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Sample records for interglacial conditions polar

  1. Stratification-induced variations in nutrient utilization in the Polar North Atlantic during past interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibodeau, Benoit; Bauch, Henning A.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Vertical water mass structure in the Polar North Atlantic Ocean plays a critical role in planetary climate by influencing the formation rate of North Atlantic deepwater, which in turn affects surface heat transfer in the northern hemisphere, ventilation of the deep sea, and ocean circulation on a global scale. However, the response of upper stratification in the Nordic seas to near-future hydrologic forcing, as surface water warms and freshens due to global temperature rise and Greenland ice demise, remains poorly known. While past major interglacials are viewed as potential analogues of the present, recent findings suggest that very different surface ocean conditions prevailed in the Polar North Atlantic during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e and 11 compared to the Holocene. It is thus crucial to identify the causes of those differences in order to understand their role in climatic and oceanographic variability. To resolve this, we pair here bulk sediment δ15N isotopic signatures with planktonic foraminiferal assemblages and their isotopic composition across major past interglacials. The comparison defines for the first time stratification-induced variations in nitrate utilization up to 25% between and within all of these warm periods that highlight changes in the thickness of the mixed-layer throughout the previous interglacials. That thickness directly controls the depth-level of Atlantic water inflow. The major changes of nitrate utilization recorded here thus suggest that a thicker mixed-layer prevailed during past interglacials, probably related to longer freshwater input associated with the preceding glacial termination. This would have caused the Atlantic water to flow at greater depth during MIS 5e and 11. These results call for caution when using older interglacials as modern or near-future climate analogues and contribute to the improvement of our general comprehension of the impact of freshwater input near a globally important deep-water formation site

  2. Collapse of polar ice sheets during the stage 11 interglacial.

    PubMed

    Raymo, Maureen E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2012-03-14

    Contentious observations of Pleistocene shoreline features on the tectonically stable islands of Bermuda and the Bahamas have suggested that sea level about 400,000 years ago was more than 20 metres higher than it is today. Geochronologic and geomorphic evidence indicates that these features formed during interglacial marine isotope stage (MIS) 11, an unusually long interval of warmth during the ice age. Previous work has advanced two divergent hypotheses for these shoreline features: first, significant melting of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, in addition to the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Greenland Ice Sheet; or second, emplacement by a mega-tsunami during MIS 11 (ref. 4, 5). Here we show that the elevations of these features are corrected downwards by ∼10 metres when we account for post-glacial crustal subsidence of these sites over the course of the anomalously long interglacial. On the basis of this correction, we estimate that eustatic sea level rose to ∼6-13 m above the present-day value in the second half of MIS 11. This suggests that both the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapsed during the protracted warm period while changes in the volume of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet were relatively minor, thereby resolving the long-standing controversy over the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet during MIS 11.

  3. Evidence for a Progressive Change of Interglacial Climate Conditions Forced by Different Ocean-Atmosphere Circulation Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, H. A.; Kandiano, E. S.; Helmke, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    Most paleoclimatic interpretations directly hinge on observations drawn from studying present day processes. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the overall glacial-interglacial climate system, still little is known in detail about climate forcing and feedback mechanisms of the interglacial past. In order to better estimate the 'natural range' of climatically important mechanisms, it seems crucial to make detailed comparison of the present interglaciation (Holocene) with previous warm periods of the late Quaternary. As the impact of climate change is usually strongest in more extreme environments, the temperature-sensitive northern high latitudes are a suitable region for such comparative studies. There is ample evidence from terrestrial and marine archives that the major warm periods of the Quaternary differed significantly from each other. For instance, the last interglacial period (Eemian/125 ka) had climatic conditions indicating slightly higher temperatures at mid-northern latitudes than during the Holocene hypsithermal. Comparing Holocene with Eemian records using marine sediment cores from the polar-subpolar North Atlantic suggests two different circulation styles. During most of the Holocene surface water circulation was dominated by a polar-directed transport of relatively warm surface water from the Atlantic which entered the eastern Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait and across the western Eurasian shelf seas. This type of circulation forced oceanographic fronts into a meridional alignment, a situation which still exists today. For Eemian times, however, paleoproxies indicate a much steeper north-to-south temperature gradient than for the Holocene, suggesting a zonal configuration of the main water mass fronts. This situation led to a reduced water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic seas. Reconstructions of surface conditions during stage 11 (Holsteinian/405 ka) indicate, despite overall boundary conditions were

  4. An Interglacial Polar Bear and an Early Weichselian Glaciation at Poolepynten, Western Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, O.; Alexanderson, H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent discovery of a subfossil polar bear (Ursus maritimus) jawbone in the Poolepynten coastal cliff sequence, western Svalbard (Ingolfsson & Wiig, 2009), and its implications for the natural history of the polar bear (Lindqvist et al. 2010; Miller et al. 2012), motivated an effort to better constrain the environmental history and age envelope of the Poolepynten sediment sequence, particularly the lithostratigraphy of the coastal cliffs with emphasis on re-dating the sequence using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. We report a revised lithostratigraphy and nine new OSL ages. It is concluded that the Poolepynten sequence holds evidence of four regional glaciation events, recorded in the strata as erosional unconformities and/or glacial deposits followed by shallow-marine deposition signifying transgressions and subsequent glacio-isostatic rebound and regression. Our OSL ages refine previous age determinations (14C and IRSL) and support the interpretation that the subfossil polar bear jawbone is of last interglacial (Eemian) age (Alexanderson et al. in press). References: Alexanderson, H., Ingolfsson, O., Murray, A.S. & Dudek, J. in press. An Interglacial Polar Bear and an Early Weichselian Glaciation at Poolepynten, Western Svalbard. Boreas 00, 000-000. Ingolfsson, O. & Wiig, O. 2009. Late Pleistocene fossil find in Svalbard: the oldest remains of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1744) ever discovered. Polar Research 28, 455-466. Lindqvist, C., Schuster, S. C., Sun, Y., Talbot, S. L., Qi, J., Ratan, A., Tomsho, L. P., Kasson, L., Zeyl, E., Aars, J., Miller, W., Ingólfsson, Ó., Bachmann, L. & Wiig, Ø. 2010. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 5053-5057. Miller, W., Schuster, S. C., Welch, A. J., Ratan, A., Bedoya-Reina, O. C., Zhao, F., Kim, H. L., Burhans, R.C., Drautz, D.I., Wittekindt, N.E., Tomsho, L.P., Ibarra-Laclette, E

  5. Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarchikova, Natalia; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Timmreck, C.; O'Donnell, D.; Schurgers, G.; Sein, Dmitry; Zhang, Kai

    2015-05-19

    The mineral dust cycle responds to climate variations and plays an important role in the climate system by affecting the radiative balance of the atmosphere and modifying biogeochemistry. Polar ice cores provide unique information about deposition of aeolian dust particles transported over long distances. These cores are a palaeoclimate proxy archive of climate variability thousands of years ago. The current study is a first attempt to simulate past interglacial dust cycles with a global aerosol–climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The results are used to explain the dust deposition changes in Antarctica in terms of quantitative contribution of different processes, such as emission, atmospheric transport and precipitation, which will help to interpret palaeodata from Antarctic ice cores. The investigated periods include four interglacial time slices: the pre-industrial control (CTRL), mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP; hereafter referred to as \\"6 kyr\\"), last glacial inception (115 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"115 kyr\\") and Eemian (126 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"126 kyr\\"). One glacial time interval, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"21 kyr\\"), was simulated as well to be a reference test for the model. Results suggest an increase in mineral dust deposition globally, and in Antarctica, in the past interglacial periods relative to the pre-industrial CTRL simulation. Approximately two-thirds of the increase in the mid-Holocene and Eemian is attributed to enhanced Southern Hemisphere dust emissions. Slightly strengthened transport efficiency causes the remaining one-third of the increase in dust deposition. The moderate change in dust deposition in Antarctica in the last glacial inception period is caused by the slightly stronger poleward atmospheric transport efficiency compared to the pre-industrial. Maximum dust deposition in Antarctica was simulated for the glacial period. LGM dust deposition in Antarctica is substantially increased due to 2.6 times higher

  6. Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica

    DOE PAGES

    Sudarchikova, Natalia; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Timmreck, C.; ...

    2015-05-19

    The mineral dust cycle responds to climate variations and plays an important role in the climate system by affecting the radiative balance of the atmosphere and modifying biogeochemistry. Polar ice cores provide unique information about deposition of aeolian dust particles transported over long distances. These cores are a palaeoclimate proxy archive of climate variability thousands of years ago. The current study is a first attempt to simulate past interglacial dust cycles with a global aerosol–climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The results are used to explain the dust deposition changes in Antarctica in terms of quantitative contribution of different processes, such as emission,more » atmospheric transport and precipitation, which will help to interpret palaeodata from Antarctic ice cores. The investigated periods include four interglacial time slices: the pre-industrial control (CTRL), mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP; hereafter referred to as \\"6 kyr\\"), last glacial inception (115 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"115 kyr\\") and Eemian (126 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"126 kyr\\"). One glacial time interval, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"21 kyr\\"), was simulated as well to be a reference test for the model. Results suggest an increase in mineral dust deposition globally, and in Antarctica, in the past interglacial periods relative to the pre-industrial CTRL simulation. Approximately two-thirds of the increase in the mid-Holocene and Eemian is attributed to enhanced Southern Hemisphere dust emissions. Slightly strengthened transport efficiency causes the remaining one-third of the increase in dust deposition. The moderate change in dust deposition in Antarctica in the last glacial inception period is caused by the slightly stronger poleward atmospheric transport efficiency compared to the pre-industrial. Maximum dust deposition in Antarctica was simulated for the glacial period. LGM dust deposition in Antarctica is substantially increased due to 2.6 times

  7. Variations in glacial and interglacial marine conditions over the last two glacial cycles off northern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwemark, Ludvig; Chao, Weng-Si; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Chiu, Pin-Yao; Yang, Tien-Nan; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chuang, Chih-Kai; León Dominguez, Dora Carolina; Jakobsson, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Five sediment cores from the Lomonosov Ridge and the Morris Jesup Rise north of Greenland show the history of sea-ice coverage and primary productivity over the last two glacial cycles. Variations in Manganese content, benthic and planktonic foraminifera, bioturbation, and trace fossil diversity are interpreted to reflect differences in sea-ice cover and sediment depositional conditions between the identified interglacials. Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 1 and MIS 2 are represented by thin (<<5 cm) sediment units while the preceding interglacial MIS 5 and glacial MIS 6 are characterized by thick (10-20 cm) deposits. Foraminiferal abundances and bioturbation suggest that MIS 1 was generally characterized by severe sea-ice conditions north of Greenland while MIS 5 appears to have been considerably warmer with more open water, higher primary productivity, and higher sedimentation rates. Strengthened flow of Atlantic water along the northern continental shelf of Greenland rather than development of local polynyas is here suggested as a likely cause for the relatively warmer marine conditions during MIS 5 compared to MIS 1. The cores also suggest distinct differences between the glacial intervals MIS 2 and MIS 6. While MIS 6 is distinguished by a relatively thick sediment unit poor in foraminifera and with low Mn values, MIS 2 is practically missing. We speculate that this could be the effect from a paleocrystic sea-ice cover north of Greenland during MIS 2 that prevented sediment delivery from sea ice and icebergs. In contrast, the thick sequence deposited during MIS 6 indicates a longer glacial period with dynamic intervals characterized by huge drifting icebergs delivering ice rafted debris (IRD). A drastic shift from thinner sedimentary cycles where interglacial sediment parameters indicate more severe sea-ice conditions gave way to larger amplitude cycles with more open water indicators was observed around the boundary between MIS 7/8. This shift is in agreement with a

  8. The Last Interglacial Labrador Sea: A Pervasive Millennial Oscillation In Surface Water Conditions Without Labrador Sea Water Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.

    A multi-proxy approach was developed to document secular to millenial changes of potential density in surface, mesopelagic, and bottom waters of the Labrador Sea, thus allowing to reconstruct situations when winter convection with intermediate or deep water formation occurred in the basin. This approach relies on dinocyst-transfer functions providing estimates of sea-surface temperature and salinity that are used to calibrate past-relationships between oxygen 18 contents in calcite and potential density gradients. The oxygen isotope compositions of epipelagic (Globigerina bul- loides), deeper-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, left coiling), and benthic (Uvigerina peregrina and Cibicides wuellerstorfi) foraminifera, then allow to extrap- olate density gradients between the corresponding water layers. This approach has been tested in surface sediments in reference to modern hydrographic conditions at several sites from the NW North Atlantic, then used to reconstruct past conditions from high resolution studies of cores raised from the southern Greenland Rise (off Cape Farewell). Results indicate that the modern-like regime established during the early Holocene and full developed after 7 ka only. It is marked by weak density gradi- ents between the surface and intermediate water masses, allowing winter convection down to a lower pycnocline between intermediate and deep-water masses, thus the formation of intermediate Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Contrasting with the middle to late Holocene situation, since the last interglacial and throughout the last climatic cycle, a single and dense water mass seems to have occupied the water column below a generally low-density surface water layer, thus preventing deep convection. There- fore, the production of LSW seems to be feature specific to the present interglacial interval that could soon cease to exist, due to global warming, as suggested by recent ocean model experiments and by the fact that it never occurred during the

  9. Correspondence between the ENSO-like state and glacial-interglacial condition during the past 360 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Tiegang; Chang, Fengming; Yu, Zhoufei; Xiong, Zhifang; Wang, Haixia

    2016-10-01

    In the warming world, tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variation has received considerable attention because of its enormous influence on global climate change, particularly the El Niño-Southern Oscillation process. Here, we provide new high-resolution proxy records of the magnesium/calcium ratio and the oxygen isotope in foraminifera from a core on the Ontong-Java Plateau to reconstruct the SST and hydrological variation in the center of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) over the last 360 000 years. In comparison with other Mg/Ca-derived SST and δ18O records, the results suggested that in a relatively stable condition, e.g., the last glacial maximum (LGM) and other glacial periods, the tropical Pacific would adopt a La Niña-like state, and the Walker and Hadley cycles would be synchronously enhanced. Conversely, El Niño-like conditions could have occurred in the tropical Pacific during fast-changing periods, e.g., the termination and rapidly cooling stages of interglacial periods. In the light of the sensitivity of the Eastern Pacific Cold Tongue (EPCT) and the inertia of the WPWP, we hypothesize an inter-restricted relationship between the WPWP and EPCT, which could control the zonal gradient variation of SST and affect climate change.

  10. Last interglacial climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kukla, G.J.; Bender, M.L.; de Beaulieu, J. -L.; Bond, G.; Broecker, W.S.; Cleveringa, P.; Gavin, J.E.; Herbert, T.D.; Imbrie, J.; Jouzel, J.; Keigwin, L.D.; Knudsen, K.-L.; McManus, J.F.; Merkt, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Muller, H.; Poore, R.Z.; Porter, S.C.; Seret, G.; Shackleton, N.J.; Turner, C.; Tzedakis, P.C.; Winograd, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The last interglacial, commonly understood as an interval with climate as warm or warmer than today, is represented by marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, which is a proxy record of low global ice volume and high sea level. It is arbitrarily dated to begin at approximately 130,000 yr B.P. and end at 116,000 yr B.P. with the onset of the early glacial unit MIS 5d. The age of the stage is determined by correlation to uranium-thorium dates of raised coral reefs. The most detailed proxy record of interglacial climate is found in the Vostok ice core where the temperature reached current levels 132,000 yr ago and continued rising for another two millennia. Approximately 127,000 yr ago the Eemian mixed forests were established in Europe. They developed through a characteristic succession of tree species, probably surviving well into the early glacial stage in southern parts of Europe. After ca. 115,000 yr ago, open vegetation replaced forests in northwestern Europe and the proportion of conifers increased significantly farther south. Air temperature at Vostok dropped sharply. Pulses of cold water affected the northern North Atlantic already in late MIS 5e, but the central North Atlantic remained warm throughout most of MIS 5d. Model results show that the sea surface in the eastern tropical Pacific warmed when the ice grew and sea level dropped. The essentially interglacial conditions in southwestern Europe remained unaffected by ice buildup until late MIS 5d when the forests disappeared abruptly and cold water invaded the central North Atlantic ca. 107,000 yr ago. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  11. Last Interglacial Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, George J.; Bender, Michael L.; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Bond, Gerard; Broecker, Wallace S.; Cleveringa, Piet; Gavin, Joyce E.; Herbert, Timothy D.; Imbrie, John; Jouzel, Jean; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Knudsen, Karen-Luise; McManus, Jerry F.; Merkt, Josef; Muhs, Daniel R.; Müller, Helmut; Poore, Richard Z.; Porter, Stephen C.; Seret, Guy; Shackleton, Nicholas J.; Turner, Charles; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.; Winograd, Isaac J.

    2002-07-01

    The last interglacial, commonly understood as an interval with climate as warm or warmer than today, is represented by marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, which is a proxy record of low global ice volume and high sea level. It is arbitrarily dated to begin at approximately 130,000 yr B.P. and end at 116,000 yr B.P. with the onset of the early glacial unit MIS 5d. The age of the stage is determined by correlation to uranium-thorium dates of raised coral reefs. The most detailed proxy record of interglacial climate is found in the Vostok ice core where the temperature reached current levels 132,000 yr ago and continued rising for another two millennia. Approximately 127,000 yr ago the Eemian mixed forests were established in Europe. They developed through a characteristic succession of tree species, probably surviving well into the early glacial stage in southern parts of Europe. After ca. 115,000 yr ago, open vegetation replaced forests in northwestern Europe and the proportion of conifers increased significantly farther south. Air temperature at Vostok dropped sharply. Pulses of cold water affected the northern North Atlantic already in late MIS 5e, but the central North Atlantic remained warm throughout most of MIS 5d. Model results show that the sea surface in the eastern tropical Pacific warmed when the ice grew and sea level dropped. The essentially interglacial conditions in southwestern Europe remained unaffected by ice buildup until late MIS 5d when the forests disappeared abruptly and cold water invaded the central North Atlantic ca. 107,000 yr ago.

  12. Polarity in Conditionals and Conditional-Like Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, I-Ta Chris

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the distribution of negative polarity items (henceforth, NPIs) in conditionals and conditional-like constructions. NPIs include words such as any and ever and idioms such as "give a damn" and "lift a finger"; these expressions have only a limited distribution. In this dissertation, the distribution of…

  13. Glacial/interglacial changes in export production in a series of sediment cores spanning the Indian sector Antarctic Polar Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccard, S.; Thöle, L.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Studer, A.; Michel, E.; Mazaud, A.

    2014-12-01

    Export of organic carbon from surface waters of the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean decreased during the last ice age, coinciding with declining atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, signaling reduced exchange of CO2 between the ocean interior and the atmosphere. In contrast, in the Subantarctic Zone, export production increased into ice ages coinciding with rising dust fluxes, thus suggesting iron fertilization of Subantarctic phytoplankton. Recently developed XRF core-scanning methods permit paleoceanographic reconstructions on time-scales similar to ice core temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. We have investigated the sedimentary distribution of various proxies allowing reconstructing export production in a series of sedimentary archives retrieved from the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean spanning the Antarctic Polar Front in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island (Marion Dufresne Expeditions IndienSud-1 & 2). These high-resolution measurements are complemented with reconstruction of 230Th-normalized biogenic particle flux to the seafloor covering the last glacial termination.This contribution will explore the effects of Fe-fertilization on export production in an area remote from major dust sources. Furthermore, quantitative vertical flux determinations will allow comparing carbon export efficiency in the Indian Ocean with previously published records from the South Atlantic.

  14. Low-δD hydration rinds in Yellowstone perlites record rapid syneruptive hydration during glacial and interglacial conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindeman, Ilya N.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2016-01-01

    Hydration of silicic volcanic glass forms perlite, a dusky, porous form of altered glass characterized by abundant “onion-skin” fractures. The timing and temperature of perlite formation are enigmatic and could plausibly occur during eruption, during post-eruptive cooling, or much later at ambient temperatures. To learn more about the origin of natural perlite, and to fingerprint the hydration waters, we investigated perlitic glass from several synglacial and interglacial rhyolitic lavas and tuffs from the Yellowstone volcanic system. Perlitic cores are surrounded by a series of conchoidal cracks that separate 30- to 100-µm-thick slivers, likely formed in response to hydration-induced stress. H2O and D/H profiles confirm that most D/H exchange happens together with rapid H2O addition but some smoother D/H variations may suggest separate minor exchange by deuterium atom interdiffusion following hydration. The hydrated rinds (2–3 wt% H2O) transition rapidly (within 30 µm, or by 1 wt% H2O per 10 µm) to unhydrated glass cores. This is consistent with quenched “hydration fronts” where H2O diffusion coefficients are strongly dependent on H2O concentrations. The chemical, δ18O, and δD systematics of bulk glass records last equilibrium between ~110 and 60 °C without chemical exchange but with some δ18O exchange. Similarly, the δ18O of water extracted from glass by rapid heating suggests that water was added to the glass during cooling at <200 °C. Our observations support fast hydration at temperatures as low as 60 °C; prolonged exposure to high temperature of 175°–225° during water addition is less likely as the glass would lose alkalies and should alter to clays within days. A compilation of low-temperature hydration diffusion coefficients suggests ~2 orders of magnitude higher rates of diffusion at 60–110 °C temperatures, compared with values expected from extrapolation of high-temperature (>400 °C) experimental data. The thick

  15. Low-δD hydration rinds in Yellowstone perlites record rapid syneruptive hydration during glacial and interglacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, Ilya N.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2016-11-01

    Hydration of silicic volcanic glass forms perlite, a dusky, porous form of altered glass characterized by abundant "onion-skin" fractures. The timing and temperature of perlite formation are enigmatic and could plausibly occur during eruption, during post-eruptive cooling, or much later at ambient temperatures. To learn more about the origin of natural perlite, and to fingerprint the hydration waters, we investigated perlitic glass from several synglacial and interglacial rhyolitic lavas and tuffs from the Yellowstone volcanic system. Perlitic cores are surrounded by a series of conchoidal cracks that separate 30- to 100-µm-thick slivers, likely formed in response to hydration-induced stress. H2O and D/H profiles confirm that most D/H exchange happens together with rapid H2O addition but some smoother D/H variations may suggest separate minor exchange by deuterium atom interdiffusion following hydration. The hydrated rinds (2-3 wt% H2O) transition rapidly (within 30 µm, or by 1 wt% H2O per 10 µm) to unhydrated glass cores. This is consistent with quenched "hydration fronts" where H2O diffusion coefficients are strongly dependent on H2O concentrations. The chemical, δ18O, and δD systematics of bulk glass records last equilibrium between 110 and 60 °C without chemical exchange but with some δ18O exchange. Similarly, the δ18O of water extracted from glass by rapid heating suggests that water was added to the glass during cooling at <200 °C. Our observations support fast hydration at temperatures as low as 60 °C; prolonged exposure to high temperature of 175°-225° during water addition is less likely as the glass would lose alkalies and should alter to clays within days. A compilation of low-temperature hydration diffusion coefficients suggests 2 orders of magnitude higher rates of diffusion at 60-110 °C temperatures, compared with values expected from extrapolation of high-temperature (>400 °C) experimental data. The thick hydration rinds in perlites

  16. Rapid reductions in North Atlantic Deep Water during the peak of the last interglacial period.

    PubMed

    Galaasen, Eirik Vinje; Ninnemann, Ulysses S; Irvalı, Nil; Kleiven, Helga Kikki F; Rosenthal, Yair; Kissel, Catherine; Hodell, David A

    2014-03-07

    Deep ocean circulation has been considered relatively stable during interglacial periods, yet little is known about its behavior on submillennial time scales. Using a subcentennially resolved epibenthic foraminiferal δ(13)C record, we show that the influence of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) was strong at the onset of the last interglacial period and was then interrupted by several prominent centennial-scale reductions. These NADW transients occurred during periods of increased ice rafting and southward expansions of polar water influence, suggesting that a buoyancy threshold for convective instability was triggered by freshwater and circum-Arctic cryosphere changes. The deep Atlantic chemical changes were similar in magnitude to those associated with glaciations, implying that the canonical view of a relatively stable interglacial circulation may not hold for conditions warmer and fresher than at present.

  17. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  18. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Eduard; Bakels, Corrie

    2015-06-01

    Neandertal occupation of Eemian environments in Europe is well attested by several archaeological sites dating to this interglacial period. Does this mean that Neandertals were living in closed forest environments? Due to the potential variability of Eemian environments in space and time, it is necessary to study environmental records that can be correlated with phases of hominin presence, as reflected in the archaeological record. Such a perspective can be obtained from the small basin locality Neumark-Nord 2, as it contains an extensive and detailed environmental record, as well as a large archaeological record consisting of several distinct find levels. Analysis shows that hominin presence is predominantly associated with semi-open environmental conditions. A review of the data from the neighbouring Neumark-Nord 1 basin shows that semi-open environments were also characterizing the wider environment during phases of hominin presence at both basin localities. Large herbivores attracted to the water in these basins may have played an important role in the vegetation openness, probably in conjunction with (local) climatic conditions. The relationship between hominin presence and semi-open environments is explained as Neandertals exploiting the large herbivores aggregating around these freshwater localities, while the more varied vegetation would also have provided them with edible plant foods. Other Eemian sites from freshwater contexts provide evidence for semi-open conditions as well.

  19. Response of Asian summer monsoon duration to orbital forcing under glacial and interglacial conditions: Implication for precipitation variability in geological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhengguo

    2016-05-01

    The responses of Asian summer monsoon and associated precipitation to orbital forcing have been intensively explored during the past 30 years, but debate still exists regarding whether or not the Asian monsoon is controlled by northern or southern summer insolation on the precessional timescale. Various modeling studies have been conducted that support the potential roles played by the insolation in both hemispheres. Among these previous studies, however, the main emphasis has been on the Asian monsoon intensity, with the response of monsoon duration having received little consideration. In the present study, the response of the rainy season duration over different monsoon areas to orbital forcing and its contribution to total annual precipitation are evaluated using an atmospheric general circulation model. The results show that the durations of the rainy seasons, especially their withdrawal, in northern East Asia and the India-Bay of Bengal region, are sensitive to precession change under interglacial-like conditions. Compared to those during stronger boreal summer insolation, the Asian monsoon-associated rainy seasons at weaker insolation last longer, although the peak intensity is smaller. This longer duration of rainfall, which results from the change in land-ocean thermal contrast associated with atmospheric diabatic heating, can counterbalance the weakened intensity in certain places and induce an opposite response of total annual precipitation. However, the duration effect of Asian monsoon is limited under glacial-like conditions. Nevertheless, monsoon duration is a factor that can dominate the orbital-scale variability of Asian monsoon, alongside the intensity, and it should therefore receive greater attention when attempting to explain orbital-scale monsoon change.

  20. Stimulus polarity and conditioning in planaria.

    PubMed

    BARNES, C D; KATZUNG, B G

    1963-08-23

    Orientation in the monopolar pulse field used as the unconditioned stimulus was found to influence formation of a conditioned response to light in planarians. Planarians trained while oriented with the head toward the cathode reached maximal response rates rapidly, while those trained while oriented toward the anode showed no evidence of conditioned response formation.

  1. The high Sea Level History of Beringia and its correspondence with Super Interglacials and Warm Pliocene at Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia - Links to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Roychowdhury, R.; Deconto, R. M.; Melles, M.; Minyuk, P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal regions of central Beringia contain a well-studied sequence of marine shorelines consisting of barrier beach sequences and broad coastal plans of superposed marine sediment. These sequences include shorelines associated with 2 Pliocene high sea stands, and lower shorelines dated to MIS 31, MIS 11, and MIS 5e. All of these shorelines correspond with super interglacials identified in the Lake El'gygytgyn paleoclimate record (Lake E), NE Arctic Russia. However, not all super interglacials correspond with a recorded high sea level event in the western Arctic. We argue that most of the high sea stands in central and northern Beringia, especially the NW coast of Alaska, likely require at least the partial demise of Greenland, or WAIS, or EAIS, or some combination of the three. How do we evaluate what melted and why? MIS 31 was a remarkably warm interval found in the ANDRILL and other marine records around Antarctica. Half a prerecession cycle after this warmth in Antarctica, we see a super interglacial MIS 31 in Lake E. Because of unconformities in the ANDRILL record, MIS 31 still provides the best match with Lake E, but we postulate that other intervals marked by the deposition of diatomaceous ooze in the ANDRILL record may also correspond to many of our interglacials. The challenge has been to determine orbital phasing relationships between warmth in the south and warmth in the north. Here we explore this relationship starting with the striking observation that most super interglacials correspond with extremely low eccentricity, but lagged by ~53kyrs. We explore how orbital conditions may have preconditioned the polar regions to produce a large response during some interglacials; linking changes in polar ice sheet size to sea level and interglacial extremes recorded at Lake E.

  2. Mars Express MARSIS Radar: A Prediction of the Effect of Overlying Ice on Detecting Polar Basal Lakes and Inter-Glacial Aquifers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Plaut, J. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Picardi, G.

    2004-01-01

    The penetration of the MARSIS radar signal into the polar ice mass is modeled to determine the capability of the instrument to locate sub-glacial aquifers. As a ground penetrating radar, the orbiting MARSIS transmits a signal greater than 1 W between 1-5 MHz. In this work we will investigate the effect of ice conductive losses on the radar-detection of subsurface aquifers. Based on wave propagation analysis, it is found that for a bulk ice conductivity below 10-5 S/m, conductive losses in the medium are not significant. However, if the bulk ice conductivity is relatively large (greater than 10-5 S/m), the reflected signal from any deep aquifer will be absorbed as it propagates in the lossy ice medium limiting the probing depth.

  3. Interglacials of the last 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Past Interglacials Working Group Of Pages

    2016-03-01

    Interglacials, including the present (Holocene) period, are warm, low land ice extent (high sea level), end-members of glacial cycles. Based on a sea level definition, we identify eleven interglacials in the last 800,000 years, a result that is robust to alternative definitions. Data compilations suggest that despite spatial heterogeneity, Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e (last interglacial) and 11c (~400 ka ago) were globally strong (warm), while MIS 13a (~500 ka ago) was cool at many locations. A step change in strength of interglacials at 450 ka is apparent only in atmospheric CO2 and in Antarctic and deep ocean temperature. The onset of an interglacial (glacial termination) seems to require a reducing precession parameter (increasing Northern Hemisphere summer insolation), but this condition alone is insufficient. Terminations involve rapid, nonlinear, reactions of ice volume, CO2, and temperature to external astronomical forcing. The precise timing of events may be modulated by millennial-scale climate change that can lead to a contrasting timing of maximum interglacial intensity in each hemisphere. A variety of temporal trends is observed, such that maxima in the main records are observed either early or late in different interglacials. The end of an interglacial (glacial inception) is a slower process involving a global sequence of changes. Interglacials have been typically 10-30 ka long. The combination of minimal reduction in northern summer insolation over the next few orbital cycles, owing to low eccentricity, and high atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations implies that the next glacial inception is many tens of millennia in the future.

  4. Polar and high latitude substorms and solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despirak, I. V.; Lyubchich, A. A.; Kleimenova, N. G.

    2014-09-01

    All substorm disturbances observed in polar latitudes can be divided into two types: polar, which are observable at geomagnetic latitudes higher than 70° in the absence of substorms below 70°, and high latitude substorms, which travel from auroral (<70°) to polar (>70°) geomagnetic latitudes. The aim of this study is to compare conditions in the IMF and solar wind, under which these two types of substorms are observable on the basis of data from meridional chain of magnetometers IMAGE and OMNI database for 1995, 2000, and 2006-2011. In total, 105 polar and 55 high latitude substorms were studied. It is shown that polar substorms are observable at a low velocity of solar wind after propagation of a high-speed recurrent stream during the late recovery phase of a magnetic storm. High latitude substorms, in contrast, are observable with a high velocity of solar wind, increased values of the Bz component of the IMF, the Ey component of the electric field, and solar wind temperature and pressure, when a high-speed recurrent stream passes by the Earth.

  5. Illumination Conditions of the Lunar Polar Regions Using LOLA Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Torrence, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    We use high-resolution altimetry data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to characterize present illumination conditions in the polar regions of the Moon. Compared to previous studies, both the spatial and temporal extent of the simulations are increased significantly, as well as the coverage (fill ratio) of the topographic maps used, thanks to the 28 Hz firing rate of the five-beam instrument. We determine the horizon elevation in a number of directions based on 240 m-resolution polar digital elevation models reaching down to 75 latitude. The illumination of both polar regions extending to 80 can be calculated for any geometry from those horizon longitudinal profiles. We validated our modeling with recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide-Angle Camera images. We assessed the extent of permanently shadowed regions (PSRs, defined as areas that never receive direct solar illumination), and obtained total areas generally larger than previous studies (12,866 and 16,055 km2, in the north and south respectively). We extended our direct illumination model to account for singly-scattered light, and found that every PSR does receive some amount of scattered light during the year. We conducted simulations over long periods (several 18.6-years lunar precession cycles) with a high temporal resolution (6 h), and identified the most illuminated locations in the vicinity of both poles. Because of the importance of those sites for exploration and engineering considerations, we characterized their illumination more precisely over the near future. Every year, a location near the Shackleton crater rim in the south polar region is sunlit continuously for 240 days, and its longest continuous period in total darkness is about 1.5 days. For some locations small height gains ( 10 m) can dramatically improve their average illumination and reduce the night duration, rendering some of those particularly attractive energy-wise as

  6. Meltwater pulse recorded in Last Interglacial mollusk shells from Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelstern, Ian Z.; Rowe, Mark P.; Lohmann, Kyger C.; Defliese, William F.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Brewer, Aaron W.

    2017-02-01

    The warm climate of Bermuda today is modulated by the nearby presence of the Gulf Stream current. However, iceberg scours in the Florida Strait and the presence of ice-rafted debris in Bermuda Rise sediments indicate that, during the last deglaciation, icebergs discharged from the Laurentide Ice Sheet traveled as far south as subtropical latitudes. We present evidence that an event of similar magnitude affected the subtropics during the Last Interglacial, potentially due to melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using the clumped isotope paleothermometer, we found temperatures 10°C colder and seawater δ18O values 2‰ lower than modern in Last Interglacial Cittarium pica shells from Grape Bay, Bermuda. In contrast, Last Interglacial shells from Rocky Bay, Bermuda, record temperatures only slightly colder and seawater δ18O values similar to modern, likely representing more typical Last Interglacial conditions in Bermuda outside of a meltwater event. The significantly colder ocean temperatures observed in Grape Bay samples illustrate the extreme sensitivity of Bermudian climate to broad-scale ocean circulation changes. They indicate routine meltwater transport in the North Atlantic to near-equatorial latitudes, which would likely have resulted in disruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. These data demonstrate that future melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a potential source of the Last Interglacial meltwater event, could have dramatic climate effects outside of the high latitudes.

  7. Probabilistic assessment of sea level during the last interglacial stage.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Robert E; Simons, Frederik J; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Maloof, Adam C; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-17

    With polar temperatures approximately 3-5 degrees C warmer than today, the last interglacial stage (approximately 125 kyr ago) serves as a partial analogue for 1-2 degrees C global warming scenarios. Geological records from several sites indicate that local sea levels during the last interglacial were higher than today, but because local sea levels differ from global sea level, accurately reconstructing past global sea level requires an integrated analysis of globally distributed data sets. Here we present an extensive compilation of local sea level indicators and a statistical approach for estimating global sea level, local sea levels, ice sheet volumes and their associated uncertainties. We find a 95% probability that global sea level peaked at least 6.6 m higher than today during the last interglacial; it is likely (67% probability) to have exceeded 8.0 m but is unlikely (33% probability) to have exceeded 9.4 m. When global sea level was close to its current level (>or=-10 m), the millennial average rate of global sea level rise is very likely to have exceeded 5.6 m kyr(-1) but is unlikely to have exceeded 9.2 m kyr(-1). Our analysis extends previous last interglacial sea level studies by integrating literature observations within a probabilistic framework that accounts for the physics of sea level change. The results highlight the long-term vulnerability of ice sheets to even relatively low levels of sustained global warming.

  8. Last interglacial beetle fauna from New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Maureen J.

    2003-01-01

    Fossil beetles from two last interglacial lake deposits from southern Wairarapa, central New Zealand are provisionally ascribed to marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 5a-e. Both assemblages represent ecological successions from lake margins to forest. The lower sample (MIS 5e) is characterized by species found today in northern New Zealand. These species, including Lorelus crassicornis, 'Dasytes' laticeps, Cryptobius nitidius, 'Stenomalium' sulcithorax, Psilocnaeia nana, and Microbrontes lineatus, represent a southward displacement from modern distributions by up to 700 km. Climate reconstruction indicates that temperatures at the time of deposition were 1.6-2.5°C warmer in the summer (January) and 2.3-3.2°C warmer in the winter (July) than at present. These results match local and regional pollen and phytolith findings of warmer, wetter conditions at the thermal maximum of the last interglaciation. In contrast, the upper sample is characterized by species that have widespread modern-day distributions. This indicates that modern conditions were attained later in MIS5, after the MIS 5e thermal maximum.

  9. Modelling the warm interglacials: analogues of MIS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, N.; Yin, Q. Z.; Karami, M. P.; Berger, A.

    2012-04-01

    Determining interglacial diversity, primarily as a function of duration, intensity and unique climate responses to Earth's orbital variations has become a focal point for researchers trying to better understand our current interglacial. Numerous interglacials have been espoused as Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 1 analogues or windows into the future of Holocene climate based on their astronomical characteristics, seasonal insolation patterns or their similarity with predicted anthropogenic warming. However, to date there has been little quantitative study of the climate of these interglacials within a physically robust framework. Here we examine the climate response to peak interglacial forcing during MIS1, 5, 9, 11 and 19 using the Community Climate System Model 3. We determine which interglacial provides the closest analogue to peak MIS1 conditions as well as the mechanisms which dominate the surface climate responses of these interglacials. Considering the differences in astronomical parameters and greenhouse gases we discount MIS5 and 9 as analogues to peak MIS1 conditions due to their significant warmth and stronger precipitation and vegetation responses. Conversely, based on seasonal and hemispheric averages of surface temperature, precipitation and sea-ice cover, MIS11 and 19 are most similar to MIS1, with MIS11 actually exhibiting a higher affinity particularly during boreal summer. This is attributed to a greater similarity in the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of insolation over middle latitude Eurasia and North America, which are the regions most sensitive to insolation change given the absence of ice-sheet dynamics in our model. Global ocean overturning circulation during MIS11 is also closer to MIS1 than circulation during MIS19 is, due predominantly to differences in Weddell Sea bottom water formation. Thus, under the assumption of present-day ice-sheets MIS11 appears to be the better climatic analogue to peak MIS1 conditions. In addition to the

  10. Pleistocene reduction of polar ice caps: Evidence from Cariaco Basin marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, R.Z.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Sea level is projected to rise between 13 and 94 cm over the next 100 yr due to continued climate warming. The sea-level projections assume that polar ice sheets will remain stable or even increase on time scales of centuries, but controversial geologic evidence suggests that current polar ice sheets have been eliminated or greatly reduced during previous Pleistocene interglacials indicating that modern polar ice sheets have become unstable within the natural range of interglacial climates. Sea level may have been more than 20 m higher than today during a presumably very warm interglacial about 400 ka during marine isotope stage 11. Because of the implications for future sea level rise, additional study of the conflicting evidence for warmer conditions and higher sea level during marine isotope stage 11 is needed. Here we present microfossil and isotopic data from marine sediments of the Cariaco Basin supporting the interpretation that global sea level was 10-20 m higher than today during marine isotope stage 11. The increased sea level requires reduction in modern polar ice sheets and is consistent with the interpretation that the West Antarctic ice sheet and the Greenland ice sheet were absent or greatly reduced during marine isotope stage 11. Our results show a warm marine isotope stage 11 interglacial climate with sea level as high as or above modern sea level that lasted for 25 to 30 k.y. Variations in Earth's orbit around the sun (Milankovitch cycles) are considered to be a primary external force driving glacial-interglacial cycles. Current and marine isotope stage 11 Milankovitch forcing are very similar, suggesting that the present interglacial (Holocene) that began ca. 10 ka will continue for another 15 to 20 k.y. Therefore any anthropogenic climate warming will accelerate the natural process toward reduction in polar ice sheets. The potential for increased rates of sea level rise related to polar ice sheet decay should be considered as a potential natural

  11. Circular polarization of radio emission from air showers in thunderstorm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, T. N. G.; Scholten, O.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Ebert, U.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Thoudam, S.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Rutjes, C.; Schellart, P.; ter Veen, S.; Winchen, T.

    2017-03-01

    We present measured radio emission from cosmic-ray-induced air showers under thunderstorm conditions. We observe for these events large differences in intensity, linear polarization and circular polarization from the events measured under fair-weather conditions. This can be explained by the effects of atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds. Therefore, measuring the intensity and polarization of radio emission from cosmic ray extensive air showers during thunderstorm conditions provides a new tool to probe the atmospheric electric fields present in thunderclouds.

  12. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy under Polar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, J. L.; Hark, R.; Bol'shakov, A.; Plumer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade our research team has evaluated the use of commercial-off-the-shelf laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for chemical analysis of snow and ice samples under polar conditions. One avenue of research explored LIBS suitability as a detector of paleo-climate proxy indicators (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) in ice as it relates to atmospheric circulation. LIBS results revealed detection of peaks for C and N, consistent with the presence of organic material, as well as major ions (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) and trace metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ti). The detection of Ca, K, Mg, and Na confirmed that LIBS has sufficient sensitivity to be used as a tool for characterization of paleo-climate proxy indicators in ice-core samples. Techniques were developed for direct analysis of ice as well as indirect measurements of ice via melting and filtering. Pitfalls and issues of direct ice analysis using several cooling techniques to maintain ice integrity will be discussed. In addition, a new technique, laser ablation molecular isotopic spectroscopy (LAMIS) was applied to detection of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in ice as isotopic analysis of ice is the main tool in paleoclimatology and glaciology studies. Our results demonstrated that spectra of hydroxyl isotopologues 16OH, 18OH, and 16OD can be recorded with a compact spectrograph to determine hydrogen and oxygen isotopes simultaneously. Quantitative isotopic calibration for ice analysis can be accomplished using multivariate chemometric regression as previously realized for water vapor. Analysis with LIBS and LAMIS required no special sample preparation and was about ten times faster than analysis using ICP-MS. Combination of the two techniques in one portable instrument for in-field analysis appears possible and would eliminate the logistical and cost issues associated with ice core management.

  13. Comparative carbon cycle dynamics of the present and last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Brücher, Tim; Kleinen, Thomas; Zaehle, Sönke; Joos, Fortunat; Roth, Raphael; Spahni, Renato; Schmitt, Jochen; Fischer, Hubertus; Leuenberger, Markus; Stone, Emma J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Kehrwald, Natalie; Barbante, Carlo; Blunier, Thomas; Dahl Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-04-01

    Changes in temperature and carbon dioxide during glacial cycles recorded in Antarctic ice cores are tightly coupled. However, this relationship does not hold for interglacials. While climate cooled towards the end of both the last (Eemian) and present (Holocene) interglacials, CO2 remained stable during the Eemian while rising in the Holocene. We identify and review twelve biogeochemical mechanisms of terrestrial (vegetation dynamics and CO2 fertilization, land use, wildfire, accumulation of peat, changes in permafrost carbon, subaerial volcanic outgassing) and marine origin (changes in sea surface temperature, carbonate compensation to deglaciation and terrestrial biosphere regrowth, shallow-water carbonate sedimentation, changes in the soft tissue pump, and methane hydrates), which potentially may have contributed to the CO2 dynamics during interglacials but which remain not well quantified. We use three Earth System Models (ESMs) of intermediate complexity to compare effects of selected mechanisms on the interglacial CO2 and δ13CO2 changes, focusing on those with substantial potential impacts: namely carbonate sedimentation in shallow waters, peat growth, and (in the case of the Holocene) human land use. A set of specified carbon cycle forcings could qualitatively explain atmospheric CO2 dynamics from 8 ka BP to the pre-industrial. However, when applied to Eemian boundary conditions from 126 to 115 ka BP, the same set of forcings led to disagreement with the observed direction of CO2 changes after 122 ka BP. This failure to simulate late-Eemian CO2 dynamics could be a result of the imposed forcings such as prescribed CaCO3 accumulation and/or an incorrect response of simulated terrestrial carbon to the surface cooling at the end of the interglacial. These experiments also reveal that key natural processes of interglacial CO2 dynamics - shallow water CaCO3 accumulation, peat and permafrost carbon dynamics - are not well represented in the current ESMs. Global

  14. Fibrinogen adsorption onto 316L stainless steel under polarized conditions.

    PubMed

    Gettens, Robert T T; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption of the plasma protein fibrinogen onto electrically polarized 316L stainless steel was observed and quantified using both in situ and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Significant differences in fibrinogen adsorption were observed across voltages. Ex situ studies showed significantly lower area coverage (theta) and height of adsorbed Fb on cathodically polarized surfaces when compared to anodically polarized surfaces. Conformational differences in the protein may explain the distinctions in Fb surface area coverage (theta) and height between the anodic and cathodic cases. In situ studies showed significantly slower kinetics of Fb adsorption onto surfaces below -100 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) compared to surfaces polarized above -100 mV. Electrochemical current density data showed large charge transfer processes (approximately 1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-4) A/cm(2)) taking place on the 316L SS surfaces at voltages below -100 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). These relatively large current densities point to flux of ionic species away from the surface as a major source of the reduction in adsorption kinetics rather than just hydrophilic or electrostatic effects.

  15. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fawcett, P.J.; Werne, J.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Heikoop, J.M.; Brown, E.T.; Berke, M.A.; Smith, S.J.; Goff, F.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Damste, J.S.S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J.; Fessenden, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Atudorei, V.; Geissman, J.W.; Allen, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, dust-bowl-like-megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C 4 plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles-1/42-C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6??C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights

  16. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D

    2011-02-24

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ∼2 °C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6 °C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase.

  17. Thin Ice -- Bipolar Super Interglacials and our Possible Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence of exceptionally warm Arctic interglacials from Lake El'gygytgyn NE Russia, combined with the periodic collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (ANDRILL) suggests the need to reassess climate sensitivity and cryospheric dynamics on many timescales. It may be easier to melt significant portions of large sheets and drive large ecosystem changes in the high latitudes than we thought! Elevated global temperatures of only a few degrees (or less) combined with polar amplification seems to have repeatedly caused large changes in the cryosphere and global sea level, still under investigation given the present knowledge and complexity of glacio-isostatic adjustments. But increasing evidence of a forested Arctic and smaller polar ice sheets in the Pliocene when CO2 was around 400 ppm (like today) and during several more recent super interglacials (under Milankovitch forcing) most likely presages a warming future, partially hidden in recent years by the lagged response of the oceans, atmosphere, and cryosphere to anthropogenic influences. The future will depend on the ability of societies to recognize and respond to the consequences of significant environmental change. The challenge to the science community is to communicate this data-driven reality effectively and without politics.

  18. Extra-long interglacial in Northern Hemisphere during MISs 15-13 arising from limited extent of Arctic ice sheets in glacial MIS 14.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Guo, Zhengtang

    2015-07-10

    Knowledge of the behavior of Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice sheets over the past million years is crucial for understanding the role of orbitally driven insolation changes on glacial/interglacial cycles. Here, based on the demonstrable link between changes in Chinese loess grain-size and NH ice-sheet extent, we use loess grain-size records to confirm that northern ice-sheets were restricted during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 14. Thus, an unusually long NH interglacial climate of over 100 kyr persisted during MISs 15-13, much longer than expected from marine oxygen isotope records. Taking a global view of the paleoclimate records, MIS 14 inception seems to be a response to changes in Antarctic ice-sheets rather than to NH cooling. Orbital configuration in the two Polar regions shows that the onset of MIS 14 was forced by austral insolation changes, rather than by boreal summer insolation, as Milankovitch theory proposes. Our analysis of MIS 14 raises the possibility that southern insolation forcing may have played an important role in the inception of several other glacials. We suggest that the extra-long NH interglacial climate during MISs 15-13 provided favorable conditions for the second major dispersal episode of African hominins into Eurasia.

