophan catabolism in cancer, auto-immune diseases and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Brown, R R; Ozaki, Y; Datta, S P; Borden, E C; Sondel, P M; Malone, D G

    1991-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) is an indispensable amino acid required for biosynthesis of proteins, serotonin and niacin. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is induced by infections, viruses, lipopolysaccharides, or interferons (IFNs) and this results in significant catabolism of Trp along the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway. Intracellular growth of Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia psittaci in human fibroblasts in vitro is inhibited by IFN-gamma and this inhibition is negated by extra Trp in the medium. Similarly, growth of a number of human cell lines in vitro is inhibited by IFN-gamma and addition of extra Trp restores growth. Thus, in some in vitro systems, antiproliferative effects of IFN-gamma are mediated by induced depletion of Trp. We find that cancer patients given Type I or Type II IFNs can induce IDO which results in decreased serum Trp levels (20-50% of pretreatment) and increased urinary metabolites of the Kyn pathway (5 to 500 fold of pretreatment). We speculate that in vivo antineoplastic effects of IFNs and clinical side effects are mediated, at least in part, by a general or localized depletion of Trp. In view of reported increases of IFNs in autoimmune diseases and our earlier findings of elevated urinary Trp metabolites in autoimmune diseases, it seems likely that systemic or local depletion of Trp occurs in autoimmune diseases and may relate to degeneration, wasting and other symptoms in such diseases. We find high levels of IDO in cells isolated from synovia of arthritic joints. IFNs are also elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and increasing IFN levels are associated with a worsening prognosis. We propose that IDO is induced chronically by HIV infection, is further increased by opportunistic infections, and that this chronic loss of Trp initiates mechanisms responsible for the cachexia, dementia, diarrhea and possibly immunosuppression of AIDS patients. In these symptoms, AIDS resembles classical pellagra due to dietary deficiency of Trp and

  19. Inhibition of Rev-mediated HIV-1 expression by an RNA binding protein encoded by the interferon-inducible 9-27 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Constantoulakis, P.; Campbell, M.; Felber, B.K.; Nasioulas, G.; Afonina, E.; Pavlakis, G.N. )

    1993-02-26

    Interferon inhibits expression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) through unknown mechanisms. A gene inducible by interferon-[alpha] (IFN-[alpha]) and interferon-[gamma] (IFN-[gamma]) was isolated by screening of a human complementary DNA library for proteins binding to the Rev-responsive element (RRE) of HIV-1. The product of this gene, RBP9-27, was shown to bind RNA in vitro and to inhibit HIV-1 expression after transfection into human cells. RBP9-27 primarily inhibited Rev-dependent posttransscriptional steps of viral gene expression. Thus, RBP9-27 is a cellular factor that antagonizes Rev function. These results suggest an inteferon-induced antiviral mechanism operating through the induction of RNA binding proteins such as RBP9-27. Elucidation of RBP9-27 function may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of interferon action during HIV-1 infection. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Influenza virus subpopulations: interferon induction-suppressing particles require expression of NS1 and act globally in cells; UV irradiation of interferon-inducing particles blocks global shut-off and enhances interferon production.

    PubMed

    Malinoski, Christopher P; Marcus, Philip I

    2013-02-01

    Influenza virus populations contain several subpopulations of noninfectious biologically active particles that are measured by the unique phenotypes they express. Two of these subpopulations were studied: (1) interferon (IFN)-inducing particles (IFP) and (2) IFN induction-suppressing particles (ISP). ISP are dominant in cells coinfected with one or more IFP; they completely suppress IFN production in cells otherwise programmed to induce it. Influenza virus ISP were shown to act in host cells in a nonspecific and global manner, suppressing IFN induction independent of the family of viruses serving as IFN inducers. ISP must be present within the first 3 h of coinfection with IFP to be maximally effective; by 7 hpi IFN induction/production is refractory to the action of superinfecting ISP. UV target and thermal inactivation analyses revealed that ISP activity was dependent solely on the expression of the NS gene. Low doses of UV radiation enhanced by ∼10-fold the already high IFN-inducing capacity of a virus that expressed truncated NS1. There was no change in the number of IFP, implying that the production of IFN/cell had increased. We postulated that preventing degradation of cellular RNA pol II by viral polymerase prolonged the transcription of cellular mRNA, including IFN mRNA, to enhance the IFN-inducing capacity of the cell without any increase in the number of IFP. These studies point to the dueling roles of IFP and ISP in modulating IFN induction/production, the former activity being critical to the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccines.

  1. Thyroid Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs Hypothyroidism - when your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones Thyroid cancer ...

  2. Expression of the interferon-induced Mx proteins in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, Abdul Nasser; Flemming, Peer; Rodeck, Burkhard; Melter, Michael; Leonhardt, Johannes; Petersen, Claus

    2006-06-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease of the newborn for which the Kasai procedure is curative only for a few of the patients. The dilemma is that all therapeutic attempts to cure the disease are symptomatic because the etiology is still unclear. One theory suggests a progressive inflammatory process, possibly induced by a viral infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity of type I interferons (IFNs) in the livers of patients with BA. Mx proteins, which mediate an early innate immune response, are a very sensitive marker for type I IFN activity (eg, to viral infection). Liver biopsies were taken during the Kasai procedure from 13 newborns with BA who were serologically negative for hepatotropic viruses. Age-matched controls originated from 7 patients with neonatal cholestasis (eg, inspissated bile syndrome), 3 aborted fetuses, and a 10-year-old child. The immunostaining procedure (alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase) was performed with Mx-specific monoclonal antibody. Immunostaining for Mx proteins was positive in the hepatocytes of all newborns with BA, whereas the intrahepatic bile ducts were positive in all but one. In the control group, 8 of 11 liver samples were Mx-negative. This is the first study dealing with the detection of type I IFN activity in the liver of patients with BA. This observation supports the etiologic consideration of type I IFN-mediated immune response. Although positive findings of viruses in patients with BA are still inconsistent, the present study retraces the progressive inflammatory process in BA one more step toward its beginning.

  3. Interferon-γ-Induced Nitric Oxide Causes Intrinsic Intestinal Denervation in Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, Rosa M.E.; Marche, Homero H.F.; Bahia, Maria T.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Rossi, Marcos A.; Silva, João S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in neuronal destruction during acute-phase Trypanosoma cruzi infection was evaluated in male C57BL/6 (WT, wild-type) mice and knockout mice [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)−/− and interferon (IFN)−/−]. Selected animals were infected by intraperitoneal injection of 100 trypomastigote forms of the Y strain of T. cruzi. Others were injected intraperitoneally with an equal volume of saline solution and served as controls. Our findings support those of previous studies regarding myenteric denervation in acute-phase T. cruzi infection. In addition, we clearly demonstrate that, despite the fact that parasite nests and similar inflammatory infiltrate in the intestinal wall were more pronounced in infected iNOS−/− mice than in infected WT mice, the former presented no reduction in myenteric plexus neuron numbers. Neuronal nerve profile expression, as revealed by the general nerve marker PGP 9.5, was preserved in all knockout animals. Infected IFN−/− mice suffered no significant neuronal loss and there was no inflammatory infiltrate in the intestinal wall. On days 5 and 10 after infection, iNOS activity was greater in infected WT mice than in controls, whereas iNOS activity in infected knockout mice remained unchanged. These findings clearly demonstrate that neuronal damage does not occur in NO-impaired infected knockout mice, regardless of whether inflammatory infiltrate is present (iNOS−/−) or absent (IFN−/−). In conclusion, our observations strongly indicate that myenteric denervation in acute-phase T. cruzi infection is because of IFN-γ-elicited NO production resulting from iNOS activation in the inflammatory foci along the intestinal wall. PMID:15039223

  4. Effects of interferon-γ knockdown on vaccine-induced immunity against Marek's disease in chickens.

    PubMed

    Haq, Kamran; Wootton, Sarah K; Barjesteh, Neda; Golovan, Serguei; Bendall, Andrew; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ has been shown to be associated with immunity to Marek's disease virus (MDV). The overall objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between IFN-γ and vaccine-conferred immunity against MDV in chickens. To this end, 3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting chicken IFN-γ, which had previously been shown to reduce IFN-γ expression in vitro, and a control siRNA were selected to generate recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) expressing short-hairpin small interfering RNAs (shRNAs). An MDV challenge trial was then conducted: chickens were vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), administered the rAAAV expressing shRNA, and then challenged with MDV. Tumors were observed in 4 out of 10 birds that were vaccinated with HVT and challenged but did not receive any rAAAV, 5 out of 9 birds that were administered the rAAAV containing IFN-γ shRNA, and 2 out of 10 birds that were administered a control enhanced green fluorescent protein siRNA. There was no significant difference in MDV genome load in the feather follicle epithelium of the birds that were cotreated with the vaccine and the rAAAV compared with the vaccinated MDV-infected birds. These results suggest that AAAV-based vectors can be used for the delivery of shRNA into chicken cells. However, administration of the rAAAV expressing shRNA targeting chicken IFN-γ did not seem to fully abrogate vaccine-induced protection.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus and Interferon Signaling Induce Novel Autophagic Clusters in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Katzenell, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong infection in the neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG), cycling between productive infection and latency. Neuronal antiviral responses are driven by type I interferon (IFN) and are crucial to controlling HSV-1 virulence. Autophagy also plays a role in this neuronal antiviral response, but the mechanism remains obscure. In this study, HSV-1 infection of murine TG neurons triggered unusual clusters of autophagosomes, predominantly in neurons lacking detectable HSV-1 antigen. Treatment of neurons with IFN-β induced a similar response, and cluster formation by infection or IFN treatment was dependent upon an intact IFN-signaling pathway. The autophagic clusters were decorated with both ISG15, an essential effecter of the antiviral response, and p62, a selective autophagy receptor. The autophagic clusters were not induced by rapamycin or starvation, consistent with a process of selective autophagy. While clusters were triggered by other neurotropic herpesviruses, infection with unrelated viruses failed to induce this response. Following ocular infection in vivo, clusters formed exclusively in the infected ophthalmic branch of the TG. Taken together, our results show that infection with HSV and antiviral signaling in TG neurons produce an unorthodox autophagic response. This autophagic clustering is associated with antiviral signaling, the presence of viral genome, and the absence of HSV protein expression and may therefore represent an important neuronal response to HSV infection and the establishment of latency. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous virus and a significant cause of morbidity and some mortality. It is the causative agent of benign cold sores, but it can also cause blindness and life-threatening encephalitis. The success of HSV-1 is largely due to its ability to establish lifelong latent infections in neurons and to occasionally reactivate. The exact mechanisms by which

  6. Interferon regulatory factor 3 is a key regulation factor for inducing the expression of SAMHD1 in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shen; Zhan, Yuan; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Zheng, Xuchen; Yu, Lingxue; Tong, Wu; Gao, Fei; Li, Liwei; Huang, Qinfeng; Ma, Zhiyong; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-01-01

    SAMHD1 is a type I interferon (IFN) inducible host innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits an early step of the viral life cycle. The underlying mechanisms of SAMHD1 transcriptional regulation remains elusive. Here, we report that inducing SAMHD1 upregulation is part of an early intrinsic immune response via TLR3 and RIG-I/MDA5 agonists that ultimately induce the nuclear translocation of the interferon regulation factor 3 (IRF3) protein. Further studies show that IRF3 plays a major role in upregulating endogenous SAMHD1 expression in a mechanism that is independent of the classical IFN-induced JAK-STAT pathway. Both overexpression and activation of IRF3 enhanced the SAMHD1 promoter luciferase activity, and activated IRF3 was necessary for upregulating SAMHD1 expression in a type I IFN cascade. We also show that the SAMHD1 promoter is a direct target of IRF3 and an IRF3 binding site is sufficient to render this promoter responsive to stimulation. Collectively, these findings indicate that upregulation of endogenous SAMHD1 expression is attributed to the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 and we suggest that type I IFN induction and induced SAMHD1 expression are coordinated. PMID:27411355

  7. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  8. Curcumin inhibits hypoxia-induced migration in K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Lin, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Rong-Rong; Bao, Jian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, traditionally used as food and medicinal purposes, has recently been reported to have protective efficacy against hypoxia. Hypoxia is one of the important reactive factors in tumor metastasis, which is a key problem in clinical thyroid cancer therapy. In present study, we investigate the anti-metastatic effect of curcumin on the K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells as well as its potential mechanisms. The results show that curcumin effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) upregulation and significantly decreases the mRNA and protein expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in K1 cells. Curcumin also decreases the DNA binding ability of HIF-1α to hypoxia response element (HRE). Furthermore, curcumin enhances E-cadherin expression, inhibits metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzyme activity, and weakens K1 cells migration under hypoxic conditions. In summary, these results indicate that curcumin possesses a potent anti-metastatic effect and might be an effective tumoristatic agent for the treatment of aggressive papillary thyroid cancers. PMID:25349216

  9. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma-induced pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, Patti C; Millecchia, Lyndell M; Castranova, Vincent

    2004-02-15

    Exposure of mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increases nitric oxide (NO) production, which is proposed to play a role in the resulting pulmonary damage and inflammation. To determine the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO in this lung reaction, the responses of inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOS KO) versus C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice to aspirated LPS + IFN-gamma were compared. Male mice (8-10 weeks) were exposed to LPS (1.2 mg/kg) + IFN-gamma (5000 U/mouse) or saline. At 24 or 72 h postexposure, lungs were lavaged with saline and the acellular fluid from the first bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, albumin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). The cellular fraction of the total BAL was used to determine alveolar macrophage (AM) and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) counts, and AM zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence (AM-CL). Pulmonary responses 24 h postexposure to LPS + IFN-gamma were characterized by significantly decreased TAC, increased BAL AMs and PMNs, LDH, albumin, TNF-alpha, and MIP-2, and enhanced AM-CL to the same extent in both WT and iNOS KO mice. Responses 72 h postexposure were similar; however, significant differences were found between WT and iNOS KO mice. iNOS KO mice demonstrated a greater decline in total antioxidant capacity, greater BAL PMNs, LDH, albumin, TNF-alpha, and MIP-2, and an enhanced AM-CL compared to the WT. These data suggest that the role of iNOS-derived NO in the pulmonary response to LPS + IFN-gamma is anti-inflammatory, and this becomes evident over time. PMID:14962504

  10. Illness-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism: focus on the tissue level.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, J; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2011-05-01

    During illness changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterised by low serum thyroid hormone levels without the expected rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, indicating a major change in thyroid hormone feedback regulation. Recent studies have made clear that during NTIS differential changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur in various tissues, the net effect of which may be either activation or inhibition of thyroid hormone action. In this review we discuss systemic and local changes in thyroid hormone metabolism during illness, highlighting their physiological implications in terms of disease course.

  11. Complementary Effects of Interleukin-15 and Alpha Interferon Induce Immunity in Hepatitis B Virus Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Scala, Marianna; Otano, Itziar; Gil-Fariña, Irene; Vanrell, Lucia; Hommel, Mirja; Olagüe, Cristina; Vales, Africa; Galarraga, Miguel; Guembe, Laura; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Ghosh, Indrajit; Maini, Mala K.; Prieto, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In chronic hepatitis B (CHB), failure to control hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with T cell dysfunction. HBV transgenic mice mirror many features of the human disease, including T cell unresponsiveness, and thus represent an appropriate model in which to test novel therapeutic strategies. To date, the tolerant state of CD8+ T cells in these animals could be altered only by strong immunogens or by immunization with HBV antigen-pulsed dendritic cells; however, the effectors induced were unable to suppress viral gene expression or replication. Because of the known stimulatory properties of alpha interferon (IFN-α) and interleukin-15 (IL-15), this study explored the therapeutic potential of liver-directed gene transfer of these cytokines in a murine model of CHB using adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery. This combination not only resulted in a reduction in the viral load in the liver and the induction of an antibody response but also gave rise to functional and specific CD8+ immunity. Furthermore, when splenic and intrahepatic lymphocytes from IFN-α- and IL-15-treated animals were transferred to new HBV carriers, partial antiviral immunity was achieved. In contrast to previous observations made using either cytokine alone, markedly attenuated PD-L1 induction in hepatic tissue was observed upon coadministration. An initial study with CHB patient samples also gave promising results. Hence, we demonstrated synergy between two stimulating cytokines, IL-15 and IFN-α, which, given together, constitute a potent approach to significantly enhance the CD8+ T cell response in a state of immune hyporesponsiveness. Such an approach may be useful for treating chronic viral infections and neoplastic conditions. IMPORTANCE With 350 million people affected worldwide and 600,000 annual deaths due to HBV-induced liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major health problem. However, current treatment options are costly and not

  12. Quantum dots induced interferon beta expression via TRIF-dependent signaling pathways by promoting endocytosis of TLR4.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Chi; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Pinpin

    2016-02-17

    Quantum dots (QDs) are nano-sized semiconductors. Previously, intratracheal instillation of QD705s induces persistent inflammation and remodeling in the mouse lung. Expression of interferon beta (IFN-β), involved in tissue remodeling, was induced in the mouse lung. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanism of QD705 induced interferon beta (IFN-β) expression. QD705-COOH and QD705-PEG increased IFN-β and IP-10 mRNA levels during day 1 to 90 post-exposure in mouse lungs. QD705-COOH increased IFN-β expression via Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein (TRIF) dependent Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways in macrophages RAW264.7. Silencing TRIF expression with siRNA or co-treatment with a TRIF inhibitor tremendously abolished QD705s-induced IFN-β expression. Co-treatment with a TLR4 inhibitor completely prevented IFN-β induction by QD705-COOH. QD705-COOH readily entered cells, and co-treatment with either inhibitors of endocytosis or intracellular TLRs prevented IFN-β induction. Thus, activation of the TRIF dependent TLRs pathway by promoting endocytosis of TLR4 is one of the mechanisms for immunomodulatory effects of nanoparticles.

  13. UCP3 and thyroid hormone involvement in methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jon E; Mallett, Nicole M; Rusyniak, Daniel E; Mills, Edward

    2004-10-01

    Here, we determined the extent of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) involvement in methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperthermia. Sprague-Dawley rats treated with METH (40mg/kg, s.c.) responded with a hyperthermic response that peaked 1h post-treatment and was sustained through 2h. After METH treatment, thyroparathyroidectomized (TX) animals developed hypothermia that was sustained for the 3h monitoring period. In TX animals supplemented for 5 days with levothyroxine (100microg/kg, s.c.), METH-induced hypothermia was eliminated and the hyperthermic response was restored. Thyroid hormone levels (T3 and T4), measured in euthyroid animals 1h after METH, remained unchanged. As seen in rats, 1h post-METH (20mg/kg, i.p.) treatment, wild-type (WT) mice developed profound hyperthermia that was sustained for 2h. In marked contrast, UCP3-/- animals developed a markedly blunted hyperthermic response at 1h compared to WT animals. Furthermore, UCP3-/- mice could not sustain this slight elevation in temperature. Two hours post-METH treatment, UCP3-/- animal temperature returned to baseline temperatures. UCP3-/- mice were also completely protected against the lethal effects of METH, whereas 40% of WT mice succumbed to the hyperthermia. These findings suggest that thyroid hormone plays a permissive role in the thermogenic effects induced by METH. Furthermore, the findings indicate that UCP3 plays a major role in the development and maintenance of the hyperthermia induced by METH. The relationship of these results to the hyperthermia induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is also discussed.

  14. Effect of thyroid hormone status and concomitant medication on statin induced adverse effects in hyperlipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Berta, E; Harangi, M; Zsíros, N; Nagy, E V; Paragh, G; Bodor, M

    2014-06-01

    Statins are effective treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and used extensively worldwide. However, adverse effects induced by statins are the major barrier of maximalizing cardiovascular risk reduction. Hypothyroidism and administration of drugs metabolized on the same cytochrome P450 (CYPP450) pathways where statin biotransformation occurs represent a significant risk factor for statin induced adverse effects including myopathy. Simvastatin, atorvastatin and lovastatin are metabolized by CYP3A4, fluvastatin by CYP2C9, while rosuvastatin by CYP2C9 and 2C19. We investigated the levels of the free thyroid hormones and CYP metabolism of concomitant medication in 101 hyperlipidemic patients (age 61.3 +/- 9.9 ys) with statin induced adverse effects including myopathy (56 cases; 55.4%), hepatopathy (39 cases; 38.6%) and gastrointestinal adverse effects (24 cases; 23.8%). Abnormal thyroid hormone levels were found in 5 patients (4.95%); clinical hypothyroidism in 2 and hyperthyroidism in 3 cases. 11 patients had a positive history for hypothyroidism (10.9%). Myopathy occured in one patient with hypothyroidism and two patients with hyperthyroidism. There were no significant differences in the TSH, fT4 and fT3 levels between patients with statin induced myopathy and patients with other types of adverse effects. 78 patients (77.2%) were administered drugs metabolized by CYP isoforms also used by statins (3A4: 66 cases (65.3%); 2C9: 67 cases (66.3%); 2C19: 54 cases (53.5%)). Patients with myopathy took significantly more drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 compared to patients with other types of adverse effects (p < 0.05). More myopathy cases were found in patients on simvastatin treatment (52% vs. 38%, ns.), while significantly less patients with myopathy were on fluvastatin treatment (13% vs. 33%, p < 0.05) compared to patients with other types of statin induced adverse effects. Both abnormal thyroid hormone status and administration of drugs metabolized by CYP

  15. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid toxicity caused by excess fluoride and/or iodide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Hou, Changchun; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Lingzhi; Zhao, Yang; Nie, Junyan; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Aiguo

    2016-09-01

    Excess fluoride and iodide coexist in drinking water in many regions, but few studies have investigated the single or interactive effects on thyroid in vivo. In our study, Wistar rats were exposed to excess fluoride and/or iodide through drinking water for 2 or 8 months. The structure and function of the thyroid, cells apoptosis and the expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related factors were analyzed. Results demonstrated that excess fluoride and/or iodide could change thyroid follicular morphology and alter thyroid hormone levels in rats. After 8 months treatment, both single and co-exposure of the two microelements could raise the thyroid cells apoptosis. However, the expressions of IRE1-related factors were only increased in fluoride-alone and the combined groups. In conclusion, thyroid structure and thyroid function were both affected by excess fluoride and/or iodide. IRE1-induced apoptosis were involved in this cytotoxic process caused by fluoride or the combination of two microelements. PMID:27522547

  16. Immunization of mice with a newly identified thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor splice variant induces Graves'-like disease.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Teturo

    2013-06-01

    We have cloned a thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) cDNA from mouse thyroid glands. The sequence of this cDNA indicated that it encoded a 739 amino acid TSHR splice variant that lacked exon 5 (TSHR739). In thyroid gland samples from adult mice, the amount of TSHR739 mRNA was about 10% of the amount of full-length TSHR (TSHR764) mRNA. A eCFP-tagged TSHR739 integrated into plasma membrane, but lacked TSH binding activity and it did not produce cAMP in response to TSH. However, thyroid-stimulating antibodies from patients with Graves' disease stimulated cAMP production in HEK293 cells that expressed TSHR739. Quantitative PCR revealed that TSHR739 transcript levels were low in the fetal mouse thyroid samples, but TSHR739 transcript levels increased after birth and as the mice grew. We used plasmid injection combined with electroporation into skeletal muscles to immunize BALB/c mice with TSHR739, TSHR764,, or control plasmid; TSHR739 caused goiters, high (125)I uptake activity, thyrotoxicosis, and production of thyroid-stimulating antibodies, but TSHR764, or control did not. These results indicated that immunization with an autologous TSHR antigen, TSHR739, induced Graves'-like disease in mice, and that TSHR739 is a candidate autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:23538203

  17. Myasthenia Crisis Induced by Pegylated-Interferon in Patient With Chronic Hepatitis C: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Baik, Su Jung; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Hye In; Rhie, Jeong Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Myasthenia gravis is occasionally associated with thymoma that needs surgical resection and may progress to severe respiratory failure. We experienced a rare case of myasthenia crisis during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C, in whom mediastinal thymoma was discovered and successfully managed with surgical thymectomy and meticulous medical care.A 47-year-old-male patient complained of sudden diplopia 1 week after stopping 11-week administration of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed ptosis on the right eyelid and restricted right eye movement. Myasthenia gravis was confirmed by positive repetitive nerve stimulation test and positive serum antiacetylcholine receptor antibody test, and mediastinal thymoma was found on chest CT scan. The ocular myasthenia gravis progressed to respiratory failure even after discontinuing antiviral treatment but eventually recovered with thymectomy, anticholinesterase administration, steroid pulse therapy, and prolonged ventilator care. We describe the clinical features of this life-threatening complication of interferon treatment along with previous myasthenia crisis cases by interferon for chronic hepatitis C.In patients with chronic hepatitis C who is going to receive interferon-based antiviral treatment, physicians need to keep in mind the potential life-threatening manifestations of myasthenia gravis before and during antiviral treatment especially when patients complain of muscular weakness and easy fatigability. PMID:27227948

  18. A comparison of potency differences among thyroid peroxidase (TPO) inhibitors to induce developmental toxicity and other thyroid gland-linked toxicities in humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Motonaga, Kozo; Ota, Mika; Odawara, Kyoko; Saito, Shoji; Welsch, Frank

    2016-10-01

    The potencies of resorcinol, 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) for inducing developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity were compared in pregnant rats, regarded as valid model for human thyroid toxicity. Profound differences on maternal thyroid hormone levels (THs), maternal toxicity as well as developmental and neurotoxicity sequelae occurred. Resorcinol affected none of those end points. PTU and MMI caused significant effects. Therapy with either PTU or MMI during the first trimester of human pregnancy can cause reductions of maternal THs, accompanied by disruptions of prenatal development. Clinical MMI studies show sporadic evidence of teratogenic effects, with equivocal relation to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) inhibition. In recent decades no MMI associated prenatal toxicity has been reported, an outcome possibly related to carefully managed therapy. Orally administered resorcinol was rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted and was undetectable in the thyroid. In contrast, PTU or MMI accumulated. Resorcinol's potency to inhibit TPO was profoundly lower than that of PTU or MMI. Quantum chemical calculations may explain low resorcinol reactivity with TPO. Thus, distinctions in the target organ and the TPO inhibitory potency between these chemicals are likely contributing to different reductions of maternal THs levels and affecting the potency to cause developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity.

  19. The thyroid and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Lichiardopol, Corina; Moţa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease, postpartum thyroiditis, atrophic thyroiditis and drug induced thyroiditis) are prevalent disorders worldwide, especially in women (related to the millieu of sex steroids and X chromosome effects on the thyroid and the immune system). Disruption of thyroid self tolerance, usually induced by an infection, generates abnormal thyroid--immune interactions, implicating an array of cytokines and their receptors. Thyrocytes achieve antigen presenting cell properties which stimulate effector immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17), in the context of defective immunomodulatory T regulatory cells, resulting in thyroid lymphocytic infiltration and activation of B cells, with production of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroid destruction or stimulation, depending on the Th1-Th2 balance. During pregnancy there is a Th2 predominance sustained by the increased glucocorticoid, estrogen and progesteron levels, which allows tolerance versus the histoincompatible fetoplacental unit. In the postpartum period, the return shift Th2 to Th1 favors the occurrence of postpartum thyroiditis. Altered thyroid hormone levels can influence the immune system, and, on the other side, some immune cells secrete TSH, which exerts endocrine and paracrine, cytokine-like effects. Understanding the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders is crucial for prevention and management.

  20. Dose-response studies of interferon-alpha 2b on liver fibrosis and cholestasis induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Muriel, P; Castro, V

    1997-04-01

    Interferons have been utilized widely in chronic liver diseases for their antiviral properties. In addition, there is evidence for their antifibrogenic actions. In this work we studied effects of various doses of interferon-alpha 2b on experimental liver fibrosis and cholestasis induced in the rat by biliary obstruction. Collagen was measured as hepatic hydroxyproline content. Cholestasis was determined by serum alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activities and by bilirubin content. Glycogen was measured in the liver. Interestingly, the best effects (antifibrotic and anticholestatic) were observed in the group receiving the lowest dose of interferon. These results suggest that interferon-alpha 2b may be used at low doses, thereby decreasing side effects and costs. PMID:9211563

  1. Effect of BMAP-28 on human thyroid cancer TT cells is mediated by inducing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, DAQI; WAN, LANLAN; ZHANG, JINNAN; LIU, CHANG; SUN, HUI

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant endocrine tumor, with significant morbidity and mortality. Bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28) is a cathelicidin that is found in bovine neutrophils. In the present study, the effect and relative mechanism of BMAP-28 on the human thyroid cancer TT cell line in vitro and in vivo were investigated. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and a TT-xenograft mouse model were used in this study. The data obtained indicated that BMAP-28 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the TT cells in vitro. In addition, the Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay detected that BMAP-28 induced apoptotic effects in the TT cells. Moreover, the expression of activated caspase-3 and -9 was upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels. Simultaneously, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)3 and MMP9 was downregulated following BMAP-28 treatment. Finally, BMAP-28 significantly prevented the tumor growth in the TT-xenograft mouse model. These results indicated that BMAP-28 could be a potential agent for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26622900

  2. Duck Interferon-Inducible Transmembrane Protein 3 Mediates Restriction of Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Graham A. D.; Chan, Wing Fuk; Webster, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) can restrict the entry of a wide range of viruses. IFITM3 localizes to endosomes and can potently restrict the replication of influenza A viruses (IAV) and several other viruses that also enter host cells through the endocytic pathway. Here, we investigate whether IFITMs are involved in protection in ducks, the natural host of influenza virus. We identify and sequence duck IFITM1, IFITM2, IFITM3, and IFITM5. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we demonstrate the upregulation of these genes in lung tissue in response to highly pathogenic IAV infection by 400-fold, 30-fold, 30-fold, and 5-fold, respectively. We express each IFITM in chicken DF-1 cells and show duck IFITM1 localizes to the cell surface, while IFITM3 localizes to LAMP1-containing compartments. DF-1 cells stably expressing duck IFITM3 (but not IFITM1 or IFITM2) show increased restriction of replication of H1N1, H6N2, and H11N9 IAV strains but not vesicular stomatitis virus. Although duck and human IFITM3 share only 38% identity, critical residues for viral restriction are conserved. We generate chimeric and mutant IFITM3 proteins and show duck IFITM3 does not require its N-terminal domain for endosomal localization or antiviral function; however, this N-terminal end confers endosomal localization and antiviral function on IFITM1. In contrast to mammalian IFITM3, the conserved YXXθ endocytosis signal sequence in the N-terminal domain of duck IFITM3 is not essential for correct endosomal localization. Despite significant structural and amino acid divergence, presumably due to host-virus coevolution, duck IFITM3 is functional against IAV. IMPORTANCE Immune IFITM genes are poorly conserved across species, suggesting that selective pressure from host-specific viruses has driven this divergence. We wondered whether coevolution between viruses and their natural host would result in the evasion of IFITM restriction. Ducks are the natural host of avian

  3. Iodine Deficiency Induces a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-Independent Early Phase of Microvascular Reshaping in the Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Anne-Catherine; Poncin, Sylvie; Caetano, Bertrand; Sonveaux, Pierre; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Feron, Olivier; Colin, Ides M.; Soncin, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Expansion of the thyroid microvasculature is the earliest event during goiter formation, always occurring before thyrocyte proliferation; however, the precise mechanisms governing this physiological angiogenesis are not well understood. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to measure gene expression and laser Doppler to measure blood flow in an animal model of goitrogenesis, we show that thyroid angiogenesis occurred into two successive phases. The first phase lasted a week and involved vascular activation; this process was thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-independent and was directly triggered by expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by thyrocytes as soon as the intracellular iodine content decreased. This early reaction was followed by an increase in thyroid blood flow and endothelial cell proliferation, both of which were mediated by VEGF and inhibited by VEGF-blocking antibodies. The second, angiogenic, phase was TSH-dependent and was activated as TSH levels increased. This phase involved substantial up-regulation of the major proangiogenic factors VEGF-A, fibroblast growth factor-2, angiopoietin 1, and NG2 as well as their receptors Flk-1/VEGFR2, Flt-1/VEGFR1, and Tie-2. In conclusion, goiter-associated angiogenesis promotes thyroid adaptation to iodine deficiency. Specifically, as soon as the iodine supply is limited, thyrocytes produce proangiogenic signals that elicit early TSH-independent microvascular activation; if iodine deficiency persists, TSH plasma levels increase, triggering the second angiogenic phase that supports thyrocyte proliferation. PMID:18276786

  4. Nitric oxide-repressed Forkhead factor FoxE1 expression is involved in the inhibition of TSH-induced thyroid peroxidase levels.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, María del Mar; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Nazar, Magalí; Peyret, Victoria; Lucero, Ariel Maximiliano; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela; Masini-Repiso, Ana María

    2016-01-15

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis mediating the covalent incorporation of iodine into tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin process known as organification. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) via cAMP signaling is the main hormonal regulator of TPO gene expression. In thyroid cells, TSH-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production inhibits TSH-induced thyroid-specific gene expression, suggesting a potential autocrine role of NO in modulating thyroid function. Indeed, NO donors downregulate TSH-induced iodide accumulation and organification in thyroid cells. Here, using FRTL-5 thyroid cells as model, we obtained insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of NO on iodide organification. We demonstrated that NO donors inhibited TSH-stimulated TPO expression by inducing a cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase-mediated transcriptional repression of the TPO gene. Moreover, we characterized the FoxE1 binding site Z as mediator of the NO-inhibited TPO expression. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that NO decreases TSH-induced FoxE1 expression, thus repressing the transcripcional activation of TPO gene. Taken together, we provide novel evidence reinforcing the inhibitory role of NO on thyroid cell function, an observation of potential pathophysiological relevance associated with human thyroid pathologies that come along with changes in the NO production. PMID:26610751

  5. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-02-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P < 0.05). In cord blood, on the contrary, TSH was 27.3% higher in the +I group (P < 0.05). The variations were caused by opposite shifts in TSH frequency distribution in mothers and neonates. The association between iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood (P < 0.001), whereas no specific pattern was observed in the mothers. High serum thyroglobulin was a marker of low iodine intake in both mothers and neonates. The results suggest that the fetal thyroid, at least in areas of mild iodine deficiency, is more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of iodine than hitherto anticipated.

  6. Characterization of the oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated inhibition of interferon-gamma-induced major histocompatibility complex class I and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, M; Lantz, M; MacGregor, R D; Garovoy, M R; Hunt, C A

    1994-10-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II genes and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are regulated by interferon-gamma in a variety of cell types. We have previously shown that the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-GGG GTT GGT TGT GTT GGG TGT TGT GT-RNH2 (oligo I) inhibits the interferon-gamma-mediated enhancement of MHC Class I and ICAM-1 proteins in the K562 cell line. We have now investigated the mechanism of action of oligo I and report that it acts by inhibiting the binding of interferon-gamma to cells. We also show that the dose-response curves, the selectivity profile, and the kinetics of oligo I are consistent with this novel mechanism of action. The dose-response curves for oligo I, obtained using antibodies against the MHC Class I heavy chain, beta 2-microglobulin, or ICAM-1, are almost superimposable at each observation time. MHC Class I induction by 6400 units/ml interferon-alpha or interferon-beta or ICAM-1 enhancement by 800 units/ml tumor necrosis factor-alpha is not inhibited by oligo I. However, the synergistic induction of MHC Class I by mixtures of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma is inhibited. Oligo I belongs to a class of active oligodeoxynucleotides that inhibits interferon-gamma-induced MHC Class I and ICAM-1 in K562 cells. The activity and potency is sequence-dependent, but remarkably different sequences can have comparable effects. The activity of oligo I in the HeLa S3 cell line inhibits the interferon-gamma-mediated enhancement of both ICAM-1 and MHC Class II DR and the interferon-gamma-mediated reduction in transferrin receptor expression. Thus, oligo I appears to specifically inhibit interferon-gamma-induced changes in protein expression, which is consistent with oligo I acting at an early step(s) in the induction process. Taken together, our results show that oligo I exerts its effects by inhibiting the association of interferon-gamma with the cell surface, which is a novel mechanism of action for

  7. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  8. HCV Infection and Interferon-Based Treatment Induce p53 Gene Transcription in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients.

    PubMed

    Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Kałużna, Ewelina Maria; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Rembowska, Jolanta; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona; Bereszyńska, Iwona; Czubała, Katarzyna; Dziechciowska, Katarzyna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Barcińska, Dominika; Wysocki, Jacek; Nowak, Jerzy Stanisław

    2015-10-01

    It is suggested that the tumor suppressor p53 gene, classified as an interferon-stimulated gene, is implicated in the interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity against viruses. This study aimed to examine the transcriptional response of the p53 gene to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and IFN-based therapy in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. The study included 65 CHC patients (HCV genotype 1), treated with pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin, and 51 healthy individuals. p53 gene expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Analyses were performed before and at weeks 4 and 12 of treatment. p53 gene expression was significantly upregulated in CHC patients compared with healthy controls and at week 4 of therapy. No significant differences in p53 mRNA expression between rapid virologic responders, complete early virologic responders, and nonresponders were observed. No significant correlation was found between p53 gene expression and viral load. The results obtained indicate that HCV infection and IFN-based treatment induces p53 gene transcription in PBMCs. The p53 gene may therefore play a role in HCV infection but is not directly involved in treatment-induced HCV elimination. Moreover, variations in p53 gene expression do not determine on-treatment response in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection.

  9. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenen, Antje; Gillespie, Leah; Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der; Khromykh, Alexander; Mackenzie, Jason

    2014-01-05

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV{sub KUN} particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV{sub KUN} under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV{sub KUN} assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV{sub KUN} assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition.

  10. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story.

    PubMed

    Elnakish, Mohammad T; Ahmed, Amany A E; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models. PMID:26146529

  11. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

    PubMed Central

    Elnakish, Mohammad T.; Ahmed, Amany A. E.; Mohler, Peter J.; Janssen, Paul M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models. PMID:26146529

  12. HCV Infection Induces Autocrine Interferon Signaling by Human Liver Endothelial Cell and Release of Exosomes, Which Inhibits Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Giugliano, Silvia; Kriss, Michael; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Stone, Amy E.L.; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Mitchell, Angela; Khetani, Salman R.; Yamane, Daisuke; Stoddard, Mark; Li, Hui; Shaw, George M.; Edwards, Michael G.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Gale, Michael; Shah, Vijay H.; Rosen, Hugo R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) make up a large proportion of the non-parenchymal cells in the liver. LSECs are involved in induction of immune tolerance, but little is known about their functions during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods Primary human LSECs (HLSECs) and immortalized liver endothelial cells (TMNK-1) were exposed to various forms of HCV, including full-length transmitted/founder virus, sucrose-purified Japanese Fulminant Hepatitis-1 (JFH-1), a virus encoding a luciferase reporter, and the HCV-specific pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. Cells were analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical, and PCR assays. Results HLSECs internalized HCV, independent of cell–cell contacts; HCV RNA was translated but not replicated. Through pattern recognition receptors (TLR7 and retinoic acid inducible gene 1), HCV RNA induced consistent and broad transcription of multiple interferons (IFNs); supernatants from primary HLSECs transfected with HCV-specific pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules increased induction of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes in HLSECs. Recombinant type I and type III IFNs strongly up-regulated HLSEC transcription of interferon λ 3 (IFNL3) and viperin (RSAD2), which inhibit replication of HCV. Compared to CD8+ T cells, HLSECs suppressed HCV replication within Huh7.5.1 cells, also inducing IFN-stimulated genes in co-culture. Conditioned media from IFN-stimulated HLSECs induced expression of antiviral genes by uninfected primary human hepatocytes. Exosomes, derived from HLSECs following stimulation with either type I or type III IFNs, controlled HCV replication in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Cultured HLSECs produce factors that mediate immunity against HCV. HLSECs induce self-amplifying IFN-mediated responses and release of exosomes with antiviral activity. PMID:25447848

  13. Gene expression profiling in undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma induced by high-dose radiation

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Soon; Choi, Moo Hyun; Kim, Cha Soon; Choi, Seung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Published gene expression studies for radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis have used various methodologies. In this study, we identified differential gene expression in a human thyroid epithelial cell line after exposure to high-dose γ-radiation. HTori-3 cells were exposed to 5 or 10 Gy of ionizing radiation using two dose rates (high-dose rate: 4.68 Gy/min, and low-dose rate: 40 mGy/h) and then implanted into the backs of BALB/c nude mice after 4 (10 Gy) or 5 weeks (5 Gy). Decreases in cell viability, increases in giant cell frequency, anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo were observed. Particularly, the cells irradiated with 5 Gy at the high-dose rate or 10 Gy at the low-dose rate demonstrated more prominent tumorigenicity. Gene expression profiling was analyzed via microarray. Numerous genes that were significantly altered by a fold-change of >50% following irradiation were identified in each group. Gene expression analysis identified six commonly misregulated genes, including CRYAB, IL-18, ZNF845, CYP24A1, OR4N4 and VN1R4, at all doses. These genes involve apoptosis, the immune response, regulation of transcription, and receptor signaling pathways. Overall, the altered genes in high-dose rate (HDR) 5 Gy and low-dose rate (LDR) 10 Gy were more than those of LDR 5 Gy and HDR 10 Gy. Thus, we investigated genes associated with aggressive tumor development using the two dosage treatments. In this study, the identified gene expression profiles reflect the molecular response following high doses of external radiation exposure and may provide helpful information about radiation-induced thyroid tumors in the high-dose range. PMID:27006382

  14. Characterization of xenobiotic-induced hepatocellular enzyme induction in rats: anticipated thyroid effects and unique pituitary gland findings.

    PubMed

    Zabka, Tanja S; Fielden, Mark R; Garrido, Rosario; Tao, Jianhua; Fretland, Adrian J; Fretland, Jennifer L; Albassam, Mudher A; Singer, Thomas; Kolaja, Kyle L

    2011-06-01

    During routine safety evaluation of RO2910, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for HIV infection, histopathology findings concurrent with robust hepatocellular induction occurred in multiple organs, including a unique, albeit related, finding in the pituitary gland. For fourteen days, male and female rats were administered, by oral gavage vehicle, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day of RO2910. Treated groups had elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and decreased total thyroxine, and hypertrophy in the liver, thyroid gland, and pituitary pars distalis. These were considered consequences of hepatocellular induction and often were dose dependent and more pronounced in males than in females. Hepatocellular centrilobular hypertrophy corresponded with increased expression of cytochrome P450s 2B1/2, 3A1, and 3A2 and UGT 2B1. Bilateral thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy occurred concurrent to increased mitotic activity and sometimes colloid depletion, which were attributed to changes in thyroid hormone levels. Males had hypertrophy of thyroid-stimulating hormone-producing cells (thyrotrophs) in the pituitary pars distalis. All findings were consistent with the well-established adaptive physiologic response of rodents to xenobiotic-induced hepatocellular microsomal enzyme induction. Although the effects on the pituitary gland following hepatic enzyme induction-mediated hypothyroidism have not been reported previously, other models of stress and thyroid depletion leading to pituitary stimulation support such a shared pathogenesis.