  19. Extra-long interglacial in Northern Hemisphere during MISs 15-13 arising from limited extent of Arctic ice sheets in glacial MIS 14

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Guo, Zhengtang

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice sheets over the past million years is crucial for understanding the role of orbitally driven insolation changes on glacial/interglacial cycles. Here, based on the demonstrable link between changes in Chinese loess grain-size and NH ice-sheet extent, we use loess grain-size records to confirm that northern ice-sheets were restricted during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 14. Thus, an unusually long NH interglacial climate of over 100 kyr persisted during MISs 15−13, much longer than expected from marine oxygen isotope records. Taking a global view of the paleoclimate records, MIS 14 inception seems to be a response to changes in Antarctic ice-sheets rather than to NH cooling. Orbital configuration in the two Polar regions shows that the onset of MIS 14 was forced by austral insolation changes, rather than by boreal summer insolation, as Milankovitch theory proposes. Our analysis of MIS 14 raises the possibility that southern insolation forcing may have played an important role in the inception of several other glacials. We suggest that the extra-long NH interglacial climate during MISs 15−13 provided favorable conditions for the second major dispersal episode of African hominins into Eurasia. PMID:26159304

  20. Gravitational vacuum polarization. II. Energy conditions in the Boulware vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1996-10-01

    Building on techniques developed in the preceding paper, I investigate the various pointwise and averaged energy conditions for the quantum stress-energy tensor corresponding to a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the Boulware vacuum. I work in the test-field limit, restrict attention to the Schwarzschild geometry, and invoke a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques. In contradistinction to the case of the Hartle-Hawking vacuum, wherein violations of the energy conditions were confined to the region between the event horizon and the unstable photon orbit, I show that in the Boulware vacuum (1) all standard (pointwise and averaged) energy conditions are violated throughout the exterior region, all the way from spatial infinity down to the event horizon, and (2) outside the event horizon the standard pointwise energy conditions are violated in a maximal manner: They are violated at all points and for all null or timelike vectors. (The region inside the event horizon is considerably messier and of dubious physical relevance. Nevertheless, the standard pointwise energy conditions seem to be violated even inside the event horizon.) I argue that this is highly suggestive evidence, pointing to the fact that general self-consistent solutions of semiclassical quantum gravity might {ital not} satisfy the energy conditions and may in fact for certain quantum fields and certain quantum states violate {ital all} the energy conditions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Negligible glacial-interglacial variation in continental chemical weathering rates.

    PubMed

    Foster, Gavin L; Vance, Derek

    2006-12-14

    Chemical weathering of the continents is central to the regulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and hence global climate. On million-year timescales silicate weathering leads to the draw-down of carbon dioxide, and on millennial timescales chemical weathering affects the calcium carbonate saturation state of the oceans and hence their uptake of carbon dioxide. However, variations in chemical weathering rates over glacial-interglacial cycles remain uncertain. During glacial periods, cold and dry conditions reduce the rate of chemical weathering, but intense physical weathering and the exposure of carbonates on continental shelves due to low sea levels may increase this rate. Here we present high-resolution records of the lead isotope composition of ferromanganese crusts from the North Atlantic Ocean that cover the past 550,000 years. Combining these records with a simple quantitative model of changes in the lead isotope composition of the deep North Atlantic Ocean in response to chemical weathering, we find that chemical weathering rates were two to three times lower in the glaciated interior of the North Atlantic Region during glacial periods than during the intervening interglacial periods. This decrease roughly balances the increase in chemical weathering caused by the exposure of continental shelves, indicating that chemical weathering rates remained relatively constant on glacial-interglacial timescales. On timescales of more than a million years, however, we suggest that enhanced weathering of silicate glacial sediments during interglacial periods results in a net draw-down of atmospheric carbon dioxide, creating a positive feedback on global climate that, once initiated, promotes cooling and further glaciation.

  2. Unusual Polar Conditions in Solar Cycle 24 and Their Implications for Cycle 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji; Akiyama, Sachiko

    2016-05-01

    We report on the prolonged solar-maximum conditions until late 2015 at the north-polar region of the Sun indicated by the occurrence of high-latitude prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness temperature close to the quiet-Sun level. These two aspects of solar activity indicate that the polarity reversal was completed by mid-2014 in the south and late 2015 in the north. The microwave brightness in the south-polar region has increased to a level exceeding the level of the Cycle 23/24 minimum, but just started to increase in the north. The north-south asymmetry in the polarity reversal has switched from that in Cycle 23. These observations lead us to the hypothesis that the onset of Cycle 25 in the northern hemisphere is likely to be delayed with respect to that in the southern hemisphere. We find that the unusual condition in the north is a direct consequence of the arrival of poleward surges of opposite polarity from the active region belt. We also find that multiple rush-to-the-pole episodes were indicated by the PE locations that lined up at the boundary between opposite-polarity surges. The high-latitude PEs occurred in the boundary between the incumbent polar flux and the insurgent flux of opposite polarity.

  3. (Model) Peatlands in late Quaternary interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands have accumulated a substantial amount of carbon, roughly 600 PgC, during the Holocene. Prior to the Holocene, there is relatively little direct evidence of peatlands, though coal deposits bear witness to a long history of peat-forming ecosystems going back to the Carboniferous. We therefore need to rely on models to investigate peatlands in times prior to the Holocene. We have developed a dynamical model of wetland extent and peat accumulation, integrated in the coupled climate carbon cycle model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER2-LPJ, in order to mechanistically model interglacial carbon cycle dynamics. This model consists of the climate model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER2 and the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ, which we have extended with modules to determine peatland extent and carbon accumulation. The model compares reasonably well to Holocene peat data. We have used this model to investigate the dynamics of atmospheric CO2 in the Holocene and two other late Quaternary interglacials, namely the Eemian, which is interesting due to its warmth, and Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS11), which is the longest interglacial during the last 500ka. We will also present model results of peatland extent and carbon accumulation for these interglacials. We will discuss model shortcomings and knowledge gaps currently preventing an application of the model to full glacial-interglacial cycles.

  4. Gravitational vacuum polarization. IV. Energy conditions in the Unruh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1997-07-01

    Building on a series of earlier papers, I investigate the various pointwise and averaged energy conditions in the Unruh vacuum. I consider the quantum stress-energy tensor corresponding to a conformally coupled massless scalar field, work in the test-field limit, restrict attention to the Schwarzschild geometry, and invoke a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques. I construct a semianalytic model for the stress-energy tensor that globally reproduces all known numerical results to within 0.8{percent}, and satisfies all known analytic features of the stress-energy tensor. I show that in the Unruh vacuum (1) all standard pointwise energy conditions are violated throughout the exterior region, all the way from spatial infinity down to the event horizon, and (2) the averaged null energy condition is violated on all outgoing radial null geodesics. In a pair of appendices I indicate a general strategy for constructing semianalytic models for the stress-energy tensor in the Hartle-Hawking and Boulware states, and show that the Page approximation is in a certain sense the minimal {ital Ansatz} compatible with general properties of the stress energy in the Hartle-Hawking state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Angle of sky light polarization derived from digital images of the sky under various conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Yang, Yi; Ning, Yu

    2017-01-20

    Skylight polarization is used for navigation by some birds and insects. Skylight polarization also has potential for human navigation applications. Its advantages include relative immunity from interference and the absence of error accumulation over time. However, there are presently few examples of practical applications for polarization navigation technology. The main reason is its weak robustness during cloudy weather conditions. In this paper, the real-time measurement of the sky light polarization pattern across the sky has been achieved with a wide field of view camera. The images were processed under a new reference coordinate system to clearly display the symmetrical distribution of angle of polarization with respect to the solar meridian. A new algorithm for the extraction of the image axis of symmetry is proposed, in which the real-time azimuth angle between the camera and the solar meridian is accurately calculated. Our experimental results under different weather conditions show that polarization navigation has high accuracy, is strongly robust, and performs well during fog and haze, clouds, and strong sunlight.

  6. Evidence from the Seychelles of Last Interglacial Sea Level Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyverberg, K.; Dutton, A.; Dechnik, B.; Webster, J.; Zwartz, D.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies indicate that sea level oscillated during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, but the details of these scenarios, including the number of sea level oscillations, are still debated. We lack a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of the large polar ice sheets to changes in temperature that could result in eustatic sea level oscillations. Because the Seychelles are located far from the margins of the Last Glacial Maximum northern hemisphere ice sheets, they have not been subjected to glacial isostatic adjustment, and have been tectonically stable since the Last Interglacial period; therefore, they provide a robust record of eustatic sea level during MIS 5e. All of the outcrops we examined contain unconformities and/or sharp transitions between facies, though the nature of these boundaries varies between sites. In some outcrops we observed a hardground comprising fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer between distinct generations of in situ coralgal framework. In one outcrop, this succession was observed twice, where two generations of reef growth were each capped by a strongly indurated fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer. At the site with the greatest vertical extent of outcrop, there is a marked difference in the taxonomic composition of the coral community above and below an unconformable surface, but the indurated fine-grained, sediment layer observed elsewhere was absent. Most of the other outcrops we studied contained a common succession of facies from in situ reef units overlain by cemented coral rubble. In two dated outcrops, the age of corals above and below the rubble layer are the same age. The hardgrounds and rubble layers may represent ephemeral exposure of the reef units during two drops in sea level. The inference of multiple meter-scale oscillations during the MIS 5e highstand indicates a more dynamic cryosphere than the present interglacial, although the climatic threshold for more volatile polar ice sheets is not yet clear.

  7. Glacial legacies on interglacial vegetation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in NE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzschuh, Ulrike; Birks, H. John B.; Laepple, Thomas; Andreev, Andrei; Melles, Martin; Brigham-Grette, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Broad-scale climate control of vegetation is widely assumed. Vegetation-climate lags are generally thought to have lasted no more than a few centuries. Here our palaeoecological study challenges this concept over glacial-interglacial timescales. Through multivariate analyses of pollen assemblages from Lake El'gygytgyn, Russian Far East and other data we show that interglacial vegetation during the Plio-Pleistocene transition mainly reflects conditions of the preceding glacial instead of contemporary interglacial climate. Vegetation-climate disequilibrium may persist for several millennia, related to the combined effects of permafrost persistence, distant glacial refugia and fire. In contrast, no effects from the preceding interglacial on glacial vegetation are detected. We propose that disequilibrium was stronger during the Plio-Pleistocene transition than during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period when, in addition to climate, herbivory was important. By analogy to the past, we suggest today's widespread larch ecosystem on permafrost is not in climate equilibrium. Vegetation-based reconstructions of interglacial climates used to assess atmospheric CO2-temperature relationships may thus yield misleading simulations of past global climate sensitivity.

  8. Glacial legacies on interglacial vegetation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in NE Asia

    PubMed Central

    Herzschuh, Ulrike; Birks, H. John B.; Laepple, Thomas; Andreev, Andrei; Melles, Martin; Brigham-Grette, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Broad-scale climate control of vegetation is widely assumed. Vegetation-climate lags are generally thought to have lasted no more than a few centuries. Here our palaeoecological study challenges this concept over glacial–interglacial timescales. Through multivariate analyses of pollen assemblages from Lake El'gygytgyn, Russian Far East and other data we show that interglacial vegetation during the Plio-Pleistocene transition mainly reflects conditions of the preceding glacial instead of contemporary interglacial climate. Vegetation–climate disequilibrium may persist for several millennia, related to the combined effects of permafrost persistence, distant glacial refugia and fire. In contrast, no effects from the preceding interglacial on glacial vegetation are detected. We propose that disequilibrium was stronger during the Plio-Pleistocene transition than during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period when, in addition to climate, herbivory was important. By analogy to the past, we suggest today's widespread larch ecosystem on permafrost is not in climate equilibrium. Vegetation-based reconstructions of interglacial climates used to assess atmospheric CO2–temperature relationships may thus yield misleading simulations of past global climate sensitivity. PMID:27338025

  9. Novel robust skylight compass method based on full-sky polarization imaging under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Li, Dalin; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Binzhen; Wang, Chenguang; Shen, Chong; Ren, Jianbin; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun

    2016-07-11

    A novel method based on Pulse Coupled Neural Network(PCNN) algorithm for the highly accurate and robust compass information calculation from the polarized skylight imaging is proposed,which showed good accuracy and reliability especially under cloudy weather,surrounding shielding and moon light. The degree of polarization (DOP) combined with the angle of polarization (AOP), calculated from the full sky polarization image, were used for the compass information caculation. Due to the high sensitivity to the environments, DOP was used to judge the destruction of polarized information using the PCNN algorithm. Only areas with high accuracy of AOP were kept after the DOP PCNN filtering, thereby greatly increasing the compass accuracy and robustness. From the experimental results, it was shown that the compass accuracy was 0.1805° under clear weather. This method was also proven to be applicable under conditions of shielding by clouds, trees and buildings, with a compass accuracy better than 1°. With weak polarization information sources, such as moonlight, this method was shown experimentally to have an accuracy of 0.878°.

  10. A tale of two polar bear populations: Ice habitat, harvest, and body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, K.D.; Peacock, E.; Taylor, M.; Stirling, I.; Born, E.W.; Laidre, K.L.; Wiig, O.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms by which sea ice loss is expected to affect polar bears is via reduced body condition and growth resulting from reduced access to prey. To date, negative effects of sea ice loss have been documented for two of 19 recognized populations. Effects of sea ice loss on other polar bear populations that differ in harvest rate, population density, and/or feeding ecology have been assumed, but empirical support, especially quantitative data on population size, demography, and/or body condition spanning two or more decades, have been lacking. We examined trends in body condition metrics of captured bears and relationships with summertime ice concentration between 1977 and 2010 for the Baffin Bay (BB) and Davis Strait (DS) polar bear populations. Polar bears in these regions occupy areas with annual sea ice that has decreased markedly starting in the 1990s. Despite differences in harvest rate, population density, sea ice concentration, and prey base, polar bears in both populations exhibited positive relationships between body condition and summertime sea ice cover during the recent period of sea ice decline. Furthermore, females and cubs exhibited relationships with sea ice that were not apparent during the earlier period (1977-1990s) when sea ice loss did not occur. We suggest that declining body condition in BB may be a result of recent declines in sea ice habitat. In DS, high population density and/or sea ice loss, may be responsible for the declines in body condition. ?? 2011 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  11. Increased land use by Chukchi Sea polar bears in relation to changing sea ice conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  12. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C.; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions. PMID:26580809

  13. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  14. Analytical polarization transfer functions for four coupled spins 12 under isotropic mixing conditions

    PubMed

    Luy; Schedletzky; Glaser

    1999-05-01

    Analytical polarization transfer functions are presented for spin systems consisting of four spins 12 with arbitrary coupling constants under isotropic mixing conditions. In addition, simplified transfer functions were derived for symmetric coupling topologies. Based on these transfer functions optimal durations for the mixing period can be determined for correlations of interest. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Auxin polar transport in arabidopsis under simulated microgravity conditions - relevance to growth and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Oka, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Masuda, Y.; Hoson, T.; Kamisaka, S.; Ueda, J.

    1999-01-01

    Activity of auxin polar transport in inflorescence axes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under simulated microgravity conditions was studied in relation to the growth and development. Seeds were germinated and allowed to grow on an agar medium in test tubes on a horizontal clinostat. Horizontal clinostat rotation substantially reduced the growth of inflorescence axes and the productivity of seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotypes Landsberg erecta and Columbia), although it little affected seed germination, development of rosette leaves and flowering. The activity of auxin polar transport in inflorescence axes decreased when Arabidopsis plants were grown on a horizontal clinostat from germination stage, being ca. 60% of 1 g control. On the other hand, the auxin polar transport in inflorescence axes of Arabidopsis grown in 1 g conditions was not affected when the segments were exposed to various gravistimuli, including 3-dimensional clinorotation, during transport experiments. Pin-formed mutant of Arabidopsis, having a unique structure of the inflorescence axis with no flower and extremely low levels of the activity of auxin polar transport in inflorescence axes and endogenous auxin, did not continue its vegetative growth under clinostat rotation. These facts suggest that the development of the system of auxin polar transport in Arabidopsis is affected by microgravity, resulting in the inhibition of growth and development, especially during reproductive growth.

  16. Anomalies during the Present and Last interglacial periods - A proxy comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouahabi, Anuar; Martrat, Belen; Lopez, Jordi F.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2013-04-01

    The stability of the Earth's climate is strongly linked to the amount and spatial distribution of energy by atmospheric/oceanic processes from low to high latitudes. Past periods of relatively stable climate have been interrupted by sharp events, once a critical point has been passed and positive triggers and feedbacks propel change toward a contrasting mode. Additional mechanisms amplify or sustain climate changes that are already under way. High-resolution proxy archives are useful tools for characterizing these events and modes in the past, both in time and space, in order to assess the likelihood of sudden shifts, in particular within warm climate behaviour. In this respect, the PIG2LIG-4FUTURE database (Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-13825) contains alkenone-derived sea surface temperatures (117 marine sediment profiles) and stable oxygen isotope ratios (measured in ice cores and speleothems; 29 and 88 records respectively) with sufficient temporal resolution to understand global abrupt climate processes throughout the present interglacial (PIG) and the last interglacial (LIG), together with their deglaciations (d1 and d2). Records have been selected according to their inclusion of both the PIG and LIG intervals for the same location (no more than 45% of the sites), tight chronological control and calibration revised criteria. Data have been compiled into 200-year bins for regional stacks to help in identifying trends, transitions, boundary conditions, latitudinal temperature gradients, polar amplification and reorganisation of monsoon systems. The LIG relative to PIG anomalies are larger at mid latitudes (up to 6°C around 40N and 40S) than those for the tropics (less than 2°C from 20N to 20S). The amplitude of variation during the PIG is found to be no more than 2°C (few exceptions up to 4°C at northern sub-polar specific locations). Latitudinal distribution of anomalies appears connected to temperature seasonal contrast. The same

  17. Stratospheric meteorological conditions in the Arctic polar vortex, 1991 to 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.; Lait, L. R.; Schoeberl, M.; Nash, E. R.; Kelly, K.; Fahey, D. W.; Nagatani, R.; Toohey, D.; Avallone, L.; Anderson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric meteorological conditions during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II (AASE II) presented excellent observational opportunities from Bangor, Maine, because the polar vortex was located over southeastern Canada for significant periods during the 1991-1992 winter. Temperature analyses showed that nitric acid trihydrates (NAT temperatures below 195 K) should have formed over small regions in early December. The temperatures in the polar vortex warmed beyond NAT temperatures by late January (earlier than normal). Perturbed chemistry was found to be associated with these cold temperatures.

  18. Modeling the Seasonal South Polar Cap Sublimation Rates at Dust Storm Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonev, B. P.; James, P. B.; Wolff, M. J.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Hansen, G. B.; Benson, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the principal component of the Martian atmosphere and its interaction with the polar caps forms the CO2 seasonal cycle on the planet. A significant fraction of the atmospheric constituent condenses on the surface during the polar winter and sublimes back during spring. The basic aspects of the CO2 cycle have been outlined by Leighton and Murray and a number of follow-up theoretical models ranging from energy balance to general circulation models have been used to study the physical processes involved in the cycle. This paper presents a modeling study on the seasonal south polar cap subliminiation rate under dust storm conditions. Mars Global Surveyor observations are also presented.

  19. Assessing orbitally-forced interglacial climate variability during the mid-Pliocene Warm Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, Caroline L.; Haywood, Alan M.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Pope, James O.; Pickering, Steven J.

    2014-08-01

    The traditional view of the Pliocene is one of an epoch with higher than present global mean annual temperatures (∼2 to 3 °C) and stable climate conditions. Published data-model comparisons for the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP: ∼3.3 to 3 million years ago) have identified specific regions of concordance and discord between climate model outputs and marine/terrestrial proxy data. Due to the time averaged nature of global palaeoenvironmental syntheses, it has been hypothesised that climate variability during interglacial events within the mPWP could contribute to site-specific data/model disagreement. The Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model Version 3 (HadCM3) is used to assess the nature of climate variability around two interglacial events within the mPWP that have different characteristics of orbital forcing (Marine Isotope Stages KM5c and K1). Model results indicate that ±20 kyr on either side of the MIS KM5c, orbital forcing produced a less than 1 °C change in global mean annual temperatures. Regionally, mean annual surface air temperature (SAT) variability can reach 2 to 3 °C. Seasonal variations exceed those predicted for the annual mean and can locally exceed 5 °C. Simulations 20 kyr on either side of MIS K1 show considerably increased variability in relation to KM5c. We demonstrate that orbitally-forced changes in surface air temperature during interglacial events within the mPWP can be substantial, and could therefore contribute to data/model discord. This is especially likely if proxies preserve growing season rather than mean annual temperatures. Model results indicate that peak MIS KM5c and K1 interglacial temperatures were not globally synchronous, highlighting leads and lags in temperature in different regions. This highlights the potential pitfalls in aligning peaks in proxy-derived temperatures across geographically diverse data sites, and indicates that a single climate model simulation for an interglacial event is inadequate to capture

  20. Polarizing properties of embedded symmetric trilayer stacks under conditions of frustrated total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Rasheed M A; Perla, Siva R

    2006-03-01

    An all-transparent symmetric trilayer structure, which consists of a high-index center layer coated on both sides by a low-index film and embedded in a high-index prism, can function as an efficient polarizer or polarizing beam splitter under conditions of frustrated total internal reflection over a wide range of incidence angles. For a given set of refractive indices, all possible solutions for the thicknesses of the layers that suppress the reflection of either the p or s polarization at a specified angle, as well as the reflectance of the system for the orthogonal polarization, are determined. A 633 nm design that uses a MgF2-ZnS-MgF2 trilayer embedded in a ZnS prism achieves an extinction ratio (ER) > 40 dB from 50 degrees to 80 degrees in reflection and an ER > 20 dB from 58 degrees to 80 degrees in transmission. IR polarizers that use CaF2-Ge-CaF2 trilayers embedded in a ZnS prism are also considered.

  1. Polar Bear Conservation Status in Relation to Projected Sea-ice Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regehr, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The status of the world's 19 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) varies as a function of sea-ice conditions, ecology, management, and other factors. Previous methods to project the response of polar bears to loss of Arctic sea ice—the primary threat to the species—include expert opinion surveys, Bayesian Networks providing qualitative stressor assessments, and subpopulations-specific demographic analyses. Here, we evaluated the global conservation status of polar bears using a data-based sensitivity analysis. First, we estimated generation length for subpopulations with available data (n=11). Second, we developed standardized sea-ice metrics representing habitat availability. Third, we projected global population size under alternative assumptions for relationships between sea ice and subpopulation abundance. Estimated generation length (median = 11.4 years; 95%CI = 9.8 to 13.6) and sea-ice change (median = loss of 1.26 ice-covered days per year; 95%CI = 0.70 to 3.37) varied across subpopulations. Assuming a one-to-one proportional relationship between sea ice and abundance, the median percent change in global population size over three polar bear generations was -30% (95%CI = -35% to -25%). Assuming a linear relationship between sea ice and normalized estimates of subpopulation abundance, median percent change was -4% (95% CI = -62% to +50%) or -43% (95% CI = -76% to -20%), depending on how subpopulations were grouped and how inference was extended from relatively well-studied subpopulations (n=7) to those with little or no data. Our findings suggest the potential for large reductions in polar bear numbers over the next three polar bear generations if sea-ice loss due to climate change continues as forecasted.

  2. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagnetic main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a geomagnetic field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by geomagnetic activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.

  3. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.

    2017-02-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagnetic main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a geomagnetic field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by geomagnetic activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.

  4. Surface thermodynamic homeostasis of salivary conditioning films through polar-apolar layering.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, Henny C; White, Don J; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gésinda I; Busscher, Henk J

    2012-02-01

    Salivary conditioning films (SCFs) form on all surfaces exposed to the oral cavity and control diverse oral surface phenomena. Oral chemotherapeutics and dietary components present perturbations to SCFs. Here we determine the surface energetics of SCFs through contact angle measurements with various liquids on SCFs following perturbations with a variety of chemotherapeutics as well as after renewed SCF formation. Sixteen-hour SCFs on polished enamel surfaces were treated with a variety of chemotherapeutics, including toothpastes and mouthrinses. After treatment with chemotherapeutics, a SCF was applied again for 3 h. Contact angles with four different liquids on untreated and treated SCF-coated enamel surfaces were measured and surface free energies were calculated. Perturbations either caused the SCF to become more polar or more apolar, but in all cases, renewed SCF formation compensated these changes. Thus, a polar SCF attracts different salivary proteins or adsorbs proteins in a different conformation to create a more apolar SCF surface after renewed SCF formation and vice versa for apolar SCFs. This polar-apolar layering in SCF formation presents a powerful mechanism in the oral cavity to maintain surface thermodynamic homeostasis--defining oral surface properties within a narrow, biological range and influencing chemotherapeutic strategies. Surface chemical changes brought about by dietary or chemotherapeutic perturbations to SCFs make it more polar or apolar, but new SCFs are rapidly formed compensating for changes in surface energetics.

  5. Tropical Atlantic temperature seasonality at the end of the last interglacial

    PubMed Central

    Felis, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Scholz, Denis; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pfeiffer, Madlene; Pätzold, Jürgen; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.

    2015-01-01

    The end of the last interglacial period, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets. These perturbations are crucial for a better understanding of future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this period that led into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean for 117.7±0.8 kyr ago, using coral Sr/Ca and δ18O records. We find that temperature seasonality was similar to today, which is consistent with the orbital insolation forcing. Our coral and climate model results suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean is controlled mainly by orbital insolation changes during interglacials. PMID:25609544

  6. Open boundary conditions for internal gravity wave modelling using polarization relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsaleix, Patrick; Ulses, Caroline; Pairaud, Ivane; Herrmann, Marine Julie; Floor, Jochem Willem; Estournel, Claude; Auclair, Francis

    This paper proposes an original approach of the open boundary condition problem, within the framework of internal hydrostatic wave theory. These boundary conditions are based on the relations of polarization of internal waves. The method is presented progressively, beginning with a simple case (non-rotating regime, propagation direction normal to the open boundary), ending with a more general situation (rotating regime, multimodal & multi-dimensional propagations and variable background field). In the non-rotating case and as far as we assume that the direction of propagation is locally normal to the open boundary, the so-called PRM (polarization relation method) scheme can be seen as a three-dimensional version of the barotropic Flather boundary conditions. The discrete form of the scheme is detailed. Numerical stability issues proper to leap-frog time stepping are in particular discussed. It is shown that errors on phase speed prescribed in the boundary conditions can notably deteriorate radiation properties. The normal mode approach is introduced to identify coherent structures of propagation and their corresponding phase speed. A simple and robust multi-dimensional propagation scheme can easily be derived from polarization relations. The rotating case is more difficult but it is possible, to some extent, to get around the dependency of phase speed on wave frequency and to keep the non-rotating formulation of the PRM conditions almost unchanged. The PRM scheme being applied to field anomalies, the question of the background reference state is addressed. The latter can be used to introduce incoming waves across the open boundaries or, alternatively, to represent the low-frequency variability of the model itself. The consistency of the pressure and tracer boundary conditions is finally discussed.

  7. Phytoplankton communities of polar regions--Diversity depending on environmental conditions and chemical anthropopressure.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Klaudia; Polkowska, Żaneta; Żyszka, Beata; Lipok, Jacek

    2016-04-15

    The polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) constitute up to 14% of the biosphere and offer some of the coldest and most arid Earth's environments. Nevertheless several oxygenic phototrophs including some higher plants, mosses, lichens, various algal groups and cyanobacteria, survive that harsh climate and create the base of the trophic relationships in fragile ecosystems of polar environments. Ecosystems in polar regions are characterized by low primary productivity and slow growth rates, therefore they are more vulnerable to disturbance, than those in temperate regions. From this reason, chemical contaminants influencing the growth of photoautotrophic producers might induce serious disorders in the integrity of polar ecosystems. However, for a long time these areas were believed to be free of chemical contamination, and relatively protected from widespread anthropogenic pressure, due their remoteness and extreme climate conditions. Nowadays, there is a growing amount of data that prove that xenobiotics are transported thousands of kilometers by the air and ocean currents and then they are deposed in colder regions and accumulate in many environments, including the habitats of marine and freshwater cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria (blue green algae), as a natural part of phytoplankton assemblages, are globally distributed, but in high polar ecosystems they represent the dominant primary producers. These microorganisms are continuously exposed to various concentration levels of the compounds that are present in their habitats and act as nourishment or the factors influencing the growth and development of cyanobacteria in other way. The most common group of contaminants in Arctic and Antarctic are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), characterized by durability and resistance to degradation. It is important to determine their concentrations in all phytoplankton species cells and in their environment to get to know the possibility of contaminants to transfer to higher

  8. Gravitational vacuum polarization. I. Energy conditions in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1996-10-01

    When a quantum field theory is constructed on a curved background spacetime, the gravitationally induced vacuum polarization typically induces a nonzero vacuum expectation value for the quantum stress-energy tensor. It is well known that this gravitational vacuum polarization often violates the pointwise energy conditions and sometimes violates the averaged energy conditions. In this paper I begin a systematic attack on the question of where and by how much the various energy conditions are violated. To keep the discussion manageable, I work in the test-field limit, and focus on conformally coupled massless scalar fields in Schwarzschild spacetime, using the Hartle-Hawking vacuum. The discussion invokes a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques, and critically compares the qualitative behavior to be expected from the Page approximation with that adduced from the numerical calculations of Anderson, Hiscock, and Samuel. I show that the various pointwise energy conditions are violated in a series of onionlike layers located between the unstable photon orbit and the event horizon, the sequence of violations being DEC, WEC, and (NEC+SEC). Furthermore, the ANEC is violated for {ital some} of the null geodesics trapped in this region. Having established the basic machinery in this paper, the Boulware vacuum will be treated in a companion paper, while studies of the Unruh vacuum should be straightforward, as should extensions to nonconformal couplings, massive scalars, and Reissner-Nordstr{umlt o}m geometries. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Cross-polarization microwave radar return at severe wind conditions: laboratory model and geophysical model function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Abramov, Victor; Ermoshkin, Alexey; Zuikova, Emma; Kazakov, Vassily; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is one of the main techniques of monitoring severe weather conditions over the ocean. The principal difficulty of the existing algorithms of retrieving wind based on dependence of microwave backscattering cross-section on wind speed (Geophysical Model Function, GMF) is due to its saturation at winds exceeding 25 - 30 m/s. Recently analysis of dual- and quad-polarization C-band radar return measured from satellite Radarsat-2 suggested that the cross-polarized radar return has much higher sensitivity to the wind speed than co-polarized back scattering [1] and conserved sensitivity to wind speed at hurricane conditions [2]. Since complete collocation of these data was not possible and time difference in flight legs and SAR images acquisition was up to 3 hours, these two sets of data were compared in [2] only statistically. The main purpose of this paper is investigation of the functional dependence of cross-polarized radar cross-section on the wind speed in laboratory experiment. Since cross-polarized radar return is formed due to scattering at small-scale structures of the air-sea interface (short-crested waves, foam, sprays, etc), which are well reproduced in laboratory conditions, then the approach based on laboratory experiment on radar scattering of microwaves at the water surface under hurricane wind looks feasible. The experiments were performed in the Wind-wave flume located on top of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, where the airflow was produced in the flume with the straight working part of 10 m and operating cross section 0.40?0.40 sq. m, the axis velocity can be varied from 5 to 25 m/s. Microwave measurements were carried out by a coherent Doppler X-band (3.2 cm) scatterometer with the consequent receive of linear polarizations. Experiments confirmed higher sensitivity to the wind speed of the cross-polarized radar return. Simultaneously parameters of the air flow in the turbulent boundary layer

  10. Paleoproductivity variations off Morocco during Interglacial periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Silvia; Bard, Edouard; Rostek, Frauke; Figueiredo, Ondina; Silva, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Paleoclimate reconstruction of surface and bottom-water properties (alkenone derived sea surface temperature estimations, δ18O and δ13C from planktonic and benthic foraminifera) for the last 500 ka in the NW African region has been obtained from a sediment record [core MD08-3178, 31°17.09'N, 11°29.20'W, 2184 m water depth]. In addition, paleoproductivity (opal and organic carbon content) and geochemical (XRF) measurements were conducted covering three interglacial periods [Holocene, MIS 5 and MIS 11]. The general trend of the alkenone-derived SST record resembles the oxygen isotopic signal, showing a correlation at these latitudes between SST variations in the glacial-interglacial time scales and Northern Hemisphere ice sheets evolution. Increased nutrient supply from the continent to the ocean realm, due to stronger winds, during glacial periods and colder phases of interglacials is supported by Ti/Ca variation in the sediment record. This trend is also supported by the variation of n-alkane concentration measured in the same core (see poster by Rostek et. al.). Reconstruction of productivity shows climate variability, supporting higher nutrient supply during glacial periods and in particular during Terminations 4 and 2. The various productivity proxies showed a similar pattern of negative correlation with sea surface temperature record (higher productivity coeval with lower SST). The highest nutrient supply, deduced from periods of higher productivity, is also in phase with the benthic δ13C pattern. We therefore suggest that during cold periods, besides increased upwelling due to stronger winds, an increase in the proportion of southern sourced nutrient-rich waters is likely to play a considerable role on productivity at these latitudes, as an important source of nutrients. Taking into account the ocean-atmospheric system affecting the studied region, we propose that both have a major role and contribute in phase for increased productivity during cold

  11. High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Sandom, Christopher J.; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Hansen, Morten D. D.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-01-01

    The impact of large herbivores on ecosystems before modern human activities is an open question in ecology and conservation. For Europe, the controversial wood–pasture hypothesis posits that grazing by wild large herbivores supported a dynamic mosaic of vegetation structures at the landscape scale under temperate conditions before agriculture. The contrasting position suggests that European temperate vegetation was primarily closed forest with relatively small open areas, at most impacted locally by large herbivores. Given the role of modern humans in the world-wide decimations of megafauna during the late Quaternary, to resolve this debate it is necessary to understand herbivore–vegetation interactions before these losses. Here, a synthetic analysis of beetle fossils from Great Britain shows that beetles associated with herbivore dung were better represented during the Last Interglacial (132,000–110,000 y B.P., before modern human arrival) than in the early Holocene (10,000–5,000 y B.P.). Furthermore, beetle assemblages indicate closed and partially closed forest in the early Holocene but a greater mixture of semiopen vegetation and forest in the Last Interglacial. Hence, abundant and diverse large herbivores appear to have been associated with high structural diversity of vegetation before the megafauna extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. After these losses and in the presence of modern humans, large herbivores generally were less abundant, and closed woodland was more prevalent in the early Holocene. Our findings point to the importance of the formerly rich fauna of large herbivores in sustaining structurally diverse vegetation in the temperate forest biome and provide support for recent moves toward rewilding-based conservation management. PMID:24591633

  12. A GCM comparison of Pleistocene super-interglacial periods in relation to Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, A. J.; DeConto, R. M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-07-01

    Until now, the lack of time-continuous, terrestrial paleoenvironmental data from the Pleistocene Arctic has made model simulations of past interglacials difficult to assess. Here, we compare climate simulations of four warm interglacials at Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 1 (9 ka), 5e (127 ka), 11c (409 ka) and 31 (1072 ka) with new proxy climate data recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia. Climate reconstructions of the mean temperature of the warmest month (MTWM) indicate conditions up to 0.4, 2.1, 0.5 and 3.1 °C warmer than today during MIS 1, 5e, 11c and 31, respectively. While the climate model captures much of the observed warming during each interglacial, largely in response to boreal summer (JJA) orbital forcing, the extraordinary warmth of MIS 11c compared to the other interglacials in the Lake El'gygytgyn temperature proxy reconstructions remains difficult to explain. To deconvolve the contribution of multiple influences on interglacial warming at Lake El'gygytgyn, we isolated the influence of vegetation, sea ice and circum-Arctic land ice feedbacks on the modeled climate of the Beringian interior. Simulations accounting for climate-vegetation-land-surface feedbacks during all four interglacials show expanding boreal forest cover with increasing summer insolation intensity. A deglaciated Greenland is shown to have a minimal effect on northeast Asian temperature during the warmth of stages 11c and 31 (Melles et al., 2012). A prescribed enhancement of oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean does have some effect on Lake El'gygytgyn's regional climate, but the exceptional warmth of MIS l1c remains enigmatic compared to the modest orbital and greenhouse gas forcing during that interglacial.

  13. How warm was Greenland during the last interglacial period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, Amaelle; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Capron, Emilie; Langenbroeck, Petra; Bakker, Pepijn; Stone, Emma; Fischer, Hubertus; Vinther, Bo; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-04-01

    The last interglacial period (LIG, ~129-116 thousand years ago) provides the most recent evidence for the response of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to polar warming above pre-industrial level, and a valuable test bed for ice sheet models. Key constraints on past changes in both ice sheet topography and surface temperature are derived from Greenland ice cores. The large warming estimated from the recent NEEM ice core drilled in northwest Greenland (8 ±4°C above pre-industrial) together with the evidence for limited local ice thinning have led to the "NEEM paradox", suggesting more stability of the ice sheet than simulated by ice flow models in response to such large warming. Here, we provide a new assessment of the LIG warming using ice core air isotopic composition (d15N) together with available relationships for Greenland between accumulation rate and temperature. The temperature at the upstream NEEM deposition site is estimated to be between -20°C to -24°C which is consistent with the 8±4°C warming relative to pre-industrial previously determined from water isotopic records measured on the NEEM ice, although we feel the lower end of this range to be more likely. Moreover, we show that under such warm temperature, melting of snow probably led to a significant firn shrinking by 15 m. We show that confirmation of this high temperature range for the LIG in Greenland is difficult to reconcile with climate modeling experiments

  14. Two middle Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles from the Valle Grande, Jemez Mountains, northern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fawcett, Peter J.; Heikoop, Jeff; Goff, Fraser; Anderson, R. Scott; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Geissman, John William; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Allen, Craig D.; Johnson, Catrina M.; Smith, Susan J.; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna

    2006-01-01

    A long-lived middle Pleistocene lake formed in the Valle Grande, a large moat valley of the Valles caldera in northern New Mexico, when a post-caldera eruption (South Mountain rhyolite) dammed the drainage out of the caldera. The deposits of this lake were cored in May 2004 (GLAD5 project, hole VC-3) and 81 m of mostly lacustrine silty mud were recovered. A tentative chronology has been established for VC-3 with a basal tephra Ar-Ar date of 552 +/- 3 ka, a correlation of major climatic changes in the core with other long Pleistocene records (deep sea oxygen isotope records and long Antarctic ice core records), and the recognition of two geomagnetic field polarity events in the core which can be correlated with globally recognized events. This record spans a critical interval of the middle Pleistocene from MIS 14 (552 ka) to MIS 10 (~360 ka), at which time the lacustrine sediments filled the available accommodation space in the caldera moat. Multiple analyses, including core sedimentology and stratigraphy, sediment density and rock magnetic properties, organic carbon content and carbon isotope ratios, C/N ratios, and pollen content reveal two glacial/interglacial cycles in the core (MIS 14 to MIS 10). This record includes glacial terminations V and VI and complete sections spanning interglacials MIS 13 and MIS 11. In the VC-3 record, both of these interglacials are relatively long compared with the intervening glacials (MIS 14 and MIS 12), and interglacial MIS 13 is significantly muted in amplitude compared with MIS 11. These features are similar to several other mid-Pleistocene records. The glacial terminations are quite abrupt in this record with notable changes in sedimentation, organic carbon content, C/N ratios and watershed vegetation type. Termination V is the largest climate change evident in this part of the middle Pleistocene. The glacial inceptions tend to be more gradual, on the order of a few thousand years.

  15. Constraining the Antarctic contribution to interglacial sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, T.; Mckay, R. M.; Barrett, P. J.; Levy, R. H.; Golledge, N. R.; Deconto, R. M.; Horgan, H. J.; Dunbar, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Observations, models and paleoclimate reconstructions suggest that Antarctica's marine-based ice sheets behave in an unstable manner with episodes of rapid retreat in response to warming climate. Understanding the processes involved in this "marine ice sheet instability" is key for improving estimates of Antarctic ice sheet contribution to future sea-level rise. Another motivating factor is that far-field sea-level reconstructions and ice sheet models imply global mean sea level (GMSL) was up to 20m and 10m higher, respectively, compared with present day, during the interglacials of the warm Pliocene (~4-3Ma) and Late Pleistocene (at ~400ka and 125ka). This was when atmospheric CO2 was between 280 and 400ppm and global average surface temperatures were 1- 3°C warmer, suggesting polar ice sheets are highly sensitive to relatively modest increases in climate forcing. Such magnitudes of GMSL rise not only require near complete melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, but a substantial retreat of marine-based sectors of East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Recent geological drilling initiatives on the continental margin of Antarctica from both ship- (e.g. IODP; International Ocean Discovery Program) and ice-based (e.g. ANDRILL/Antarctic Geological Drilling) platforms have provided evidence supporting retreat of marine-based ice. However, without direct access through the ice sheet to archives preserved within sub-glacial sedimentary basins, the volume and extent of ice sheet retreat during past interglacials cannot be directly constrained. Sediment cores have been successfully recovered from beneath ice shelves by the ANDRILL Program and ice streams by the WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Sub-glacial Access Research Drilling) Project. Together with the potential of the new RAID (Rapid Access Ice Drill) initiative, these demonstrate the technological feasibility of accessing the subglacial bed and deeper sedimentary archives. In this talk I will outline the

  16. Vegetation and paleoclimate of the last interglacial period, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Beget, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The last interglacial period is thought to be the last time global climate was significantly warmer than present. New stratigraphic studies at Eva Creek, near Fairbanks, Alaska indicate a complex last interglacial record wherein periods of loess deposition alternated with periods of soil formation. The Eva Forest Bed appears to have formed about the time of or after deposition of the Old Crow tephra (dated to ??? 160 to ??? 120 ka), and is therefore correlated with the last interglacial period. Pollen, macrofossils, and soils from the Eva Forest Bed indicate that boreal forest was the dominant vegetation and precipitation may have been greater than present around Fairbanks during the peak of the last interglacial period. A new compilation of last interglacial localities indicates that boreal forest was extensive over interior Alaska and Yukon Territory. Boreal forest also extended beyond its present range onto the Seward and Baldwin Peninsulas, and probably migrated to higher elevations, now occupied by tundra, in the interior. Comparison of last interglacial pollen and macrofossil data with atmospheric general circulation model results shows both agreement and disagreement. Model results of warmer-than-present summers are in agreement with fossil data. However, numerous localities with boreal forest records are in conflict with model reconstructions of an extensive cool steppe in interior Alaska and much of Yukon Territory during the last interglacial. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Physical Conditions and Variability Processes in AGN Jets through Multi-Frequency Linear and Circular Radio Polarization Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myserlis, Ioannis; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Kraus, Alex; Fuhrmann, Lars; Karamanavis, Vassilis; Zensus, J.

    2016-11-01

    Radio polarimetry is an invaluable tool to investigate the physical conditions and variability processes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets. However, detecting their linear and circular polarization properties is a challenging endeavor due to their low levels and possible depolarization effects. We have developed an end-to-end data analysis methodology to recover the polarization properties of unresolved sources with high accuracy. It has been applied to recover the linear and circular polarization of 87 AGNs measured by the F-GAMMA program from July 2010 to January 2015 with a mean cadence of 1.3 months. Their linear polarization was recovered at four frequencies between 2.64 and 10.45 GHz and the circular polarization at 4.85 and 8.35 GHz. The physical conditions required to reproduce the observed polarization properties and the processes which induce their variability were investigated with a full-Stokes radiative transfer code which emulates the synchrotron emission of modeled jets. The model was used to investigate the conditions needed to reproduce the observed polarization behavior for the blazar 3C 454.3, assuming that the observed variability is attributed to evolving internal shocks propagating downstream.

  18. Formation of Polar Ionospheric Tongue of Ionization during Minor Geomagnetic Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, W.; Burns, A. G.; Yue, X.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Previous investigations of ionospheric storm-enhanced density (SED) and tongue of ionization (TOI) focused mostly on the behavior of TOI during intense geomagnetic storms. Little attention has been paid to the spatial and temporal variations of TOI during weak to moderate geomagnetic disturbed conditions. we investigate the source and development of TOI during a moderate geomagnetic storm on 14 October 2012.Multi-instrumental observations including GPS total electron content (TEC), Defense Meteorological SatelliteProgram(DMSP) in situ measured total ion concentration and ion drift velocity, SuperDARN measured polar ionconvection patterns, and electron density profiles from the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) have been utilized in the current analysis. GPS TEC maps show salient TOI structures persisting for about 5 h over high latitudes of North America on 14 October 2012 in the later recovery phase of the storm when the magnitudes of IMF By and Bz were less than 5 nT. The PFISR electron density profiles indicate that the extra ionization for TEC enhancements mainly occurred in the topside ionosphere with no obvious changes in the bottom side ionosphere and vertical plasma drifts. Additionally, there were no signatures of penetration electric fields in the equatorial electrojet data and upward ion drifts at high latitudes. At the same time, strong subauroral polarization streams with ion drift speeds exceeding 2.5 km/s carried sunward fluxes and migrated toward lower latitudes for about 5° based on the DMSP cross-track driftmeasurements. Based on those measurements,we postulate that the combined effects of initial build-up of ionization at midlatitudes through daytime production of ionization and equatorward (or less poleward than normal daytime) neutral wind reducing downward diffusion along the inclined filed lines, and an expanded polar ion convection pattern and its associated horizontal plasma transport are important in the formation of the TOI.

  19. Formation of polar ionospheric tongue of ionization during minor geomagnetic disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Nakamura, Takuji; Liu, Libo; Wang, Wenbin; Balan, Nanan; Nishiyama, Takanori; Hairston, Marc R.; Thomas, E. G.

    2015-08-01

    Previous investigations of ionospheric storm-enhanced density (SED) and tongue of ionization (TOI) focused mostly on the behavior of TOI during intense geomagnetic storms. Little attention has been paid to the spatial and temporal variations of TOI during weak to moderate geomagnetic disturbed conditions. In this paper we investigate the source and development of TOI during a moderate geomagnetic storm on 14 October 2012. Multi-instrumental observations including GPS total electron content (TEC), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) in situ measured total ion concentration and ion drift velocity, SuperDARN measured polar ion convection patterns, and electron density profiles from the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) have been utilized in the current analysis. GPS TEC maps show salient TOI structures persisting for about 5 h over high latitudes of North America on 14 October 2012 in the later recovery phase of the storm when the magnitudes of IMF By and Bz were less than 5 nT. The PFISR electron density profiles indicate that the extra ionization for TEC enhancements mainly occurred in the topside ionosphere with no obvious changes in the bottomside ionosphere and vertical plasma drifts. Additionally, there were no signatures of penetration electric fields in the equatorial electrojet data and upward ion drifts at high latitudes. At the same time, strong subauroral polarization streams with ion drift speeds exceeding 2.5 km/s carried sunward fluxes and migrated toward lower latitudes for about 5° based on the DMSP cross-track drift measurements. Based on those measurements, we postulate that the combined effects of initial build-up of ionization at midlatitudes through daytime production of ionization and equatorward (or less poleward than normal daytime) neutral wind reducing downward diffusion along the inclined filed lines, and an expanded polar ion convection pattern and its associated horizontal plasma transport are important in the

  20. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers for pesticides monitoring: impacts of field exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Lissalde, Sophie; Mazzella, Nicolas; Mazellier, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on how Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) work in real environmental conditions. A selection of 23 polar pesticides and 8 metabolites were investigated by exposure of triplicates of integrative samplers in two rivers in France for successive 14-day periods. The pesticides and metabolites were trapped not only in Oasis HLB sorbent but also in the polyethersulfone (PES) membrane of the POCIS. The distribution of pesticides depended on the molecular structure. The use of the Performance Reference Compound (PRC) is also discussed here. The impact of some environmental parameters and exposure setup on the transfer of pesticides in POCIS sorbent was studied: river flow rate, biofouling on membranes, sampler holding design and position in the stream. Results show a significant impact of river flow velocity on PRC desorption, especially for values higher than 4 cm·s(-1). Some fouling was observed on the PES membrane which could potentially have an impact on molecule accumulation in the POCIS. Finally, the positioning of the sampler in the river did not have significant effects on pesticide accumulation, when perpendicular exposures were used (sampler positioning in front of the water flow). The POCIS with PRC correction seems to be a suitable tool for estimating time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, for all the molecules except for one of the nine pesticides analyzed in these two French rivers.