  15. Effect of alpha 2b interferon on inducement of mIL-2R and treatment of HCV in PBMC from patients with chronic viral hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Gui-Ju; Liu, Bing-Xiang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the level of membrane interleukin-2 receptor (mIL-2R) on surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the therapeutic efficacy of alpha 2b interferon on the treatment of HCV-RNA in PBMC of patients with chronic hepatitis C and to compare the negative rates of HCV-RNA in PBMC, HCV-RNA and anti-HCV in serum. METHODS: Before and after treatment of alpha 2b interferon, the level of mIL-2R of patients with chronic hepatitis C was detected by biotin-streptavidin (BSA). The therapeutic group (26 cases) was treated with alpha 2b interferon (3 MU/d) and control therapeutic group (22 cases) was treated with routine drugs (VitC, aspartic acid). The total course of treatment with alpha 2b interferon and routine drug was six months and per course of the treatment was three months. The levels of HCV-RNA in PBMC, HCV-RNA and anti-HCV in serum were detected before and after a course of the treatment. RESULTS: Before and after treatment of alpha 2b interferon and routine drugs, the levels of mIL-2R in silence stage were (3.44 ± 0.77)% and (2.95 ± 0.72)%, the levels of mIL-2R in inducement stage were (33.62 ± 3.95)% and (30.04 ± 3.73)%. There was a significant difference between two groups (P < 0.01-P < 0.05). After treatment of alpha 2b interferon with 3 MU/d for two courses of the treatment, the total negative rates of HCV-RNA in the PBMC and HCV-RNA, anti-HCV in serum were 42.31% (11/26), 57.69% (15/26), 65.38%(17/26) respectively. After the treatment of routine drug, the negative rates of HCV-RNA in PBMC and HCV-RNA, anti-HCV in serum were 13.64% (3/22), 22.73% (5/22), 27.27% (6/22) respectively. There was high significant difference in the group treated with alpha 2b interferon and the group treated with routine drugs (P < 0.01-P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The mIL-2R can be induced by alpha 2b interferon during the treatment. The alpha 2b interferon has a definite effect on the treatment of HCV-RNA in PBMC. The curative effect of alpha 2b interferon is

  16. Retinoic acid inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 are induced but not essential for dengue virus induced type I interferon response.

    PubMed

    Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Xu-Dong; Yu, Man; Qin, E-De

    2011-08-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are important human pathogens that cause mild dengue fever, and severe dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, and no vaccine or antiviral therapy are currently available. At the initial stage of DENV infection, host pattern recognition receptors are responsible for sensing viral proteins or nucleic acids and initiating innate antiviral responses, including the activation of type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. Two RNA helicases, retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), are recently identified as cytoplasmic PPRs for virus infection. Here, in this study the involvement of RIG-I and MDA5 in DENV-induced IFN-β response A549 cells were investigated. DENV infection readily up-regulated RIG-I expression, activated IRF-3 and RIG-I mRNA transcription, and induced the production of IFN-β in A549 cells in a strain- and serotype-independent manner. While gene silencing of RIG-I by small interfering RNAs failed to significantly inhibit IFN-β production induced by DENV infection. Further experiments demonstrated that MDA5 was also induced by DENV infection, and MDA5 knockout did not block DENV induced IFN-β production in A549 cells. Our results demonstrated that both RIG-I and MDA5 were induced but neither of the two was essential for DENV induced IFN IFN-β response in A549 cells. These findings suggest that innate immune pathway are involved in the recognition of DENV by human non-immune cells, and provide insights for the understanding of the molecular mechanism for DENV-induced antiviral response.

  17. Influenza B virus NS1 protein inhibits conjugation of the interferon (IFN)-induced ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W; Krug, R M

    2001-02-01

    Of the several hundred proteins induced by interferon (IFN) alpha/beta, the ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein is one of the most predominant. We demonstrate the novel way in which the function of the ISG15 protein is inhibited by influenza B virus, which strongly induces the ISG15 protein: a specific region of the influenza B virus NS1 protein, which includes part of its effector domain, blocks the covalent linkage of ISG15 to its target proteins both in vitro and in infected cells. We identify UBE1L as the E1 enzyme that catalyzes the first activation step in the conjugation of ISG15, and show that the NS1B protein inhibits this activation step in vitro. Influenza A virus employs a different strategy: its NS1 protein does not bind the ISG15 protein, but little or no ISG15 protein is produced during infection. We discuss the likely basis for these different strategies.

  18. Delayed luminescence to monitor programmed cell death induced by berberine on thyroid cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scordino, Agata; Campisi, Agata; Grasso, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Gulino, Marisa; Iauk, Liliana; Parenti, Rosalba; Musumeci, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Correlation between apoptosis and UVA-induced ultraweak photon emission delayed luminescence (DL) from tumor thyroid cell lines was investigated. In particular, the effects of berberine, an alkaloid that has been reported to have anticancer activities, on two cancer cell lines were studied. The FTC-133 and 8305C cell lines, as representative of follicular and anaplastic thyroid human cancer, respectively, were chosen. The results show that berberine is able to arrest cell cycle and activate apoptotic pathway as shown in both cell lines by deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, caspase-3 cleavage, p53 and p27 protein overexpression. In parallel, changes in DL spectral components after berberine treatment support the hypothesis that DL from human cells originates mainly from mitochondria, since berberine acts especially at the mitochondrial level. The decrease of DL blue component for both cell lines could be related to the decrease of intra-mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and may be a hallmark of induced apoptosis. In contrast, the response in the red spectral range is different for the two cell lines and may be ascribed to a different iron homeostasis.

  19. Clinical trials update from the Heart Failure Society of America and the American Heart Association meetings in 2008: SADHART-CHF, COMPARE, MOMENTUM, thyroid hormone analogue study, HF-ACTION, I-PRESERVE, β-interferon study, BACH, and ATHENA

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Alison P.; Clark, Andrew L.; Cleland, John G.F.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of heart failure presented at the Heart Failure Society of America and the American Heart Association meetings in 2008. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, as analyses may change in the final publication. (i) SADHART-CHF showed no difference in outcome for heart failure patients with depression treated with sertraline compared with placebo. (ii) A controlled release carvedilol formulation showed similar LV haemodynamic effects to the standard carvedilol formulation in the COMPARE study. (iii) A post hoc analysis of the MOMENTUM study suggested that patients with less severe heart failure may be more likely to benefit from a continuous aortic flow augmentation device. (iv) A thyroid hormone analogue was poorly tolerated in patients with heart failure. (v) HF-ACTION showed that exercise training is safe and offers modest clinical benefits in patients with heart failure. (vi) Irbesartan failed to improve outcomes in patients with preserved ejection fraction in the I-PRESERVE study. (vii) A phase II study of beta-interferon administration in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy showed encouraging results. (viii) The BACH study showed that mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin was more accurate than BNP or NT-proBNP at predicting outcome at 90 days in patients with acute heart failure. (ix) A secondary analysis from ATHENA showed a reduction in cardiovascular hospitalizations and strokes for patients with atrial fibrillation receiving dronedarone compared with placebo. PMID:19168521

  20. Interferons Induce STAT1-Dependent Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator, a Pathogenicity Factor in Puumala Hantavirus Disease.

    PubMed

    Strandin, Tomas; Hepojoki, Jussi; Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Klingström, Jonas; Lundkvist, Åke; Julkunen, Ilkka; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2016-05-15

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that show various degrees of vasculopathy in humans. In this study, we analyzed the regulation of 2 fibrinolytic parameters, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its physiological inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV)-infected patients and in human microvascular endothelial cells. We detected strong upregulation of tPA in the acute phase of illness and in PUUV-infected macaques and found the tPA level to positively correlate with disease severity. The median levels of PAI-1 during the acute stage did not differ from those during the recovery phase. In concordance, hantaviruses induced tPA but not PAI-1 in microvascular endothelial cells, and the induction was demonstrated to be dependent on type I interferon. Importantly, type I and II interferons directly upregulated tPA through signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), which regulated tPA gene expression via a STAT1-responsive enhancer element. These results suggest that tPA may be a general factor in the immunological response to viruses.

  1. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein.

    PubMed

    Hoenen, Antje; Gillespie, Leah; Morgan, Garry; van der Heide, Peter; Khromykh, Alexander; Mackenzie, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNVKUN particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNVKUN under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNVKUN assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNVKUN assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide-induced production of a 40 kDa immunoreactive thyroglobulin fragment in human thyroid cells: the onset of thyroid autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Duthoit, C; Estienne, V; Giraud, A; Durand-Gorde, J M; Rasmussen, A K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Carayon, P; Ruf, J

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported that, during in vitro thyroid-hormone synthesis, H(2)O(2) stress cleaved thyroglobulin (Tg) into C-terminal peptides. These peptides were found to contain the immunodominant region of Tg recognized by Tg autoantibodies from patients with an autoimmune thyroid disease. To test the hypothesis that Tg fragmentation is an early upstream initiating event involved in Tg autoimmune response and the consequence of oxidative injuries, we studied the effect of H(2)O(2) stress on human thyroid cells. In culture conditions allowing Tg synthesis and iodine organification by the cells, we found that bolus addition of increasing millimolar doses of H(2)O(2) induced a dose-response appearance of floating cells in the culture medium. These cells apparently resulted from a necrotic process, and they bore iodinated Tg fragments. These fragments were found to be similar to those previously obtained in vitro from purified Tg. In both cases, Tg peptides were recognized by a well-defined monoclonal antibody directed to the immunodominant region of Tg. The smallest immunoreactive Tg peptide had a molecular mass of 40 kDa and entered human thyrocytes more efficiently than the entire Tg. These data suggest that thyrocytes exposed to locally increased H(2)O(2) doses accumulate fragmented Tg for further delivery into surrounding living thyrocytes in the course of an autoimmune response. PMID:11736644

  3. Discriminating gene expression signature of radiation-induced thyroid tumors after either external exposure or internal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ory, Catherine; Ugolin, Nicolas; Schlumberger, Martin; Hofman, Paul; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2011-12-21

    Both external radiation exposure and internal radionuclide contamination are well known risk factors in the development of thyroid epithelial tumors. The identification of specific molecular markers deregulated in radiation-induced thyroid tumors is important for the etiological diagnosis since neither histological features nor genetic alterations can discriminate between sporadic and radiation-induced tumors. Identification of highly discriminating markers in radiation-induced tumors is challenging as it relies on the ability to identify marker deregulation which is associated with a cellular stress that occurred many years before in the thyroid cells. The existence of such a signature is still controversial, as it was not found in several studies while a highly discriminating signature was found in both post-radiotherapy and post-Chernobyl series in other studies. Overall, published studies searching for radiation-induced thyroid tumor specificities, using transcriptomic, proteomic and comparative genomic hybridization approaches, and bearing in mind the analytical constraints required to analyze such small series of tumors, suggest that such a molecular signature could be found. In comparison with sporadic tumors, we highlight molecular similarities and specificities in tumors occurring after high-dose external radiation exposure, such as radiotherapy, and in post-Chernobyl tumors that occurred after internal 131I contamination. We discuss the relevance of signature extrapolation from series of tumors developing after high and low doses in the identification of tumors induced at very low doses of radiation.

  4. Effects of perchlorate on BDE-47-induced alteration thyroid hormone and gene expression of in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuesong; Wang, Shutao; Li, Dongmei; You, Hong; Ren, Xin

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effects of perchlorate on thyroid hormone disturbances induced by 2,2',4',4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) via thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated pathways, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a combination of BDE-47 and PER from the time of fertilisation to 14 d (dpf). The whole-body content of TH and the expression of genes and proteins related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were analysed. Co-exposure to BDE-47 and PER decreased the body weight and increased malformation rates relative to the effects of exposure to only BDE-47. Compared with the exposure to BDE-47 alone, the exposure to a combination of BDE-47 (10 μg/L) and PER (3.5 mg/L) significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in TH synthesis (NIS and Nkx2.1a) and significantly down-regulated the expression of genes related to the regulation of the HPT axis (CRH and TSHβ). The expression of TG at the gene and protein levels was significantly up-regulated, but the expression of TTR was significantly down-regulated in the co-exposures relative to BDE-47 treated alone. In addition, the larger reduction in the T4 level resulting from exposure to the mixture of BDE-47 and PER demonstrated that PER enhanced the thyroid-disruptive effects of BDE-47. These results help to elucidate the complicated chemical interactions and the molecular mechanism of action of these two TH disruptors. PMID:24177579

  5. EXPERIMENTAL THYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R. H.

    1898-01-01

    From the results of the various experiments already detailed I feel justified in drawing the following conclusions: (1) Absolutely fresh thyroid gland is not poisonous, in the usual sense of the term, when absorbed through the alimentary canal. (2) The symptoms of induced thyroidism are manifestations of an intoxication resulting from the ingestion of decomposed thyroid material, a conclusion that agrees in part with the previously related observations of Lanz. (3) The so-called experimental thyroidism is not specific for the thyroid only, for the ingestion of many substances derived from animal tissues other than the thyroid gland may produce an intoxication strikingly similar in every respect to that of experimental thyroidism. (4) Most, if not all, animal tissues yield substances which, if injected in large quantities directly into the circulation or beneath the skin, will produce an intoxication often very similar to that produced by injections of various substances derived from the fresh thyroid tissue. (5) The effects resulting from the intravascular or subcutaneous injections of aqueous extracts, decoctions and the concentrated extractives of the thyroid tissue, of the thymus, of muscle, etc., are by no means necessarily indicative of the function and the action of the hypothetical internal secretions of the same tissues during life. (6) The utilization of the fact that ingestion of decomposed thyroid material produces on certain occasions an intoxication with certain symptoms similar to some of those of G-raves' disease is not justifiable for the furtherance of the theory that the symptoms of exophthalmic goitre result from an over-production of the thyroid secretion. (7) Our results lead us to conclude with Drechsel that the fresh thyroid tissue yields at least probably two substances that are capable of palliating the symptoms of the acute cachexia in totally thyroidless dogs. (8) The thymus tissue also yields one and probably two substances that are as

  6. In the eye of the storm: iodinated contrast medium induced thyroid storm presenting as cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Alkhuja, Samer; Pyram, Ronald; Odeyemi, Olutunde

    2013-01-01

    The administration of iodinated contrast medium may lead to excess free thyroid hormone release and cause thyroid storm. A woman presented to the emergency department with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and intermittent bilateral lower extremities edema. Physical examination revealed mildly enlarged thyroid. Patient underwent a computed tomography scan of the chest with intravenous iodinated contrast medium to rule out pulmonary embolism, the patient developed a thyroid storm second to iodinated contrast medium injection. Proper treatment was provided and the patient had a good outcome. We present this case of an unusual presentation of a thyroid storm with cardiac arrest. This case illustrates that evaluating thyroid function tests in patients with an enlarged thyroid prior to the administration of iodinated contrast medium could prevent the development of thyroid storm.

  7. The DNA-induced protective immunity with chicken interferon gamma against poultry coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Roufeng; Song, Hongyan; Ruirui, Zhang; Chengyu, Lei; Li, Xiangrui

    2010-08-01

    The immunogenicity of Eimeria acervulina cSZ-2 and chicken interferon gamma was observed against Eimeria tenella challenge. The chickens were randomly divided into six groups of 24 chicks each. Three groups of chickens were injected with DNA vaccines pVAX1-cSZ2, pVAX1-chIFN-gamma and pVAX1-cSZ2-chIFN-gamma two times (at days 14 and 21) at a dose of 100 microg intramuscularly. Three other groups were kept as control and injected with TE buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6 and 1 mM EDTA). One week following the booster dose, all chickens except the non-infected, non-vaccinated control group were inoculated orally with 5 x 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Seven days post challenge, all chickens were weighted and slaughtered for cecal lesion scoring and oocyst counts. The results demonstrated that cSZ-2 in combination with interferon gamma can protect chickens from coccidiosis by significantly decreasing body weight loss and oocyst excretion reflecting partial protection against E. tenella infection, and further studies are necessary to test for protection against other Eimeria species.

  8. Evaluation of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-induced protein 10 (IP-10) responses for detection of cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis: comparisons to IFN-gamma responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-induced protein 10 (IP-10) has recently shown promise as a diagnostic biomarker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of humans. The aim of the current study was to compare IP-10 and IFN-gamma responses upon Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle using archived sample...

  9. Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon26 inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm th...

  10. Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm the...

  11. Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with influenza A virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Whether the duplicated members have selective viral targets, recognition patterns and...

  12. Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm the ...

  13. Imatinib-induced thyroiditis in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surjit; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present a case of chronic myeloid leukemia for which imatinib therapy was initated. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone was normal, and thyroid microsomal autoantibodies (TMA) were positive and patient was diagnosed as thyroiditis treated with corticosteroids for 1½ months which lead to resolution. PMID:27756963

  14. cGAS Senses Human Cytomegalovirus and Induces Type I Interferon Responses in Human Monocyte-Derived Cells.

    PubMed

    Paijo, Jennifer; Döring, Marius; Spanier, Julia; Grabski, Elena; Nooruzzaman, Mohammed; Schmidt, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Messerle, Martin; Hornung, Veit; Kaever, Volkhard; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections of healthy individuals are mostly unnoticed and result in viral latency. However, HCMV can also cause devastating disease, e.g., upon reactivation in immunocompromised patients. Yet, little is known about human immune cell sensing of DNA-encoded HCMV. Recent studies indicated that during viral infection the cyclic GMP/AMP synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA and catalyzes formation of the cyclic di-nucleotide cGAMP, which triggers stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and thus induces antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) responses. We found that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) as well as monocyte-derived DC and macrophages constitutively expressed cGAS and STING. HCMV infection further induced cGAS, whereas STING expression was only moderately affected. Although pDC expressed particularly high levels of cGAS, and the cGAS/STING axis was functional down-stream of STING, as indicated by IFN-I induction upon synthetic cGAMP treatment, pDC were not susceptible to HCMV infection and mounted IFN-I responses in a TLR9-dependent manner. Conversely, HCMV infected monocyte-derived cells synthesized abundant cGAMP levels that preceded IFN-I production and that correlated with the extent of infection. CRISPR/Cas9- or siRNA-mediated cGAS ablation in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary monocyte-derived cells, respectively, impeded induction of IFN-I responses following HCMV infection. Thus, cGAS is a key sensor of HCMV for IFN-I induction in primary human monocyte-derived DC and macrophages. PMID:27058035

  15. Interferon-Inducible CXC Chemokines Directly Contribute to Host Defense against Inhalational Anthrax in a Murine Model of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Matthew A.; Burdick, Marie D.; Glomski, Ian J.; Boyer, Anne E.; Barr, John R.; Mehrad, Borna; Strieter, Robert M.; Hughes, Molly A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemokines have been found to exert direct, defensin-like antimicrobial activity in vitro, suggesting that, in addition to orchestrating cellular accumulation and activation, chemokines may contribute directly to the innate host response against infection. No observations have been made, however, demonstrating direct chemokine-mediated promotion of host defense in vivo. Here, we show that the murine interferon-inducible CXC chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 each exert direct antimicrobial effects in vitro against Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain spores and bacilli including disruptions in spore germination and marked reductions in spore and bacilli viability as assessed using CFU determination and a fluorometric assay of metabolic activity. Similar chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity was also observed against fully virulent Ames strain spores and encapsulated bacilli. Moreover, antibody-mediated neutralization of these CXC chemokines in vivo was found to significantly increase host susceptibility to pulmonary B. anthracis infection in a murine model of inhalational anthrax with disease progression characterized by systemic bacterial dissemination, toxemia, and host death. Neutralization of the shared chemokine receptor CXCR3, responsible for mediating cellular recruitment in response to CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, was not found to increase host susceptibility to inhalational anthrax. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel, receptor-independent antimicrobial role for the interferon-inducible CXC chemokines in pulmonary innate immunity in vivo. These data also support an immunomodulatory approach for effectively treating and/or preventing pulmonary B. anthracis infection, as well as infections caused by pathogenic and potentially, multi-drug resistant bacteria including other spore-forming organisms. PMID:21124994

  16. cGAS Senses Human Cytomegalovirus and Induces Type I Interferon Responses in Human Monocyte-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paijo, Jennifer; Döring, Marius; Spanier, Julia; Grabski, Elena; Nooruzzaman, Mohammed; Schmidt, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Messerle, Martin; Hornung, Veit; Kaever, Volkhard; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections of healthy individuals are mostly unnoticed and result in viral latency. However, HCMV can also cause devastating disease, e.g., upon reactivation in immunocompromised patients. Yet, little is known about human immune cell sensing of DNA-encoded HCMV. Recent studies indicated that during viral infection the cyclic GMP/AMP synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA and catalyzes formation of the cyclic di-nucleotide cGAMP, which triggers stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and thus induces antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) responses. We found that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) as well as monocyte-derived DC and macrophages constitutively expressed cGAS and STING. HCMV infection further induced cGAS, whereas STING expression was only moderately affected. Although pDC expressed particularly high levels of cGAS, and the cGAS/STING axis was functional down-stream of STING, as indicated by IFN-I induction upon synthetic cGAMP treatment, pDC were not susceptible to HCMV infection and mounted IFN-I responses in a TLR9-dependent manner. Conversely, HCMV infected monocyte-derived cells synthesized abundant cGAMP levels that preceded IFN-I production and that correlated with the extent of infection. CRISPR/Cas9- or siRNA-mediated cGAS ablation in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary monocyte-derived cells, respectively, impeded induction of IFN-I responses following HCMV infection. Thus, cGAS is a key sensor of HCMV for IFN-I induction in primary human monocyte-derived DC and macrophages. PMID:27058035

  17. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashlan, Akram M; Nooh, Mohammed M; Hassan, Wafaa A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1); i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashlan, Akram M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Hassan, Wafaa A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg-1), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300μg kg-1; i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg-1; i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  19. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashlan, Akram M; Nooh, Mohammed M; Hassan, Wafaa A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1); i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  20. Interferon-gamma-induced dephosphorylation of STAT3 and apoptosis are dependent on the mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Peng . E-mail: fangp@ohsu.edu; Hwa, Vivian; Rosenfeld, Ron G.

    2006-05-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma}) exhibits diverse biological activities, including control of cell growth and tumor suppression. Here, we report that the treatment of M12 cells, a human metastatic prostate cancer cell line, with IFN-{gamma}, resulted in marked inhibition of cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. These effects were not seen with either IFN-{alpha} or IFN-{beta}. M12 cells, like many other human cancer cells, contain constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The basal levels of both Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are also markedly elevated in M12 cells. Strikingly, IFN-{gamma}-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition of M12 cells were associated with persistent suppression of the constitutive tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pY-STAT3). The IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3, however, was inhibited when the mTOR pathway was specifically blocked by rapamycin. Inhibition of PI-3K with low-dose LY294002, or MAPK with PD98059 also suppressed the mTOR/p70 S6k pathway, and correlated with the blockage of IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3. Simultaneously, treatment with LY294002, PD98059, or rapamycin abolished IFN-{gamma}-induced apoptosis in M12 cells. The inhibition of the mTOR pathway, however, did not affect IFN-{gamma}-induced activation of STAT1 pathway, and suppression of STAT1 expression by siRNA had no effect on IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that an intact mTOR pathway is critical for IFN-{gamma}-induced suppression of pY-STAT3 and apoptosis. Our study thus provides novel insights into the contributions of signaling pathways other than the classical JAK/STAT1 pathway in the anti-proliferative, proapoptotic actions of IFN-{gamma}.

  1. Nephrotic-range proteinuria on interferon-β treatment: immune-induced glomerulonephritis or other pathway?

    PubMed

    Yuste, C; Rapalai, M; Pritchard, B A; Jones, T J; Tucker, B; Ramakrishna, S B

    2014-04-01

    We present a case report of a 37-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis (MS) who developed nephrotic-range proteinuria secondary to membrano proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)-like disease with mesangial C3 deposition without evidence of immune-complex deposition in the context of long-term interferon-β (IFN-β) therapy. The complete remission of proteinuria following cessation of IFN-β, strongly suggests causality. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of MPGN associated with IFN-β use. This being the case, the negative immune screen, normal inflammatory markers and the absence of immune complex deposits would imply a different pathway to that previously suggested. PMID:25852870

  2. Interferon-Induced Spermidine-Spermine Acetyltransferase and Polyamine Depletion Restrict Zika and Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Mounce, Bryan C; Poirier, Enzo Z; Passoni, Gabriella; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Cesaro, Teresa; Prot, Matthieu; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2016-08-10

    Polyamines are small, positively charged molecules derived from ornithine and synthesized through an intricately regulated enzymatic pathway. Within cells, they are abundant and play several roles in diverse processes. We find that polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Depletion of spermidine and spermine via type I interferon signaling-mediated induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1), a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, restricts CHIKV and ZIKV replication. Polyamine depletion restricts these viruses in vitro and in vivo, due to impairment of viral translation and RNA replication. The restriction is released by exogenous replenishment of polyamines, further supporting a role for these molecules in virus replication. Thus, SAT1 and, more broadly, polyamine depletion restrict viral replication and suggest promising avenues for antiviral therapies.

  3. TLR2/6 agonists and interferon-gamma induce human melanoma cells to produce CXCL10.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, Ileana S; Wang, Ena; Deacon, Donna H; Olson, Walter C; Bao, Yongde; Slingluff, Craig L

    2015-09-15

    Clinical approaches to treat advanced melanoma include immune therapies, whose benefits depend on tumor-reactive T-cell infiltration of metastases. However, most tumors lack significant immune infiltration prior to therapy. Selected chemokines promote T-cell migration into tumors; thus, agents that induce these chemokines in the tumor microenvironment (TME) may improve responses to systemic immune therapy. CXCL10 has been implicated as a critical chemokine supporting T-cell infiltration into the TME. Here, we show that toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can induce chemokine production directly from melanoma cells when combined with IFNγ treatment. We find that TLR2 and TLR6 are widely expressed on human melanoma cells, and that TLR2/6 agonists (MALP-2 or FSL-1) synergize with interferon-gamma (IFNγ) to induce production of CXCL10 from melanoma cells. Furthermore, melanoma cells and immune cells from surgical specimens also respond to TLR2/6 agonists and IFNγ by upregulating CXCL10 production, compared to treatment with either agent alone. Collectively, these data identify a novel mechanism for inducing CXCL10 production directly from melanoma cells, with TLR2/6 agonists +IFNγ and raise the possibility that intratumoral administration of these agents may improve immune signatures in melanoma and have value in combination with other immune therapies, by supporting T-cell migration into melanoma metastases.

  4. Thyrotropin-induced hyperthyroidism caused by selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. A new syndrome of "inappropriate secretion of TSH".

    PubMed Central

    Gershengorn, M C; Weintraub, B D

    1975-01-01

    An 18-yr-old woman with clinical and laboratory features of hyperthyroidism had persistently elevated serum levels of immunoreative thyrotropin (TSH). During 11 yr of follow-up there had been no evidence of a pituitary tumor. After thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), there was a marked increase in TSH and secondarily in triiodothyronine (T3), the latter observation confirming the biologic activity of the TSH. Exogenous T3 raised serum T3 and several measurements of peripheral thyroid hormone effect, while decreasing serum TSH, thyroxine (T4), and thyroidal radioiodine uptake. After T3, the TRH-stimulated TSH response was decreased but was still inappropriate for the elevated serum T3 levels. Dexamethasone reduced serum TSH but did not inhibit TRH stimulation of TSH. Propylthiouracil reduced serum T4 and T3 and raised TSH. This patient represents a new syndrome of TSH-induced hyperthyroidism, differing from previous reports in the absence of an obvious pituitary tumor and in the responsiveness of the TSH to TRH stimulation and thyroid hormone suppression. This syndrome appears to be caused by a selective, partial resistance of the pituitary to the action of thyroid hormone. This case is also compared with previous reports in the literature of patients with elevated serum levels of immunoreactive TSH in the presence of elevated total and free thyroid hormones. A classification of these cases, termed "inappropriate secretion of TSH," is proposed. PMID:1159077

  5. Thyroid hormone and estrogen regulate exercise-induced growth hormone release.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S Silvestre, Diego H; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade; Carvalho, Denise P; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response. PMID:25874614

  6. Thyroid hormone does not induce maturation of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Svensson Holm, Ann‐Charlotte B.; Lindgren, Isa; Österman, Hanna; Altimiras, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fetal cardiac growth in mammalian models occurs primarily by cell proliferation (hyperplasia). However, most cardiomyocytes lose the ability to proliferate close to term and heart growth continues by increasing cell size (hypertrophy). In mammals, the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) is an important driver of this process. Chicken cardiomyocytes, however, keep their proliferating ability long after hatching but little information is available on the mechanisms controlling cell growth and myocyte maturation in the chicken heart. Our aim was to study the role of T3 on proliferation and differentiation of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes (ECCM), enzymatically isolated from 19‐day‐old embryos and to compare the effects to those of insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) and phenylephrine (PE). Hyperplasia was measured using a proliferation assay (MTS) and hypertrophy/multinucleation was analyzed morphologically by phalloidin staining of F‐actin and nuclear staining with DAPI. We show that IGF‐1 induces a significant increase in ECCM proliferation (30%) which is absent with T3 and PE. PE induced both hypertrophy (61%) and multinucleation (41%) but IGF‐1 or T3 did not. In conclusion, we show that T3 does not induce maturation or proliferation of cardiomyocytes, while IGF‐1 induces cardiomyocyte proliferation and PE induces maturation of cardiomyocytes. PMID:25501434

  7. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    PubMed Central

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S. Silvestre, Diego H.; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response. PMID:25874614

  8. Results of space experiment program "interferon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tálas, Margarita; Bátkai, László; Stöger, Ivana; Nagy, Károly; Hiros, László; Konstantinova, Irina; Rykova, Marina; Mozgovaya, Irina; Guseva, Olga; Kozharinov, Valerii

    The results of the biological space experiment "Interferon" performed by two international cosmonaut teams (26 May 1980, and 16 May 1981) aboard space laboratory Solyut-6 are reported: (1) Human lymphocytes separated from blood of healthy donors and placed into "Interferon I" equipment could be kept for 7 days in suspension culture under spaceflight conditons. Interferon production could be induced in human lymphocytes by preparations of different origin: virus, synthetic polyribonucleotides, bacterial protein and plant pigment. An increased lymphocyte interferon production in space laboratory compared to ground control was observed. (2) Human interferon preparations and interferon inducers placed in space laboratory at room temperature for 7 days maintained their biological activity. (3) A decrease of induced interferon production and natural killer activity of lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood of cosmonauts was observed on the 1st day on Earth after 7-days spaceflight.

  9. Interferons and interferon regulatory factors in malaria.

    PubMed

    Gun, Sin Yee; Claser, Carla; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei; Rénia, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and responsible for approximately 500 million clinical cases and 500 thousand deaths annually. Acquired adaptive immune responses control parasite replication and infection-induced pathologies. Most infections are clinically silent which reflects on the ability of adaptive immune mechanisms to prevent the disease. However, a minority of these can become severe and life-threatening, manifesting a range of overlapping syndromes of complex origins which could be induced by uncontrolled immune responses. Major players of the innate and adaptive responses are interferons. Here, we review their roles and the signaling pathways involved in their production and protection against infection and induced immunopathologies.

  10. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  11. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  12. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... Thyroid storm occurs due to a major stress such as trauma, heart attack , or infection. In rare cases, thyroid ...

  13. Hepatitis C Virus Attenuates Interferon-Induced MHC Class I Expression and Decreases CD8+ T-Cell Effector Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wonseok; Sung, Pil Soo; Park, Su-Hyung; Yoon, Sarah; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Seungtaek; Han, Kwang Hyub; Kim, Ja Kyung; Rehermann, Barbara; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells are required for clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. MHC class I expression is upregulated by type I and II interferons (IFNs). However, little is known about the effects of HCV infection on IFN-induced expression of MHC class I. METHODS We used the HCV cell culture system (HCVcc) with the genotype 2a Japanese Fulminant Hepatitis-1 strain to investigate IFN-induced expression of MHC class I and its regulatory mechanisms. HCVcc-infected Huh-7.5 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses. Protein kinase R (PKR) was knocked-down with lentiviruses that express small hairpin (sh)RNAs. The functional effects of MHC class I regulation by HCV were demonstrated in co-culture studies, using HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. RESULTS Although the baseline level of MHC class I was not affected by HCV infection, IFN-induced expression of MHC class I was notably attenuated in HCV-infected cells. This was associated with replicating HCV RNA, not with viral protein. HCV infection reduced IFN-induced synthesis of MHC class I protein and induced phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2α. IFN-induced MHC class I expression was restored by shRNA-mediated knockdown of PKR in HCV-infected cells. Co-culture of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells and HCV-infected cells that expressed HLA-A2 demonstrated that HCV infection reduced the effector functions of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells; these functions were restored by shRNA-mediated knockdown of PKR. CONCLUSIONS IFN-induced expression of MHC class I is attenuated in HCV-infected cells by activation of PKR, which reduces the effector functions of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. This appears to be an important mechanism by which HCV circumvents antiviral adaptive immune responses. PMID:24486950

  14. Interferon-γ-induced p27KIP1 binds to and targets MYC for proteasome-mediated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Siti Mariam; Frings, Oliver; Fahlén, Sara; Nilsson, Helén; Goodwin, Jacob; von der Lehr, Natalie; Su, Yingtao; Lüscher, Bernhard; Castell, Alina; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The Myc oncoprotein is tightly regulated at multiple levels including ubiquitin-mediated protein turnover. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of Myc at Ser-62 pharmacologically or through interferon (IFN)-γ-induced expression of p27Kip1 (p27) repressed Myc's activity to suppress cellular senescence and differentiation. In this study we identified an additional activity of p27 to interfere with Myc independent of Ser-62 phosphorylation. p27 is required and sufficient for IFN-γ-induced turnover of Myc. p27 interacted with Myc in the nucleus involving the C-termini of the two proteins, including Myc box 4 of Myc. The C-terminus but not the Cdk2 binding fragment of p27 was sufficient for inducing Myc degradation. Protein expression data of The Cancer Genome Atlas breast invasive carcinoma set revealed significantly lower Myc protein levels in tumors with highly expressed p27 lacking phosphorylation at Thr-157 - a marker for active p27 localized in the nucleus. Further, these conditions correlated with favorable tumor stage and patient outcome. This novel regulation of Myc by IFN-γ/p27KIP1 potentially offers new possibilities for therapeutic intervention in tumors with deregulated Myc. PMID:26701207

  15. Bupropion for interferon-alpha-induced depression in patients with hepatitis C viral infection: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Su, Wen-Pang; Palani, Mahalakshmi; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-α therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with major depressive episodes. Bupropion, a commonly used antidepressant agent, has recently found to have strong anti-inflammatory effects in animal models. Despite of the theoretical relevancy, the antidepressant effect of bupropion in IFN-alpha-induced depression has never been studied. Ten HCV patients with IFN-α-induced depression were recruited to receive 8-week bupropion treatment and were assessed every 2 weeks for depressive symptoms by the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and somatic symptoms by the Neurotoxicity Rating Scale (NRS). Four of the 10 patients met the criteria for remission (total HAMD scores≤7), and 5 patients met the criteria for response (at least 50% reduction in total HAMD scores). In addition, 5 patients had 50% decreases in NRS for neuropsychiatric symptoms. This preliminary open-label study suggests that bupropion is effective in treating IFN-alpha-induced depressive and somatic symptoms.

  16. Brain Endothelial- and Epithelial-Specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 Drives Virus-Induced Sickness Behavior and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N; Spieß, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zöller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Müller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E; Baker, Darren P; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-04-19

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded RNA ligands, and IFNs shared pathways involving engagement of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), and subsequently induced IFN responses specifically in brain endothelia and epithelia of mice. Behavioral alterations were specifically dependent on brain endothelial and epithelial IFN receptor chain 1 (IFNAR). Using gene profiling, we identified that the endothelia-derived chemokine ligand CXCL10 mediated behavioral changes through impairment of synaptic plasticity. These results identified brain endothelial and epithelial cells as natural gatekeepers for virus-induced sickness behavior, demonstrated tissue specific IFNAR engagement, and established the CXCL10-CXCR3 axis as target for the treatment of behavioral changes during virus infection and type I IFN therapy. PMID:27096319

  17. Up-regulation of Interferon-inducible protein 16 contributes to psoriasis by modulating chemokine production in keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Tianyu; Shao, Shuai; Li, Bing; Jin, Liang; Lei, Jie; Qiao, Hongjiang; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte activation is known to play a critical role in psoriasis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), an innate immune system sensor, is reported to affect keratinocyte function. We therefore hypothesized that IFI16 promotes psoriasis by modulating keratinocyte activation. In the present study, we cinfirmed that IFI16 was overexpressed in epidermal keratinocytes of psoriasis patients. In addition, psoriasis-related cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-22, induced IFI16 up-regulation in keratinocytes via activation of STAT3 signaling. We also observed that IFI16 activated the TBK1-NF-κB signaling, leading to the production of CXCL10 and CCL20. Importantly, knocking down p204, which is reported as the mouse orthologous of human IFI16, inhibited epidermal hyperplasia in mice with imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. These findings indicate that IFI16 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27137868

  18. Brain Endothelial- and Epithelial-Specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 Drives Virus-Induced Sickness Behavior and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N; Spieß, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zöller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Müller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E; Baker, Darren P; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-04-19

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded RNA ligands, and IFNs shared pathways involving engagement of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), and subsequently induced IFN responses specifically in brain endothelia and epithelia of mice. Behavioral alterations were specifically dependent on brain endothelial and epithelial IFN receptor chain 1 (IFNAR). Using gene profiling, we identified that the endothelia-derived chemokine ligand CXCL10 mediated behavioral changes through impairment of synaptic plasticity. These results identified brain endothelial and epithelial cells as natural gatekeepers for virus-induced sickness behavior, demonstrated tissue specific IFNAR engagement, and established the CXCL10-CXCR3 axis as target for the treatment of behavioral changes during virus infection and type I IFN therapy.

  19. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 Mediates Alveolar Macrophage Pyroptosis During LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongdong; Pan, Pinhua; Su, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lemeng; Qin, Qingwu; Tan, Hongyi; Huang, Li; Li, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously, we demonstrated that pyroptosis in alveolar macrophages (AMs) plays an essential role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Here, we show that the absence of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in genetic knock-out mice strongly abrogates pyroptosis in AMs and alleviates the LPS-induced lung injury and systemic inflammation. Our study demonstrates that IRF-1 contributes to caspase-1 activation and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain pyroptosome formation in AMs and leads to downstream inflammatory cytokine release, including that of IL-1β, IL-18, and HMGB1. The nuclear translocation of IRF-1 is linked to the presence of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Our findings suggest that pyroptosis and the downstream inflammatory response in AMs induced by LPS is a process that is dependent on TLR4-mediated up-regulation of IRF-1. In summary, IRF-1 plays a key role in controlling caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis and inflammation. PMID:26939040

  20. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ocana-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert; Stech, Juergen; Stech, Olga; Summerfield, Artur

    2012-05-25

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-{kappa}B translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  1. Pressure- and temperature-induced unfolding and aggregation of recombinant human interferon-gamma: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Koen; Haelewyn, Joost; Meersman, Filip; De Ley, Marc; Heremans, Karel

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the secondary structure of recombinant human interferon-gamma (rhIFN-gamma) and its biologically inactive truncated form rhIFN-Delta C15 has been studied using Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. In situ observation of the pressure-induced changes using the diamond anvil cell shows that the alpha-helical structure is mainly transformed into disordered structure at high pressure. Increasing pressure also induces the formation of a gel. Addition of 0.5 M MgCl(2) significantly reduces the pressure stability. Releasing the pressure below 300 MPa results in the formation of intermolecular antiparallel beta-sheets, which is seldom observed. This suggests that the intermolecular beta-sheet of rhIFN-gamma is stabilized by electrostatic interactions that are disrupted at high pressure. For comparison we also studied the effect of temperature. Temperature-induced changes reflect extensive transformation of alpha-helical structure into intermolecular antiparallel beta-sheet, as is usually observed for most proteins. PMID:12425720

  2. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Differentially Affects the Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Response and Mitochondrial Apoptosis Mediated by RIG-I/MAVS

    PubMed Central

    Pythoud, Christelle; Rothenberger, Sylvia; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arenaviruses are important emerging human pathogens maintained by noncytolytic persistent infection in their rodent reservoir hosts. Despite high levels of viral replication, persistently infected carrier hosts show only mildly elevated levels of type I interferon (IFN-I). Accordingly, the arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) has been identified as a potent IFN-I antagonist capable of blocking activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via the retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG)-I/mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. Another important mechanism of host innate antiviral defense is represented by virus-induced mitochondrial apoptosis via RIG-I/MAVS and IRF3. In the present study, we investigated the ability of the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to interfere with RIG-I/MAVS-dependent apoptosis. We found that LCMV does not induce apoptosis at any time during infection. While LCMV efficiently blocked induction of IFN-I via RIG-I/MAVS in response to superinfection with cytopathic RNA viruses, virus-induced mitochondrial apoptosis remained fully active in LCMV-infected cells. Notably, in LCMV-infected cells, RIG-I was dispensable for virus-induced apoptosis via MAVS. Our study reveals that LCMV infection efficiently suppresses induction of IFN-I but does not interfere with the cell's ability to undergo virus-induced mitochondrial apoptosis as a strategy of innate antiviral defense. The RIG-I independence of mitochondrial apoptosis in LCMV-infected cells provides the first evidence that arenaviruses can reshape apoptotic signaling according to their needs. IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses are important emerging human pathogens that are maintained in their rodent hosts by persistent infection. Persistent virus is able to subvert the cellular interferon response, a powerful branch of the innate antiviral defense. Here, we investigated the ability of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to

  3. The inhibition of endotoxin-induced local inflammation by LDH virus or LDH virus-infected tumors is mediated by interferon.

    PubMed

    Heremans, H; Billiau, A; Coutelier, J P; De Somer, P

    1987-05-01

    The footpad swelling reaction induced by local injection of S. marcescens lipopolysaccharide was found to be inhibited in mice given a transplantable tumor (TA3) or cell-free ascitic fluid from tumor-bearing mice. The tumor was shown to contain LDH virus, which is known to cause inapparent persistent infections in mice. Monoclonal antibodies directed against protein VP3 of the LDH virus could partially abrogate the anti-inflammatory effect of the TA3-ascitic fluid, and, conversely, the anti-inflammatory effect could be obtained by LDH virus isolated from the tumor and reproduced by serial passage of cell-free fluids. Inhibition of the footpad reaction was seen in the acute but not in the chronic phase of LDH virus infection, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect might be due to endogenous interferon (IFN) which, similarly, was only detectable in the acute phase. Newcastle disease virus, another potent interferon inducer, had a similar inhibitory effect on the footpad reactivity. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of LDH virus infection could partially be abrogated by administration of a polyclonal antibody directed against murine IFN-alpha,beta. Finally, passively administered natural murine IFN-alpha,beta or recombinant murine IFN-alpha 1 (but not recombinant murine IFN-beta) was found to cause inhibition of the footpad reaction. Since Gram-negative bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides have the ability to induce a systemic interferon response, our findings suggest that this interferon may play a modulatory role in local inflammation caused by these bacteria. Our findings also open a new perspective for interferon therapy of certain inflammatory reactions to bacterial infections.

  4. Prevention of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by Radioiodide-131I in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Okunyan, Armen; Rivina, Yelena; Cannon, Sophie; Hogen, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Radioiodine-131 released from nuclear reactor accidents has dramatically increased the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in exposed individuals. The deposition of ionizing radiation in cells results in double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) at fragile sites, and this early event can generate oncogenic rearrangements that eventually cause cancer. The aims of this study were to develop a method to show DNA DSBs induced by 131I in thyroid cells; to test monovalent anions that are transported by the sodium/iodide symporter to determine whether they prevent 131I-induced DSB; and to test other radioprotective agents for their effect on irradiated thyroid cells. Rat FRTL-5 thyroid cells were incubated with 131I. DSBs were measured by nuclear immunofluorescence using antibodies to p53-binding protein 1 or γH2AX. Incubation with 1–10 μCi 131I per milliliter for 90 min resulted in a dose-related increase of DSBs; the number of DSBs increased from a baseline of 4–15% before radiation to 65–90% after radiation. GH3 or CHO cells that do not transport iodide did not develop DSBs when incubated with 131I. Incubation with 20–100 μm iodide or thiocyanate markedly attenuated DSBs. Perchlorate was about 6 times more potent than iodide or thiocyanate. The effects of the anions were much greater when each was added 30–120 min before the 131I. Two natural organic compounds recently shown to provide radiation protection partially prevented DSBs caused by 131I and had an additive effect with perchlorate. In conclusion, we developed a thyroid cell model to quantify the mitogenic effect of 131I. 131I causes DNA DSBs in FRTL-5 cells and had no effect on cells that do not transport iodide. Perchlorate, iodide, and thiocyanate protect against DSBs induced by 131I. PMID:21190956

  5. Ultraviolet B radiation-mediated inhibition of interferon-gamma-induced keratinocyte activation is independent of interleukin-10 and other soluble mediators but associated with enhanced intracellular suppressors of cytokine-signaling expression.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Markus; Holzmann, Ruth; Sterry, Wolfram; Wolk, Kerstin; Truppel, Andreas; Piazena, Helmut; Schonbein, Christiane; Sabat, Robert; Asadullah, Khusru

    2003-10-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation represents a well-established treatment modality for inflammatory skin diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of ultraviolet B radiation-induced keratinocyte insensitivity towards interferon-gamma. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that ultraviolet B radiation temporarily inhibits the interferon-gamma-induced activation of primary keratinocyte and HaCaT cells as measured by reduced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) and HLA-DR upregulation. Western blot experiments have suggested that this is mediated by the ultraviolet B radiation-induced inhibition of signal transduction and transcription factor-1 phosphorylation. Neither interleukin-10 neutralization nor interleukin-10 addition had any effect on the ultraviolet B radiation-induced inhibition of interferon-gamma induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, the supernatant from ultraviolet B-irradiated cells failed to inhibit the interferon-gamma-induced CD54 and HLA-DR upregulation in nonradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, irradiated cells from whom the supernatant was withdrawn 4 h after irradiation still showed a diminished interferon-gamma-induced response after 24 h. Thus, not soluble but intracellular factors might be involved in the ultraviolet B radiation-induced inhibition of interferon-gamma-induced keratinocyte activation. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of members of suppressors of cytokine-signaling (SOCS) molecules using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found a fast and strong upregulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 but not of SOCS2 after ultraviolet B radiation. Similarly, ultraviolet B radiation induced the expression of these particular SOCS molecules in lesional psoriatic skin. As SOCS molecules are known inhibitors of signal transduction and transcription factor phosphorylation, which is essential for interferon-gamma-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and HLA-DR upregulation, this may explain the interferon

  6. Efficient influenza B virus propagation due to deficient interferon-induced antiviral activity in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Frensing, Timo; Seitz, Claudius; Heynisch, Bjoern; Patzina, Corinna; Kochs, Georg; Reichl, Udo

    2011-09-22

    Influenza B virus infections are mainly restricted to humans, which is partially caused by the inability of influenza B virus NS1 protein to counteract the innate immune response of other species. However, for cell culture-based influenza vaccine production non-human cells, such as Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, are commonly used. Therefore, the impact of cellular pathogen defence mechanisms on influenza B virus propagation in MDCK cells was analysed in this study. Activation of the cellular antiviral defence by interferon stimulation slowed down influenza B virus replication at early time points but after 48h the same virus titres were reached in stimulated and control cells. Furthermore, suppression of the antiviral host defence by transient expression of a viral antagonist, the rabies virus phosphoprotein, could not increase influenza B virus replication. Finally, canine Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins showed no antiviral activity in an influenza B virus-specific minireplicon assay in contrast to the murine Mx1 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that an insufficient antiviral defence in MDCK cells promotes efficient influenza B virus replication favouring the use of MDCK cells in influenza vaccine production.

  7. Interferon-β treatment in multiple sclerosis attenuates inflammatory gene expression through inducible activity of the phosphatase SHP-1

    PubMed Central

    Christophi, George P.; Panos, Michael; Hudson, Chad A.; Tsikkou, Chriso; Mihai, Cornelia; Mejico, Luis J.; Jubelt, Burk; Massa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-β is a current treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). Interferon-β is thought to exert its therapeutic effects on MS by down-modulating the immune response by multiple potential pathways. Here, we document that treatment of MS patients with interferon β-1a (Rebif) results in a significant increase in the levels and function of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in PBMCs. SHP-1 is a crucial negative regulator of cytokine signaling, inflammatory gene expression, and CNS demyelination as evidenced in mice deficient in SHP-1. In order to examine the functional significance of SHP-1 induction in MS PBMCs, we analyzed the activity of proinflammatory signaling molecules STAT1, STAT6, and NF-κB, which are known SHP-1 targets. Interferon-β treatment in vivo resulted in decreased NF-κB and STAT6 activation and increased STAT1 activation. Further analysis in vitro showed that cultured PBMCs of MS patients and normal subjects had a significant SHP-1 induction following interferon-β treatment that correlated with decreased NF-κB and STAT6 activation. Most importantly, experimental depletion of SHP-1 in cultured PBMCs abolished the anti-inflammatory effects of interferon-β treatment, indicating that SHP-1 is a predominant mediator of interferon-β activity. In conclusion, interferon-β treatment upregulates SHP-1 expression resulting in decreased transcription factor activation and inflammatory gene expression important in MS pathogenesis. PMID:19559654

  8. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J.; Fuchs, Serge Y.; McDermott, Adrian B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decreased. Indeed, IFNAR1 was phosphorylated and ubiquitinated by IAV infection, which resulted in IFNAR1 elimination. The transiently overexpressed IFNAR1 displayed antiviral activity by inhibiting virus replication. Importantly, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV was proved to trigger the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing the levels of IFNAR1. Further, influenza A viral HA1 subunit, but not HA2 subunit, downregulated IFNAR1. However, viral HA-mediated degradation of IFNAR1 was not caused by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. IAV HA robustly reduced cellular sensitivity to type I IFNs, suppressing the activation of STAT1/STAT2 and induction of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest that IAV HA causes IFNAR1 degradation, which in turn helps the virus escape the powerful innate immune system. Thus, the research elucidated an influenza viral mechanism for eluding the IFNAR signaling pathway, which could provide new insights into the interplay between influenza virus and host innate immunity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and remains a major health concern. When triggered by influenza viral infection, host cells produce type I interferon (IFN) to block viral replication. Although IAV was shown to have diverse strategies to evade this powerful, IFN-mediated antiviral response, it is not well-defined if IAV manipulates the IFN receptor-mediated signaling

  9. Novel Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Induces Impaired Interferon Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arilahti, Veera; Mäkelä, Sanna M.; Tynell, Janne; Julkunen, Ilkka; Österlund, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013 a new avian influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in China and infected humans with a case fatality rate of over 30%. Like the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, H7N9 virus is causing severe respiratory distress syndrome in most patients. Based on genetic analysis this avian influenza A virus shows to some extent adaptation to mammalian host. In the present study, we analyzed the activation of innate immune responses by this novel H7N9 influenza A virus and compared these responses to those induced by the avian H5N1 and seasonal H3N2 viruses in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We observed that in H7N9 virus-infected cells, interferon (IFN) responses were weak although the virus replicated as well as the H5N1 and H3N2 viruses in moDCs. H7N9 virus-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines remained at a significantly lower level as compared to H5N1 virus-induced “cytokine storm” seen in human moDCs. However, the H7N9 virus was extremely sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFN-α and IFN-β in pretreated cells. Our data indicates that different highly pathogenic avian viruses may show considerable differences in their ability to induce host antiviral responses in human primary cell models such as moDCs. The unexpected appearance of the novel H7N9 virus clearly emphasizes the importance of the global influenza surveillance system. It is, however, equally important to systematically characterize in normal human cells the replication capacity of the new viruses and their ability to induce and respond to natural antiviral substances such as IFNs. PMID:24804732

  10. Interferon regulatory factor-8 modulates the development of tumour-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Trina J; Greeneltch, Kristy M; Reid, Julia E; Liewehr, David J; Steinberg, Seth M; Liu, Kebin; Abrams, Scott I

    2009-09-01

    Tumour-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) promote immune suppression and mediate tumour progression. However, the molecular basis for the generation of MDSC, which in mice co-express the CD11b(+) and Gr-1(+) cell surface markers remains unclear. Because CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells expand during progressive tumour growth, this suggests that tumour-induced events alter signalling pathways that affect normal myeloid cell development. Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), a member of the IFN-gamma regulatory factor family, is essential for normal myelopoiesis. We therefore examined whether IRF-8 modulated tumour-induced CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cell development or accumulation using both implantable (4T1) and transgenic (MMTV-PyMT) mouse models of mammary tumour growth. In the 4T1 model, both splenic and bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells of tumour-bearing mice displayed a marked reduction in IRF-8 expression compared to control populations. A causal link between IRF-8 expression and the emergence of tumour-induced CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells was explored in vivo using a double transgenic (dTg) mouse model designed to express transgenes for both IRF-8 and mammary carcinoma development. Despite the fact that tumour growth was unaffected, splenomegaly, as well as the frequencies and absolute numbers of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells were significantly lower in dTg mice when compared with single transgenic tumour-bearing mice. Overall, these data reveal that IRF-8 plays an important role in tumour-induced development and/or accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells, and establishes a molecular basis for the potential manipulation of these myeloid populations for cancer therapy. PMID:20196788

  11. (+)-Nootkatone inhibits tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced production of chemokines in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Jae; Lee, Jin-Hwee; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2014-05-01

    Chemokines are important mediators of cell migration, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well-known typical inflammatory chemokines involved in atopic dermatitis (AD). (+)-Nootkatone is the major component of Cyperus rotundus. (+)-Nootkatone has antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (+)-nootkatone on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)/interferon γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of Th2 chemokines in HaCaT cells. We found that (+)-nootkatone inhibited the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 mRNA in HaCaT cells. It also significantly inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ). Furthermore, we showed that PKCζ and p38 MAPK contributed to the inhibition of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression by blocking IκBα degradation in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that (+)-nootkatone may suppress TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 MAPK signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-κB. We propose that (+)-nootkatone may be a useful therapeutic candidate for inflammatory skin diseases such as AD. PMID:24704449

  12. Interferon-induced, antiviral human MxA protein localizes to a distinct subcompartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Stertz, Silke; Reichelt, Mike; Krijnse-Locker, Jacomine; Mackenzie, Jason; Simpson, Jeremy C; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg

    2006-09-01

    Human MxA protein belongs to the superfamily of dynamin-like large GTPases that are involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. MxA is induced by interferons-alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) and is a key component of the antiviral response against RNA viruses. Here, we show that MxA localizes to membranes that are positive for specific markers of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, such as Syntaxin17, but is excluded from other membrane compartments. Overexpression of MxA leads to a characteristic reorganization of the associated membranes. Interestingly, Hook3, mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and Lamp-1, which normally accumulate in cis- Golgi, endosomes, and lysosomes, respectively, also colocalized with MxA, indicating that these markers were redistributed to the MxA-positive compartment. Functional assays, however, did not show any effect of MxA on endocytosis or the secretory pathway. The present results demonstrate that MxA is an IFN-induced antiviral effector protein that resembles the constitutively expressed large GTPase family members in its capacity to localize to and reorganize intracellular membranes.

  13. STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Promotes Radiation-Induced Type I Interferon-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Immunogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liufu; Liang, Hua; Xu, Meng; Yang, Xuanming; Burnette, Byron; Arina, Ainhoa; Li, Xiao-Dong; Mauceri, Helena; Beckett, Michael; Darga, Thomas; Huang, Xiaona; Gajewski, Thomas F; Chen, Zhijian J; Fu, Yang-Xin; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2014-11-20

    Ionizing radiation-mediated tumor regression depends on type I interferon (IFN) and the adaptive immune response, but several pathways control I IFN induction. Here, we demonstrate that adaptor protein STING, but not MyD88, is required for type I IFN-dependent antitumor effects of radiation. In dendritic cells (DCs), STING was required for IFN-? induction in response to irradiated-tumor cells. The cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) mediated sensing of irradiated-tumor cells in DCs. Moreover, STING was essential for radiation-induced adaptive immune responses, which relied on type I IFN signaling on DCs. Exogenous IFN-? treatment rescued the cross-priming by cGAS or STING-deficient DCs. Accordingly, activation of STING by a second messenger cGAMP administration enhanced antitumor immunity induced by radiation. Thus radiation-mediated antitumor immunity in immunogenic tumors requires a functional cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and suggests that cGAMP treatment might provide a new strategy to improve radiotherapy.

  14. Antitumor efficacy of combination of interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 gene with gemcitabine, a study in murine model

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Kai; Wang, Lian; Tian, Ling; Yu, Jingrui; Zhang, Zhixuan; Wei, Yuquan

    2008-01-01

    Background Interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis. It has been reported that the antiangiogenic therapy combined with chemotherapy has synergistic effects. Methods To elucidate the mechanisms of IP-10 gene combined with a chemotherapy agent, we intramuscularly injected pBLAST-IP-10 expression plasmid combined with gemcitabine into tumor-bearing mice. Results The proliferation of endothelial cells was effectively inhibited by IP-10 combined with gemcitabine in vitro. Treatment with pBLAST-IP-10 twice a week for 4 weeks combined with gemcitabine 10 mg/kg (once a week) resulted in sustained high level of IP-10 protein in serum, inhibition of tumor growth and prolongation of the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Compared with administration of IP-10 plasmid or gemcitabine alone, the angiogenesis in tumors were apparently inhibited, and the numbers of apoptotic cells and lymphocytes in tumor increased in the combination therapy group. Conclusion Our data indicate that the gene therapy of antiangiogenesis by intramuscular delivery of plasmid DNA encoding IP-10 combined with gemcitabine has synergistic effects on tomor by inhibiting the proliferation of endothelail cells, inducing the apoptosis of tumor cells, and recruiting lymphocytes to tumor in murine models. The present findings provided evidence of antitumor effects of genetherapy combined with chemotherapy. PMID:18983688

  15. p62 Plays a Specific Role in Interferon-γ-Induced Presentation of a Toxoplasma Vacuolar Antigen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngae; Sasai, Miwa; Ma, Ji Su; Sakaguchi, Naoya; Ohshima, Jun; Bando, Hironori; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-10-13

    Also known as Sqstm1, p62 is a selective autophagy adaptor with a ubiquitin-binding domain. However, the role of p62 in the host defense against Toxoplasma gondii infection is unclear. Here, we show that interferon γ (IFN-γ) stimulates ubiquitin and p62 recruitment to T. gondii parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs). Some essential autophagy-related proteins, but not all, are required for this recruitment. Regardless of normal IFN-γ-induced T. gondii clearance activity and ubiquitination, p62 deficiency in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and mice diminishes the robust IFN-γ-primed activation of CD8(+) T cells that recognize the T. gondii-derived antigen secreted into PVs. Because the expression of Atg3 and Irgm1/m3 in APCs is essential for PV disruption, ubiquitin and p62 recruitment, and vacuolar-antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell activation, IFN-γ-mediated ubiquitination and the subsequent recruitment of p62 to T. gondii are specifically required for the acquired immune response after PV disruption by IFN-γ-inducible GTPases.

  16. Reactive Oxygen Species Deficiency Induces Autoimmunity with Type 1 Interferon Signature

    PubMed Central

    Kelkka, Tiina; Kienhöfer, Deborah; Hoffmann, Markus; Linja, Marjo; Wing, Kajsa; Sareila, Outi; Hultqvist, Malin; Laajala, Essi; Chen, Zhi; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Neves, Esmeralda; Guedes, Margarida; Marques, Laura; Krönke, Gerhard; Helminen, Merja; Kainulainen, Leena; Olofsson, Peter; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Souto-Carneiro, M. Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the phagocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS)–producing NOX2 enzyme complex and characterized by recurrent infections associated with hyperinflammatory and autoimmune manifestations. A translational, comparative analysis of CGD patients and the corresponding ROS-deficient Ncf1m1J mutated mouse model was performed to reveal the molecular pathways operating in NOX2 complex deficient inflammation. Results: A prominent type I interferon (IFN) response signature that was accompanied by elevated autoantibody levels was identified in both mice and humans lacking functional NOX2 complex. To further underline the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related autoimmune process, we show that naïve Ncf1m1J mutated mice, similar to SLE patients, suffer from inflammatory kidney disease with IgG and C3 deposits in the glomeruli. Expression analysis of germ-free Ncf1m1J mutated mice reproduced the type I IFN signature, enabling us to conclude that the upregulated signaling pathway is of endogenous origin. Innovation: Our findings link the previously unexplained connection between ROS deficiency and increased susceptibility to autoimmunity by the discovery that activation of IFN signaling is a major pathway downstream of a deficient NOX2 complex in both mice and humans. Conclusion: We conclude that the lack of phagocyte-derived oxidative burst is associated with spontaneous autoimmunity and linked with type I IFN signature in both mice and humans. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2231–2245. PMID:24787605

  17. Incoming Influenza A Virus Evades Early Host Recognition, while Influenza B Virus Induces Interferon Expression Directly upon Entry

    PubMed Central

    Strengell, Mari; Sarin, L. Peter; Poranen, Minna M.; Fagerlund, Riku; Melén, Krister; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    The activation of the interferon (IFN) system, which is triggered largely by the recognition of viral nucleic acids, is one of the most important host defense reactions against viral infections. Although influenza A and B viruses, which both have segmented negative-strand RNA genomes, share major structural similarities, they have evolutionarily diverged, with total genetic incompatibility. Here we compare antiviral-inducing mechanisms during infections with type A and B influenza viruses in human dendritic cells. We observed that IFN responses are induced significantly faster in cells infected with influenza B virus than in cells infected with type A influenza virus and that the early induction of antiviral gene expression is mediated by the activation of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). We further demonstrate that influenza A virus infection activates IFN responses only after viral RNA (vRNA) synthesis, whereas influenza B virus induces IFN responses even if its infectivity is destroyed by UV treatment. Thus, initial viral transcription, replication, and viral protein synthesis are dispensable for influenza B virus-induced antiviral responses. Moreover, vRNA molecules from both type A and B viruses are equally potent activators of IFN induction, but incoming influenza B virus structures are recognized directly in the cytosol, while influenza A virus is able to evade early recognition. Collectively, our data provide new evidence of a novel antiviral evasion strategy for influenza A virus without a contribution of the viral NS1 protein, and this opens up new insights into different influenza virus pathogenicities. PMID:22855501

  18. Incoming influenza A virus evades early host recognition, while influenza B virus induces interferon expression directly upon entry.

    PubMed

    Österlund, Pamela; Strengell, Mari; Sarin, L Peter; Poranen, Minna M; Fagerlund, Riku; Melén, Krister; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2012-10-01

    The activation of the interferon (IFN) system, which is triggered largely by the recognition of viral nucleic acids, is one of the most important host defense reactions against viral infections. Although influenza A and B viruses, which both have segmented negative-strand RNA genomes, share major structural similarities, they have evolutionarily diverged, with total genetic incompatibility. Here we compare antiviral-inducing mechanisms during infections with type A and B influenza viruses in human dendritic cells. We observed that IFN responses are induced significantly faster in cells infected with influenza B virus than in cells infected with type A influenza virus and that the early induction of antiviral gene expression is mediated by the activation of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). We further demonstrate that influenza A virus infection activates IFN responses only after viral RNA (vRNA) synthesis, whereas influenza B virus induces IFN responses even if its infectivity is destroyed by UV treatment. Thus, initial viral transcription, replication, and viral protein synthesis are dispensable for influenza B virus-induced antiviral responses. Moreover, vRNA molecules from both type A and B viruses are equally potent activators of IFN induction, but incoming influenza B virus structures are recognized directly in the cytosol, while influenza A virus is able to evade early recognition. Collectively, our data provide new evidence of a novel antiviral evasion strategy for influenza A virus without a contribution of the viral NS1 protein, and this opens up new insights into different influenza virus pathogenicities.

  19. Endocrine-mediated mechanisms of fatigue during treatment with interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Jones, T H; Wadler, S; Hupart, K H

    1998-02-01

    Fatigue occurs in more than 70% of patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and is the most problematic toxicity associated with IFN-based immunotherapy. Abundant evidence suggests that immune-mediated endocrine disease occurs during IFN-alpha therapy, which may contribute to the etiology of fatigue. Autoimmune thyroid disease is a well-recognized consequence of IFN-alpha therapy and may be mediated by the induction of IFN-gamma production by lymphocytes. Administration of exogenous IFN-gamma has been associated with upregulation of class II major histocompatibility antigens in the thyroid and the development of thyroiditis. Interferon-alpha also stimulates the production of interleukin-6; both interleukin-6 and IFN-gamma have specific effects on thyrocyte function. There also is evidence suggesting that IFN-alpha initiates a cytokine cascade that effects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, thus affecting regulation of glucocorticoid and sex steroid hormone secretion, but the clinical significance of these observations has not been established. Although endocrine disease will not explain the occurrence of fatigue symptoms in all patients, there is clear evidence that hormonal deficiency syndromes occur in a relatively large portion of patients receiving systemic IFN-alpha therapy. Most importantly, the possibility of hypothyroidism must be considered; however, diagnosis of hypothyroidism in cancer patients is complicated by the occurrence of the "sick euthyroid syndrome." Clinical recommendations for assessment and treatment of IFN-alpha-induced fatigue are offered. Most importantly, measurements of thyroid-stimulating hormone and antithyroid autoantibodies should be used to evaluate thyroid status. Acknowledging the limitations of current clinical data, adrenal- and gonadal-axis dysfunction also must be considered in patients with IFN-alpha-induced fatigue.

  20. Thyroid hormone alleviates demyelination induced by cuprizone through its role in remyelination during the remission period

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mao; Zhan, Xiao L; Ma, Zi Y; Chen, Xing S; Cai, Qi Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease induced by demyelination in the central nervous system, and the remission period of MS is crucial for remyelination. In addition, abnormal levels of thyroid hormone (TH) have been identified in MS. However, in the clinic, insufficient attention has been paid to the role of TH in the remission period. Indeed, TH not only functions in the development of the brain but also affects myelination. Therefore, it is necessary to observe the effect of TH on remyelination during this period. A model of demyelination induced by cuprizone (CPZ) was used to observe the function of TH in remyelination during the remission period of MS. Through weighing and behavioral tests, we found that TH improved the physical symptoms of mice impaired by CPZ. Supplementation of TH led to the repair of myelin as detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. In addition, a sufficient TH supply resulted in an increase in myelinated axons without affecting myelin thickness and g ratio in the corpus callosum, as detected by electron microscopy. Double immunostaining with myelin basic protein and neurofilament 200 (NF200) showed that the CPZ-induced impairment of axons was alleviated by TH. Conversely, insufficient TH induced by 6-propyl-2-thiouracil resulted in the enlargement of mitochondria. Furthermore, we found that an adequate supply of TH promoted the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells by immunofluorescence, which was beneficial to remyelination. Further, we found that TH reduced the number of astrocytes without affecting microglia. Conclusively, it was shown that TH alleviated demyelination induced by CPZ by promoting the development of oligodendrocyte lineage cells and remyelination. The critical time for remyelination is the remission period of MS. TH plays a significant role in alleviating demyelination during the remission period in the clinical treatment of MS. PMID:25577802

  1. [Thyroid disease].

    PubMed

    Ashitaka, Y

    1990-08-01

    The incidence of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction has been reported to be around 0.1-0.4%. Graves' disease accounts for more than half of these disorders. The main cause of thyroid disease in pregnancy and puerperium is autoimmune dysfunction. Whether there may be goitre or exophthalmus present, clinical signs as inappropriate weight gain, high systolic pressure, palpitation (greater than or equal to 110/min), emotional lability, fatigue, acceleration of suppression of the Achilles' tendon reflex should induce changes in the biochemical thyroid function tests. Parameters for the diagnosis and management for hyperthyroidism are serum levels of free T4 and TSH, while those of T3, reverse T3, and TSH are for hypothyroidism. Serum anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies which have no effect on the fetus are also good markers for severity. The transplacental transfer of maternal TSH receptor antibodies consisting of stimulatory and inhibitory immunoglobulins and maternal thyroid-binding inhibiting immunoglobulins play roles in the development of transient neonatal hyper- or hypothyroidism. Fetal control is achieved by optimal maternal management. Untreated hyperthyroidism may be associated with fetal malformations. This risk may be reduced by antithyroid drug treatment of up to 150 mg/day of propylthiouracil which has less chance of placental passage and less secretion into the mother's milk than methyl-mercapto-imidazol. Maternal thyroid function should be kept in the upper limit of normal range, taking into consideration the fetal dysfunction induced by over-administration of the drug which passes through placenta. Children of hypothyroid women taking inadequate replacement therapy manifested lower IQ values compared to the progeny of euthyroid or hypothyroid women taking adequate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. (+)-Nootkatone inhibits tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced production of chemokines in HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyeon-Jae; Lee, Jin-Hwee; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • (+)-Nootkatone inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC expression in HaCaT cells. • PKCζ, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB mediate TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC expression. • (+)-Nootkatone inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of PKCζ, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB. • (+)-Nootkatone suppresses chemokine expression by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 pathways. - Abstract: Chemokines are important mediators of cell migration, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well-known typical inflammatory chemokines involved in atopic dermatitis (AD). (+)-Nootkatone is the major component of Cyperus rotundus. (+)-Nootkatone has antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (+)-nootkatone on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)/interferon γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of Th2 chemokines in HaCaT cells. We found that (+)-nootkatone inhibited the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 mRNA in HaCaT cells. It also significantly inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ). Furthermore, we showed that PKCζ and p38 MAPK contributed to the inhibition of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression by blocking IκBα degradation in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that (+)-nootkatone may suppress TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 MAPK signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-κB. We propose that (+)-nootkatone may be a useful therapeutic candidate for inflammatory skin diseases such as AD.

  3. Intracellular Signal Transduction and Modification of the Tumor Microenvironment Induced by RET/PTCs in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Menicali, Elisa; Moretti, Sonia; Voce, Pasquale; Romagnoli, Serena; Avenia, Nicola; Puxeddu, Efisio

    2012-01-01

    RET gene rearrangements (RET/PTCs) represent together with BRAF point mutations the two major groups of mutations involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) initiation and progression. In this review, we will examine the mechanisms involved in RET/PTC-induced thyroid cell transformation. In detail, we will summarize the data on the molecular mechanisms involved in RET/PTC formation and in its function as a dominant oncogene, on the activated signal transduction pathways and on the induced gene expression modifications. Moreover, we will report on the effects of RET/PTCs on the tumor microenvironment. Finally, a short review of the literature on RET/PTC prognostic significance will be presented. PMID:22661970

  4. A model of transcriptional and morphological changes during thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosis of the axolotl

    PubMed Central

    Page, Robert B.; Monaghan, James R.; Walker, John A.; Voss, S. Randal

    2009-01-01

    Anuran (frog) metamorphosis has long-served as a model of how thyroid hormones regulate post-embryonic development in vertebrates. However, comparatively little is known about urodele (salamander) metamorphosis. We conducted a detailed time-course study of induced metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that probed metamorphic changes in morphology and gene expression in the skin. Using morphometrics, quantitative PCR, histology, and in situ hybridization we demonstrate that the development of transcriptional markers is fundamental to the resolution of early metamorphic events in axolotls. We then use linear and piecewise linear models to identify a sequence of morphological and transcriptional changes that define larval to adult remodeling events throughout metamorphosis. In addition, we show that transcriptional biomarkers are expressed in specific larval and adult cell populations of the skin and that temporal changes in these biomarkers correlate with tissue remodeling. We compare our results with other studies of natural and induced metamorphosis in urodeles and highlight what appear to be conserved features between urodele and anuran metamorphosis. PMID:19275901

  5. A model of transcriptional and morphological changes during thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosis of the axolotl.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert B; Monaghan, James R; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2009-06-01

    Anuran (frog) metamorphosis has long-served as a model of how thyroid hormones regulate post-embryonic development in vertebrates. However, comparatively little is known about urodele (salamander) metamorphosis. We conducted a detailed time-course study of induced metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that probed metamorphic changes in morphology and gene expression in the skin. Using morphometrics, quantitative PCR, histology, and in situ hybridization we demonstrate that the development of transcriptional markers is fundamental to the resolution of early metamorphic events in axolotls. We then use linear and piecewise linear models to identify a sequence of morphological and transcriptional changes that define larval to adult remodeling events throughout metamorphosis. In addition, we show that transcriptional biomarkers are expressed in specific larval and adult cell populations of the skin and that temporal changes in these biomarkers correlate with tissue remodeling. We compare our results with other studies of natural and induced metamorphosis in urodeles and highlight what appear to be conserved features between urodele and anuran metamorphosis.

  6. Thyroid hormones promote differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and improve remyelination after cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    PubMed

    Franco, P G; Silvestroff, L; Soto, E F; Pasquini, J M

    2008-08-01

    In the present work we analyzed the capacity of thyroid hormones (THs) to improve remyelination using a rat model of cuprizone-induced demyelination previously described in our laboratories. Twenty one days old Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% cuprizone for two weeks to induce demyelination. After cuprizone withdrawal, rats were injected with triiodothyronine (T3). Histological studies carried out in these animals revealed that remyelination in the corpus callosum (CC) of T3-treated rats improved markedly when compared to saline treated animals. The cellular events occurring in the CC and in the subventricular zone (SVZ) during the first week of remyelination were analyzed using specific oligodendroglial cell (OLGc) markers. In the CC of saline treated demyelinated animals, mature OLGcs decreased and oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) increased after one week of spontaneous remyelination. Furthermore, the SVZ of these animals showed an increase in early progenitor cell numbers, dispersion of OPCs and inhibition of Olig and Shh expression compared to non-demyelinated animals. The changes triggered by demyelination were reverted after T3 administration, suggesting that THs could be regulating the emergence of remyelinating oligodendrocytes from the pool of proliferating cells residing in the SVZ. Our results also suggest that THs receptor beta mediates T3 effects on remyelination. These results support a potential role for THs in the remyelination process that could be used to develop new therapeutic approaches for demyelinating diseases.

  7. Influence of thyroid states on the local effects induced by Bothrops envenoming.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Raquel Moreira; Caldas, Adriele Souza; Rodriguez, Tania Tavares; Casais-e-Silva, Luciana Lyra

    2015-08-01

    Bothrops leucurus venom causes significant local effects, such as necrosis, pain, hemorrhage and edema. These effects are important because of their high frequency and severity. The treatment of these local effects is not simple because of their quick triggering and a variety of components that induce these effects. Myonecrosis, dermonecrosis and edema are primarily caused by the action of hemorrhagins and myotoxins. A number of investigators have demonstrated the influence of thyroid hormones on inflammatory processes, particularly on wound healing. We investigated the edematogenic, hemorrhagic and necrotic activity of the B. leucurus venom in the hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and euthyroid of rats. The CK (creatine kinase) plasma level decreased in the animals in a hypothyroid state. The hypothyroid condition also significantly reduced the hemorrhagic and dermonecrotic area compared to the euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism states. It also mitigated the rat paw edema compared to that found in the euthyroid and hyperthyroid animals. The hyperthyroid animals showed no significant differences in the three treatments compared to the euthyroid animals. Our results suggest that the triggering of local effects induced by envenomation by B. leucurus is attenuated in hypothyroid animals, possibly by the effect of hypothyroidism on the immune system and blood flow. PMID:26003795

  8. FoxO1 Deacetylation Regulates Thyroid Hormone-induced Transcription of Key Hepatic Gluconeogenic Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Zhou, Jin; Xie, Sherwin Ying; You, Seo-Hee; Gauthier, Karine; Yen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a concerted process that integrates transcriptional regulation with hormonal signals. A major regulator is thyroid hormone (TH), which acts through its nuclear receptor (TR) to induce the expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC). Forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 also is an important regulator of these genes; however, its functional interactions with TR are not known. Here, we report that TR-mediated transcriptional activation of PCK1 and G6PC in human hepatic cells and mouse liver was FoxO1-dependent and furthermore required FoxO1 deacetylation by the NAD+-dependent deacetylase, SirT1. siRNA knockdown of FoxO1 decreased, whereas overexpression of FoxO1 increased, TH-dependent transcriptional activation of PCK1 and G6PC in cultured hepatic cells. FoxO1 siRNA knockdown also decreased TH-mediated transcription in vivo. Additionally, TH was unable to induce FoxO1 deacetylation or hepatic PCK1 gene expression in TH receptor β-null (TRβ−/−) mice. Moreover, TH stimulated FoxO1 recruitment to the PCK1 and G6PC gene promoters in a SirT1-dependent manner. In summary, our results show that TH-dependent deacetylation of a second metabolically regulated transcription factor represents a novel mechanism for transcriptional integration of nuclear hormone action with cellular energy status. PMID:23995837

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress protects human thyroid carcinoma cell lines against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Yu; Fan, Rui-Tai; Yan, Xin-Hui; Cui, Jing; Xu, Jun-Ling; Gu, Hao; Gao, Yong-Ju

    2015-03-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most effective forms of cancer treatment, used in the treatment of a number of malignant tumors. However, the resistance of tumor cells to ionizing radiation remains a major therapeutic problem and the critical mechanisms determining radiation resistance are poorly defined. In the present study, a cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress microenvironment was established through the pretreatment of cultured thyroid cancer cells with tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG), in order to mimic the ER stress response in a tumor microenvironment. This microenviroment was confirmed through the X‑box binding protein 1 splice process, glucose‑regulated protein 78 kD and ER degradation‑enhancing α‑mannosidase‑like mRNA expression. A clonogenic assay was used to measure cancer cell resistance to 60Co‑γ following TM pretreatment; in addition, human C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA expression was determined and apoptosis assays were performed. The results showed that TM or TG pretreatment inhibited CHOP expression and reduced the apoptotic rate of cells. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the induced ER stress response rendered cancer cells more resistant to ionizing radiation‑induced apoptosis. Therefore, the ER stress pathway may be a potential therapeutic target in order to improve the clinical efficiency of radiotherapy.

  10. Early activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase is associated with interferon-alpha-induced depression and fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Alagbe, Oyetunde; Pace, Thaddeus W. W.; Woolwine, Bobbi J.; Hu, Fang; Raison, Charles L.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Cytokine-induced stimulation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been shown to influence behaviorally-relevant pathophysiologic pathways including monoamine neurotransmission and neuroendocrine function and thus may contribute to behavioral changes that occur during chronic administration of the innate immune cytokine, interferon (IFN)-alpha. Accordingly, in the current study, phosphorylation (activation) of intracellular p38 MAPK in peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry every 2 hours for 12 hours following the initial injection of IFN-alpha in eleven patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hourly assessments of plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and interleukin-6 were also obtained. Symptoms of depression and fatigue were measured at baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks of IFN-alpha treatment. Acute administration of IFN-alpha significantly increased the percentage of lymphocytes staining positive for intracellular phosphorylated p38 (p-p38). IFN-alpha-induced increases in p-p38 were significantly greater in patients that developed clinically significant depressive symptoms [Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score ≥15] during the first 12 weeks of IFN-alpha treatment. Increases in the percentage of p-p38-positive lymphocytes following the first IFN-alpha injection also highly correlated with depression severity at weeks 4 (r=0.85, p=0.001) and 12 (r=0.70, p=0.018). Similar relationships were observed for fatigue. Examination of relationships between p-p38 induction and factors previously reported to predict IFN-alpha-induced depressive symptoms revealed strong associations of p-p38 with baseline MADRS (r=0.82, p=0.002) and cortisol responses to the initial injection of IFN-alpha (r=0.91, p=0.000). Taken together, these findings indicate that sensitivity of p38 MAPK signaling pathways to immune stimulation is associated with depressive symptoms during chronic IFN-alpha treatment. PMID

  11. The effect of interferon gamma on conventional fractionated radiation-induced damage and fibrosis in the pelvic tissue of rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunyi; Liu, Zi; Wang, Juan; Chai, Yanlan; Su, Jin; Shi, Fan; Wang, Jiquan; Che, Shao Min

    2016-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effect of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) on conventional fractionated radiation–induced damage and fibrosis in ureter and colorectal mucosa. Fifty-two rabbits were randomly divided into three groups comprising a conventional radiation group, an IFN-γ group, and a control group. X-rays were used to irradiate the pelvic tissues of the rabbits in the IFN-γ and conventional radiation groups. Five days after radiation exposure, the rabbits in the IFN-γ group were administered 250,000 U/kg IFN-γ intramuscularly once a week for 5 weeks. The rabbits in the conventional radiation group received 5.0 mL/kg saline. The rabbits were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks postradiation, and the rectal and ureteral tissues within the radiation areas were collected. The results showed that the morphology of rectal and ureteral tissues was changed by X-ray radiation. The degree of damage at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, but not at 16 weeks, postradiation was significantly different between the IFN-γ and conventional radiation groups. The expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA in the ureter and colorectal mucosa of the IFN-γ group was significantly lower than that in the conventional radiation group at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks postradiation, but it was still higher than that in the control group. There were significant differences in the expression of collagen III among the three groups. IFN-γ can inhibit the radiation-induced upregulation of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA and collagen III protein in the ureter and colorectal mucosa and attenuate radiation-induced damage and fibrosis. PMID:27274263

  12. No Love Lost Between Viruses and Interferons.

    PubMed

    Fensterl, Volker; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-11-01

    The interferon system protects mammals against virus infections. There are several types of interferons, which are characterized by their ability to inhibit virus replication and resultant pathogenesis by triggering both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. Virus infection is sensed by a variety of cellular pattern-recognition receptors and triggers the synthesis of interferons, which are secreted by the infected cells. In uninfected cells, cell surface receptors recognize the secreted interferons and activate intracellular signaling pathways that induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes; the proteins encoded by these genes inhibit different stages of virus replication. To avoid extinction, almost all viruses have evolved mechanisms to defend themselves against the interferon system. Consequently, a dynamic equilibrium of survival is established between the virus and its host, an equilibrium that can be shifted to the host's favor by the use of exogenous interferon as a therapeutic antiviral agent. PMID:26958928

  13. Increased Levels of Interferon-Inducible Protein 10 (IP-10) in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aresvik, D M; Lima, K; Øverland, T; Mollnes, T E; Abrahamsen, T G

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a genetic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:4000 births. These patients may suffer from affection of many organ systems with cardiac malformations, thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, hypoparathyroidism, palate anomalies and psychiatric disorders being the most frequent. The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increased in older patients. The aim of the present study was to examine a cytokine profile in patients with 22q11.2 DS by measuring a broad spectrum of serum cytokines. Patients with a proven deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 (n = 55) and healthy individuals (n = 54) recruited from an age- and sex-comparable group were included in the study. Serum levels of 27 cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors, were analysed using multiplex technology. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was also measured by ELISA to confirm the multiplex results. The 22q11.2 DS patients had distinctly and significantly raised levels of pro-inflammatory and angiostatic chemokine IP-10 (P < 0.001) compared to controls. The patients with congenital heart defects (n = 31) had significantly (P = 0.018) raised serum levels of IP-10 compared to patients born without heart defects (n = 24). The other cytokines investigated were either not detectable or did not differ between patients and controls.

  14. Monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG/CXCL9) is an independent prognostic factor in newly diagnosed myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bolomsky, Arnold; Schreder, Martin; Hübl, Wolfgang; Zojer, Niklas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Immune suppression is a hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM), but data on soluble factors involved in the fate of immune effector cells are limited. The CXCR3-binding chemokine monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG/CXCL9) has been associated with tumor progression, immune escape, and angiogenesis in several malignancies. We here aimed to evaluate the prognostic relevance of MIG in MM. MIG serum levels were significantly elevated in newly diagnosed MM patients (n = 105) compared to patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 37). MIG expression in stromal compartments but not purified MM cells correlated with serum levels. High MIG serum levels were significantly associated with established prognostic markers (international staging system: R = 0.25, p = 0.001; age: R = 0.47, p < 0.0001; lactate-dehydrogenase: R = 0.34, p = 0.0005) and poor overall survival (OS) (median OS 17.0 months vs. not reached, p < 0.001). A similar association was found for CXCL10 and CXCL11. Multivariate regression analysis indicated MIG as an independent prognostic factor of OS. PMID:26999330

  15. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is associated with viremia of early HIV-1 infection in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYong; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Shin, YoungHyun; Kim, SeungHyun; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-05-01

    Cytokines/chemokines play key roles in modulating disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although it is known that early HIV-1 infection is associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, the relationship between cytokine levels and HIV-1 pathogenesis is not clear. The concentrations of 18 cytokines/chemokines in 30 HIV-1 negative and 208 HIV-1 positive plasma samples from Korean patients were measured by the Luminex system. Early HIV-1 infection was classified according to the Fiebig stage (FS) based on the characteristics of the patients infected with HIV-1. Concentrations of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were increased significantly during the early stage of HIV-1 infection (FS II-IV) compared with the HIV-1-negative group. Of these cytokines, an elevated level of IP-10 was the only factor to be correlated positively with a higher viral load during the early stages of HIV-1 infection (FS II-IV) in Koreans (R = 0.52, P < 0.0005). Therefore, these results suggest that IP-10 may be an indicator for HIV-1 viremia and associated closely with viral replication in patients with early HIV-1 infection.

  16. The antiviral potential of interferon-induced cotton rat Mx proteins against orthomyxovirus (influenza), rhabdovirus, and bunyavirus.

    PubMed

    Stertz, Silke; Dittmann, Jan; Blanco, Jorge C G; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg

    2007-10-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) is an important human pathogen able to cause devastating pandemics. Recently, cotton rats have been proposed as an animal model to study the innate immune response against FLUAV and other human pathogens. The interferon (IFN)-induced Mx GTPases are part of the cell-autonomous innate immune response against viruses. We, therefore, tested the antiviral activity of the two cotton rat Mx proteins that were recently identified. The nuclear cotton rat Mx1 protein was found to be a strong inhibitor of FLUAV, whereas the cytoplasmic cotton rat Mx2 protein was inactive. Cotton rat Mx2, but not cotton rat Mx1, was able to inhibit the rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) known to replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Thus, cotton rats possess two Mx proteins that have selective antiviral activity that depends on their intracellular localization. We conclude that the Mx status of cotton rats differs from that of conventional inbred mouse strains, which are known to have defective Mx genes. Therefore, cotton rats are a suitable animal model to study experimental infections with FLUAV and other RNA viruses.

  17. The cytosolic sensor cGAS detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA to induce type I interferons and activate autophagy

    PubMed Central

    MacDuff, Donna A.; Kimmey, Jacqueline M.; Diner, Elie J.; Olivas, Joanna; Vance, Russell E.; Stallings, Christina L.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Type I interferons (IFNs) are critical mediators of antiviral defense, but their elicitation by bacterial pathogens can be detrimental to hosts. Many intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, induce type I IFNs following phagosomal membrane perturbations. Cytosolic M. tuberculosis DNA has been implicated as a trigger for IFN production, but the mechanisms remain obscure. We report that the cytosolic DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), is required for activating IFN production via the STING/TBK1/IRF3 pathway during M. tuberculosis and L. pneumophila infection of macrophages, whereas L. monocytogenes short-circuits this pathway by producing the STING agonist, c-di-AMP. Upon sensing cytosolicDNA, cGAS also activates cell-intrinsic antibacterial defenses, promoting autophagic targeting of M. tuberculosis. Importantly, we show that cGAS binds M. tuberculosis DNA during infection, providing direct evidence that this unique host-pathogen interaction occurs in vivo. These data uncover a mechanism by which IFN is likely elicited during active human infections. PMID:26048136

  18. Folate-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles Coated Interferon-Inducible Protein-10 Gene Enhance Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes' Responses to Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Duan, Siliang; Song, Mongkhoune; He, Jian; Zhou, Nuo; Zhou, Sufang; Zhao, Jing; Fang, Yuan; Yi, Peng; Huang, Xianing; Luo, Guorong; Lai, Chunhui; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Zhiyong; Xie, Yuan; Zhao, Yongxiang; Lu, Xiaoling

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive therapy using tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a promising approach for treatment of human cancers. Due to immune suppression in cancer patients, it is difficult for tumor antigen-specific CTLs to arrive at tumor tissues. Interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) is a powerful chemokine that effectively attracts CTLs to tumor tissues and improves their anti-tumor activity. Increase over expression of IP-10 in tumor tissues can efficiently promote efficacy of adoptive therapy. Folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles coating the human IP-10 gene (FA-CS-hIP-10) were therefore developed in this study. The FA-CS-hIP-10 nanoparticles were specifically bound to folate receptors on hepatoma cells and promoted the expression of IP-10, to improve the activity of pMAGE-A1(278-286) specific CTLs. Combination of the FA-CS-hIP-10 and pMAGE-A1(278-286) specific CD8+ CTLs efficiently increased secretion of IFN-γ, inhibited tumor growth and extended survival of nude mice with subcutaneously transplanted human hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results demonstrated that the mechanism behind this novel therapeutic approach involved inhibition of angiogenesis and proliferation, and also promoted apoptosis of tumor cells. Our study provides a potentially novel approach for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma by improving the activity of tumor antigen-specific CTLs. PMID:27301196

  19. The cytokines interleukin 27 and interferon-γ promote distinct Treg cell populations required to limit infection-induced pathology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Aisling O'Hara; Beiting, Daniel P; Tato, Cristina; John, Beena; Oldenhove, Guillaume; Lombana, Claudia Gonzalez; Pritchard, Gretchen Harms; Silver, Jonathan S; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Stumhofer, Jason S; Harris, Tajie H; Grainger, John; Wojno, Elia D Tait; Wagage, Sagie; Roos, David S; Scott, Philip; Turka, Laurence A; Cherry, Sara; Reiner, Steven L; Cua, Daniel; Belkaid, Yasmine; Elloso, M Merle; Hunter, Christopher A

    2012-09-21

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) promotes a population of T-bet(+) CXCR3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells that limit T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated pathology. Our studies demonstrate that interleukin-27 (IL-27) also promoted expression of T-bet and CXCR3 in Treg cells. During infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a similar population emerged that limited T cell responses and was dependent on IFN-γ in the periphery but on IL-27 at mucosal sites. Transfer of Treg cells ameliorated the infection-induced pathology observed in Il27(-/-) mice, and this was dependent on their ability to produce IL-10. Microarray analysis revealed that Treg cells exposed to either IFN-γ or IL-27 have distinct transcriptional profiles. Thus, IFN-γ and IL-27 have different roles in Treg cell biology and IL-27 is a key cytokine that promotes the development of Treg cells specialized to control Th1 cell-mediated immunity at local sites of inflammation.