  1. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  2. Glacial-interglacial variability in diatom abundance and valve size: Implications for Southern Ocean paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Abhilash; Mohan, Rahul; Manoj, M. C.; Thamban, Meloth

    2015-10-01

    Antarctic sea ice extent along with Southern Ocean biological productivity varied considerably during glacial-interglacial periods, and both are known to have played a considerable role in regulating atmospheric CO2 variations in the past. Here we present data on diatom absolute abundance (valves/g of sediment) and size over the past ~ 42 ka B.P. and how they link to glacial-interglacial changes in Antarctic sea ice extent, Southern Ocean frontal systems, and aeolian dust flux. Our records of sea ice and permanent open ocean zone diatom abundances suggest a shift in the Antarctic winter sea ice limit and Polar Front respectively up to the modern-day Polar Frontal Zone during marine isotopic stages (MIS) 2 and late MIS 3. In addition to glacial shifts in the Polar Front, diatom assemblages also recorded a plausible northward shifts in Polar Front during few intervals of MIS 1. Glacial periods north of the Polar Front in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean were characterized by higher total diatom abundance, larger Fragilariopsis kerguelensis apical length, and Thalassiosira lentiginosa radius. This is probably a consequence of (1) a northward expansion of the opal belt, a region characterized by high production and export of biogenic silica; (2) an increase in terrigenous input, via erosion of Crozet Islands; and (3) the alleviation of iron deficit by high input of Fe-bearing dust. The larger and highly silicified diatoms such as F. kerguelensis and T. lentiginosa may have mainly contributed in transporting biogenic silica and organic carbon to the seabed for the last 42 ka, in the northern Polar Frontal Zone of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean.

  3. A Millennial-Scale Reduction in Ventilation of the Deep South Atlantic During the Last Interglacial Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, C. T.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Hasenfratz, A. P.; Jaccard, S.; Hodell, D. A.; Sigman, D. M.; Haug, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    During the last interglacial period, global temperatures were ~2°C warmer than present and sea level was 6-8 m higher. Southern Ocean sediments from ODP Site 1094 reveal a spike in authigenic uranium 127,000 years ago, within the last interglacial, reflecting decreased oxygenation of deep water by Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Increased deep storage of respired carbon due to this circulation event may explain an observed decline in atmospheric CO2 at this time. Unlike ice age reductions in AABW, the interglacial stagnation event appears decoupled from open ocean conditions and may have resulted from coastal freshening due to mass loss from the Antarctic ice sheet. AABW reduction coincided with increased North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation, and the subsequent reinvigoration in AABW coincided with reduced NADW formation. Alternation of deep water formation between the Antarctic and the North Atlantic, believed to characterize ice ages, apparently also occurs in warm climates.

  4. Pleistocene glacial/interglacial contrasts in the Labrador Sea prior and after the Mid-Brunhes transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; de Vernal, Anne; Teboulle, Oury; Aubry, Aurélie; Fréchette, Bianca

    2016-04-01

    Isotopic, microfaunal and palynological records from the northern (Eirik Ridge) and southern (Orphan Knoll) Labrador Sea -LS- (Eirik Ridge and Orphan Knoll) are used to document paleoceanographic conditions in the basin during a few interglacials from MIS 31, to MIS 5e, with some specific attention to MIS 13, 11 and 5e. Most features, particularly oxygen isotope records in planktics highlight a major difference between the pre Mid-Brunhes (MB) and post-MB intervals (i.e, before MIS 11 and from MIS 11 to MIS 1), with the exception of MIS 7 showing features resembling those of the pre-MB interglacials. In a similar fashion, glacials from MIS 12 and later differ significantly from earlier ones by their more pronounced 18O-enrichments in planktic foraminifers, thus possibly larger continental ice volume. Another feature of interest concerning glacials is found in the relative abundance of reworked palynomorphs, in the Northern Labrador Sea record, during pre-MB glacials (MIS 12 and earlier) and during a short mid-MIS 7 glacial excursion. These reworked microfossils suggest significant ice streaming over Paleozoic outcrops either along the western Scandinavian Ice Sheet margin and/or in the Fram Strait area. Within interglacials, MIS 13 records large amplitude coolings, the presence of continental ice over NE Canada indicated by sporadic detrital carbonate-rich IRD-pulses. Evidence for the persistence of a relatively large interglacial Greenland Ice Sheet is found for post MIS 11 interglacials only. Finally, density conditions in surface water (calculated using paleo-SSTs and paleo-SSs from dinocysts), suggest that if convection with production of Labrador Sea Water (LSW), as observed since ca 7 ka BP, was unlikely during most interglacials (and notably MIS 5e), but very likely during MIS 11, due to relatively high salinity conditions at surface. A conclusion from this overview of t mid- to late Pleistocene glacial vs interglacial stages is that glacials were pre-conditioning

  5. Problem of the length of the current interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergachev, V. A.; Raspopov, O. M.

    2013-12-01

    The climate during the past hundreds of thousands of years has been characterized by a rather distinct periodicity of about 100000 yr with brief warming periods (interglacials) lasting approximately 10000-12000 yr. Today, mankind is living in an interglacial period that began about 11 ka ago. In light of the discussion about global warming observed in recent decades, which advocates of an anthropogenic impact associate with emission of greenhouse gases due to combustion of fossil fuel, the question arises concerning the duration of the current interglacial. The data available on climate change and solar radiation on a time scale of the last millions of years are critically analyzed in this article and the problem of the length of the current interglacial is discussed.

  6. Growth and development, and auxin polar transport of transgenic Arabidopsis under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Toru; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-12-01

    Growth and development, and auxin polar transport in Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with iaaH gene were studied under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat. Simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat did not affect the number of rosette leaves but promoted the growth and development (fresh weight of plant and the elongation of flower stalk) of transformants. Final growth of transformants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat was almost equivalent to that grown on 1 g conditions in the presence of 1 micromoles IAM (indole-3-acetamide). The activities of auxin polar transport in the segments of flower stalk (inflorescence axis) of transformants grown on 1 g conditions were significantly promoted by the addition of IAM. Interestingly, simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also promoted the activities of auxin polar transport of transformants grown on the medium with or without IAM. Based on the results in this study, transgenic plants may not have an efficient homeostatic mechanism for the control of growth and development, and auxin polar transport activity in microgravity conditions in space.

  7. Late Pleistocene lithostratigraphy and sequences in the southwestern Mesopotamia (Argentina): Evidences of the last interglacial stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, Brunetto; Soledad, Ferrero Brenda; Ignacio, Noriega Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the stratigraphic record of the Late Pleistocene corresponding to the distal region of the Paraná River basin. It displays sedimentological, paleontological and geochronological evidences that characterise the last interglacial-glacial cycle. In particular, strong environmental records are shown for the Last Interglacial Stage (LIS). Salto Ander Egg Formation (SAEF) is defined as a new lithostratigraphic unit representative of the Late Pleistocene in southwestern Mesopotamia. This unit is formed of complex fluvial deposits, which contains a heterogeneous collection of sub-environments, of ages ranging from 120 to 60 ky BP. The clast-supported gravel facies containing sparse boulders indicate high flow during a humid climate. The large and middle-scale architectures of fluvial sedimentary bodies evidence the relationship between the sediment accommodation and the sea level oscillations. Three sub-sequences identified in the succession suggest a transgressive trend during the MIS5e, a highstand stage in MIS5c, and a minor transgressive cycle during MIS3. A Brazilian faunal association collected at the bottom of the sequence and sedimentological interpretations display wet and warm climatic conditions, typical of tropical or subtropical environments. Such environmental conditions are characteristic of the maximum of the last interglacial stage (MIS5e) and show a signal stronger than the signal of the current interglacial stage. All these data show a direct correlation between the increases of paleodischarges and the elevation of the sea level. The whole sequence is completed with transitional swampy deposits, accumulated probably during the MIS3/MIS2 transition, and the typical loess of the Tezanos Pinto Formation, mantled during the Last Maximum Glacial.

  8. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  9. Characterization of biomaterials polar interactions in physiological conditions using liquid-liquid contact angle measurements: relation to fibronectin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Velzenberger, Elodie; El Kirat, Karim; Legeay, Gilbert; Nagel, Marie-Danielle; Pezron, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Wettability of biomaterials surfaces and protein-coated substrates is generally characterized with the sessile drop technique using polar and apolar liquids. This procedure is often performed in air, which does not reflect the physiological conditions. In this study, liquid/liquid contact angle measurements were carried out to be closer to cell culture conditions. This technique allowed us to evaluate the polar contribution to the work of adhesion between an aqueous medium and four selected biomaterials widely used in tissue culture applications: bacteriological grade polystyrene (PS), tissue culture polystyrene (tPS), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) film (PolyHEMA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-carboxymethylcellulose bi-layered Petri dish (CEL). The contributions of polar interactions were also estimated on the same biomaterials after fibronectin (Fn) adsorption. The quantity of Fn adsorbed on PS, tPS, PolyHEMA and CEL surfaces was evaluated by using the fluorescein-labeled protein. PolyHEMA and CEL were found to be hydrophilic, tPS was moderately hydrophilic and PS was highly hydrophobic. After Fn adsorption on PS and tPS, a significant increase of the surface polar interaction was observed. On PolyHEMA and CEL, no significant adsorption of Fn was detected and the polar interactions remained unchanged. Finally, an inverse correlation between the polarity of the surfaces and the quantity of adsorbed Fn was established.

  10. How warm was Greenland during the last interglacial period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, Amaelle; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Capron, Emilie; Langebroek, Petra M.; Bakker, Pepijn; Stone, Emma J.; Merz, Niklaus; Raible, Christoph C.; Fischer, Hubertus; Orsi, Anaïs; Prié, Frédéric; Vinther, Bo; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-01

    The last interglacial period (LIG, ˜ 129-116 thousand years ago) provides the most recent case study of multimillennial polar warming above the preindustrial level and a response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to this warming, as well as a test bed for climate and ice sheet models. Past changes in Greenland ice sheet thickness and surface temperature during this period were recently derived from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core records, northwest Greenland. The NEEM paradox has emerged from an estimated large local warming above the preindustrial level (7.5 ± 1.8 °C at the deposition site 126 kyr ago without correction for any overall ice sheet altitude changes between the LIG and the preindustrial period) based on water isotopes, together with limited local ice thinning, suggesting more resilience of the real Greenland ice sheet than shown in some ice sheet models. Here, we provide an independent assessment of the average LIG Greenland surface warming using ice core air isotopic composition (δ15N) and relationships between accumulation rate and temperature. The LIG surface temperature at the upstream NEEM deposition site without ice sheet altitude correction is estimated to be warmer by +8.5 ± 2.5 °C compared to the preindustrial period. This temperature estimate is consistent with the 7.5 ± 1.8 °C warming initially determined from NEEM water isotopes but at the upper end of the preindustrial period to LIG temperature difference of +5.2 ± 2.3 °C obtained at the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) site by the same method. Climate simulations performed with present-day ice sheet topography lead in general to a warming smaller than reconstructed, but sensitivity tests show that larger amplitudes (up to 5 °C) are produced in response to prescribed changes in sea ice extent and ice sheet topography.

  11. Condition for Gaussian Schell-model beam to maintain the state of polarization on the propagation in free space.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinhui; Yao, Yong; Sun, Yunxu; Liu, Chao

    2009-09-28

    In the free space optical communication system with circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK) modulation, the changes of polarization state of light beam have significant influence on the system performance. Keeping the state of polarization (SOP) unchanged on propagation can reduce the bit error rate. Based on the unified theory of coherence and polarization, we derive the sufficient condition for Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam to keep the SOP unchanged. We found that when the three spectral correlation widths (delta(xx), delta(yy) and delta(xy)) equal to each other and sigma(x) = sigma(y), the GSM beam maintains the SOP on propagation. This conclusion can be helpful for the design of the transmitter in the CPolSK system.

  12. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    PubMed

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  13. Are boundary conditions in surface productivity at the Southern Polar Front reflected in benthic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Vanreusel, Ann; Bracher, Astrid; Jule Marie Hoppe, Clara; Lins, Lidia; Meyer-Löbbecke, Anna; Altenburg Soppa, Mariana; Würzberg, Laura

    2014-10-01

    In austral summer 2012, during the expedition ANT-XXVIII/3 on board RV Polarstern, two sites were sampled 1600 km apart in the South Polar Front area (52°S) at the boundary of different productivity regimes for meio- and macrobenthos using a multiple-corer and an epibenthic sledge, respectively. Patterns in density and abundance data were compared between different size classes of the benthos and interpreted in relation to surface primary productivity data and sediment oxygen consumption. We tested the hypothesis that long-term satellite-derived surface phytoplankton biomass, in situ real time biomass, and productivity measurements at the surface and throughout the euphotic zone are reflected in abyssal benthos densities, abundances and activity. Specifically, we investigated the effect of boundary conditions for lower and higher surface productivity. Surface and integrated to 100 m depth biomass and primary productivity measurements vary stations, with the lowest values at station 85 (0.083 mg Chl-a m-3 at surface, 9 mg Chl-a m-2 and 161 mg C m-2 d-1- integrated over the first 100 m depth), and the highest values at station 86 (2.231 mg Chl-a m-3 at surface, 180 mg Chl-a m-2 and 2587 mg C m-2 d-1 integrated over first 100 m depth). Total meiofaunal densities varied between 102 and 335 individuals/10 cm². Densities were the highest at station 86-30 (335 individuals) and lowest at station 81-13 (102 individuals). Total macrofaunal densities (individuals/1000 m²) varied between 26 individuals at station 81-17 and 194 individuals at station 86-24. However, three EBS hauls were taken at station 86 with a minimum of 80 and a maximum of 194 individuals. Sediment oxygen consumption did not vary significantly between stations from east to west. Bentho-pelagic coupling of meio- and macrobenthic communities could not be observed in the South Polar Front at the boundary conditions from low to high surface productivity between stations 81 and 86.

  14. Tropically-driven climate shifts in southwestern Europe during MIS 19, a low eccentricity interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Goñi, M. F.; Rodrigues, T.; Hodell, D. A.; Polanco-Martínez, J. M.; Alonso-García, M.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Desprat, S.; Ferretti, P.

    2016-08-01

    The relative roles of high- versus low-latitude forcing of millennial-scale climate variability are still not well understood. Here we present terrestrial-marine climate profiles from the southwestern Iberian margin, a region particularly affected by precession, that show millennial climate oscillations related to a nonlinear response to the Earth's precession cycle during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19. MIS 19 has been considered the best analogue to our present interglacial from an astronomical point of view due to the reduced eccentricity centred at 785 ka. In our records, seven millennial-scale forest contractions punctuated MIS 19 superimposed to two orbitally-driven Mediterranean forest expansions. In contrast to our present interglacial, we evidence for the first time low latitude-driven 5000-yr cycles of drying and cooling in the western Mediterranean region, along with warmth in the subtropical gyre related to the fourth harmonic of precession. These cycles indicate repeated intensification of North Atlantic meridional moisture transport that along with decrease in boreal summer insolation triggered ice growth and may have contributed to the glacial inception, at ∼774 ka. The freshwater fluxes during MIS 19ab amplified the cooling events in the North Atlantic promoting further cooling and leading to MIS 18 glaciation. The discrepancy between the dominant cyclicity observed during MIS 1, 2500-yr, and that of MIS 19, 5000-yr, challenges the similar duration of the Holocene and MIS 19c interglacials under natural boundary conditions.

  15. Cyclic 100-ka (glacial-interglacial) migration of subseafloor redox zonation on the Peruvian shelf

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Sergio; Meister, Patrick; Liu, Bo; Prieto-Mollar, Xavier; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Khalili, Arzhang; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of subseafloor microbial life to oceanographic and atmospheric conditions is poorly understood. We examined diagenetic imprints and lipid biomarkers of past subseafloor microbial activity to evaluate its response to glacial-interglacial cycles in a sedimentary section drilled on the Peruvian shelf (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201, Site 1229). Multiple and distinct layers of diagenetic barite and dolomite, i.e., minerals that typically form at the sulfate−methane transition (SMT), occur at much shallower burial depth than the present SMT around 30 meters below seafloor. These shallow layers co-occur with peaks of 13C-depleted archaeol, a molecular fossil of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea. Present-day, non-steady state distributions of dissolved sulfate also suggest that the SMT is highly sensitive to variations in organic carbon flux to the surface shelf sediments that may lead to shoaling of the SMT. Reaction-transport modeling substantiates our hypothesis that shallow SMTs occur in response to cyclic sediment deposition with a high organic carbon flux during interglacials and a low organic carbon flux during glacial stages. Long diffusion distances expectedly dampen the response of deeply buried microbial communities to changes in sediment deposition and other oceanographic drivers over relatively short geological time scales, e.g., glacial-interglacial periods. However, our study demonstrates how dynamically sediment biogeochemistry of the Peru Margin has responded to glacial-interglacial change and how these changes are now preserved in the geological record. Such changes in subsurface biogeochemical zonation need to be taken into account to assess the role of the subseafloor biosphere in global element and redox cycling. PMID:24145422

  16. Turbulent Alfven boundary layer in the polar ionosphere. 1. Excitation conditions and energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtengerts, V.Y. ); Feldstein, A.Ya. )

    1991-11-01

    Instability of laminar magnetospheric convection with respect to the strongly anisotropic Alfven waves which are of small scale in the horizontal plane is examined. The waves prove to be trapped in the ionospheric Alfven resonator, bounded from below by the ionospheric E layer and form above by a zone of rapidly increasing Alfven velocity at altitudes of up to {approximately}10{sup 4} km. The finite-amplitude Alfven waves dissipate within a layer of anomalous resistance formed near the upper wall of the resonator. As a result, a high-energy particle source appears in the upper ionosphere. Further evolution results in the transition of laminar convection to turbulent flow conditions and in the formation of a turbulent Alfven boundary layer in the polar ionosphere at altitudes from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} km. The energy status of the turbulent Alfven boundary layer is calculated. It has been shown that the accelerated-electron energy flux density can reach {approximately}100 ergs cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}.

  17. The last interglaciation in Alaska: Stratigraphy and paleoecology of potential sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, T.D.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    1991-01-01

    At least 20 localities in Alaska contain deposits that may provide information on the last interglaciation (Oxygen-Isotope Substage 5e). These widely dispersed localities include river bluffs, coastal bluffs and terraces, elevated marine shorelines, lake basins, and artificial excavations. Most of the inferred interglacial deposits contain macrofossils or pollen that are older than the range of radiocarbon dating and commonly indicate climate as warm as or warmer than the present. At a few localities, evidence for deep thaw of permafrost also indicates a warm paleoclimate. At eight localities, the Old Crow tephra occurs at or below organic deposits that may represent Substage 5e. The tephra occurs beneath conspicuous organic deposits at Fairbanks, the Yukon Palisades, and Holitna lowland, and directly above a peat bed at Hogatza Mine. At Birch Creek, Halfway House, Ky-11, and Imuruk Lake, the tephra occurs within a paleosol or organic deposit, but other organic horizons that more likely indicate interglacial conditions occur at higher stratigraphic levels. The varied stratigraphic relations of the Old Crow tephra suggest that it may have been deposited close to the boundary between Isotope Substages 6 and 5, which is dated at about 130 ka in the marine record and between 132 and 140 ka on land. These age relations suggests that the tephra may have been deposited about 135 ?? 5 ka, validating the recent fission-track age determination of 140 ?? 10 ka for this deposit. Six coastal localities contain deposits of probable interglacial age, and these commonly are associated with evidence for eustatic sea levels higher than those of the present. Beach and sublittoral sediments of the Pelukian transgression occur up to 12 m asl along the northwest coast of Alaska, and are correlative with barrier island and lagoonal sediments on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Both sets of deposits commonly contain extralimital mollusks and microfauna that indicate marine water slightly

  18. Application of Polar Cap (PC) indices in analyses and forecasts of geophysical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices could be considered to represent the input of power from the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere. The indices have been used to analyse interplanetary electric fields, effects of solar wind pressure pulses, cross polar cap voltages and polar cap diameter, ionospheric Joule heating, and other issues of polar cap dynamics. The PC indices have also been used to predict auroral electrojet intensities and global auroral power as well as ring current intensities. For specific space weather purposes the PC indices could be used to forecast substorm development and predict associated power line disturbances in the subauroral regions. The presentation shall outline the general background for applying the PC indices in analyses or forecasts of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and provide illustrative examples of the use of the Polar Cap indices in specific cases

  19. Future sea ice conditions in Western Hudson Bay and consequences for polar bears in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Myers, Paul G; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Arjen D; Lunn, Nick J

    2013-09-01

    The primary habitat of polar bears is sea ice, but in Western Hudson Bay (WH), the seasonal ice cycle forces polar bears ashore each summer. Survival of bears on land in WH is correlated with breakup and the ice-free season length, and studies suggest that exceeding thresholds in these variables will lead to large declines in the WH population. To estimate when anthropogenic warming may have progressed sufficiently to threaten the persistence of polar bears in WH, we predict changes in the ice cycle and the sea ice concentration (SIC) in spring (the primary feeding period of polar bears) with a high-resolution sea ice-ocean model and warming forced with 21st century IPCC greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios: B1 (low), A1B (medium), and A2 (high). We define critical years for polar bears based on proposed thresholds in breakup and ice-free season and we assess when ice-cycle conditions cross these thresholds. In the three scenarios, critical years occur more commonly after 2050. From 2001 to 2050, 2 critical years occur under B1 and A2, and 4 under A1B; from 2051 to 2100, 8 critical years occur under B1, 35 under A1B and 41 under A2. Spring SIC in WH is high (>90%) in all three scenarios between 2001 and 2050, but declines rapidly after 2050 in A1B and A2. From 2090 to 2100, the mean spring SIC is 84 (±7)% in B1, 56 (±26)% in A1B and 20 (±13)% in A2. Our predictions suggest that the habitat of polar bears in WH will deteriorate in the 21st century. Ice predictions in A1B and A2 suggest that the polar bear population may struggle to persist after ca. 2050. Predictions under B1 suggest that reducing GHG emissions could allow polar bears to persist in WH throughout the 21st century.

  20. Sea surface temperature variability of the Peru-Chile Current during the previous ten interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniupan, M.; Martinez-Mendez, G.; Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Mohtadi, M.; Pantoja, S.

    2014-12-01

    There are several interglacial periods during the Quaternary that were characterized by climates warmer than present and higher sea level and thus may serve as analogues for future global warming scenarios. These include Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 9c and 11c. Little is known about past sea surface temperatures (SST) during these warm intervals in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly along the Peru-Chile Current (PCC) which plays a critical role in the Southern Hemisphere surface circulation as it connects the low and high latitudes by transporting sub-polar water masses and thus, a high-latitude climate signal towards the tropics. Here, we present new high-resolution alkenone-derived SST records from marine sediment cores located beneath the PCC. Core GeoB15016 was recovered from off northern Chile (27.5°S; 71.1°W) with the seafloor drill rig MARUM-MeBo. We analyzed the ca. 60 meters composite depth complemented by gravity core GeoB3375-1 (27.5°S; 71.3°W) for the upper part to generate a continuous record that extends back to 970 ka BP. Our record is the first continuous SST reconstruction from the Chilean margin extending back to MIS 25. SST varies between ~8°C and ~20°C over the past ~970 ka. Glacial-interglacial SST amplitudes are in the order of 6°C (see Groeneveld's et al. contribution for Mg/Ca-derived Glacial SST estimations). During MIS 5e, 7e, 9c and 11c, the record reaches SST maxima which are ca. 3ºC warmer than present annual mean SST in the area. Our results suggest a substantial warming of the PCC over past interglacials that may reflect reduced advection of subantarctic surface water from the south and/or enhanced tropical influence from the north.

  1. Speleothem records of western Mediterranean. Hydrological variability along the Last Interglacial Period and marine linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torner, Judit; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Belmonte, Anchel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Frigola, Jaime; Martrat, Belen; Fornós, Joan; Arnau Fernández, Pedro; Hellstrom, John; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to identify and characterize regional hydrological variability in the western Mediterranean region in base to different geochemical parameters (δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios). Speleothems have been recovered from several caves located in southern central Pyrenees one and the others form the Balearic Islands. Their chronologies have been constructed in base on U/Th absolute dating and indicate that the speleothem sequences cover the end of the last interglacial and the glacial inception. One of the most remarkable features of the records is the intense and abrupt shift toward more arid conditions that marks the end of the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Furthermore, our speleothem records also show relatively humid but highly variable hydrological conditions during the interstadial periods from MIS 5c to 5a. These speleothem records have been compared with new generated western Mediterranean marine records from the Balearic Sea (MD99-2343) and Alboran Sea (OPD-977). Marine records include (1) proxies of sea surface temperature and changes in evaporation-precipitation rates based on pair analysis of δ18O and the Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides; (2) proxies of deep-water currents associated with the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) based on grain size analyses. The results reveal that arid conditions on land were coeval with cold sea surface sub-stages (MIS 5b and 5d), and also with increases in the intensity of the WMDW-related currents. By contrast, humid and hydrological unstable atmosphere conditions were synchronous with sea surface warm sub-stages, and lower WMDW-related currents intensities (MIS 5a, c and e). Consequently, our results highly evidence a strong atmospheric-oceanic coupling, involving parallel changes in both surface but also deep western Mediterranean Sea conditions during the last interglacial period and the glacial inception.

  2. Ice volume and sea level during the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Dutton, A; Lambeck, K

    2012-07-13

    During the last interglacial period, ~125,000 years ago, sea level was at least several meters higher than at present, with substantial variability observed for peak sea level at geographically diverse sites. Speculation that the West Antarctic ice sheet collapsed during the last interglacial period has drawn particular interest to understanding climate and ice-sheet dynamics during this time interval. We provide an internally consistent database of coral U-Th ages to assess last interglacial sea-level observations in the context of isostatic modeling and stratigraphic evidence. These data indicate that global (eustatic) sea level peaked 5.5 to 9 meters above present sea level, requiring smaller ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica relative to today and indicating strong sea-level sensitivity to small changes in radiative forcing.

  3. Paleomonsoonal Precipitation and Hydroclimate Variability from Glacial to Interglacial Climates in the Southwest: The Stoneman Lake, Arizona Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, D.; Fawcett, P. J.; Anderson, R. S.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen isotope values from diatom silica have been used to determine past hydrological conditions in a variety of settings including differentiating summer monsoonal paleoprecipitation from winter frontal paleoprecipitation in the American southwest. Lacustrine cores from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, show a distinct change in silica oxygen isotope values from glacial to interglacial as a switch from a purely winter frontal precipitation during the glacial to a mix of winter frontal and summer monsoonal precipitation during the interglacial. A relatively large (ca. 20‰) and rapid increase in δ18O following the glacial termination implies an abrupt onset of the North American monsoon. We plan to elaborate on this research to see if this is true elsewhere in the southwest. Two lacustrine sediment cores (70 m deep and 30 m deep respectively) were recovered from Stoneman Lake, northern Arizona in October of 2014. With these cores we plan to determine regional hydroclimate variability between the Pleistocene-Holocene glacial transition ca. 14 ka. Oxygen isotope analysis from diatom silica will allow us to determine past sources of precipitation to the basin (Gulf of Mexico vs North Pacific), and paleoprecipitation variability. In conjunction with other proxies, we can determine if the onset of paleomonsoonal precipitation in central Arizona occurs immediately after the glacial termination as in NM, or if there is some component of monsoonal precipitation during the late glacial period. Diatom sampling was performed at approximately every 50 cm. To purify the diatoms, the samples are chemically and physically separated. The step wise fluorination and laser ablation technique are then applied to remove water & hydroxyl groups and to extract O2 & SiF4 respectively.If results from the Stoneman Lake core are similar to that of the Valles Caldera core, we should expect to see a nearly 20‰ increase in δ18Olake water. This would suggest a: 1) collapse of the summer

  4. A microwave satellite water vapour column retrieval for polar winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perro, Christopher; Lesins, Glen; Duck, Thomas J.; Cadeddu, Maria

    2016-05-01

    A new microwave satellite water vapour retrieval for the polar winter atmosphere is presented. The retrieval builds on the work of Miao et al. (2001) and Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), employing auxiliary information for atmospheric conditions and numerical optimization. It was tested using simulated and actual measurements from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) satellite instruments. Ground truth was provided by the G-band vapour radiometer (GVR) at Barrow, Alaska. For water vapour columns less than 6 kg m-2, comparisons between the retrieval and GVR result in a root mean square (RMS) deviation of 0.39 kg m-2 and a systematic bias of 0.08 kg m-2. These results are compared with RMS deviations and biases at Barrow for the retrieval of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), the AIRS and MIRS satellite data products, and the ERA-Interim, NCEP, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses. When applied to MHS measurements, the new retrieval produces a smaller RMS deviation and bias than for the earlier retrieval and satellite data products. The RMS deviations for the new retrieval were comparable to those for the ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses; however, the MHS retrievals have much finer horizontal resolution (15 km at nadir) and reveal more structure. The new retrieval can be used to obtain pan-Arctic maps of water vapour columns of unprecedented quality. It may also be applied to measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature 2 (SSM/T2), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and Chinese MicroWave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) instruments.

  5. Last Interglacial climate and sea-level evolution from a coupled ice sheet-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Huybrechts, Philippe; Loutre, Marie-France; Fichefet, Thierry

    2016-12-01

    As the most recent warm period in Earth's history with a sea-level stand higher than present, the Last Interglacial (LIG, ˜ 130 to 115 kyr BP) is often considered a prime example to study the impact of a warmer climate on the two polar ice sheets remaining today. Here we simulate the Last Interglacial climate, ice sheet, and sea-level evolution with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM v.1.3, which includes dynamic and fully coupled components representing the atmosphere, the ocean and sea ice, the terrestrial biosphere, and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. In this setup, sea-level evolution and climate-ice sheet interactions are modelled in a consistent framework.Surface mass balance change governed by changes in surface meltwater runoff is the dominant forcing for the Greenland ice sheet, which shows a peak sea-level contribution of 1.4 m at 123 kyr BP in the reference experiment. Our results indicate that ice sheet-climate feedbacks play an important role to amplify climate and sea-level changes in the Northern Hemisphere. The sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to surface temperature changes considerably increases when interactive albedo changes are considered. Southern Hemisphere polar and sub-polar ocean warming is limited throughout the Last Interglacial, and surface and sub-shelf melting exerts only a minor control on the Antarctic sea-level contribution with a peak of 4.4 m at 125 kyr BP. Retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet at the onset of the LIG is mainly forced by rising sea level and to a lesser extent by reduced ice shelf viscosity as the surface temperature increases. Global sea level shows a peak of 5.3 m at 124.5 kyr BP, which includes a minor contribution of 0.35 m from oceanic thermal expansion. Neither the individual contributions nor the total modelled sea-level stand show fast multi-millennial timescale variations as indicated by some reconstructions.

  6. Intra-interglacial climate variability: model simulations of Marine Isotope Stages 1, 5, 11, 13, and 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmayani, Rima; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Using the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) including a dynamic global vegetation model, a set of 13 time slice experiments was carried out to study global climate variability between and within the Quaternary interglacials of Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 1, 5, 11, 13, and 15. The selection of interglacial time slices was based on different aspects of inter- and intra-interglacial variability and associated astronomical forcing. The different effects of obliquity, precession, and greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing on global surface temperature and precipitation fields are illuminated. In most regions seasonal surface temperature anomalies can largely be explained by local insolation anomalies induced by the astronomical forcing. Climate feedbacks, however, may modify the surface temperature response in specific regions, most pronounced in the monsoon domains and the polar oceans. GHG forcing may also play an important role for seasonal temperature anomalies, especially at high latitudes and early Brunhes interglacials (MIS 13 and 15) when GHG concentrations were much lower than during the later interglacials. High- versus low-obliquity climates are generally characterized by strong warming over the Northern Hemisphere extratropics and slight cooling in the tropics during boreal summer. During boreal winter, a moderate cooling over large portions of the Northern Hemisphere continents and a strong warming at high southern latitudes is found. Beside the well-known role of precession, a significant role of obliquity in forcing the West African monsoon is identified. Other regional monsoon systems are less sensitive or not sensitive at all to obliquity variations during interglacials. Moreover, based on two specific time slices (394 and 615 ka), it is explicitly shown that the West African and Indian monsoon systems do not always vary in concert, challenging the concept of a global monsoon system on astronomical timescales. High obliquity can also explain

  7. Role of induced electrical polarization to identify soft ground/fractured rock conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Kang-Hyun; Seo, Hyungjoon; Ryu, Jinwoo; Lee, In-Mo

    2017-02-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the role and effectiveness of induced polarization (IP) along with electrical resistivity to identify soft ground/fractured rock. Theoretical studies as well as laboratory-scale experiments were conducted for this purpose. The theoretical study involved deriving the functional relationship between chargeability and influential variables. This was followed by performing a sensitivity analysis using the derived relationship to reveal that the size of narrow pores (r1) exerted the greatest influence on the chargeability followed by the salinity of the pore water (C0). In the laboratory test, a small-scale fractured rock zone was modeled using sandstone as a parent rock. The chargeability and resistivity were measured by changing the size of the joint aperture filled with tap water and/or sea water, the location of the fractured zone, and the thickness of the soil layer in a soil-rock multi-layered ground. The experimental study modeled the jointed zone between competent sandstone layers and indicated that the chargeability was mostly controlled by the size of the narrow pore (r1) of the surface sandstone and not by the porosity of the jointed zone. Hence, it was concluded that the chargeability did not significantly depend on the fractured characteristics of the jointed rock. It could be difficult to clearly distinguish as to whether the low resistivity value is caused by the sea water intrusion or by the increase in porosity of the fractured ground. However, the IP exploration can be effectively utilized to identify sea water intrusion since the chargeability decreased as the salinity of pore water increased. The experimental study on a soil-rock multi-layered ground indicated that the measured chargeability was controlled by the percentage of current flow that passed through the competent rock as well as by the narrow pore size of the rock itself. In conclusion, the ground condition could be easily identified by measuring the IP in

  8. Spectral induced polarization of the three-phase system CO2 - brine - sand under reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Jana H.; Herdegen, Volker; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Spitzer, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The spectral complex conductivity of a water-bearing sand during interaction with carbon dioxide (CO2) is influenced by multiple, simultaneous processes. These processes include partial saturation due to the replacement of conductive pore water with CO2 and chemical interaction of the reactive CO2 with the bulk fluid and the grain-water interface. We present a laboratory study on the spectral induced polarization (SIP) of water-bearing sands during exposure to and flow-through by CO2. Conductivity spectra were measured successfully at pressures up to 30 MPa and 80°C during active flow and at steady-state conditions concentrating on the frequency range between 0.0014 and 100 Hz. The frequency range between 0.1 and 100 Hz turned out to be most indicative for potential monitoring applications. The presented data show that the impact of CO2 on the electrolytic conductivity may be covered by a model for pore-water conductivity, which depends on salinity, pressure and temperature and has been derived from earlier investigations of the pore-water phase. The new data covering the three-phase system CO2-brine-sand further show that chemical interaction causes a reduction of surface conductivity by almost 20 per cent, which could be related to the low pH-value in the acidic environment due to CO2 dissolution and the dissociation of carbonic acid. The quantification of the total CO2 effect may be used as a correction during monitoring of a sequestration in terms of saturation. We show that this leads to a correct reconstruction of fluid saturation from electrical measurements. In addition, an indicator for changes of the inner surface area, which is related to mineral dissolution or precipitation processes, can be computed from the imaginary part of conductivity. The low frequency range between 0.0014 and 0.1 Hz shows additional characteristics, which deviate from the behaviour at higher frequencies. A Debye decomposition approach is applied to isolate the feature dominating

  9. Spectral induced polarization of the three-phase system CO2 - brine - sand under reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Jana H.; Herdegen, Volker; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Spitzer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The spectral complex conductivity of a water-bearing sand during interaction with carbon dioxide (CO2) is influenced by multiple, simultaneous processes. These processes include partial saturation due to the replacement of conductive pore water with CO2 and chemical interaction of the reactive CO2 with the bulk fluid and the grain-water interface. We present a laboratory study on the spectral induced polarization of water-bearing sands during exposure to and flow-through by CO2. Conductivity spectra were measured successfully at pressures up to 30 MPa and 80 °C during active flow and at steady-state conditions concentrating on the frequency range between 0.0014 and 100 Hz. The frequency range between 0.1 and 100 Hz turned out to be most indicative for potential monitoring applications. The presented data show that the impact of CO2 on the electrolytic conductivity may be covered by a model for pore-water conductivity, which depends on salinity, pressure and temperature and has been derived from earlier investigations of the pore-water phase. The new data covering the three-phase system CO2-brine-sand further show that chemical interaction causes a reduction of surface conductivity by almost 20 per cent, which could be related to the low pH-value in the acidic environment due to CO2 dissolution and the dissociation of carbonic acid. The quantification of the total CO2 effect may be used as a correction during monitoring of a sequestration in terms of saturation. We show that this leads to a correct reconstruction of fluid saturation from electrical measurements. In addition, an indicator for changes of the inner surface area, which is related to mineral dissolution or precipitation processes, can be computed from the imaginary part of conductivity. The low frequency range between 0.0014 and 0.1 Hz shows additional characteristics, which deviate from the behaviour at higher frequencies. A Debye decomposition approach is applied to isolate the feature dominating the

  10. Migration of the Antarctic Polar Front through the mid-Pleistocene transition: evidence and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, A. E. S.; Grigorov, I.; Pearce, R. B.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.

    2010-08-01

    The Antarctic Polar Front is an important biogeochemical divider in the Southern Ocean. Laminated diatom mat deposits record episodes of massive flux of the diatom Thalassiothrix antarctica beneath the Antarctic Polar Front and provide a marker for tracking the migration of the Front through time. Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1091, 1093 and 1094 are the only deep piston cored record hitherto sampled from the sediments of the circumpolar biogenic opal belt. Mapping of diatom mat deposits between these sites indicates a glacial-interglacial front migration of up to 6 degrees of latitude in the early/mid Pleistocene. The mid-Pleistocene transition marks a stepwise minimum 7° northward migration of the locus of the Polar Front sustained for about 450 kyr until an abrupt southward return to a locus similar to its modern position and further south than any mid-Pleistocene locus. This interval from a "900 ka event" that saw major cooling of the oceans and a δ 13C minimum through to the 424 ka Mid-Brunhes Event at Termination V is also seemingly characterised by 1) sustained decreased carbonate in the sub-tropical south Atlantic, 2) reduced strength of Antarctic deep meridional circulation, 3) lower interglacial temperatures and lower interglacial atmospheric CO 2 levels (by some 30 per mil) than those of the last 400 kyr, evidencing less complete deglaciation. This evidence is consistent with a prolonged period lasting 450 kyr of only partial ventilation of the deep ocean during interglacials and suggests that the mechanisms highlighted by recent hypotheses linking mid-latitude atmospheric conditions to the extent of deep ocean ventilation and carbon sequestration over glacial-interglacial cycles are likely in operation during the longer time scale characteristic of the mid-Pleistocene transition. The cooling that initiated the "900 ka event" may have been driven by minima in insolation amplitude related to eccentricity modulation of precession that also affected low

  11. Genetic consequences of interglacial isolation in a steppe bird.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J T; Mañosa, S; Morales, M B; Ponjoan, A; García de la Morena, E L; Bota, G; Bretagnolle, V; Dávila, J A

    2011-12-01

    In response to climate changes that have occurred during Pleistocene glacial cycles, taxa associated to steppe vegetation might have followed a pattern of historical evolution in which isolation and fragmentation of populations occurred during the short interglacials and expansion events occurred during the long glacial periods, in contrast to the pattern described for temperate species. Here, we use molecular genetic data to evaluate this idea in a steppe bird with Palaearctic distribution, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity and differentiation was observed among eight little bustard populations distributed in Spain and France. Mismatch distribution analyses showed that most little bustard populations expanded during cooling periods previous to, and just after, the last interglacial period (127,000-111,000 years before present), when steppe habitats were widespread across Europe. Coalescent-based methods suggested that glacial expansions have resulted in substantial admixture in Western Europe due to the existence of different interglacial refugia. Our results are consistent with a model of evolution and genetic consequences of Pleistocene cycles with low between-population genetic differentiation as a result of short-term isolation periods during interglacials and long-term exchange during glacial periods.

  12. Sedimentary Record of the Last two Interglacials in the Terrestrial Canadian Arctic (Pingualuit Crater Lake, Nunavik)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, G.; Guyard, H.; Pienitz, R.; Hausmann, S.; Francus, P.; Salonen, V.; Luoto, T.; Black, J.; Lamothe, M.; Zolitschka, B.; Larocque, I.

    2009-05-01

    The Pingualuit crater lake (Nunavik, Canada) resulted from a meteoritic impact that occurred ca. 1.4 million years ago. Due to its unique morphometry (depth and shape), the lake bottom may have escaped glacial erosion. Based on a punctual seismic profile acquired using a 12 kHz Knudsen echosounder and using both gravity and piston corers, we recovered the uppermost 8.5 m of sediments. High-resolution physical (CAT- Scan, Multi Sensor Core Logger, diffuse spectral reflectance), geochemical (ITRAX core scanner, carbon and nitrogen contents, δ13C of the organic matter) and magnetic (magnetic susceptibility, natural, anhysteretic, isothermal and saturation isothermal remanent magnetizations) analyses were performed. Two main lithofacies were clearly identified by the different measurements and likely represent successive interglacial/glacial cycles. Most of the sediment consists of light grey silts containing several angular rock fragments, that is characterized by very low organic carbon content, relatively high density and magnetic susceptibility values, suggesting a deposition during glacial conditions. Interbedded between this facies are at least two decimetre-thick, organic-rich and finely laminated intervals likely representing ice free periods. The presence of diatoms, chrysophytes and chironomid head capsules in smear and microscope slides from these two intervals supports this hypothesis. In addition, preliminary Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) measurements indicate that the upper organic-rich layer has an age coeval with the last interglacial (Oxygen Isotope Stage 5), while the age of the lower organic-rich layer is consistent with an older interglacial, likely the Oxygen Isotope Stage 7. The sedimentary infill thus constitutes a unique long-term terrestrial record of environmental and climatic conditions in the Canadian Arctic. Furthermore, because these sediments escaped glacial erosion, it suggests the presence of a subglacial lake during the last

  13. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak.

  14. Vegetation and climate changes in western Amazonia during a previous Interglacial- Glacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. L.; Gosling, W. D.; Sherlock, S. C.; Poole, I.; Pennington, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Amazonia is one of the most biodiverse areas of the world and its vegetation plays a crucial role in controlling the global climate through the regulation of the levels of atmospheric CO2. However, Amazonian ecosystems and their role in the climate system are threatened by ongoing the human impact (already estimated loss of 60% of the species in western Amazonia) and predicted climate change (+1.1-6.4oC by 2100). Unfortunately, there is absence of data relating to the ecological baseline function and response to global climate change of western Amazonian ecosystems in the absence of humans. To help anticipate the impact of future climate change predictions an improved understanding of the natural responses of tropical vegetation to known past climate change is required. Here we present the first study that shows the response of pristine tropical ecosystems in western Amazonia biodiversity hotspot to a major global climate change event (a Quaternary Interglacial-Glacial transition). Pleistocene lake/swamp sediments preserved at the Erazo study site (Lat. 00o 33’S, Long. 077o 52’W, 1927m alt.) today within tropical cloud forest vegetation provide a unique opportunity to examine the impact of past climate shifts. The sediment are >40,000 years old (radiocarbon infinite) and younger than 1 million years (presence of Alder biomarker) and consist of organic layers interbedded with volcanic ash (tephra). This study presents data from multiple proxies (fossil pollen, wood macrofossils and charcoal) to establish a comprehensive picture of regional and local vegetation change prior to human arrival. Our data show a change of vegetation from palm-dominated forest indicative of warm and wet conditions similar to the present at the base of this record, to a forest dominated by Podocarpus sp. suggesting cold and wet conditions at the top of the record. The transition between these two vegetation communities appears to be progressive with small sharp changes along the

  15. [Polar lipid pool modification in leaves of hoary plantain (Plantago media L.) plants during their light adaptation under natural conditions].

    PubMed

    Rozentsvet, O A; Golovko, T K; Bogdanova, E S; Tabalenkova, G N; Nesterov, V N; Dymova, O V

    2013-01-01

    Polar glycerolipids and photosynthetic pigments of Plantago media L. plants, growing on limestone outcrops of the Southern Timan, have been studied. Leaves of plants growing on well insolated and heated slopes are characterized by an intensive lipoperoxidation; the accumulation of chlorophylls and carotenoids in these plants is 1.5-2 times less and the content of polar lipids is 15-20% less than in plants growing in dense grass at the bottom of slopes. The accumulation of some classes of glycerolipids in leaves in the daytime provides for stabilization of photosystem complexes and the formation of the pool of zeaxanthin, a protective xanthophyll. Changes in the content and ratio of lipids represent an important part of the adaptive reorganizations of the photosynthetic apparatus caused by excess radiation under natural conditions.

  16. Polarization and Dielectric Study of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Thin Film to Reveal its Nonferroelectric Nature under Solar Cell Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Yang, Mengjin; Li, Zhen; Islam, Nazifah; Pan, Xuan; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2016-07-08

    Researchers have debated whether methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3), with a perovskite crystal structure, is ferroelectric and therefore contributes to the current--voltage hysteresis commonly observed in hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We thoroughly investigated temperature-dependent polarization, dielectric, and impedance spectroscopies, and we found no evidence of ferroelectric effect in a MAPbI3 thin film at normal operating conditions. Therefore, the effect does not contribute to the hysteresis in PSCs, whereas the large component of ionic migration observed may play a critical role. Our temperature-based polarization and dielectric studies find that MAPbI3 exhibits different electrical behaviors below and above ca. 45 degrees C, suggesting a phase transition around this temperature. In particular, we report the activation energies of ionic migration for the two phases and temperature-dependent permittivity of MAPbI3. This study contributes to the understanding of the material properties and device performance of hybrid perovskites.

  17. Interglacial analogues of the Holocene and its natural near future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Qiuzhen; Berger, André

    2015-07-01

    In an attempt to find potential interglacial analogues of our present interglacial and its natural future, five interglacials (MIS-1, 5, 9, 11 and 19) are studied in terms of their astronomical characteristics, greenhouse gases concentration and climate simulated using both snapshot and transient experiments. Transient simulations covering a full range of obliquity, precession and eccentricity allow to develop an OPE index to estimate the climate sensitivity to astronomical forcing. They also show that obliquity and precession have different weight on the annual mean temperature and precipitation of different latitudinal zones, leading to varying phasing of these climate variables between different latitudes. However, the variations in boreal summer temperature of different latitudes (except the Southern Ocean) are in phase and are dominated by precession. All the interglacials are shown to be warmer than the natural climate of the present day and of the next centuries during boreal summer and for the annual mean temperature with varying duration and intensity. Such warming is mainly caused by changes in insolation, unlike the present global warming which mainly results from anthropogenic CO2 increase. The exceptionally long duration of MIS-11 is confirmed by our simulations, and it is demonstrated to be related to the long-lasting low eccentricity and high CO2 concentration and to the anti-phase relationship between obliquity maximum and precession minimum during MIS-11. As far as the variations of annual and seasonal temperatures are concerned, both snapshot and transient simulations show that MIS-19 is the best analogue of the present interglacial. MIS-11 is also a decent analogue when the impact of insolation alone is considered, but it is warmer than MIS-1 when the impact of CO2 is additionally included. Due to the large amplitude in the variations of insolation, MIS-5 and MIS-9 can hardly be considered as an analogue of the natural present-day climate and of

  18. Growth condition dependence of photoluminescence polarization in (100) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Iba, Satoshi; Saito, Hidekazu; Yuasa, Shinji; Watanabe, Ken; Ohno, Yuzo

    2015-08-28

    We conducted systematic measurements on the carrier lifetime (τ{sub c}), spin relaxation time (τ{sub s}), and circular polarization of photoluminescence (P{sub circ}) in (100) GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The τ{sub c} values are strongly affected by MBE growth conditions (0.4–9 ns), whereas the τ{sub s} are almost constant at about 0.13 ns. The result suggests that spin detection efficiency [τ{sub s}/(τ{sub c} + τ{sub s})], which is expected to be proportional to a steady-state P{sub circ}, is largely dependent on growth condition. We confirmed that the P{sub circ} has similar dependence on growth condition to those of τ{sub s}/(τ{sub c} + τ{sub s}) values. The study thus indicates that choosing the appropriate growth condition of the QW is indispensable for obtaining a high P{sub circ} from a spin-polarized light-emitting diode (spin-LED)

  19. Troposphere-Stratosphere Dynamic Coupling Under Strong and Weak Polar Vortex Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlwitz, Judith; Graf, Hans-F.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropospheric and stratospheric wave-like anomalies of spherical zonal wave number (ZWN) 1 is studied by applying Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). A lag-correlation technique is used with 10-day lowpass filtered daily time series of 50- and 500-hPa geopotential heights. Generally stratospheric circulation is determined by ultralong tropospheric planetary waves. During winter seasons characterized either by any anomalously strong or weak polar winter vortex different propagation characteristics for waves of ZWN 1 are observed. The non-linear perspective of the results have implications for medium range weather forecast and climate sensitivity experiments.

  20. The last interglacial-glacial transition as recorded in sediments from the deep Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, I.; Brauer, A.; Schwab, M. J.; Waldmann, N.; Hadzhiivanova, E.; Frank, U.; Dulski, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Dead Sea and its Pleistocene precursors act as amplifier lakes of climate change affecting the eastern Mediterranean region. The ~460 m long sediment core 5017-1, retrieved from the deepest part of the lake, ideally mirrors the climate variability of the last approximately 200-250 ka. In the current study, we focus on the upper part of the last interglacial Samra Formation (~135-70 ka BP; Waldmann et al., 2009) and the transition into the last glacial Lisan Formation (~70-14ka BP; e.g. Bartov et al., 2002). Overlying the ca 45 m thick main salt layered sequence deposited during the last interglacial, the analyzed ca 30 m thick interval in core 5017-1 is characterized by a lower ~20 m thick interval of predominant alternating aragonite and detrital marl (aad) with occasional intercalations of mass movement deposits, accumulated during temporary humid climatic conditions. The entire sequence is topped by an upper ~10 m thick interval of predominantly layered massive halite, reflecting a dryer climate. Micro-facies analysis on large-scale petrographic thin sections, XRF element scanning, grain size and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been carried out on this interval for detailed and high-resolution characterization of the sediments and interpretation in terms of depositional processes and their value as paleoclimate proxies. The finding of a most likely millennial-scale dry interval just before the beginning of the stratigraphically defined humid Lisan interval falls in agreement with a previously identified depositional hiatus and associated erosional unconformity in the shallower areas outcropping at the margins of the lake (Stein, 2001). However, the deposition of glacial-like aad sediments prior to this pronounced dry period stands in contrast to previous analyses on outcrops (Waldmann et al. 2009). Investigating sediments from the deep Dead Sea basin will hence allow understanding and better deciphering the depositional processes in relation with

  1. Glacial-interglacial vegetation change in the Zambezi catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, L. M.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the environment are thought to have had strong impact on human evolution. The pollen record of GeoB9311, retrieved offshore of the Zambezi River mouth, indicates glacial-interglacial changes in the vegetation of southern East Africa with enhanced forests in the coastal area during interglacials, more Afromontane forest and ericaceous bushland during glacials and an increase in mopane woodland during the transitional periods. C4 swamps, probably with papyrus, might have spread during the more humid phases of the glacial, while mangroves responded sensitively to changes in sea level. The spread of open ericaceous bushland and Afromontane forest during glacials is found for most of Southern Africa with the exception of the extreme south and southwest regions. In contrast to the western part of the continent, forest and woodland in East Africa did not completely disappear during the glacial. It seems that on a regional scale climatic perturbations of the vegetation are less severe than in West Africa.

  2. Ages of fossil bones from British interglacial sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Collins, D.

    1975-01-01

    THE time gap between the upper limit of radiocarbon dating (???60,000 yr BP) and the lower limit of dates generally obtainable using the K-Ar method (???250,000 yr BP) accounts for the scarcity of dates for the last two interglaciations (the Ipswichian and Hoxnian of Britain; the Eemian and Holsteinian of northern Europe). Accordingly, the ages of such important fossils as the Swanscombe and Steinheim skulls can only be guessed at. For that reason, the adaptation of a method that may date these interglacial periods is highly desirable. We discuss here the application of a uranium-series dating technique pertaining to that span of time. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Effects of stimuli shape and polarization in evoking deimatic patterns in the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, under varying turbidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Cartron, Lelia; Shashar, Nadav; Dickel, Ludovic; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Cuttlefish possess the complex ability to identify approaching threats and then to selectively express the appropriate defense. We examined the visual cues used by Sepia officinalis cuttlefish during predator detection and the responses they selected. Using computer-generated stimuli, we set out to quantitate the deimatic responses to artificial looming stimuli of different shapes and contrasts. Defensive behavior gradually intensified as geometrical shapes resembled an image of a fish. Therefore, in addition to an object's size or its sudden increase in size, cuttlefish use form recognition to identify a threat. Cuttlefish demonstrated equal performance in predator detection trough clear water when presented with intensity versus polarization contrasts. However, when the water turbidity increased, the cuttlefish still detected looming fish shapes based on polarization contrast even when intensity information alone did not suffice. These results demonstrate the interplay between intensity and polarization information transmission and processing in the spatial domain. As nectobenthic organisms, cuttlefish probably experience low visibility conditions on a regular basis. The ability to see further into turbid water and to better detect an approaching object would be beneficial for their survival.

  4. Conditional knockout of polarity complex (atypical) PKCι reveals an anti-inflammatory function mediated by NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Forteza, Radia; Figueroa, Yolanda; Mashukova, Anastasia; Dulam, Vipin; Salas, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    The conserved proteins of the polarity complex made up of atypical PKC (aPKC, isoforms ι and ζ), Par6, and Par3 determine asymmetry in several cell types, from Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes to vertebrate epithelia and neurons. We previously showed that aPKC is down-regulated in intestinal epithelia under inflammatory stimulation. Further, expression of constitutively active PKCι decreases NF-κB activity in an epithelial cell line, the opposite of the effect reported in other cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that aPKC has a dual function in epithelia, inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in addition to having a role in apicobasal polarity. We achieved full aPKC down-regulation in small intestine villi and colon surface epithelium using a conditional epithelium-specific knockout mouse. The results show that aPKC is dispensable for polarity after cell differentiation, except for known targets, including ROCK and ezrin, claudin-4 expression, and barrier permeability. The aPKC defect resulted in increased NF-κB activity, which could be rescued by IKK and ROCK inhibitors. It also increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 decreased. We conclude that epithelial aPKC acts upstream of multiple mechanisms that participate in the inflammatory response in the intestine, including, but not restricted to, NF-κB. PMID:27226486

  5. A White Nile megalake during the last interglacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Williams, Martin A. J.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Fifield, L. Keith; Haberlah, David; Tims, Stephen G.; Williams, Frances M.

    2014-05-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert of Africa is one of the most climatically sensitive areas on Earth, varying from lake-studded savannah woodland to hyperarid desert over the course of a glacial-interglacial cycle. In currently semiarid Sudan there is widespread evidence that a very large freshwater lake once filled the White Nile River valley (Barrows et al., 2014). Here we present the first quantitative estimate for the dimensions of the lake and a direct age for the emplacement of its shoreline. Using a profile dating approach with the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be, we estimate an exposure age of 109 ± 8 ka for this megalake, indicating that it probably formed during the last interglacial period. This age is supported by optically stimulated luminescence dating of Blue Nile paleochannels associated with the lake. Using a high-resolution digital elevation model, we estimate that the lake was more than 45,000 km2 in area, making it comparable to the largest freshwater lakes on Earth today. We attribute the lake's existence to seasonal flood pulses as a result of local damming of the White Nile by a more southern position of the Blue Nile and greatly increased precipitation associated with an enhanced monsoon. References Barrows, T.T., Williams, M.A.J., Mills, S.C., Duller, G.A.T., Fifield, L.K., Haberlah, D., Tims, S.G., Williams, F.M., 2014. A White Nile megalake during the last interglacial period. Geology. 10.1130/g35238.1

  6. Evidence for warmer interglacials in East Antarctic ice cores.

    PubMed

    Sime, L C; Wolff, E W; Oliver, K I C; Tindall, J C

    2009-11-19

    Stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in the Antarctic ice core record have revolutionized our understanding of Pleistocene climate variations and have allowed reconstructions of Antarctic temperature over the past 800,000 years (800 kyr; refs 1, 2). The relationship between the D/H ratio of mean annual precipitation and mean annual surface air temperature is said to be uniform +/-10% over East Antarctica and constant with time +/-20% (refs 3-5). In the absence of strong independent temperature proxy evidence allowing us to calibrate individual ice cores, prior general circulation model (GCM) studies have supported the assumption of constant uniform conversion for climates cooler than that of the present day. Here we analyse the three available 340 kyr East Antarctic ice core records alongside input from GCM modelling. We show that for warmer interglacial periods the relationship between temperature and the isotopic signature varies among ice core sites, and that therefore the conversions must be nonlinear for at least some sites. Model results indicate that the isotopic composition of East Antarctic ice is less sensitive to temperature changes during warmer climates. We conclude that previous temperature estimates from interglacial climates are likely to be too low. The available evidence is consistent with a peak Antarctic interglacial temperature that was at least 6 K higher than that of the present day -approximately double the widely quoted 3 +/- 1.5 K (refs 5, 6).

  7. The Last Interglacial to Glacial Transition, Togiak Bay, Southwestern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Manley, William F.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Preece, Shari J.; Westgate, John A.; Forman, Steve L.

    2001-03-01

    An 18-m-high coastal bluff at Togiak Bay (northwestern Bristol Bay, southwestern Alaska) exposes marine, lacustrine, fluvial, glacial, volcanic, and organic deposits that record the ∼50,000-year-long transition from the peak of the last interglaciation to the early Wisconsin glaciation. The base of the section is dominated by stratified sand and silt extending up to 4.3 m above sea level; marine diatoms are present, and pollen assemblages are characterized by relatively high percentages of Picea, Alnus, and Betula and low percentages of Poaceae and Cyperaceae. The marine sediment was probably deposited during the peak of marine oxygen-isotope stage (OIS) 5e. An infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) age of 151,000±13,000 yr from near the base of the exposure is permissive of this correlation. The marine sand and silt are overlain by 0.8 m of peaty silt with diatoms that record a transition from marine to lacustrine conditions. During this interval, Poaceae and Cyperaceae dominate the pollen assemblages, and Picea and shrubs are nearly absent, suggesting that herb tundra occupied the landscape. This interval probably encompasses OIS 5d on the basis of the herb tundra and an IRSL age of 119,000±10,000 yr from 60 cm below the marine/lacustrine transition. The organic mud is overlain by 3.1 m of stratified sand and organic silt that apparently record shallowing of the lake; reappearance of spruce and shrubs (=OIS 5c?); and subsequent deepening of the lake (=OIS 5b?); followed by aggradation of a floodplain (=OIS 5a?), which was dry at the time basaltic lava buried the site. Thermoluminescence analyses on lava-baked sediment indicate that the eruption occurred 70,000±10,000 yr ago. Sometime thereafter, but prior to 53,600 14C yr B.P. an outlet of the Ahklun Mountains ice cap advanced over the site and deposited ∼7 m of bouldery ice-contact drift. The sedimentary sequence contains at least four tephra beds. Major- and trace-element chemistry provide a basis for

  8. Glacial-interglacial shifts in global and regional precipitation δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, S.; Lechler, A.; Pausata, F. S. R.; Fawcett, P. J.; Gleeson, T.; Cendón, D. I.; Galewsky, J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Risi, C.; Sharp, Z. D.; Welker, J. M.; Werner, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-03-01

    Previous analyses of past climate changes have often been based on site-specific isotope records from speleothems, ice cores, sediments and groundwaters. However, in most studies these dispersed records have not been integrated and synthesized in a comprehensive manner to explore the spatial patterns of precipitation isotope changes from the last ice age to more recent times. Here we synthesize 88 globally-distributed groundwater, cave calcite, and ice core isotope records spanning the last ice age to the late-Holocene. Our data-driven review shows that reconstructed precipitation δ18O changes from the last ice age to the late-Holocene range from -7.1‰ (ice age δ18O < late-Holocene δ18O) to +1.8‰ (ice age δ18O > late-Holocene δ18O) with wide regional variability. The majority (75%) of reconstructions have lower ice age δ18O values than late-Holocene δ18O values. High-magnitude, negative glacial-interglacial precipitation δ18O shifts (ice age δ18O < late-Holocene δ18O by more than 3‰) are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors. Conversely, lower-magnitude, positive glacial-interglacial precipitation δ18O shifts (ice age δ18O > late-Holocene δ18O by less than 2‰) are most common along subtropical coasts. Broad, global patterns of glacial-interglacial precipitation δ18O shifts are consistent with stronger-than-modern isotopic distillation of air masses during the last ice age, likely impacted by larger global temperature differences between the tropics and the poles. Further, to complement our synthesis of proxy-record precipitation δ18O, we compiled isotope enabled general circulation model simulations of recent and last glacial maximum climate states. Simulated precipitation δ18O from five general circulation models show better inter-model and model-observation agreement in the sign of δ18O changes from the last ice age to present day in temperate and polar regions than in the tropics. Further model precipitation

  9. Sea surface temperature variability of the Peru-Chile Current during the previous four interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniupan, M.; Martinez-Mendez, G.; Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Mohtadi, M.

    2012-12-01

    There are several periods during the Quaternary that were characterized by warmer than present climate and higher sea level that serve as an analogue for future global warming scenarios. These include the Marine isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5, MIS 9.3, and MIS 11.3. Little is known about past sea surface temperatures (SST) during these intervals in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in the Southeast Pacific. Here, we present a new alkenone-derived SST record from marine sediment core GeoB15016 located beneath the Peru-Chile Current (PCC). The PCC plays a critical role in the Southern Hemisphere surface circulation as it connects the low and high latitudes by transporting sub-polar water masses and thus, a high-latitude climate signal towards the tropics. Core GeoB15016 was recovered with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo at 956 m water depth off northern Chile (27°29.48'S; 71°07.58'W). We analyzed the uppermost ca 25 meters composite depth that extend back to ~400,000 years ago. Our record is the first Chilean margin record extending back to MIS 11. The stratigraphy is well constrained by correlating benthic oxygen isotope data to the global Lisiecki-Raymo stack. Glacial-interglacial SST amplitudes are in the order of 6°C. During MIS 5, 7, 9 and 11, the record reaches SST maxima of ca. 3°C warmer than present annual mean SST in this area. Our results suggest a substantial warming of the PCC over past interglacials that may reflect reduced advection of subantarctic surface water from the south and/or enhanced tropical influence and/or decreased upwelling intensity.

  10. Aboveground activity rhythm in Arctic black-capped marmot ( Marmota camtschatica bungei Katschenko 1901) under polar day conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Youri; Ramousse, Raymond; Le Berre, Michel; Vassiliev, Vladimir; Solomonov, Nikita

    2001-04-01

    Daily aboveground activity of wild black-capped marmots of Yakutia ( Marmota camtschatica bungei) was recorded under 'polar day' conditions at 71°56' N and 127°19' E (north of the Polar Circle). From the beginning of May until the end of August, the sun was permanently above or close to the horizon. However under this condition of continuous lighting, the aboveground activity of these arctic hibernating mammals was periodic. Onset and end of activity showed marked changes throughout the seasons. Activity time increased strongly from hibernation emergence until the end of July and then decreased slowly until onset of hibernation. Below daily mean temperatures of 5 °C, activity started when the sun was 35° above the horizon, and ended when it dropped below 28°. When daily mean temperatures were above 5 °C, activity onset was synchronised with a solar altitude around 17-18° and activity ended at 10°. Activity onset was more precise relative to the solar altitude than the end of activity. This may be explained by late feeding bouts, following a midday thermal stress. In absence of rapid natural light-dark (LD) transitions that occur at civil twilight, our results suggest that the activity pattern of black-capped marmots may be synchronised by the light cycle through the solar altitude and ambient temperature.

  11. Rocket observations of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions at Andenes in January 2005; first analysis and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattli, A.; Rapp, M.; Singer, W.; Lattek, R.; Friedrich, M.; Havnes, O.; Blix, T. A.; Svenes, K. R.

    2005-08-01

    On Janurary 18, 2005, two instrumented miniaturised rocket payloads, each with a Positive Ion Probe (PIP) and a Faraday rotation/differential absorption experiment, were launched from Andøya Rocket Range (69°N). The instrumented payloads were launched into conditions with Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWE) as part of a salvo of meteorological rockets measuring temperature and wind using falling spheres and chaff. Layers of PMWE were detected in the altitude range 55-77 km by the 53.5 MHz ALWIN radar. Fluctuations in the ion density, as measured in situ by the instrumented payloads, show that there was turbulence inside the PMWE layers, but not above/below and between. Data from the PIPs are analysed and related to the geophysical conditions, as observed with the ALWIN radar and meteorological rockets.

  12. Driving Stresses in Mars Polar Ice Caps and Conditions for Ice Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Saba, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of the topography of the North polar ice cap by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) show that the ice cap is 2950 +/- 200 meters thick. The volume of the cap is about 1.2 x 10(exp 6) cu km covering an area of 1.04 x 10(exp 6) sq km, which is about 40 percent of the Greenland ice sheet in volume and 62 percent in area. The composition of the Northern cap was previously concluded to be predominately H2O, rather than CO2 ice, based on thermodynamic considerations of the insustainablity of CO2 during summer. Principal questions about the cap are: does the ice move and at what rate, is the cap currently growing or depleting in volume, and how and when was the cap formed? Recent research on terrestrial ice sheets indicates that rates of ice deformation at the low stress values characteristic of ice sheets are significantly higher than the rates given by the classic viscous-plastic flow laws commonly used.

  13. Insights into North Atlantic deep water formation during the peak interglacial interval of Marine Isotope Stage 9 (MIS 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.

    2017-01-01

    Foraminifera abundance and stable isotope records from ODP Site 984 (61.25°N, 24.04°W, 1648 m) in the North Atlantic are used to reconstruct surface circulation variations and the relative strength of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation over the period spanning the peak warmth of Marine Interglacial Stage (MIS) 9e ( 324-336 ka). This interval includes the preceding deglaciation, Termination 4 (T4), and the subsequent glacial inception of MIS 9d. The records indicate a greatly reduced contribution of NADW during T4, as observed in more recent deglaciations. In contrast with the most recent deglaciation, the lack of a significant NADW signal extended from T4 well into the peak interglacial MIS 9e and persisted nearly until the transition to the subsequent glacial stage MIS 9d. Although NADW formation resumed during MIS 9e, only depths greater than 2000 m appear to have been ventilated. The poorly ventilated intermediate depth of Site 984 (<2000 m) may have resulted on one hand from a general reduction of deep water ventilation by NADW during the study interval or, on the other hand, from different pathways of the spread of newly formed NADW that bypassed the study location. The intermediate depths may have also been invaded by southern-sourced waters as the formation of intermediate depth NADW weakened. The absence of any significant NADW signal at the water depth of Site 984 during the climatic optimum contrasts sharply with subsequent interglacial peaks (MIS 5e and the Holocene). Despite the perturbed intermediate depth circulation, oceanic heat transport northeastward was not interrupted and may have contributed to the relatively mild interglacial conditions of MIS 9e.

  14. Where clocks are redundant: weak circadian mechanisms in reindeer living under polar photic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oort, Bob E. H.; Tyler, Nicholas J. C.; Gerkema, Menno P.; Folkow, Lars; Stokkan, Karl-Arne

    2007-03-01

    Biological rhythms are a result of interplay between endogenous clocks and the ambient light-dark (LD) cycle. Biological timing in resident polar organisms presents a conundrum because these experience distinct daily LD cycles for only a few weeks each year. We measured locomotor activity in reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus (SR, n = 5 and 6) and R. tarandus tarandus (NR, n = 6), ranging freely at 78 and 70°N, respectively, continuously throughout 1 year using data loggers. NR, but not SR, are gregarious which enabled us to examine the integrated effects of differences in social organisation and the photic environment at two different latitudes on the organisation of activity. In both sub-species, ultradian bouts of activity and inactivity alternated across the 24-h day throughout the year. This pattern was modified by the LD cycle in NR but barely at all in SR. Periodogram analysis revealed significant ultradian rhythmicity in both sub-species; the frequency of daily cycles of activity increased from three per day in winter to nearly five in summer. We conclude that this increase, and a concomitant increase in the level of daily activity, reflected the seasonal increase in the animals’ appetite and the quality of their forage. Secondly, the combination, most evident in SR, of a weak photic response, weak circadian mechanisms and a weak social synchronization reduces the constraints of biological timing in an environment which is effectively non-rhythmic most of the year and permits expression of the basic ultradian pattern of ruminant activity. Third, the weaker 24-h rhythmicity in SR compared to NR indicates a latitudinal decrease in circadian organization and photic responsiveness in Rangifer.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and numerical chromosome condition in human oocytes and polar bodies.

    PubMed

    Gianaroli, Luca; Luiselli, Donata; Crivello, Anna Maria; Lang, Martin; Ferraretti, Anna Pia; De Fanti, Sara; Magli, M Cristina; Romeo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segregation in human oocytes, the level of heteroplasmy in the three products of meioses, polar bodies (PBs) and corresponding oocytes, was assessed by studying the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the D-loop region. The DNA from 122 PBs and 51 oocytes from 16 patients was amplified by whole genome amplification (WGA). An aliquot of the WGA product was used to assess aneuploidy, and another aliquot to study mtDNA. The HVRI was amplified and sequenced with an efficiency of 75.4 and 63%, respectively, in PBs, and of 100% in oocytes. The comparison with the mtDNA sequences from blood of the individual donors showed full correspondence of polymorphisms with the matching oocytes, whilst in PBs the degree of concordance dropped to 89.6%. Haplogroups were inferred for all 16 patients. Of the 89 diagnosed PBs from the 13 patients belonging to macrohaplogroup R, 23 were euploid and 66 aneuploid. The incidence of total anomalies was significantly lower in haplogroup H (6.5%) when compared with haplogroups J and T (17.6 and 13.4% respectively; P < 0.001). In haplogroup J, hypoaneuploidy occurred more frequently than hyperaneuploidy. In the three patients belonging to haplogroup N*, 81% of PBs were aneuploid with similar rates of chromosome hypoaneuploidy and hyperaneuploidy. The presence of mtDNA base changes confined to PBs could reflect a selection mechanism against severe mtDNA mutations, while permitting a high evolution rate that could result in bioenergetic diversity. The different susceptibility to aneuploidy by some haplogroups strongly supports this hypothesis.

  16. Geological "Ground Truth" of Sea-level Highstand Events During Warm Interglaciations (MIS 11 and 5e): Taking the Punch out of Proxy Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    High-resolution sea-level records for marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 and 5e from coastal outcrops in Bahamas, Bermuda, Hawaii, and Western Australia provide physical confirmation of extreme ice-melting events during Pleistocene interglacials. Field evidence indicates MIS 11 sea level rose in a series of oscillations to c. +20 m, while that of MIS 5e reached its maximum of +6-10 m. Because these were brief events (100s yrs), their true magnitude is generally muted or obscured in deep-sea oxygen isotope records; generally averaged over thousands of years by the combined effects of sampling, bioturbation, and sedimentation rates. Further unresolvable variables such as temperature and salinity further cloud the isotope proxy record. Thus, the tangible rock record is of greatest importance in understanding the nature of these extreme events. Geomorphology, sedimentary structures, taphonomy of and dating of organisms, and petrology provide ground truth at field sites. Sea-level highstands preserve terraces and benches by erosion and subsequent deposition of sub- and intertidal sediments. Fenestral porosity is a measure of intertidal wetting and drying of sand, while decimetre-scale, high-angle cross beds of poorly-sorted sand and gravel indicate shallow subtidal conditions. In situ coral heads describe similar subtidal conditions. Delicate, sometimes partially articulated skeletons of birds and reptiles in sea caves reveal a protected shoreline. An early generation of isopachous, fibrous cement verifies the presence of marine phreatic water over a sustained period of time. These features, often misinterpreted (McMurtry, 2004, AGU Fall Meeting, OS21E-06), categorically exclude emplacement by tsunami waves. Oceanic isotope records cannot produce an equivalent level of resolution of short, extreme events via (in terms of age, duration, rates of sea-level and ice-volume changes), thus shifting the `burden of proof' to proxy methods to identify such events. In our quest to

  17. Glacial-interglacial changes in H218O, HDO and deuterium excess - results from the fully coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M.; Haese, B.; Xu, X.; Zhang, X.; Butzin, M.; Lohmann, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present the first results of a new isotope-enabled general circulation model set-up. The model consists of the fully coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM atmosphere-ocean model, enhanced by the JSBACH interactive land surface scheme and an explicit hydrological discharge scheme to close the global water budget. Stable water isotopes H218O and HDO have been incorporated into all relevant model components. Results of two equilibrium simulations under pre-industrial and Last Glacial Maximum conditions are analysed and compared to observational data and paleoclimate records for evaluating the model's performance in simulating spatial and temporal variations in the isotopic composition of the Earth's water cycle. For the pre-industrial climate, many aspects of the simulation results of meteoric waters are in good to very good agreement with both observations and earlier atmosphere-only simulations. The model is capable of adequately simulating the large spread in the isotopic composition of precipitation between low and high latitudes. A comparison to available ocean data also shows a good model-data agreement; however, a strong bias of overly depleted ocean surface waters is detected for the Arctic region. Simulation results under Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions also fit to the wealth of available isotope records from polar ice cores, speleothems, as well as marine calcite data. Data-model evaluation of the isotopic composition in precipitation reveals a good match of the model results and indicates that the temporal glacial-interglacial isotope-temperature relation was substantially lower than the present spatial gradient for most mid- to high-latitudinal regions. As compared to older atmosphere-only simulations, a remarkable improvement is achieved for the modelling of the deuterium excess signal in Antarctic ice cores. Our simulation results indicate that cool sub-tropical and mid-latitudinal sea surface temperatures are key for this progress. A recently

  18. Luminescence dating of interglacial coastal depositional systems: Recent developments and future avenues of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamothe, Michel

    2016-08-01

    luminescence-dated coastal feature of all, as the chronology of the sea level markers is crucial to assess global eustatic sea level variations through the course of the last interglacial. Nevertheless, the observed abundance of young (100-120 ka) luminescence ages for presumed MIS5e sediments may underline methodological issues, and/or reflect the higher preservation potential of late regressive sequences. On the other hand, the occurrence of geographically distant reports of MIS5a high stand might reflect a true eustatic origin for this event. Age analysis supports the impression of general reliability of luminescence for the timing of former sea level high stands. There is a clear need to address issues in dose rate variability, in the phenomenology of fading in feldspar, and in the behaviour of luminescence growth with dose, both in laboratory and natural conditions. These could be addressed and properly evaluated by dating different minerals, as multiple or single grains, with consequent variable internal dose rates. More robust practices in the application of luminescence dating techniques could eventually constrain the age uncertainties to no better than 2-3%. Therefore, the strength of luminescence as a dating tool is more in terms of its extended age range and the ubiquity of datable material.

  19. A high-resolution mid-Pleistocene temperature record from Arctic Lake El'gygytgyn: a 50 kyr super interglacial from MIS 33 to MIS 31?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wet, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Isla S.; DeConto, Robert M.; Brigham-Grette, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Previous periods of extreme warmth in Earth's history are of great interest in light of current and predicted anthropogenic warming. Numerous so called ;super interglacial; intervals, with summer temperatures significantly warmer than today, have been identified in the 3.6 million year (Ma) sediment record from Lake El'gygytgyn, northeast Russia. To date, however, a high-resolution paleotemperature reconstruction from any of these super interglacials is lacking. Here we present a paleotemperature reconstruction based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) from Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 35 to MIS 29, including super interglacial MIS 31. To investigate this period in detail, samples were analyzed with an unprecedented average sample resolution of 500 yrs from MIS 33 to MIS 30. Our results suggest the entire period currently defined as MIS 33-31 (∼1114-1062 kyr BP) was characterized by generally warm and highly variable conditions at the lake, at times out of phase with Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, and that cold ;glacial; conditions during MIS 32 lasted only a few thousand years. Close similarities are seen with coeval records from high southern latitudes, supporting the suggestion that the interval from MIS 33 to MIS 31 was an exceptionally long interglacial (Teitler et al., 2015). Based on brGDGT temperatures from Lake El'gygytgyn (this study and unpublished results), warming in the western Arctic during MIS 31 was matched only by MIS 11 during the Pleistocene.

  20. Effects of Solar Wind Conditions on the Plasma Wake Within a Polar Crater: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    As the solar wind sweeps horizontally past a shadowed lunar crater it simultaneously diffuses toward the surface through an ambipolar process, forming a plasma wake (e.g., Figure 1). Importantly, the resulting electric field structure diverts solar wind protons toward the cold crater floor where they may represent a source of surficial hydrogen. We present a handful of two-dimensional kinetic simulations exploring the range of wake structures and surface particle fluxes possible under various background plasma conditions.

  1. Coupled Warming and Drought in the American Southwest During Long mid-Pleistocene Interglacials (MIS 11 and 13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Werne, J.; Anderson, R.; Heikoop, J.; Brown, E.; Hurley, L.; Smith, S.; Berke, M.; Soltow, H.; Goff, F.; Geissman, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Fessenden, J.; Cisneros-Dozal, M.; Allen, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    timescales, superimposed on future anthropogenic warming. Intervals of mudcrack facies representing significant drought conditions occur during or just after the warmest phases of the two interglacials. This past coupling between warm temperatures and extended drought in the SW as a natural feature of long interglacials is consistent with recent predictions of extended Dust-Bowl-like conditions in the SW as a response to global warming.

  2. Co-variation of nitrogen isotopes and redox states through glacial-interglacial cycles in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Tracy M.; Wright, James D.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2013-07-01

    In all aquatic environments, nitrogen cycling within the water column is strongly influenced by oxygen. We hypothesize that the nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of organic matter deposited in the sediments is a proxy for the redox state of the water column at the time of deposition. We tested the hypothesis by measuring the bulk sedimentary δ15N values in a drill core from the Black Sea, a basin that alternates between oxic, less saline conditions and anoxic, marine conditions on glacial-interglacial time scales. We reconstructed these changes in Black Sea redox conditions using sedimentary δ15N, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), redox-sensitive metals, and micropaleontological data from a deep-sea core (DSDP Site 380). The sedimentary data reveal that during the transitions between oxic and anoxic conditions, δ15N values increased relative to the preceding and succeeding quasi-steady-state oxic and anoxic periods. The results indicate that the reciprocal transitional states from anoxic to oxic conditions were accompanied by intense denitrification; during the quasi-stable oxic and anoxic states (characterized by glacial fresh water and interglacial marine conditions) nitrification and complete nitrate utilization, respectively, dominate the nitrogen cycle. While other factors may influence the δ15N record, our results support the hypothesis that the variations in nitrogen isotopic composition of organic matter are strongly influenced by changes in redox state in the Black Sea subphotic zone on glacial-interglacial time scales, and can be explained by a relatively simple model describing the effects of oxygen on the microbial processes that drive the nitrogen cycle in marine ecosystems. Our model suggests that the nitrogen isotopic composition of marine sediments, on geological time scales, can be used to reconstruct the redox state of the overlying water column.

  3. Orbital forcing of the marine isotope stage 9 interglacial.

    PubMed

    Stirling, C H; Esat, T M; Lambeck, K; McCulloch, M T; Blake, S G; Lee, D C; Halliday, A N

    2001-01-12

    Milankovitch orbital forcing theory has been used to assign time scales to many paleoclimate records. However, the validity of this theory remains uncertain, and independent sea-level chronologies used to test its applicability have been restricted largely to the past approximately 135,000 years. Here, we report U-series ages for coral reefs formed on Henderson Island during sea-level high-stands occurring at approximately 630,000 and approximately 330,000 years ago. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that interglacial climates are forced by Northern Hemisphere summer solar insolation centered at 65 degrees N latitude, as predicted by Milankovitch theory.

  4. Last Interglacial (MIS5e) hydrographic shifts linked to meltwater discharges from the East Greenland margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Bauch, Henning A.; Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The East Greenland Current (EGC) plays a key role in transporting polar water from the Arctic to convectional sites of the Iceland and Labrador seas. Ongoing melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as well as the Arctic sea ice prompts freshening of the EGC and accumulation of low-density water in the subpolar North Atlantic, thus affecting the stabilities of water mass overturning and subsequent northward heat transfer. To assess natural eastern GIS dynamics and possible freshwater-induced regional oceanic reorganizations we analyzed several sediment sequences from the poorly investigated area along the eastern Greenland margin and the western Nordic Seas. Records span the last interglacial (LIG, MIS5e) cycle, including deglacial Termination 2 and the LIG climatic optimum. On a global scale, the latter is believed to have been warmer than present, with a higher sea level, and may, therefore, serve as a promising analogue for future hydrographic changes. Based on various proxy data (stable isotopes, planktic foraminiferal assemblages, ice-rafted debris) our reconstructions support the notion of a "two-step development" of Termination 2 which underwent severe surface freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic. This is shown in extremely light oxygen isotopic values registered all along the eastern Greenland margin during early MIS5e, which are indicative for pronounced eastern/central GIS retreat and a further propagation of the resulting meltwater southward via the EGC. In addition, we find compelling evidence for at least two separate meltwater episodes in proximity of the eastern GIS during early MIS5e. The climatic episode in between is correlated with an early LIG warm peak, which may be linked to enhanced presence of Atlantic water in the central Nordic Seas (Bauch et al., 2012) and further downstream along southern Greenland (Hillaire-Marcel et al., 1994, Irvali et al., 2012). Our data, therefore, reveal a complex and variable dynamic of the EGC during MIS5e

  5. Methane excess production in oxygen-rich polar water and a model of cellular conditions for this paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Thoms, S.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Nöthig, E. M.; Kattner, G.

    2015-09-01

    Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on an excess of methane in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79°N oceanographic transect, in the western part of the Fram Strait and in Northeast Water Polynya region off Greenland. Between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitations occurred and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences between both water masses and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. We show that in this region methane is in situ produced while DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for the methane formation. The methane production occured despite high oxygen concentrations in this water masses. As the metabolic activity (respiration) of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  6. Predicting solvation free energies and thermodynamics in polar solvents and mixtures using a solvation-layer interface condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molavi Tabrizi, Amirhossein; Goossens, Spencer; Mehdizadeh Rahimi, Ali; Knepley, Matthew; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate that with two small modifications, the popular dielectric continuum model is capable of predicting, with high accuracy, ion solvation thermodynamics (Gibbs free energies, entropies, and heat capacities) in numerous polar solvents. We are also able to predict ion solvation free energies in water-co-solvent mixtures over available concentration series. The first modification to the classical dielectric Poisson model is a perturbation of the macroscopic dielectric-flux interface condition at the solute-solvent interface: we add a nonlinear function of the local electric field, giving what we have called a solvation-layer interface condition (SLIC). The second modification is including the microscopic interface potential (static potential) in our model. We show that the resulting model exhibits high accuracy without the need for fitting solute atom radii in a state-dependent fashion. Compared to experimental results in nine water-co-solvent mixtures, SLIC predicts transfer free energies to within 2.5 kJ/mol. The co-solvents include both protic and aprotic species, as well as biologically relevant denaturants such as urea and dimethylformamide. Furthermore, our results indicate that the interface potential is essential to reproduce entropies and heat capacities. These and previous tests of the SLIC model indicate that it is a promising dielectric continuum model for accurate predictions in a wide range of conditions.

  7. Equatorial decline of reef corals during the last Pleistocene interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Simpson, Carl; Beck, Brian; Mewis, Heike; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-12-01

    The Last Interglacial (LIG; ca. 125,000 y ago) resulted from rapid global warming and reached global mean temperatures exceeding those of today. The LIG thus offers the opportunity to study how life may respond to future global warming. Using global occurrence databases and applying sampling-standardization, we compared reef coral diversity and distributions between the LIG and modern. Latitudinal diversity patterns are characterized by a tropical plateau today but were characterized by a pronounced equatorial trough during the LIG. This trough is governed by substantial range shifts away from the equator. Range shifts affected both leading and trailing edges of species range limits and were much more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere than south of the equator. We argue that interglacial warming was responsible for the loss of equatorial diversity. Hemispheric differences in insolation during the LIG may explain the asymmetrical response. The equatorial retractions are surprisingly strong given that only small temperature changes have been reported in the LIG tropics. Our results suggest that the poleward range expansions of reef corals occurring with intensified global warming today may soon be followed by equatorial range retractions.

  8. Nucleation and growth of crystals under cirrus and polar stratospheric cloud conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallett, John; Queen, Brian; Teets, Edward; Fahey, James

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory studies examine phase changes of hygroscopic substances which occur as aerosol in stratosphere and troposphere (sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, nitric acid, sulfuric acid), under controlled conditions, in samples volume 1 to 10(exp -4) ml. Crystallization of salts from supersaturated solutions is examined by slowly evaporating a solution drop on a substrate, under controlled relative humidity, until self nucleation occurs; controlled nucleation of ice in a mm capillary U-tube gives a measured ice crystallization velocity at known supercooling. Two states of crystallization occur for regions where hydrates exist. It is inferred that all of the materials readily exist as supersaturated/supercooled solutions; the degree of metastability appears to be slightly enhanced by inclusion of aircraft produced soot. The crystallization velocity is taken as a measure of viscosity. Results suggest an approach to a glass transition at high molality, supersaturation and/or supercooling within the range of atmospheric interest. It is hypothesized that surface reactions occur more readily on solidified particles - either crystalline or glass, whereas volume reactions are more important on droplets with sufficiently low viscosity and volume diffusivity. Implications are examined for optical properties of such particles in the atmosphere. In a separate experiment, crystal growth was examined in a modified thermal vapor diffusion chamber over the range of cirrus temperature (-30 to -70 C) and under controlled supersaturation and air pressure. The crystals grew at a velocity of 1-2 microns/s, thickness 60-70 micron, in the form of thin column crystals. Design criteria are given for a system to investigate particle growth down to -100 C, (PSC temperatures) where nitric acid particles can be grown under similar control and in the form of hydrate crystals.

  9. Humid glacials, arid interglacials? Results from a multiproxy study of the loess-paleosol sequence Crvenka, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, R.; Zech, M.; Markovic, S.; Huang, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The loess-paleosol sequences in the Carpathian Basin, southeast Europe, are up to tens of meters thick and provide valuable archives for paleoenvironmental and -climate change over several glacial-interglacial cycles. The Crvenka section spans the full last glacial cycle and is used in this multi-proxy study to reconstruct past climate conditions. Crvenka features the characteristic pattern in terms of grain size and weathering intensity, i.e. finer grain sizes and more intensive weathering in the paleosols compared to the glacial loess units. The analysis of plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes as molecular biomarkers for past vegetation indicates the presence of trees during glacials, which is consistent with other e.g. macrofossil findings and the notion that parts of southeast Europe served as tree-refugia. However, virtually tree-less grass steppes are reconstructed for the Eemian, the last interglacial. More humid conditions during glacials and more arid conditions during interglacials would be in good agreement with lake-level reconstructions from the Dead Sea, but they seem to be at odds with traditional interpretations of pollen and stable isotope records for the Mediterranean region. In order to further contribute to this issue, we performed compound-specific D/H analyses on the most abundant alkanes C29 and C31, which should mainly record past changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation. The absence of a clear signal towards more depleted values during glacials shows that the temperature-effect is not dominant and probably offset by a strong source-effect, namely the enrichment of the Mediterranean sea water during glacials. This very same source effect may generally need to be taken into account when interpreting terrestrial isotope records in the Mediterranean, which implies that more positive values during glacials may not necessarily indicate an amount-effect and more arid conditions.

  10. Persistent climatic and oceanographic oscillations in the subpolar North Atlantic during the MIS 6 glaciation and MIS 5 interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly accumulating sediments from the Björn drift deposit south of Iceland are studied for comparison of glacial/interglacial climate changes related to millennial variability of the subpolar surface and deep ocean circulation in the North Atlantic. High-resolution faunal, isotopic, and sedimentary analyses reveal a strong multimillennial climatic variability interpreted as oscillations in heat transport westward south of Iceland during marine isotope stage 6 (MIS 6), possibly related to the strength of the subpolar gyre (SPG). The oscillations persisted from MIS 6 through the following interglacial (MIS 5), although with diminished magnitude, and were respectively characterized by repeated advances of the polar front south of Iceland during MIS 6 and southward migrations of the Arctic front due to cold surface outflow through the East Greenland and East Iceland Currents during MIS 5. Incursions of cold, fresh surface waters, and drifting ice affected the dynamics of the SPG, episodically causing it to weaken and contract to the northwest. During these intervals of diminished SPG, the northward transport of subtropical heat and salt was strengthened and preferentially conveyed to the northeast past Iceland, enhancing deep-water formation in the Nordic Seas. By contrast, when the SPG was strong, more subtropical water and its associated heat were entrained within the relatively warm Irminger Current flowing westward south of Iceland. These oceanographic oscillations were associated with repeated multimillennial cooling and warming episodes during the glacial stage MIS 6, equivalent to the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles of the last glaciation.

  11. Theoretical explanation of the polarization-converting system achieved by beam shaping and combination technique and its performance under high power conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Shang, YaPing; Xu, XiaoJun

    2015-10-01

    The fiber laser has very obvious advantages and broad applications in remote welding, 3D cutting and national defense compared with the traditional solid laser. But influenced by heat effect of gain medium, nonlinear effect, stress birefringence effect and other negative factors, it's very difficult to get high power linearly polarized laser just using a single laser. For these limitations a polarization-converting system is designed using beam shaping and combination technique which is able to transform naturally polarized laser to linearly polarized laser at real time to resolve difficulties of generating high-power linearly polarized laser from fiber lasers in this paper. The principle of the Gaussian beam changing into the hollow beam passing through two axicons and the combination of the Gaussian beam and the hollow beam is discussed. In the experimental verification the energy conversion efficiency reached 93.1% with a remarkable enhancement of the extinction ratio from 3% to 98% benefited from the high conversion efficiency of axicons and the system worked fine under high power conditions. The system also kept excellent far field divergence. The experiment phenomenon also agreed with the simulation quite well. The experiment proves that this polarization-converting system will not affect laser structure which controls easily and needs no feedback and controlling system with stable and reliable properties at the same time. It can absolutely be applied to the polarization-conversion of high power laser.

  12. A GCM comparison of Plio-Pleistocene interglacial-glacial periods in relation to Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, A. J.; DeConto, R. M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2014-08-01

    Until now, the lack of time-continuous, terrestrial paleoenvironmental data from the Pleistocene Arctic has made model simulations of past interglacials difficult to assess. Here, we compare climate simulations of four warm interglacials at Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 1 (9 ka), 5e (127 ka), 11c (409 ka), and 31 (1072 ka) with new proxy climate data recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia. Climate reconstructions of the Mean Temperature of the Warmest Month (MTWM) indicate conditions 2.1, 0.5 and 3.1 °C warmer than today during MIS 5e, 11c, and 31, respectively. While the climate model captures much of the observed warming during each interglacial, largely in response to boreal summer orbital forcing, the extraordinary warmth of MIS 11c relative to the other interglacials in the proxy records remain difficult to explain. To deconvolve the contribution of multiple influences on interglacial warming at Lake El'gygytgyn, we isolated the influence of vegetation, sea ice, and circum-Arctic land ice feedbacks on the climate of the Beringian interior. Simulations accounting for climate-vegetation-land surface feedbacks during all four interglacials show expanding boreal forest cover with increasing summer insolation intensity. A deglaciated Greenland is shown to have a minimal effect on Northeast Asian temperature during the warmth of stage 11c and 31 (Melles et al., 2012). A prescribed enhancement of oceanic heat transport into the Arctic ocean has some effect on Beringian climate, suggesting intrahemispheric coupling seen in comparisons between Lake El'gygytgyn and Antarctic sediment records might be related to linkages between Antarctic ice volume and ocean circulation. The exceptional warmth of MIS 11c remains enigmatic however, relative to the modest orbital and greenhouse gas forcing during that interglacial. Large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during Plio-Pleistocene glaciation causes a substantial decrease in Mean Temperature of the Coldest Month (MTCM) and

  13. Comparison of Interglacial fire dynamics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Daniau, Anne-Laure

    2016-04-01

    Responses of fire activity to a change in climate are still uncertain and biases exist by integrating this non-linear process into global modeling of the Earth system. Warming and regional drying can force fire activity in two opposite directions: an increase in fire in fuel supported ecosystems or a fire reduction in fuel-limited ecosystems. Therefore, climate variables alone can not be used to estimate the fire risk because vegetation variability is an important determinant of fire dynamics and responds itself to change in climate. Southern Africa (south of 20°S) paleofire history reconstruction obtained from the analysis of microcharcoal preserved in a deep-sea core located off Namibia reveals changes of fire activity on orbital timescales in the precession band. In particular, increase in fire is observed during glacial periods, and reduction of fire during interglacials such as the Eemian and the Holocene. The Holocene was characterized by even lower level of fire activity than Eemian. Those results suggest the alternance of grass-fueled fires during glacials driven by increase in moisture and the development of limited fueled ecosystems during interglacials characterized by dryness. Those results question the simulated increase in the fire risk probability projected for this region under a warming and drying climate obtained by Pechony and Schindell (2010). To explore the validity of the hypotheses we conducted a data-model comparison for both interglacials from 126.000 to 115.000 BP for the Eemian and from 8.000 to 2.000 BP for the Holocene. Data out of a transient, global modeling study with a Vegetation-Fire model of full complexity (JSBACH) is used, driven by a Climate model of intermediate complexity (CLIMBER). Climate data like precipitation and temperature as well as vegetation data like soil moisture, productivity (NPP) on plant functional type level are used to explain trends in fire activity. The comparison of trends in fire activity during the

  14. Debris flow sensitivity to glacial-interglacial climate change - supply vs transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda Boluda, Duna C.; Whittaker, Alexander C.