  20. Subcellular localization and mechanisms of nucleocytoplasmic distribution of p202, an interferon-inducible candidate for lupus susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Choubey, Divaker; Pramanik, Rocky; Xin, Hong

    2003-10-23

    Increased expression of p202 (52 kDa), an interferon (IFN)-inducible murine protein, in splenic cells (B- and T-cells) derived from female mice of the lupus-prone strains is correlated with increased susceptibility to develop systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous studies have indicated that, in IFN-treated fibroblasts, p202 is detected both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Moreover, in the cytoplasm, a fraction of p202 associates with a membranous organelle. Here we report that, in the cytoplasm, a fraction of p202 associated with mitochondria. Additionally, we found that the constitutive p202 is primarily detected in the cytoplasm. Remarkably, the IFN treatment of cells potentiated nuclear accumulation of p202. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that IFN signaling regulates p202 levels as well as its nucleocytoplasmic distribution. These observations will serve as a basis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which p202 contributes to lupus susceptibility.

  1. Suppression of thyroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription and disruption of thyroid hormone-induced cerebellar morphogenesis by the polybrominated biphenyl mixture, BP-6.

    PubMed

    Ibhazehiebo, Kingsley; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Okano-Uchida, Takayuki; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2011-08-01

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are polyhalogenated, bioaccumulative flame retardant chemicals, which have been used in a variety of consumer and household products. They were accidentally introduced into the food chain in Michigan in 1973 and have remained a source of health concern. Studies have shown that exposure to PBB may cause adverse neurotoxic effects. We therefore examined the effects of BP-6, a PBB mixture, on thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR)-mediated transcription, on TH-induced Purkinje cell dendritogenesis, and on TH-induced cerebellar granule cell neurite extension. Our study shows that BP-6 suppressed TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells. Mammalian two-hybrid studies revealed that BP-6 did not inhibit coactivator binding to TR nor did it recruit corepressors to TR. Further examination using the liquid chemiluminescent DNA pull down assay revealed partial dissociation of TR from TH response element (TRE). In primary rat cerebellar culture, BP-6 significantly suppressed TH-induced dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells, and in reaggregate rat granule cell culture, impaired TH-induced neurite extension of granule cells. Taken together, our results indicate that BP-6 may disrupt TH homeostasis and consequently impair normal neuronal development. PMID:21396401

  2. Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kroetz, Danielle N.; Allen, Ronald M.; Schaller, Matthew A.; Cavallaro, Cleyton; Ito, Toshihiro; Kunkel, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is an airborne pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the first immune population to encounter IAV virions in the lungs and are required to control infection. In the present study, we explored the mechanism by which cytokine signaling regulates the phenotype and function of Mϕ via epigenetic modification of chromatin. We have found that type I interferon (IFN-I) potently upregulates the lysine methyltransferase Setdb2 in murine and human Mϕ, and in turn Setdb2 regulates Mϕ-mediated immunity in response to IAV. The induction of Setdb2 by IFN-I was significantly impaired upon inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that both STAT1 and interferon regulatory factor 7 bind upstream of the transcription start site to induce expression. The generation of Setdb2LacZ reporter mice revealed that IAV infection results in systemic upregulation of Setdb2 in myeloid cells. In the lungs, alveolar Mϕ expressed the highest level of Setdb2, with greater than 70% lacZ positive on day 4 post-infection. Silencing Setdb2 activity in Mϕ in vivo enhanced survival in lethal IAV infection. Enhanced host protection correlated with an amplified antiviral response and less obstruction to the airways. By tri-methylating H3K9, Setdb2 silenced the transcription of Mx1 and Isg15, antiviral effectors that inhibit IAV replication. Accordingly, a reduced viral load in knockout mice on day 8 post-infection was linked to elevated Isg15 and Mx1 transcript in the lungs. In addition, Setdb2 suppressed the expression of a large number of other genes with proinflammatory or immunomodulatory function. This included Ccl2, a chemokine that signals through CCR2 to regulate monocyte recruitment to infectious sites. Consistently, knockout mice produced more CCL2 upon IAV infection and this correlated with a 2-fold increase in the number of inflammatory monocytes and alveolar Mϕ in the

  3. Histone H2B-IFI16 Recognition of Nuclear Herpesviral Genome Induces Cytoplasmic Interferon-β Responses

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Jawed; Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Kumar, Binod; Dutta, Dipanjan; Roy, Arunava; Chikoti, Leela; Pisano, Gina; Dutta, Sujoy; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Chandran, Bala

    2016-01-01

    IFI16 (gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16), a predominantly nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation, also functions as an innate immune response DNA sensor and induces the IL-1β and antiviral type-1 interferon-β (IFN-β) cytokines. We have shown that IFI16, in association with BRCA1, functions as a sequence independent nuclear sensor of episomal dsDNA genomes of KSHV, EBV and HSV-1. Recognition of these herpesvirus genomes resulted in IFI16 acetylation, BRCA1-IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic translocation, and IL-1β generation. Acetylated IFI16 also interacted with cytoplasmic STING and induced IFN-β. However, the identity of IFI16 associated nuclear proteins involved in STING activation and the mechanism is not known. Mass spectrometry of proteins precipitated by anti-IFI16 antibodies from uninfected endothelial cell nuclear lysate revealed that histone H2B interacts with IFI16. Single and double proximity ligation microscopy, immunoprecipitation, EdU-genome labeled virus infection, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that H2B is associated with IFI16 and BRCA1 in the nucleus in physiological conditions. De novo KSHV and HSV-1 infection as well as latent KSHV and EBV infection induces the cytoplasmic distribution of H2B-IFI16, H2B-BRCA1 and IFI16-ASC complexes. Vaccinia virus (dsDNA) cytoplasmic replication didn’t induce the redistribution of nuclear H2B-IFI16 or H2B into the cytoplasm. H2B is critical in KSHV and HSV-1 genome recognition by IFI16 during de novo infection. Viral genome sensing by IFI16-H2B-BRCA1 leads to BRCA1 dependent recruitment of p300, and acetylation of H2B and IFI16. BRCA1 knockdown or inhibition of p300 abrogated the acetylation of H2B-IFI16 or H2B. Ran-GTP protein mediated the translocation of acetylated H2B and IFI16 to the cytoplasm along with BRCA1 that is independent of IFI16-ASC inflammasome. ASC knockdown didn’t affect the acetylation of H2B, its cytoplasmic

  4. Pluripotency markers are differentially induced by MEK inhibition in thyroid and melanoma BRAFV600E cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dorris, Emma R; Blackshields, Gordon; Sommerville, Gary; Alhashemi, Mohsen; Dias, Andrew; McEneaney, Victoria; Smyth, Paul; O'Leary, John J; Sheils, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic mutations in BRAF are common in melanoma and thyroid carcinoma and drive constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Molecularly targeted therapies of this pathway improves survival compared to chemotherapy; however, responses tend to be short-lived as resistance invariably occursCell line models of melanoma and thyroid carcinoma, +/- BRAF(V600E) activating mutation, were treated with the MEK inhibitor PD0325901. Treated and naive samples were assayed for expression of key members of the MAPK pathway. Global microRNA expression profiling of naive and resistant cells was performed via next generation sequencingand indicated pluripotency pathways in resistance. Parental cell lines were progressed to holoclones to confirm the miRNA stemness profileMembers of the MIR302/373/374/520 family of embryonic stem cell specific cell cycle regulating (ESCC) microRNAs were identified as differentially expressed between resistant BRAF(V600E) melanoma and thyroid cell lines. Upregulated expression of gene and protein stemness markers, upregulated expression of MAPK pathway genes and downregulation of the ESCC MIR302 cluster in BRAF(V600E) melanoma indicated an increased stem-like phenotype in resistant BRAF(V600E) melanoma. Conversely, downregulated expression of gene and protein stemness markers, downregulated expression of MAPK pathway genes, upregulation of the ESCC MIR520 cluster, reeexpression of cell surface receptors, and induced differentiation-associated morphology in resistant BRAF(V600E) indicate a differentiated phenotype associated with MEK inhibitor resistance in BRAF(V600E) thyroid cellsThe differential patterns of resistance observed between BRAF(V600E) melanoma and thyroid cell lines may reflect tissue type or de novo differentiation, but could have significant impact on the response of primary and metastatic cells to MEK inhibitor treatment. This study provides a basis for the investigation of the cellular differentiation/self-renewal access and its

  5. Pluripotency markers are differentially induced by MEK inhibition in thyroid and melanoma BRAFV600E cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dorris, Emma R; Blackshields, Gordon; Sommerville, Gary; Alhashemi, Mohsen; Dias, Andrew; McEneaney, Victoria; Smyth, Paul; O'Leary, John J; Sheils, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic mutations in BRAF are common in melanoma and thyroid carcinoma and drive constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Molecularly targeted therapies of this pathway improves survival compared to chemotherapy; however, responses tend to be short-lived as resistance invariably occursCell line models of melanoma and thyroid carcinoma, +/- BRAF(V600E) activating mutation, were treated with the MEK inhibitor PD0325901. Treated and naive samples were assayed for expression of key members of the MAPK pathway. Global microRNA expression profiling of naive and resistant cells was performed via next generation sequencingand indicated pluripotency pathways in resistance. Parental cell lines were progressed to holoclones to confirm the miRNA stemness profileMembers of the MIR302/373/374/520 family of embryonic stem cell specific cell cycle regulating (ESCC) microRNAs were identified as differentially expressed between resistant BRAF(V600E) melanoma and thyroid cell lines. Upregulated expression of gene and protein stemness markers, upregulated expression of MAPK pathway genes and downregulation of the ESCC MIR302 cluster in BRAF(V600E) melanoma indicated an increased stem-like phenotype in resistant BRAF(V600E) melanoma. Conversely, downregulated expression of gene and protein stemness markers, downregulated expression of MAPK pathway genes, upregulation of the ESCC MIR520 cluster, reeexpression of cell surface receptors, and induced differentiation-associated morphology in resistant BRAF(V600E) indicate a differentiated phenotype associated with MEK inhibitor resistance in BRAF(V600E) thyroid cellsThe differential patterns of resistance observed between BRAF(V600E) melanoma and thyroid cell lines may reflect tissue type or de novo differentiation, but could have significant impact on the response of primary and metastatic cells to MEK inhibitor treatment. This study provides a basis for the investigation of the cellular differentiation/self-renewal access and its

  6. Pluripotency markers are differentially induced by MEK inhibition in thyroid and melanoma BRAFV600E cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Dorris, Emma R.; Blackshields, Gordon; Sommerville, Gary; Alhashemi, Mohsen; Dias, Andrew; McEneaney, Victoria; Smyth, Paul; O'Leary, John J.; Sheils, Orla

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oncogenic mutations in BRAF are common in melanoma and thyroid carcinoma and drive constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Molecularly targeted therapies of this pathway improves survival compared to chemotherapy; however, responses tend to be short-lived as resistance invariably occursCell line models of melanoma and thyroid carcinoma, +/− BRAFV600E activating mutation, were treated with the MEK inhibitor PD0325901. Treated and naive samples were assayed for expression of key members of the MAPK pathway. Global microRNA expression profiling of naive and resistant cells was performed via next generation sequencingand indicated pluripotency pathways in resistance. Parental cell lines were progressed to holoclones to confirm the miRNA stemness profileMembers of the MIR302/373/374/520 family of embryonic stem cell specific cell cycle regulating (ESCC) microRNAs were identified as differentially expressed between resistant BRAFV600E melanoma and thyroid cell lines. Upregulated expression of gene and protein stemness markers, upregulated expression of MAPK pathway genes and downregulation of the ESCC MIR302 cluster in BRAFV600E melanoma indicated an increased stem-like phenotype in resistant BRAFV600E melanoma. Conversely, downregulated expression of gene and protein stemness markers, downregulated expression of MAPK pathway genes, upregulation of the ESCC MIR520 cluster, reeexpression of cell surface receptors, and induced differentiation-associated morphology in resistant BRAFV600E indicate a differentiated phenotype associated with MEK inhibitor resistance in BRAFV600E thyroid cellsThe differential patterns of resistance observed between BRAFV600E melanoma and thyroid cell lines may reflect tissue type or de novo differentiation, but could have significant impact on the response of primary and metastatic cells to MEK inhibitor treatment. This study provides a basis for the investigation of the cellular differentiation/self-renewal access and its role

  7. Prospective role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in attenuating hexavalent chromium-induced functional and cellular damage in rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Mahmood, Tariq

    2010-07-01

    Occupational exposure to toxic heavy metals may render industrial workers with thyroid-related problems. Here, we examined the role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against hexavalent chromium Cr (VI)-induced damage in rat thyroid gland. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and ascorbic acid doses were 60 microg and 120 mg kg(-1) body wt (intraperitoneally [i.p.]) respectively. Treatment regimens were group I rats, saline treated control; group II, only K2Cr2O7; group III, ascorbic acid 1 hour prior K2Cr2O7; group IV, simultaneous doses of ascorbic acid and K2Cr2O7, and group V, a combined premix dose of ascorbic acid and K2 Cr2O7 (2:1 ratio). Blood samples were taken before dosing the animals and 48 hours post exposure to determine the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations. Toward end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and thyroid glands were processed to evaluate the extent of cellular insult. Results showed significantly increased TSH and decreased FT3 and FT4 concentrations in groups II, III and IV rats as compared to control levels (p < 0.05). In contrast, in group V rats, serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 concentrations neared control concentrations. Histopathologically, protective effect of ascorbic acid was found in group V rats only, where thyroid gland structure neared control thyroid except the follicular size that was decreased (p < 0.05). Follicular density was no different from control. Basal laminae were intact, interfollicular spaces were normal. Colloid retraction and/or reabsorption were reduced maximally. Epithelial cell height was no different from control; epithelial follicular index increased only 1.3 fold, whereas nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio was decreased by 14% only. The study indicates that the ascorbic acid may have the potential to protect thyroid gland from chromium toxicity; however, the study warrants further in-depth experimentation to precisely elucidate this role. PMID:20504825

  8. Inhibition of HMGI-C protein synthesis suppresses retrovirally induced neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Berlingieri, M T; Manfioletti, G; Santoro, M; Bandiera, A; Visconti, R; Giancotti, V; Fusco, A

    1995-01-01

    Elevated expression of the three high-mobility group I (HMGI) proteins (HMGI, HMGY, and HMGI-C) has previously been correlated with the presence of a highly malignant phenotype in epithelial and fibroblastic rat thyroid cells and in experimental thyroid, lung, mammary, and skin carcinomas. Northern (RNA) blot and run-on analyses demonstrated that the induction of HMGI genes in transformed thyroid cells occurs at the transcriptional level. An antisense methodology to block HMGI-C protein synthesis was then used to analyze the role of this protein in the process of thyroid cell transformation. Transfection of an antisense construct for the HMGI-C cDNA into normal thyroid cells, followed by infection with transforming myeloproliferative sarcoma virus or Kirsten murine sarcoma virus, generated cell lines that expressed significant levels of the retroviral transforming oncogenes v-mos or v-ras-Ki and removed the dependency on thyroid-stimulating hormones. However, in contrast with untransfected cells or cells transfected with the sense construct, those containing the antisense construct did not demonstrate the appearance of any malignant phenotypic markers (growth in soft agar and tumorigenicity in athymic mice). A great reduction of the HMGI-C protein levels and the absence of the HMGI(Y) proteins was observed in the HMGI-C antisense-transfected, virally infected cells. Therefore, the HMGI-C protein seems to play a key role in the transformation of these thyroid cells. PMID:7862147

  9. Crosstalk between Integrin αvβ3 and Estrogen Receptor-α Is Involved in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Proliferation in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ran; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Westfall, Jennifer; London, David; Cao, James H.; Mousa, Shaker A.; Luidens, Mary; Hercbergs, Aleck; Davis, Faith B.; Davis, Paul J.; Lin, Hung-Yun

    2011-01-01

    A cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone that activates extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 has been identified on integrin αvβ3. We have examined the actions of thyroid hormone initiated at the integrin on human NCI-H522 non-small cell lung carcinoma and NCI-H510A small cell lung cancer cells. At a physiologic total hormone concentration (10−7 M), T4 significantly increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) abundance in these cell lines, as did 3, 5, 3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) at a supraphysiologic concentration. Neutralizing antibody to integrin αvβ3 and an integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide blocked thyroid hormone-induced PCNA expression. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) lacks thyroid hormone function but inhibits binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin receptor; tetrac eliminated thyroid hormone-induced lung cancer cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activation. In these estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive lung cancer cells, thyroid hormone (T4>T3) caused phosphorylation of ERα; the specific ERα antagonist ICI 182,780 blocked T4-induced, but not T3-induced ERK1/2 activation, as well as ERα phosphorylation, proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and hormone-dependent thymidine uptake by tumor cells. Thus, in ERα-positive human lung cancer cells, the proliferative action of thyroid hormone initiated at the plasma membrane is at least in part mediated by ERα. In summary, thyroid hormone may be one of several endogenous factors capable of supporting proliferation of lung cancer cells. Activity as an inhibitor of lung cancer cell proliferation induced at the integrin receptor makes tetrac a novel anti-proliferative agent. PMID:22132110

  10. Degradation of the interferon-induced 68,000-M(r) protein kinase by poliovirus requires RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Black, T L; Barber, G N; Katze, M G

    1993-01-01

    Control of the interferon-induced double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) activated protein kinase (referred to as P68 because of its M(r) of 68,000 in human cells) by animal viruses is essential to avoid decreases in protein synthetic rates during infection. We have previously demonstrated that poliovirus establishes a unique way of regulating the protein kinase, namely by inducing the specific degradation of P68 during infection (T. L. Black, B. Safer, A. Hovanessian, and M. G. Katze, J. Virol. 63:2244-2251, 1989). In the present study we investigated the mechanisms by which P68 degradation occurred. To do this we used an in vitro degradation assay which faithfully reproduced the in vivo events. Although viral gene expression was required for P68 degradation, the major poliovirus proteases, 2A and 3C, were found not to be directly involved with P68 proteolysis. However, the protease responsible for P68 degradation required divalent cations for maximal activity and probably has both an RNA and a protein component since trypsin and ribonuclease abrogated the activity. Despite this requirement for divalent cations and RNA, activation of the kinase was not required for proteolysis since a catalytically inactive P68 was still degraded. Mapping of P68 protease-sensitive sites by using in vitro translated truncation and deletion mutants revealed that sites required for degradation resided in the amino terminus and colocalized to dsRNA-binding domains. Finally, we found that preincubation of cell extracts with the synthetic dsRNA poly(I-C) largely prevented P68 proteolysis, providing additional evidence for the critical role of RNA. On the basis of these data, we present a hypothetical model depicting possible mechanisms of P68 degradation in poliovirus-infected cells. Images PMID:7678306

  11. Contribution of Each of Four Superantigens to Streptococcus equi-Induced Mitogenicity, Gamma Interferon Synthesis, and Immunity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; Robinson, Carl; Steward, Karen; Wright, Nicola; Jourdan, Thibaud; Butcher, Nicola; Heather, Zoe; Waller, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide. The disease is characterized by abscessation and swelling of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, which can literally strangle the horse to death. S. equi produces four recently acquired phage-associated bacterial superantigens (sAgs; SeeH, SeeI, SeeL, and SeeM) that share homology with the mitogenic toxins of Streptococcus pyogenes. The aim of this study was to characterize the contribution of each of these S. equi sAgs to mitogenic activity in vitro and quantify the sAg-neutralizing capacity of sera from naturally infected horses in order to better understand their role in pathogenicity. Each of the sAgs was successfully cloned, and soluble proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. SeeI, SeeL, and SeeM induced a dose-dependent proliferative response in equine CD4 T lymphocytes and synthesis of gamma interferon (IFN-γ). SeeH did not stimulate equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but induced proliferation of asinine PBMC. Allelic replacement mutants of S. equi strain 4047 with sequential deletion of the superantigen genes were generated. Deletion of seeI, seeL, and seeM completely abrogated the mitogenic activity and synthesis of IFN-γ, in equine PBMC, of the strain 4047 culture supernatant. Sera from naturally infected convalescent horses had only limited sAg-neutralizing activities. We propose that S. equi sAgs play an important role in S. equi pathogenicity by stimulating an overzealous and inappropriate Th1 response that may interfere with the development of an effective immune response. PMID:20123710

  12. A Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor of Influenza A Viruses that Targets Polymerase Function and Indirectly Induces Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Ortigoza, Mila Brum; Dibben, Oliver; Maamary, Jad; Martinez-Gil, Luis; Leyva-Grado, Victor H.; Abreu, Pablo; Ayllon, Juan; Palese, Peter; Shaw, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza viruses continue to pose a major public health threat worldwide and options for antiviral therapy are limited by the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains. The antiviral cytokine, interferon (IFN) is an essential mediator of the innate immune response and influenza viruses, like many viruses, have evolved strategies to evade this response, resulting in increased replication and enhanced pathogenicity. A cell-based assay that monitors IFN production was developed and applied in a high-throughput compound screen to identify molecules that restore the IFN response to influenza virus infected cells. We report the identification of compound ASN2, which induces IFN only in the presence of influenza virus infection. ASN2 preferentially inhibits the growth of influenza A viruses, including the 1918 H1N1, 1968 H3N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic strains and avian H5N1 virus. In vivo, ASN2 partially protects mice challenged with a lethal dose of influenza A virus. Surprisingly, we found that the antiviral activity of ASN2 is not dependent on IFN production and signaling. Rather, its IFN-inducing property appears to be an indirect effect resulting from ASN2-mediated inhibition of viral polymerase function, and subsequent loss of the expression of the viral IFN antagonist, NS1. Moreover, we identified a single amino acid mutation at position 499 of the influenza virus PB1 protein that confers resistance to ASN2, suggesting that PB1 is the direct target. This two-pronged antiviral mechanism, consisting of direct inhibition of virus replication and simultaneous activation of the host innate immune response, is a unique property not previously described for any single antiviral molecule. PMID:22577360

  13. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  14. The Anti-hypertensive Drug Prazosin Induces Apoptosis in the Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Line TT

    PubMed Central

    STRACKE, ANIKA; MEIER-ALLARD, NATHALIE; ABSENGER, MARKUS; INGOLIC, ELISABETH; HAAS, HELGA SUSANNE; PFRAGNER, ROSWITHA; SADJAK, ANTON

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a tumor associated with poor prognosis since it exhibits high resistance against conventional cancer therapy. Recent studies have shown that quinazolines exhibit a pro-apoptotic effect on malignant cells. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether MTC cells are affected by quinazolines, in particular prazosin. Materials and Methods Proliferation, apoptosis and cell morphology of the MTC cell line TT were analyzed by WST-1 assay, caspase 3/7 activation tests and microscopy. Fibroblasts were used as control for non-malignant cells. Results Prazosin potently inhibited the growth of TT cells, induced apoptosis and caused vacuolization, as well as needle-like filopodia. Fibroblasts were affected by prazosin in the same way as MTC cells. Conclusion MTC cells are responsive to prazosin treatment similar to other malignancies. The fact that fibroblasts also respond to prazosin further highlights the importance to identify the unknown pro-apoptotic target of quinazolines. PMID:25550532

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma: thyroid hormone promotes tumorigenicity through inducing cancer stem-like cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Lei; Ma, Sicong; Qi, Xingxing; Li, Qigen; Xia, Yun; Tang, Xiaoyin; Cui, Dan; Wang, Zhi; Chi, Jiachang; Li, Ping; Feng, Yu-xiong; Xia, Qiang; Zhai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) play a key role in maintaining the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the cell-biological regulation of CSCs is unclear. In the study, we report that thyroid hormone (TH) promotes cell self-renewal in HCC cells. TH also increases the percentage of CD90 + HCC cells and promotes drug resistance of HCC cells. By analyzing primary human HCC samples, we found that TRα transcript level is significantly elevated in primary liver cancer and portal vein metastatic tumor, compared to that of adjacent normal liver tissue. Knocking down TRα not only inhibits HCC self-renewal in vitro but also suppresses HCC tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, treatment of TH leads to activation of NF-κB, which is required for the function of TH on inducing HCC cell self-renewal. We also found TRα and p65 cooperatively drive the expression of BMI1 by co-binding to the promoter region of BMI1 gene. In summary, our study uncovers a novel function of TH signaling in regulating the CSCs of HCC, and these findings might be useful for developing novel therapies by targeting TH function in HCC cells. PMID:27174710

  16. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Thyroid Tests Page Content On this page: What is the ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  17. Subacute thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests that may be done include: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level T4 (thyroid hormone, thyroxine) and T3 level Radioactive iodine uptake Thyroglobulin level Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) In some cases, a thyroid ...

  18. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, ... Later symptoms may be of an underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ), including fatigue and cold intolerance, until the thyroid ...

  19. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism (Overactive) Hypothyroidism (Underactive) Iodine Deficiency Low Iodine Diet Radioactive Iodine ...

  20. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  1. Histopathological changes induced by selective inactivation of menin on the thyroid gland in RET÷PTC3 and E7 transgenic mice. A study of 77 cases.

    PubMed

    Căpraru, Oana Maria; Berger, Nicole; Gadot, Nicolas; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Zhang, Chang; Borda, Angela; Szilágyi, Tibor; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Selmi-Ruby, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) does not involve the thyroid gland, but animal studies have shown that mice with inactivation of menin could develop thyroid pathologies. The objective was to evaluate if the selective inactivation of menin in murine thyroid glands expressing RET÷PTC3 and E7 oncogenes, might induce an increased index of proliferation and a more rapid development of thyroid hyperplasia and÷or tumors. The thyroid glands of 77 mice aged 4-18 months (31 expressing the E7 oncogene and 25 the RET÷PTC3 oncogene) were analyzed for histological changes and Ki67 proliferation index. Fifty-two mice had selective inactivation of menin in the thyroid gland (16 mice with RET÷PTC3 oncogene and 19 mice with E7 oncogene). As compared to wild type, mice with inactivation of menin presented an increased Ki67 proliferation index. Mice presenting the E7 oncogene showed larger thyroid glands with a pattern of diffuse hyperplasia. Mice expressing the RET÷PTC3 oncogene presented larger thyroid glands compared to the wild type mice but smaller compared to E7 mice. The lesions in the RET÷PTC3 group were "proliferative papillary cystic changes" (60%), "cribriform" (16%), "solid" (8%) and a combination of these patterns in the rest of the thyroid glands. The inactivation of menin in the thyroid gland of young mice does not seem to change the histological pattern, but it influences the proliferation of follicular cells. Further molecular studies especially in aged mice are needed to better understand the correlation between certain oncogenes and the inactive status of menin.

  2. Sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, selectively inhibits interferon-{gamma}-induced expression of the chemokine CXCL9 gene in mouse macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaeda, Yoshiichi; Hiroi, Miki; Shimojima, Takahiro; Iguchi, Mayumi; Kanegae, Haruhide; Ohmori, Yoshihiro . E-mail: ohmori@dent.meikai.ac.jp

    2006-11-17

    Sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to exert an anti-tumor effect on several types of cancer. To determine the effect of sulindac on intracellular signaling pathways in host immune cells such as macrophages, we investigated the effect of the drug on interferon gamma (IFN{gamma})-induced expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and other genes in mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Sulindac, but not aspirin or sodium salicylate, inhibited IFN{gamma}-induced expression of the CXC ligand 9 (CXCL9) mRNA, a chemokine for activated T cells, whereas the interferon-induced expression of CXCL10 or IFN regulatory factor-1 was not affected by sulindac. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that sulindac inhibited IFN{gamma}-induced promoter activity of the CXCL9 gene. Surprisingly, sulindac had no inhibitory effect on IFN{gamma}-induced STAT1 activation; however, constitutive nuclear factor {kappa}B activity was suppressed by the drug. These results indicate that sulindac selectively inhibited IFN{gamma}-inducible gene expression without inhibiting STAT1 activation.

  3. Effect of Interferon-γ on the Basal and the TNFα-Stimulated Secretion of CXCL8 in Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines Bearing Either the RET/PTC Rearrangement Or the BRAF V600e Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rotondi, Mario; Coperchini, Francesca; Awwad, Oriana; Di Buduo, Christian A.; Abbonante, Vittorio; Magri, Flavia; Balduini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    CXCL8 displays several tumor-promoting effects. Targeting and/or lowering CXCL8 concentrations within the tumor microenvironment would produce a therapeutic benefit. Aim of this study was to test the effect of IFNγ on the basal and TNFα-stimulated secretion of CXCL8 in TCP-1 and BCPAP thyroid cancer cell lines (harboring RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF V600e mutation, resp.). Cells were incubated with IFNγ (1, 10, 100, and 1000 U/mL) alone or in combination with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 hours. CXCL8 and CXCL10 concentrations were measured in the cell supernatants. IFNγ inhibited in a dose-dependent and significant manner both the basal (ANOVA F: 22.759; p < 0.00001) and the TNFα-stimulated (ANOVA F: 15.309; p < 0.00001) CXCL8 secretions in BCPAP but not in TPC-1 cells (NS). On the other hand, IFNγ and IFNγ + TNF-α induced a significant secretion of CXCL10 in both BCPAP (p < 0.05) and TPC-1 (p < 0.05) cells. Transwell migration assay showed that (i) CXCL8 increased cell migration in both TPC-1 and BCPAP cells; (ii) IFNγ significantly reduced the migration only of BCPAP cells; and (iii) CXCL8 reverted the effect of IFNγ. These results constitute the first demonstration that IFNγ inhibits CXCL8 secretion and in turn the migration of a BRAF V600e mutated thyroid cell line. PMID:27555670

  4. Effect of Interferon-γ on the Basal and the TNFα-Stimulated Secretion of CXCL8 in Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines Bearing Either the RET/PTC Rearrangement Or the BRAF V600e Mutation.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Mario; Coperchini, Francesca; Awwad, Oriana; Pignatti, Patrizia; Di Buduo, Christian A; Abbonante, Vittorio; Magri, Flavia; Balduini, Alessandra; Chiovato, Luca

    2016-01-01

    CXCL8 displays several tumor-promoting effects. Targeting and/or lowering CXCL8 concentrations within the tumor microenvironment would produce a therapeutic benefit. Aim of this study was to test the effect of IFNγ on the basal and TNFα-stimulated secretion of CXCL8 in TCP-1 and BCPAP thyroid cancer cell lines (harboring RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF V600e mutation, resp.). Cells were incubated with IFNγ (1, 10, 100, and 1000 U/mL) alone or in combination with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 hours. CXCL8 and CXCL10 concentrations were measured in the cell supernatants. IFNγ inhibited in a dose-dependent and significant manner both the basal (ANOVA F: 22.759; p < 0.00001) and the TNFα-stimulated (ANOVA F: 15.309; p < 0.00001) CXCL8 secretions in BCPAP but not in TPC-1 cells (NS). On the other hand, IFNγ and IFNγ + TNF-α induced a significant secretion of CXCL10 in both BCPAP (p < 0.05) and TPC-1 (p < 0.05) cells. Transwell migration assay showed that (i) CXCL8 increased cell migration in both TPC-1 and BCPAP cells; (ii) IFNγ significantly reduced the migration only of BCPAP cells; and (iii) CXCL8 reverted the effect of IFNγ. These results constitute the first demonstration that IFNγ inhibits CXCL8 secretion and in turn the migration of a BRAF V600e mutated thyroid cell line. PMID:27555670

  5. The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in FTC-133 thyroid carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soula-Rothhut, Mahdhia; Coissard, Cyrille; Sartelet, Herve; Boudot, Cedric; Bellon, Georges; Martiny, Laurent; Rothhut, Bernard . E-mail: bernard.rothhut@univ-reims.fr

    2005-03-10

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multidomain extracellular macromolecule that was first identified as natural modulator of angiogenesis and tumor growth. In the present study, we found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) up-regulated TSP-1 expression in FTC-133 (primary tumor) but not in FTC-238 (lung metastasis) thyroid cancer cells. Both EGF and TSP-1 induced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in a mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. In FTC-133 cells, EGF induced proliferation in a TSP-1- and TIMP-1-dependent manner. In addition, we determined that re-expression of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN induced cell death, an effect that correlated with a block of Akt kinase phosphorylation. EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 promoter activity and protein expression were inhibited in FTC-133 cells stably expressing wtPTEN but not in cells expressing mutant PTEN. Furthermore, we found that wtPTEN inhibited EGF-but not TSP-1-stimulated FTC-133 cell migration and also inhibited invasion induced by EGF and by TSP-1. Finally, an antibody against TSP-1 reversed EGF-stimulated FTC-133 cell invasion as well as the constitutive invasive potential of FTC-238 cells. Overall, our results suggest that PTEN can function as an important modulator of extracellular matrix proteins in thyroid cancer. Therefore, analyzing differential regulation of TSP-1 by growth factors such as EGF can be helpful in understanding thyroid cancer development.

  6. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroiditis and identify autoimmune thyroid conditions Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody—a marker for autoimmune thyroid disease; ... for thyroid gland abnormalities and to evaluate thyroid function (for iodine) in different areas of the thyroid ...

  7. Increased Levels of Interferon-Inducible Protein 10 (IP-10) in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aresvik, D M; Lima, K; Øverland, T; Mollnes, T E; Abrahamsen, T G

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a genetic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:4000 births. These patients may suffer from affection of many organ systems with cardiac malformations, thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, hypoparathyroidism, palate anomalies and psychiatric disorders being the most frequent. The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increased in older patients. The aim of the present study was to examine a cytokine profile in patients with 22q11.2 DS by measuring a broad spectrum of serum cytokines. Patients with a proven deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 (n = 55) and healthy individuals (n = 54) recruited from an age- and sex-comparable group were included in the study. Serum levels of 27 cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors, were analysed using multiplex technology. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was also measured by ELISA to confirm the multiplex results. The 22q11.2 DS patients had distinctly and significantly raised levels of pro-inflammatory and angiostatic chemokine IP-10 (P < 0.001) compared to controls. The patients with congenital heart defects (n = 31) had significantly (P = 0.018) raised serum levels of IP-10 compared to patients born without heart defects (n = 24). The other cytokines investigated were either not detectable or did not differ between patients and controls. PMID:26708691

  8. The first echinoderm gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Yanhong; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been described as a key enzyme that facilitating the processing and presentation of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted antigen in mammals. In this study, the first echinoderm GILT named StmGILT was identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus). The StmGILT cDNA is 1529 bp in length, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 87 bp, a 3'-UTR of 674 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp that encoding a protein of 255 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 27.82 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 4.73. The putative StmGILT protein possesses all the main characteristics of known GILT proteins, including a signature sequence, a reductase active site CXXC, twelve conserved cysteines, and two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. For the gene structure, StmGILT contains four exons separated by three introns. In the promoter region of StmGILT gene, an NF-κB binding site and an IFN-γ activation site were found. The thiol reductase activity of recombinant StmGILT protein was also demonstrated in this study. In addition, the highest level of mRNA expression was noticed in coelomocytes of S. monotuberculatus. In in vitro experiments performed in coelomocytes, the expression of StmGILT mRNA was significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), inactivated bacteria or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] challenge, suggested that the sea cucumber GILT might play critical roles in the innate immune defending against bacterial and viral infections.

  9. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of interferon-gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) gene from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianchang; Pan, Dequan; Cui, Shuge; Su, Tianfeng; Qiu, Lihua; Zhu, Caiyan; Jiang, Shigui

    2010-09-01

    Interferon-gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is an important thiol reductase, involved in class, MHC-restricted antigen processing by catalyzing disulfide bond reduction in mammals. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of pearl oyster Pinctada fucata GILT (designated as poGILT). The poGILT cDNA was 1273bp long and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 24bp, a 3'-UTR of 484bp with two cytokine RNA instability motifs (ATTTA), and an open reading frame (ORF) of 765bp encoding a polypeptide of 254 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 28.9kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 7.4. The N-terminus of the poGILT was found to have a putative signal peptide with a cleavage site amino acid position at 19-20. SMART analysis showed that the poGILT contained a GILT active-site C(69)PDC(72) motif and a GILT signature motif C(115)QHGKEECIGNLIETC(130). Homology analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the poGILT with other known GILT sequences by MatGAT software revealed that the poGILT shared 42.9-67.3% similarity and 22.9-49.8% identity to the other known GILT sequences. The expression level of poGILT mRNA was higher in digestive gland, moderate in adductor muscle, gills, gonad, intestine and mantle, and lower in hemocytes. The poGILT mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in gill and digestive gland after LPS or V. alginolyticus stimulation, respectively. These results suggested that the poGILT was a constitutively expressed acute-phase protein, the expression of which can be enhanced after LPS or V. algrinolyticus stimulation, perhaps involved in the innate immune response of pearl oyster.

  10. Thyroid Growth and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term ‘cancer’ to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID

  11. Cytotoxic activity of interferon alpha induced dendritic cells as a biomarker of glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishinov, S. V.; Stupak, V. V.; Tyrinova, T. V.; Leplina, O. Yu.; Ostanin, A. A.; Chernykh, E. R.

    2016-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells that can play direct role in anti-tumor immune response as killer cells. DC tumoricidal activity can be stimulated greatly by type I IFN (IFNα and IFNβ). In the present study, we examined cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of monocyte-derived IFNα-induced DCs generated from patients with brain glioma and evaluated the potential use of these parameters in diagnostics of high-grade gliomas. Herein, we demonstrated that patient DCs do not possess the ability to inhibit the growth of tumor HEp-2 cell line but low-grade and high-grade glioma patients do not differ significantly in DC cytostatic activity. However, glioma patient DCs are characterized by reduced cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 cells. The impairment of DC cytotoxic function is observed mainly in glioblastoma patients. The cytotoxic activity of DCs against HEp-2 cells below 9% is an informative marker for glioblastomas.

  12. [Interferon alpha antibodies show no cross reactions with typical autoantibodies].

    PubMed

    Görg, S; Klouche, M; Wilhelm, D; Kirchner, H

    1993-04-01

    Patients treated with natural human interferon alpha develop anti-interferon antibodies (IFN-AB) only in very rare cases. By contrast, patients with autoimmune disorders are able to generate high-titered IFN-AB against endogenous interferon alpha. One explanation for the development of auto-IFN-AB could be cross-reactivity with typical autoimmune antigens. We investigated the cross-reactivity of 3 high-titered IgG IFN-AB of female autoimmune patients (aged 32, 36, 74 years; two severe cases of SLE, one case of autoimmune thyroiditis) as well as 25 low-titered natural IgM IFN-AB of healthy blood donors (aged 19-48 years). Typical autoimmune antigens including dsDNA, ENA, as well as natural interferon beta and recombinant interferon gamma are not able to inhibit binding of IFN-AB to interferon alpha in an ELISA test system. Preincubation of sera containing either dsDNA antibodies (dsDNA-AB) (24 patients), thyroid peroxidase (TPO-AB) (9 patients) or thyroglobulin (TG-AB) (12 patients) with interferon alpha resulted in no change in the respective autoantibody titer. These data suggest that there is no cross-reactivity between IFN-alpha-AB and dsDNA-AB, TPO-AB or TG-AB. Thus, an explanation for the occurrence of IFN-AB in autoimmune disorders cannot be found in a cross-reaction between interferon alpha with typical autoimmune antigens.

  13. Regulation of expression of mouse interferon-induced transmembrane protein like gene-3, Ifitm3 (mil-1, fragilis), in germ cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satomi S; Nagamatsu, Go; Tokitake, Yuko; Kasa, Miyuki; Tam, Patrick P L; Matsui, Yasuhisa

    2004-08-01

    Mouse interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) gene, Ifitm3 (previously known as mil-1 and fragilis), is expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs), in their precursors, and in germ cells of the fetal gonads (Saitou et al. [2002] Nature 418:293-300; Tanaka and Matsui [2002] Mech Dev 119S:S261-S267). By examining the expression of green fluorescent protein transgene under the control of DNA sequences flanking exon 1, we have identified domains that direct Ifitm3 transcription in PGCs and their precursors in gastrula stage and 13.5 days post coitum embryos. Germ cell-specific expression is achieved by the activity of a consensus element unique to the Ifitm genes, which may act to suppress Ifitm3 expression in somatic tissues. The lack of any influence of the interferon-stimulable response elements on transgene expression in the germ-line suggests that interferon-mediated response is not critical for activating Ifitm3. PMID:15254899

  14. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles on perfluorooctane sulfonate induced thyroid-disrupting on zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Du, Jia; Wang, Shutao; You, Hong; Liu, Zhongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and ZnO nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) are widely distributed in the environment. However, the potential toxicity of co-exposure to PFOS and nano-ZnO remains to be fully elucidated. The test investigated the effects of co-exposure to PFOS and nano-ZnO on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to a combination of PFOS (0.2, 0.4, 0.8mg/L) and nano-ZnO (50mg/L) from their early stages of life (0-14days). The whole-body content of TH and the expression of genes and proteins related to the HPT axis were analyzed. The co-exposure decreased the body length and increased the malformation rates compared with exposure to PFOS alone. Co-exposure also increased the triiodothyronine (T3) levels, whereas the thyroxine (T4) content remained unchanged. Compared with the exposure to PFOS alone, exposure to both PFOS (0.8mg/L) and nano-ZnO (50mg/L) significantly up-regulated the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, sodium/iodidesymporter, iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid receptors and significantly down-regulated the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin (TG), transthyretin (TTR) and thyroid receptors. The protein expression levels of TG and TTR were also significantly down-regulated in the co-exposure groups. In addition, the expression of the thyroid peroxidase gene was unchanged in all groups. The results demonstrated that PFOS and nano-ZnO co-exposure could cause more serious thyroid-disrupting effects in zebrafish than exposure to PFOS alone. Our results also provide insight into the mechanism of disruption of the thyroid status by PFOS and nano-ZnO. PMID:27593282

  15. Antimicrobial preservatives induce aggregation of interferon alpha-2a: the order in which preservatives induce protein aggregation is independent of the protein.