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models suggest that small mountain catchment-alluvial fan systems might be sensitive to climate changes over glacial-interglacial cycles, and record these palaeoclimate signals in the sedimentology of their deposits. However, these models are still largely untested, and the propagation of climate signals through simple sediment routing systems remains contentious. Here, we present detailed sedimentological records from 8 debris flow fan systems in Owens Valley, California, that capture the past ~ 120 ka of deposition. We identify a strong and sustained relationship between deposit grain size and palaeoclimate records over a full glacial-interglacial cycle, with significantly coarser-grained deposits found in warm and dry periods. Our data show that these systems are highly sensitive to climate with a rapid response timescale of < 10ka, which we attribute to rapid transfer from source to sink. This sensitive record might be explained by changes in sediment supply and/or changes in sediment mobilisation, and we evaluate these mechanisms quantitatively. We find little evidence that changes in catchment hypsometry, weathering patterns, past glaciation or sediment production can explain the grain size changes we observe on the fans. However we do find that grain size has increased exponentially with rising temperatures, at a rate that matches the intensification of storms with warming. As these debris flows are triggered by surface runoff during intense storms, we interpret that enhanced runoff rates in warm and stormy conditions are responsible for entraining larger clasts during debris flow initiation. This implies that debris flow fans might record signals of past storm intensity. Our study utilises field sedimentology and focuses on short transport distances (~ 10 km) and climate changes over ~ 1-100 ka timespans, but could additionally have important implications for how eroding landscapes might respond to future warming scenarios. We address the

  15. Milankovitch forcing of the last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Crowley, T J; Kim, K Y

    1994-09-09

    During the last interglacial, sea level was as high as present, 4000 to 6000 years before peak Northern Hemisphere insolation receipt 126,000 years ago. The sea-level results are shown to be consistent with climate models, which simulate a 3 degrees to 4 degrees C July temperature increase from 140,000 to 130,000 years ago in high latitudes, with all Northern Hemisphere land areas being warmer than present by 130,000 years ago. The early warming occurs because obliquity peaked earlier than precession and because precession values were greater than present before peak precessional forcing occurred. These results indicate that a fuller understanding of the Milankovitch-climate connection requires consideration of fields other than just insolation forcing at 65 degrees N.

  16. A last interglacial fauna from the Eastern Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Kazimierz; Neer, Wim van; Bocheński, Zygmunt; Młynarski, Marian; Rzebik-Kowalska, Barbara; Szyndlar, Zbigniew; Gautier, Achilles; Schild, Romuald; Close, Angela E.; Wendorf, Fred

    1989-11-01

    Recent work on the middle Paleolithic at Bir Tarfawi, in the hyperarid Eastern Sahara (<1 mm of rain per annum), has yielded a rich faunal assemblage, including several thousand remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. They are derived from the sediments of two consecutive lakes dated by several techniques to about 135,000 yr B.P. Fifty-nine taxa have been identified and indicate that at times during the Last Interglaciation the area received at least 500 mm of rainfall as a result of the northward shift of the monsoon belt, and that, on several occasions, there may have been water connections between Bir Tarfawi and unidentified but permanent bodies of water elsewhere.

  17. Response of Phytoplankton Photophysiology to Varying Environmental Conditions in the Sub-Antarctic and Polar Frontal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Wee; McMinn, Andrew; Griffiths, F. Brian; Westwood, Karen J.; Wright, Simon W.; Clementson, Lesley A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate-driven changes are expected to alter the hydrography of the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) south of Australia, in which distinct regional environments are believed to be responsible for the differences in phytoplankton biomass in these regions. Here, we report how the dynamic influences of light, iron and temperature, which are responsible for the photophysiological differences between phytoplankton in the SAZ and PFZ, contribute to the biomass differences in these regions. High effective photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (/0.4), maximum photosynthesis rate (), light-saturation intensity (), maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport (1/), and low photoprotective pigment concentrations observed in the SAZ correspond to high chlorophyll and iron concentrations. In contrast, phytoplankton in the PFZ exhibits low / ( 0.2) and high concentrations of photoprotective pigments under low light environment. Strong negative relationships between iron, temperature, and photoprotective pigments demonstrate that cells were producing more photoprotective pigments under low temperature and iron conditions, and are responsible for the low biomass and low productivity measured in the PFZ. As warming and enhanced iron input is expected in this region, this could probably increase phytoplankton photosynthesis in this region. However, complex interactions between the biogeochemical processes (e.g. stratification caused by warming could prevent mixing of nutrients), which control phytoplankton biomass and productivity, remain uncertain. PMID:23977242

  18. Response of phytoplankton photophysiology to varying environmental conditions in the Sub-Antarctic and Polar Frontal Zone.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wee; McMinn, Andrew; Griffiths, F Brian; Westwood, Karen J; Wright, Simon W; Clementson, Lesley A

    2013-01-01

    Climate-driven changes are expected to alter the hydrography of the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) south of Australia, in which distinct regional environments are believed to be responsible for the differences in phytoplankton biomass in these regions. Here, we report how the dynamic influences of light, iron and temperature, which are responsible for the photophysiological differences between phytoplankton in the SAZ and PFZ, contribute to the biomass differences in these regions. High effective photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F'(q)/F'(m)0.4), maximum photosynthesis rate (P(B)(max)), light-saturation intensity (E(k)), maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport (1/[Symbol: see text]PSII), and low photoprotective pigment concentrations observed in the SAZ correspond to high chlorophyll a and iron concentrations. In contrast, phytoplankton in the PFZ exhibits low F'(q)/F'(M) (~ 0.2) and high concentrations of photoprotective pigments under low light environment. Strong negative relationships between iron, temperature, and photoprotective pigments demonstrate that cells were producing more photoprotective pigments under low temperature and iron conditions, and are responsible for the low biomass and low productivity measured in the PFZ. As warming and enhanced iron input is expected in this region, this could probably increase phytoplankton photosynthesis in this region. However, complex interactions between the biogeochemical processes (e.g. stratification caused by warming could prevent mixing of nutrients), which control phytoplankton biomass and productivity, remain uncertain.

  19. The Last Interglacial History of the Antarctic Ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah; Siddall, Mark; Milne, Glenn A.; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Wolff, Eric; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the work which was conducted as part of the 'PAST4FUTURE -WP4.1: Sea Level and Ice sheets' project. The overall aim of this study was to understand the response of the Antarctic Ice sheet (AIS) to climate forcing during the Last interglacial (LIG) and its contribution to the observed higher than present sea level during this period. The study involved the application and development of a novel technique which combined East Antarctic stable isotope ice core data with the output from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model [Bradley et al., 2012]. We investigated if the stable isotope ice core data are sensitive to detecting isostatically driven changes in the surface elevation driven by changes in the ice-loading history of the AIS and if so, could we address some key questions relating to the LIG history of the AIS. Although it is believed that the West Antarctic Ice sheet (WAIS) reduced in size during the LIG compared to the Holocene, major uncertainties and unknowns remain unresolved: Did the WAIS collapse? What would the contribution of such a collapse be the higher than present LIG eustatic sea level (ESL)? We will show that a simulated collapse of the WAIS does not generate a significant elevation driven signal at the EAIS LIG ice core sites, and as such, these ice core records cannot be used to assess WAIS stability over this period. However, we will present 'treasure maps' [Bradley et al., 2012] to identify regions of the AIS where results from geological studies and/or new paleoclimate data may be sensitive to detecting a WAIS collapse. These maps can act as a useful tool for the wider science community/field scientists as a guide to highlight sites suitable to constrain the evolution of the WAIS during the LIG. Studies have proposed that the surface temperature across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) was significantly warmer, 2-5°C during the LIG compared to present [Lang and Wolff, 2011]. These higher

  20. Experimental Demonstration of the Formation of Liquid Brines under Martian Polar Conditions in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Erik; Martinez, German; Elliott, Harvey; Borlina, Caue; Renno, Nilton

    2014-05-01

    Liquid water is one of the necessary ingredients for the development of life as we know it. The behavior of various liquid states of H2O such as liquid brine, undercooled liquid interfacial water, subsurface melt water and ground water [1] needs to be understood in order to address the potential habitability of Mars for microbes and future human exploration. It has been shown thermodynamically that liquid brines can exist under Martian polar conditions [2, 3]. We have developed the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber (MMEC) to simulate the entire range of Martian surface and shallow subsurface conditions with respect to temperature, pressure, relative humidity, solar radiation and soil wetness at equatorial and polar latitudes. Our experiments in the MMEC show that deliquescence of NaClO4, Mg(ClO4)2 and Ca(ClO4)2 occurs diurnally under the environmental conditions of the Phoenix landing site when these salts get in contact with water ice. Since Phoenix detected these salts and water ice at the landing site, including frost formation, it is extremely likely that deliquescence occurs at the Phoenix landing site. By layering NaClO4, Mg(ClO4)2 or Ca(ClO4)2 on top of a pure water ice slab at 800 Pa and 190 K and raising the temperature stepwise across the eutectic temperature of the perchlorate salts, we observe distinct changes in the Raman spectra of the samples when deliquescence occurs. When crossing the eutectic temperatures of NaClO4 (236 K), Mg(ClO4)2 (205 K) and Ca(ClO4)2 (199 K) [4, 5], the perchlorate band of the Raman spectrum shows a clear shift from 953 cm-1 to 936 cm-1. Furthermore, the appearance of a broad O-H vibrational stretching spectrum between 3244 cm-1 and 3580 cm-1 is another indicator of deliquescence. This process of deliquescence occurs on the order of seconds when the perchlorate salt is in contact with water ice. On the contrary, when the perchlorate salt is only subjected to water vapor in the Martian atmosphere, deliquescence was not

  1. Modes of interglacial sea-level change: evidence from a late Pleistocene highstand in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Long, Antony; Gehrels, Roland; Sparkes, Amy; Riley, Rachel; Penkman, Kirsty

    2014-05-01

    Interglacial sea-level extremes provide a useful analogue for future sea-level behaviour. The Holocene has been characterized by an overall stable sea level, but earlier interglacials, especially the Last Interglacial, are reported to have experienced meter-scale fluctuations (e.g. Rohling et al. 2008). Whether interglacial sea-level maxima are reached gradually or in 'steps' has serious societal implications, as the latter mechanism is associated with much higher rates of sea-level rise. Furthermore, the fluctuating Red Sea model of Last Interglacial sea-level change (Rohling et al. 2008) now underpins the high-end sea-level scenario ("High ++") adopted by the UK Climate Impact Programme. To better constrain interglacial sea-level behaviour, the iGlass consortium, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, aims to constrain interglacial sea-level fluctuations from a variety of archives, e.g. corals, speleothems, marine isotopes and estuarine sediments. In this paper we investigate estuarine sediments and apply microfossil analyses, used widely to constrain Holocene sea-level changes, to sediments from interglacial deposits recovered from the Nar Valley, Norfolk, United Kingdom. A coring transect, comprised of 8 cores in 6 locations, traces an interglacial transgressive sequence inland. The litho- and biostratigraphy (mainly foraminifera) record the nature of this transgression. Sediments are either MIS 9 or 11 in age and include freshwater peats and marine clays, buried by glacial sands and gravels. Previous palynological work (Ventris, 1996) has indicates the sediments represent the entire interglacial period. The top of the marine clays has been tracked laterally for ~15 km and was found to have (at least) a 18 m vertical range, up to ~18 m above present mean sea level. Foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by the shallow water dweller Ammonia spp, and suggest only one sequence of deepening and shallowing. We further constrain the chronology using

  2. Extreme Dead Sea drying event during the last interglacial from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.; Yasuda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The ICDP funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental record in the Middle East, drilling holes in a deep and a shallow site extending to ~450 meters. The Dead Sea expands during the glacials and contracts during interglacials, and the sediments are an archive of the evolving climatic conditions. During glacials the sediments comprise intervals of marl (aragonite, gypsum and detritus) and during interglacials they are salts and marls. We estimate that the deep site core spans ~200 kyr (to early MIS 7). A dramatic discovery is a ~40 cm interval of rounded pebbles at ~235 m below the lake floor, the only clean pebbly unit in the entire core. It appears to be a beach layer, near the deepest part of the Dead Sea, lying above ~35 meters of mainly salt. If it is a beach layer, it implies an almost complete dry-down of the paleo-Dead Sea. The pebble layer lies within the last interglacial interval. Our initial attempt to estimate the age of the possible dry down shows an intriguing correlation between the salt-mud stratigraphy of the Dead Sea core and the oxygen isotope record of Soreq Cave, whereby excursions to light oxygen in the speleothems correspond to periods of salt deposition. Through this comparison, we estimate that the dry down occurred during MIS 5e. The occurrence of ~35 meters of mainly salt along with the pebble layer demonstrates a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping as all the countries in the area use the runoff. GCM models indicate a more arid future in the region. The core shows that the runoff nearly stopped during a past warm period without human intervention.

  3. Offset timing of climate oscillations during the last two glacial-interglacial transitions connected with large-scale freshwater perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Amat, Patricia; Zahn, Rainer

    2015-06-01

    Multidecadal to centennial planktic δ18O and Mg/Ca records were generated at Ocean Drilling Program Site 976 (ODP976) in the Alboran Sea. The site is in the flow path of Atlantic inflow waters entering the Mediterranean and captured North Atlantic signals through the surface inflow and the atmosphere. The records reveal similar climatic oscillations during the last two glacial-to-interglacial transitions, albeit with a different temporal pacing. Glacial termination 1 (T1) was marked by Heinrich event 1 (H1), post-H1 Bølling/Allerød warming, and Younger Dryas (YD) cooling. During T2 the H11 δ18O anomaly was twice as high and lasted 30% longer than during H1. The post-H11 warming marked the start of MIS5e while the subsequent YD-style cooling occurred during early MIS5e. The post-H11 temperature increase at ODP976 matched the sudden Asian Monsoon Termination II at 129 ka B.P. Extending the 230Th-dated speleothem timescale to ODP976 suggests glacial conditions in the Northeast Atlantic region were terminated abruptly and interglacial warmth was reached in less than a millennium. The early-MIS5e cooling and freshening at ODP976 coincided with similar changes at North Atlantic sites suggesting this was a basin-wide event. By analogy with T1, we argue that this was a YD-type event that was shifted into the early stages of the last interglacial period. This scenario is consistent with evidence from northern North Atlantic and Nordic Sea sites that the continuing disintegration of the large Saalian Stage (MIS6) ice sheet in Eurasia delayed the advection of warm North Atlantic waters and full-strength convective overturn until later stages of MIS5e.

  4. Oceanography in northwestern Europe during the last interglacial from intrashell δ 18O ranges in Littorina littorea gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Johan; Påsse, Tore

    2008-07-01

    Coastal sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-surface salinity (SSS), including seasonality, in northwest (NW) Europe during the early phase of the Eemian interglacial ca. 125 ka ago were reconstructed from Littorina littorea (common periwinkle) gastropods. The results were based on intra-annual δ 18O analyses in recent and fossil shells, mainly originating from the sea of Kattegat (Sweden) and the English Channel (United Kingdom), and confined to intertidal settings. The Eemian L. littorea shells indicated annual SSTs in the range 8-18°C for the English Channel and 8-26°C for Kattegat. All specimens from the Eemian sites experienced summer SSTs of ca. 1-3°C above recent conditions. The estimated winter SST in the English Channel during the Eemian was comparable to modern measurements of ca. 8°C. However, the Kattegat region displayed Eemian winter SST approximately 8°C warmer than today, and similar to conditions in the western English Channel. The recent-fossil isotope analogue approach indicated high SSS above 35 practical salinity units (psu) for a channel south of England in full contact with the North Atlantic Ocean during the last interglacial. In addition, the Kattegat shells indicated a SSS of ca. 29 psu, which points out a North Sea affinity for this region during the Eemian.

  5. Project CELIA: Climate and environment of the last interglacial (Isotope Stage 5) in arctic and subarctic North America

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham-Grette, J.

    1992-03-01

    Stage 5e of the marine oxygen isotope record is the last time when world ice volume was lower, sea level was higher, and world climate warmer than during any part of the Holocene. To develop more accurate proxy data for natural climate change during the last interglacial, a multidisciplinary group of scientists working as regional teams has developed Project CELIA to generate and synthesize knowledge for this period from high latitude terrestrial and nearshore marine environments. The authors have cited 13 terrestrial sequences distributed across the Arctic and Subarctic for detailed study based upon well-exposed stratigraphy, abundance of organic remains, and geochronological potential. In addition, information from select marine cores bearing terrestrial pollen and ice cores from Devon and Agassiz Ice Caps will also be incorporated. These data will highlight regional changes in vegetation patterns, tree line position, permafrost distribution, and sea ice conditions from which ocean/atmospheric changes can be inferred. This information will be of value for testing hypotheses generated by GCMs and other simulations of interglacial conditions, refining such models and providing insight to future environments resulting from global warming. CELIA will be carried out over the next 5 years and will be directed by an international board of experts under the auspices of the University of Alberta's Canadian Circumpolar Institute.

  6. Last interglacial plant macrofossils and climates from Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Laura E.; Baker, Richard G.; Thompson, Robert S.; Miller, Dane M.

    2014-01-01

    Ninety plant macrofossil taxa from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, record environmental changes at high elevation (2705 m asl) in the Rocky Mountains during the Last Interglacial Period. Present-day vegetation is aspen forest (Populus tremuloides) intermixed with species of higher (Picea, Abies) and lower (Artemisia, Quercus) elevations. Stratigraphic units 4–13 contain montane forest taxa found near the site today and several species that today generally live at lower elevations within (Abies concolor, Lycopus americanus) and outside Colorado (Najas flexilis). These data suggest near-modern climatic conditions, with slightly warmer summer and winter temperatures. This montane forest period was succeeded by a shorter treeless interval (Unit 14) representing colder and/or drier conditions. In units 15–16, conifer trees reoccur but deciduous and herb taxa are lacking, suggesting a return to warmer conditions, although cooler than during the earlier forest period. Comparison of these inferred paleoclimatic changes with the site's geochronologic framework indicates that the lower interval of sustained warmth correlates with late MIS 6–early 5b (~ 138–94 ka), the cold interval with MIS 5b (~ 94–87 ka), and the uppermost cool assemblages with MIS 5a (~ 87–77 ka).

  7. Last interglacial plant macrofossils and climates from Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Laura E.; Baker, Richard G.; Thompson, Robert S.; Miller, Dane M.

    2014-11-01

    Ninety plant macrofossil taxa from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, record environmental changes at high elevation (2705 m asl) in the Rocky Mountains during the Last Interglacial Period. Present-day vegetation is aspen forest (Populus tremuloides) intermixed with species of higher (Picea, Abies) and lower (Artemisia, Quercus) elevations. Stratigraphic units 4-13 contain montane forest taxa found near the site today and several species that today generally live at lower elevations within (Abies concolor, Lycopus americanus) and outside Colorado (Najas flexilis). These data suggest near-modern climatic conditions, with slightly warmer summer and winter temperatures. This montane forest period was succeeded by a shorter treeless interval (Unit 14) representing colder and/or drier conditions. In units 15-16, conifer trees reoccur but deciduous and herb taxa are lacking, suggesting a return to warmer conditions, although cooler than during the earlier forest period. Comparison of these inferred paleoclimatic changes with the site's geochronologic framework indicates that the lower interval of sustained warmth correlates with late MIS 6-early 5b (~ 138-94 ka), the cold interval with MIS 5b (~ 94-87 ka), and the uppermost cool assemblages with MIS 5a (~ 87-77 ka).

  8. Palaeoceanography & Palaeoclimate during the penultimate Glacial-Interglacial transition in the Black Sea - Termination II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegwerth, Antje; Dellwig, Olaf; Kaiser, Jérôme; Bard, Edouard; Ménot, Guillemette; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Plessen, Birgit; Schnetger, Bernhard; Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge

    2013-04-01

    The epicontinental Black Sea is very sensitive to environmental changes thus forming an ideal archive of regional climate change and teleconnective responses to the coupled North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere system. Here we focus on the climatic and hydrological evolution of the SE Black Sea during the glacial-interglacial transition of Termination II to the Eemian (~134-122 ka BP) by using different geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Long-term cold conditions during the ending penultimate glacial are provided by TEX86 derived summer sea-surface temperatures (SST) of around 9°C and are thus considerable lower than present values of about 23°C. Coastal ice formation during extreme winters accounted for huge discharge of ice rafted debris (IRD) until 130.5 ka BP. Milder more humid conditions during this period are indicated for instance by elevated Cr/Al values typical for an ultramafic Pontic Mountain source (Piper and Calvert, 2011) thereby suggesting an increased sediment load mainly from the east-Anatolian rivers Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak. The abrupt disappearance of IRD along with increasing δ18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca of benthic ostracods (Candona spp.) resulted from slightly rising temperatures (SST 11°C) until 128.8 ka BP. Thereafter, SST rapidly increased within less than 500 years to about 25°C revealing a dramatic change from glacial to interglacial conditions. First analyses of U/Ca-ratios of ostracods show sharply increasing values not before ~128.3 ka BP, synchronous to the appearance of larval Mytilus galloprovincialis shells, due to the Mediterranean transgression into the Black Sea. The simultaneous increase of TOC and Mo/Al of the bulk sediment indicates the development of oxygen-deficient bottom waters and Eemian sapropel formation favoured by the establishment of a halocline shortly after the Mediterranean-Black Sea reconnection. About 500 years after the temperature maximum, the continental environment responded to the warming by elevated

  9. New uranium-series ages of the Waimanalo Limestone, Oahu, Hawaii: implications for sea level during the last interglacial period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Szabo, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Waimanalo Formation (limestone) of Oahu has been correlated with the last interglacial period based on U-series dating of corals by T.-L. Ku and colleagues. The limestone consists of growth-position corals and overlying coral conglomerate. An apparent bimodal distribution of ages for the growth-position corals (mean age = 133 ka) and the overlying coral conglomerate (mean age = 119 ka) has been interpreted to represent two distinct high stands of sea that occurred within the last interglacial period. Both growth-position corals and overlying, conglomerate coral occur in an outcrop east of Kaena Point and consist mainly of Pocillopora and Porites. U-seriesages of growth-position corals that show closed-system conditions are 120 ± 3 ka and 127 ± 4 ka; overlying conglomerate corals have U-seriesages that range from 120 ± 3 ka to 138 ± 4 ka. At Kahe Point, conglomerate corals have ages of 120 ± 3 ka and 134 ± 4 ka. These data show that the growth position corals are not systematically older than the conglomerate corals; thus, there is no evidence for two distinct high stands of sea. Waimanalo deposits at Kahe Point and Mokapu Point (new U-seriesages of 134 ± 4 ka and 127 ± 3 ka) have beach deposits as high as 12.5 m and, at Mokapu Point, growth-position corals as high as 8.5 m. A last-interglacial sea-level stand of +8.5 to +12.5 m conflicts with estimates of +6 m from a number of tectonically stable coastlines and islands in the western Atlantic Ocean. We infer, therefore, that Oahu may be undergoing uplift at a low rate. This uplift may be due to compensatory lithospheric flexure, because the island of Hawaii has been subsiding throughout much of the Quaternary from volcanic loading. Because of this possible uplift, Oahu and islands like it elsewhere in the Pacific cannot be used as reference points for sealevel during the last interglacial period.

  10. Last interglacial semi-desert expansions in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego, D. H.; Sanchez Goni, M.; Lechevrel, S.; Daniau, A.

    2013-05-01

    While our understanding of the effects of orbital-scale variability on the vegetation has grown during the past decades, empirical data from some climatically important periods and regions are still lacking. Scarce data exist for instance for deep-time glacial-interglacial cycles that could provide suitable analogs for current climate change. Recent global-scale syntheses of vegetation responses to rapid events during the last glacial have been useful, however, these global compilations clearly show that some regions, namely the southern tropics and subtropics, remain understudied. We use pollen analysis of marine sediments from core MD96-2098 to produce a paleoenvironmental record from southern Africa spanning MIS 6 to 3. Our interpretations are supported by an analysis of present-day pollen-vegetation-climate relationships for the region. We applied canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) on pollen spectra from terrestrial surface samples to investigate these relationships and to identify pollen taxa that are suitable bioclimatic indicators for the different South African biomes. Semi-desert vegetation dominated southern Africa during the MIS 5 interglacial. Expansion of the semi-desert biome into the Namib desert likely resulted from the reduction of the Benguela upwelling and a relative decrease in aridity. In its eastern boundary, the semi-desert likely expanded at the expense of grasslands as a result of increased subtropical high pressure and reduced summer precipitation. Semi-desert expansion in its southern boundary probably resulted from reduced influence of the southern westerlies and decreased winter precipitation. This atmospheric configuration was probably exacerbated during the three warm substages of MIS 5. During glacial isotopic stages MIS 6, 4 and 3 grasslands gained area over the semi-desert as summer precipitation increased. The area occupied by Fynbos vegetation was particularly large at the

  11. Changes in southern hemispheric polar amplification over the past 5 million years revealed by climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoencamp, Jori; Stap, Lennert; Tuenter, Erik; Lourens, Luc; van de Wal, Roderik

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on polar amplification is important to relate high latitude climate records to global mean temperature changes. Several studies have pointed out that the strength of polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere varies considerably due to the presence of large ice sheets and more sea ice during colder climate conditions. As a result, the polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere decreases for warmer climates. In this study, we address the fact that these changes in the Northern Hemisphere also affect the polar amplification in the Southern Hemisphere. We study the Southern and Northern Hemisphere amplification together over the past 5 million years with the CLIMBER-2 intermediate complexity model. Radiation, land ice extent and height, and greenhouse gases are prescribed as forcing. We find that in contrast to the reduction in polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere, polar amplification in the Southern Hemisphere increases for warmer climates. The amplification decreases in the Northern Hemisphere from 2.7 during glacial conditions to 1.6 for a pre-industrial climate, which is line with other climate simulations. Over the same CO2 range the southern hemispheric polar amplification increases from 1 to 1.6. This is caused by the fact that the atmospheric transport needed to balance the radiation surplus in the equatorial region needs to be compensated by relatively stronger transport of energy in Southern direction while the transport in Northern direction reduces. This reduction in Northern direction is driven by less (land and sea) ice resulting in a smaller meridional gradient in Northern direction and hence a smaller atmospheric transport. As a consequence, the traditional scaled (with LGM temperature) Dome C record needs to be corrected with a maximum of 0.6 degrees half-way glacial and interglacial conditions, if it is to be interpreted as global mean temperature change indicator. While this changes the amplitude, the phasing of

  12. Multiproxy record of the last interglacial (MIS 5e) off central and northern California, U.S.A., from Ocean Drilling Program sites 1018 and 1020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Richard Z.; Dowsett, H.J.; Barron, J.A.; Heusser, L.; Ravelo, A.C.; Mix, A.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and climatic conditions during the last interglacial (about 125,000 years ago) along the Central and Northern California coastal region are interpreted from study of marine cores recovered by the Ocean Drilling Program at sites 1018 and 1020. Marine microfossil and pollen assemblages, oxygen isotopes in benthic foraminifers, physical properties, and calcium carbonate contents of cored sediments are proxies indicating strong links between the marine and terrestrial environments during marine isotope stage 5 (MIS 5). At the beginning of the last interglacial (MIS 5e), reduction in global ice volume, increase in surface temperature, and warming of air temperature along the Central and Northern California coast were synchronous within the resolution of our sampling record.

  13. Identification of last interglacial deposits in eastern Beringia: a cautionary note from the Palisades, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Alberto V.; Zazula, Grant D.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Ager, Thomas A.; Froese, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    Last interglacial sediments in unglaciated Alaska and Yukon (eastern Beringia) are commonly identified by palaeoecological indicators and stratigraphic position ~2-5m above the regionally prominent Old Crow tephra (124 + or - 10ka). We demonstrate that this approach can yield erroneous age assignments using data from a new exposure at the Palisades, a site in interior Alaska with numerous exposures of last interglacial sediments. Tephrochronology, stratigraphy, plant macrofossils, pollen and fossil insects from a prominent wood-rich organic silt unit are all consistent with a last interglacial age assignment. However, six 14C dates on plant and insect macrofossils from the organic silt range from non-finite to 4.0 14C ka BP, indicating that the organic silt instead represents a Holocene deposit with a mixed-age assemblage of organic material. In contrast, wood samples from presumed last interglacial organic-rich sediments elsewhere at the Palisades, in a similar stratigraphic position with respect to Old Crow tephra, yield non-finite 14C ages. Given that local permafrost thaw since the last interglaciation may facilitate reworking of older sediments into new stratigraphic positions, minimum constraining ages based on 14C dating or other methods should supplement age assignments for last interglacial sediments in eastern Beringia that are based on palaeoecology and stratigraphic association with Old Crow tephra.

  14. Greenland ice sheet melting during the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langebroek, Petra M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.

    2016-04-01

    During the last interglacial period (LIG) peak temperatures over Greenland were several degrees warmer than today. The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) retreated causing a global sea-level rise in the order of several meters. Large uncertainties still exist in the exact amount of melt and on the source location of this melt. Here we examine the GIS response to LIG temperature and precipitation patterns using the SICOPOLIS ice sheet model. The LIG climate was simulated by forcing the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) with the appropriate greenhouse gases and orbital settings. The resulting LIG ice volume evolution strongly depends on the chosen value of uncertain model parameters for the ice sheet (e.g. basal sliding parameter, PDD factors, and atmospheric temperature lapse rate). We reduce the uncertainty by evaluating an ensemble of model results against present-day observations of ice sheet size, elevation and stability, together with paleo information from deep ice cores. We find a maximum GIS reduction equivalent to 0.8 to 2.2m of global sea-level rise. In this model set-up most of the melting occurs in southwestern Greenland.

  15. South Carolina interglacial sites and stage 5 sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollin, John T.; Hearty, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid and other studies have been made on the 30-km Pleistocene sections of the Intracoastal Waterway between Myrtle Beach and Little River, South Carolina. Our ratios differentiate the long-established Waccamaw (oldest), Canepatch, and Socastee formations. The ratios from the four laboratories that have worked in this area agree very well, and apparent conflicts with U-series dates may merely reflect an abundance of reworked corals. Our amino acid correlations with U-series coral dates in South Carolina, Bermuda, and the Mediterranean all argue that the classical Canepatch and its Horry Clay date from isotope stage 5e and not, as has been implied, from stage 7, 9, 11, or 13. Excavations and erosion have increased position-fixing problems along the Waterway, and "Canepatch" amino acid ratios and U-series dates (460,000 ± 100,000 yr B.P.) at "ICW5" may be from an older unit. The Canepatch shows the double marine transgression visible in many stage 5e deposits. Pollen shows that the second transgression occurred late in the interglaciation, and stratigraphic studies show that it reached 14 m. It therefore fits very well Antarctic ice-surge models of stage 5 sea level and climate. The Socastee adds to the evidence for one or more sea levels above 0 m late in stage 5.

  16. Contrasting scaling properties of interglacial and glacial climates

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Ditlevsen, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding natural climate variability is essential for assessments of climate change. This is reflected in the scaling properties of climate records. The scaling exponents of the interglacial and the glacial climates are fundamentally different. The Holocene record is monofractal, with a scaling exponent H∼0.7. On the contrary, the glacial record is multifractal, with a significantly higher scaling exponent H∼1.2, indicating a longer persistence time and stronger nonlinearities in the glacial climate. The glacial climate is dominated by the strong multi-millennial Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) events influencing the long-time correlation. However, by separately analysing the last glacial maximum lacking DO events, here we find the same scaling for that period as for the full glacial period. The unbroken scaling thus indicates that the DO events are part of the natural variability and not externally triggered. At glacial time scales, there is a scale break to a trivial scaling, contrasting the DO events from the similarly saw-tooth-shaped glacial cycles. PMID:26980084

  17. Contrasting scaling properties of interglacial and glacial climates.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Ditlevsen, Peter D

    2016-03-16

    Understanding natural climate variability is essential for assessments of climate change. This is reflected in the scaling properties of climate records. The scaling exponents of the interglacial and the glacial climates are fundamentally different. The Holocene record is monofractal, with a scaling exponent H∼0.7. On the contrary, the glacial record is multifractal, with a significantly higher scaling exponent H∼1.2, indicating a longer persistence time and stronger nonlinearities in the glacial climate. The glacial climate is dominated by the strong multi-millennial Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events influencing the long-time correlation. However, by separately analysing the last glacial maximum lacking DO events, here we find the same scaling for that period as for the full glacial period. The unbroken scaling thus indicates that the DO events are part of the natural variability and not externally triggered. At glacial time scales, there is a scale break to a trivial scaling, contrasting the DO events from the similarly saw-tooth-shaped glacial cycles.

  18. Denudation of the continental shelf between Britain and France at the glacial-interglacial timescale.

    PubMed

    Mellett, Claire L; Hodgson, David M; Plater, Andrew J; Mauz, Barbara; Selby, Ian; Lang, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The erosional morphology preserved at the sea bed in the eastern English Channel dominantly records denudation of the continental shelf by fluvial processes over multiple glacial-interglacial sea-level cycles rather than by catastrophic flooding through the Straits of Dover during the mid-Quaternary. Here, through the integration of multibeam bathymetry and shallow sub-bottom 2D seismic reflection profiles calibrated with vibrocore records, the first stratigraphic model of erosion and deposition on the eastern English Channel continental shelf is presented. Published Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and (14)C ages were used to chronometrically constrain the stratigraphy and allow correlation of the continental shelf record with major climatic/sea-level periods. Five major erosion surfaces overlain by discrete sediment packages have been identified. The continental shelf in the eastern English Channel preserves a record of processes operating from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to MIS 1. Planar and channelised erosion surfaces were formed by fluvial incision during lowstands or relative sea-level fall. The depth and lateral extent of incision was partly conditioned by underlying geology (rock type and tectonic structure), climatic conditions and changes in water and sediment discharge coupled to ice sheet dynamics and the drainage configuration of major rivers in Northwest Europe. Evidence for major erosion during or prior to MIS 6 is preserved. Fluvial sediments of MIS 2 age were identified within the Northern Palaeovalley, providing insights into the scale of erosion by normal fluvial regimes. Seismic and sedimentary facies indicate that deposition predominantly occurred during transgression when accommodation was created in palaeovalleys to allow discrete sediment bodies to form. Sediment reworking over multiple sea-level cycles (Saalian-Eemian-early Weichselian) by fluvial, coastal and marine processes created a multi-lateral, multi-storey succession of

  19. Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise during the Last Interglacial and future centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeConto, Robert; Pollard, David

    2014-05-01

    Substantial retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during past warm periods including the Pliocene and some Pleistocene interglacials has been difficult to reconcile in most ice sheet models. This includes the Last Interglacial (LIG; ~130 to 115 ka), when Antarctica is now thought to have contributed +4 to +7m of equivalent sea-level rise. Here we use a continental ice sheet-shelf model with new physics accounting for structural failure of large tidewater ice cliffs and the influence of surface meltwater on ice-shelf calving. Coupled with high-resolution atmosphere and ocean components, the model is used to simulate the Antarctic Ice Sheet under Pliocene, LIG, and future conditions. The new model simulates an Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise of ~15m during peak mid-Pliocene warmth and ~4.25m during the LIG, in approximate agreement with (albeit uncertain) geological sea-level indicators. When applied to long-term future simulations assuming extended RCP greenhouse gas emission scenarios and using high resolution atmosphere and ocean components, the same model physics show a dramatic retreat of Antarctic marine-based ice over the next 500 years, beginning within a few decades in the Pine Island Bay sector of West Antarctica. In the most extreme RCP scenarios, subsequent retreat of the Siple Coast margin results in the near-total collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) within a few centuries, followed by retreat into the deep subglacial basins underlying the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Antarctica is shown to contribute up to 9m of sea level rise within the next five centuries. Under such high greenhouse gas conditions, atmospheric warming alone is sufficient to cause substantial ice retreat, without any influence from ocean warming and sub-ice melt. Conversely, in the absence of increasing atmospheric temperatures, very little ocean warming (<0.5 C) is required to trigger substantial WAIS retreat, even if present-day atmospheric temperatures are held

  20. Denudation of the continental shelf between Britain and France at the glacial–interglacial timescale

    PubMed Central

    Mellett, Claire L.; Hodgson, David M.; Plater, Andrew J.; Mauz, Barbara; Selby, Ian; Lang, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The erosional morphology preserved at the sea bed in the eastern English Channel dominantly records denudation of the continental shelf by fluvial processes over multiple glacial–interglacial sea-level cycles rather than by catastrophic flooding through the Straits of Dover during the mid-Quaternary. Here, through the integration of multibeam bathymetry and shallow sub-bottom 2D seismic reflection profiles calibrated with vibrocore records, the first stratigraphic model of erosion and deposition on the eastern English Channel continental shelf is presented. Published Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and 14C ages were used to chronometrically constrain the stratigraphy and allow correlation of the continental shelf record with major climatic/sea-level periods. Five major erosion surfaces overlain by discrete sediment packages have been identified. The continental shelf in the eastern English Channel preserves a record of processes operating from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to MIS 1. Planar and channelised erosion surfaces were formed by fluvial incision during lowstands or relative sea-level fall. The depth and lateral extent of incision was partly conditioned by underlying geology (rock type and tectonic structure), climatic conditions and changes in water and sediment discharge coupled to ice sheet dynamics and the drainage configuration of major rivers in Northwest Europe. Evidence for major erosion during or prior to MIS 6 is preserved. Fluvial sediments of MIS 2 age were identified within the Northern Palaeovalley, providing insights into the scale of erosion by normal fluvial regimes. Seismic and sedimentary facies indicate that deposition predominantly occurred during transgression when accommodation was created in palaeovalleys to allow discrete sediment bodies to form. Sediment reworking over multiple sea-level cycles (Saalian–Eemian–early Weichselian) by fluvial, coastal and marine processes created a multi-lateral, multi-storey succession of

  1. Denudation of the continental shelf between Britain and France at the glacial-interglacial timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellett, Claire L.; Hodgson, David M.; Plater, Andrew J.; Mauz, Barbara; Selby, Ian; Lang, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The erosional morphology preserved at the sea bed in the eastern English Channel dominantly records denudation of the continental shelf by fluvial processes over multiple glacial-interglacial sea-level cycles rather than by catastrophic flooding through the Straits of Dover during the mid-Quaternary. Here, through the integration of multibeam bathymetry and shallow sub-bottom 2D seismic reflection profiles calibrated with vibrocore records, the first stratigraphic model of erosion and deposition on the eastern English Channel continental shelf is presented. Published Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and 14C ages were used to chronometrically constrain the stratigraphy and allow correlation of the continental shelf record with major climatic/sea-level periods. Five major erosion surfaces overlain by discrete sediment packages have been identified. The continental shelf in the eastern English Channel preserves a record of processes operating from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to MIS 1. Planar and channelised erosion surfaces were formed by fluvial incision during lowstands or relative sea-level fall. The depth and lateral extent of incision was partly conditioned by underlying geology (rock type and tectonic structure), climatic conditions and changes in water and sediment discharge coupled to ice sheet dynamics and the drainage configuration of major rivers in Northwest Europe. Evidence for major erosion during or prior to MIS 6 is preserved. Fluvial sediments of MIS 2 age were identified within the Northern Palaeovalley, providing insights into the scale of erosion by normal fluvial regimes. Seismic and sedimentary facies indicate that deposition predominantly occurred during transgression when accommodation was created in palaeovalleys to allow discrete sediment bodies to form. Sediment reworking over multiple sea-level cycles (Saalian-Eemian-early Weichselian) by fluvial, coastal and marine processes created a multi-lateral, multi-storey succession of

  2. Simulating ice core 10Be on the glacial-interglacial timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, C.; Wagenbach, D.; Levin, I.; Stanzick, A.; Christl, M.; Wallner, A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Seierstad, I. K.; Wershofen, H.; Dibb, J.

    2014-02-01

    10Be ice core measurements are an important tool for paleoclimate research, e.g. allowing for the reconstruction of past solar activity or variation in the natural 14C production rate. However, especially on multi-millennial timescales, the share of production and climate induced variations of respective 10Be ice core records is still up to debate. Here we present the first quantitative climatological model of the 10Be ice concentration up to the glacial-interglacial timescale. The model approach is composed of (i) a coarse resolution global atmospheric transport model and (ii) a local 10Be air-firn-transfer model. Extensive global-scale observational data of short-lived radionuclides as well as new polar 10Be snow pit measurements are used for model calibration and validation. Being specifically configured for polar 10Be, this tool thus allows for a straight-forward investigation of production and non-production related modulation of this nuclide. We find that the polar 10Be ice concentration does not record a globally mixed cosmogenic production signal. In fact, the geomagnetic modulation of Greenland 10Be is up to 50% lower than in case of the global atmospheric 10Be inventory. Using geomagnetic modulation and revised Greenland snow accumulation rate changes as model input we simulate the observed Greenland Summit (GRIP and GISP2) 10Be ice core records over the last 75 kyr (on the GICC05modelext timescale). We show that our basic model is capable to reproduce the largest portion of the observed 10Be changes. However, model-measurements differences exhibit multi-millennial oscillations with amplitudes up to 87% of the mean observed Holocene 10Be concentration. Focusing on the (12-37) kyr b2k (before the year 2000 AD) period, mean model-measurements differences of 30% cannot be imputed to production changes. However, unconsidered climate-induced changes could likely explain the model shortcomings. In fact, the 10Be ice concentration is very sensitive to snow

  3. Simulating ice core 10Be on the glacial-interglacial timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, C.; Wagenbach, D.; Levin, I.; Stanzick, A.; Christl, M.; Wallner, A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Seierstad, I. K.; Wershofen, H.; Dibb, J.

    2015-02-01

    10Be ice core measurements are an important tool for paleoclimate research, e.g., allowing for the reconstruction of past solar activity or changes in the geomagnetic dipole field. However, especially on multi-millennial timescales, the share of production and climate-induced variations of respective 10Be ice core records is still up for debate. Here we present the first quantitative climatological model of the 10Be ice concentration up to the glacial-interglacial timescale. The model approach is composed of (i) a coarse resolution global atmospheric transport model and (ii) a local 10Be air-firn transfer model. Extensive global-scale observational data of short-lived radionuclides as well as new polar 10Be snow-pit measurements are used for model calibration and validation. Being specifically configured for 10Be in polar ice, this tool thus allows for a straightforward investigation of production- and non-production-related modulation of this nuclide. We find that the polar 10Be ice concentration does not immediately record the globally mixed cosmogenic production signal. Using geomagnetic modulation and revised Greenland snow accumulation rate changes as model input, we simulate the observed Greenland Summit (GRIP and GISP2) 10Be ice core records over the last 75 kyr (on the GICC05modelext timescale). We show that our basic model is capable of reproducing the largest portion of the observed 10Be changes. However, model-measurement differences exhibit multi-millennial trends (differences up to 87% in case of normalized to the Holocene records) which call for closer investigation. Focusing on the (12-37) b2k (before the year AD 2000) period, mean model-measurement differences of 30% cannot be attributed to production changes. However, unconsidered climate-induced changes could likely explain the model-measurement mismatch. In fact, the 10Be ice concentration is very sensitive to snow accumulation changes. Here the reconstructed Greenland Summit (GRIP) snow

  4. Interglacial genetic diversification of Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated, cloud forest shrub in northern Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; González, Clementina

    2014-08-01

    Recent empirical work on cloud forest-adapted species supports the role of both old divergences across major geographical areas and more recent divergences attributed to Pleistocene climate changes. The shrub Moussonia deppeana is distributed in northern Mesoamerica, with geographically disjunct populations. Based on sampling throughout the species range and employing plastid and nuclear markers, we (i) test whether the fragmented distribution is correlated with main evolutionary lineages, (ii) reconstruct its phylogeographical history to infer the history of cloud forest in northern Mesoamerica and (iii) evaluate a set of refugia/vicariance scenarios for the region and demographic patterns of the populations whose ranges expanded and tracked cloud forest conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum. We found a deep evolutionary split in M. deppeana about 6-3 Ma, which could be consistent with a Pliocene divergence. Comparison of variation in plastid and nuclear markers revealed several lineages mostly congruent with their isolated geographical distribution and restricted gene flow among groups. Results of species distribution modelling and coalescent simulations fit a model of multiple refugia diverging during interglacial cycles. The demographic history of M. deppeana is not consistent with an expanding-contracting cloud forest archipelago model during the Last Glacial Maximum. Instead, our data suggest that populations persisted across the geographical range throughout the glacial cycles, and experienced isolation and divergence during interglacial periods.

  5. Greenland during the last interglacial: the relative importance of insolation and oceanic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rasmus A.; Langen, Peter L.; Vinther, Bo M.

    2016-09-01

    Insolation changes during the Eemian (the last interglacial period, 129 000-116 000 years before present) resulted in warmer than present conditions in the Arctic region. The NEEM ice core record suggests warming of 8 ± 4 K in northwestern Greenland based on stable water isotopes. Here we use general circulation model experiments to investigate the causes of the Eemian warming in Greenland. Simulations of the atmospheric response to combinations of Eemian insolation and preindustrial oceanic conditions and vice versa are used to disentangle the impacts of the insolation change and the related changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions. The changed oceanic conditions cause warming throughout the year, prolonging the impact of the summertime insolation increase. Consequently, the oceanic conditions cause an annual mean warming of 2 K at the NEEM site, whereas the insolation alone causes an insignificant change. Taking the precipitation changes into account, however, the insolation and oceanic changes cause more comparable increases in the precipitation-weighted temperature, implying that both contributions are important for the ice core record at the NEEM site. The simulated Eemian precipitation-weighted warming of 2.4 K at the NEEM site is low compared to the ice core reconstruction, partially due to missing feedbacks related to ice sheet changes and an extensive sea ice cover. Surface mass balance calculations with an energy balance model further indicate that the combination of temperature and precipitation anomalies leads to potential mass loss in the north and southwestern parts of the ice sheet. The oceanic conditions favor increased accumulation in the southeast, while the insolation appears to be the dominant cause of the expected ice sheet reduction. Consequently, the Eemian is not a suitable analogue for future ice sheet changes.

  6. How warm was the last interglacial? New model-data comparisons.

    PubMed

    Otto-Bliesner, Bette L; Rosenbloom, Nan; Stone, Emma J; McKay, Nicholas P; Lunt, Daniel J; Brady, Esther C; Overpeck, Jonathan T

    2013-10-28

    A Community Climate System Model, Version 3 (CCSM3) simulation for 125 ka during the Last Interglacial (LIG) is compared to two recent proxy reconstructions to evaluate surface temperature changes from modern times. The dominant forcing change from modern, the orbital forcing, modified the incoming solar insolation at the top of the atmosphere, resulting in large positive anomalies in boreal summer. Greenhouse gas concentrations are similar to those of the pre-industrial (PI) Holocene. CCSM3 simulates an enhanced seasonal cycle over the Northern Hemisphere continents with warming most developed during boreal summer. In addition, year-round warming over the North Atlantic is associated with a seasonal memory of sea ice retreat in CCSM3, which extends the effects of positive summer insolation anomalies on the high-latitude oceans to winter months. The simulated Arctic terrestrial annual warming, though, is much less than the observational evidence, suggesting either missing feedbacks in the simulation and/or interpretation of the proxies. Over Antarctica, CCSM3 cannot reproduce the large LIG warming recorded by the Antarctic ice cores, even with simulations designed to consider observed evidence of early LIG warmth in Southern Ocean and Antarctica records and the possible disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Comparisons with a HadCM3 simulation indicate that sea ice is important for understanding model polar responses. Overall, the models simulate little global annual surface temperature change, while the proxy reconstructions suggest a global annual warming at LIG (as compared to the PI Holocene) of approximately 1(°)C, though with possible spatial sampling biases. The CCSM3 SRES B1 (low scenario) future projections suggest high-latitude warmth similar to that reconstructed for the LIG may be exceeded before the end of this century.

  7. [Application of the network thermodynamics to interpretation of membrane transport: evaluation of the resistance coefficients of the polymeric membrane in polarization concentration conditions].

    PubMed

    Slyzak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The Kedem-Katchalsky equations, derived using symmetric transformation of the Peusner's network transformation, to interpretation of transport through Nephrophan membrane of glucose aqueous solutions in concentration polarization conditions were employed. The values of Rij* (i does not equal j = 1, 2) coefficients were calculated. From these calculations it results that, the values of coefficients R11*, R12* = R21* and R22* are nonlinear dependent as well as on concentration of solutions (C) and configuration of membrane system.

  8. Research of beam conditioning technologies using continuous phase plate, Multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Jia, Huaiting; Tian, Xiaocheng; Yuan, Haoyu; Zhu, Na; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-10-01

    In the research of inertial confinement fusion, laser plasma interaction (LPI) is becoming a key problem that affects ignition. Here, multi-frequency modulation (Multi-FM) smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), continuous phase plate (CPP) and polarization smoothing (PS) were experimentally studied and implemented on the SG-III laser facility. After using these techniques, the far field distribution of SG-Ⅲ laser facility can be adjusted, controlled and repeated accurately. The output spectrums of the cascade phase modulators used for Multi-FM SSD were stable and the FM-to-AM effect can be restrained. Experiments on SG-III laser facility indicate that when the number of color cycles adopts 1, imposing SSD with 3.3 times diffraction limit (TDL) did not lead to pinhole closure in the spatial filters of preamplifier and main amplifiers with 30-TDL pinhole size. The nonuniformity of the focal spots using Multi-FM SSD, CPP and PS drops to 0.18, comparing to 0.26 with CPP+SSD, 0.57 with CPP+PS and 0.84 with only CPP and wedged lens. Polarization smoothing using flat birefringent plate in the convergent beam of final optics assembly (FOA) was studied. The PS plates were manufactured and equipped on SG-III laser facility for LPI research. Combined beam smoothing and polarization manipulation were also studied to solve the LPI problem. Results indicate that through adjusting dispersion directions of SSD beams in a quad, two dimensional SSD can be obtained. Using polarization control plate (PCP), polarization on the near field and far field can be manipulated, providing new method to solve LPI problem in indirect drive laser fusion.

  9. The Last Interglacial in the Levant: Perspective from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Torfstein, A.; Stein, M.; Kushnir, Y.; Enzel, Y.; Haug, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Sediments recovered by the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project provide a new perspective on the climate history of the Levant during the last interglacial period MIS5. They record the extreme impacts of an intense interglacial characterized by stronger insolation, warmer mean global temperatures, and higher sea-levels than the Holocene. Results show both extreme hyper-aridity during MIS5e, including an unprecedented drawdown of Dead Sea water levels, and the impacts of a strong precession-driven African monsoon responsible for a major sapropel event (S5) in the eastern Mediterranean. Hyper-arid conditions at the beginning of MIS5e prior to S5 (~132-128 ka) are evidenced by halite deposition, indicating declining Dead Sea lake levels. Surprisingly, the hyper-arid phase is interrupted during the MIS5e peak (~128-120 ka), coinciding with the S5 sapropel, which is characterized by a thick (23 m) section of silty detritus (without any halite) whose provenance indicates southern-sourced wetness in the watershed. Upon weakening of the S5 monsoon (~120-115 ka), the return of extreme aridity resulted in an unprecedented lake level drawdown, reflected by massive salt deposition, and followed by a sediment hiatus (~115-100 ka) indicating prolonged low lake level. The resumption of section follows classic Levant patterns with more wetness during cooler MIS5b and hyper-aridity during warmer MIS5a. The ICDP core provides the first evidence for a direct linkage between an intense precession-driven African monsoon and wetness at the high subtropical latitude (~30N) of the Dead Sea watershed. Combined with coeval deposition of Negev speleothems and travertines, and calcitification of Red Sea corals, the evidence indicates a wet climatic corridor that could facilitate homo sapiens migration out of Africa during the MIS5e peak. In addition, the MIS 5e hyper-arid intervals may provide an important cautionary analogue for the impact of future warming on regional water resources.

  10. Southern Ocean Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Fields during the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esper, O.; Gersonde, R.; Lohmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    Diatom assemblages preserved in 18 sediment cores recovered in the eastern Indian, Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean are used for the reconstruction of the variability of summer sea surface temperature (SSST) and sea ice concentration during the Last Interglacial (LIG) or Marine Isotope Stage 5 (MIS 5). The large coverage of the core sites allows for reconstructions on latitudinal and longitudinal transects across the Southern Ocean and thus for the comparison of the environmental signal evolution in different sedimentary basins of the Southern Ocean. Such information is crucial for the understanding of climate signal propagation in the Southern Ocean and on inter-hemispheric scale. The quantitative temperature and sea ice records are derived with newly established diatom-based transfer functions at millennial to centennial resolution. Stratigraphic age assignment relies on a combination of oxygen isotope stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, core-core correlation using physical, geochemical and microfossil abundance pattern together with a tuning of sediment core signals with climate records in Antarctic ice cores. All records display a rapid transition from glacial (MIS 6) to MIS 5 conditions to reach maximum temperatures in the latest MIS 6/MIS 5 transition (Termination II) and the early LIG attributed to MIS 5.5. The amplitude of the SSST change is up to 5°C, with generally smaller values in the Pacific sector. During this period Southern Ocean temperature may exceed modern surface temperatures by up to 3°C and the winter sea ice edge is located south of the modern ice edge. Higher resolution cores display short-term temperature rebounds during the Termination II warming. Such cold rebounds are not discerned in the ice core records. The Southern Ocean warming could be triggered by precessional changes influencing high latitude summer insolation and potentially be accelerated by feedback mechanisms such as the reduction of surface albedo (sea ice

  11. Southern Ocean surface temperature and sea ice fields during the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esper, Oliver; Gersonde, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Diatom assemblages preserved in 16 sediment cores recovered in the eastern Indian, Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean are used for the reconstruction of the variability of summer sea surface temperature (SSST) and sea ice concentration during the Last Interglacial (LIG) or Marine Isotope Stage 5 (MIS 5). The large coverage of the core sites allows for reconstructions on latitudinal and longitudinal transects across the Southern Ocean and thus for the comparison of the environmental signal evolution in different sedimentary basins of the Southern Ocean. Such information is crucial for the understanding of climate signal propagation in the Southern Ocean and on inter-hemispheric scale. The quantitative temperature and sea ice records are derived with newly established diatom-based transfer functions at millennial to centennial resolution. Stratigraphic age assignment relies on a combination of oxygen isotope stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, core-core correlation using physical, geochemical and microfossil abundance pattern together with a tuning of sediment core signals with climate records in Antarctic ice cores. All records display a rapid transition from glacial (MIS 6) to MIS 5 conditions to reach maximum temperatures in the latest MIS 6/MIS 5 transition (Termination II) and the early LIG attributed to MIS 5.5. The amplitude of the SSST change is up to 5°C, with generally smaller values in the Pacific sector. During this period Southern Ocean temperature may exceed modern surface temperatures by up to 3°C and the winter sea ice edge is located south of the modern ice edge. Higher resolution cores display short-term temperature rebounds during the Termination II warming. Such cold rebounds are not discerned in the ice core records. The Southern Ocean warming could be triggered by precessional changes influencing high latitude summer insolation and potentially be accelerated by feedback mechanisms such as the reduction of surface albedo (sea ice

  12. Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical Atlantic corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocas, William M.; Felis, Thomas; Obert, J. Christina; Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Denis; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructions of last interglacial (LIG, MIS 5e, ∼127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a period partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. We present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). These have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 120 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) temperature proxy records. In conjunction with a previously published 118 ka coral record, our eight records of up to 37 years in length, cover a total of 105 years within the LIG period. From these, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality and variability in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to modern SST seasonality of ∼2.9 °C during the early (130 ka) and the late LIG (120-118 ka). However, within the mid-LIG, a significantly higher than modern SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the LIG, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this period. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our LIG coral Sr/Ca records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North Atlantic. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-LIG is caused primarily by summer warming. A 124 ka old coral documents, for the first time, evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North Atlantic during the LIG, akin to that observed in modern instrumental records.

  13. Model-Paleodata analysis of an orbitally driven mechanism for the onset of the warmest interglacials like MIS 11, 31, 49 etc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, R.; Deconto, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global climate during Quaternary and Late Pliocene (present-3.1 Ma) is characterized by alternating glacial and interglacial conditions. Recently, several interglacials have been identified as warmer than others, like 9, 11, 31, 49, 55, 77, 87 and 91, and are termed as "Superinterglacials". Our proposed theory associates these superinterglacials with variations in the behavior of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice sheets with respect to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) ice sheets. At lower eccentricities, with the effect of precession being minimal, the NH ice sheets vary in-phase with SH. At higher eccentricities, NH ice sheets vary out-of-phase with SH ice sheets and are forced by precession driven local insolation changes. Model results indicate that during periods of low eccentricity, favorable forcing (high obliquity, high CO2) leads to unusually long interglacial conditions in both NH and SH. Using an ensemble of GCM simulations covering MIS 11, 31 and 49 we show that SH ice-sheets follow boreal summer insolation at lower eccentricities, switching to austral summer insolation at higher eccentricities. This switch provides the necessary orbital forcing for prolonged interglacial climates, much longer than expected from global oxygen isotope records. The prolonged warm conditions in the SH preconditions the poles to produce a large response during the superinterglacials. Recent paleodata studies have shown the existence of such extra-long interglacials in the NH during MIS 15-13 (preceding MIS 11) using grain-size records from Chinese loess (Q Hao, 2015). In this study we work with a collection of paleoclimate records though Pleistocene and correlate with our modeling results. Global records such as benthic δ18O capture the integrated signals of ice volume from both hemispheres, making it difficult to isolate the behaviour of the NH and SH ice sheets. Hence we focus on paleodata records, which capture the NH and SH ice volume signals individually, like the Chinese

  14. A probabilistic assessment of sea level variations within the last interglacial stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Simons, Frederik J.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Maloof, Adam C.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The last interglacial stage (LIG; ca. 130-115 ka) provides a relatively recent example of a world with both poles characterized by greater-than-Holocene temperatures similar to those expected later in this century under a range of greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Previous analyses inferred that LIG mean global sea level (GSL) peaked 6-9 m higher than today. Here, we extend our earlier work to perform a probabilistic assessment of sea level variability within the LIG highstand. Using the terminology for probability employed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports, we find it extremely likely (95 per cent probability) that the palaeo-sea level record allows resolution of at least two intra-LIG sea level peaks and likely (67 per cent probability) that the magnitude of low-to-high swings exceeded 4 m. Moreover, it is likely that there was a period during the LIG in which GSL rose at a 1000-yr average rate exceeding 3 m kyr-1, but unlikely (33 per cent probability) that the rate exceeded 7 m kyr-1 and extremely unlikely (5 per cent probability) that it exceeded 11 m kyr-1. These rate estimates can provide insight into rates of Greenland and/or Antarctic melt under climate conditions partially analogous to those expected in the 21st century.

  15. Sea ice-associated decline in body condition leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-01-15

    Global climate changes are magnified in the Arctic and are having an especially dramatic effect on the spatial and temporal distribution and the thickness traits of sea ice. Decline of Arctic sea ice may lead to qualitative and/or quantitative changes in diet and reduced body condition (i.e. adipose tissue stores) of ice-associated apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). This may further affect their tissue concentrations of lipophilic pollutants. We determined how variations in adipose tissue stores associated to both breeding status and spatial changes in sea ice conditions and diet influence concentrations and biotransformation of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We collected 112 blood and fat samples from female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of different breeding status (alone, with cubs of the year, or with yearlings) during two seasons (April and September) in 2012 and 2013 at three locations of Svalbard, Norway, with contrasted sea ice conditions. We inferred diet from nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in red blood cells and fatty acid composition in adipose tissue. Relative to diet, body condition, which was negatively related to sea ice extent at both temporal and spatial scales, was the most important predictor for concentrations of POPs in plasma and fat, whereas diet showed a minor influence. Additionally, fatter females were more efficient at biotransforming PCBs than were leaner ones. Breeding status influenced the concentrations of less lipophilic compounds such as β-hexachlorocyclohexane, which were lower in females with yearlings, probably due to excretion into milk and subsequent offloading to young. In conclusion, our results indicate that declining sea ice indirectly leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears mediated through reduced feeding opportunities and declining body condition rather than changes in diet composition.

  16. Comparative analysis of electric field influence on the quantum wells with different boundary conditions.: I. Energy spectrum, quantum information entropy and polarization.

    PubMed

    Olendski, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the one-dimensional quantum well with all possible permutations of the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions (BCs) in perpendicular to the interfaces uniform electric field [Formula: see text] are used for the comparative investigation of their interaction and its influence on the properties of the system. Limiting cases of the weak and strong voltages allow an easy mathematical treatment and its clear physical explanation; in particular, for the small [Formula: see text], the perturbation theory derives for all geometries a linear dependence of the polarization on the field with the BC-dependent proportionality coefficient being positive (negative) for the ground (excited) states. Simple two-level approximation elementary explains the negative polarizations as a result of the field-induced destructive interference of the unperturbed modes and shows that in this case the admixture of only the neighboring states plays a dominant role. Different magnitudes of the polarization for different BCs in this regime are explained physically and confirmed numerically. Hellmann-Feynman theorem reveals a fundamental relation between the polarization and the speed of the energy change with the field. It is proved that zero-voltage position entropies [Formula: see text] are BC independent and for all states but the ground Neumann level (which has [Formula: see text]) are equal to [Formula: see text] while the momentum entropies [Formula: see text] depend on the edge requirements and the level. Varying electric field changes position and momentum entropies in the opposite directions such that the entropic uncertainty relation is satisfied. Other physical quantities such as the BC-dependent zero-energy and zero-polarization fields are also studied both numerically and analytically. Applications to different branches of physics, such as ocean fluid dynamics and atmospheric and metallic waveguide electrodynamics, are discussed.

  17. Determining optimum operating conditions of the polarization-maintaining fiber with two far-lying zero dispersion wavelengths for CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Naji, Majid; Murugkar, Sangeeta; Anis, Hanan

    2014-05-05

    Single femtosecond laser-based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) pumped in the near-IR to generate a supercontinuum for the Stokes source, is rapidly being adopted as a cost-effective approach. A PCF with two closely-lying zero dispersion wavelengths is a popular choice for the Stokes source, but it is often limited to imaging lipids. A polarization-maintaining PCF with two far-lying zero dispersion wavelengths offers important advantages for polarization CARS microscopy, and for CARS imaging in the fingerprint region. This PCF fiber, though commercially available, has limited use for CARS microscopy in the C-H bond region. The main problem is that the supercontinuum from this fiber is typically noisier than that from a standard PCF with two closely-lying zero dispersion wavelengths. To overcome this, we determined the optimum operating conditions for generating a low-noise supercontinuum out of a PCF with two far-lying zero dispersion wavelengths, in terms of the input parameters of the excitation pulse. We measured the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the Stokes and the corresponding CARS signal as a function of the input laser parameters in this fiber. We showed that the results of CARS imaging using this alternate fiber are comparable to those achieved using the standard fiber, for input laser pulse conditions of low average power, narrow pulse width with slightly positive chirp, and polarization direction parallel to the slow axis of the selected fiber.

  18. Impact of oceanic circulation changes on the CO2 concentration during past interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouttes, Nathaelle; Swingedouw, Didier; Crosta, Xavier; Fernanda Sanchez Goñi, Maria; Roche, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Interglacials before the Mid-Bruhnes Event (around 430 kyrs BP) were characterized by colder temperature in Antarctica, lower sea level and lower atmospheric CO2 compared to the more recent interglacials. Recent climate simulations have shown that the climate of the interglacials before and after the MBE can only be reproduced when taking into account changes in orbital parameters and atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Yin and Berger, 2010; Yin and Berger, 2012). Indeed, interglacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations were ~250 ppm and ~280 ppm prior and after the MBE, respectively. Yet, the cause for this change in atmospheric CO2 remains mainly unknown. climate simulations suggest that oceanic circulation was different during the interglacials due to the different climate states (Yin, 2013). The changes of oceanic circulation could have modified the carbon cycle: a more sluggish circulation would lead to greater carbon sequestration in the deep ocean and, subsequently, a decrease of atmospheric CO2. However, the impact of oceanic circulation changes on the carbon cycle during the interglacials of the last 800 kyrs has never been tested in coupled carbon-climate models. Here, we evaluate the role of ocean circulation changes on the carbon cycle during interglacials by using the intermediate complexity model iLOVECLIM (Goosse et al., 2010 ; Bouttes et al., 2015). This model includes a carbon cycle module on land and in the ocean and simulates carbon isotopes. The interglacial simulations are forced with orbital parameters, ice sheets and CO2 concentrations from data reconstructions. The model computes carbon fluxes between the reservoirs and an atmospheric CO2 that is distinct from the one used as a forcing. We will present simulations from this climate model for different interglacial periods of the last 800 000 years and use model-data comparison to analyse and evaluate the changes in the carbon cycle, including CO2. References Bouttes, N. et al. (2015), Geosci. Model

  19. Multilocus phylogeography of the European ground squirrel: cryptic interglacial refugia of continental climate in Europe.

    PubMed

    Říčanová, Štěpánka; Koshev, Yordan; Říčan, Oldřich; Ćosić, Nada; Ćirović, Duško; Sedláček, František; Bryja, Josef

    2013-08-01

    The theory of classical and cryptic Pleistocene refugia is based mainly on historical changes in temperature, and the refugia are usually defined within a latitudinal gradient. However, the gradient of oceanic-continental climate (i.e. longitudinal) was also significantly variable during glacial cycles with important biotic consequences. Range-wide phylogeography of the European ground squirrel (EGS) was used to interpret the evolutionary and palaeogeographical history of the species in Europe and to shed light on its glacial-interglacial dynamic. The EGS is a steppe-inhabiting species and the westernmost member of the genus in the Palaearctic region. We have analysed 915 specimens throughout the present natural range by employing mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b gene) and 12 nuclear microsatellite markers. The reconstructed phylogeography divides the species into two main geographical groups, with deep substructuring within both groups. Bulgaria is the centre of the ancestral area, and it also has the highest genetic diversity within the species. The northernmost group of the EGS survived in the southern part of Pannonia throughout several glacial-interglacial cycles. Animals from this population probably repeatedly colonized areas further to the north and west during the glacial periods, while in the interglacial periods, the EGS distribution contracted back to this Pannonian refugium. The EGS thus represents a species with a glacial expansion/interglacial contraction palaeogeographical dynamics, and the Pannonian and southeastern Balkanian steppes are supported as cryptic refugia of continental climate during Pleistocene interglacials.

  20. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Max D.; Sime, Louise C.; Singarayer, Joy S.; Tindall, Julia C.; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming. PMID:27526639

  1. U-series evidence for two high Last Interglacial sea levels in southeastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedoui, Younes; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Kallel, Nejib; Montacer, Mabrouk; Ismaı̈l, Hedi Ben; Davaud, Eric

    2003-02-01

    Pleistocene raised marine deposits in southeastern Tunisia consist of a siliciclastic unit that culminates at +3 m asl, overlain by a carbonate-rich unit with Strombus bubonius that culminates at +5 m asl. 234U/ 238U ratios on fossil Ostraea shells from both units are compatible with a marine origin from the uranium incorporated into the shells and show narrowly clustered 230Th-ages, respectively, between 147 and 110 ka and 141 and 100 ka. The two units were therefore developed during Marine Isotopic Substage 5e (MISs 5e, Last Interglacial). Their heights are comparable to those of contemporaneous marine deposits found in many tectonically stable areas of the world such as in the Bahamas and in Bermuda and can therefore be used as indicators of eustatic changes during the Last Interglacial. It is argued that on the basis of this evidence, the Last Interglacial was characterised by two eustatic maxima.

  2. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Max D; Sime, Louise C; Singarayer, Joy S; Tindall, Julia C; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J

    2016-08-16

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming.

  3. Glacial-interglacial organic carbon record from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia: Implications for regional changes in continental vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visser, K.; Thunell, R.; Goni, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies convincingly show that climate in the Western Pacific Warm Pool and other equatorial/tropical regions was significantly colder (by ???3-4??C) during glacial periods, prompting a reexamination of the late Pleistocene paleoenvironments of these regions. This study examines changes in continental vegetation during the last two deglaciations (Terminations I and II) using a sediment core (MD9821-62) recovered from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia. Evidence based on the lignin phenol ratios suggests that vegetation on Borneo and other surrounding islands did not significantly change from tropical rainforest during the last two glacial periods relative to subsequent interglacial periods. This supports the hypothesis that the winter monsoon increased in strength during glacial periods, allowing Indonesia to maintain high rainfall despite the cooler conditions. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thorium-230 ages of corals and duration of the last interglacial sea-level high stand on Aohu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Thorium-230 ages of emergent marine deposits on Oahu, Hawaii, have a uniform distribution of ages from ~114,000 to ~131,000 years, indicating a duration for the last interglacial sea-level high stand of ~17,000 years, in contrast to a duration of ~8000 years inferred from the orbitally tuned marine oxygen isotope record. Sea level on Oahu rose to ??? 1 to 2 meters higher than present by 131,000 years ago or ~6000 years earlier than inferred from the marine record. Although the latter record suggests a shift back to glacial conditions beginning at ~119,000 years ago, the Oahu coral ages indicate a near present sea level until ~114,000 years ago.

  5. Permafrost response to last interglacial warming: field evidence from non-glaciated Yukon and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Alberto V.; Froese, Duane G.; Jensen, Britta J. L.

    2010-11-01

    We present stratigraphic observations from three sites in eastern Beringia - Ch'ijee's Bluff in northern Yukon and nearby exposures on the Old Crow River, the Palisades on the Yukon River in Alaska, and placer mining exposures at Thistle Creek in west-central Yukon - which provide insight into the response of permafrost to regional warming during the last interglaciation. Chronology is based on the presence of Old Crow tephra, an important regional stratigraphic marker that dates to late Marine Isotope Stage 6, supplemented by paleoecology and non-finite 14C ages on wood-rich organic silts. Old Crow tephra overlies several relict ice wedges at the Palisades and Thistle Creek, indicating that permafrost at these sites did not thaw completely during the last interglaciation. Prominent deposits of last interglacial wood-rich organic silt are present at multiple sites in eastern Beringia, and probably represent accumulations of reworked forest vegetation due to thaw slumping or deposition into thermokarst ponds or depressions. Consistent stratigraphic relations between these deposits, Old Crow tephra, and ice wedge pseudomorphs at our three study sites, and at least six other sites in eastern Beringia, suggest that thaw of shallow permafrost was widespread during the last interglaciation. Limited stratigraphic evidence suggests that thaw was probably on the order of meters, rather than 10s of meters. The ubiquity of shallow permafrost degradation during the last interglaciation suggests that current ground warming may foreshadow widespread near-surface thaw under even modest future warming scenarios. However, the persistence of relict pre-last interglacial ice wedges highlights the potential for the regional antiquity of discontinuous permafrost, and provides compelling field evidence for the long-term resilience of deep permafrost during sustained periods of warmer-than-present climate.

  6. Insect-Based Holocene (and Last Interglacial?) Paleothermometry from the E and NW Greenland Ice Sheet Margins: A Fly's-Eye View of Warmth on Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, Y.; Bigl, M.; Carrio, C.; Corbett, L. B.; Francis, D. R.; Hall, B. L.; Kelly, M. A.; Levy, L.; Lowell, T. V.; Osterberg, E. C.; Richter, N.; Roy, E.; Schellinger, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    Here we present new paleotemperature reconstructions based upon insect (Chironomidae) assemblages and other proxies from lake sediment cores recovered in east Greenland at ~71° N near Scoresby Sund and in northwest Greenland at ~77° N near Thule/Qaanaaq. In east Greenland, Last Chance Lake (informal name) is a small, non-glacial lake situated ~90 km east of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. The lake preserves a sedimentary record of the entire Holocene (Levy et al. 2013). Chironomids from Last Chance Lake record cold summer temperatures (and establishment of a cold-climate fauna including abundant Oliveridia and Pseudodiamesa) during the late Holocene, preceded by summer temperatures estimated to have been 3 to 6°C warmer during the first half of the Holocene (when summer insolation forcing was greater than today). In northwest Greenland, Delta Sø and Wax Lips Lake (informal name) both preserve Holocene sediments. Here we discuss the late Holocene chironomid record from Delta Sø, whereas from Wax Lips Lake (a small, non-glacial lake situated ~2 km west of the ice sheet margin) we present a longer sedimentary and biostratigraphic record. The deeper portions of cores from Wax Lips Lake yield pre-Holocene and nonfinite radiocarbon ages, suggesting that this lake preserves sediments predating the Last Glacial Maximum. Abundant chironomids in the pre-glacial sediments appear to record interglacial conditions, and we infer that these sediments may date to the Last Interglacial (Eemian). The preservation of in situ Last Interglacial lacustrine sediments so close to the modern ice sheet margin suggests a minimally erosive glacierization style throughout the last glacial period, like that inferred for other Arctic locales such as on Baffin Island (Briner et al. 2007), ~750 km southwest of our study site. Our study sites are situated nearby key ice core sites (including NEEM, Camp Century, Agassiz and Renland) and very close to the ice sheet margin. These chironomid

  7. Insect-Based Holocene (and Last Interglacial?) Paleothermometry from the E and NW Greenland Ice Sheet Margins: A Fly's-Eye View of Warmth on Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, Y.; Bigl, M.; Carrio, C.; Corbett, L. B.; Francis, D. R.; Hall, B. L.; Kelly, M. A.; Levy, L.; Lowell, T. V.; Osterberg, E. C.; Richter, N.; Roy, E.; Schellinger, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present new paleotemperature reconstructions based upon insect (Chironomidae) assemblages and other proxies from lake sediment cores recovered in east Greenland at ~71° N near Scoresby Sund and in northwest Greenland at ~77° N near Thule/Qaanaaq. In east Greenland, Last Chance Lake (informal name) is a small, non-glacial lake situated ~90 km east of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. The lake preserves a sedimentary record of the entire Holocene (Levy et al. 2013). Chironomids from Last Chance Lake record cold summer temperatures (and establishment of a cold-climate fauna including abundant Oliveridia and Pseudodiamesa) during the late Holocene, preceded by summer temperatures estimated to have been 3 to 6°C warmer during the first half of the Holocene (when summer insolation forcing was greater than today). In northwest Greenland, Delta Sø and Wax Lips Lake (informal name) both preserve Holocene sediments. Here we discuss the late Holocene chironomid record from Delta Sø, whereas from Wax Lips Lake (a small, non-glacial lake situated ~2 km west of the ice sheet margin) we present a longer sedimentary and biostratigraphic record. The deeper portions of cores from Wax Lips Lake yield pre-Holocene and nonfinite radiocarbon ages, suggesting that this lake preserves sediments predating the Last Glacial Maximum. Abundant chironomids in the pre-glacial sediments appear to record interglacial conditions, and we infer that these sediments may date to the Last Interglacial (Eemian). The preservation of in situ Last Interglacial lacustrine sediments so close to the modern ice sheet margin suggests a minimally erosive glacierization style throughout the last glacial period, like that inferred for other Arctic locales such as on Baffin Island (Briner et al. 2007), ~750 km southwest of our study site. Our study sites are situated nearby key ice core sites (including NEEM, Camp Century, Agassiz and Renland) and very close to the ice sheet margin. These chironomid

  8. The duration of forest stages in southern Europe and interglacial climate variability.

    PubMed

    Tzedakis, P C; Roucoux, K H; de Abreu, L; Shackleton, N J

    2004-12-24

    Foraminiferal oxygen isotope and pollen analyses from a deep-sea sequence off southwest Portugal show that the duration of temperate stages on land over the past 350,000 years varied considerably. The record shows forest contractions during intervals of low ice volume, coeval with declines in atmospheric methane, after which tree populations did not always recover. What emerges is that, although the broad timing of interglacials is consistent with orbital theory, their specific duration may be dictated by millennial variability. This complicates the prediction of the natural duration of interglacials, at least until the origin of this climate variability is understood.

  9. Interglacial climate in the tropical West Pacific through the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meckler, A. N.; Clarkson, M.; Adkins, J. F.; Eiler, J.; Cobb, K.

    2010-12-01

    The tropical West Pacific is the warmest region of the oceans and therefore an important source of heat and moisture for higher latitudes. The aim of this study is to better understand the forcings and responses of tropical West Pacific climate on glacial-interglacial timescales and its role during large global climate shifts. We analyzed three stalagmites from different caves in Northern Borneo (4°N, 115°E) for their oxygen isotopic composition. The tropical climate of Borneo results in year-round precipitation, with ENSO being the most important source of inter-annual variability in precipitation today. Available oxygen isotope data for precipitation at our site suggest a negative correlation between amount and δ18O of precipitation, as well as a secondary influence of the trajectory of air masses to Northern Borneo (Cobb et al. 2007). The samples we studied cover the time period from 170 ka to roughly 500 ka (MIS 7 to MIS 13). Although all three speleothems contain growth hiatuses, the data reveal clear glacial-interglacial cycles in δ18O. Maximal amplitudes of δ18O are around 3-4‰, with the most positive values occurring at the beginning of glacial terminations, very similar to the last deglaciation (Partin et al. 2007). Cave temperatures were reconstructed in selected glacial and interglacial intervals by carbonate isotopologue (‘clumped isotope’) measurements. While most speleothems analyzed so far have been out of equilibrium with respect to clumped isotopes, we found that in one of our caves in Borneo modern carbonate appears to have grown at or close to equilibrium. The data from the respective old sample suggest that there was no significant glacial-interglacial change in cave temperature within our errors of ±1°C (1 s.e.). This result implies that temperature change was not an important control for carbonate δ18O. The variability in δ18O is therefore likely due to a combination of changes in source water δ18O and variations in local and

  10. Large-amplitude, circularly polarized, compressive, obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves throughout the Earth's magnetosheath: low plasma β conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Echer, E.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2014-09-20

    During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ∼14 nT (peak to peak) in a ∼55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (∼55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (θ{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ∘}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma β (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-β plasma.

  11. Glacial-interglacial Variations of Molybdenum Isotopes in the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, C.; Frank, M.; Scholz, F.

    2015-12-01

    Mo isotopes have been widely used as a tool to constrain redox-conditions during major global events such as the oxygenation of the oceans in the Precambrian and Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Events. In addition, Mo isotopes have considerable, yet underexplored potential to quantitatively track local redox-variation at high resolution on shorter timescales. Here we present data from piston core M77/2-024-5 that was retrieved in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone in the context of Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 754 of the Deutsche Forschungs Gemeinschaft (DFG). The age model for this core is well constrained and the core covers the last 140 ka with a hiatus between 20 and 50 ky BP. The oxygen minimum zone along the Peru continental margin is thought to have been better ventilated and therefore less pronounced during glacial periods compared to interglacials. Concentrations of redox-sensitive trace elements show high-amplitude changes and indicate periods of strongly sulphidic conditions with high Mo fixation rate and oxygenated periods with limited Mo fixation (Scholz et al 2014). Mo isotopes do not show straightforward correlations with elemental redox tracers and are only weakly correlated with Mo/U and total organic carbon (TOC). However, Mo isotopes become significantly heavier around the last glacial maximum (Δ98Mo of 0.4 permil). The observed signatures indicate that the Mo isotope composition is dominated by changes in the operating Mo delivery mechanism, i.e. particulate transport versus molecular diffusion. Our results suggest that Mo isotopes can track local redox variation therefore adding to our understanding of this complex indicator for marine environmental change. Scholz et al., (2014), Nature Geosciences, Vol. 7, Pages 433-437

  12. Vegetation responses to abrupt climatic changes during the Last Interglacial Complex (Marine Isotope Stage 5) at Tenaghi Philippon, NE Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, A. M.; Roucoux, K. H.; Collier, R. E. L.; Müller, U. C.; Pross, J.; Tzedakis, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    The discovery that climate variability during the Last Glacial shifted rapidly between climate states has intensified efforts to understand the distribution, timing and impact of abrupt climate change under a wide range of boundary conditions. In contribution to this, we investigate the nature of abrupt environmental changes in terrestrial settings of the Mediterranean region during the Last Interglacial Complex (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 5) and explore the relationships of these changes to high-latitude climate events. We present a new, temporally highly resolved (mean: 170 years) pollen record for the Last Interglacial Complex from Tenaghi Philippon, north-east Greece. The new pollen record, which spans the interval from 130,000 to 65,000 years ago, forms part of an exceptionally long polleniferous sediment archive covering the last 1.35 million years. The pollen data reveal an interglacial followed by alternating forest and steppe phases representing the interstadials and stadials of the Early Glacial. Superimposed on these millennial-scale changes is evidence of persistent sub-millennial-scale variability. We identify ten high-amplitude abrupt events in the pollen record, characterised by rapid contractions of closed forest to open steppe environment and interpreted to indicate major changes in moisture availability and temperature. The contractions in forest cover on millennial timescales appear associated with cooling events in the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic and Greenland regions, linked to the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles of the Early Glacial. On sub-millennial timescales, the pattern of changes in forest cover at Tenaghi Philippon display a structure similar to the pattern of short-lived precursor and rebound-type events detected in the Greenland ice-core record. Our findings indicate that persistent, high-amplitude environmental variability occurred throughout the Early Glacial, on both millennial and submillennial timescales. Furthermore, the

  13. The Role of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific in Carbon Sequestration and Ventilation over the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umling, N. E.; Thunell, R.

    2015-12-01

    The last glacial-interglacial transition is punctuated by brief periods of rapid return to glacial-like conditions followed by abrupt warmings. Ice core records reveal episodes of rapid increases in CO2 and synchronous decreases in Δ14C that co-occur with these abrupt warmings (Hughen et al., 2000; Fairbanks et al., 2005). As the largest mobile carbon reservoir, the deep oceans have been implicated as the most likely source of this 14C-deplete CO2. Records of benthic radiocarbon offsets from the atmosphere provide evidence of intermediate depth ventilation of a 14C-deplete reservoir during deglaciation. However, modeling studies focusing on ocean circulation changes alone are unable to replicate the full-observed glacial-interglacial CO2 change. Changes in the biological pump could provide an additional mechanism contributing to the glacial drawdown and deglacial release of CO2. The Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) is currently responsible for ~10% of global ocean primary productivity and is strongly connected to the Southern Ocean (Pennington et al., 2006) making it ideally suited for studying past changes in the biological pump. This study uses a multi-proxy approach to investigate the role of carbonate compensation and export productivity over the last 26,000yrs. Intermediate to deep-water transects of B/Ca, Cd/Ca, and U/Ca for the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuelerstorfi were developed from 7 EEP cores (1620-3200m water-depth) extending from 8.2°N to 2.3°S in the Panama Basin. The fraction of calcite dissolved was estimated for high-resolution core TR163-23 (2,730m; 0.41°N, 92.16°W) using the G. menardii fractionation index (MFI) (Mekik et al., 2002). A record of benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon offsets from the atmosphere was also developed for TR163-23 providing a larger picture of the relative role of both ventilation and the biological pump in changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last glacial-interglacial transition.

  14. Interglacial climate dynamics and advanced time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, Manfred; Bermejo, Miguel; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2013-04-01

    Studying the climate dynamics of past interglacials (IGs) helps to better assess the anthropogenically influenced dynamics of the current IG, the Holocene. We select the IG portions from the EPICA Dome C ice core archive, which covers the past 800 ka, to apply methods of statistical time series analysis (Mudelsee 2010). The analysed variables are deuterium/H (indicating temperature) (Jouzel et al. 2007), greenhouse gases (Siegenthaler et al. 2005, Loulergue et al. 2008, L¨ü thi et al. 2008) and a model-co-derived climate radiative forcing (Köhler et al. 2010). We select additionally high-resolution sea-surface-temperature records from the marine sedimentary archive. The first statistical method, persistence time estimation (Mudelsee 2002) lets us infer the 'climate memory' property of IGs. Second, linear regression informs about long-term climate trends during IGs. Third, ramp function regression (Mudelsee 2000) is adapted to look on abrupt climate changes during IGs. We compare the Holocene with previous IGs in terms of these mathematical approaches, interprete results in a climate context, assess uncertainties and the requirements to data from old IGs for yielding results of 'acceptable' accuracy. This work receives financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Project ClimSens within the DFG Research Priority Program INTERDYNAMIK) and the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme). References Jouzel J, Masson-Delmotte V, Cattani O, Dreyfus G, Falourd S, Hoffmann G, Minster B, Nouet J, Barnola JM, Chappellaz J, Fischer H, Gallet JC, Johnsen S, Leuenberger M, Loulergue L, Luethi D, Oerter H, Parrenin F, Raisbeck G, Raynaud D, Schilt A, Schwander J, Selmo E, Souchez R, Spahni R, Stauffer B, Steffensen JP, Stenni B, Stocker TF, Tison JL, Werner M, Wolff EW (2007) Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800,000 years. Science 317:793. Köhler P, Bintanja R

  15. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-01-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d* for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d > d* is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d-pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ. From the measured d-patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d > d*. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (−5° ≤ θ < 0°) during twilight, P = 76.17 ± 4.18% for dmin∗=23% under clear sky conditions. Consequently, the sky-polarimetric Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for perception of Haidinger

  16. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-02-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d* for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d > d* is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d-pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ. From the measured d-patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d > d*. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (-5° ≤ θ < 0°) during twilight, P = 76.17 ± 4.18% for dmin∗=23 % under clear sky conditions. Consequently, the sky-polarimetric Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for perception of Haidinger's brushes.

  17. Contrasting glacial/interglacial regimes in the western Arctic Ocean as exemplified by a sedimentary record from the Mendeleev Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, L.; Curry, W.B.; Darby, D.A.; Bischof, J.; Cronin, T. M.

    2004-01-01

    Distinct cyclicity in lithology and microfaunal distribution in sediment cores from the Mendeleev Ridge in the western Arctic Ocean (water depths ca. 1. 5 km) reflects contrasting glacial/interglacial sedimentary patterns. We conclude that during major glaciations extremely thick pack ice or ice shelves covered the western Arctic Ocean and its circulation was restricted in comparison with interglacial, modern-type conditions. Glacier collapse events are marked in sediment cores by increased contents of ice-rafted debris, notably by spikes of detrital carbonates and iron oxide grains from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Composition of foraminiferal calcite ?? 18O and ??13C also shows strong cyclicity indicating changes in freshwater balance and/or ventilation rates of the Arctic Ocean. Light stable isotopic spikes characterize deglacial events such as the last deglaciation at ca. 12 14C kyr BP. The prolonged period with low ??18O and ??13C values and elevated contents of iron oxide grains from the Canadian Archipelago in the lower part of the Mendeleev Ridge record is interpreted to signify the pooling of freshwater in the Amerasia Basin, possibly in relation to an extended glaciation in arctic North America. Unique benthic foraminiferal events provide a means for an independent stratigraphic correlation of sedimentary records from the Mendeleev Ridge and other mid-depth locations throughout the Arctic Ocean such as the Northwind and Lomonosov Ridges. This correlation demonstrates the disparity of existing age models and underscores the need to establish a definitive chronostratigraphy for Arctic Ocean sediments. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tooth enamel stable isotopes of Holocene and Pleistocene fossil fauna reveal glacial and interglacial paleoenvironments of hominins in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Renée; Joordens, Josephine C. A.; Koutamanis, Dafne S.; Puspaningrum, Mika R.; de Vos, John; van der Lubbe, Jeroen H. J. L.; Reijmer, John J. G.; Hampe, Oliver; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2016-07-01

    The carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope compositions of fossilized animal tissues have become important proxies of paleodiet and paleoenvironment, but such stable isotope studies have not yet been extensively applied to the fossil assemblages of Sundaland (the biogeographical region comprising most of the Indonesian Archipelago). Here, we use the isotope composition of tooth enamel to investigate the diet and habitat of bovids, cervids, and suids from several Holocene and Pleistocene sites on Java and Sumatra. Our carbon isotope results indicate that individual sites are strongly dominated by either C3-browsers or C4-grazers. Herbivores from the Padang Highlands (Sumatra) and Hoekgrot (Java) cave faunas were mainly C3-browsers, while herbivores from Homo erectus-bearing sites Trinil and Sangiran (Java) utilized an almost exclusive C4 diet. The suids from all sites show a wide range of δ13C values, corroborating their omnivorous diet. For the dataset as a whole, oxygen and carbon isotope values are positively correlated. This suggests that isotopic enrichment of rainwater and vegetation δ18O values coincides with an increase of C4-grasslands. We interpret this pattern to mainly reflect the environmental contrast between glacial (drier, more C4) and interglacial (wetter, more C3) conditions. Intermediate herbivore δ13C values indicating mixed C3/C4 feeding is relatively rare, which we believe to reflect the abruptness of the transition between glacial and interglacial precipitation regimes in Sundaland. For seven Homo erectus bone samples we were not able distinguish between diagenetic overprint and original isotope values, underlining the need to apply this isotopic approach to Homo erectus tooth enamel instead of bone. Importantly, our present results on herbivore and omnivore faunas provide the isotopic framework that will allow interpretation of such Homo erectus enamel isotope data.

  19. Lacustrine records of continental climate in northwest Greenland through the Holocene and Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlin, J. M.; Axford, Y.; Osburn, M. R.; Lasher, G. E.; Francis, D. R.; Kelly, M. A.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Lake sediment records provide opportunities for high-resolution observations of paleoclimate that help to place modern climate change in geologic context. Here we present a terrestrial record of July air temperature for northwest Greenland (Nunatarssuaq, ~25 km east of the Thule Air Base) through the Holocene and a prior warm period, inferred from subfossil insect remains (Chironomidae) preserved in lacustrine sediments. In addition, we discuss ongoing work in characterizing the sources and isotopic composition of leaf waxes preserved in the same sediments. Multiple parallel sediment cores were collected in the summers of 2012 and 2014 from Wax Lips Lake (informal name), a non-glacial lake situated <2 km from the current margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Radiocarbon ages were obtained on aquatic mosses from intact laminae, and indicate that the record spans the Holocene, beginning at ~10.4 ka, as well as an interval beyond the range of 14C (>44 ka) and thus predates the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Our results demonstrate temperatures warmer than present through the early and mid Holocene followed by cooling in the late Holocene. Material that pre-dates the LGM contains insect assemblages indicating temperatures warmer than the warmest millennia of the Holocene. We interpret this material as most likely dating to the Last Interglacial Period (MIS 5). Along with assemblages of Chironomidae, we find subfossil Chaoboridae in one section of the pre-LGM sediments, suggesting exceptionally warm conditions based upon the distribution of modern-day Chaoborus. We find abundant n-alkanes and n-acids are preserved in the Holocene and pre-LGM sediments, allowing for complementary compound-specific δD analyses and identification of organic matter source in addition to chironomid derived temperature records.

  20. Dead Sea drawdown and monsoonal impacts in the Levant during the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torfstein, Adi; Goldstein, Steven L.; Kushnir, Yochanan; Enzel, Yehouda; Haug, Gerald; Stein, Mordechai

    2015-02-01

    Sediment cores recovered by the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) from the deepest basin of the hypersaline, terminal Dead Sea (lake floor at ∼725 m below mean sea level) reveal the detailed climate history of the lake's watershed during the last interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5; MIS5). The results document both a more intense aridity during MIS5 than during the Holocene, and the moderating impacts derived from the intense MIS5e African Monsoon. Early MIS5e (∼133-128 ka) was dominated by hyperarid conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean-Levant, indicated by thick halite deposition triggered by a lake-level drop. Halite deposition was interrupted however, during the MIS5e peak (∼128-122 ka) by sequences of flood deposits, which are coeval with the timing of the intense precession-forced African monsoon that generated Mediterranean sapropel S5. A subsequent weakening of this humidity source triggered extreme aridity in the Dead Sea watershed and resulting in the biggest known lake level drawdown in its history, reflected by the deposition of thick salt layers, and a capping pebble layer corresponding to a hiatus at ∼116-110 ka. The DSDDP core provides the first evidence for a direct association of the African monsoon with mid subtropical latitude climate systems effecting the Dead Sea watershed. Combined with coeval deposition of Arabia and southern Negev speleothems, Arava travertines, and calcification of Red Sea corals, the evidence points to a climatically wet corridor that could have facilitated homo sapiens migration "out of Africa" during the MIS5e peak. The hyperaridity documented during MIS5e may provide an important analogue for future warming of arid regions of the Eastern Mediterranean-Levant.

  1. Causes of atmospheric CO2 variations over the last glacial-interglacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemppinen, K. M.; Holden, P.; Edwards, N.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Friend, A. D.; Wolff, E.

    2013-12-01

    During glacial-interglacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 increases by about 100 ppmv during brief interglacials. Despite years of research, the causes of this change are still not entirely understood. Here we attempt to explain the change in CO2 using, for the first time, an ensemble of coupled climate-carbon cycle simulations designed to consider the processes that are thought to contribute to variability of atmospheric CO2 on glacial/interglacial timescales. We begin by running the ensemble to equilibrium with Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 kyr BP) forcings. By comparing the simulations with ice core data, we find that a small subset of the ensemble produces plausible atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate. We build emulators of the full model with respect to atmospheric CO2, and perform sensitivity analyses on them to quantify the contributions of atmospheric, sea ice, ocean, and vegetation processes to variability in atmospheric CO2 under glacial forcings. We find that the variability is dominated by a few key parameters. We also use singular vector decomposition to investigate the parameter interactions required for achieving plausible CO2 at the LGM. This work is ongoing, and if plausible states are found, a transient ensemble will be run over the last glacial-interglacial cycle (126 kyr) using the associated parameter sets. This experiment will be the first of its kind as it allows simulated atmospheric CO2 to feedback to the physical climate model in an unconstrained manner.

  2. Delayed European Climate Optimum During the Last Interglacial in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard; Turney, Chris; Lang, Barbara; Brooks, Steve; Rundgren, Mats; Björck, Svante; Hammarlund, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Recent estimates of the Last Interglacial (127-110 kyr) suggest a global average temperature approximately 2˚C above preindustrial levels, providing a potential analogue for future climate change. However, many of the temperature estimates originate from terrestrial sequences with limited temporal resolution, raising questions over the magnitude and relative timing of the warming. Here we report a new quantitative summer temperature reconstruction using non-biting midges (chironomids) from the Danish Last Interglacial site, Hollerup. We find peak average summer temperatures of 17.5˚C, approximately one degree warmer than the AD1961-90 period. In contrast to the timing of the thermal maximum inferred from the pollen record, the chironomid temperature reconstruction suggests that peak warmth took place 3,200 years after the onset of Last Interglacial warming in Europe. Our results indicate a delay in the establishment of full interglacial Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, most probably linked to enhanced melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  3. Substantial contribution to sea-level rise during the last interglacial from the Greenland ice sheet

    PubMed

    Cuffey; Marshall

    2000-04-06

    During the last interglacial period (the Eemian), global sea level was at least three metres, and probably more than five metres, higher than at present. Complete melting of either the West Antarctic ice sheet or the Greenland ice sheet would today raise sea levels by 6-7 metres. But the high sea levels during the last interglacial period have been proposed to result mainly from disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet, with model studies attributing only 1-2 m of sea-level rise to meltwater from Greenland. This result was considered consistent with ice core evidence, although earlier work had suggested a much reduced Greenland ice sheet during the last interglacial period. Here we reconsider the Eemian evolution of the Greenland ice sheet by combining numerical modelling with insights obtained from recent central Greenland ice-core analyses. Our results suggest that the Greenland ice sheet was considerably smaller and steeper during the Eemian, and plausibly contributed 4-5.5 m to the sea-level highstand during that period. We conclude that the high sea level during the last interglacial period most probably included a large contribution from Greenland meltwater and therefore should not be interpreted as evidence for a significant reduction of the West Antarctic ice sheet.