    PubMed

    Bis, Regina L; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2014-09-10

    Antimicrobial preservatives (APs) are included in liquid multi-dose protein formulations to combat the growth of microbes and bacteria. These compounds have been shown to cause protein aggregation, which leads to serious immunogenic and toxic side-effects in patients. Our earlier work on a model protein cytochrome c (Cyt c) demonstrated that APs cause protein aggregation in a specific manner. The aim of this study is to validate the conclusions obtained from our model protein studies on a pharmaceutical protein. Interferon α-2a (IFNA2) is available as a therapeutic treatment for numerous immune-compromised disorders including leukemia and hepatitis C, and APs have been used in its multi-dose formulation. Similar to Cyt c, APs induced IFNA2 aggregation, demonstrated by the loss of soluble monomer and increase in solution turbidity. The extent of IFNA2 aggregation increased with the increase in AP concentration. IFNA2 aggregation also depended on the nature of AP, and followed the order m-cresol>phenol>benzyl alcohol>phenoxyethanol. This specific order exactly matched with that observed for the model protein Cyt c. These and previously published results on antibodies and other recombinant proteins suggest that the general mechanism by which APs induce protein aggregation may be independent of the protein.

  16. THYROID HORMONE REVERSES AGING-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DEFECTS AND IMPROVES THE RESPONSE TO ACUTELY INCREASED AFTERLOAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ledee, Dolena; Portman, Michael A.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron

    2013-06-07

    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone reverses these defects. Methods: Studies were performed on young (Young, 4-6 months) and aged (Old, 22-24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin. Results: Cardiac function was similar between Young and Old mice at standard afterload. Palmitate Fc was reduced but no individual carbohydrate contributions differed. CAC and individual substrate fluxes decreased in aged. At high afterload, -dP/dT was decreased in Old versus Young. Similar to low afterload, palmitate Fc was decreased in Old. Thyroid hormone reversed aging-induced changes in palmitate Fc and flux while significantly improving cardiac function. Conclusion: The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.

  17. Cytotoxic T cells induce proliferation of chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by secreting interferon

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, Christian; Riether, Carsten; Amrein, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasia arising from the oncogenic break point cluster region/Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 translocation in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), resulting in a leukemia stem cell (LSC). Curing CML depends on the eradication of LSCs. Unfortunately, LSCs are resistant to current treatment strategies. The host’s immune system is thought to contribute to disease control, and several immunotherapy strategies are under investigation. However, the interaction of the immune system with LSCs is poorly defined. In the present study, we use a murine CML model to show that LSCs express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and co-stimulatory molecules and are recognized and killed by leukemia-specific CD8+ effector CTLs in vitro. In contrast, therapeutic infusions of effector CTLs into CML mice in vivo failed to eradicate LSCs but, paradoxically, increased LSC numbers. LSC proliferation and differentiation was induced by CTL-secreted IFN-γ. Effector CTLs were only able to eliminate LSCs in a situation with minimal leukemia load where CTL-secreted IFN-γ levels were low. In addition, IFN-γ increased proliferation and colony formation of CD34+ stem/progenitor cells from CML patients in vitro. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which the immune system contributes to leukemia progression and may be important to improve T cell–based immunotherapy against leukemia. PMID:23401488

  18. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  19. Interleukin-28B polymorphisms and interferon gamma inducible protein-10 serum levels in seronegative occult hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, Javier; Castillo, Inmaculada; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Carreño, Vicente

    2016-02-01

    Polymorphisms upstream interleukin (IL)-28B gene and serum levels of interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) are associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance. Patients with seronegative occult HCV infection are anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA negative but have viral RNA in liver and abnormal values of liver enzymes. We examined if the rs12979860 polymorphism of IL-28B and serum IP-10 levels differ between chronic and seronegative occult CV infection. IL-28B polymorphism was determined with allele specific TaqMan probes in total DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IP-10 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum from 99 patients with seronegative occult HCV infection and 130 untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C. IL-28B genotypes were also determined in 54 healthy volunteers. Prevalence of the IL-28B CC genotype was significantly higher in seronegative occult HCV infection (52/99; 52.5%) than in chronic hepatitis C (32/130; 24.6%, P < 0.0001) or healthy controls (19/54: 32.5%, P = 0.039). Among patients with seronegative occult HCV infection, HCV-RNA load in liver was significantly lower in those with the IL-28B CC genotype than in those with CT + TT genotypes (2.8 × 10(5)  ± 5.8 × 10(4) vs. 4.1 × 10(5)  ± 5.9 × 10(4)  copies/μg of total RNA respectively; P = 0.023). Mean serum IP-10 levels were significantly lower in patients with seronegative occult HCV infection than in patients with chronic hepatitis C (160.8 ± 17.9 vs. 288.7 ± 13.3 pg/ml respectively; P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that the host immune response plays an important role in seronegative occult HCV infection in comparison with chronic hepatitis C.

  20. pol-miR-731, a teleost miRNA upregulated by megalocytivirus, negatively regulates virus-induced type I interferon response, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bao-cun; Zhou, Ze-jun; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Megalocytivirus is a DNA virus that is highly infectious in a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish, including Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), a flatfish that is farmed worldwide. However, the infection mechanism of megalocytivirus remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the function of a flounder microRNA, pol-miR-731, in virus-host interaction. We found that pol-miR-731 was induced in expression by megalocytivirus and promoted viral replication at the early infection stage. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed that pol-miR-731 (i) specifically suppresses the expression of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and cellular tumor antigen p53 in a manner that depended on the integrity of the pol-miR-731 complementary sequences in the 3′ untranslated regions of IRF7 and p53, (ii) disrupts megalocytivirus-induced Type I interferon response through IRF7, (iii) inhibits megalocytivirus-induced splenocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through p53. Furthermore, overexpression of IRF7 and p53 abolished both the inhibitory effects of pol-miR-731 on these biological processes and its stimulatory effect on viral replication. These results disclosed a novel evasion mechanism of megalocytivirus mediated by a host miRNA. This study also provides the first evidence that a virus-induced host miRNA can facilitate viral infection by simultaneously suppressing several antiviral pathways. PMID:27311682

  1. Antiviral effect of interferon covalently bound to sepharose.

    PubMed

    Ankel, H; Chany, C; Galliot, B; Chevalier, M J; Robert, M

    1973-08-01

    Interferon, covalently bound to Sepharose 4B activated by cyanogen bromide, induces the antiviral state in sensitive cells. The antiviral effect is neutralized by antiserum specific to interferon and is recovered thereafter when the antibody is detached from the interferon by treatment at low pH. Binding interferon to Sepharose increases the stability of the molecule. It is likely that the interferon molecule acts on the cell receptor without being detached from the beads. However, the data do not exclude the possibility of a small loss of interferon, or fragments of it, after contact with the cell.

  2. Thyroid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

  3. Sepsis mimicking thyroid storm in a patient with methimazole-induced agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Samuel G; Hosseini, Faegheh; Adedipe, Adeyinka A

    2013-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is a rare yet life-threatening complication of methimazole therapy for hyperthyroidism. We present the case of a 37-year-old female recently started on methimazole for hyperthyroidism who presented to our facility for evaluation of suspected thyroid storm. In addition to having abnormal thyroid indices, she was noted to have an odontogenic abscess, and was septic with profound neutropenia. Her symptoms resolved quickly following incision and drainage of her abscess and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Her neutrophil count improved significantly following cessation of methimazole and administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Diagnosis was initially confounded by the similarity between symptoms of early sepsis and those of thyroid storm. This case report discusses the factors leading to diagnostic delay and highlights the dangerous manifestations of neutropenia in patients on methimazole therapy. PMID:23861276

  4. Painful acute radiation thyroiditis induced by 131I treatment of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kinjal K; Tarasova, Valentina; Davidian, Michael; Anderson, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, chronic smoker with Graves' disease was treated with radioactive iodine ablation (RAI). One week after the treatment, she presented with severe pain in the anterior neck with radiation to the angle of the jaw associated with fatigue, tremor and odynophagia. Physical examination demonstrated an asymmetric and exquisitely tender thyroid gland. There was no laboratory evidence of thyrotoxicosis. Acute radiation thyroiditis was diagnosed. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hydrocodone-acetaminophen started initially were ineffective for pain control. Prednisone provided relief and was continued for 1 month with a tapering dose. Symptoms completely resolved after 1 month at which time the thyroid remained diffusely enlarged and non-tender. Three months following RAI ablation she developed hypothyroid symptoms. Levothyroxine was initiated. The patient has remained asymptomatic on continued follow-up care. PMID:25576511

  5. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail: imyh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  6. Examing the mechanisms of interferon-induced protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of the host innate immune defense against viral infection and natural killer (NK) cells, and dendritic cells (DCs), play a key role in the initiation and regulation of both the innate and adaptive immune response. Previously we demonstrated that type I IFN or a ...

  7. Metabolic alterations induced by chronic heat exposure in the rat: the involvement of thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Rousset, B; Cure, M; Jordan, D; Kervran, A; Bornet, H; Mornex, R

    1984-05-01

    The effects of chronic exposure to high environmental temperature (34 degrees C) on T4 production rate, food-intake, growth-rate and resting metabolic rate were investigated in adult male rats. This study was designed to examine the extent of variations and possible relationships between these parameters. As compared to control rats of the same body weight kept at 25 degrees C, rats exposed to 34 degrees C for 3-4 weeks exhibited a retarded growth-rate: 2.3 vs 4.0 g/day, a reduced food-intake: 15.2 vs 23.2 g/day, a decreased T4 production-rate: 1.8 vs 2.7 micrograms/day and a decreased oxygen consumption: 4.0 vs 5.4 ml/min. Heat-exposure altered the 4 parameters to a similar extent. T4 supplementation (3 micrograms/day) which induced a decrease in plasma TSH concentration, did not restore a normal growth-rate in heat-exposed rats. The decreased food-intake of the heat-exposed rats was not associated with any significant changes in the daily pattern of variations of liver glycogen content, or in the mean daily levels of blood glucose or insulin. The ratio T3 to rT3 in plasma was not altered by chronic heat exposure. When rats which had been chronically exposed to heat (25 days at 34 degrees C) were exposed to 25 degrees C, growth-rate, food-intake and oxygen consumption rapidly increased to control values whereas the rate of T4 production remained low. It is concluded that (1) a decrease in thyroid hormone economy is not directly involved in the alterations of growth and energy expenditure in rats chronically exposed to heat, (2) heat exposure does not lead to the establishment of a fasted state resulting from a large reduction in voluntary food intake, (3) metabolic alterations induced by heat exposure are rapidly and completely reversible upon decreasing the environmental temperature.

  8. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R N; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D V

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1) chemically induced rodent thyroid tumors are presumed to be relevant to humans; 2) when interspecies information is lacking, the default is to assume comparable carcinogenic sensitivity in rodents and humans; 3) adverse rodent noncancer thyroid effects due to chemically induced thyroid-pituitary disruption are presumed to be relevant to humans; 4) linear dose-response considerations are applied to thyroid cancer induced by chemical substances that either do not disrupt thyroid functioning or lack mode of action information; 5) nonlinear thyroid cancer dose-response considerations are applied to chemicals that reduce thyroid hormone levels, increase TSH and thyroid cell division, and are judged to lack mutagenic activity; and 6) nonlinear considerations may be applied in thyroid cancer dose-response assessments on a case-by-case basis for chemicals that disrupt thyroid-pituitary functioning and demonstrate some mutagenic activity. Required data for risk assessment purposes is mode of action information on mutagenicity, increases in follicular cell growth (cell size and number) and thyroid gland weight, thyroid-pituitary hormones, site of action, correlations between doses producing thyroid effects and cancer, and reversibility of effects when dosing ceases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681971

  9. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Markou, K; Georgopoulos, N; Kyriazopoulou, V; Vagenakis, A G

    2001-05-01

    Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroid gland has the capacity and holds the machinery to handle the iodine efficiently when the availability of iodine becomes scarce, as well as when iodine is available in excessive quantities. The latter situation is handled by the thyroid by acutely inhibiting the organification of iodine, the so-called acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect, by a mechanism not well understood 52 years after the original description. It is proposed that iodopeptide(s) are formed that temporarily inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mRNA and protein synthesis and, therefore, thyroglobulin iodinations. The Wolff-Chaikoff effect is an effective means of rejecting the large quantities of iodide and therefore preventing the thyroid from synthesizing large quantities of thyroid hormones. The acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect lasts for few a days and then, through the so-called "escape" phenomenon, the organification of intrathyroidal iodide resumes and the normal synthesis of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) returns. This is achieved by decreasing the intrathyroidal inorganic iodine concentration by down regulation of the sodium iodine symporter (NIS) and therefore permits the TPO-H202 system to resume normal activity. However, in a few apparently normal individuals, in newborns and fetuses, in some patients with chronic systemic diseases, euthyroid patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, and Graves' disease patients previously treated with radioimmunoassay (RAI), surgery or antithyroid drugs, the escape from the inhibitory effect of large doses of iodides is not achieved and clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism ensues. Iodide-induced hypothyroidism has also been observed in patients with a history of postpartum thyroiditis, in euthyroid patients after a previous episode of subacute thyroiditis, and in patients treated with recombinant interferon-alpha who developed transient thyroid dysfunction during interferon-a treatment. The

  10. [Interferons and autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2013-11-01

    Interferons are widely expressed cytokines that have potent antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects. Type I interferons show complex biology; in some cases, they promote autoimmunity and inflammation, and in other cases, exhibit homeostatic functions by controlling inflammation and tissue destruction. This complexity is exemplified in the 2 major autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, in which type I interferons play an important role in the pathogenesis, and multiple sclerosis, in which interferon beta, a type I interferon, exhibits protective and therapeutic roles. This article reviews the basic clinical data on type I interferons in autoimmune diseases and type I interferons as potential targets for therapies in autoimmune diseases.

  11. Glucocorticoid Receptors, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Serotonin and Dopamine Neurotransmission are Associated with Interferon-Induced Depression

    PubMed Central

    Udina, M; Navinés, R; Egmond, E; Oriolo, G; Langohr, K; Gimenez, D; Valdés, M; Gómez-Gil, E; Grande, I; Gratacós, M; Kapczinski, F; Artigas, F; Vieta, E; Solà, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of inflammation in mood disorders has received increased attention. There is substantial evidence that cytokine therapies, such as interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), can induce depressive symptoms. Indeed, proinflammatory cytokines change brain function in several ways, such as altering neurotransmitters, the glucocorticoid axis, and apoptotic mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the impact on mood of initiating IFN-alpha and ribavirin treatment in a cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We investigated clinical, personality, and functional genetic variants associated with cytokine-induced depression. Methods: We recruited 344 Caucasian outpatients with chronic hepatitis C, initiating IFN-alpha and ribavirin therapy. All patients were euthymic at baseline according to DSM-IV-R criteria. Patients were assessed at baseline and 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after treatment initiation using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We genotyped several functional polymorphisms of interleukin-28 (IL28B), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), serotonin receptor-1A (HTR1A), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), glucocorticoid receptors (GCR1 and GCR2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) genes. A survival analysis was performed, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for the multivariate analysis. Results: The cumulative incidence of depression was 0.35 at week 24 and 0.46 at week 48. The genotypic distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Older age (p = 0.018, hazard ratio [HR] per 5 years = 1.21), presence of depression history (p = 0.0001, HR = 2.38), and subthreshold depressive symptoms at baseline (p = 0.005, HR = 1.13) increased the risk of IFN-induced depression. So too did TCI personality traits, with high scores on fatigability (p = 0.0037, HR = 1.17), impulsiveness (p = 0.0200 HR = 1

  12. Ubiquitin-specific Protease 15 Negatively Regulates Virus-induced Type I Interferon Signaling via Catalytically-dependent and -independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Dang; Zhong, Huijuan; Luo, Rui; Shang, Min; Liu, Dezhi; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection triggers a series of signaling cascades, which converge to activate the transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), thereby inducing the transcription of type I interferons (IFNs). Although not fully characterized, these innate antiviral responses are fine-tuned by dynamic ubiquitination and deubiquitination processes. In this study, we report ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 15 is involved in regulation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-dependent type I IFN induction pathway. Knockdown of endogenous USP15 augmented cellular antiviral responses. Overexpression of USP15 inhibited the transcription of IFN-β. Further analyses identified histidine 862 as a critical residue for USP15’s catalytic activity. Interestingly, USP15 specifically removed lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains from RIG-I among the essential components in RIG-I-like receptor-dependent pathway. In addition, we demonstrated that in contrast to USP15 de-ubiquitinating (DUB) activity, USP15-mediated inhibition of IFN signaling was not abolished by mutations eliminating the catalytic activity, indicating that a fraction of USP15-mediated IFN antagonism was independent of the DUB activity. Catalytically inactive USP15 mutants, as did the wild-type protein, disrupted virus-induced interaction of RIG-I and IFN-β promoter stimulator 1. Taken together, our data demonstrate that USP15 acts as a negative regulator of RIG-I signaling via DUB-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:26061460

  13. Fibronectin-induced proliferation in thyroid cells is mediated by alphavbeta3 integrin through Ras/Raf-1/MEK/ERK and calcium/CaMKII signals.

    PubMed

    Illario, Maddalena; Cavallo, Anna Lina; Monaco, Sara; Di Vito, Ennio; Mueller, Frank; Marzano, Luigi A; Troncone, Giancarlo; Fenzi, Gianfranco; Rossi, Guido; Vitale, Mario

    2005-05-01

    We recently demonstrated in an immortalized thyroid cell line that integrin stimulation by fibronectin (FN) simultaneously activates two signaling pathways: Ras/Raf/MAPK kinase (Mek)/Erk and calcium Ca2+/calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Both signals are necessary to stimulate Erk phosphorylation because CaMKII modulates Ras-induced Raf-1 activity. In this study we present evidence that extends these findings to normal human thyroid cells in primary culture, demonstrating its biological significance in a more physiological cell model. In normal thyroid cells, immobilized FN-induced activation of p21Ras and Erk phosphorylation. This pathway was responsible for FN-induced cell proliferation. Concurrent increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and CaMKII activation was observed. Both induction of p21Ras activity and increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration were mediated by FN binding to alphavbeta3 integrin. Inhibition of the Ca2+/CaMKII signal pathway by calmodulin or CaMKII inhibitors completely abolished the FN-induced Erk phosphorylation. Binding to FN induced Raf-1 and CaMKII to form a protein complex, indicating that intersection between Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk and Ca2+/CaMKII signaling pathways occurred at Raf-1 level. Interruption of the Ca2+/CaMKII signal pathway arrested cell proliferation induced by FN. We also analyzed thyroid tumor cell lines that displayed concomitant aberrant integrin expression and signal transduction. These data confirm that integrin activation by FN in normal thyroid cells generates Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk and Ca2+/CaMKII signaling pathways and that both are necessary to stimulate cell proliferation, whereas in thyroid tumors integrin signaling is altered.

  14. Longitudinal Study of a Human Drug-Induced Model of Autoantibody to Cytoplasmic Rods/Rings following HCV Therapy with Ribavirin and Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Keppeke, Gerson Dierley; Nunes, Eunice; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Gomes; Silva, Eduardo Antônio Benedito; Granato, Celso; Chan, Edward K. L.; Andrade, Luís Eduardo C.

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel pattern in the indirect immunofluorescence antinuclear antibody assay on HEp-2 cells (IIF-HEp-2) characterized by cytoplasmic rods and rings (RR) was reported in HCV patients, but stringent disease specificity studies and longitudinal analysis are lacking. We investigated the clinical significance of anti-RR in an HCV cohort with up to a 12-month treatment follow up. Methodology/Results 597 patients (342 HCV, 55 HCV/HIV, 200 non-HCV) were screened and titered for anti-RR. Serial samples were available from 78 of 176 treated and 27 of 166 untreated patients. Anti-RR was detected in 14.1% of 342 HCV patients, 9.1% of 55 HCV/HIV, 3.4% of 29 Hepatitis B, and none of 171 non-HCV (p<0.0001; HCV versus non-HCV). Anti-RR was present in 38% of 108 patients receiving interferon-α/ribavirin, but none in 26 receiving either interferon-α or ribavirin, or 166 untreated patients (p<0.0001). Other IIF-HEp-2 patterns were more frequently associated with interferon-α treatment alone (52.2%) as compared to interferon-α/ribavirin (25%), ribavirin alone (33.3%), and no therapy (26.5%). Anti-RR frequency was not associated with sex, age, ethnicity, HCV genotype or viral load. Anti-RR occurred only after initiation of treatment, beginning as early as 1 month (6%), but by the sixth month >47% tested positive for anti-RR. The anti-RR titer generally increased with sustained treatment and remained high in 53% of patients. After treatment, anti-RR titer was negative in 41%. Non-responders to HCV therapy were 77% in anti-RR-positive versus 64% in anti-RR-negative patients. Response to treatment was not associated with anti-RR titer or the dynamics of anti-RR reactivity during and after treatment. Conclusions The exquisite association of anti-RR reactivity with combined interferon-α/ribavirin therapy in HCV patients represents a unique model for drug-induced autoantibody generation in humans as demonstrated by the fact that a significant fraction of patients who have

  15. Role of interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 single nucleotide polymorphism in natural clearance and treatment response of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Azam, Sikandar; Manzoor, Sobia; Imran, Muhammad; Ashraf, Javed; Ashraf, Sarah; Resham, Saleha; Ghani, Eijaz

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis and treatment outcomes are multifactorial phenomena involving both viral and host factors. This study was designed to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1(TRAIL-R1) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) genetic mutations in susceptibility and response to interferon-based therapy of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The detection of TRAIL-R1 rs4242392 and IFN-γ rs2069707 single nucleotide polymorphisms was completed in 118 chronic HCV patients and 96 healthy controls by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphisms polymerase chain reaction. Patients were further categorized into sustained virological responder (SVR) and nonresponder (NR) groups on the basis of their response to interferon-based therapy for HCV infection. Real-time PCR was used for HCV quantification. HCV genotyping was performed by Ohno's method. The results demonstrated that the distribution of the TRAIL-R1 rs4242392TT genotype was significantly higher in the SVR group (78%) compared to the NR group (36%). It showed that chronic HCV patients possessing the TRAIL-R1 rs4242392TT genotype are better responders to interferon-based therapy (p<0.05). The prevalence of the TRAIL-R1 rs4242392TT genotype in healthy controls and chronic HCV patients was 56% and 65% respectively. It indicated that there is the TRAIL-R1 rs4242392 genetic variation plays no role in the spontaneous clearance of HCV infection (p>0.05). The distribution of IFN-γ rs2069707 was the opposite to TRAIL-R1 rs4242392 prevalence, that is, there was high distribution of the IFN-γ rs2069707GG genotype in patients and healthy controls (p<0.05), while the prevalence of IFN-γ rs2069707GG in SVR and NR groups was comparable (p>0.05). In conclusion, genetic variation of TRAIL-R1 rs4242392 is linked with response to interferon-based therapy for HCV infection, and genetic variation IFN-γ rs2069707 is associated with

  16. Immune interferon inhibits proliferation and induces 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, S J; Friedman, G B; Libby, P

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) contributes to formation of the complicated human atherosclerotic plaque. These lesions also contain macrophages, known to secrete SMC mitogens, and T lymphocytes. Many of the SMC in the lesions express class II major histocompatibility antigens, an indication that activated T cells secrete immune IFN-gamma locally in the plaque. We therefore studied the effect of IFN-gamma on the proliferation of cultured SMC derived from adult human blood vessels. IFN-gamma (1,000 U/ml) reduced [3H]thymidine (TdR) incorporation into DNA by SMC stimulated with the well-defined mitogens IL 1 (from 15.3 +/- 0.7 to 6.2 +/- 0.7 dpm X 10(-3)/24 h) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (from 18.5 +/- 1.0 to 7.3 +/- 0.7 dpm X 10(-3)/24 h). Kinetic and nuclear labeling studies indicated that this effect of IFN-gamma was not due to altered thymidine transport or specific radioactivity of TdR in the cell. In longer term experiments (4-16 d) IFN-gamma prevented net DNA accumulation by SMC cultures stimulated by PDGF. IFN-gamma also delayed (from 30 to 60 min) the time to peak level of c-fos RNA in IL 1-treated SMC. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity caused these effects of IFN-gamma, as the inhibition of growth was reversible and we detected no cell death in SMC cultures exposed to this cytokine. Activation of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase gene expression may mediate certain antiproliferative and antiviral effects of interferons. Both IFN-gamma and type I IFNs (IFN-alpha or IFN-beta) induced 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase mRNA and enzyme activity in SMC cultures, but with concentration dependence and time course that may not account for all of IFN-gamma's cytostatic effect on SMC. The accumulation of SMC in human atherosclerotic lesions is a long-term process that must involve altered balance between growth stimulatory and inhibitory factors. The cytostatic effect of IFN-gamma on human SMC demonstrated here may influence this balance

  17. CYP450-dependent biotransformation of the insecticide fipronil into fipronil sulfone can mediate fipronil-induced thyroid disruption in rats.

    PubMed

    Roques, Béatrice B; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Puel, Sylvie; Gayrard, Véronique; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Jouanin, Isabelle; Perdu, Elisabeth; Martin, Pascal G; Viguié, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    In rats, the widely used insecticide fipronil increases the clearance of thyroxine (T(4)). This effect is associated with a high plasma concentration of fipronil sulfone, the fipronil main metabolite in several species including rats and humans. In sheep, following fipronil treatment, fipronil sulfone plasma concentration and thyroid disruption are much lower than in rats. We postulated that fipronil biotransformation into fipronil sulfone by hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP) could act as a potential thyroid disruptor. The aim of this study was to determine if fipronil sulfone treatment could reproduce the fipronil treatment effects on T(4) clearance and CYP induction in rats. Fipronil and fipronil sulfone treatments (3.4 μmol/kg/day per os, 14 days) increased total and free T(4) clearances to the same extent in THX + T(3), euthyroid-like rats. Both treatments induced a 2.5-fold increase in Ugt1a1 and Sult1b1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions and a twofold increase in UGT1A activity suggesting that T(4) elimination was mediated, at least in part, by hepatic uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and/or sulfotransferases (SULT) induction. Both treatments induced a 10-fold increase in Cyp3a1 and Cyp2b2 mRNA expressions concomitant with a threefold increase in CYP3A immunoreactivity and a 1.7-fold increase in antipyrine clearance, a biomarker of CYP3A activity. All these results showed that fipronil sulfone treatment could reproduce the fipronil treatment effects on T(4) clearance and hepatic enzyme induction in rats. The potential of fipronil sulfone to act as a thyroid disruptor is all the more critical because it persists much longer in the organism than fipronil itself. PMID:22447239

  18. CYP450-dependent biotransformation of the insecticide fipronil into fipronil sulfone can mediate fipronil-induced thyroid disruption in rats.

    PubMed

    Roques, Béatrice B; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Puel, Sylvie; Gayrard, Véronique; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Jouanin, Isabelle; Perdu, Elisabeth; Martin, Pascal G; Viguié, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    In rats, the widely used insecticide fipronil increases the clearance of thyroxine (T(4)). This effect is associated with a high plasma concentration of fipronil sulfone, the fipronil main metabolite in several species including rats and humans. In sheep, following fipronil treatment, fipronil sulfone plasma concentration and thyroid disruption are much lower than in rats. We postulated that fipronil biotransformation into fipronil sulfone by hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP) could act as a potential thyroid disruptor. The aim of this study was to determine if fipronil sulfone treatment could reproduce the fipronil treatment effects on T(4) clearance and CYP induction in rats. Fipronil and fipronil sulfone treatments (3.4 μmol/kg/day per os, 14 days) increased total and free T(4) clearances to the same extent in THX + T(3), euthyroid-like rats. Both treatments induced a 2.5-fold increase in Ugt1a1 and Sult1b1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions and a twofold increase in UGT1A activity suggesting that T(4) elimination was mediated, at least in part, by hepatic uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and/or sulfotransferases (SULT) induction. Both treatments induced a 10-fold increase in Cyp3a1 and Cyp2b2 mRNA expressions concomitant with a threefold increase in CYP3A immunoreactivity and a 1.7-fold increase in antipyrine clearance, a biomarker of CYP3A activity. All these results showed that fipronil sulfone treatment could reproduce the fipronil treatment effects on T(4) clearance and hepatic enzyme induction in rats. The potential of fipronil sulfone to act as a thyroid disruptor is all the more critical because it persists much longer in the organism than fipronil itself.

  19. Uninhibited thyroidal uptake of radioiodine despite iodine excess in amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersinga, W.M.; Touber, J.L.; Trip, M.D.; van Royen, E.A.

    1986-08-01

    Iodine excess is associated with a low thyroidal radioiodine uptake due to dilution of the radioisotope by the increased stable iodide pool. We studied thyroidal uptake of radioisotopes in cardiac patients with iodine excess due to amiodarone treatment. /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy was performed in 13 patients receiving long term amiodarone therapy. Five patients had a clearly visible thyroid gland, and 8 patients had no or a very faint thyroid image. All patients with positive scans had an increased plasma TSH level, whereas all patients with negative scans had a normal or absent TSH response to TRH. Thyroidal uptake and discharge of 123I were studied in 30 other patients. Group I (n = 11) had normal plasma TSH responses to TRH and no iodine excess, group II (n = 7) had normal TSH responses to TRH and excess iodine from metrizoate angiography in the previous month, group III (n = 7) had normal or decreased TSH responses to TRH while receiving long term amiodarone therapy, and group IV (n = 5) had increased TSH responses to TRH while receiving long term amiodarone therapy. The mean radioiodine uptake value in group I (5.4 +/- 0.8% (+/- SE) at 60 min) was higher than those in group II (2.3 +/- 0.7%; P = 0.009) and group III (0.8 +/- 0.3%; P = 0.0005), but not different from that in group IV (5.3 +/- 1.2%; P = NS). Radioiodine discharge after perchlorate (expressed as a percentage of the 60 min uptake) in group I (10.1 +/- 2.2%) was lower than those in group II (24.9 +/- 10.6%; P = 0.05) and group III (28.8 +/- 5.3%; P less than 0.005), whereas discharge in group IV (58.0 +/- 6.1%) was greater than those in group II (P less than 0.05) and group III (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, 1) thyroid visualization by /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate and thyroid radioiodine uptake during iodine excess are decreased in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients, but preserved in hypothyroid patients.

  20. Enhanced induction of thyroid cell MHC class II antigen expression in rats highly responsive to thyroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Lahat, N; Hirose, W; Davies, T F

    1989-04-01

    Initial experiments demonstrated that the degree of autoantibody and proliferative T cell responses to syngeneic rat thyroglobulin differed markedly between Buffalo (high responder) and Fisher (low responder) rats after classical immunization schedules. While varying immune responsiveness may be due to qualitative and quantitative T and B cell differences, the role of thyroid cell MHC class II antigens may be pivotal to the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis in such animal models. We, therefore, examined the induction of MHC class II antigens in thyroid monolayers derived from Buffalo and Fisher rats treated with methimazole (0.1% in their water) for 4 weeks to induce mild thyroid hyperplasia. After thyroidectomy, thyroid cell monolayers were prepared and exposed to recombinant rat gamma-interferon (gamma IF; 10-1000 U/ml) for 1-7 days in the presence and absence of TSH (1 mU/ml). Both Buffalo and Fisher thyroid monolayers responded to gamma IF with MHC class II antigen expression when assessed by laser flow cytometry using MRC OX-6 monoclonal anti-RT1.B. In both types of culture, TSH enhanced MHC class II antigen expression in the presence of gamma IF to the same degree. However, there was a consistently earlier and greater degree of MHC class II antigen expression in Buffalo thyroid monolayers compared to Fisher monolayers, a phenomenon not explicable on the basis of fibroblast contamination as assessed by cytokeratin staining. These data demonstrate that end-organ sensitivity to MHC class II antigen expression may be important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease.

  1. Effects of selected food factors with chemopreventive properties on combined lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-gamma-induced IkappaB degradation in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akira; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Koshimizu, Koichi; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2003-05-30

    Degradation of IkappaB (IkappaB) is a key step for nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-induced transcription of certain proinflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. We selected seven chemopreventive agents and examined their effects on combined lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-gamma-induced IkappaB degradation in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. IkappaB degradation was notably suppressed by 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), zerumbone (ZER), and benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), however, not by auraptene (AUR), while the suppressive potencies of nobiletin (NOB), genistein (GEN), and resveratrol (RES) were low, but significant. These results suggest that ACA, ZER, and BITC suppress iNOS/COX-2 gene expression mainly by attenuating IkappaB degradation, while other chemopreventive agents use alternative pathway(s) to suppress the expression of proinflammatory genes.

  2. Effects of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Action and Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ariyani, Winda; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Miyazaki, Wataru; Khongorzul, Erdene; Nakajima, Takahito; Kameo, Satomi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs). We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and TH-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture. We also measured the cellular accumulation and viability of Gd after representative GBCA treatments in cultured CV-1 cells. Both linear (Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis methyl acid, Gd-DTPA-BMA) and macrocyclic (Gd-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid, Gd-DOTA) GBCAs were accumulated without inducing cell death in CV-1 cells. By contrast, Gd chloride (GdCl3) treatment induced approximately 100 times higher Gd accumulation and significantly reduced the number of cells. Low doses of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−8 to 10−6M) augmented TR-mediated transcription, but the transcription was suppressed at higher dose (10−5 to 10−4M), with decreased β-galactosidase activity indicating cellular toxicity. TR-mediated transcription was not altered by Gd-DOTA or GdCl3, but the latter induced a significant reduction in β-galactosidase activity at high doses, indicating cellular toxicity. In cerebellar cultures, the dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells induced by 10−9M T4 was augmented by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−7M) but was suppressed by higher dose (10−5M). Such augmentation by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA was not observed with 10−9M T3, probably because of the greater dendrite arborization by T3; however, the arborization by T3 was suppressed by a higher dose of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−5M) as seen in T4 treatment. The effect of Gd-DOTA on dendrite arborization was much weaker

  3. Effects of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Action and Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ariyani, Winda; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Miyazaki, Wataru; Khongorzul, Erdene; Nakajima, Takahito; Kameo, Satomi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs). We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and TH-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture. We also measured the cellular accumulation and viability of Gd after representative GBCA treatments in cultured CV-1 cells. Both linear (Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis methyl acid, Gd-DTPA-BMA) and macrocyclic (Gd-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid, Gd-DOTA) GBCAs were accumulated without inducing cell death in CV-1 cells. By contrast, Gd chloride (GdCl3) treatment induced approximately 100 times higher Gd accumulation and significantly reduced the number of cells. Low doses of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−8 to 10−6M) augmented TR-mediated transcription, but the transcription was suppressed at higher dose (10−5 to 10−4M), with decreased β-galactosidase activity indicating cellular toxicity. TR-mediated transcription was not altered by Gd-DOTA or GdCl3, but the latter induced a significant reduction in β-galactosidase activity at high doses, indicating cellular toxicity. In cerebellar cultures, the dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells induced by 10−9M T4 was augmented by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−7M) but was suppressed by higher dose (10−5M). Such augmentation by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA was not observed with 10−9M T3, probably because of the greater dendrite arborization by T3; however, the arborization by T3 was suppressed by a higher dose of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−5M) as seen in T4 treatment. The effect of Gd-DOTA on dendrite arborization was much weaker

  4. Effects of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Action and Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ariyani, Winda; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Miyazaki, Wataru; Khongorzul, Erdene; Nakajima, Takahito; Kameo, Satomi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs). We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and TH-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture. We also measured the cellular accumulation and viability of Gd after representative GBCA treatments in cultured CV-1 cells. Both linear (Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis methyl acid, Gd-DTPA-BMA) and macrocyclic (Gd-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid, Gd-DOTA) GBCAs were accumulated without inducing cell death in CV-1 cells. By contrast, Gd chloride (GdCl3) treatment induced approximately 100 times higher Gd accumulation and significantly reduced the number of cells. Low doses of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10(-8) to 10(-6)M) augmented TR-mediated transcription, but the transcription was suppressed at higher dose (10(-5) to 10(-4)M), with decreased β-galactosidase activity indicating cellular toxicity. TR-mediated transcription was not altered by Gd-DOTA or GdCl3, but the latter induced a significant reduction in β-galactosidase activity at high doses, indicating cellular toxicity. In cerebellar cultures, the dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells induced by 10(-9)M T4 was augmented by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (10(-7)M) but was suppressed by higher dose (10(-5)M). Such augmentation by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA was not observed with 10(-9)M T3, probably because of the greater dendrite arborization by T3; however, the arborization by T3 was suppressed by a higher dose of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10(-5)M) as seen in T4 treatment. The effect of Gd-DOTA on dendrite arborization was much weaker

  5. Foreign body granulomatous reaction to silica, silicone, and hyaluronic acid in a patient with interferon-induced sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Novoa, R; Barnadas, M A; Torras, X; Curell, R; Alomar, A

    2013-12-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed sarcoid granulomas 11 months after starting treatment with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. The sites of the lesions were related to 3 different foreign bodies: silica in old scars on the skin, hyaluronic acid that had been injected into facial tissues, and silicone in an axillary lymph node draining the area of a breast implant. Systemic sarcoidosis was diagnosed on the basis of a history of dry cough and fever and blood tests that revealed elevated angiotensin converting enzyme and liver enzymes. Interruption of the antiviral therapy led to normalization of liver function tests and disappearance of the skin lesions and lymphadenopathies. Dermatologists and cosmetic surgeons should be aware of the risk of sarcoid lesions related to cosmetic implants in patients who may require treatment with interferon in the future.

  6. Novel properties of the protein kinase CK2-site-regulated nuclear- localization sequence of the interferon-induced nuclear factor IFI 16.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, L J; Johnstone, R W; Elliot, R M; Xiao, C Y; Dawson, M; Trapani, J A; Jans, D A

    2001-01-01

    Members of the interferon-induced class of nuclear factors possess a putative CcN motif, comparable with that within proteins such as the simian virus 40 large tumour antigen (T-ag), which confers phosphorylation-mediated regulation of nuclear-localization sequence (NLS)-dependent nuclear import. Here we examine the functionality of the interferon-induced factor 16 (IFI 16) CcN motif, demonstrating its ability to target a heterologous protein to the nucleus, and to be phosphorylated specifically by the CcN-motif-phosphorylating protein kinase CK2 (CK2). The IFI 16 NLS, however, has novel properties, conferring ATP-dependent nuclear import completely independent of cytosolic factors, as well as binding to nuclear components. The IFI 16 NLS is not recognized with high affinity by the NLS-binding importin heterodimer, and transport mediated by it is insensitive to non-hydrolysable GTP analogues. The IFI 16 NLS thus mediates nuclear import through a pathway completely distinct from that of conventional NLSs, such as that of T-ag, but intriguingly resembling that of the NLS of the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Since the IFI 16 CK2 site enhances nuclear import through facilitating binding to nuclear components, this represents a novel mechanism by which the site regulates nuclear-protein import, and constitutes a difference between the IFI 16 and Tat NLSs that may be of importance in the immune response. PMID:11115400

  7. Lymphadenopathy in a novel mouse model of Bartonella-induced cat scratch disease results from lymphocyte immigration and proliferation and is regulated by interferon-alpha/beta.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Stefanie; Oberle, Karin; Sander, Anna; Bogdan, Christian; Schleicher, Ulrike

    2008-04-01

    In immunocompetent humans, cat scratch disease (CSD) is elicited by the Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella henselae and is characterized by a benign regional lymphadenopathy, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of Bartonella-induced CSD-like disease that allowed us to investigate the mechanisms leading to lymphadenopathy in vivo. In wild-type mice, a subcutaneous inoculation of either viable or inactivated B. henselae led to a strong swelling of the draining lymph node, which was long-lasting despite the rapid elimination of the bacteria. Carboxyfluorescein- and bromodesoxyuridine-labeling experiments showed that lymph node enlargement resulted from modified immigration and enhanced proliferation of lymphocytes, preferentially of B cells. A comparative analysis of B. henselae and the rodent pathogen B. grahamii in wild-type versus interferon-alpha/beta-receptor I chain-deficient mice revealed that interferon-alpha/beta is not only differentially induced by these two Bartonella species but also exerts an inhibitory effect on the development of lymphadenopathy both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that the lymphadenopathy of human CSD can be reproduced and studied in a mouse model and provide the first insights into the underlying immunological mechanisms.

  8. An inducible knockout mouse to model the cell-autonomous role of PTEN in initiating endometrial, prostate and thyroid neoplasias

    PubMed Central

    Mirantes, Cristina; Eritja, Núria; Dosil, Maria Alba; Santacana, Maria; Pallares, Judit; Gatius, Sónia; Bergadà, Laura; Maiques, Oscar; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. The role of PTEN in carcinogenesis has been validated by knockout mouse models. PTEN heterozygous mice develop neoplasms in multiple organs. Unfortunately, the embryonic lethality of biallelic excision of PTEN has inhibited the study of complete PTEN deletion in the development and progression of cancer. By crossing PTEN conditional knockout mice with transgenic mice expressing a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT under the control of a chicken actin promoter, we have generated a tamoxifen-inducible mouse model that allows temporal control of PTEN deletion. Interestingly, administration of a single dose of tamoxifen resulted in PTEN deletion mainly in epithelial cells, but not in stromal, mesenchymal or hematopoietic cells. Using the mT/mG double-fluorescent Cre reporter mice, we demonstrate that epithelial-specific PTEN excision was caused by differential Cre activity among tissues and cells types. Tamoxifen-induced deletion of PTEN resulted in extremely rapid and consistent formation of endometrial in situ adenocarcinoma, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and thyroid hyperplasia. We also analyzed the role of PTEN ablation in other epithelial cells, such as the tubular cells of the kidney, hepatocytes, colonic epithelial cells or bronchiolar epithelium, but those tissues did not exhibit neoplastic growth. Finally, to validate this model as a tool to assay the efficacy of anti-tumor drugs in PTEN deficiency, we administered the mTOR inhibitor everolimus to mice with induced PTEN deletion. Everolimus dramatically reduced the progression of endometrial proliferations and significantly reduced thyroid hyperplasia. This model could be a valuable tool to study the cell-autonomous mechanisms involved in PTEN-loss-induced carcinogenesis and provides a good platform to study the effect of anti-neoplastic drugs on PTEN-negative tumors. PMID:23471917

  9. IL-12 immunotherapy of Braf(V600E)-induced papillary thyroid cancer in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parhar, Ranjit S; Zou, Minjing; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A; Baitei, Essa Y; Assiri, Abdullah M; Meyer, Brian F; Shi, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for >80% thyroid malignancies, and BRAF(V600E) mutation is frequently found in >40% PTC. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a proinflammatory heterodimeric cytokine with strong antitumor activity. It is not known whether IL-12 immunotherapy is effective against Braf(V600E)-induced PTC. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of IL-12 immunotherapy against Braf(V600E)-induced PTC in LSL-Braf(V600E)/TPO-Cre mice. LSL-Braf(V600E)/TPO-Cre mice were created for thyroid-specific expression of Braf(V600E) under the endogenous Braf promoter, and spontaneous PTC developed at about 5 weeks of age. The mice were subjected to two treatment regimens: (1) weekly intramuscular injection of 50 μg plasmid DNA expressing a single-chain IL-12 fusion protein (scIL-12/CMVpDNA), (2) daily intraperitoneal injection of mouse recombinant IL-12 protein (mrIL-12, 100 ng per day). The role of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in IL-12-mediated antitumor effects was determined by a (51)Cr-release cytotoxicity assay. Tumor size and weight were significantly reduced by either weekly intramuscular injection of scIL-12/CMVpDNA or daily intraperitoneal injection of mrIL-12, and tumor became more localized. Survival was significantly increased when treatment started at 1 week of age as compared with that at the 6 weeks of age. Both NK and CD8(+) T cells were involved in the cytotoxicity against tumor cells and their antitumor activity was significantly reduced in tumor-bearing mice. TGF-β also inhibited the antitumor activity of NK and CD8(+) T cells. The immune suppression was completely reversed by IL-12 treatment and partially recovered by anti-TGF-β antibody. We conclude that both IL-12 gene therapy and recombinant protein therapy are effective against PTC. Given that the immune response is significantly suppressed in tumor-bearing mice and can be restored by IL-12, the current study raises a

  10. Autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Di Domenicantonio, Andrea; Fallahi, Poupak

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) result from a dysregulation of the immune system leading to an immune attack on the thyroid. AITD are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. The prevalence of AITD is estimated to be 5%; however, the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies may be even higher. The AITD comprise two main clinical presentations: Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), both characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma. The clinical hallmarks of GD and HT are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. The mechanisms that trigger the autoimmune attack to the thyroid are still under investigation. Epidemiological data suggest an interaction among genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers as the key factor leading to the breakdown of tolerance and the development of disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of AT and GD. In thyroid tissue, recruited T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 (the prototype of the IFN-γ-inducible Th1 chemokines) secretion from the thyroid cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, initiating and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Associations exist between AITD and other organ specific (polyglandular autoimmune syndromes), or systemic autoimmune disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, cryoglobulinemia, sarcoidosis, psoriatic arthritis). Moreover, several studies have shown an association of AITD and papillary thyroid cancer. These data suggest that AITD patients should be accurately monitored for thyroid dysfunctions, the appearance of thyroid nodules, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25461470

  11. Apoptosis Induced by Mammalian Reovirus Is Beta Interferon (IFN) Independent and Enhanced by IFN Regulatory Factor 3- and NF-κB-Dependent Expression of Noxa

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Jonathan J.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of signal transduction pathways are activated in response to viral infection, which dampen viral replication and transmission. These mechanisms involve both the induction of type I interferons (IFNs), which evoke an antiviral state, and the triggering of apoptosis. Mammalian orthoreoviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that elicit apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) are required for the expression of IFN-β and the efficient induction of apoptosis in reovirus-infected cells. However, it is not known whether IFN-β induction is required for apoptosis, nor have the genes induced by IRF-3 and NF-κB that are responsible for apoptosis been identified. To determine whether IFN-β is required for reovirus-induced apoptosis, we used type I IFN receptor-deficient cells, IFN-specific antibodies, and recombinant IFN-β. We found that IFN synthesis and signaling are dispensable for the apoptosis of reovirus-infected cells. These results indicate that the apoptotic response following reovirus infection is mediated directly by genes responsive to IRF-3 and NF-κB. Noxa is a proapoptotic BH3-domain-only protein of the Bcl-2 family that requires IRF-3 and NF-κB for efficient expression. We found that Noxa is strongly induced at late times (36 to 48 h) following reovirus infection in a manner dependent on IRF-3 and NF-κB. The level of apoptosis induced by reovirus is significantly diminished in cells lacking Noxa, indicating a key prodeath function for this molecule during reovirus infection. These results suggest that prolonged innate immune response signaling induces apoptosis by eliciting Noxa expression in reovirus-infected cells. PMID:22090144

  12. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  13. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  14. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocking production of thyroid hormones and resulting in hypothyroidism . TBII is not routinely tested, but TSI is ... autoimmune disease . A low level of thyroid hormones ( hypothyroidism ) can cause symptoms, such as: Weight gain Fatigue ...