  4. Variable sea ice contributions to seawater δ18O on glacial-interglacial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, C. E.; Weaver, A. J.; Eby, M.; Meissner, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of seawater varies in time, mainly based on the amount of (depleted) ice stored on continents. Oxygen isotope records derived from ocean sediment cores serve as indicators of changes in both seawater temperature and continental ice volume. Seawater δ18O may contain a variable signature of sea ice production, especially at high latitudes. Sea ice growth produces isotopically enriched ice and depleted brine. Over glacial-interglacial cycles, changes in the sites and rates of sea ice production (and by extension sea ice meltwater and brine export) hold the potential to shift local to regional seawater isotopic chemistry. Neglecting variability in sea ice production may therefore superimpose error upon reconstructions employing high latitude δ18O records. We examine the effects of variability in sea ice production between glacial and interglacial climate states on seawater δ18O in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model. Oxygen isotopes are implemented in all components (ocean, atmosphere, land surface, and sea ice) of the coupled model. The role of glacial-interglacial sea ice variability is investigated in a set of model experiments. Here we isolate the seawater δ18O field due only to sea ice in the model. By contrasting the seawater δ18O fields due to sea ice resulting from the glacial and interglacial climates, we investigate the potential for variable sea ice formation to shift seawater δ18O.

  5. Temperature trends during the Present and Last Interglacial periods - a multi-model-data comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, P.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Martrat, B.; Charbit, S.; Renssen, H.; Gröger, M.; Krebs-Kanzow, U.; Lohmann, G.; Lunt, D. J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Phipps, S. J.; Prange, M.; Ritz, S. P.; Schulz, M.; Stenni, B.; Stone, E. J.; Varma, V.

    2014-09-01

    Though primarily driven by insolation changes associated with well-known variations in Earth's astronomical parameters, the response of the climate system during interglacials includes a diversity of feedbacks involving the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, vegetation and land ice. A thorough multi-model-data comparison is essential to assess the ability of climate models to resolve interglacial temperature trends and to help in understanding the recorded climatic signal and the underlying climate dynamics. We present the first multi-model-data comparison of transient millennial-scale temperature changes through two intervals of the Present Interglacial (PIG; 8-1.2 ka) and the Last Interglacial (LIG; 123-116.2 ka) periods. We include temperature trends simulated by 9 different climate models, alkenone-based temperature reconstructions from 117 globally distributed locations (about 45% of them within the LIG) and 12 ice-core-based temperature trends from Greenland and Antarctica (50% of them within the LIG). The definitions of these specific interglacial intervals enable a consistent inter-comparison of the two intervals because both are characterised by minor changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and more importantly by insolation trends that show clear similarities. Our analysis shows that in general the reconstructed PIG and LIG Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitude cooling compares well with multi-model, mean-temperature trends for the warmest months and that these cooling trends reflect a linear response to the warmest-month insolation decrease over the interglacial intervals. The most notable exception is the strong LIG cooling trend reconstructed from Greenland ice cores that is not simulated by any of the models. A striking model-data mismatch is found for both the PIG and the LIG over large parts of the mid-to-high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere where the data depicts negative temperature trends that are not in agreement with near zero

  6. Stable isotope compositions of speleothems from the last interglacial - Spatial patterns of climate fluctuations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demény, Attila; Kern, Zoltán; Czuppon, György; Németh, Alexandra; Leél-Őssy, Szabolcs; Siklósy, Zoltán; Lin, Ke; Hu, Hsun-Ming; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Vennemann, Torsten W.; Haszpra, László

    2017-04-01

    Studies on the last interglacial (LIG) can provide information on how our environment behaved in a period of slightly higher global temperatures at about 125 ± 4 ka, even if it is not the best analogue for the Holocene. The available LIG climate proxy records are usually better preserved and can be studied at a higher resolution than those of the preceding interglacials, allowing detailed comparisons. This paper presents complex stable hydrogen, carbon and oxygen isotope records obtained for carbonate (δ13C and δ18Ocarb) and fluid inclusion hosted water (δD and δ18Ow) of a stalagmite from the Baradla Cave system in Central Europe that covers most of the LIG, as proven by U-Th dates. Comparing its C and O isotope data with records reported for other speleothem (cave-hosted carbonate) deposits from Europe revealed the complex behavior of these climate proxies, with a concerted relative increase in 18O of carbonates from 128 to 120 ka and synchronized shifts in the opposite direction after 119 ka. The hydrogen isotope analyses of inclusion-hosted water extracted from the BAR-II stalagmite also correspond to the regional climate proxy records, with meaningful deviations from global temperature trends. Beside following the general paleotemperature pattern from the climate optimum (high δD values up to -64‰ around 120 ka) to the subsequent cooling starting at about 119 ka (low δD values down to -90‰ at about 109 ka), a period between 126.5 and 123 ka with low δD values (down to -81‰) is detected in the BAR-II stalagmite. Although the isotope shifts are muted in the C-O isotope data of carbonate due to competitive fractionation processes, the δ13C data show a positive relationship with the δD pattern, indicating humidity - and possibly temperature - variations. The periods with low δD values fit well to temperature and humidity changes inferred from proxy records from western Europe to the eastern Mediterranean. Spatial distributions of these variables

  7. Interglacial Greenland aerosol deposition: comparison of continuous high resolution chemical ice core records from the Eemian and Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gfeller, Gideon; Bigler, Matthias; Schüpbach, Simon; Mini, Olivia; Leuenberger, Daiana; Fischer, Hubertus

    2014-05-01

    Earth's climate system has been oscillating over the last million years between cold glacials and warm interglacials, leaving the imprints of their climate states in form of isotopes variations and chemical impurities in polar ice caps. In the course of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) project, the NEEM ice core has been entirely analysed in very high depth resolution with a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system for the concentrations of chemical aerosol tracers in the ice. Only in the brittle ice zone (600-1100 m depth equivalent to the time interval 3000-8000 years before present) most of the ice had to be discarded due to multifractured core material. Based on the unique reconstructed age scale to unfold the stratigraphically disturbed part from about 2200 m depth downwards (NEEM community members, Nature, 2013), we are able to present the first Greenland chemistry record over the entire last interglacial, the so called Eemian period (about 128'000 to 115'000 years ago). As the Eemian is believed to have been 4 to 8 degrees C warmer than the modern climate, it can be used as an analogue for our present warming climate and, thus, contributes to a better understanding of processes causing natural variations. By means of the chemistry records we are able to assess the natural variability of Greenland Eemian climate and gain insight in its biogeochemical state. Here, short-term variability as well as long term trends of soluble chemical impurities in the Eemian are investigated and compared with those in the Holocene. Changes of organic processes in soils and biomass burning for example are assessed through soluble ammonium and nitrate concentrations. In comparison to the Holocene, ammonium concentrations were about 25% higher during the Eemian. Nitrate, on the other hand, shows about 25% lower concentrations. Sodium concentrations, reflecting changes in sea salt aerosol, are about 35% lower during the Eemian than during the Holocene. Calcium

  8. MIS 5e sea level: up to what point can we use literature reviews to answer the most pressing questions on the Last Interglacial ice sheets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    During MIS 5e (between ~128 and 116 kyr BP) greenhouse gas concentrations were comparable to pre-industrial levels, summer insolation was higher by ~10% at high latitudes and polar temperatures in both hemispheres were about 3-5 °C warmer than today. Sea level (SL) at this time has been a subject of numerous studies (and some debate) with ~1000 sites with MIS 5e sea level markers recognized worldwide. Recently, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009) and Dutton & Lambeck (Science, 2012) analyzed worldwide datasets of sea level markers pertaining to the last interglacial. After accounting for GIA, they reached similar conclusions that eustatic (i.e., globally averaged) sea level (ESL) was between +5 and +9.4 m above modern during MIS 5e. Furthermore, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009; GJI, 2013) suggest that sea level was not uniform during the LIG, but instead underwent at least two rapid oscillations including a rapid late 5e rise first proposed by Hearty et al. (QSR, 2007) and later by O'Leary et al. (Nat. Geo., 2013). Investigating the temporal and geographic variability of MIS 5e sea level opens new lines of research, in particular the possibility to fingerprint (Hay et al., QSR, 2014) the source of the proposed rapid ice sheet collapse near the end of the Last Interglacial. In this presentation we ask: can we use a database of published sea level estimates for this purpose? To answer this question, we built a relative sea level (RSL) database using RSLcalc 2.0; this is a relational database specifically designed to review relative sea level data points while keeping all the relevant information contained in the original publications. RSlcalc allows to estimate the measurement error (on the actual elevation of the SL feature), the error on the indicative range (the elevation range occupied by a sea level indicator) as well as the reference water level (the relationship between the marker and the former sea level). We show that the majority of published data have an accuracy of few

  9. Polarized cells, polar actions.

    PubMed

    Maddock, J R; Alley, M R; Shapiro, L

    1993-11-01

    The recognition of polar bacterial organization is just emerging. The examples of polar localization given here are from a variety of bacterial species and concern a disparate array of cellular functions. A number of well-characterized instances of polar localization of bacterial proteins, including the chemoreceptor complex in both C. crescentus and E. coli, the maltose-binding protein in E. coli, the B. japonicum surface attachment proteins, and the actin tail of L. monocytogenes within a mammalian cell, involve proteins or protein complexes that facilitate bacterial interaction with the environment, either the extracellular milieux or that within a plant or mammalian host. The significance of this observation remains unclear. Polarity in bacteria poses many problems, including the necessity for a mechanism for asymmetrically distributing proteins as well as a mechanism by which polar localization is maintained. Large structures, such as a flagellum, are anchored at the pole by means of the basal body that traverses the peptidoglycan wall. But for proteins and small complexes, whether in the periplasm or the membrane, one must invoke a mechanism that prevents the diffusion of these proteins away from the cell pole. Perhaps the periplasmic proteins are retained at the pole by the presence of the periseptal annulus (35). The constraining features for membrane components are not known. For large aggregates, such as the clusters of MCP, CheA, and CheW complexes, perhaps the size of the aggregate alone prevents displacement. In most cases of cellular asymmetry, bacteria are able to discriminate between the new pole and the old pole and to utilize this information for localization specificity. The maturation of new pole to old pole appears to be a common theme as well. Given numerous examples reported thus far, we propose that bacterial polarity displays specific rules and is a more general phenomenon than has been previously recognized.

  10. The Physics of Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  11. Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charlestra, Lucner; Amirbahman, Aria; Courtemanch, David L.; Alvarez, David A.; Patterson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was calibrated to monitor pesticides in water under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the sampling rates (Rs) was evaluated in microcosms containing -1 of total organic carbon (TOC). The effect of hydrodynamics was studied by comparing Rs values measured in stirred (SBE) and quiescent (QBE) batch experiments and a flow-through system (FTS). The level of NOM in the water used in these experiments had no effect on the magnitude of the pesticide sampling rates (p > 0.05). However, flow velocity and turbulence significantly increased the sampling rates of the pesticides in the FTS and SBE compared to the QBE (p < 0.001). The calibration data generated can be used to derive pesticide concentrations in water from POCIS deployed in stagnant and turbulent environmental systems without correction for NOM.

  12. Glacial-interglacial changes in equatorial Pacific surface-water structure during the Plio-Pleistocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Kim A.; Bolton, Clara T.; Wilson, Paul A.; Bahr, André; Pross, Jörg; Fiebig, Jens; Kähler, Karsten; Friedrich, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    The late Pliocene/early Pleistocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (iNHG) represents the most recent major tipping point in Earth's climate history. In the equatorial Pacific, the iNHG has been suggested to mark the transition from a warm Pliocene climate state, in which the Pacific warm pool was greatly expanded relative to today giving rise to a surface ocean temperature field akin to modern El Niño conditions, to a climate state with strong upwelling in the east of the basin and stronger zonal temperature gradients. Here we examine this transition by presenting new high-resolution (∼800 yr) planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca- and δ18O-based sea-surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS; based on δ18 O residuals [δ18Oivc-sw]) records from Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) Ocean Drilling Program Site 849 spanning ∼2.75-2.4 Ma. Our study interval contains the first large-amplitude (∼1‰ in benthic δ18O) early Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles (Marine Isotope Stages 100-96) representing the culmination of iNHG. In this study we investigate west-to-east equatorial Pacific SST and SSS gradients. We find that the zonal SST gradient increased by ∼1.5 °C from ∼2.75 to ∼2.4 Ma through EEP cooling. No glacial-interglacial pattern is seen in this gradient. On the other hand, we document obliquity-paced oscillations in the δ18Oivc-sw (SSS) gradient. We hypothesize that these oscillations originated from a response to a glacial southward and interglacial northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone over the EEP.

  13. Miscut dependent surface evolution in the process of N-polar GaN(000 1 bar) growth under N-rich condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyżewski, Filip; Załuska-Kotur, Magdalena A.; Turski, Henryk; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czesław

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of surface morphology during the growth of N-polar (000 1 bar) GaN under N-rich conditions is studied by kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations for two substrates miscuts 2° and 4°. The results are compared with experimentally observed surface morphologies of (000 1 bar) GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The proposed kMC two-component model of GaN(000 1 bar) surface where both types of atoms, nitrogen and gallium, attach to the surface and diffuse independently shows that at relatively high rates of the step flow (miscut angle < 2 °) the low mobility of gallium adatoms causes surface instabilities and leads to experimentally observed roughening while for low rates of the step flow (miscut 4°), smooth surface can be obtained. In the presence of almost immobile nitrogen atoms under N-rich conditions crystal growth is realized by the process of two-dimensional island nucleation and coalescence. Larger crystal miscut, lower growth rate or higher temperature results in similar effect of the surface smoothening. We show that the surface also smoothens for the growth conditions with very high N-excess. In the presence of large number of nitrogen atoms the mobility of gallium atoms changes locally thus providing easier coalescence of separated island.

  14. Warm Greenland during the last interglacial: the role of regional changes in sea ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Niklaus; Born, Andreas; Raible, Christoph C.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-10-01

    The last interglacial, also known as the Eemian, is characterized by warmer than present conditions at high latitudes. This is implied by various Eemian proxy records as well as by climate model simulations, though the models mostly underestimate the warming with respect to proxies. Simulations of Eemian surface air temperatures (SAT) in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics further show large variations between different climate models, and it has been hypothesized that this model spread relates to diverse representations of the Eemian sea ice cover. Here we use versions 3 and 4 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3 and CCSM4) to highlight the crucial role of sea ice and sea surface temperatures changes for the Eemian climate, in particular in the North Atlantic sector and in Greenland. A substantial reduction in sea ice cover results in an amplified atmospheric warming and thus a better agreement with Eemian proxy records. Sensitivity experiments with idealized lower boundary conditions reveal that warming over Greenland is mostly due to a sea ice retreat in the Nordic Seas. In contrast, sea ice changes in the Labrador Sea have a limited local impact. Changes in sea ice cover in either region are transferred to the overlying atmosphere through anomalous surface energy fluxes. The large-scale spread of the warming resulting from a Nordic Seas sea ice retreat is mostly explained by anomalous heat advection rather than by radiation or condensation processes. In addition, the sea ice perturbations lead to changes in the hydrological cycle. Our results consequently imply that both temperature and snow accumulation records from Greenland ice cores are sensitive to sea ice changes in the Nordic Seas but insensitive to sea ice changes in the Labrador Sea. Moreover, the simulations suggest that the uncertainty in the Eemian sea ice cover accounts for 1.6 °C of the Eemian warming at the NEEM ice core site. The estimated Eemian warming of 5 °C above present day

  15. Warm Greenland during the last interglacial: the role of sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Niklaus; Born, Andreas; Raible, Christoph C.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-04-01

    The last interglacial, the Eemian, is characterized by warmer than present conditions in the high latitudes and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for the climate in the near future. Simulations of Eemian surface air temperatures (SAT) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), however, show large variations between different climate models and it has been hypothesized that this model spread relates to diverse representations of the Eemian sea ice cover. Here we use version 3 and 4 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3 and CCSM4), to highlight the crucial role of sea ice and sea surface temperatures during the Eemian, in particular for SAT in the North Atlantic sector and in Greenland. A substantial reduction in NH sea ice results in an amplified atmospheric warming and, thus, a better agreement with Eemian proxy records. Sensitivity experiments with idealized lower boundary conditions reveal that warming over Greenland is mostly due to a sea ice retreat in the Nordic Seas. In contrast, sea ice changes in the Labrador Sea have a limited local impact. Changes in sea ice in either region are transferred to the overlying atmosphere through anomalous surface energy fluxes. The large-scale warming simulated for the sea ice retreat in the Nordic Seas further relates to anomalous heat advection. Diabatic processes play a secondary role, yet distinct changes in the hydrological cycle are possible. Our results imply that temperature and accumulation records from Greenland ice cores are sensitive to sea ice changes in the Nordic Seas but insensitive to sea ice changes in the Labrador Sea. Moreover, our simulations suggest that the uncertainty in the Eemian sea ice cover accounts for 1.6°C of the Eemian warming at the NEEM ice core site. The estimated Eemian warming of 5°C above present-day based on the NEEM δ15N record can be reconstructed by the CCSM4 model for the scenario that a sea ice retreat in the Nordic Seas coincided with a reduced Greenland ice

  16. Solving the riddle of interglacial temperatures over the last 1.5 million years with a future IPICS "Oldest Ice" ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Hubertus

    2014-05-01

    The sequence of the last 8 glacial cycles is characterized by irregular 100,000 year cycles in temperature and sea level. In contrast, the time period between 1.5-1.2 million years ago is characterized by more regular cycles with an obliquity periodicity of 41,000 years. Based on a deconvolution of deep ocean temperature and ice volume contributions to benthic δ18O (Elderfield et al., Science, 2012), it is suggested that glacial sea level became progressively lower over the last 1.5 Myr, while glacial deep ocean temperatures were very similar. At the same time many interglacials prior to the Mid Brunhes event showed significantly cooler deep ocean temperatures than the Holocene, while at the same time interglacial ice volume remained essentially the same. In contrast, interglacial sea surface temperatures in the tropics changed little (Herbert et al., Science,2010) and proxy reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 using δ11B in planktic foraminifera (Hönisch et al., Science, 2009) suggest that prior to 900,000 yr before present interglacial CO2 levels did not differ substantially from those over the last 450,000 years. Accordingly, the conundrum arises how interglacials can differ in deep ocean temperature without any obvious change in ice volume or greenhouse gas forcing and what caused the change in cyclicity of glacial interglacial cycles over the Mid Pleistocene Transition. Probably the most important contribution to solve this riddle is the recovery of a 1.5 Myr old ice core from Antarctica, which among others would provide an unambiguous, high-resolution record of the greenhouse gas history over this time period. Accordingly, the international ice core community, as represented by the International Partnership for Ice Core Science (IPICS), has identified such an 'Oldest Ice' ice core as one of the most important scientific targets for the future (http://www.pages.unibe.ch/ipics/white-papers). However, finding stratigraphically undisturbed ice, which covers this

  17. Effects of solvents and alcohols on the polar lipid composition of Clostridium butyricum under conditions of controlled lipid chain composition

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.L.; Goldfine, H. )

    1991-12-01

    Clostridium butyricum has been grown in media devoid of biotin, to which long-chain fatty acids have been added to promote growth. The authors have shown previously that, under these conditions, exogenous fatty acids are extensively incorporated into the cellular phospholipids. Cells grown with elaidic acid, trans-9-18:1, have normal ratios of the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine (GaPlaE) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plus plasmenylethanolamine (PlaE) compared with cells grown with biotin. When ethanol, cyclohexane, or n-octanol was added to elaidate-containing media, the ratio of GAPlaE to Pe plus PlaE was significantly increased. Addition of dodecane and n-butanol did not affect this ratio. When cells were grown with oleic acid in the absence of biotin, the GAPlaE to PE plus PlaE ratio was increased 5.4-fold compared with elaidate-grown cells. In oleate-supplemented media, the addition of solvents or n-alcohols produced no further increase in this ratio. They conclude that these changes in lipid composition represent cellular responses to perturbation of the equilibria between the lamellar and nonlamellar liquid crystalline phases in the cell membrane.

  18. Polarization measurement through combination polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yunfeng; Li, Linjun; He, Zhelong; Liu, Yanwei; Ma, Cheng; Shi, Guang; Liu, Lu

    2014-02-01

    Polarization measurement approaches only using polarizer and grating is present. The combination polarizers consists of two polarizers: one is γ degree with the X axis; the other is along the Y axis. Binary grating is covered by the combination polarizers, and based on Fraunhofer diffraction, the diffraction intensity formula is deduced. The polarization state of incident light can be gotten by fitting the diffraction pattern with the deduced formula. Compared with the traditional polarization measurement method, this measurement only uses polarizer and grating, therefore, it can be applied to measure a wide wavelength range without replacing device in theory.

  19. Uranium-series ages of corals, sea level history, and palaeozoogeography, Canary Islands, Spain: an exploratory study for two Quaternary interglacial periods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Meco, Joaquín; Simmons, Kathleen R.

    2014-01-01

    .5 interglacials, decreased insolation may have resulted in southward migration of the ITCZ, strengthened trade winds, and re-establishment of upwelling. Such conditions may have brought about not only local extinction of the Senegalese fauna, but allowed southward migration of the cooler-water Mediterranean fauna to the Canary Islands in the later parts of interglacials, a complex palaeoclimate record that is mirrored in the deep-sea core record.

  20. Glacial- interglacial temperature change based on 13C18O carbonate bond with in fish bone otoliths from Red Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Eiler, J.; Feeney, R.

    2006-12-01

    Determining the past record of temperature and salinity of ocean surface waters is essential for understanding past changes in climate, such as those which occur across glacial-interglacial transitions. As a useful proxy, the clumped isotope of CO2 in carbonate (13C18O16O or ?47) from inorganic precipitation experiment has been shown to reflect surface temperature with high degree of confidence (Ghosh et al., 2006). The last glacial cycle was characterized by climate fluctuations, but the extent of any associated changes in global sea level (or, equivalently, ice volume) remains elusive. High stands of sea level can be reconstructed from dated fossil and isotopic analyses of foraminifera and terapods, and these data are complemented by a compilation of global sea-level estimates based on deep-sea oxygen isotope ratios. Salinity derived from the records of oxygen isotopes ratios, however, contains uncertainties due to lack of information about the sea surface temperature change. Here we used combination of clumped isotopes technique and oxygen isotope measurement from fish otoliths (Myctophiformes; lanternfishes) extracted from two piston cores (Ku et al., 1969) (CH-154 and CH-153) to understand the temperature evolution and salinity variation of Red Sea water (300-800m) during the last 70 k.y. We analyzed well preserved unaltered otoliths from 7 different stratigraphic horizons from sediment core CH-154. Our preliminary observation suggests ~20 degree Celsius differences in sea water temperatures between glacial and interglacial time. We showed that the region has experienced fluctuation in climatic and tectonic processes during glacial interglacial time and the otoliths developed within the fishes captured the information about temperature change and salinity variation. Our results indicate a drop in temperature and restricted exchange of water with the open ocean during glaciations. The Red Sea environment was also highly saline even during the interglacial event

  1. Glacial to interglacial fluctuations in productivity in the equatorial Pacific as indicated by marine barite

    SciTech Connect

    Paytan, A.; Kastner, M.; Chavez, F.P.

    1996-11-22

    An empirical correlation between marine barite (BaSO{sub 4}) accumulation rate in core-top sediment samples from two equatorial Pacific transects (at 140{degrees}W and 110{degrees}W) and the estimated primary productivity of the overlying water column were used to evaluate glacial to interglacial changes in productivity. Fluctuations in barite accumulation rates down-core indicate that during glacial periods of the past 450,000 years, the productivity in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific was about two times that during intervening interglacial periods. This result is consistent with other evidence that productivity was high in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific during the last glacial. 48 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Terrigenous Fe input and biogenic sedimentation in the glacial and interglacial equatorial Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.W.; Leinen, M.; Knowlton, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship of particulate iron from land erosion to the accumulation of biogenic matter in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Sediment cores representing the last six glacial-interglacial cycles and previously published mineralogic records were used as data input. Total iron, terrigenous, and biogenic components were determined for three sediment cores. The study determined that there is no relationship between terrigenous iron input and sedimentary carbon sequestering. This is based on chemical, spectral, and stratigraphic anlyses which showed: (1) no consistent pattern of terrigenous input during glacial or interglacial periods, (2) a close relationshipe between the accumulation of particulate iron and the accumulation of terrigenous matter, (3) no coherent spectral correlations between glacial periodicity and iron input, (4) an inverse correlation of iron input and calcium carbonate, and (5) no spectral or linear relationship between iron accumulation and calcium carbonate, organic carbon, or opal. 55 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Direct terrestrial–marine correlation demonstrates surprisingly late onset of the last interglacial in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sier, Mark J.; Roebroeks, Wil; Bakels, Corrie C.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Brühl, Enrico; De Loecker, Dimitri; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine; Hesse, Norbert; Jagich, Adam; Kindler, Lutz; Kuijper, Wim J.; Laurat, Thomas; Mücher, Herman J.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Richter, Daniel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An interdisciplinary study of a small sedimentary basin at Neumark Nord 2 (NN2), Germany, has yielded a high-resolution record of the palaeomagnetic Blake Event, which we are able to place at the early part of the last interglacial pollen sequence documented from the same section. We use this data to calculate the duration of this stratigraphically important event at 3400 ± 350 yr. More importantly, the Neumark Nord 2 data enables precise terrestrial–marine correlation for the Eemian stage in central Europe. This shows a remarkably large time lag of ca. 5000 yr between the MIS 5e ‘peak’ in the marine record and the start of the last interglacial in this region. PMID:26523075

  4. Cryogenian Interglacial Litho- and C Isotope Chemo-stratigraphy of the Amadeus Basin, Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, C.; Campbell, M.; Phelps, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Cryogenian stratigraphy of the Amadeus Basin in central Australia consists of the Areyonga, Aralka, and Olympic Formations. Both the Areyonga and Olympic Fms. include glacial deposits overlain by cap carbonates, observations that have prompted correlation of these formations with the global Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations, respectively. In this study we focus on the interglacial stratigraphic unit (Aralka Fm.), which is subdivided into the lower Ringwood Mbr. and the upper Limbla Mbr. C isotope values from carbonates within the Limbla Mbr. are particularly large (up to +10 per mil), suggesting that it correlates with the global "Keele Peak" anomaly. The underlying Ringwood Mbr. (the base of which comprises the Sturtian cap carbonate of the Amadeus Basin) varies from thin or non-existent in the northwestern part of the basin to hundreds of meters thick in eastern parts. C isotope values from Ringwood Mbr. carbonates are roughly -5 per mil at its base and rise rapidly up-section. A mid-interglacial negative C isotope excursion to values of approximately -5 per mil in the Ringwood Mbr. may correlate with the Tayshir anomaly of the Mongolian Neoproterozoic succession. Interglacial carbonates of the Aralka Fm. therefore have C isotope compositions that span at least 15 per mil and include both positive and negative isotopic excursions that seem to be globally correlative. Furthermore, detailed field observations from the Ringwood Mbr. suggest that it can be subdivided into three submembers, each of which is marked by stromatolitic intervals. Shallowing-upward parasequences in the Ringwood Mbr., as well as a major change in lithology from siltstones and microbialites of the Ringwood Mbr. to dominantly coarse-grained, cross-stratified sandstones of the Limbla Mbr., suggest that the interglacial strata of the Amadeus Basin were deposited during a period of significant and repeated changes in relative sealevel.

  5. A simple metabolic model of glacial-interglacial energy supply to the upper ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelegrí, J. L.; Olivella, R.; García-Olivares, A.

    2011-03-01

    We use a simple two-state two-box ocean to simulate the CO2 signal during the last four glacial-interglacial transitions in the earth system. The model is inspired by the similarity in spatial organization and temporal transition patterns between the earth and other complex systems, such as mammals. The comparison identifies the earth's metabolic rate with net autotrophic primary production in the upper ocean, sustained through new inorganic carbon and nutrients advected from the deep ocean and organic matter remineralized within the upper ocean. We view the glacial-interglacial transition as a switch of the upper ocean from a basal to an enhanced metabolic state, with energy supply initially relying on the remineralization of the local organic sources and the eventual steady state resulting from the increased advective supply of inorganic deep sources. During the interglacial-glacial transition the opposite occurs, with an initial excess of advective supply and primary production that allows the replenishment of the upper-ocean organic storages. We set the relative change in energy supply from the CO2 signal and use genetic algorithms to explore the sensitivity of the model output to both the basal recirculation rate and the intensity-timing of the maximum recirculation rate. The model is capable of reproducing quite well the long-term oscillations, as shown by correlations with observations typically about 0.8. The dominant time scale for each cycle ranges between about 40 and 45 kyr, close to the 41 kyr average obliquity astronomical period, and the deep-ocean recirculation rate increases between one and two orders of magnitude from glacial to interglacial periods.

  6. Sr-isotopic variation in the Quaternary: The record from glacial and interglacial marine terraces

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, K.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Szabo, B.J.; Moore, J.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors report high-precision Sr isotope of aragonitic fossils from Pleistocene marine terraces, which formed during both glacial and interglacial periods, to (1) constrain the marine Sr-isotope trend for the late Quaternary, and (2) test the long-term marine Sr-isotope trend for reversals related to glacial-interglacial transitions. Analyses of multiple samples of mollusks from each of 15 interglacial terraces on San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and the Palos Verdes Hills (California) define a marine Sr-isotope trend (assigning terrace ages based on an assumption of constant long-term uplift rates calculated from the height of dated 120-Ka terraces) that is generally similar to the trend defined by the data of recent workers for DSDP samples. Data for three U-series dated interglacial terraces on the East Coast of the US plot close to the California trend, as do data for 14 coral samples of 0-750 Ka age (dated by mass-spectrometric {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) from submerged, glacial-stage reefs off Hawaii. As a whole, their data indicate an approximately linear increase of approximately 0.05 % in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr over the last 800 k.y., confirm the presence of a subtle ({approximately}0.01 %) reversal between approximately 900 and 600 Ka, and resolve a previously unrecognized reversal of approximately 0.02{per thousand} between approximately 1,400 and 1,200 Ka. In addition, the lack of obvious fine structure in samples younger than 800 ka indicates that the amplitude of any short-period oscillations (<100 ky.) in the marine {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr trend for the Late Quaternary is probably less than approximately 0.02{per thousand}.

  7. Modelled interglacial carbon cycle dynamics during the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor; Munhoven, Guy

    2016-11-01

    Trends in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during three recent interglacials - the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 - are investigated using an earth system model of intermediate complexity, which we extended with process-based modules to consider two slow carbon cycle processes - peat accumulation and shallow-water CaCO3 sedimentation (coral reef formation). For all three interglacials, model simulations considering peat accumulation and shallow-water CaCO3 sedimentation substantially improve the agreement between model results and ice core CO2 reconstructions in comparison to a carbon cycle set-up neglecting these processes. This enables us to model the trends in atmospheric CO2, with modelled trends similar to the ice core data, forcing the model only with orbital and sea level changes. During the Holocene, anthropogenic CO2 emissions are required to match the observed rise in atmospheric CO2 after 3 ka BP but are not relevant before this time. Our model experiments show a considerable improvement in the modelled CO2 trends by the inclusion of the slow carbon cycle processes, allowing us to explain the CO2 evolution during the Holocene and two recent interglacials consistently using an identical model set-up.

  8. Ice core evidence for extensive melting of the greenland ice sheet in the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Koerner, R M

    1989-05-26

    Evidence from ice at the bottom of ice cores from the Canadian Arctic Islands and Camp Century and Dye-3 in Greenland suggests that the Greenland ice sheet melted extensively or completely during the last interglacial period more than 100 ka (thousand years ago), in contrast to earlier interpretations. The presence of dirt particles in the basal ice has previously been thought to indicate that the base of the ice sheets had melted and that the evidence for the time of original growth of these ice masses had been destroyed. However, the particles most likely blew onto the ice when the dimensions of the ice caps and ice sheets were much smaller. Ice texture, gas content, and other evidence also suggest that the basal ice at each drill site is superimposed ice, a type of ice typical of the early growth stages of an ice cap or ice sheet. If the present-day ice masses began their growth during the last interglacial, the ice sheet from the earlier (Illinoian) glacial period must have competely or largely melted during the early part of the same interglacial period. If such melting did occur, the 6-meter higher-than-present sea level during the Sangamon cannot be attributed to disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet, as has been suggested.

  9. P-polarized reflectance spectroscopy: A high sensitive real-time monitoring technique to study surface kinetics under steady state epitaxial deposition conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Nikolaus; Bachmann, Klaus J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of real-time optical monitoring of epitaxial growth processes by p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy (PRS) using a single wavelength application under pulsed chemical beam epitaxy (PCBE) condition. The high surface sensitivity of PRS allows the monitoring of submonolayer precursors coverage on the surface as shown for GaP homoepitaxy and GaP on Si heteroepitaxy as examples. In the case of heteroepitaxy, the growth rate and optical properties are revealed by PRS using interference oscillations as they occur during growth. Super-imposed on these interference oscillations, the PRS signal exhibits a fine structure caused by the periodic alteration of the surface chemistry by the pulsed supply of chemical precursors. This fine structure is modeled under conditions where the surface chemistry cycles between phosphorus supersaturated and phosphorus depleted surfaces. The mathematical model describes the fine structure using a surface layer that increases during the tertiarybutyl phosphine (TBP) supply and decreases during and after the triethylgallium (TEG) pulse, which increases the growing GaP film thickness. The imaginary part of the dielectric function of the surface layer is revealed from the turning points in the fine structure, where the optical response to the first precursor pulse in the cycle sequence changes sign. The amplitude of the fine structure is determined by the surface layer thickness and the complex dielectric functions for the surface layer with the underlying bulk film. Surface kinetic data can be obtained by analyzing the rise and decay transients of the fine structure.

  10. Direct high-performance liquid chromatography enantioseparation of terazosin on an immobilised polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase under polar organic and reversed-phase conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Rosella; Gallinella, Bruno; La Torre, Francesco; Zanitti, Leo; Turchetto, Luciana; Mosca, Antonina; Cirilli, Roberto

    2009-07-10

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) enantioseparation of terazosin (TER) was accomplished on the immobilised-type Chiralpak IC chiral stationary phase (CSP) under both polar organic and reversed-phase modes. A simple analytical method was validated using a mixture of methanol-water-DEA 95:5:0.1 (v/v/v) as a mobile phase. Under reversed-phase conditions good linearities were obtained over the concentration range 8.76-26.28 microg mL(-1) for both enantiomers. The limits of detection and quantification were 10 and 30 ng mL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter-day assay precision was less than 1.66% (RSD%). The optimised conditions also allowed to resolve chiral and achiral impurities from the enantiomers of TER. The proposed HPLC method supports pharmacological studies on the biological effects of the both forms of TER and analytical investigations of potential drug formulations based on a single enantiomer. At the semipreparative scale, 5.3 mg of racemic sample were resolved with elution times less than 12 min using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-DEA 100:0.1 (v/v) and both enantiomers were isolated with a purity of > or = 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). The absolute configuration of TER enantiomers was assigned by comparison of the measured specific rotations with those reported in the literature.

  11. Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal.

    PubMed

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-22

    The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR-cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to <40% of its present value, for which we estimate >40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux.

  12. Are Physical Properties Able to Differentiate Glacial and Interglacial Coral Identity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado-Insua, T.; Moran, K.; Anderson, L.; Webster, J. M.; Morgan, S.; Fehr, A.; Lofi, J.; Lukies, V.; Loggia, D.; Iodp Expedition 325 Scientists

    2010-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 325 to the Great Barrier Reef provides new information on past sea-level changes and better understanding of mechanisms driving glacial-interglacial cycles. Coral samples recovered during this expedition provide a deeper understanding of coral reef responses to environmental stresses. Inter- and intra-specific differences, growth rates, coral health, symbiotic algae and environmental conditions are all potential causes of differences in the density of coral skeletons and their distribution. Past changes in sea level and temperature can be related not only to isotope ratios but also to the presence of different communities of corals. Density changes in the coral composition can be detected using physical properties such as an increase in the calcium carbonate of a sample. De’ath et al. (2009) reported severe and sudden recent declines in calcification in Porites spp. corals in the Great Barrier Reef in the present that have not been observed over at least the last 400 years, and they attributed the decrease in calcification to changes in sea level, sea surface temperature (SST) and saturation of aragonite in the water column, all of which can limit the capacity of the corals to precipitate calcium carbonate. Variation in Sr/Ca can be related to SST, but different strains of symbiotic algae in the corals’ tissues can also be an important factor affecting skeletal Sr/Ca ratios. Such changes have never been tracked during previous glaciations, but the samples from Expedition 325 give the opportunity to explore their values during and since the last glacial maximum. Physical properties such as gamma ray density, electrical resistivity, and acoustic p-wave velocity can be related to characteristics of the marine sediments that, in turn, are indicative of the depositional environments. We performed a multivariate analysis that relates physical characteristics measured with a multi-sensor core logger (MSCL) and downhole

  13. Initiation age and incision rates of inner gorges: Do they record multiple glacial-interglacial cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delunel, Romain; Casagrande, Jan; Schlunegger, Fritz; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-04-01

    Inner gorges represent some of the most conspicuous landforms in the European Alps. They form narrow and deep active-channel incisions that link hanging tributaries with trunk valleys in glacially-conditioned environments. Despite abundant research carried out on these objects, both their origin and evolution have remained unclear. In particular, the age of initiation, the rate of incision, and the respective contribution of fluvial and subglacial processes in the evolution of inner gorges have still been a matter of scientific debate. Indeed, answering these questions has been complicated by the lack of appropriate quantitative methods and/or suitable sampling strategies for studying inner gorges. Here, we report 10Be concentrations measured in alluvial sediments that have been collected along the main stream of a ~20-km2-catchment in the Swiss foreland (Central European Alps). This catchment hosts a ca. 100-m-deep and 2-km-long inner gorge that has been cut mainly in glacial till. Catchment wide denudation rates inferred from 10Be analyses (n = 15) vary from ~120 to 650 mm/ka and show a general downstream increasing trend. Additional field observations and GIS analyses reveal that the denudation rates within the catchment increase from the headwaters, characterized by relict glacial/periglacial landscapes, to the downstream end of the basin where the inner gorge has been formed. Using a 10Be-based sediment budget approach and the delineation of topographic domains from a 2-m-resolution LIDAR, we provide an estimate of erosion rates within the gorge that are higher than 2.5 m/ka and can reach up to ~ 7 m/ka. Combining these estimated erosion rates with the reconstruction of eroded volumes within the gorge, we obtain a rough initiation age in the early Holocene, in general agreement with previous studies reporting a postglacial origin for the inner gorges. Our results therefore appear contradictory with recent findings arguing for a gradual formation of inner

  14. Fire in Ice: Glacial-Interglacial biomass burning in the NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, Piero; Kehrwald, Natalie; Zangrando, Roberta; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet. Fire is a key Earth system process with a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles, affecting carbon cycle mechanisms, land-surface properties, atmospheric chemistry, aerosols and human activities. However, human activities may have also altered biomass burning for thousands of years, thus influencing the climate system. We analyse the specific marker levoglucosan to reconstruct past fire events in ice cores. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is an organic compound that can be only released during the pyrolysis of cellulose at temperatures > 300°C. Levoglucosan is a major fire product in the fine fraction of woody vegetation combustion, can be transported over regional to global distances, and is deposited on the Greenland ice sheet. The NEEM, Greenland ice core (77 27'N, 51 3'W, 2454 masl) documents past fire activity changes from the present back to the penultimate interglacial, the Eemian. Here we present a fire activity reconstruction from both North American and Eurasian sources over the last 120,000 yrs based on levoglucosan signatures in the NEEM ice core. Biomass burning significantly increased over the boreal Northern Hemisphere since the last glacial, resulting in a maximum between 1.5 and 3.5 kyr BP yet decreasing from ~2 kyr BP until the present. Major climate parameters alone cannot explain the observed trend and thus it is not possible to rule out the hypothesis of early anthropogenic influences on fire activity. Over millennial timescales, temperature influences Arctic ice sheet extension and vegetation distribution at Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and may have altered the distance between NEEM and available fuel loads. During the last Glacial, the combination of dry and cold climate conditions, together with low boreal insolation and decreased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may have also limited the production of available biomass. Diminished boreal forest extension and the southward

  15. On the glacial and interglacial thermohaline circulation and the associated transports of heat and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarotta, M.; Falahat, S.; Brodeau, L.; Döös, K.

    2014-11-01

    The thermohaline circulation (THC) and the oceanic heat and freshwater transports are essential for understanding the global climate system. Streamfunctions are widely used in oceanography to represent the THC and estimate the transport of heat and freshwater. In the present study, the regional and global changes of the THC, the transports of heat and freshwater and the timescale of the circulation between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21 kyr ago) and the present-day climate are explored using an Ocean General Circulation Model and streamfunctions projected in various coordinate systems. We found that the LGM tropical circulation is about 10% stronger than under modern conditions due to stronger wind stress. Consequently, the maximum tropical transport of heat is about 20% larger during the LGM. In the North Atlantic basin, the large sea-ice extent during the LGM constrains the Gulf Stream to propagate in a more zonal direction, reducing the transport of heat towards high latitudes by almost 50% and reorganising the freshwater transport. The strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation depends strongly on the coordinate system. It varies between 9 and 16 Sv during the LGM, and between 12 to 19 Sv for the present day. Similar to paleo-proxy reconstructions, a large intrusion of saline Antarctic Bottom Water takes place into the Northern Hemisphere basins and squeezes most of the Conveyor Belt circulation into a shallower part of the ocean. These different haline regimes between the glacial and interglacial period are illustrated by the streamfunctions in latitude-salinity coordinates and thermohaline coordinates. From these diagnostics, we found that the LGM Conveyor Belt circulation is driven by an enhanced salinity contrast between the Atlantic and the Pacific basin. The LGM abyssal circulation lifts and makes the Conveyor Belt cell deviate from the abyssal region, resulting in a ventilated upper layer above a deep stagnant layer, and an

  16. Debris flow grain size scales with sea surface temperature over glacial-interglacial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda Boluda, Duna C.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Araújo, João Paulo C.

    2015-04-01

    Debris flows are common erosional processes responsible for a large volume of sediment transfer across a range of landscapes from arid settings to the tropics. They are also significant natural hazards in populated areas. However, we lack a clear set of debris flow transport laws, meaning that: (i) debris flows remain largely neglected by landscape evolution models; (ii) we do not understand the sensitivity of debris flow systems to past or future climate changes; and (iii) it remains unclear how to interpret debris flow stratigraphy and sedimentology, for example whether their deposits record information about past tectonics or palaeoclimate. Here, we take a grain size approach to characterising debris flow deposits from 35 well-dated alluvial fan surfaces in Owens Valley, California. We show that the average grain sizes of these granitic debris flow sediments precisely scales with sea surface temperature throughout the entire last glacial-interglacial cycle, increasing by ~ 7 % per 1 ° C of climate warming. We compare these data with similar debris flow systems in the Mediterranean (southern Italy) and the tropics (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and find equivalent signals over a total temperature range of ~ 14 ° C. In each area, debris flows are largely governed by rainfall intensity during triggering storms, which is known to increase exponentially with temperature. Therefore, we suggest that these debris flow systems are transporting predictably coarser-grained sediment in warmer, stormier conditions. This implies that debris flow sedimentology is governed by discharge thresholds and may be a sensitive proxy for past changes in rainfall intensity. Our findings show that debris flows are sensitive to climate changes over short timescales (≤ 104 years) and therefore highlight the importance of integrating hillslope processes into landscape evolution models, as well as providing new observational constraints to guide this. Finally, we comment on what grain size

  17. A 3-D model for the Antarctic ice sheet: a sensitivity study on the glacial-interglacial contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybrechts, Philippe

    1990-12-01

    On the longer climatic time scales, changes in the elevation and extent of the Antarctic ice sheet have an important role in modulating global atmospheric and oceanographic processes, and contribute significantly to world-wide sea levels. In this paper, a 3-D time-dependent thermomechanical model for the entire ice sheet is presented, that is subsequently used to examine the effects of glacial-interglacial shifts in environmental boundary conditions on its geometry. The model takes into account a coupled ice shelf, grounding-line dynamics, basal sliding and isostatic bed adjustment and considers the fully coupled velocity and temperature fields. Ice flow is calculated on a fine mesh (40 km horizontal grid size and 10 layers in the vertical) for grounded and floating ice and a stress transition zone in between at the grounding line, where all stress components contribute in the effective stress in the flow law. There is free interaction between ice sheet and ice shelf, so that the entire geometry is internally generated. A simulation of the present ice sheet reveals that the model is able to yield realistic results. A series of sensitivity experiments are then performed, in which lower temperatures, reduced accumulation rates and lower global sea level stands are imposed, either singly or in combination. By comparing results of pairs of experiments, the effects of each of these environmental changes can be determined. In agreement with glacial-geological evidence, we found that the most pronounced changes show up in the West Antarctic ice sheet configuration. They appear to be essentially controlled by variations in eustatic sea level, whereas typical glacial-interglacial changes in temperature and ice deposition rates tend to balance one another. These findings support the hypothesis that the Antarctic ice sheet basically follows glacial episodes in the northern hemisphere by means of sea-level teleconnections. Grounding occurs more readily in the Weddell sea than

  18. The last interglacial climate in EC-Earth - comparing the direct and indirect impacts of the insolation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker Pedersen, Rasmus; Langen, Peter Lang; Vinther, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The last interglacial warm climate state was influenced by substantial changes in the annual insolation cycle. The impact of the insolation changes has been investigated using a time-slice simulation with the EC-Earth earth system model. The model climate was forced with the insolation and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from 125,000 years before present, and the resulting quasi-equilibrium state has been analyzed and compared to a pre-industrial climate state. The simulations indicate an annual mean global warming of approximately 1 K. The tropical region exhibits lower temperatures and stronger monsoonal systems, while the Arctic region shows a warming of about 3 K throughout the year. Arctic sea ice changes appear to be an important driver of warming, especially in relation to a northward shift of the ice edge in the North Atlantic region. Proxy data from ice and ocean sediment cores indicate substantial warming in parts of the North Atlantic region that could be related to similar sea ice changes. The relative importance of the sea ice and sea surface temperature changes and the direct contribution from the insolation is further investigated using a series of experiments in an atmosphere-only version of the model. Based on the results from the coupled model, we assess the relative contributions using hybrid simulations of the atmospheric response to a combination of last interglacial sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions and pre-industrial insolation, and vice versa. Special attention is given to the simulated response over the Greenland ice sheet and the potential implications for proxy data from ice cores. Both temperature and precipitation changes could impact the ice core records, and the seasonal and spatial changes over Greenland are analyzed in detail. At the NEEM ice core location, a general warming tendency is accompanied by an increase of summer snowfall that contributes to a further increase of the precipitation

  19. Last glacial-interglacial environments in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA and implications for Younger Dryas-age human occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Meltzer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The last glacial-interglacial transition (LGIT; 19-9 ka) was characterized by rapid climate changes and significant ecosystem reorganizations worldwide. In western Colorado, one of the coldest locations in the continental US today, mountain environments during the late-glacial period are poorly known. Yet, archaeological evidence from the Mountaineer site (2625 m elev.) indicates that Folsom-age Paleoindians were over-wintering in the Gunnison Basin during the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 12.9-11.7 ka). To determine the vegetation and fire history during the LGIT, and possible explanations for occupation during a period thought to be harsher than today, a 17-ka-old sediment core from Lily Pond (3208 m elev.) was analyzed for pollen and charcoal and compared with other high-resolution records from the southern Rocky Mountains. Widespread tundra and Picea parkland and low fire activity in the cold wet late-glacial period transitioned to open subalpine forest and increased fire activity in the Bølling-Allerød period as conditions became warmer and drier. During the YDC, greater winter snowpack than today and prolonged wet springs likely expanded subalpine forest to lower elevations than today, providing construction material and fuel for the early inhabitants. In the early to middle Holocene, arid conditions resulted in xerophytic vegetation and frequent fire.