  15. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ...

  16. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... food Nodules that produce thyroid hormones will likely cause symptoms of overactive thyroid gland , including: Warm, sweaty skin Fast pulse Increased appetite Nervousness Restlessness Skin blushing or flushing Weight loss Irregular menstrual periods Older ...

  17. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  18. Interferon-γ mediates anemia but is dispensable for Fulminant Toll-Like Receptor 9-induced Macrophage Activation Syndrome and Hemophagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Canna, Scott W.; Wrobel, Julia; Chu, Niansheng; Kreiger, Portia A.; Paessler, Michele; Behrens, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) is a devastating cytokine storm syndrome complicating many inflammatory diseases and characterized by fever, pancytopenia, and systemic inflammation. It is clinically similar to Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), which is caused by viral infection of a host with impaired cellular cytotoxicity. Murine models of MAS and HLH illustrate Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) as the driving stimulus for hemophagocytosis and immunopathology. We sought to understand the inflammatory contributors to a murine model of Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9)-induced fulminant MAS. Methods Wild-type (WT), transgenic, and cytokine-inhibited mice were treated with an IL-10 receptor blocking antibody and TLR9 agonist, and parameters of MAS were evaluated. Results Fulminant MAS was characterized by dramatic elevations in IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-6. Serum IFN-γ correlated with enhanced IFN-γ production within some hepatic populations, but fewer IFN-γ+ cells. Surprisingly, IFN-γKO mice developed immunopathology and hemophagocytosis comparably to WT mice. However, IFN-γKO mice did not become anemic and had greater numbers of splenic erythroid precursors. IL-12 neutralization phenocopied disease in IFN-γKO mice. Interestingly, Type I interferons contributed to the severity of hypercytokinemia and weight loss, but their absence did not otherwise affect MAS manifestations. Conclusion These data demonstrate that both fulminant MAS and hemophagocytosis can arise independently of IFN-γ, IL-12, or Type I interferons. They also suggest that IFN-γ-mediated dyserythropoiesis, not hemophagocytosis, is the dominant cause of anemia in fulminant TLR9-MAS. Thus, our data establish a novel mechanism for the acute anemia of inflammation, but suggest that a variety of triggers can result in hemophagocytic disease. PMID:23553372

  19. Are thyroid hormones mediators of incubation temperature-induced phenotypes in birds?

    PubMed Central

    DuRant, S. E.; Carter, A. W.; Denver, R. J.; Hepp, G. R.; Hopkins, W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Incubation temperature influences a suite of traits in avian offspring. However, the mechanisms underlying expression of these phenotypes are unknown. Given the importance of thyroid hormones in orchestrating developmental processes, we hypothesized that they may act as an upstream mechanism mediating the effects of temperature on hatchling phenotypic traits such as growth and thermoregulation. We found that plasma T3, but not T4 concentrations, differed among newly hatched wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from different embryonic incubation temperatures. T4 at hatching correlated with time spent hatching, and T3 correlated with hatchling body condition, tarsus length, time spent hatching and incubation period. In addition, the T3 : T4 ratio differed among incubation temperatures at hatch. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that incubation temperature modulates plasma thyroid hormones which in turn influences multiple aspects of duckling phenotype. PMID:24402717

  20. Thyroid Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Myxedema coma and thyroid storm are thyroid emergencies associated with increased mortality. Prompt recognition of these states-which represent the severe, life-threatening conditions of extremely reduced or elevated circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively-is necessary to initiate treatment. Management of myxedema coma and thyroid storm requires both medical and supportive therapies and should be treated in an intensive care unit setting. PMID:27598067

  1. MODEST THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY DURING DEVELOPMENT INDUCES A CELLULAR MALFORMATION IN THE CORPUS CALLOSUM: A MODEL OF CORTICAL DYSPLASIA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing body of evidence that subtle decreases in maternal thyroid hormone during gestation can impact fetal brain development. The present study examined the impact of graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency on brain development in rodents. Maternal thyroid ho...

  2. Prevention of corticosteroid-induced suppression of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte-induced damage of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Roilides, E; Uhlig, K; Venzon, D; Pizzo, P A; Walsh, T J

    1993-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) are a critical line of defense against Aspergillus fumigatus infection. Increased frequency of invasive aspergillosis has been observed in patients receiving corticosteroids, suggesting a deleterious effect of these compounds on PMN antifungal function. To investigate this hypothesis and to determine the potential preventive utility of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), the effects of hydrocortisone (HCS) and dexamethasone (DXS) on PMN-induced damage of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae were studied with or without pretreatment of PMNs with G-CSF and IFN-gamma. PMNs treated with HCS (> or = 3,000 microM) or DXS (> or = 10 microM) during a 2-h colorimetric tetrazolium metabolic assay (using methylthiotetrazolium) showed suppressed percentage of hyphal damage (P < 0.02). In addition, both HCS (> or = 30 microM) and DXS (> or = 1 microM) significantly suppressed oxidative burst measured as superoxide anion release by PMNs in response to opsonized and nonopsonized hyphae as well as to N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine. Pretreatment of PMNs with G-CSF (4,000 U/ml) and/or IFN-gamma (100 and 1,000 U/ml) for 90 min prevented the suppression of hyphal damage that occurred in the presence of HCS (3,000 microM; P < 0.01) or DXS (10 microM; P < or = 0.001). G-CSF (4,000 U/ml) and IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) combined had an additive effect on increasing the antifungal activity of HCS-treated but not of DXS-treated PMNs compared with IFN-gamma alone (P = 0.015). Thus, these findings reveal that corticosteroids impair PMN function in response to A. fumigatus and that G-CSF and IFN-gamma prevent this impairment. PMID:7691757

  3. Killing of human melanoma cells induced by activation of class I interferon-regulated signaling pathways via MDA-7/IL-24.

    PubMed

    Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Mumm, John B; Udtha, Malini; Chada, Sunil; Grimm, Elizabeth A

    2008-07-01

    Restoration of the tumor-suppression function by gene transfer of the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7 (MDA7)/interleukin 24 (IL-24) successfully induces apoptosis in melanoma tumors in vivo. To address the molecular mechanisms involved, we previously revealed that MDA7/IL-24 treatment of melanoma cells down-regulates interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 expression and concomitantly up-regulates IRF-2 expression, which competes with the activity of IRF-1 and reverses the induction of IRF-1-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Interferons (IFNs) influence melanoma cell survival by modulating apoptosis. A class I IFN (IFN-alpha) has been approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma with some limited success. A class II IFN (IFN-gamma), on the other hand, supports melanoma cell survival, possibly through constitutive activation of iNOS expression. We therefore conducted this study to explore the molecular pathways of MDA7/IL-24 regulation of apoptosis via the intracellular induction of IFNs in melanoma. We hypothesized that the restoration of the MDA7/IL-24 axis leads to upregulation of class I IFNs and induction of the apoptotic cascade. We found that MDA7/IL-24 induces the secretion of endogenous IFN-beta, another class I IFN, leading to the arrest of melanoma cell growth and apoptosis. We also identified a series of apoptotic markers that play a role in this pathway, including the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas-FasL. In summary, we described a novel pathway of MDA7/IL-24 regulation of apoptosis in melanoma tumors via endogenous IFN-beta induction followed by IRF regulation and TRAIL/FasL system activation. PMID:18511292

  4. Resveratrol improved the spatial learning and memory in subclinical hypothyroidism rat induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Xu, Ya-Yun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yue; Qiu, Guo-Liang; Chu, Cheng-Hao; Wang, Cai-Yun; Qin, Gan; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on the spatial learning and memory ability in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) rat model and the potential mechanism. A SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization and the activity of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis was detected. The spatial learning and memory ability was tested using Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze. The protein expressions of synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured via western blot. The results showed that SCH rat model was successfully duplicated. The SCH rats showed impaired learning and memory in the behavioral tests. However, these changes were reversed by the treatment of RES (15mg/kg) and levothyroxine (LT4). Moreover, RES treated rats exhibited reduced plasma TSH level and hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA expression, which suggested that the imbalance of HPT axis in the SCH rats could be reversed by RES treatment. Furthermore, RES treatment up-regulated the protein levels of syt-1 and BDNF in hippocampus. These findings indicated an amelioration effect of RES on the spatial learning and memory in the SCH rats, the mechanism of which might be involved with its ability of modifying the hyperactive HPT axis and up-regulating the hippocampal hypo-expression of syt-1 and BDNF. PMID:26228795

  5. Oligodendrocytes exhibit selective expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling genes and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 independent inhibition of interferon-gamma-induced toxicity in response to leukemia inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Emery, B; Butzkueven, H; Snell, C; Binder, M; Kilpatrick, T J

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the CNS that results in the death of oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS. Previous studies have indicated that the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor prevents the cytotoxic effects of interferon-gamma on oligodendrocytes in vitro, and the death of oligodendrocytes in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Members of a recently characterized family of proteins, the suppressors of cytokine signaling, have been demonstrated to mediate negative cross-talk between cytokines, with induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling proteins by one cytokine inhibiting the activity of a second. Here, we assess whether induction of members of the suppressors of cytokine signaling family could explain the antagonistic biological effects of leukemia inhibitory factor and interferon-gamma upon oligodendrocytes. It is found that leukemia inhibitory factor rapidly and strongly induces the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling-3 in cultured rat oligodendrocytes, whereas interferon-gamma weakly induces the expression of both suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 and 3. Pre-treatment of oligodendrocytes with leukemia inhibitory factor does not prevent the subsequent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 by interferon-gamma indicating that the leukemia inhibitory factor inhibition of interferon-gamma toxicity in oligodendrocytes is mediated by a suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 independent mechanism.

  6. Thyroid diseases in elderly.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Marciello, F; Marotta, V; Ramundo, V; Colao, A

    2011-09-01

    hypothyroidism, anti-thyroid drugs in case of hyperthyroidism and use of surgery, radioiodine therapy and percutaneous ablative procedures in selected cases. In conclusion, thyroid diseases in patients older than 60 years deserve attention from different points of view: the prevalence is different from the young adult; symptoms are more nuanced and makes difficult the diagnosis; age and comorbidity often force therapeutic choices and may limit safety and efficacy of therapy. Finally, in elderly patients for whom specific therapy is necessary, more gradual and careful therapeutic approach and close follow-up are recommended in order to minimize the alterations of thyroid function which are induced by many drugs commonly used in clinical practice. PMID:22019751

  7. Hypoxia Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Follicular Thyroid Cancer: Involvement of Regulation of Twist by Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yeon Ju; Na, Hwi Jung; Suh, Michelle J.; Ban, Myung Jin; Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Won Shik; Kim, Jae Wook; Choi, Eun Chang; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Chang, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a relatively fair prognosis, distant metastasis sometimes results in poor prognosis and survival. There is little understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the aggressiveness potential of thyroid cancer. We showed that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) induced aggressiveness in FTC cells and identified the underlying mechanism of the HIF-1α-induced invasive characteristics. Materials and Methods Cells were cultured under controlled hypoxic environments (1% O2) or normoxic conditions. The effect of hypoxia on HIF-1α, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related markers were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Invasion and wound healing assay were conducted to identify functional character of EMT. The involvement of HIF-1α and Twist in EMT were studied using gene overexpression or silencing. After orthotopic nude mouse model was established using the cells transfected with lentiviral shHIF-1α, tissue analysis was done. Results Hypoxia induces HIF-1α expression and EMT, including typical morphologic changes, cadherin shift, and increased vimentin expression. We showed that overexpression of HIF-1α via transfection resulted in the aforementioned changes without hypoxia, and repression of HIF-1α with RNA interference suppressed hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and EMT. Furthermore, we also observed that Twist expression was regulated by HIF-1α. These were confirmed in the orthotopic FTC model. Conclusion Hypoxia induced HIF-1α, which in turn induced EMT, resulting in the increased capacity for invasion and migration of cells via regulation of the Twist signal pathway in FTC cells. These findings provide insight into a possible therapeutic strategy to prevent invasive and metastatic FTC. PMID:26446630

  8. ATP1B3: a virus-induced host factor against EV71 replication by up-regulating the production of type-I interferons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanfang; Hou, Hongyan; Wang, Feng; Qiao, Long; Wang, Xiong; Yu, Jing; Liu, Weiyong; Sun, Ziyong

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe diseases, and is becoming increasingly common in children. In the current study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid assays to screen human proteins that could interact with 3A protein of EV71. Human β3 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1B3) protein was demonstrated to interact with the 3A protein of EV71. Although 3A protein had no effect on the expression of ATP1B3, EV71 infection resulted in elevated expression of ATP1B3 in RD cell line, both on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Interestingly, knockdown of ATP1B3 could significantly increase the replication of EV71, whereas overexpression of ATP1B3 significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 in RD cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of ATP1B3 could induce the production of type-I interferons. Our study demonstrated that ATP1B3 inhibit EV71 replication by enhancing the production of type-I interferons, which could act as a potential therapeutic target in EV71 infection. PMID:27240146

  9. ATP1B3: a virus-induced host factor against EV71 replication by up-regulating the production of type-I interferons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanfang; Hou, Hongyan; Wang, Feng; Qiao, Long; Wang, Xiong; Yu, Jing; Liu, Weiyong; Sun, Ziyong

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe diseases, and is becoming increasingly common in children. In the current study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid assays to screen human proteins that could interact with 3A protein of EV71. Human β3 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1B3) protein was demonstrated to interact with the 3A protein of EV71. Although 3A protein had no effect on the expression of ATP1B3, EV71 infection resulted in elevated expression of ATP1B3 in RD cell line, both on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Interestingly, knockdown of ATP1B3 could significantly increase the replication of EV71, whereas overexpression of ATP1B3 significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 in RD cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of ATP1B3 could induce the production of type-I interferons. Our study demonstrated that ATP1B3 inhibit EV71 replication by enhancing the production of type-I interferons, which could act as a potential therapeutic target in EV71 infection.

  10. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered interferon alfacon-1 to help treat your hepatitis C infection. The drug will be injected under your ... a synthetic interferon that helps to prevent the hepatitis C virus from growing inside your body. This medication ...

  11. Activation of RNase L by Murine Coronavirus in Myeloid Cells Is Dependent on Basal Oas Gene Expression and Independent of Virus-Induced Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Birdwell, L. Dillon; Zalinger, Zachary B.; Li, Yize; Wright, Patrick W.; Elliott, Ruth; Rose, Kristine M.; Silverman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway is a potent interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral activity. Upon sensing double-stranded RNA, OAS produces 2′,5′-oligoadenylates (2-5A), which activate RNase L. Murine coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus [MHV]) nonstructural protein 2 (ns2) is a 2′,5′-phosphodiesterase (PDE) that cleaves 2-5A, thereby antagonizing RNase L activation. PDE activity is required for robust replication in myeloid cells, as a mutant of MHV (ns2H126R) encoding an inactive PDE fails to antagonize RNase L activation and replicates poorly in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), while ns2H126R replicates to high titer in several types of nonmyeloid cells, as well as in IFN receptor-deficient (Ifnar1−/−) BMM. We reported previously that myeloid cells express significantly higher basal levels of OAS transcripts than nonmyeloid cells. Here, we investigated the contributions of Oas gene expression, basal IFN signaling, and virus-induced IFN to RNase L activation. Infection with ns2H126R activated RNase L in Ifih1−/− BMM to a similar extent as in wild-type (WT) BMM, despite the lack of IFN induction in the absence of MDA5 expression. However, ns2H126R failed to induce RNase L activation in BMM treated with IFNAR1-blocking antibody, as well as in Ifnar1−/− BMM, both expressing low basal levels of Oas genes. Thus, activation of RNase L does not require virus-induced IFN but rather correlates with adequate levels of basal Oas gene expression, maintained by basal IFN signaling. Finally, overexpression of RNase L is not sufficient to compensate for inadequate basal OAS levels. IMPORTANCE The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway is a potent antiviral activity. Activation of RNase L during murine coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus [MHV]) infection of myeloid cells correlates with high basal Oas gene expression and is independent of virus-induced interferon secretion. Thus, our data suggest that cells with high basal

  12. Regulatory role of estrogen-induced reactive oxygen species in the modulatory function of UCP 2 in papillary thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hima, Sithul; Sreeja, Sreeharshan

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress is postulated as one of the mechanisms underlying the estrogen's carcinogenic effect in thyroid cancer. But the fundamental mechanisms behind this carcinogenic effect remain elusive. Physiologically attainable concentrations of estrogen or estrogen metabolites have been made known to cause reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is envisioned that estrogen-induced ROS mediated signaling is a key congruent mechanism that drives the modulation of uncoupled proteins in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells. The present study investigates that estrogens may increase mitochondrial ROS production by repressing uncoupling proteins, which offers a new perspective on the understanding of why thyroid cancer occurs three times more often in females than in males, and the occurrence decreases after menopause. PMID:26450681

  13. PATZ1 is a target of miR-29b that is induced by Ha-Ras oncogene in rat thyroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, Michela; Valentino, Teresa; De Menna, Marta; Crescenzi, Elvira; Francesca, Paola; Rea, Domenica; Arra, Claudio; Fusco, Alfredo; De Vita, Gabriella; Cerchia, Laura; Fedele, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory transcriptional factor PATZ1 is constantly downregulated in human thyroid cancer where it acts as a tumour suppressor by targeting p53-dependent genes involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and cell migration. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the upstream signalling mechanisms regulating PATZ1 expression in thyroid cancer cells. The bioinformatics search for microRNAs able to potentially target PATZ1 led to the identification of several miRNAs. Among them we focused on the miR-29b since it was found upregulated in rat thyroid differentiated cells transformed by the Ha-Ras oncogene towards a high proliferating and high migratory phenotype resembling that of anaplastic carcinomas. Functional assays confirmed PATZ1 as a target of miR-29b, and, consistently, an inverse correlation between miR-29b and PATZ1 protein levels was found upon induction of Ha-Ras oncogene expression in these cells. Interestingly, restoration of PATZ1 expression in rat thyroid cells stably expressing the Ha-Ras oncogene decreased cell proliferation and migration, indicating a key role of PATZ1 in Ras-driven thyroid transformation. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism regulating PATZ1 expression based on the upregulation of miR-29b expression induced by Ras oncogene. PMID:27125250

  14. Relative sensitivities of viruses to different species of interferon.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W E; Scott, W D; Sulkin, S E

    1969-08-01

    Some viruses were found to be more sensitive than others to the action of interferons from certain species of animals but less sensitive to interferons from other species. Vaccinia virus was the most sensitive to mouse and hamster interferons of five viruses tested, but the least sensitive of these five viruses to human, rabbit, and bat interferons. The relative sensitivities of the viruses to interferons were found to be characteristic for each of the species tested, with those closely related phylogenetically exhibiting similar patterns of relative interferon-induced virus resistance. The amount of synthetic double-stranded polynucleotide polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid required to induce resistance to each of the viruses in each of the cell species correlated with the interferon sensitivities of the viruses. PMID:4308914

  15. Association of elevated transcript levels of interferon-inducible chemokines with disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiong; Chen, Xiaoqing; Cui, Huijuan; Guo, Yanzhi; Chen, Jing; Shen, Nan; Bao, Chunde

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disease with a heterogeneous course and varying degrees of severity and organ damage; thus, there is increasing interest in identifying biomarkers for SLE. In this study we correlated the combined expression level of multiple interferon-inducible chemokines with disease activity, degree of organ damage and clinical features in SLE, and we investigated their roles as biomarkers. Methods Peripheral blood cells obtained from 67 patients with SLE patients, 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 23 healthy donors were subjected to real-time PCR in order to measure the transcriptional levels of seven interferon-inducible chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1, CCL19, MIG, IP-10, CXCL11, and IL-8). The data were used to calculate a chemokine score for each participant, after which comparisons were performed between various groups of SLE patients and control individuals. Results Chemokine scores were significantly elevated in SLE patients versus RA patients and healthy donors (P = 0.012 and P = 0.002, respectively). Chemokine scores were correlated positively with SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 scores (P = 0.005) and negatively with C3 levels (P < 0.001). Compared with patients without lupus nephritis and those with inactive lupus nephritis, chemokine scores were elevated in patients with active lupus nephritis, especially when their daily prednisone dosage was under 30 mg (P = 0.002 and P = 0.014, respectively). Elevated chemokine scores were also associated with the presence of cumulative organ damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American Society of Rheumatology Damage Index ≥ 1; P = 0.010) and the occurrence of anti-Sm or anti-RNP autoantibodies (both P = 0.021). Conclusions The combined transcription level of interferon-inducible chemokines in peripheral blood leucocytes is closely associated with disease activity, degree of organ damage, and specific autoantibody patterns

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L. . E-mail: clkeen@ucdavis.edu

    2006-09-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis.

  17. Microcystin-LR induced thyroid dysfunction and metabolic disorders in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun; Steinman, Alan D

    2015-02-01

    There is growing evidence that microcystins (MCs) act as hazardous materials and can disrupt the endocrine systems of animals. However, the response of thyroid function and the related energy metabolism following MCs exposure is still unknown. In the present study, mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with doses of either 5 or 20 μg/kg MC-LR for 4 weeks. We report, for the first time, that mice exposed to 20 μg/kg MC-LR showed disrupted glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism with obvious symptoms of hyperphagia, polydipsia, and weight loss. The circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels in mice following MC-LR exposure were detected. Significantly increased free triiodothyronine (FT3) and decreased free thyroxin (FT4) were largely responsible for the physiological aberrations and metabolic disorders observed in mice after the 20 μg/kg MC-LR exposure. Increased expression of TH receptor (Trα) and mTOR expression in the brain after the 20 μg/kg MC-LR exposure suggests that the increased FT3 enhanced mTOR signaling subsequently led to hyperphagia and elevated energy expenditure in mice. Furthermore, several genes involved in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, which have been identified affected by TH, were also differentially expressed after MC-LR exposure. The above results clearly showed that mice exposed to MC-LR experienced thyroid dysfunction and its downstream functional changes, and are useful to better understand the endocrine toxicity of MC-LR to mammals or even humans.

  18. Microcystin-LR induced thyroid dysfunction and metabolic disorders in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun; Steinman, Alan D

    2015-02-01

    There is growing evidence that microcystins (MCs) act as hazardous materials and can disrupt the endocrine systems of animals. However, the response of thyroid function and the related energy metabolism following MCs exposure is still unknown. In the present study, mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with doses of either 5 or 20 μg/kg MC-LR for 4 weeks. We report, for the first time, that mice exposed to 20 μg/kg MC-LR showed disrupted glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism with obvious symptoms of hyperphagia, polydipsia, and weight loss. The circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels in mice following MC-LR exposure were detected. Significantly increased free triiodothyronine (FT3) and decreased free thyroxin (FT4) were largely responsible for the physiological aberrations and metabolic disorders observed in mice after the 20 μg/kg MC-LR exposure. Increased expression of TH receptor (Trα) and mTOR expression in the brain after the 20 μg/kg MC-LR exposure suggests that the increased FT3 enhanced mTOR signaling subsequently led to hyperphagia and elevated energy expenditure in mice. Furthermore, several genes involved in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, which have been identified affected by TH, were also differentially expressed after MC-LR exposure. The above results clearly showed that mice exposed to MC-LR experienced thyroid dysfunction and its downstream functional changes, and are useful to better understand the endocrine toxicity of MC-LR to mammals or even humans. PMID:25497113

  19. Chemical contamination and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H

    2015-02-01

    Industrial chemical contaminants have a variable impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, this depending both on their class and on confounding factors. Today, mounting evidence is pointing to the role of environmental factors, and specifically EDCs, in the current distressing upsurge in the incidence of thyroid disease. The unease is warranted. These substances, which are nowadays rife in our environments (including in foodstuffs), have been shown to interfere with thyroid hormone action, biosynthesis, and metabolism, resulting in disruption of tissue homeostasis and/or thyroid function. Importantly, based on the concept of the "nonmonotonic dose-response curve", the relationship between dose and effect has often been found to be nonlinear. Thus, small doses can induce unpredictable, adverse effects, one case being polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), of which congener(s) may centrally inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, or dissociate thyroid receptor and selectively affect thyroid hormone signaling and action. This means that PCBs can act as agonists or antagonists at the receptor level, underlining the complexity of the interaction. This review highlights the multifold activity of chemicals demonstrated to cause thyroid disruption. It also represents a call to action among clinicians to undertake systematic monitoring of thyroid function and registering of the classes of EDs and additionally urges broader scientific collaborations to clarify these chemicals' molecular mechanisms of action, substances whose prevalence in our environments is disrupting not only the thyroid but all life on earth. PMID:25294013

  20. Maternal high-fat diet induces obesity and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction in male rat offspring at weaning.

    PubMed

    Franco, J G; Fernandes, T P; Rocha, C P D; Calviño, C; Pazos-Moura, C C; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G; Trevenzoli, I H

    2012-11-01

    maternal body fat and this additional energy is transferred to the offspring during lactation, since at weaning the dams had normal fat and the pups were obese. The higher fat and protein concentrations in the breast milk seemed to induce early overnutrition in the HF offspring. In addition to storing energy as fat, the HF offspring had a larger reserve of glycogen and hyperglycaemia that may have resulted from increased gluconeogenesis. Hyperleptinaemia may stimulate both adrenal medullary and thyroid function, which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. These early changes induced by the maternal high-fat diet may contribute to development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22869015

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of 2, 3′, 4, 4′, 5-Pentachlorobiphenyl-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in FRTL-5 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Li, Wen; Tang, Jinmei; Xu, Bojin; Sun, Minne; Ding, Guoxian; Jiang, Lin; Cui, Dai; Zheng, Xuqin; Duan, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can severely interfere with multiple animals and human systems. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying 2, 3′, 4, 4′, 5- pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118)-induced thyroid dysfunction, Fischer rat thyroid cell line-5(FRTL-5) cells were treated with either different concentrations of PCB118 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The effects of PCB118 on FRTL-5 cells viability and apoptosis were assessed by using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and apoptosis assays, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify protein kinase B (Akt), Forkhead box protein O3a (FoxO3a), and sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA expression levels. Western blotting was used to detect Akt, phospho-Akt (p-Akt), FoxO3a, phospho-FoxO3a (p-FoxO3a), and NIS protein levels. Luciferase reporter gene technology was used to detect the transcriptional activities of FoxO3a and NIS promoters. The effects of the constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) and dominant-negative Akt (DN-Akt) plasmids on p-Akt, p-FoxO3a, and NIS levels were examined in PCB118-treated FRTL-5 cells. The effects of FoxO3a siRNA on FoxO3a, p-FoxO3a, and NIS protein levels were examined in the PCB118-treated FRTL-5 cells. The effects of pcDNA3 (plsmid vectors designed for high-level stable and transient expression in mammalian host)-FoxO3a on NIS promoter activity were examined in the PCB118-treated FRTL-5 cells. Our results indicated that relatively higher PCB118 concentrations can inhibit cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Akt, p-Akt, and p-FoxO3a protein or mRNA levels increased significantly in PCB118-treated groups and NIS protein and mRNA levels decreased considerably compared with the control groups. FoxO3a promoter activity increased significantly, whereas NIS promoter activity decreased. These effects on p-FoxO3a and NIS could be decreased by the DN-Akt plasmid, enhanced by the CA-Akt plasmid, and blocked by FoxO3a siRNA. The overexpressed

  2. Isoflurane attenuates mouse microglial engulfment induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ possibly by inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jung-Hee; Wang, Zhi; Fan, Dan; Han, Sung-Hee; Do, Sang-Hwan; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2016-09-28

    Microglial engulfment is a basic function to clean up dead and injured cells and invaders, such as bacteria. This study was designed to assess the effects of isoflurane on the microglial engulfment induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in these effects. C8-B4 microglial cells were exposed to 1, 2, and 3% isoflurane at 2 h after the initiation of LPS (100 ng/ml) and IFN-γ (1 ng/ml) stimulation. Fluorescent immunostaining was performed to assess the percentage of cells with engulfment of fluorescent microspheres after stimulation for 24 h. P38 and phosphorylated p38 were determined by Western blotting. Isoflurane concentration dependently decreased microglial engulfment stimulated by LPS and IFN-γ. LPS and IFN-γ increased the phosphorylated p38 in microglial cells. This upregulation was decreased by isoflurane. SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, abolished the LPS-induced and IFN-γ-induced increase of engulfment activity, whereas anisomycin, a p38 MAPK activator, partly reversed the isoflurane-decreased microglial engulfment activity. These results suggest that isoflurane reduces LPS-induced and IFN-γ-induced microglial engulfment and that these effects may be mediated by inhibiting p38 MAPK. PMID:27513199

  3. Stimulation with the Aureobasidium pullulans-produced β-glucan effectively induces interferon stimulated genes in macrophage-like cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Daisuke; Kawata, Koji; Aoki, Shiho; Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    A β-(1,3),(1,6)-D-glucan produced by A. pullulans (AP-PG) is known to be an immune stimulating agent. In this study, we demonstrate that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) in macrophage-like cell lines. The ISGs, Mx1, ISG15, and viperin mRNAs were significantly increased in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with AP-PG. The stimulation with AP-PG transiently induced IFN-β mRNA. However, the expression of viperin mRNA was also increased after stimulation with AP-PG even when new protein synthesis was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide. Further, in IFN-α receptor knockdown RAW264.7 cells, AP-PG stimulation more effectively induced viperin mRNA compared with that of IFN-α stimulation. The phosphorylation of Ser 727 in STAT1 involved in the enhancement of STAT1 activation was immediately increased after stimulation with AP-PG. In addition, viperin mRNA expression induced after stimulation with IFN-α was significantly increased by combined stimulation with AP-PG. These results suggest that stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the ISGs through the induction of IFN and the enhancement of STAT1-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:24759061

  4. IFN-α-2a (Interferon) and ribavirin induced suicidal attempt in a patient of chronic HCV: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Inder, Deep; Rehan, H S; Yadav, Madhur; Manak, Seema; Kumar, Pawan

    2011-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are proteins produced by cells, fibroblasts and macrophages, in response to viral invasion, and mediates immune response. IFN-α and ribavirin are the approved treatment for HCV infection, but also carries a risk of neuropsychiatric adverse effects, viz. insomnia, irritability, mood changes, and depression.We present a case report of depression induced by IFN-α and ribavirin, leading to attempted suicide. Following the episode, antidepressant paroxetine (20 mg o.d.) and zolpidem (10 mg h.s) were added with psychotherapy. No significant improvement was observed. Patient was given a drug dechallenge (IFN-α and ribavirin). Dramatic improvement was seen over 1 month. Following rechallenge with combination, patient again experienced depressive symptoms with suicidal ideation. IFN-α and ribavirin were promptly stopped. Naranjo causality assessment scale revealed probable association with IFN-α and ribavirin. The report intends to improve awareness among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and intervention of similar cases. PMID:21572662

  5. Full activation of RNaseL in animal cells requires binding of 2-5A within ankyrin repeats 6 to 9 of this interferon-inducible enzyme.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Guerra, M; Rivas, C; Esteban, M

    1999-02-01

    To define protein domains important for activation of the interferon (IFN)-induced enzyme 2-5A-dependent RNaseL, we have generated vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants able to express in cultured cells truncated forms of this protein and compared their biologic activities with those producing the wild-type enzyme, with and without coexpression of 2-5A synthetase. Our results show that full activation of RNaseL requires binding of 2-5A oligonucleotides within amino acid positions 212-339, corresponding to ankyrin repeats 6 to 9. The protein kinase and ribonuclease domains of RNaseL, amino acids 340-741, are sufficient for a constitutively active enzyme that is unresponsive to excess 2-5A. These results demonstrate in vivo the importance of the ankyrin domains in the biologic function of RNaseL. We suggest that ankyrin repeats act as key modulators of RNaseL activity.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis by RNA sequencing reveals that hepatic interferon-induced genes may be associated with feed efficiency in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Paradis, F; Yue, S; Grant, J R; Stothard, P; Basarab, J A; Fitzsimmons, C

    2015-07-01

    In beef cattle, production feedstuffs are the largest variable input cost. Beef cattle also have a large carbon footprint, raising concern about their environmental impact. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of dietary energy is directed toward protein deposition and muscle growth whereas the majority supports body maintenance. Improving feed efficiency would, therefore, have important consequences on productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the beef industry. Various measures of feed efficiency have been proposed to improve feed utilization, and currently, residual feed intake (RFI) is gaining popularity. However, the cost associated with measuring RFI and the limited knowledge of the biology underlying improved feed efficiency make its adoption prohibitive. Identifying molecular mechanisms explaining divergence in RFI in beef cattle would lead to the development of early detection methods for the selection of more efficient breeding stock. The objective of this study was to identify hepatic markers of metabolic feed efficiency in replacement beef heifers. A group of 87 heifers were tested for RFI adjusted for off-test backfat thickness (RFIfat). Preprandial liver biopsies were collected from 10 high- and 10 low-RFIfat heifers (7 Hereford–Aberdeen Angus and 3 Charolais–Red Angus–Main Anjou per group) and gene expression analysis was performed using RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. The heifers used in this study differed in RFIfat averaging 0.438 vs. –0.584 kg DM/d in high- and low-RFIfat groups, respectively. As expected, DMI was correlated with RFIfat and ADG did not differ between high- and low-RFIfat heifers. Through a combination of whole transcriptome and candidate gene analyses, we identified differentially expressed genes involved in inflammatory processes including hemoglobin β (HBB), myxovirus resistance 1 interferon-inducible protein p78 (MX1), ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15), hect domain and RLD 6 (HERC6), and

  7. Guanylate-Binding Protein 1, an Interferon-Induced GTPase, Exerts an Antiviral Activity against Classical Swine Fever Virus Depending on Its GTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Jiahui; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Su; Zhang, Lingkai; Xia, Shui-Li; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Zhu, Yan; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses trigger the type I interferon (IFN) pathway upon infection, resulting in the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which define the antiviral state of the host. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease endangering the pig industry in many countries. However, anti-CSFV ISGs are poorly documented. Here we screened 20 ISGs that are commonly induced by type I IFNs against CSFV in lentivirus-delivered cell lines, resulting in the identification of guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) as a potent anti-CSFV ISG. We observed that overexpression of GBP1, an IFN-induced GTPase, remarkably suppressed CSFV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous GBP1 expression by small interfering RNAs significantly promoted CSFV growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GBP1 acted mainly on the early phase of CSFV replication and inhibited the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site of CSFV. In addition, we found that GBP1 was upregulated at the transcriptional level in CSFV-infected PK-15 cells and in various organs of CSFV-infected pigs. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays revealed that GBP1 interacted with the NS5A protein of CSFV, and this interaction was mapped in the N-terminal globular GTPase domain of GBP1. Interestingly, the K51 of GBP1, which is crucial for its GTPase activity, was essential for the inhibition of CSFV replication. We showed further that the NS5A-GBP1 interaction inhibited GTPase activity, which was critical for its antiviral effect. Taking our findings together, GBP1 is an anti-CSFV ISG whose action depends on its GTPase activity. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only a few host restriction factors against CSFV

  8. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  9. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank: integrating research on radiation-induced thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G A

    2012-03-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. Cancer is a complicated disease and it is unclear whether the mechanism by which radiation gives rise to cancer differs from that involved in the generation of cancers of the same type by other environmental stimuli. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established in response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl to address this question. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 23 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age.

  10. [Effects of neuropeptides on interferon production in vitro].

    PubMed

    Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N

    2008-01-01

    The study of an interferon-inducing action of neuropeptides (a cerebrolysin model) on production of interferons by human blood leukocytes has shown that neuropeptides induce gamma-interferon production in the titer 267 IU/ml that determines one of the mechanisms of a neuroimmunocorrecting effect of cerebrolysin (Ebewe, Austria) in many neurological diseases (acute stroke, brain traumas and different neuroinfectious diseases). PMID:18720720

  11. Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes of rats with mammary gland cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Arias de Saavedra, J M; Sánchez, R; Pérez, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2005-02-01

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase is an omega-peptidase that hydrolyses N-terminal pyroglutamyl residues from biologically active peptides such as gonadotropin-releasing and thyrotrophin-releasing hormones. We previously described a decrease in both rat and human pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity with breast cancer, suggesting that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may be an important local intracrine, autocrine and/or paracrine hormonal factor in the pathogenesis of breast cancer while playing a role in the tumoral process. However, the other susceptible substrate of pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, may also be modified with breast cancer, supporting an association between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. The present work analyses soluble and membrane-bound pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes in N-methyl nitrosourea-induced breast cancer in rats. Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone regulation through pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity. We propose that pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity dysregulation at various local and systemic levels may participate in the initiation, promotion and progression of breast cancer induced in rat by N-methyl nitrosourea through the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Since pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity also acts on thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, the dysregulation of this enzyme's activity could indirectly affect hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis function, and thus potentially represent a link between the diseases of thyroid and breast cancer.

  12. Lack of Effect of an Interferon Inducer, N,N-Dihexadecyl-m-Xylylenediamine, on Rhinovirus Challenge in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, R. Gordon; Waldman, Robert H.; Betts, Robert F.; Ganguly, Rama

    1979-01-01

    CP-28,888-27 and placebo nasal sprays were compared in 62 normal volunteers challenged with rhinovirus type 13 or 21 in two randomized, double-blind studies. Half of the subjects received CP-28,888-27 and half received nasal placebo administered at 24, 20, and 16 h before challenge and 4 and 8 h after challenge. In each study, the number of subjects shedding virus in nasal washes, the number developing fourfold or greater serum antibody responses, and the number developing afebrile or febrile upper respiratory tract illness were not significantly different comparing subjects given CP-28,888-27 and those given placebo. Interferon was detected in nasal washes from 5 of 15 volunteers tested in the CP-28,888-27 group compared to 2 of 15 volunteers from the placebo group. PMID:371545

  13. Downstream mediators of the intratumoral interferon response suppress antitumor immunity, induce gemcitabine resistance and associate with poor survival in human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Delitto, Daniel; Perez, Chelsey; Han, Song; Gonzalo, David H; Pham, Kien; Knowlton, Andrea E; Graves, Christina L; Behrns, Kevin E; Moldawer, Lyle L; Thomas, Ryan M; Liu, Chen; George, Thomas J; Trevino, Jose G; Wallet, Shannon M; Hughes, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    The cancer microenvironment allows tumor cells to evade immune surveillance through a variety of mechanisms. While interferon-γ (IFNγ) is central to effective antitumor immunity, its effects on the microenvironment are not as clear and have in some cancers been shown to induce immune checkpoint ligands. The heterogeneity of these responses to IFNγ remains poorly characterized in desmoplastic malignancies with minimal inflammatory cell infiltration, such as pancreatic cancer (PC). Thus, the IFNγ response within and on key cells of the PC microenvironment was evaluated. IFNγ induced expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II on PC cell lines, primary pancreatic cancer epithelial cells (PPCE) and patient-derived tumor-associated stroma, concomitant with an upregulation of PDL1 in the absence of CD80 and CD86 expression. As expected, IFNγ also induced high levels of CXCL10 from all cell types. In addition, significantly higher levels of CXCL10 were observed in PC specimens compared to those from chronic pancreatitis, whereby intratumoral CXCL10 concentration was an independent predictor of poor survival. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a subset of CXCR3-positive cancer cells in over 90 % of PC specimens, as well as on a subset of cultured PC cell lines and PPCE, whereby exposure to CXCL10 induced resistance to the chemotherapeutic gemcitabine. These findings suggest that IFNγ has multiple effects on many cell types within the PC microenvironment that may lead to immune evasion, chemoresistance and shortened survival.

  14. The inhibitory effects of Geranium thunbergii on interferon-γ- and LPS-induced inflammatory responses are mediated by Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jin; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Jeong, Seung-Il; Lee, Seongoo; Kim, Kyun Ha; Joo, Myungsoo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Kim, Jai-Eun; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor.

  15. IPS-1 differentially induces TRAIL, BCL2, BIRC3 and PRKCE in type I interferons-dependent and -independent anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Ingle, H; Mishra, S; Mahla, R S; Kumar, A; Kawai, T; Akira, S; Takaoka, A; Raut, A A; Kumar, H

    2015-01-01

    RIG-I-like receptors are the key cytosolic sensors for RNA viruses and induce the production of type I interferons (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines through a sole adaptor IFN-β promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1) (also known as Cardif, MAVS and VISA) in antiviral innate immunity. These sensors also have a pivotal role in anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanism for their anticancer activity is poorly understood. Here, we show that anticancer vaccine adjuvant, PolyIC (primarily sensed by MDA5) and the oncolytic virus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (sensed by RIG-I), induce anticancer activity. The ectopic expression of IPS-1 into type I IFN-responsive and non-responsive cancer cells induces anticancer activity. PolyIC transfection and NDV infection upregulate pro-apoptotic gene TRAIL and downregulate the anti-apoptotic genes BCL2, BIRC3 and PRKCE. Furthermore, stable knockdown of IPS-1, IRF3 or IRF7 in IFN-non-responsive cancer cells show reduced anticancer activity by suppressing apoptosis via TRAIL and anti-apoptotic genes. Collectively, our study shows that IPS-1 induces anticancer activity through upregulation of pro-apoptotic gene TRAIL and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic genes BCL2, BIRC3 and PRKCE via IRF3 and IRF7 in type I IFN-dependent and -independent manners. PMID:25950488

  16. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate type III interferon expression from peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M; Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferon responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of type I interferons. The mechanisms controlling type I interferon-independent responses are undefined. We found that RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site of initiation of type III interferon expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust type III interferon responses in human cells. These findings highlight the importance of different intracellular organelles in specific innate immune responses.

  17. Mechanisms underlying the inhibition of interferon signaling by viruses.

    PubMed

    Devasthanam, Anand S

    2014-02-15

    A hallmark of the antiviral response is the induction of interferons. First discovered in 1957 by Issac and Lindeman, interferons are noted for their ability to interfere with viral replication. Interferons act via autocrine and paracrine pathways to induce an antiviral state in infected cells and in neighboring cells containing interferon receptors. Interferons are the frontline defenders against viral infection and their primary function is to locally restrict viral propagation. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to escape the host interferon response, thus gaining a replicative advantage in host cells. This review will discuss recent findings on the mechanisms viruses use to evade the host interferon response. This knowledge is important because the treatment of viral infections is a challenge of global proportions and a better understanding of the mechanisms viruses use to persist in the host may uncover valuable insights applicable to the discovery of novel drug targets.

  18. Nanometals induce stress and alter thyroid hormone action in amphibia at or below North American water quality guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hinther, Ashley; Vawda, Saadia; Skirrow, Rachel C; Veldhoen, Nik; Collins, Patricia; Cullen, Jay T; van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C

    2010-11-01

    Nanometals are manufactured to particle sizes with diameters in the nanometer range and are included in a variety of consumer and health products. There is a lack of information regarding potential effects of these materials on aquatic organisms. Amphibians are regarded as environmental sentinels and demonstrate an exquisite sensitivity to thyroid hormone action, a hormone that is essential for human health. This present study assessed the effect of exposure to nanometals on stress and thyroid hormone signaling in frog tissue using a cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay derived from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The C-fin assay maintains tissue complexity and biological replication while multiple chemical responses can be assessed from the same individual. We tested the ability of nanosilver (0.06 μg/L-5.5 mg/L), quantum dots (0.25 μg/L-22 mg/L), and nanozinc oxide (0.19-10 mg/L) to alter gene expression in the presence or absence of 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results were compared to exposure to micrometer-silver, silver nitrate, and micrometer-cadmium telluride. Nanosilver (≥2.75 mg/L) and quantum dots (≥0.22 mg/L) altered the expression of transcripts linked to T(3)- and stress-mediated pathways, while nanozinc oxide had no effect. Lower concentrations of nanosilver (0.6 to 550 μg/L) perturbed T(3)-mediated signaling while not inducing cell stress. The observed effects were orders of magnitude below acute toxicity levels and occurred at or below the current North American water quality guidelines for metals, underscoring the need for evaluating nanoparticles separately from their constituent chemicals. PMID:20929207

  19. Sphingosine kinase inhibitor suppresses IL-18-induced interferon-gamma production through inhibition of p38 MAPK activation in human NK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Soyoung; Song, Seok Bean; Jung, Minkyung; Park, Yoorim; Bang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Tae Sung; Park, Hyunjeong; Kim, Cherl-hyun; Yang, Yool-hee; Bang, Sa Ik; Cho, Daeho

    2008-09-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the innate immune response. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a well-known interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma} inducing factor, which stimulates immune response in NK and T cells. Sphingosine kinase (SPHK) catalyzes the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which acts as a second messenger to function as an anti-apoptotic factor and proliferation stimulator of immune cells. In this study, to elucidate whether SPHK is involved in IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production, we measured IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production after pre-treatment with SPHK inhibitor (SKI) in NK-92MI cells. We found that IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} expression was blocked by SKI pre-treatment in both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the increased IFN-{gamma} production by stimulation with IL-18 is mediated through both SPHK and p38 MAPK. To determine the upstream signals of SKI and p38 MAPK in IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production, phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK was measured after SKI pre-treatment. As a result, inhibition of SPHK by SKI blocked phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, showing that SPHK activation by IL-18 is an upstream signal of p38 MAPK activation. Inhibition of SPHK by SKI also inhibited IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production in human primary NK cells. In conclusion, SPHK activation is an essential factor for IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production via p38 MAPK.

  20. Correlations of IFN-γ-inducible protein-10 with the risk of chronic hepatitis B and the efficacy of interferon therapy in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lu-Lu; Zhao, Bin-Bin; Fan, Wen-Feng; Gong, Lu-Yu; Chen, Cai-Feng; Liu, Jing-Jun; Lu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the correlations of IFN-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) with the risk of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and the efficacy of interferon therapy in Asians. Method: Serum IP-10 levels were assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both CHB and control group. CHB group received interferon-α2b treatment to compare the pre-treatment and post-treatment serum IP-10 levels. Relevant studies met predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled into further meta-analysis. Stata 12.0 software was applied for data analysis. Result: Our case-control study demonstrated that CHB group had evaluated serum IP-10 levels compared with control group (285.7 ± 41.6 pg/mL vs. 79.1 ± 33.8 pg/mL, t = 21.85, P < 0.001. After treatment for 12 weeks, CHB group had remarkably decreased post-treatment serum IP-10 levels than pre-treatment (78.5 ± 20.4 pg/mL vs. 285.7 ± 41.6 pg/mL, t = 33.76, P < 0.001). No significance was observed on post-treatment serum IP-10 levels between CHB and control group (78.5 ± 20.4 pg/mL vs. 78.1 ± 33.8 pg/mL, t = 0.07, P = 0.947). Meta-analysis results demonstrated that serum IP-10 levels in CHB group were obviously higher than healthy controls (SMD = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.55~2.87, P < 0.001). A subgroup based on the HBeAg states revealed that serum IP-10 levels in both HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB patients were notably higher than healthy controls (HBeAg-positive: SMD = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.13-2.87, P < 0.001; HBeAg-negative: SMD = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.97-1.72, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Serum IP-10 may be correlated with the risk of CHB and the efficiency of interferon therapy, thus IP-10 may be a good biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of CHB. PMID:26339406

  1. Ursolic acid from Trailliaedoxa gracilis induces apoptosis in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    AGUIRIANO-MOSER, VICTOR; SVEJDA, BERNHARD; LI, ZENG-XIA; STURM, SONJA; STUPPNER, HERMANN; INGOLIC, ELISABETH; HÖGER, HARALD; SIEGL, VERONIKA; MEIER-ALLARD, NATHALIE; SADJAK, ANTON; PFRAGNER, ROSWITHA

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the C-cells of the thyroid and is not sensitive to radiation or chemotherapy. Therefore, surgical removal of the tumor tissue in its entirety is the only curative treatment for MTC. The present study aimed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of extracts of Trailliaedoxa gracilis (TG; WW Smith & Forrest), a plant from the province of Sichuan, China, and of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpen present in TG, on the MTC-SK MTC cell line. A total of 13 TG fractions and UA were examined in vitro for their effects on cell morphology, cell number, proliferation and rates of apoptosis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction of nuclear factor-κB essential modifier (NEMO) was performed to delineate the role of the apoptotic pathway following treatment with UA. TG and UA were examined in vivo in xenotransplanted MTC-bearing severe combined immunodeficient mice. The TG fractions exhibited antiproliferative effects, with inhibition of mitochondrial activity in the tumor cells at concentrations, which caused no impairment of the normal control cells. The apoptotic rates of the MTC-SK cells treated with the TG fractions and UA were determined, in which no marked tumor inhibition was observed in the treated MTC-mice, and no change in the expression of NEMO was detected in the treated MTC-SK cells. The observation of early-onset activation of caspase 8 suggested that the responsible factor was linked to NEMO, an anti-apoptotic protein. However, no differences in the mRNA transcription levels of NEMO were detected in MTC-SK cells treated with UA, suggesting that this protein was not associated with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway. PMID:26151624

  2. Thyroid peroxidase and the induction of autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, S M; Atherton, M C; Nakajima, Y; Napier, J; Jordan, R K; Clark, F; Rees Smith, B

    1990-01-01

    Animal models of autoimmune thyroid disease are associated with thyroglobulin (Tg) as autoantigen whereas in man the autoimmune response to microsomal antigen/thyroid peroxidase (TPO) appears to play a major role in thyroiditis. Consequently, we have compared the ability of TPO and Tg to induce thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid damage in mice known to be susceptible (CBA/J) or resistant (BALB/c) to thyroiditis induced using murine Tg. Groups of three to five mice were immunized twice using Freund's complete adjuvant with 80-100 micrograms highly purified porcine (p) TPO, pTg, rat (r) Tg, human Tg, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA + 0.2 micrograms pTg (the level of Tg contamination of TPO). Four weeks after immunization with TPO, plasma from CBA/J (but not BALB/c) mice contained IgG class antibodies which bound to TPO-coated tubes in the presence or absence of excess Tg (and could therefore be clearly distinguished from Tg antibodies) but there was no evidence of thyroiditis in either strain of mice. In contrast, in CBA/J mice immunized with rTg and, to a lesser extent in mice that had received pTg, thyroid tissue was infiltrated with lymphoid cells and/or neutrophils and antibodies to pTg (but not pTPO) were present. Our observations demonstrate that induction of TPO antibody alone is insufficient to lead to thyroiditis in CBA/J mice. Further, these studies emphasize the complex interactions between MHC and different thyroid antigens in the processes leading to thyroid destruction. PMID:2311297

  3. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Bum; Seronello, Scott; Mayer, Wasima; Ojcius, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) actively evades host interferon (IFN) responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP) from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and poly(IC). The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain) were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity. PMID:27404108

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Bum; Seronello, Scott; Mayer, Wasima; Ojcius, David M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) actively evades host interferon (IFN) responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP) from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and poly(IC). The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain) were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity. PMID:27404108

  5. Identification and expression analysis of the interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5) gene in duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Yang; Mu, Chunyu; Su, Yanhui; Liu, Ran; Huang, Zhengyang; Li, Yang; Yu, Qingming; Chang, Guobin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN) dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5) full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE). Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12). Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C) infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5. PMID:25816333

  6. Identification of Alpha Interferon-Induced Genes Associated with Antiviral Activity in Daudi Cells and Characterization of IFIT3 as a Novel Antiviral Gene ▿

    PubMed Central

    Schmeisser, H.; Mejido, J.; Balinsky, C. A.; Morrow, A. N.; Clark, C. R.; Zhao, T.; Zoon, K. C.

    2010-01-01

    A novel assay was developed for Daudi cells in which the antiviral (AV) and antiproliferative (AP) activities of interferon (IFN) can be measured simultaneously. Using this novel assay, conditions allowing IFN AV protection but no growth inhibition were identified and selected. Daudi cells were treated under these conditions, and gene expression microarray analyses were performed. The results of the analysis identified 25 genes associated with IFN-α AV activity. Upregulation of 23 IFN-induced genes was confirmed by using reverse transcription-PCR. Of 25 gene products, 17 were detected by Western blotting at 24 h. Of the 25 genes, 10 have not been previously linked to AV activity of IFN-α. The most upregulated gene was IFIT3 (for IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3). The results from antibody neutralizing experiments suggested an association of the identified genes with IFN-α AV activity. This association was strengthened by results from IFIT3-small interfering RNA transfection experiments showing decreased expression of IFIT3 and a reduction in the AV activity induced by IFN-α. Overexpression of IFIT3 resulted in a decrease of virus titer. Transcription of AV genes after the treatment of cells with higher concentrations of IFN having an AP effect on Daudi cells suggested pleiotropic functions of identified gene products. PMID:20686046

  7. Interferon-gamma Inhibits Melanogenesis and Induces Apoptosis in Melanocytes: A Pivotal Role of CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Wei, Yi; Sun, Yue; Shi, Weimin; Yang, Ji; Zhu, Lubing; Li, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Increased expression of the cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ plays a pivotal role in vitiligo-induced depigmentation. However, the major source of IFN-γ in vitiligo patients and the mechanisms underlying melanocyte destruction are unknown. In this study, a large number of skin infiltrating IFN-γ+ cells and CD8+ T cells were detected in progressive vitiligo. Among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of vitiligo patients, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that express IFN-γ exhibited significant expansion, which suggests that activated CTLs are the main source of increased IFN-γ in progressive vitiligo. An in vitro analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ inhibits melanogenesis in primary cultured human melanocytes by altering melanogenic enzyme mRNA expression and, more importantly, that IFN-γ directly induces melanocyte apoptosis. Our data indicate that vitiligo pathophysiology may be linked to globally activated CD8+ CTL subpopulations, which produce increased IFN-γ and induce melanocyte dysfunction and apoptosis.

  8. Interferon induced by UV-irradiated murine cytomegalovirus decreases type C virus expression in BALB/c cells treated by 5-iodo-deoxyuridine or cycloheximide

    SciTech Connect

    Sergiescu, D.

    1983-01-01

    UV-irradiated mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) activates at low incidence (2.0 X 10(-4) - 8.0 X 10(-4)) a xenotropic type C virus in Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed nonproducer BALB 3T3 (KBALB) cells. When KBALB cells are treated with UV-MCMV and subsequently with potent chemical inducers, such as 5-Iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) or cycloheximide, the activation frequencies of type C virus are significantly lower than in controls exposed to the chemical inducers alone: 60% for IdUrd and 44% for cycloheximide. This decrease of activation appears to be mediated by endogenous interferon (IFN) induced by UV-MCMV in KBALB cells, as could be proven by neutralization of the inhibitory activity. Indeed, after exposure of UV-MCMV-infected cells to anti-IFN gamma globulin, the level of C type virus increases, reaching values obtained with IdUrd or cycloheximide in the absence of UV-MCMV. The inhibitory activity associated with UV-MCMV is dose-dependent and the xenotropic type C virus appears to be more sensitive than the ecotropic (N-tropic) retrovirus of BALB/c cells.

  9. Interferon α kinoid induces neutralizing anti-interferon α antibodies that decrease the expression of interferon-induced and B cell activation associated transcripts: analysis of extended follow-up data from the interferon α kinoid phase I/II study

    PubMed Central

    Ducreux, Julie; Houssiau, Frédéric A.; Vandepapelière, Pierre; Jorgensen, Christian; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Spertini, François; Colaone, Fabien; Roucairol, Camille; Laborie, Marion; Croughs, Thérèse; Lauwerys, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. IFN α Kinoid (IFN-K) is a therapeutic vaccine composed of IFNα2b coupled to a carrier protein. In a phase I/II placebo-controlled trial, we observed that IFN-K significantly decreases the IFN gene signature in whole blood RNA samples from SLE patients. Here, we analysed extended follow-up data from IFN-K-treated patients, in order to evaluate persistence of neutralizing anti-IFNα Abs antibodies (Abs), and gene expression profiling. Methods. Serum and whole blood RNA samples were obtained in IFN-K-treated patients included in the follow-up study, in order to determine binding and neutralizing anti-IFNα Ab titres, and perform high-throughput transcriptomic studies. Results. Neutralization studies of 13 IFNα subtypes demonstrated the polyclonal nature of the Ab response induced by IFN-K. Follow-up analyses in six patients confirmed a significant correlation between neutralizing anti-IFNα Ab titres and decrease in IFN scores compared to baseline. These analyses also revealed an inhibitory effect of IFNα blockade on the expression of B cell associated transcripts. Conclusions. IFN-K induces a polyclonal anti-IFNα response that decreases IFN- and B cell-associated transcripts. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01058343 PMID:27354683

  10. Expression of the myosin heavy chain genes in the tail muscle of thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosing Rana catesbeiana tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Merrifield, P; Atkinson, B G

    1999-01-01

    In tadpoles of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, spontaneous and thyroid hormone (T3)-induced metamorphosis is characterized by regression of the tail, which is preceded by a decrease in total protein synthesis in tail tissues. We have demonstrated that thyroid hormone treatment of a tadpole does not affect the synthesis of all proteins equally in the tadpole tail muscle. For example, the synthesis of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) is depressed within 1 day and decreases to 45% of control values after 5 days of T3 treatment, whereas the decreased synthesis of soluble muscle proteins is transient and returns to above control levels by day 5. To determine whether the hormone-induced decrease in MHC synthesis is the result of changes in the transcription of translation of MHC mRNAs, we isolated cDNAs complementary to five different MHC mRNAs from a tail muscle cDNA library and used them to examine the levels of each MHC mRNA in the tail muscle of T3-treated tadpoles. mRNAs that recognize the cDNAs for these five different MHCs are all expressed in the tadpole tail and limb muscles, as well as in the adult leg muscles. MHC mRNAs unique to tadpole tail were not detected. Interestingly, the relative amounts of mRNA for four of the five MHCs increase in tail muscle after T3 treatment of the tadpole, suggesting that repression of MHC gene expression at the protein level does not result from a decrease in the amount of MHC mRNAs. Rather, these results support the contention that the decreased synthesis of MHCs in the tail muscle of T3-treated tadpoles is caused by this hormone, either directly or indirectly, depressing the translation of the MHC mRNAs in this tissue. These results, coupled with the observation that the synthesis of soluble muscle proteins is depressed only in a transient fashion, suggest that T3 may be initiating the expression of a gene(s) that encodes a protein(s) responsible for inhibiting the translation of the MHCs and, perhaps, other

  11. NF2 loss promotes oncogenic RAS-induced thyroid cancers via YAP-dependent transactivation of RAS proteins and sensitizes them to MEK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E.R.; Ricarte-Filho, Julio C.; Untch, Brian R.; Landa, Iňigo; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Voza, Francesca; Smith, Vicki E.; Ganly, Ian; Taylor, Barry S.; Persaud, Yogindra; Oler, Gisele; Fang, Yuqiang; Jhanwar, Suresh C.; Viale, Agnes; Heguy, Adriana; Huberman, Kety H.; Giancotti, Filippo; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Ch22q LOH is preferentially associated with RAS mutations in papillary and in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC). The 22q tumor suppressor NF2, encoding merlin, is implicated in this interaction because of its frequent loss of function in human thyroid cancer cell lines. Nf2 deletion or Hras mutation are insufficient for transformation, whereas their combined disruption leads to murine PDTC with increased MAPK signaling. Merlin loss induces RAS signaling in part through inactivation of Hippo, which activates a YAP-TEAD transcriptional program. We find that the three RAS genes are themselves YAP-TEAD1 transcriptional targets, providing a novel mechanism of promotion of RAS-induced tumorigenesis. Moreover, pharmacological disruption of YAP-TEAD with verteporfin blocks RAS transcription and signaling, and inhibits cell growth. The increased MAPK output generated by NF2 loss in RAS-mutant cancers may inform therapeutic strategies, as it generates greater dependency on the MAPK pathway for viability. PMID:26359368

  12. Thyroid active agents T3 and PTU differentially affect immune gene transcripts in the head kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Quesada-García, Alba; Encinas, Paloma; Valdehita, Ana; Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut; Coll, Julio M; Navas, José M

    2016-05-01

    In mammals, numerous reports describe an immunomodulating effect of thyroid-active compounds. In contrast, only few reports have been published on this subject in fish. We previously demonstrated that immune cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) possess thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) and that exposure of trout to the thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) or the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU) alters immune cell transcript levels of THR and several immune genes. The present study aims to further characterize the immunomodulating action of thyroid-active compounds in trout immune cells. We report here the use of a custom-designed 60-mer oligo immune-targeted microarray for rainbow trout to analyze the gene expression profiles induced in the head kidney by T3 and PTU. Morphometric analyses of the thyroid showed that PTU exposure increased the size of the epithelial cells, whereas T3 induced no significant effects. Both T3 and PTU had diverse and partly contrasting effects on immune transcript profiles. The strongest differential effects of T3 and PTU on gene expressions were those targeting the Mitogen Associated Protein Kinase (MAPK), NFkB, Natural Killer (NK) and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathways, a number of multipath genes (MPG) such as those encoding pleiotropic transcription factors (atf1, junb, myc), as well as important pro-inflammatory genes (tnfa, tnf6, il1b) and interferon-related genes (ifng, irf10). With these results we show for the first time in a fish species that the in vivo thyroidal status modulates a diversity of immune genes and pathways. This knowledge provides the basis to investigate both mechanisms and consequences of thyroid hormone- and thyroid disruptor-mediated immunomodulation for the immunocompetence of fish. PMID:26963519

  13. Thyroid active agents T3 and PTU differentially affect immune gene transcripts in the head kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Quesada-García, Alba; Encinas, Paloma; Valdehita, Ana; Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut; Coll, Julio M; Navas, José M

    2016-05-01

    In mammals, numerous reports describe an immunomodulating effect of thyroid-active compounds. In contrast, only few reports have been published on this subject in fish. We previously demonstrated that immune cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) possess thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) and that exposure of trout to the thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) or the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU) alters immune cell transcript levels of THR and several immune genes. The present study aims to further characterize the immunomodulating action of thyroid-active compounds in trout immune cells. We report here the use of a custom-designed 60-mer oligo immune-targeted microarray for rainbow trout to analyze the gene expression profiles induced in the head kidney by T3 and PTU. Morphometric analyses of the thyroid showed that PTU exposure increased the size of the epithelial cells, whereas T3 induced no significant effects. Both T3 and PTU had diverse and partly contrasting effects on immune transcript profiles. The strongest differential effects of T3 and PTU on gene expressions were those targeting the Mitogen Associated Protein Kinase (MAPK), NFkB, Natural Killer (NK) and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathways, a number of multipath genes (MPG) such as those encoding pleiotropic transcription factors (atf1, junb, myc), as well as important pro-inflammatory genes (tnfa, tnf6, il1b) and interferon-related genes (ifng, irf10). With these results we show for the first time in a fish species that the in vivo thyroidal status modulates a diversity of immune genes and pathways. This knowledge provides the basis to investigate both mechanisms and consequences of thyroid hormone- and thyroid disruptor-mediated immunomodulation for the immunocompetence of fish.

  14. Dimeric structure of pseudokinase RNase L bound to 2-5A reveals a basis for interferon induced antiviral activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Zeqiraj, Elton; Dong, Beihua; Jha, Babal Kant; Duffy, Nicole; Orlicky, Stephen; Thevakumaran, Neroshan; Talukdar, Manisha; Pillon, Monica C.; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Wan, Leo; Juang, Yu-Chi; Mao, Daniel Y.L.; Gaughan, Christina; Brinton, Margo A.; Perelygin, Andrey A.; Kourinov, Igor; Guarné, Alba; Silverman, Robert H.; Sicheri, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Summary RNase L is an ankyrin repeat domain containing dual endoribonuclease-pseudokinase that is activated by unusual 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A) second messengers and which impedes viral infections in higher vertebrates. Despite its importance in interferon regulated antiviral innate immunity, relatively little is known about its precise mechanism of action. Here, we present a functional characterization of 2.5 Å and 3.25 Å X-ray crystal and small angle x-ray scattering structures of RNase L bound to a natural 2-5A activator with and without ADP or the non-hydrolysable ATP mimetic AMP-PNP. These studies reveal how recognition of 2-5A through interactions with the ankyrin repeat domain and the pseudokinase domain together with nucleotide binding, impose a rigid intertwined dimer configuration that is essential for RNase catalytic and anti-viral functions. The involvement of the pseudokinase domain of RNase L in 2-5A sensing, nucleotide binding, dimerization, and ribonuclease functions highlights the evolutionary adaptability of the eukaryotic protein kinase fold. PMID:24462203

  15. Acute non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces pronounced type I interferon response in pregnant cows and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Austin, Kathleen J; Han, Hyungchul; Montgomery, Donald L; Shoemaker, Megan L; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2008-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection occurs in the cattle population worldwide. Non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV strains cause transient infection (TI) or persistent infection (PI) depending on the host's immune status. Immunocompetent adult animals and fetuses in late gestation resolve the infection. Fetal infection in early gestation results in PI with chronic viremia and life-long viral shedding, ensuring virus perpetuation in the population. Eighteen pregnant heifers, divided into three groups, were intranasally inoculated with ncp BVDV2 virus early (day 75) and late (day 175) in gestation, or kept BVDV-naïve. Fetuses were retrieved on day 190. Antiviral activity in blood of dams and fetuses, maternal expression of interferon (IFN) stimulated gene 15kDa (ISG15), virological and serological status of heifers and fetuses, and fetal growth were studied. A pronounced antiviral activity in blood of heifers and TI fetuses during acute BVDV infection was accompanied by drastic up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in maternal blood. Only one PI fetus expressed low IFN response 115 days post inoculation despite high BVDV antigen and RNA levels. PI fetuses presented with growth retardation. Infection of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV2 early in gestation adversely affects fetal development and antiviral responses, despite protective immune responses in the dam.

  16. Acute non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces pronounced type I interferon response in pregnant cows and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Austin, Kathleen J; Han, Hyungchul; Montgomery, Donald L; Shoemaker, Megan L; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2008-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection occurs in the cattle population worldwide. Non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV strains cause transient infection (TI) or persistent infection (PI) depending on the host's immune status. Immunocompetent adult animals and fetuses in late gestation resolve the infection. Fetal infection in early gestation results in PI with chronic viremia and life-long viral shedding, ensuring virus perpetuation in the population. Eighteen pregnant heifers, divided into three groups, were intranasally inoculated with ncp BVDV2 virus early (day 75) and late (day 175) in gestation, or kept BVDV-naïve. Fetuses were retrieved on day 190. Antiviral activity in blood of dams and fetuses, maternal expression of interferon (IFN) stimulated gene 15kDa (ISG15), virological and serological status of heifers and fetuses, and fetal growth were studied. A pronounced antiviral activity in blood of heifers and TI fetuses during acute BVDV infection was accompanied by drastic up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in maternal blood. Only one PI fetus expressed low IFN response 115 days post inoculation despite high BVDV antigen and RNA levels. PI fetuses presented with growth retardation. Infection of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV2 early in gestation adversely affects fetal development and antiviral responses, despite protective immune responses in the dam. PMID:18053605

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced elimination of the type 1 interferon receptor is required for efficient angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Qian, Juan; Carbone, Christopher J; Leu, N Adrian; Baker, Darren P; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2011-10-01

    Angiogenesis is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and antagonized by type 1 interferons, including IFN-α/β. On engaging their respective receptors (VEGFR2 and IFNAR), both stimuli activate protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and type 1 IFNs require PKD2 activation and recruitment to IFNAR1 to promote the phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination, down-regulation, and degradation of the cognate receptor chain, IFNAR1. Data reveal that PKD2 activity is dispensable for VEGF-stimulated down-regulation of VEGFR2. Remarkably, VEGF treatment promotes the recruitment of PKD2 to IFNAR1 as well as ensuing phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of IFNAR1. In cells exposed to VEGF, phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IFNAR1 leads to an inhibition of type 1 IFN signaling and is required for efficient VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis. Importance of this mechanism for proangiogenic or antiangiogenic responses in cells exposed to counteracting stimuli and the potential medical significance of this regulation are discussed. PMID:21832278

  18. Lack of effect of recombinant bovine interferon alpha I1 in the treatment of experimentally-induced bovine warts.

    PubMed Central

    Lassauzet, M L; Salamin, P A

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen four-month old calves were inoculated, on five scarified sites on each side of the neck, with a suspension of ground wart tissue from a steer naturally infected with bovine papilloma virus 1. Warts started to appear about one month postinfection and were measurable in ten calves two months postinfection, when the trial started. After stratification on the size of the warts, all fifteen calves were allocated randomly to one of the following treatment groups: twice weekly intramuscular injections of 5 mg recombinant bovine interferon alpha I1 (rBoIFN alpha I1), weekly injection of 5 mg of rBoIFN alpha I1 or placebo, for three weeks. The biggest wart on each calf at the beginning of the trial was measured and photographs of all warts were taken weekly for five weeks. An analysis of covariance on the log of the volumes of warts during the five weeks of the trial showed a significant difference between groups (p = 0.026). Warts in treated groups tended to grow faster than in the placebo group. PMID:8358676

  19. Clarithromycin prevents human respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway epithelial responses by modulating activation of interferon regulatory factor-3.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Takano, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Sato, Toyotaka; Miyata, Ryo; Kakuki, Takuya; Kamekura, Ryuta; Kojima, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Himi, Tetsuo; Yokota, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    Macrolide antibiotics exert immunomodulatory activity by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production by airway epithelial cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and immune cells. However, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we examined the effect of clarithromycin (CAM) on pro-inflammatory cytokine production, including interferons (IFNs), by primary human nasal epithelial cells and lung epithelial cell lines (A549 and BEAS-2B cells) after stimulation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) and RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) agonists and after infection by human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). CAM treatment led to a significant reduction in poly I:C- and RSV-mediated IL-8, CCL5, IFN-β and -λ production. Furthermore, IFN-β promoter activity (activated by poly I:C and RSV infection) was significantly reduced after treatment with CAM. CAM also inhibited IRF-3 dimerization and subsequent translocation to the nucleus. We conclude that CAM acts a crucial modulator of the innate immune response, particularly IFN production, by modulating IRF-3 dimerization and subsequent translocation to the nucleus of airway epithelial cells. This newly identified immunomodulatory action of CAM will facilitate the discovery of new macrolides with an anti-inflammatory role. PMID:27468646

  20. Heavy-metal mitogenesis: Zn++ and Hg++ induce cellular cytotoxicity and interferon production in murine T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, C L; Lucas, D O

    1987-11-01

    Splenic and lymph node lymphocytes from Balb/c mice were activated in vitro by the heavy-metal cations, Zn++ and Hg++, as noted by the several-fold increases in 3H-thymidine incorporation at 144 h of culture. Optimal mitogenic concentrations of Zn++ and Hg++ were 200 microM and 10 microM, respectively. Data from experiments using T or B splenic lymphocytes enriched by cell passage over nylon wool columns, through use of athymic Nu/Nu mouse spleen cells, or by cell lysis with monoclonal anti-Thy-1 and antibody plus complement, indicated than Zn++ and Hg++ are mitogens for T cells. Removal of macrophages from spleen cells by treatment with carbonyl iron, followed by cell passage through nylon wool, eliminated the lymphocyte responses to Zn++ and to Hg++. Moreover, addition of macrophage-depleted lymphocytes to monolayers of resident peritoneal macrophages restored the lymphocyte responses to these mitogens. Both Zn++ and Hg++ activated splenic lymphocytes to display lectin-dependent cytotoxicity and to produce acid-labile interferon. PMID:2448223

  1. Ebola virus VP35 protein binds double-stranded RNA and inhibits alpha/beta interferon production induced by RIG-I signaling.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Washington B; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Gale, Michael; Hartman, Amy L; Kimberlin, Christopher R; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Basler, Christopher F

    2006-06-01

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) VP35 protein blocks the virus-induced phosphorylation and activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), a transcription factor critical for the induction of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) expression. However, the mechanism(s) by which this blockage occurs remains incompletely defined. We now provide evidence that VP35 possesses double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding activity. Specifically, VP35 bound to poly(rI) . poly(rC)-coated Sepharose beads but not control beads. In contrast, two VP35 point mutants, R312A and K309A, were found to be greatly impaired in their dsRNA-binding activity. Competition assays showed that VP35 interacted specifically with poly(rI) . poly(rC), poly(rA) . poly(rU), or in vitro-transcribed dsRNAs derived from EBOV sequences, and not with single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) or double-stranded DNA. We then screened wild-type and mutant VP35s for their ability to target different components of the signaling pathways that activate IRF-3. These experiments indicate that VP35 blocks activation of IRF-3 induced by overexpression of RIG-I, a cellular helicase recently implicated in the activation of IRF-3 by either virus or dsRNA. Interestingly, the VP35 mutants impaired for dsRNA binding have a decreased but measurable IFN antagonist activity in these assays. Additionally, wild-type and dsRNA-binding-mutant VP35s were found to have equivalent abilities to inhibit activation of the IFN-beta promoter induced by overexpression of IPS-1, a recently identified signaling molecule downstream of RIG-I, or by overexpression of the IRF-3 kinases IKKepsilon and TBK-1. These data support the hypothesis that dsRNA binding may contribute to VP35 IFN antagonist function. However, additional mechanisms of inhibition, at a point proximal to the IRF-3 kinases, most likely also exist.

  2. Importance of the interferon-α system in murine large intestine indicated by microarray analysis of commensal bacteria-induced immunological changes

    PubMed Central

    Munakata, Kaori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Anjiki, Naoko; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Imamura, Sachiko; Iizuka, Seiichi; Takashima, Kiyoe; Ishige, Atsushi; Hioki, Kyoji; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Background Although microbiota play a critical role in the normal development and function of host immune systems, the underlying mechanisms, especially those involved in the large intestine (LI), remain unknown. In the present study, we performed transcriptome analysis of the LI of germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice of the IQI strain, an inbred strain established from ICR mice. Results GeneChip analysis, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and reconfirmation using bacteria-inoculated GF mice revealed differences in the expression levels of several immune-related genes, such as cryptdin-related sequences (CRS), certain subsets of type 1 interferon (IFN)-related genes, class Ib MHC molecules, and certain complements. LI expressed no authentic cryptdins but predominantly expressed CRS2, 4, and 7. The mRNA levels of IFN-related genes, including Irf7, Isgf3g, Ifit1 and Stat1, were lower in SPF- and flora-reconstituted mice. When an oral IFN-α inducer tilorone analog, R11567DA, was administered to SPF mice, IFN-α was induced rapidly in the LI at 4 h, whereas no IFN-α protein was detected in the small intestine (SI) or blood. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry suggested that the IFN-α production originated from Paneth cells in the SI, and portions of lamina proprial CD11b- or mPDCA1-positive cells in the LI. Conclusion The present study suggests that microbial colonization, while inducing the expression of anti-microbial peptides, results in the down-regulation of certain genes responsible for immune responses, especially for type I IFN synthesis. This may reflect the adaptation process of the immune system in the LI to prevent excessive inflammation with respect to continuous microbial exposure. Further, the repertoire of anti-microbial peptides and the extraordinary role of interferon producing cells in the LI have been found to be distinct from those in the SI. PMID:18439305

  3. Porcine circovirus type 2 induces type I interferon production via MyD88-IKKα-IRFs signaling rather than NF-κB in porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengmeng; Han, Junyuan; Zhang, Yaqun; Duan, Dianning; Zhang, Shuxia

    2016-02-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays important roles in host antiviral responses. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and NF-κB transcription factors are thought to be important in the processes of viral secretion and triggering of interferon production. Recently, studies have shown that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can induce IFN-I production in vivo and in vitro, but the mechanisms underlying the production of PAMs infected with PCV2 remains unknown. Treatment of these cells with BAY11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, allowed us to study the secretion of IFN-α and IFN-β in PAMs infected with PCV2. We found that IFN-α expression was induced following virus infection of PAMs. Notably, even after inhibitor treatment of PAMs infected with PCV2, secretion of IFN-α was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared with the PCV2 infection alone group. Our findings suggest that NF-κB plays a minor role in PCV2-induced type I interferon responses. To further characterize the signaling pathway that drives IFN-I expression in PAMs in response to PCV2, we used siRNA to silence the expression of Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and study the role of MyD88-IKKα-IRF signaling in IFN-I production in PAMs induced by PCV2. Our findings show that PCV2 induced IFN-α mRNA transcription, which is associated with the activities of MyD88, IRF7, and IRF3. Thus, PCV2 can induce IFN-I transcription via the MyD88-IKKα-IRF signaling axis. PMID:26850559

  4. N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine Inhibits both Gamma Interferon- and Interleukin-10-Induced Expression of FcγRI on Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Barrionuevo, Paula; Alves-Rosa, Fernanda; Rubel, Carolina J.; Palermo, Marina S.; Isturiz, Martín A.

    2001-01-01

    Three different classes of receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (FcγRs), FcγRI, FcγRII, and FcγRIII, have been identified on human leukocytes. One of them, FcγRI, is a high-affinity receptor capable of induction of functions that include phagocytosis, respiratory burst, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and secretion of cytokines. This receptor is expressed on mononuclear phagocytes, and this expression is regulated by cytokines and hormones such as gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IFN-β, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and glucocorticoids. We have recently demonstrated that the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is capable of inducing a time-dependent downregulation of both FcγRIIIB and FcγRII in human neutrophils, altering FcγR-dependent functions. Considering the biological relevance of the regulation of FcγRI, we investigated the effect of FMLP on the overexpression of FcγRI induced by both IFN-γ and IL-10 on human monocytes. We demonstrate that FMLP significantly abrogated IFN-γ- and IL-10-induced FcγRI expression, although its basal level of expression was not altered. However, other IFN-γ-mediated effects such as the overexpression of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha were not affected by FMLP treatment. The formyl peptide completely inhibited the IFN-γ- and IL-10-induced enhancement of ADCC and phagocytosis carried out by adherent cells. The inhibitory effect of FMLP on FcγRI upregulation could exert an important regulatory effect during the evolution of bacterial infections. PMID:11238229

  5. Double-stranded RNA induces biphasic STAT1 phosphorylation by both type I interferon (IFN)-dependent and type I IFN-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Dempoya, Junichi; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu; Hayakari, Ryo; Xing, Fei; Yoshida, Hidemi; Okumura, Ken; Satoh, Kei

    2012-12-01

    Upon viral infection, pattern recognition receptors sense viral nucleic acids, leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which initiate antiviral activities. Type I IFNs bind to their cognate receptor, IFNAR, resulting in the activation of signal-transducing activators of transcription 1 (STAT1). Thus, it has long been thought that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced STAT1 phosphorylation is mediated by the transactivation of type I IFN signaling. Foreign RNA, such as viral RNA, in cells is sensed by the cytoplasmic sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5). In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism responsible for STAT1 phosphorylation in response to the sensing of dsRNA by cytosolic RNA sensors. Polyinosinic-poly(C) [poly(I:C)], a synthetic dsRNA that is sensed by both RIG-I and MDA-5, induces STAT1 phosphorylation. We found that the poly(I:C)-induced initial phosphorylation of STAT1 is dependent on the RIG-I pathway and that MDA-5 is not involved in STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with neutralizing antibody targeting the IFN receptor suppressed the initial STAT1 phosphorylation in response to poly(I:C), suggesting that this initial phosphorylation event is predominantly type I IFN dependent. In contrast, neither the known RIG-I pathway nor type I IFN is involved in the late phosphorylation of STAT1. In addition, poly(I:C) stimulated STAT1 phosphorylation in type I IFN receptor-deficient U5A cells with delayed kinetics. Collectively, our study provides evidence of a comprehensive regulatory mechanism in which dsRNA induces STAT1 phosphorylation, indicating the importance of STAT1 in maintaining very tight regulation of the innate immune system.

  6. The histopathologic features of lithium-associated thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kontozoglou, T; Mambo, N

    1983-08-01

    The case of a 62-year-old woman with lithium-associated thyroiditis is presented. Lithium can produce goiters associated with hypothyroidism and, less commonly, hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism. The characteristic histopathologic features of the affected thyroid gland included fibrosis, lymphoid follicles with atrophy, and hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. The pathogenetic mechanism appears to be immunologic, with lithium acting as a haptene with a thyroid antigen to induce an "autoimmune" type of thyroiditis.

  7. Thyroid-Induced Worsening of Parkinsonian Tremor Resistant to Drugs and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Minár, Michal; Valkovič, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Symptoms of both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis can be easily overlooked in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We report on a patient whose parkinsonian tremor worsened and proved refractory not only to common treatment, but also to deep brain stimulation (DBS). Case Presentation. A 61-year-old woman with advanced PD underwent bilateral subthalamic DBS, with an excellent outcome. Twenty-one months after the surgery, however, patient's resting/postural tremor markedly worsened. There was a slight improvement for 1 month after repeated adjustments of DBS parameters, but then the tremor worsened again. Since even a minimal increase of the dose of dopaminergic drugs caused extremely severe dyskinesias, an anticholinergic drug biperiden and benzodiazepine clonazepam were introduced, what helped for another month. With the onset of severe diarrhoea, a laboratory workup was performed. Thyrotoxicosis was detected. During treatment with the antithyroid agent carbimazole, the parkinsonian tremor clearly improved within two weeks. Conclusion. A hyperthyroid state can markedly exaggerate all forms of tremor, as well as other types of movement disorders. This condition can be overlooked or masked by other symptoms. Therefore, if the tremor in a patient with PD gradually worsens and proves resistant to the usual treatment, examine the thyroid gland. PMID:25628904

  8. InterferonInduces Cellular Senescence in Cutaneous Human Papilloma Virus-Transformed Human Keratinocytes by Affecting p53 Transactivating Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chiantore, Maria V.; Vannucchi, Serena; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Percario, Zulema A.; Vaccari, Gabriele; Affabris, Elisabetta; Fiorucci, Gianna; Romeo, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β inhibits cell proliferation and affects cell cycle in keratinocytes transformed by both mucosal high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and cutaneous HPV E6 and E7 proteins. In particular, upon longer IFN-β treatments, cutaneous HPV38 expressing cells undergo senescence. IFN-β appears to induce senescence by upregulating the expression of the tumor suppressor PML, a well known IFN-induced gene. Indeed, experiments in gene silencing via specific siRNAs have shown that PML is essential in the execution of the senescence programme and that both p53 and p21 pathways are involved. IFN-β treatment leads to a modulation of p53 phosphorylation and acetylation status and a reduction in the expression of the p53 dominant negative ΔNp73. These effects allow the recovery of p53 transactivating activity of target genes involved in the control of cell proliferation. Taken together, these studies suggest that signaling through the IFN pathway might play an important role in cellular senescence. This additional understanding of IFN antitumor action and mechanisms influencing tumor responsiveness or resistance appears useful in aiding further promising development of biomolecular strategies in the IFN therapy of cancer. PMID:22615843

  9. Interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and anti-IFI16 antibodies in primary Sjögren's syndrome: findings in serum and minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Alunno, A; Caneparo, V; Carubbi, F; Bistoni, O; Caterbi, S; Gariglio, M; Bartoloni, E; Landolfo, S; Gerli, R

    2015-01-01

    The interferon (IFN) signature, namely the overexpression of IFN-inducible genes is a crucial aspect in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). The IFN-inducible IFI16 protein, normally expressed in cell nuclei, may be overexpressed, mislocalized in the cytoplasm and secreted in the extracellular milieu in several autoimmune disorders including pSS. This leads to tolerance breaking to this self-protein and development of anti-IFI16 antibodies. The aim of this study was to identify pathogenic and clinical significance of IFI16 and anti-IFI16 autoantibodies in pSS. IFI16 and anti-IFI16 were assessed in the serum of 30 pSS patients and one-hundred healthy donors (HD) by ELISA. IFI16 was also evaluated in 5 minor salivary glands (MSGs) of pSS patients and 5 MSGs of non-pSS patients with sicca symptoms by immunohistochemistry. Normal MSGs do not constitutively express IFI16. Conversely, in pSS-MSGs a marked expression and cytoplasmic mislocalization of IFI16 by epithelial cells was observed with infiltrations in lymphocytes and peri/ intra-lesional endothelium. pSS patients display higher serum levels of both IFI16 and anti-IFI16 autoantibodies compared to HD. Our data suggest that IFI16 protein may be involved in the initiation and perpetuation of glandular inflammation occurring in pSS. PMID:26876186

  10. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  11. Interferon-γ-induced activation of JAK1 and JAK2 suppresses tumor cell susceptibility to NK cells through upregulation of PD-L1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Bellucci, Roberto; Martin, Allison; Bommarito, Davide; Wang, Kathy; Hansen, Steen H; Freeman, Gordon J; Ritz, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of JAK1 or JAK2 in human tumor cells was previously shown to increase susceptibility of these cells to NK cell lysis. In the present study, we examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate this effect in hematopoietic tumor cell lines and primary tumor cells. Incubation of tumor cells with supernatant from activated NK cells or interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-induced activation of pSTAT1 and increased expression of PD-L1 without altering expression of other activating or inhibitory NK cell ligands. These functional effects were blocked by chemical JAK inhibition or shRNAs targeting JAK1, JAK2 or STAT1. Inhibition of IFNγ signaling also prevented the upregulation of PD-L1 and blocking PD-L1 resulted in increased tumor lysis by NK cells. These results show that NK cell activation and secretion of IFNγ results in activation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT1 in tumor cells, resulting in rapid up-regulation of PD-L1 expression. Increased expression of PD-L1 results in increased resistance to NK cell lysis. Blockade of JAK pathway activation prevents increased PD-L1 expression resulting in increased susceptibility of tumor cells to NK cell activity. These observations suggest that JAK pathway inhibitors as well as PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies may work synergistically with other immune therapies by preventing IFN-induced inhibition of NK cell-mediated tumor cell lysis. PMID:26155422

  12. cIRF-3, a new member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family that is rapidly and transiently induced by dsRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, C E; Vasa, M Z; Deeley, R G

    1995-01-01

    In mammals, some of the effects of interferon (IFN) on gene transcription are known to be mediated by a family of IFN-inducible DNA-binding proteins, the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family, which includes both activators and repressors of transcription. Although IFN activities have been described in many vertebrates, little is known about regulation of IFN- or IFN-stimulated genes in species other than human and mouse. Here, we report the cloning of a chicken cDNA, cIRF-3, encoding a protein with a DNA-binding domain similar to that found in the mammalian IRF family of proteins. Similarity between cIRF-3 and the mammalian IRFs is comparable with that between known members of the family. It is most similar to the IRF proteins ICSBP and ISGF3 gamma but is equally divergent from both. Gel mobility shift assays indicate that cIRF-3 is capable of binding a known IFN-stimulated response element that is conserved between the mammalian and chicken Mx genes. Expression of the cIRF-3 gene can be induced to high levels by poly(I).poly(C). Induction is rapid and transient with no requirement for protein synthesis. Co-treatment of cells with cycloheximide results in superinduction of cIRF-3 mRNA. The structural and regulatory characteristics of cIRF-3 indicate that it is the first example of a non-mammalian IRF protein. Images PMID:7541908

  13. Recurrent Pericarditis, an Unexpected Effect of Adjuvant Interferon Chemotherapy for Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmoush, Fady; Shafi, Muhammad Ismail; Shah, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced pericarditis is a well-described cardiac pathology that can result from a variety of medications; however, interferon-mediated pericarditis is extremely rare. We present a case of a young female with recurrent pericarditis due to interferon therapy. The role of interferon in adjuvant chemotherapy is well known and yields good effect, but this case highlights the very uncommon phenomena of interferon induced pericarditis and the significant distress it can cause. PMID:27418981

  14. Anger induced by interferon-alpha is moderated by ratio of arachidonic acid to omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Lotrich, Francis E.; Sears, Barry; McNamara, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anger worsens in some patients during interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy. Elevated anger has also been associated with lower long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acid levels. We examined whether fatty acids could influence vulnerability to anger during IFN-α exposure. Methods Plasma arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were determined prior to IFN-α therapy by mass spectroscopy. Repeated-measure analyses examined the relationship between AA/EPA+DHA and the subsequent development of labile anger and irritability in 82 subjects who prospectively completed the Anger, Irritability, and Assault Questionnaire (AIAQ) during the first eight weeks of IFN-α therapy. Results Prior to IFN-α therapy, AA/EPA+DHA did not correlate with either labile anger or irritability. Pre-treatment AA/EPA+DHA did correlate with the subsequent maximal increase in labile anger during IFN-α therapy (r=0.33; p=0.005). Over time, labile anger increased more in subjects with above median AA/EPA+DHA ratios (p<0.05). Of the 17 subjects ultimately requiring psychiatric intervention for anger, 14/17 had above-median AA/EPA+DHA ratios (p=0.009). There was also an interaction with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) promoter polymorphism (A-308G), such that only those with both elevated AA/EPA+DHA and the A allele had increased labile anger (p=0.001). In an additional 18 subjects, we conversely observed that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment was associated with increased irritability during IFN-α therapy. Conclusion LCn-3 fatty acid status may influence anger development during exposure to elevated inflammatory cytokines, and may interact with genetic risk for increased brain TNF-α. LCn-3 supplements may be one strategy for minimizing this adverse side effect of IFN-α. PMID:24182638

  15. Tumor-Cell Co-Culture Induced Alternative Activation of Macrophages Is Modulated by Interferons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Quernheim, Ulrike Carolin; Potthast, Lars; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages infiltrate tumors and facilitate tumor growth. Here, we analyzed M1 and M2 marker expression in the course of co-culture-driven macrophage differentiation and investigated the influence of interferons (IFNs) on this differentiation. To generate monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) 1×106 monocytes of healthy volunteers were cultivated either with 25×103 adherent A549/mL or in medium containing 50% A549 conditioned medium (CM) for 72 h in the presence or absence of IFN-α, β or γ, respectively. Supernatants were tested for CCL18 (M2 marker) and CXCL10 (M1 marker) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CCL18 and CXCL10 release by MDM is increased by the presence of A549 cells, but also when cultured in A549 CM. On stimulation with IFN-γ, we observe an increased release of the M1 marker CXCL10 and a decreased release of CCL18. Type I IFNs also increases CXCL10 release. Thus, A549 releases a soluble factor which enhances CCL18 production and M2 polarization, indicating that a localized specific cytokine milieu, as found in the environment of a tumor or in fibrotic lung tissue, favors alternative activation of macrophages. In the presence of IFN-γ, M2 differentiation is attenuated as shown by the decrease of the M2 chemokine CCL18 and by the increase of the M1 chemokine CXCL10. However, CXCL10 levels were also increased by the co-culture, which indicates a simultaneous classical activation (M1) or the formation of a M1/M2 hybrid. PMID:22280057

  16. Evidence for a Novel Mechanism of Influenza Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Expression by a Defective RNA-Encoded Protein

    PubMed Central

    Boergeling, Yvonne; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S.; Schmolke, Mirco; Resa-Infante, Patricia; Robeck, Thomas; Randau, Gerrit; Wolff, Thorsten; Gabriel, Gülsah; Brosius, Jürgen; Ludwig, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) defective RNAs are generated as byproducts of error-prone viral RNA replication. They are commonly derived from the larger segments of the viral genome and harbor deletions of various sizes resulting in the generation of replication incompatible viral particles. Furthermore, small subgenomic RNAs are known to be strong inducers of pattern recognition receptor RIG-I-dependent type I interferon (IFN) responses. The present study identifies a novel IAV-induced defective RNA derived from the PB2 segment of A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 (H5N1). It encodes a 10 kDa protein (PB2∆) sharing the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the parental PB2 protein followed by frame shift after internal deletion. PB2∆ induces the expression of IFNβ and IFN-stimulated genes by direct interaction with the cellular adapter protein MAVS, thereby reducing viral replication of IFN-sensitive viruses such as IAV or vesicular stomatitis virus. This induction of IFN is completely independent of the defective RNA itself that usually serves as pathogen-associated pattern and thus does not require the cytoplasmic sensor RIG-I. These data suggest that not only defective RNAs, but also some defective RNA-encoded proteins can act immunostimulatory. In this particular case, the KAN-1-induced defective RNA-encoded protein PB2∆ enhances the overwhelming immune response characteristic for highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, leading to a more severe phenotype in vivo. PMID:26024522

  17. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    PubMed

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M

    1996-09-13

    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  18. Cyclophosphamide induces type I interferon and augments the number of CD44(hi) T lymphocytes in mice: implications for strategies of chemoimmunotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Schiavoni, G; Mattei, F; Di Pucchio, T; Santini, S M; Bracci, L; Belardelli, F; Proietti, E

    2000-03-15

    In a previous study, we reported that a single injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX) in tumor-bearing mice resulted in tumor eradication when the animals were subsequently injected with tumor-sensitized lymphocytes. Notably, CTX acted by inducing bystander effects on T cells, and the response to the combined CTX/adoptive immunotherapy regimen was inhibited in mice treated with antibodies to mouse interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta. In the present study, we have investigated whether CTX induced the expression of type I IFN, and we have characterized the CTX effects on the phenotype of T cells in normal mice. CTX injection resulted in an accumulation of type I IFN messenger RNA in the spleen of inoculated mice, at 24 to 48 hours, that was associated with IFN detection in the majority of the animals. CTX also enhanced the expression of the Ly-6C on spleen lymphocytes. This enhancement was inhibited in mice treated with anti-type I IFN antibodies. Moreover, CTX induced a long-lasting increase in in vivo lymphocyte proliferation and in the percentage of CD44(hi)CD4(+) and CD44(hi)CD8(+ )T lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that CTX is an inducer of type I IFN in vivo and enhances the number of T cells exhibiting the CD44(hi) memory phenotype. Since type I IFN has been recently recognized as the important cytokine for the in vivo expansion and long-term survival of memory T cells, we suggest that induction of this cytokine may explain at least part of the immunomodulatory effects observed after CTX treatment. Finally, these findings provide a new rationale for combined treatments with CTX and adoptive immunotherapy in cancer patients. (Blood. 2000;95:2024-2030) PMID:10706870

  19. Effect of thyroid hormone concentration on the transcriptional response underlying induced metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma)

    PubMed Central

    Page, Robert B; Voss, Stephen R; Samuels, Amy K; Smith, Jeramiah J; Putta, Srikrishna; Beachy, Christopher K

    2008-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones (TH) induce gene expression programs that orchestrate amphibian metamorphosis. In contrast to anurans, many salamanders do not undergo metamorphosis in nature. However, they can be induced to undergo metamorphosis via exposure to thyroxine (T4). We induced metamorphosis in juvenile Mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) using 5 and 50 nM T4, collected epidermal tissue from the head at four time points (Days 0, 2, 12, 28), and used microarray analysis to quantify mRNA abundances. Results Individuals reared in the higher T4 concentration initiated morphological and transcriptional changes earlier and completed metamorphosis by Day 28. In contrast, initiation of metamorphosis was delayed in the lower T4 concentration and none of the individuals completed metamorphosis by Day 28. We identified 402 genes that were statistically differentially expressed by ≥ two-fold between T4 treatments at one or more non-Day 0 sampling times. To complement this analysis, we used linear and quadratic regression to identify 542 and 709 genes that were differentially expressed by ≥ two-fold in the 5 and 50 nM T4 treatments, respectively. Conclusion We found that T4 concentration affected the timing of gene expression and the shape of temporal gene expression profiles. However, essentially all of the identified genes were similarly affected by 5 and 50 nM T4. We discuss genes and biological processes that appear to be common to salamander and anuran metamorphosis, and also highlight clear transcriptional differences. Our results show that gene expression in axolotls is diverse and precise, and that axolotls provide new insights about amphibian metamorphosis. PMID:18267027

  20. [Radiotherapy for Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jingu, Keiichi; Maruoka, Shin; Umezawa, Rei; Takahashi, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Radioactive 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer has been used since the 1940s and is an established and effective treatment. In contrast, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was considered to be effective for achieving local control but not for prolonging survival. Although clinicians were hesitant to administer EBRT owing to the potential radiation-induced adverse effects of 2 dimensional (2D)-radiotherapy until 2000, it is expected that adverse effects will be reduced and treatment efficacy improved through the introduction of more advanced techniques for delivering radiation (eg, 3D-radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). The prognosis of undifferentiated thyroid cancer is known to be extremely bad, although in very rare cases, multimodality therapy (total or subtotal resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has allowed long-term survival. Here, we report the preliminary results of using hypofractionated radiotherapy for undifferentiated thyroid cancer in our institution. PMID:26199238

  1. Temperature-induced variation in yolk androgen and thyroid hormone levels in avian eggs.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Groothuis, Ton G G; Schaper, Sonja V; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-09-01

    Global warming has substantially changed the environment, but the mechanisms to cope with these changes in animals, including the role of maternal effects, are poorly understood. Maternal effects via hormones deposited in eggs, have important environment-dependent effects on offspring development and fitness: thus females are expected to adjust these hormones to the environment, such as the ambient temperature. Longer-term temperature variation could function as a cue, predicting chick rearing conditions to which yolk hormone levels are adjusted, while short-term temperature variation during egg formation may causally affect hormone transfer to eggs. We studied the effects of ambient temperature on yolk androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) and thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) in great tits (Parus major) using data from unmanipulated clutches from a wild population and from aviary birds (ad libitum food) exposed to different experimental temperature treatments during five years. Both in the wild and in captivity, longer-term pre-laying ambient temperature was not associated with clutch mean yolk hormone levels, while the way androstenedione and thyroxine levels varied across the laying sequence did associate with pre-laying temperature in the wild. Yolk testosterone levels were positively correlated with short-term temperature (during yolk formation) changes within clutches in both wild and captivity. We also report, for the first time in a wild bird, that yolk thyroxine levels correlated with a key environmental factor: thyroxine levels were negatively correlated with ambient temperature during egg formation. Thus, yolk hormone levels, especially testosterone, seem to be causally affected by ambient temperature. These short-term effects might reflect physiological changes in females with changes in ambient temperature. The adaptive value of the variation with ambient temperatures pre-laying or during egg formation should be studied with

  2. Microarray analysis of thyroid hormone-induced changes in mRNA expression in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Mreyoud, Amjad; Fishman, Miriam; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2004-07-15

    To determine which genes in the adult rat brain are regulated by thyroid hormone (TH), we used microarrays to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on neuron-specific gene expression. Four-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were rendered hyperthyroid by intraperitoneal injection of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3, 15 microg/100 g body weight) for 10 consecutive days. To minimize interindividual variability, pooled cerebral tissue RNA from four-control and five-hyperthyroid rats was hybridized in duplicates to the Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) U34N rat neurobiology microarray, which contains probes for 1224 neural-specific genes. Changes in gene expression were considered significant only if they were observed in both pair-wise comparisons as well as by Northern blot analysis. Hyperthyroidism was associated with modest changes in the expression of only 11 genes. The expression of the phosphodiesterase Enpp2, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), growth hormone (GH), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase beta-subunit (Camk2b), neuron-specific protein PEP-19 (Pcp4), a sodium-dependent neurotransmitter, and the myelin-associated glycoprotein (S-MAG) was significantly increased. Three genes were suppressed by hyperthyroidism, including the activity and neurotransmitter-induced early genes-1 and -7 (ANIA-1 and ANIA-7) and the guanine nucleotide-binding protein one (Gnb1). The present study underscores the paucity of TH responsive genes in adult cerebral tissue. PMID:15234464

  3. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect

    PubMed Central

    khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave’s disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. PMID:26221205

  4. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. Unlike other types ...

  5. Murine Coronavirus Mouse Hepatitis Virus Is Recognized by MDA5 and Induces Type I Interferon in Brain Macrophages/Microglia ▿

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Cross, Jessica K.; Bender, Susan J.; Weiss, Susan R.

    2008-01-01

    The coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) induces a minimal type I interferon (IFN) response in several cell types in vitro despite the fact that the type I IFN response is important in protecting the mouse from infection in vivo. When infected with MHV, mice deficient in IFN-associated receptor expression (IFNAR−/−) became moribund by 48 h postinfection. MHV also replicated to higher titers and exhibited a more broad tissue tropism in these mice, which lack a type I IFN response. Interestingly, MHV induced IFN-β in the brains and livers, two main targets of MHV replication, of infected wild-type mice. MHV infection of primary cell cultures indicates that hepatocytes are not responsible for the IFN-β production in the liver during MHV infection. Furthermore, macrophages and microglia, but not neurons or astrocytes, are responsible for IFN-β production in the brain. To determine the pathway by which MHV is recognized in macrophages, IFN-β mRNA expression was quantified following MHV infection of a panel of primary bone marrow-derived macrophages generated from mice lacking different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Interestingly, MDA5, a PRR thought to recognize primarily picornaviruses, was required for recognition of MHV. Thus, MHV induces type I IFN in macrophages and microglia in the brains of infected animals and is recognized by an MDA5-dependent pathway in macrophages. These findings suggest that secretion of IFN-β by macrophages and microglia plays a role in protecting the host from MHV infection of the central nervous system. PMID:18667505

  6. Mechanisms of the Eimeria tenella growth inhibitory activity induced by concanavalin A and reticuloendotheliosis virus supernatants with interferon gamma activity in chicken macrophages and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Dimier-Poisson, I H; Soundouss, Z; Naciri, M; Bout, D T; Quéré, P

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of chicken bone marrow macrophages and embryo fibroblasts with supernatants containing chicken interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) for 24 hr prior to inoculation inhibited intracellular Eimeria tenella replication, measured by [3H] uracil incorporation. The supernatants (Sns) were obtained from culture of lymphoblastoid cells transformed by a reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and chicken splenocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A). The mechanisms of the E. tenella growth inhibitory activity induced by Sn REV and Sn Con A in chicken macrophages and fibroblasts were studied. Addition of oxygen scavengers (superoxide dismutase, D-mannitol, DABCO, benzoic acid, L-histidine hydrochloride) was able to overcome the inhibition of E. tenella replication after pretreatment with Sn REV or Sn Con A in macrophage cultures but not in fibroblast cultures. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was induced in macrophage culture treated with Sn REV or Sn Con A but not in fibroblast culture. Addition of NG monomethyl-L-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor together with the supernatants was also able to overcome inhibition of E. tenella replication in macrophage culture. On the other hand, addition of L-tryptophan to Sn REV- or Sn Con A-treated fibroblasts was able to reverse the inhibitory effect on E. tenella replication. In conclusion, production of inorganic NO or toxic oxygen intermediates may be involved in the E. tenella growth inhibitory activity of chicken macrophages pretreated with supernatants containing an IFN-gamma activity, and cellular tryptophan depletion may be involved for chicken fibroblasts, thus matching the mechanisms of the IFN-gamma-induced growth inhibitory activity for protozoans in mammals.

  7. Interferon regulatory factor 4b (IRF4b) in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: Sequencing, ubiquitous tissue distribution and inducible expression by poly(I:C) and DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dahai; Chen, Jinjing; Zhang, Haiyan; Hu, Mengzhu; Lou, Huimin; Liu, Qiuming; Zhang, Shicui; Hu, Guobin

    2016-09-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in mammals is known to be critical in regulation of development and functions of lymphomyeloid cell lineages. Recent studies have demonstrated its involvement in immune responses to bacterial and viral challenges in teleosts. In this study, an IRF4 gene was cloned from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its expression in response to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) stimulations was studied in vivo. The cloned gene spans over 5.9 kb, comprises eight exons and seven introns and encodes a putative protein of 456 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence possesses a conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF-association domain (IAD) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis clustered it into the teleost IRF4b clade and, thus, it was named Paralichthys olivaceus (Po)IRF4b. The constitutive expression of PoIRF4b transcripts was detectable in all examined organs, with highest levels found in lymphomyeloid-rich tissues. They were induced by both poly(I:C) and LCDV with a similar inducibility in immune or non-immune organs. Two waves of induced expression of PoIRF4b were observed with the two stimuli during a 7-day time course in the immune organs, with the early-phase induction being stronger. The maximum increases of PoIRF4b transcript levels ranged from 1.3 to 4.0-fold and appeared at day 1-5 post-injection depending on different organs and stimuli. In both stimulation cases, the strongest induction was detected in spleen and the weakest in muscle. These results indicate that PoIRF4b may participate in regulation of immune responses of flounders to both RNA and DNA virus infections. PMID:27084058

  8. Inhibition of interferon gamma induced interleukin 12 production: a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activities of tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Hodge-Dufour, J; Marino, M W; Horton, M R; Jungbluth, A; Burdick, M D; Strieter, R M; Noble, P W; Hunter, C A; Puré, E

    1998-11-10

    Inflammation is associated with production of cytokines and chemokines that recruit and activate inflammatory cells. Interleukin (IL) 12 produced by macrophages in response to various stimuli is a potent inducer of interferon (IFN) gamma production. IFN-gamma, in turn, markedly enhances IL-12 production. Although the immune response is typically self-limiting, the mechanisms involved are unclear. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma inhibits production of chemokines (macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta). Furthermore, pre-exposure to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibited IFN-gamma priming for production of high levels of IL-12 by macrophages in vitro. Inhibition of IL-12 by TNF can be mediated by both IL-10-dependent and IL-10-independent mechanisms. To determine whether TNF inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced IL-12 production contributed to the resolution of an inflammatory response in vivo, the response of TNF+/+ and TNF-/- mice injected with Corynebacterium parvum were compared. TNF-/- mice developed a delayed, but vigorous, inflammatory response leading to death, whereas TNF+/+ mice exhibited a prompt response that resolved. Serum IL-12 levels were elevated 3-fold in C. parvum-treated TNF-/- mice compared with TNF+/+ mice. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibody led to resolution of the response to C. parvum in TNF-/- mice. We conclude that the role of TNF in limiting the extent and duration of inflammatory responses in vivo involves its capacity to regulate macrophage IL-12 production. IFN-gamma inhibition of chemokine production and inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced IL-12 production by TNF provide potential mechanisms by which these cytokines can exert anti-inflammatory/repair function(s). PMID:9811882

  9. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  10. Persistent perioperative tachycardia and hypertension diagnosed as thyroid storm induced by a hydatidiform mole: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wonjung; Im, Daehwan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a critical complication of molar pregnancy. However, early diagnosis of it is difficult because it is a rare complication and usually presents nonspecific findings. In this case report, we present a woman with molar pregnancy who had persistent tachycardia and hypertension. She was diagnosed initially with preeclampsia and sepsis as complications of molar pregnancy. During dilation and curettage under general anesthesia with sevoflurane and remifentanil, tachycardia and hypertension remained even with continuous infusion of labetalol. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with thyroid storm associated with molar pregnancy. She was restored to a clinically euthyroid state 1 day after the operation, and her thyroid function test and β-hCG values were normal 3 months later. The anesthesiologists should bear in mind the possibility of thyroid storm in patients with molar pregnancies who show persistent tachycardia and hypertension. PMID:25302097

  11. Thyroid inferno.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Amit; Kaur, Manmeet

    2014-01-01

    The key to uncovering the etiology of hyperthyroidism lies in a careful history and physical examination. Autoimmune markers provide additive information, but should not solely be used to make a diagnosis. Concern has been raised that the overzealous use of thyroid ultrasound, following abnormal thyroid function tests, diverts attention from the workup of the biochemical abnormality to the workup of an incidentally found thyroid nodule. If further imaging is needed, the use ofathyroidscanhas been suggestedbythe Endocrine Society and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. However, in certain scenarios, this may be contraindicated. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with hyperthyroidism, as aplatform to discuss an important clinical sign present on Doppler ultrasound of the thyroid. By recognizing the clinical information gained from a Doppler ultrasound, physicians can avoid additional invasive workup and apply the use of ultrasound where most appropriate.

  12. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Laryngoscopy (looking inside the throat using a mirror or flexible tube called a laryngoscope placed through ... It may be performed by: Aiming external beam (x-ray) radiation at the thyroid Taking radioactive iodine by ...

  13. Hepatitis E genotype 4 virus from feces of monkeys infected experimentally can be cultured in PLC/PRF/5 cells and upregulate host interferon-inducible genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Ying; Harrison, Tim J; Luo, Baobin; Zhou, Yan; Li, Xiuhua; Song, Aijing; Huang, Weijin; Wang, Youchun

    2014-10-01

    The understanding of the interaction between hepatitis E virus (HEV) and its host cells has been impeded greatly by the absence of a cell culture system. In this study, an efficient cultivation method was developed in PLC/PRF/5 cells for HEV genotype 4 from the feces of monkeys infected experimentally. Compared to minimal essential medium (MEM), mixed Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM)/M199 improved the infection efficiency of HEV in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The incubation time and temperature were set at 6 hr and 40°C, respectively. Compared to a 100% ELISA positive ratio (EPR) of 1 × 10(6)  copies/ml HEV inoculated flasks, the ELISA positive ratio was 100%, 75%, 37.5%, and 100% for flasks inoculated with HEV incubated for 30 min under the conditions of pH 3.0, pH 11.0, 56°C and delipidation treatment, respectively. Gene expression profiles of HEV inoculated and control PLC/PRF/5 cells were assayed using a microarray. Four interferon-inducible genes, IFI27, IFI6, Mx1, and CMPK2, were up-regulated during HEV-infection. Furthermore, the replication of HEV was inhibited at 3-14 days after treatment with 500 IU/ml IFN-α2b.

  14. Targeting Attenuated Interferon-α to Myeloma Cells with a CD38 Antibody Induces Potent Tumor Regression with Reduced Off-Target Activity.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Sarah L; Taura, Tetsuya; Bi, Mingying; Yun, Yong; Sho, Angela; Mikesell, Glen; Behrens, Collette; Sokolovsky, Maya; Hallak, Hussein; Rosenstock, Moti; Sanchez, Eric; Chen, Haiming; Berenson, James; Doyle, Anthony; Nock, Steffen; Wilson, David S

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-α (IFNα) has been prescribed to effectively treat multiple myeloma (MM) and other malignancies for decades. Its use has waned in recent years, however, due to significant toxicity and a narrow therapeutic index (TI). We sought to improve IFNα's TI by, first, attaching it to an anti-CD38 antibody, thereby directly targeting it to MM cells, and, second, by introducing an attenuating mutation into the IFNα portion of the fusion protein rendering it relatively inactive on normal, CD38 negative cells. This anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) immunocytokine, or CD38-Attenukine™, exhibits 10,000-fold increased specificity for CD38 positive cells in vitro compared to native IFNα and, significantly, is ~6,000-fold less toxic to normal bone marrow cells in vitro than native IFNα. Moreover, the attenuating mutation significantly decreases IFNα biomarker activity in cynomolgus macaques indicating that this approach may yield a better safety profile in humans than native IFNα or a non-attenuated IFNα immunocytokine. In human xenograft MM tumor models, anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) exerts potent anti-tumor activity in mice, inducing complete tumor regression in most cases. Furthermore, anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) is more efficacious than standard MM treatments (lenalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone) and exhibits strong synergy with lenalidomide and with bortezomib in xenograft models. Our findings suggest that tumor-targeted attenuated cytokines such as IFNα can promote robust tumor killing while minimizing systemic toxicity. PMID:27611189

  15. Swine interferon-induced transmembrane protein, sIFITM3, inhibits foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinfang; Qian, Ping; Wu, Qunfeng; Liu, Shasha; Fan, Wenchun; Zhang, Keshan; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2014-09-01

    The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a widely expressed potent antiviral effector of the host innate immune system. It restricts a diverse group of pathogenic, enveloped viruses, by interfering with endosomal fusion. In this report, the swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) gene was cloned. It shares the functionally conserved CD225 domain and multiple critical amino acid residues (Y19, F74, F77, R86 and Y98) with its human ortholog, which are essential for antiviral activity. Ectopic expression of sIFITM3 significantly inhibited non-enveloped foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in BHK-21 cells. Furthermore, sIFITM3 blocked FMDV infection at early steps in the virus life cycle by disrupting viral attachment to the host cell surface. Importantly, inoculation of 2-day-old suckling mice with a plasmid expressing sIFITM3 conferred protection against lethal challenge with FMDV. These results suggest that sIFITM3 is a promising antiviral agent and that can safeguard the host from infection with FMDV.

  16. Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 is associated with insulin resistance and incident diabetes in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chu; Wu, Chia-Lin; Su, Wei-Wen; Shih, Kai-Lun; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chou, Chen-Te; Chen, Ting-Yu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Wu, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), a proinflammatory chemokine, plays a crucial role in inflammatory diseases. This cross-sectional pilot study investigated whether circulating IP-10 is associated with the progression of liver disease, and prediabetes in patients with NAFLD. A total of 90 patients with NAFLD alone (n = 48) or NAFLD with incident diabetes (n = 42) and 43 controls participated in this study. Fasting plasma was used to assess metabolic parameters, inflammatory factors, endotoxin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). IP-10 levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD alone (median (interquartile range): 369.44 (309.30-418.97) pg/mL) and in those with incident diabetes (418.99 (330.73-526.04) pg/mL) than in controls (293.37 (214.10-331.57) pg/mL) (P < 0.001). IP-10 levels were positively correlated with levels of alanine aminotransferase, hs-CRP, MDA, MCP-1, and TNF-α as well as HOMA-IR values. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed IP-10 was an independent risk factor associated with progressive liver injury, insulin resistance and incident diabetes. Circulating IP-10 may be a non-invasive biomarker for disease progression and subsequent diabetes development of NAFLD. PMID:25961500

  17. Impairment of Interleukin-17A Expression in Canine Visceral Leishmaniosis is Correlated with Reduced Interferon-γ and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, M S L; Albuquerque, T D R; Nascimento, A F S; Caldas, I S; Do-Valle-Matta, M A; Souto, J T; Talvani, A; Bahia, M T; Galvão, L M C; Câmara, A C J; Guedes, P M M

    2015-11-01

    Dogs are the primary urban reservoir of Leishmania infantum and play a crucial role in the transmission of this parasite to man via sandflies. The spleen and liver are the main target organs of L. infantum infection, but few studies have evaluated the immune response to this infection in the canine liver. To identify the immunological mediators involved in resistance and/or susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL), we selected 21 dogs naturally infected by L. infantum and classified as asymptomatic or symptomatic. Immunological parameters were analysed and correlations with clinical signs were determined. Symptomatic dogs showed higher numbers of parasites and less leucocyte infiltration in the liver compared with asymptomatic dogs. The progression of this disease was characterized not only by the down regulation of T helper (Th) 1-related cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but also by the down regulation of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-17A, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and IL-10 in the spleen and liver in symptomatic dogs compared with asymptomatic dogs. Importantly, IL-17A gene transcription level was positively correlated with mRNA expression for iNOS and IFN-γ. Th1- and Th17-related cytokines therefore appear to play a role in restricting parasite growth via iNOS activation and decrease susceptibility of dogs to CVL.

  18. Expression and functional characterization of a gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Zhao, Zhe; Zhu, Xinping; Chen, Kunci; Zhang, Qiya

    2013-01-01

    GRIM-19 is a nuclear encoded subunit of complex I that has been implicated in apoptosis. The protein participates in multiple functions including the innate immune response. GRIM-19 has been studied in humans and other mammals; however, fish GRIM-19 has not been well characterized. In this study, a new GRIM-19 gene, EcGRIM-19, was isolated from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) cDNA library, which was constructed following LPS treatment. EcGRIM-19 is a 582-bp gene that encodes a 144-amino acid protein. The gene is a true ortholog of mammalian GRIM-19. EcGRIM-19 exhibits ubiquitous and constitutive expression in the different tissues of the orange-spotted grouper. The expression levels of EcGRIM-19 are altered in the gill, spleen, kidney and liver after induction with LPS. The subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that the EcGRIM-19 protein is localized predominantly in the mitochondria. In addition, amino acids 30-50 of the protein are responsible for the mitochondrial localization of EcGRIM-19. The caspase assay demonstrated that the overexpression of GRIM-19 enhanced the cellular sensitivity to interferon(IFN)-β- and retinoic acid (RA)-induced death in HeLa cells. The data presented in this study are important for further understanding the EcGRIM-19 gene function in fish.

  19. Characterization and expression analysis of an interferon-γ2 induced chemokine receptor CXCR3 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Chadzinska, M; Golbach, L; Pijanowski, L; Scheer, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L

    2014-11-01

    Chemokine and chemokine receptor signalling pairs play a crucial role in regulation of cell migration, morphogenesis, and cell activation. Expressed in mammals on activated T and NK cells, chemokine receptor CXCR3 binds interferoninducible chemokines CXCL9-11 and CCL21. Here we sequenced the carp CXCR3 chemokine receptor and showed its relationship to CXCR3a receptors found in other teleosts. We found high expression of the CXCR3 gene in most of the organs and tissues of the immune system and in immune-related tissues such as gills and gut, corroborating a predominantly immune-related function. The very high expression in gill and gut moreover indicates a role for CXCR3 in cell recruitment during infection. High in vivo expression of CXCR3 at later stages of inflammation, as well as its in vitro sensitivity to IFN-γ2 stimulation indicate that in carp, CXCR3 is involved in macrophage-mediated responses. Moreover, as expression of the CXCR3 and CXCb genes coincides in the focus of inflammation and as both the CXCb chemokines and the CXCR3 receptor are significantly up-regulated upon IFN-γ stimulation it is hypothesized that CXCb chemokines may be putative ligands for CXCR3. PMID:25036761

  20. Targeting Attenuated Interferon-α to Myeloma Cells with a CD38 Antibody Induces Potent Tumor Regression with Reduced Off-Target Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Sarah L.; Taura, Tetsuya; Bi, Mingying; Yun, Yong; Sho, Angela; Mikesell, Glen; Behrens, Collette; Sokolovsky, Maya; Hallak, Hussein; Rosenstock, Moti; Sanchez, Eric; Chen, Haiming; Berenson, James; Doyle, Anthony; Nock, Steffen; Wilson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-α (IFNα) has been prescribed to effectively treat multiple myeloma (MM) and other malignancies for decades. Its use has waned in recent years, however, due to significant toxicity and a narrow therapeutic index (TI). We sought to improve IFNα’s TI by, first, attaching it to an anti-CD38 antibody, thereby directly targeting it to MM cells, and, second, by introducing an attenuating mutation into the IFNα portion of the fusion protein rendering it relatively inactive on normal, CD38 negative cells. This anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) immunocytokine, or CD38-Attenukine™, exhibits 10,000-fold increased specificity for CD38 positive cells in vitro compared to native IFNα and, significantly, is ~6,000-fold less toxic to normal bone marrow cells in vitro than native IFNα. Moreover, the attenuating mutation significantly decreases IFNα biomarker activity in cynomolgus macaques indicating that this approach may yield a better safety profile in humans than native IFNα or a non-attenuated IFNα immunocytokine. In human xenograft MM tumor models, anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) exerts potent anti-tumor activity in mice, inducing complete tumor regression in most cases. Furthermore, anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) is more efficacious than standard MM treatments (lenalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone) and exhibits strong synergy with lenalidomide and with bortezomib in xenograft models. Our findings suggest that tumor-targeted attenuated cytokines such as IFNα can promote robust tumor killing while minimizing systemic toxicity. PMID:27611189

  1. A rare case of thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Brock; Dhillon, Manvinder Shelley; Yong-Yow, Sabrina

    2016-04-18

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening state of thyroid hormone excess. Rapid recognition of thyroid storm is key to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of this condition. Clinical manifestations of thyroid storm include unexplained weight loss, hyperactivity and irritability. The most common causes of thyrotoxicosis are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goitre and toxic adenoma. We present a rare case of thyroid storm induced by dual nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy in a patient receiving treatment for advanced melanoma. In this case, our patient was admitted for thyroid storm 1 month after initiating treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy. The patient was treated with β-blockers, antithyroid medications and systemic steroids resulting in an improvement in thyroid function testing and symptoms.

  2. Effects of phenobarbital on thyroid hormone contabolism in rat hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in rodents. PB induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes increases thyroid hormones catabolism and biliary elimination. This study examines the catabolism and cl...

  3. Fasting-induced changes in hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats are independent of autonomic nervous input to the liver.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; Eggels, L; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2014-12-01

    During fasting, profound changes in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis occur in order to save energy and limit catabolism. In this setting, serum T3 and T4 are decreased without an appropriate TSH and TRH response reflecting central down-regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism is also affected by fasting, because type 3 deiodinase (D3) is increased, which is mediated by serum leptin concentrations. A recent study showed that fasting-induced changes in liver TH sulfotransferases (Sults) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugts) depend on a functional melanocortin system in the hypothalamus. However, the pathways connecting the hypothalamus and the liver that induce these changes are currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated in rats whether the fasting-induced changes in hepatic TH metabolism are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. We selectively cut either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic input to the liver. Serum and liver TH concentrations, deiodinase expression, and activity and Sult and Ugt expression were measured in rats that had been fasted for 36 hours or were fed ad libitum. Fasting decreased serum T3 and T4 concentrations, whereas intrahepatic TH concentrations remained unchanged. D3 expression and activity increased, as was the expression of constitutive androstane receptor, Sult1b1, and Ugt1a1, whereas liver D1 was unaffected. Neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic denervation affected the fasting-induced alterations. We conclude that fasting-induced changes in liver TH metabolism are not regulated via the hepatic autonomic input in a major way and more likely reflect a direct effect of humoral factors on the hepatocyte.

  4. Fasting-induced changes in hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats are independent of autonomic nervous input to the liver.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; Eggels, L; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2014-12-01

    During fasting, profound changes in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis occur in order to save energy and limit catabolism. In this setting, serum T3 and T4 are decreased without an appropriate TSH and TRH response reflecting central down-regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism is also affected by fasting, because type 3 deiodinase (D3) is increased, which is mediated by serum leptin concentrations. A recent study showed that fasting-induced changes in liver TH sulfotransferases (Sults) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugts) depend on a functional melanocortin system in the hypothalamus. However, the pathways connecting the hypothalamus and the liver that induce these changes are currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated in rats whether the fasting-induced changes in hepatic TH metabolism are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. We selectively cut either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic input to the liver. Serum and liver TH concentrations, deiodinase expression, and activity and Sult and Ugt expression were measured in rats that had been fasted for 36 hours or were fed ad libitum. Fasting decreased serum T3 and T4 concentrations, whereas intrahepatic TH concentrations remained unchanged. D3 expression and activity increased, as was the expression of constitutive androstane receptor, Sult1b1, and Ugt1a1, whereas liver D1 was unaffected. Neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic denervation affected the fasting-induced alterations. We conclude that fasting-induced changes in liver TH metabolism are not regulated via the hepatic autonomic input in a major way and more likely reflect a direct effect of humoral factors on the hepatocyte. PMID:25243858

  5. The Double-Stranded RNA Bluetongue Virus Induces Type I Interferon in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells via a MYD88-Dependent TLR7/8-Independent Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruscanu, Suzana; Pascale, Florentina; Bourge, Mickael; Hemati, Behzad; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Urien, Céline; Bonneau, Michel; Takamatsu, Haru; Hope, Jayne; Mertens, Peter; Meyer, Gilles; Stewart, Meredith; Roy, Polly; Meurs, Eliane F.; Dabo, Stéphanie; Zientara, Stéphan; Breard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Chauveau, Emilie; Vitour, Damien; Charley, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), especially plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), produce large amounts of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) upon infection with DNA or RNA viruses, which has impacts on the physiopathology of the viral infections and on the quality of the adaptive immunity. However, little is known about the IFN-α/β production by DCs during infections by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. We present here novel information about the production of IFN-α/β induced by bluetongue virus (BTV), a vector-borne dsRNA Orbivirus of ruminants, in sheep primary DCs. We found that BTV induced IFN-α/β in skin lymph and in blood in vivo. Although BTV replicated in a substantial fraction of the conventional DCs (cDCs) and pDCs in vitro, only pDCs responded to BTV by producing a significant amount of IFN-α/β. BTV replication in pDCs was not mandatory for IFN-α/β production since it was still induced by UV-inactivated BTV (UV-BTV). Other inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12p40, were also induced by UV-BTV in primary pDCs. The induction of IFN-α/β required endo-/lysosomal acidification and maturation. However, despite being an RNA virus, UV-BTV did not signal through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) for IFN-α/β induction. In contrast, pathways involving the MyD88 adaptor and kinases dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) were implicated. This work highlights the importance of pDCs for the production of innate immunity cytokines induced by a dsRNA virus, and it shows that a dsRNA virus can induce IFN-α/β in pDCs via a novel TLR-independent and Myd88-dependent pathway. These findings have implications for the design of efficient vaccines against dsRNA viruses. PMID:22438548

  6. Differential involvement of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors in human interferon-alpha-induced immobility in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Luyong

    2010-01-01

    Although Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha, CAS 9008-11-1) is a powerful drug in treating several viral infections and certain tumors, a considerable amount of neuropsychiatric side-effects such as depression and anxiety are an unavoidable consequence. Combination with the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (CAS 56296-78-7) significantly improved the situation. However, the potential 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor-signals involved in the antidepressant effects are still unclear. The effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor signals were analyzed by using the mouse forced swimming test (FST), a predictive test of antidepressant-like action. The present results indicated that (1) fluoxetine (administrated intragastrically, 30 mg/kg; not subactive dose: 15 mg/kg) significantly reduced IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the forced swimming test; (2) 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor ligands alone or in combination had no effects on IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the FST; (3) surprisingly, WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, 634908-75-1) and 8-OH-DPAT(5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, CAS 78950-78-4) markedly enhanced the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine at the subactive dose (15 mg/kg, i. g.) on the IFN-alpha-treated mice in the FST. Further investigations showed that fluoxetine combined with WAY 100635 and 8-OH-DPAT failed to produce antidepressant effects in the FST. (4) Co-application of CGS 12066A (5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CAS 109028-09-3) or GR 127935 (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist, CAS 148642-42-6) with fluoxetine had no synergistic effects on the IFN-alpha-induced increase of immobility time in FST. (5) Interestingly, co-administration of GR 127935, WAY 100635 and fluoxetine significantly reduced the IFN-alpha-induced increase in immobility time of FST, being more effective than co-administration of WAY 100635 and fluoxetine. All results suggest that (1) compared to

  7. Tetramethylpyrazine, a natural alkaloid, attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators induced by amyloid β and interferon-γ in rat brain microglia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mia; Kim, Sung-Ok; Lee, Moonsung; Lee, Joon H; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Kim, Young-Suk; Cho, Ki-Ho; Ko, Chang-Nam; Lee, Eunjoo H

    2014-10-01

    Neuroinflammation has been consistently reported as a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer׳s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial cells are activated by diverse pathological stimuli and play key roles in development of neuroinflammation. Amyloid β peptide (Aβ), the major constituent of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer׳s brain, is known to activate cultured microglial cells to produce increased amounts of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is the main bioactive alkaloid isolated from Ligusticum chuanxiong. TMP has multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. Neuroprotective potential of TMP has been demonstrated in animal models of neuropathologies. However, the efficacy of this compound for controlling Aβ-related neuropathology has not been explored yet. We examined the efficacy of TMP in the repression of inflammatory response in cultured microglial cells stimulated with Aβ25-35 in the presence of interferon (IFN)-γ. TMP significantly inhibited the Aβ25-35 and IFN-γ-stimulated productions of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and intracellular reactive oxygen species from primary microglial cells. TMP also effectively reduced Aβ25-35 and IFN-γ-elicited NF-κB activation. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs), TMP significantly blocked Aβ25-35-induced reactive oxygen species generation and phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, TMP also inhibited Aβ1-42-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production in primary microglial cells and neuronal death in OHSCs. These results suggest that TMP provide a possible therapeutic approach for alleviating the inflammatory progression of Alzheimer׳s disease. PMID:24975095

  8. Yersinia pestis can bypass protective antibodies to LcrV and activation with gamma interferon to survive and induce apoptosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Noel, Betty L; Lilo, Sarit; Capurso, Daniel; Hill, Jim; Bliska, James B

    2009-10-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, uses a type III secretion injectisome to deliver Yop proteins into macrophages to counteract phagocytosis and induce apoptosis. Additionally, internalized Y. pestis can survive in the phagosomes of naïve or gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages by blocking vacuole acidification. The Y. pestis LcrV protein is a target of protective antibodies. The binding of antibodies to LcrV at the injectisome tip results in neutralization of the apoptosis of Y. pestis-infected macrophages and is used as an in vitro correlate of protective immunity. The cytokines IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha can cooperate with anti-LcrV to promote protection against lethal Y. pestis infection in mice. It is not known if these phagocyte-activating cytokines cooperate with anti-LcrV to increase the killing of the pathogen and decrease apoptosis in macrophages. We investigated how anti-LcrV and IFN-gamma impact bacterial survival and apoptosis in cultured murine macrophages infected with Y. pestis KIM5. Y. pestis KIM5 opsonized with polyclonal or monoclonal anti-LcrV was used to infect macrophages treated with or without IFN-gamma. The phagocytosis and survival of KIM5 and the apoptosis of macrophages were measured at different time points postinfection. The results show that anti-LcrV reduced apoptosis at an early time point (5 h) but not at a later time point (24 h). Polyclonal anti-LcrV was unable to inhibit apoptosis at either time point in IFN-gamma-activated macrophages. Additionally, anti-LcrV was ineffective at promoting the killing of KIM5 in naïve or activated macrophages. We conclude that Y. pestis can bypass protective antibodies to LcrV and activation with IFN-gamma to survive and induce apoptosis in murine macrophages.

  9. Yersinia pestis Can Bypass Protective Antibodies to LcrV and Activation with Gamma Interferon To Survive and Induce Apoptosis in Murine Macrophages ▿

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Betty L.; Lilo, Sarit; Capurso, Daniel; Hill, Jim; Bliska, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, uses