  20. Short-term climate changes in the Holsteinian Interglacial - EGU2012-132

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitychoruk, J.; Bińka, K.; Ruppert, H.; Tudryn, A.

    2012-04-01

    Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes from fossil lake sediments of the Holsteinian age (eastern Poland) give evidence for the abrupt climate shifts in this interglacial that coincide with the changes in vegetation inferred from palaeobotanical data. Especially changes of the stable isotope ratios as well as decrease in the carbonate content in the deposits and increase in silicate redeposited from the area around the lake are synchronous with the short-term climatic deteriorations within the interglacial pollen flora. Two distinct climate shifts are recorded in the Holsteinian. The first one is marked by the very characteristic pine-birch cold phase after the yew (Taxus) domination that is reported from numerous pollen diagrams from Central Europe. This distinct cooling resembles a phenomenon known as 8.2 ka event in the Holocene, when waters of the Agassiz Lake in North America drained into the Atlantic Ocean (Koutsodendris et al. 2010). Enormous volumes of freshwater from melting of the Laurentian ice-sheet caused disturbances in the Gulf Stream and as a result some decrease in regional temperatures. The second distinct cooling of a lower rank took place within the younger part of the climatic optimum of the Holsteinian. It is relatively less known, because most often pollen records lack sufficient temporal resolution needed to identify this event. A well documented cooling in the Holsteinian deposits from Dethlingen, northern Germany (Koutsodendris et al. 2010) and from the Ossówka, eastern Poland (Nitychoruk et al. 2005) are exceptional. In the sequence from Dethlingen, a distinct increase in the percentage of pioneer trees is accompanied by a lower content of temperate taxa. At Ossówka, the shift of climate is noted as the rise of ratio of oxygen and carbon isotopes. According to Nitychoruk (2000) the cold event is coincident with volcanic eruptions evidenced by volcanic ash found in the lake deposits at that time. Literature Koutsodendris, A., Müller, U

  1. The Response of Northern Hemisphere Extratropical Climate and Vegetation to Orbitally Induced Changes in Insolation during the Last Interglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Sandy P.; Kutzbach, John E.; Prentice, I. Colin; Behling, Pat J.; Sykes, Martin T.

    1995-03-01

    The last interglaciation (substage 5e) provides an opportunity to examine the effects of extreme orbital changes on regional climates. We have made two atmospheric general circulation model experiments: P+T+ approximated the northern hemisphere seasonality maximum near the beginning of 5e; P-T- approximated the minimum near the end of 5e. Simulated regional climate changes have been translated into biome changes using a physiologically based model of global vegetation types. Major climatic and vegetational changes were simulated for the northern hemisphere extratropics, due to radiational effects that were both amplified and modified by atmospheric circulation changes and sea-ice feedback. P+T+ showed mid-continental summers up to 8°C warmer than present. Mid-latitude winters were 2-4°C cooler than present but in the Arctic, summer warmth reduced sea-ice extent and thickness, producing winters 2-8°C warmer than present. The tundra and taiga biomes were displaced poleward, while warm-summer steppes expanded in the mid latitudes due to drought. P-T- showed summers up to 5°C cooler than present, especially in mid latitudes. Sea ice and snowpack were thicker and lasted longer; polar desert, tundra, and taiga biomes were displaced equatorward, while cool-summer steppes and semideserts expanded due to the cooling. A slight winter warming in mid latitudes, however, caused warm-temperate evergreen forests and scrub to expand poleward. Such qualitative contrasts in the direction of climate and vegetation change during 5e should be identifiable in the paleorecord.

  2. Extending the record of lacustrine phases beyond the last interglacial for Lake Eyre in central Australia using luminescence dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiao; Cohen, Tim J.; Arnold, Lee J.

    2017-04-01

    peak interglacial conditions, are actually associated with both warm interglacial and cold glacial periods, with all the wettest episodes generally coinciding with the intervening periods between the glacial and interglacial maximums. We assume from these results that orbital forcing is not a first order control for the long-term dynamics of the Lake Eyre basin and the Indo-Australian monsoon. The high lake-level events of Lake Eyre are well correlated with millennial-scale cooling events and stadials of the North Atlantic, and coincide with weakened episodes/events for the East Asia summer monsoon. This may imply an important role for the northern high latitudes in influencing the Indo-Australian monsoon, which may be associated with a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during cooling periods in the North Atlantic.

  3. Depth-resolved simplified characterization of collagen depletion in dermis with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography applicable to non-laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougbaev, Vitali; Eom, Tae Joong; Shin, Woojin; Lee, Yeung Lak; Yu, Bong-Ahn; Kee, Chul-Sik; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin

    2007-07-01

    A further insight into the prior concept of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system intended for non-laboratory conditions is brought forward and an experimental proof-of-concept is presented. A phenomenological model is adopted from the theory of light depolarization in crystalline polymers and modified to yield a simplified algorithm for mapping depolarization ratio in dermis. The algorithm could distinguish between dermal layers with depleted collagen content and normal dermis of normal perilesional skin. Dermis is simulated by bireringent lamellae of collagen arranged chaotically in multiple layers parallel to the skin surface. Both the design concept and the model imply the sub-millimeter tumor thickness as a proofed prognostic factor and an important criterion for complementary functional diagnostics of skin cancers at their early phase of vertical growth. Choice of the model is inspired by similarity of structural and optical properties between liquid-crystal collagen fibers in dermis and birefringent crystalline lamellae in polymer materials. The numerical computation based on the model allowing for real characteristics of dermis gives plausible interpreting of depolarization peculiarities caused by collagen depletion. Feasibility is discussed of exploiting fiber optic analogs of achromatic retarders. Fabrication of the fiber retarders is shown to be realistic by making use of the photonics technology possessed by the authors.

  4. Chemotaxis without Conventional Two-Component System, Based on Cell Polarity and Aerobic Conditions in Helicity-Switching Swimming of Spiroplasma eriocheiris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zheng, Huajun; Meng, Qingguo; Terahara, Natsuho; Gu, Wei; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guoping; Nakane, Daisuke; Wang, Wen; Miyata, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a pathogen that causes mass mortality in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. S. eriocheiris causes tremor disease and infects almost all of the artificial breeding crustaceans, resulting in disastrous effects on the aquaculture economy in China. S. eriocheiris is a wall-less helical bacterium, measuring 2.0 to 10.0 μm long, and can swim up to 5 μm per second in a viscous medium without flagella by switching the cell helicity at a kink traveling from the front to the tail. In this study, we showed that S. eriocheiris performs chemotaxis without the conventional two-component system, a system commonly found in bacterial chemotaxis. The chemotaxis of S. eriocheiris was observed more clearly when the cells were cultivated under anaerobic conditions. The cells were polarized as evidenced by a tip structure, swimming in the direction of the tip, and were shown to reverse their swimming direction in response to attractants. Triton X-100 treatment revealed the internal structure, a dumbbell-shaped core in the tip that is connected by a flat ribbon, which traces the shortest line in the helical cell shape from the tip to the other pole. Sixteen proteins were identified as the components of the internal structure by mass spectrometry, including Fibril protein and four types of MreB proteins. PMID:28217108

  5. Modeling of Two-Plasmon-Decay Experiments at Polar-Direct-Drive Ignition-Relevant Plasma Conditions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, A. A.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Myatt, J. F.; Epstein, R.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shaw, J. G.; Hohenberger, M.; Moody, J. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Turnbull, D. P.

    2015-11-01

    The two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability can be detrimental for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion because of target preheat by high-energy electrons generated by TPD. The radiation-hydrodynamic code DRACO has been used to design planar target experiments that generate plasma and interaction conditions relevant to ignition polar-direct-drive (PDD) designs. The use of planar targets allows TPD to be decoupled from cross-beam energy transfer, which reduces the laser absorption in current National Ignition Facility (NIF) PDD implosion experiments. The laser-plasma interaction code LPSE has been used to investigate TPD using the predicted plasma profiles and laser irradiation geometry in three dimensions. The energetic electrons generated by LPSE are propagated into the planar target using the Monte Carlo transport code EGSnrc. This enables a direct comparison between the simulated and experimentally observed Mo Kα fluorescence and hard x-ray bremsstrahlung. The plasma profiles have been post-processed for stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscatter gains. Comparisons of these results with recent experiments at the NIF and the implications for ignition-scale PDD experiments will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Conditions for efficient and stable ion acceleration by moderate circularly polarized laser pulses at intensities of 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, B.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Dromey, B.; Kar, S.; Geissler, M.; Gibbon, P.; Schreiber, J.

    2011-04-15

    Conditions for efficient and stable ion radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) from thin foils by circularly polarized laser pulses at moderate intensities are theoretically and numerically investigated. It is found that the unavoidable decompression of the co-moving electron layer in Light-Sail RPA leads to a change of the local electrostatic field from a ''bunching'' to a ''debunching'' profile, ultimately resulting in premature termination of ion acceleration. One way to overcome this instability is the use of a multispecies foil where the high-Z ions act as a sacrificial species to supply excess co-moving electrons for preserving stable acceleration of the lower-Z ion species. It is shown by 2D particle-in-cell simulations that 100 MeV/u monoenergetic C{sup 6+} ion beams are produced by irradiation of a Cu-C-mixed foil with laser pulses at intensities 5 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, which can be easily achieved by current day lasers.

  7. Analyzing Glacial-Interglacial Ocean Biogeochemical States in the MPI-Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, M.; Ilyina, T.

    2015-12-01

    There is still little consensus about the mechanisms causing the glacial - interglacial variationsin atmospheric CO2 concentrations of around 100 ppm. Some of those mechanisms aredriven by alterations in ocean biogeochemical cycles. Hence, it is crucial to understand oceanbiogeochemistry dynamics during glacial-interglacial transitions. Within the German nationalclimate modeling initiative PalMod, aiming at simulating a full glacial cycle (135k - today) intransient mode with a state-of-the-art Earth System Model (ESM), we address the oceanbiogeochemistry cycles using a comprehensive modeling approach. In order to set up themodel we start with ocean only simulations, which are based on the 3-D ocean generalcirculation model MPIOM coupled to the ocean biogeochemistry model HAMOCC.Atmospheric forcing data is derived from a fully coupled LGM simulation including theatmosphere general circulation model ECHAM6. This setup provides us a sophisticatedrepresentation of the ocean biogeochemistry during the LGM without using any kind of datarestoring,to be consistent with the biological, chemical and physical dynamics of the model.We analyze alterations in ocean biogeochemistry during the LGM in comparison to a preindustrialcontrol climate. We discuss and quantify the changes in ocean biogeochemicalcycles between these two states, as well as possible implications for carbon transfer due tochanges in ocean dynamics. In the next steps we will use the ocean biogeochemistry model aspart of the fully coupled MPI-ESM. Our results aim at improving the understanding of glacial- interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2, especially in terms of marine carbon sequestrationand release. The presented work contributes to developing comprehensive ESMs, which arecapable of simulating the climate evolution and the variability during the last glacial cycle.

  8. The Glacial-Interglacial Monsoon Recorded by Speleothems from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrough, A. K.; Gagan, M. K.; Dunbar, G. B.; Krause, C.; Hantoro, W. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Shen, C. C.; Sun, H.; Cai, B.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Rifai, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool is a primary source of heat and moisture to the global atmosphere and a key player in tropical and global climate variability. There is mounting evidence that atmospheric convection and oceanic processes in the tropics can modulate global climate on orbital and sub-orbital timescales. Glacial-interglacial cycles represent the largest natural climate changes over the last 800 kyr with each cycle terminated by rapid global warming and sea level rise. Our understanding of the role and response of tropical atmospheric convection during these periods of dramatic warming is limited. We present the first speleothem paleomonsoon record for southwest Sulawesi (5ºS, 119ºE), spanning two glacial-interglacial cycles, including glacial termination IV (~340 kyr BP) and both phases of termination III (~248 and ~220 kyr BP). This unique record is constructed from multiple stalagmites from two separate caves and is based on a multi-proxy approach (δ18O, δ13C, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) that provides insight into the mechanisms controlling Australian-Indonesian summer monsoon variability. Speleothem δ18O and trace element data indicate a rapid increase in rainfall at glacial terminations and wet interglacials. Terminations IV, III, and I are each characterized by an abrupt 3‰ decrease in δ18O. Variability in δ18O leading-in to glacial terminations is also similar, and corresponds to October insolation. Prior to deglaciation, there is a distinct shift to higher δ18O that is synchronized with weak monsoon intervals in Chinese speleothem records. The remarkably consistent pattern among terminations implies that the response of tropical convection to changing background climates is well regulated. Furthermore, we find that speleothem δ13C leads δ18O by ~5 kyr during glacial terminations. The early decrease in speleothem δ13C may reflect the response of tropical vegetation to rising atmospheric CO2 and temperature, rather than regional changes in rainfall.

  9. The Mid-Holocene and Last Interglacial Experiments in PMIP4/CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Braconnot, Pascale; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the forcings and feedbacks that produced interglacial warmth and the outcomes from it can help us better project the future climate of our planet. CMIP6 will include two interglacial experiments to explore the responses of the models to the forcing by orbital variations: the Mid-Holocene (MH 6000 years ago [6 ka]) and Last Interglacial (LIG 127,000 years ago [127 ka]). The dominant orbital forcing changes from modern modified the incoming solar insolation at the top of the atmosphere, resulting in large positive anomalies in summer in the Northern Hemisphere. Greenhouse gas concentrations were close to those of the pre-industrial. This pair of simulations will allow an assessment of the scaling and thresholds of the Earth system to the magnitude of the solar insolation changes (larger seasonal anomalies at 127 ka than 6 ka). High latitude feedbacks from sea-ice, water vapor and clouds will be a focus, and the implications for the stability of the Greenland and West Antarctic (WAIS) ice sheets. This output will be used by the ice sheet modeling community, with an intercomparison being coordinated as a joint activity of PMIP4 and ISMIP6 for CMIP6. As well, these experiments will explore the relative changes of the low-latitude hydrological cycle and monsoons. The MH and LIG are the most suitable of the warm interglacials for a CMIP6 assessment because of the wealth of data including: ice cores providing measurements of well-mixed greenhouse gases, aerosols including dust and sea salt, and stable water isotopes as a proxy for temperature, as well as for Greenland, ice sheet elevation and extent; marine records for ocean temperatures and geotracers that can be interpreted in terms of water masses and overturning strength; speleothems that provide indication of monsoon strength; fossil corals and sediments for interannual to multi-decadal variability; and terrestrial records that indicate temperature, vegetation, lake level, and hydroclimate changes. As

  10. Glacial interglacial cycles and development of the Afroalpine ecosystem on East African Mountains II. Origins and development of the biotic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmsen, R.; Spence, J. R.; Mahaney, W. C.

    The development of the Afroalpine ecosystem as found on a number of isolated mountains in East Africa has a physical component and a biological component which is to a large degree dependent on the physical environment. The origins of the Afroalpine biota are predominantly African-tropical or Palearctic with smaller contributions from South Africa and other more distant sources. Once the ecosystem was established, dispersal from one mountain to others became a main source of increasing complexity. Ecological succession and evolutionary development from simple random assemblages of early invading species on unmodified substrates to complex interactive communities forming a closely integrated biosphere would have been the next stage in the development of the Afroalpine ecosystem. However, glacial interglacial cycles throughout the Pleistocene may have seriously curtailed this process. Detailed on early succession on Neoglacial tills on Mount Kenya supply a reasonable model for the larger scale recolonization of the upper reaches of the mountain following each glacial, and palynological evidence supplies a fairly accurate picture of the lower altitude glacial Afroalpine communities. Yet, our knowledge of the structure of the Afroalpine ecosystem during past glacials and interglacials is far too sketchy to be able to say how severe the effects of the climatic oscillations were on the development and maintenance of the Afroalpine ecosystem. Current conditions indicate a long history (c 2-3 mil yrs) of adaptation to above tree-line conditions for some organisms, but the entire ecosystem is still very young and will probably never be able to reach a successional or evolutionary equilibrium in the unstable climatic conditions of the Afroalpine environment.

  11. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described.

  12. Reconstructing Variations of Global Sea-Surface Temperature during the Last Interglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J. S.; Clark, P. U.; He, F.; Parnell, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The last interglaciation (LIG; ~130-116 ka) was the most recent period in Earth history with higher-than-present global sea level (≥6 m) under similar-to-preindustrial concentrations of atmospheric CO2, suggesting additional feedbacks related to albedo, insolation, and ocean circulation in generating the apparent climatic differences between the LIG and present Holocene. However, our understanding of how much warmer the LIG sea surface was relative to the present interglaciation remains uncertain, with current estimates suggesting from 0°C to 2°C warmer than late-20thcentury average global temperatures. Moreover, the timing, spatial expression, and amplitude of regional and global sea surface temperature variability related to other climate forcing during the LIG are poorly constrained, largely due to uncertainties in age control and proxy temperature reconstructions. An accurate characterization of global and regional temperature change during the LIG can serve as a benchmark for paleoclimate modeling intercomparison projects and help improve understanding of sea-level sensitivity to temperature change. We will present a global compilation (~100 published records) of sea surface temperature (SST) and other climate reconstructions spanning the LIG. Using a Monte Carlo-enabled cross-correlation maximization algorithm to climatostratigraphically align proxy records and then account for both the resulting chronologic and proxy calibration uncertainties with Bayesian statistical inference, our results quantify the spatial timing, amplitude, and uncertainty in estimates of global and regional sea surface temperature change during the LIG and its relation to potential forcings.

  13. Oceanographic dynamics and the end of the last interglacial in the subpolar North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F; Oppo, Delia W

    2014-08-05

    The last interglacial interval was terminated by the inception of a long, progressive glaciation that is attributed to astronomically influenced changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight over the earth. However, the feedbacks, internal dynamics, and global teleconnections associated with declining northern summer insolation remain incompletely understood. Here we show that a crucial early step in glacial inception involves the weakening of the subpolar gyre (SPG) circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean. Detailed new records of microfossil foraminifera abundance and stable isotope ratios in deep sea sediments from Ocean Drilling Program site 984 south of Iceland reveal repeated, progressive cold water-mass expansions into subpolar latitudes during the last peak interglacial interval, marine isotope substage 5e. These movements are expressed as a sequence of progressively extensive southward advances and subsequent retreats of a hydrographic boundary that may have been analogous to the modern Arctic front, and associated with rapid changes in the strength of the SPG. This persistent millennial-scale oceanographic oscillation accompanied a long-term cooling trend at a time of slowly declining northern summer insolation, providing an early link in the propagation of those insolation changes globally, and resulting in a rapid transition from extensive regional warmth to the dramatic instability of the subsequent ∼ 100 ka.

  14. Oceanographic dynamics and the end of the last interglacial in the subpolar North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.; Oppo, Delia W.

    2014-01-01

    The last interglacial interval was terminated by the inception of a long, progressive glaciation that is attributed to astronomically influenced changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight over the earth. However, the feedbacks, internal dynamics, and global teleconnections associated with declining northern summer insolation remain incompletely understood. Here we show that a crucial early step in glacial inception involves the weakening of the subpolar gyre (SPG) circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean. Detailed new records of microfossil foraminifera abundance and stable isotope ratios in deep sea sediments from Ocean Drilling Program site 984 south of Iceland reveal repeated, progressive cold water-mass expansions into subpolar latitudes during the last peak interglacial interval, marine isotope substage 5e. These movements are expressed as a sequence of progressively extensive southward advances and subsequent retreats of a hydrographic boundary that may have been analogous to the modern Arctic front, and associated with rapid changes in the strength of the SPG. This persistent millennial-scale oceanographic oscillation accompanied a long-term cooling trend at a time of slowly declining northern summer insolation, providing an early link in the propagation of those insolation changes globally, and resulting in a rapid transition from extensive regional warmth to the dramatic instability of the subsequent ∼100 ka. PMID:25049405

  15. Increased aridity in southwestern Africa during the warmest periods of the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego, Dunia H.; Fernanda Sanchez Goni, Maria; Daniau, Anne-Laure

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial and marine climatic tracers from marine core MD96-2098 were used to reconstruct glacial-interglacial climate variability in southwestern Africa between 194 and 24 thousand years before present. The pollen record documented three pronounced expansions of Nama-karoo and fine-leaved savanna during the last interglacial (Marine Isotopic Stage 5 - MIS 5). These Nama-karoo and fine-leaved savanna expansions were linked to increased aridity during the three warmest substadials of MIS 5. Enhanced aridity potentially resulted from a combination of reduced Benguela Upwelling, expanded subtropical high-pressure cells, and reduced austral-summer precipitation due to a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Decreased austral-winter precipitation was likely linked to a southern displacement of the westerlies. In contrast, during glacial isotopic stages MIS 6, 4 and 3, fynbos expanded at the expense of Nama-karoo and fine-leaved savanna, indicating a relative increase in precipitation probably concentrated during the austral winter months. Our record also suggested that warm-cold or cold-warm transitions between isotopic stages and substages were punctuated by short increases in humidity. Increased aridity during MIS 5e, 5c and 5a warm substages coincided with minima in both precessional index and global ice volume. On the other hand, austral-winter precipitation increases were associated with precession maxima at the time of well-developed Northern Hemisphere ice caps.

  16. Intra-interglacial climate variability from Marine Isotope Stage 15 to the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmayani, R.; Prange, M.; Schulz, M.

    2015-07-01

    Using the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) including a dynamic global vegetation model a set of 13 interglacial time slice experiments was carried out to study global climate variability between and within the Quaternary interglaciations of Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1, 5, 11, 13, and 15. The different effects of obliquity, precession and greenhouse gas forcing on global surface temperature and precipitation fields are illuminated. Several similarities with previous idealized orbital-forcing experiments can be identified. In particular, a significant role of meridional insolation-gradient forcing by obliquity variations in forcing the West African monsoon is found. The sensitivity of the West African monsoon to this obliquity forcing, however, depends on the climatic precession. According to the CCSM3 results, the Indian monsoon is less sensitive to direct obliquity-induced insolation forcing, consistent with the interpretation of proxy records from the Arabian Sea. Moreover, the model results suggest that the two monsoon systems do not always vary in concert, challenging the concept of a global monsoon system at orbital timescales. High obliquity can also explain relatively warm Northern Hemisphere high-latitude summer temperatures despite maximum precession around 495 kyr BP (MIS 13) probably preventing a glacial inception at that time.

  17. Saharan dust deposition in the Carpathian Basin and its possible effects on interglacial soil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Cserháti, Csaba; Kovács, János; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    Several hundred tons of windblown dust material are lifted into the atmosphere and are transported every year from Saharan dust source areas towards Europe having an important climatic and other environmental effect also on distant areas. According to the systematic observations of modern Saharan dust events, it can be stated that dust deflated from North African source areas is a significant constituent of the atmosphere of the Carpathian Basin and Saharan dust deposition events are identifiable several times in a year. Dust episodes are connected to distinct meteorological situations, which are also the determining factors of the different kinds of depositional mechanisms. By using the adjusted values of dust deposition simulations of numerical models, the annual Saharan dust flux can be set into the range of 3.2-5.4 g/m2/y. Based on the results of past mass accumulation rates calculated from stratigraphic and sedimentary data of loess-paleosol sequences, the relative contribution of Saharan dust to interglacial paleosol material was quantified. According to these calculations, North African exotic dust material can represent 20-30% of clay and fine silt-sized soil components of interglacial paleosols in the Carpathian Basin. The syngenetic contribution of external aeolian dust material is capable to modify physicochemical properties of soils and hereby the paleoclimatic interpretation of these pedogene stratigraphic units.

  18. Coastal deformation between the Versilia and the Garigliano plains (Italy) since the last interglacial stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, Marco F.; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Pra, Giuseppe Dai; Leoni, Gabriele; Silenzi, Sergio

    2003-12-01

    The opening of the north-central Tyrrhenian Sea is the result of the Cretaceous-Paleogene alpine collision, which triggered a series of regional uplift, subsidence and transcurrent tectonic mechanisms along the coastal Tyrrhenian sectors of peninsular Italy. These tectonic processes, in conjunction with the effects of glacio- and hydro-isostasy during the Quaternary, produced substantial crustal responses that, in some cases, reached metres in extent. In the study of coastal neotectonics, geomorphological markers of the last interglacial maximum, corresponding to marine isotope stage 5.5, are generally used to quantify the magnitude of the vertical crustal displacements that have occurred since 125 kyr. Through altimetrical, palaeoenvironmental and chronological reinterpretation of the most significant works published since 1913, combined with an additional set of data reported here, a detailed reconstruction of the shoreline displacements evident along 500 km of coast between northern Tuscany and southern Latium is presented. The reconstruction was carried out by quantifying the vertical movement since the last interglacial period and by identifying the tectonic behaviour of different coastal sectors. This has been done by carefully choosing the eustatic marker, among those available at each study site, in order to minimize the margin of error associated with the measurements. Copyright

  19. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  20. POLARIZED PROTON COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC. In 2002, polarized proton beams were first accelerated to 100 GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. Optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limited conditions are reported.

  1. Global sea-level fluctuations during the Last Interglaciation (MIS 5e)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Paul J.; Hollin, John T.; Neumann, A. Conrad; O'Leary, Michael J.; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2007-09-01

    The geomorphology and morphostratigraphy of numerous worldwide sites reveal the relative movements of sea level during the peak of the Last Interglaciation (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, assumed average duration between 130±2 and 119±2 ka). Because sea level was higher than present, deposits are emergent, exposed, and widespread on many stable coastlines. Correlation with MIS 5e is facilitated by similar morphostratigraphic relationships, a low degree of diagenesis, uranium-thorium (U/Th) ages, and a global set of amino-acid racemization (AAR) data. This study integrates information from a large number of sites from tectonically stable areas including Bermuda, Bahamas, and Western Australia, and some that have experienced minor uplift (˜2.5 m/100 ka), including selected sites from the Mediterranean and Hawaii. Significant fluctuations during the highstand are evident at many MIS 5e sites, revealed from morphological, stratigraphic, and sedimentological evidence. Rounded and flat-topped curves derived only from reef tracts are incomplete and not representative of the entire interglacial story. Despite predictions of much different sea-level histories in Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Western Australia due to glacio- and hydro-isostatic effects, the rocks from these sites reveal a nearly identical record during the Last Interglaciation. The Last Interglacial highstand is characterized by several defined sea-level intervals (SLIs) that include: (SLI#1) post-glacial (MIS 6/5e Termination II) rise to above present before 130 ka; (SLI#2) stability at +2 to +3 m for the initial several thousand years (˜130 to ˜125 ka) during which fringing reefs were established and terrace morphology was imprinted along the coastlines; (SLI#3) a brief fall to near or below present around 125 ka; (SLI#4) a secondary rise to and through ˜+3-4 m (˜124 to ˜122 ka); followed by (SLI#5) a brief period of instability (˜120 ka) characterized by a rapid rise to between +6 to +9 m during

  2. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  3. Impact of paleoceanographic changes at glacial/interglacial transitions on benthic foraminiferal faunas of the eastern North Atlantic (IODP Expedition 339, Site U1385)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, Patrick; Hodell, David; Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Stow, Dorrik A. V.

    2014-05-01

    Communities of deep-sea foraminifera are sensitive recorders of environmental conditions. Consequently, the actualistic interpretation of fossil foraminiferal assemblages has become a valuable tool for the reconstruction of paleoceanographic conditions at the sea-floor. For the present study, a quantitative data-set of benthic foraminifera >125μm from the eastern North Atlantic has been analysed to understand paleoceanographic changes (AMOC, ventilation, productivity) associated with glacial/interglacial transitions in more detail. The data-set consists of a series of samples from IODP Site U1385 spanning Terminations I, II and IV and several short-term (millennial-scale) climatic events including the Younger Dryas (YD), Heinrich (H) 1, and H 11. On the family and generic levels, a characteristic succession of foraminiferal assemblages can be recognized at all studied glacial/interglacial transitions: a glacial fauna with abundant occurrences of cassidulinids (Cassidulina, Globocassidulina); a fauna characterized by high abundances of buliminds (Bulimina, Globobulimina) and/or bolivinellids (Bolivinita) that is associated with H-events and the beginning of each termination; a fauna with high abundances of miliolids (mainly Pyrgo) and cibicidids at the end of the termination; an interglacial fauna composed of buliminds (Bulimina), gavellinellids (Gyroidinoides), and pseudoparrellids (Epistominella). For the glacial and interglacial endmembers, this succession indicates a moderately oxygenated environment at the seafloor with mesotrophic conditions due to moderate export productivity. For the early phase of the terminations as well as the short-term events, the dominance of infaunal taxa and high abundances of deep infaunal taxa indicate an environment with high export productivity that is mainly controlled by oxygen. Conversely, the absence of these taxa and the presence of miliolids suggests well-ventilated environments and decreasing export productivity during

  4. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  5. Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J

    2017-02-10

    Macrophage polarization refers to how macrophages have been activated at a given point in space and time. Polarization is not fixed, as macrophages are sufficiently plastic to integrate multiple signals, such as those from microbes, damaged tissues, and the normal tissue environment. Three broad pathways control polarization: epigenetic and cell survival pathways that prolong or shorten macrophage development and viability, the tissue microenvironment, and extrinsic factors, such as microbial products and cytokines released in inflammation. A plethora of advances have provided a framework for rationally purifying, describing, and manipulating macrophage polarization. Here, I assess the current state of knowledge about macrophage polarization and enumerate the major questions about how activated macrophages regulate the physiology of normal and damaged tissues.

  6. The Last Transition From Extreme Glacial to Extreme Interglacial Climate in NW Patagonia: Regional and Global Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, P. I.

    2004-12-01

    The study of interhemispheric climate linkages during and since the last ice age has benefited from the recent development of high-resolution ice core and marine records from the mid- and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Few paleoclimate records from terrestrial environments in these regions, however, have the temporal continuity, time resolution, and adequate chronologic control to allow a detailed examination of the timing, rates, direction, and phasing of climate change at millennial timescales. Stratigraphic, palynologic, and charcoal records from small, high-sediment accumulating lakes in the Chilean Lake District (41ºS) afford useful data for examining the interval between the LGM to the early Holocene (25-8 ka, ka=cal kyr BP). Millennial-scale changes in glacier extent and vegetation patterns within this interval match key events both in the Northern Hemisphere and Antarctic records, in particular the EPICA Dome C data, highlighting the role of an atmosphere-based conduit for the global propagation of abrupt climate changes. The onset of the last termination in NW Patagonia is marked by glacial collapse and the expansion of rainforest trees at 17.7 ka. An apparent antiphase relationship among the polar hemispheres between 17.7-14.7 ka, might reflect the hemispheric-scale effects of a quasi-total shut down of Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation driven by Heinrich event 1. Extreme glacial and interglacial modes in the position/strength of the westerlies at multi-millennial timescales in the southern westerlies accompany important shifts in the abundance and composition of rainforest communities during the last termination and the early Holocene. At millennial timescales, this interval is characterised by successive warming pulses interrupted by a generalized reversal in trend with cooling events starting at 14.7 and 13.4 ka. Fires between 12.9-11.5 ka, i.e. Younger Dryas Chron (YDC), led to the expansion of opportunistic rainforest species

  7. Near-field sea-level variability in northwest Europe and ice sheet stability during the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, A. J.; Barlow, N. L. M.; Busschers, F. S.; Cohen, K. M.; Gehrels, W. R.; Wake, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    Global sea level during the Last Interglacial (LIG, Marine Isotope Sub-stage 5e) peaked between c. 5.5 and 9 m above present, implying significant melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Relative sea level (RSL) observations from several far- and intermediate-field sites suggest abrupt fluctuations or jumps in RSL during the LIG highstand that require one or more episodes of ice-sheet collapse and regrowth. Such events should be manifest as unique sea-level fingerprints, recorded in far-, intermediate- and near-field sites depending on the source(s) of ice-mass change involved. To date, though, no coherent evidence of such fluctuations has been reported from near-field RSL studies in northwest Europe. This is an important problem because RSL fluctuations during the LIG are portrayed as warning signs for how polar ice sheets may behave in a future, warmer than present, world. Here we review the evidence for RSL change during the LIG using stratigraphic data from the best resolved highstand records that exist in the near-field of northwest Europe, from a range of settings that include lagoonal, shallow marine, tidal flat, salt marsh and brackish-water fluviatile environments. Consideration of previously published stratigraphic records from two sites in the Eemian coastal-marine embayment that existed in the central Netherlands, yields no clear indications for abrupt RSL change during the attainment of the near-field highstand. Nor do we find any such indications common to other records from countries bordering the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the White Sea. Two modelling experiments that explore the global signal of hypothetical sea-level oscillations caused by partial collapse and regrowth of either the Greenland or Antarctic LIG ice-sheet, show that the North Sea region is relatively insensitive to mass changes sourced from Greenland but should clearly register events with an Antarctic origin, especially those that occur late in the LIG. The lack of evidence for

  8. The role of peatlands in interglacial carbon cycle dynamics - a modeling perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinen, T.; Brovkin, V.

    2009-12-01

    Peatlands cover about 3% of the Earth's land surface area only, but they contain substantial amounts of carbon. Estimates of peat accumulated during the Holocene reach up to 450 GtC. On longer timescales the carbon uptake by peatlands therefore becomes a cumulative flux of substantial magnitude, though it is rather small if one considers the short timescales only. Using the coupled climate carbon cycle model CLIMBER2-LPJ we are considering all natural factors influencing the atmospheric CO2 concentration, including carbon uptake by peatlands. CLIMBER2 is a climate model of intermediate complexity, containing a dynamic atmosphere and ocean, as well as sea ice and land surface modules. Its coarse spatial resolution leads to a high computational efficiency, which allows long-term transient integrations of the coupled model. Land carbon dynamics are computed using the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ. LPJ is run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° and coupled to CLIMBER2 using the climate anomalies approach. Changes in land carbon storage as a response to changes in climate or atmospheric CO2 are therefore taken into account interactively at high spatial resolution. While it is easily possible to consider the influence of peat formation on the carbon cycle during the Holocene by using external scenarios of peat accumulation, this approach is not viable for previous interglacials. Most peat deposits accumulated during previous interglacials were decomposed in the course of glacial cycles, and we therefore have no estimates to base external scenarios on. In order to consider this forcing in models, it is therefore necessary to incorporate peat formation and decay into global models dynamically. Integrating peatland dynamics into dynamic global vegetation models is a challenge due to the coarse representation of the land surface in global models. Since wetland and therefore peatland extent often is substantially smaller than the model grid cells, the dynamic

  9. The role of peatlands in interglacial Carbon cycle dynamics - a modelling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Arctic and Boreal peatlands cover about 3% of the Earth's land surface area only, but they contain substantial amounts of carbon. Estimates of peat accumulated during the Holocene reach up to 450 GtC. On longer timescales the carbon uptake by peatlands therefore becomes a cumulative flux of substantial magnitude, though it is rather small if one considers the short timescales only. We will present results showing the influence of the carbon uptake by peatlands on Holocene CO2 concentrations. Using the coupled climate carbon cycle model CLIMBER2-LPJ we are considering all natural factors influencing the atmospheric CO2 concentration, including carbon uptake by peatlands. CLIMBER2 is a climate model of intermediate complexity, containing a dynamic atmosphere and ocean, as well as sea ice and land surface modules. Its coarse spatial resolution leads to a high computational efficiency, which allows long-term transient integrations of the coupled model. Land carbon dynamics are computed using the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ. LPJ is run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° and coupled to CLIMBER2 using the climate anomalies approach. Changes in land carbon storage as a response to changes in climate or atmospheric CO2 are therefore taken into account interactively at high spatial resolution. While it is easily possible to consider the influence of peat formation on the carbon cycle during the Holocene by using external scenarios of peat accumulation, this approach is not viable for previous interglacials. Most peat deposits accumulated during previous interglacials were removed in the course of glaciation, and we therefore have no estimates to base external scenarios on. In order to consider this forcing in models, it is therefore necessary to incorporate peat formation into global models dynamically. Integrating peatland dynamics into dynamic global vegetation models is a non-trivial problem due to the coarse representation of the land surface. Since wetland

  10. Vegetation and climate of the southern Levant during the last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunzhu; Litt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Sediments in the Dead Sea basin are outstanding archives for understanding the paleoenvironment of the southern Levant because of their locations at the boundary between the Mediterranean and Arabian-Sahara climate zones. During the past decades, extensive investigations have demonstrated high lake levels during the last Glacial but low lake levels during the present and last Interglacial. However, palynological results from Lake Kinneret and Birkat Ram suggested a dry last Glacial and wet Holocene (Schiebel, 2013; Chen and Miebach, unpublished). Studies on Lake Samra (last interglacial precursor of the modern Dead Sea) became a focus after deep drilling cores were retrieved in 2011. Core 5017-1A encompasses the most complete Samra profile in the region, which exhibits thick halite layers indicating extremely low lake levels (Neugebauer et al., 2014). As interpreted based on lithological and hydrological results, the marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e was the most arid period (work in progress). In this case, pollen analysis would provide independent evidence of the regional climate changes. Our preliminary result shows that late MIS 6 was characterized by an expansion of goosefoot (Chenopodiaceae)-dominated desert/semi-desert. During the MIS 6/5 transition, an abrupt increase of grasses and a corresponding decline of goosefoot suggest the occurrence of a more humid grass steppe, whereas the woodlands were still open. The MIS 5e has witnessed higher woodland density and moisture availability provided high values of Mediterranean woodland components (mainly olives and deciduous oaks). From MIS 5d to 5a, a drying trend was recorded from the contraction of the Mediterranean biome and the expansion of steppe/semi-steppe. As a key time interval of our study, MIS 5e comprised a typical vegetation succession process that is also prevalent in other Mediterranean pollen records. Therefore, in biostratigraphical terms, high abundances of woody taxa marks the MIS 5e, although the

  11. Evolution of Temperature and Carbon Storage Within the Deep Southeast Atlantic Ocean Across the Last Glacial/Interglacial Cycle Inferred from a Highly-Resolved Sedimentary Depth Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, A. D.; Charles, C. D.; Rae, J. W. B.; Adkins, J. F.; Slowey, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Many models show that the relative intensity of stratification is a primary variable governing the sequestration and release of carbon from the ocean over ice ages. The wide-scale observations necessary to test these model-derived hypotheses are not yet sufficient, but sedimentary depth transects represent a promising approach for making progress. Here we present paired stable isotopic (d18O, d13C) and trace metal data (Mg/Ca, B/Ca) from benthic foraminifera collected from a highly vertically-resolved depth transect from the mid-depth and deep SE Atlantic. These observations, which cover Marine Isotope Stages 5e, 5d, 5a, 4, and the Last Glacial Maximum, document the evolution of glacial conditions from the previous interglacial, and provide detailed observations regarding the magnitude and timing of changes in temperature and salinity within the deep ocean at key time points over the last glacial/interglacial cycle. Furthermore, the comparison between purely 'physical' tracers (i.e. Mg/Ca, d18O) and tracers sensitive to the carbon cycle (i.e. d13C and B/Ca) provides critical insight into the relationship between deep/mid-depth stratification and global carbon dynamics. Notably among our observations, the paired stable isotope and trace metal results strongly suggest that much of the ice-age cooling of deep South Atlantic occurred at the MIS 5e/5d transition, while the onset of salinity stratification in the mid-depth South Atlantic occurred at the MIS 5/4 transition.

  12. Interglacial/glacial changes in coccolith-rich deposition in the SW Pacific Ocean: An analogue for a warmer world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Bella; Carter, Lionel; Dunbar, Gavin; Bostock, Helen; Neil, Helen; Scott, George; Hayward, Bruce W.; Sabaa, Ashwaq

    2016-09-01

    Satellite observations of middle to high latitudes show that modern ocean warming is accompanied by increased frequency and poleward expansion of coccolithophore blooms. However, the outcomes of such events and their causal processes are unclear. In this study, marine sediment cores are used to investigate past coccolithophore production north and south of the Subtropical Front. Calcareous pelagites from subtropical waters off northernmost New Zealand (site P71) and from subantarctic waters on Campbell Plateau (Ocean Drilling Program [ODP] site 1120C) record marked changes in pelagite deposition. At both locations, foraminiferal-rich sediments dominate glacial periods whereas coccolith-rich sediments characterise specific interglacial periods. Sediment grain size has been used to determine relative abundances of coccoliths and foraminifers. Results show coccoliths prevailed around certain Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) transitions, at MIS 7b/a and MIS 2/1 at P71, and at MIS 6/5e at ODP 1120C. Palaeo-environmental proxies suggest that coccolithophore production and deposition at P71 reflect enhanced nutrient availability associated with intense winter mixing in the subtropical Tasman Sea. An increased inflow of that warm, micronutrient-bearing subtropical water in concert with upper ocean thermal stratification in late spring/summer, led to peak phytoplankton production. At ODP 1120C during MIS 6/5e, an increased inflow of subtropical water, warm sea surface temperatures and a thermally stratified upper ocean also favoured coccolithophore production. These palaeo-environmental reconstructions together with model simulations suggest that (i) future subtropical coccolithophore production at P71 is unlikely to reach abundances recorded during MIS 7b/a but (ii) future subantarctic production is likely to dominate sedimentation over Campbell Plateau as modern conditions trend towards those prevalent during MIS 5e.

  13. On the glacial and inter-glacial thermohaline circulation and the associated transports of heat and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarotta, M.; Falahat, S.; Brodeau, L.; Döös, K.

    2014-03-01

    The change of the thermohaline circulation (THC) between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21 kyr ago) and the present day climate are explored using an Ocean General Circulation Model and stream functions projected in various coordinates. Compared to the present day period, the LGM circulation is reorganised in the Atlantic Ocean, in the Southern Ocean and particularly in the abyssal ocean, mainly due to the different haline stratification. Due to stronger wind stress, the LGM tropical circulation is more vigorous than under modern conditions. Consequently, the maximum tropical transport of heat is slightly larger during the LGM. In the North Atlantic basin, the large sea-ice extent during the LGM constrains the Gulf Stream to propagate in a more zonal direction, reducing the transport of heat towards high latitudes and reorganising the freshwater transport. The LGM circulation is represented as a large intrusion of saline Antarctic Bottom Water into the Northern Hemisphere basins. As a result, the North Atlantic Deep Water is shallower in the LGM simulation. The stream functions in latitude-salinity coordinates and thermohaline coordinates point out the different haline regimes between the glacial and interglacial period, as well as a LGM Conveyor Belt circulation largely driven by enhanced salinity contrast between the Atlantic and the Pacific basin. The thermohaline structure in the LGM simulation is the result of an abyssal circulation that lifts and deviates the Conveyor Belt cell from the area of maximum volumetric distribution, resulting in a ventilated upper layer above a deep stagnant layer, and an Atlantic circulation more isolated from the Pacific. An estimation of the turnover times reveal a deep circulation almost sluggish during the LGM, and a Conveyor Belt cell more vigorous due to the combination of stronger wind stress and shortened circulation route.

  14. Polar Glaciology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robin, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Two fields of research on polar ice sheets are likely to be of dominant interest during the 1990s. These are: the role of polar ice sheets in the hydrological cycle ocean-atmosphere-ice sheets-oceans, especially in relation to climate change; and the study and interpretation of material in deep ice cores to provide improved knowledge of past climates and of the varying levels of atmospheric constituents such as CO2, NOx, SO2, aerosols, etc., over the past 200,000 years. Both topics require a better knowledge of ice dynamics. Many of the studies that should be undertaken in polar regions by Earth Observing System require similar instruments and techniques to those used elsewhere over oceans and inland surfaces. However to study polar regions two special requirements need to be met: Earth Observing System satellite(s) need to be in a sufficiently high inclination orbit to cover most of the polar regions. Instruments must also be adapted, often by relatively limited changes, to give satisfactory data over polar ice. The observational requirements for polar ice sheets in the 1990s are summarized.

  15. Deglacial subsurface injections of Atlantic water into the Nordic Seas and its effect on interglacial climate development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, H. A.

    2012-04-01

    Using multi-proxy sediment records from two distant sites in the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas, surface and bottom water changes were investigated over the past 135 ka with special emphasis on the last and present interglacial (Eemian and Holocene). The two interglacials exhibit a very similar developing structure during each preceding deglaciation (TI and TII) in the Nordic Seas by showing a pronounced cold-warm-cold variability. Like TI, also TII experienced a Younger-Dryas-like cold reversal (YDII), a preceding Bølling/Allerød-like (B/AII) and a H-event (H11). But unlike TI, the cold events during TII were associated with intermittent invasions of an Atlantic faunal component (Beella megastoma) which underscores a northward penetration of mid-latitude waters at the subsurface leaving a vertical water mass structure in the North which differed from that of TI. Very likely, this difference also affected the subsequent oceanic development because the main interglacials that followed not only reveal a regional antiphase, intra-interglacial behavior of peak ocean warmth between each other, they also verify strong contrasts in surface ocean hydrography. Moreover, colder Eemian than Holocene temperatures are noted in the Nordic Seas, and vice versa in the North Atlantic. A reduced intensity of Atlantic ocean heat transfer to the Arctic is therefore inferred for the Eemian, thus arguing for a reassessment of current Arctic paleoclimate models and a better reconciliation with empirical field data.

  16. Inter-regional correlation of palaeoclimatic records for the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition: a protocol for improved precision recommended by the INTIMATE project group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Lowe, J.; Hoek, Wim Z.; Intimate Group

    2001-05-01

    The remit of the INTIMATE project of the INQUA Palaeoclimate Commission is to synthesise marine, terrestrial and ice-core data for the North Atlantic region during the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition (LGIT: ca 13-10 14C kyr BP; ca 15-11.5 ice-core kyr BP). A major problem, however, is the difficulty of effecting correlations at a temporal resolution that are adequate for defining 'leads' and 'lags' between the polar ice, terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric realms. The limitations of the dating and correlation methods currently employed are summarised, and new quality assurance protocols are proposed. These include recommendations on the contextual information that should accompany radiocarbon dates, procedures for radiocarbon calibration, the use of an event-stratigraphic approach in inter-regional correlations, and the more widespread use of time-parallel marker horizons (based on tephra layers, oxygen isotope stratigraphy, palaeomagnetic stratigraphy, and radiocarbon 'wiggle-matching') to underpin the geochronology and correlation of events during the LGIT. These protocols will be adopted by the INTIMATE project in future international, collaborative research and are recommended to other groups working on this important time period. Integration of Ice-core, Marine and Terrestrial Records (INTIMATE) is a core programme of the International Quaternary Union (INQUA) Palaeoclimate Commission.[INTIMATE @ http://www.geog.uu.nl/fg/palaeoclimate/intimate.

  17. Timing and warmth of the Last Interglacial period: New U-series evidence from Hawaii and Bermuda and a new fossil compilation for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Steinke, B.

    2002-01-01

    The timing and duration of the Last Interglacial period have been controversial, with some studies suggesting a relatively short duration that is orbitally forced and others suggesting a long duration that is at most only partly related to orbital forcing. New, high-precison thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) U-series ages of Last Interglacial corals from Hawaii and Bermuda test these competing hypotheses. Waimanalo Formation corals from slowly uplifting Oahu, Hawaii range in age from ???134 to ???113 ka, with most ages between ???125 and ???115 ka. Combined with published U-series ages from nearby Lanai, the data suggest a long Last Interglacial period that may have occurred from ???136 to at least 115 ka. The results indicate that orbital forcing may not have been the only control on ice sheet growth and decay, because sea level would have been high at times of relatively low Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. On tectonically stable Bermuda, deposits from the ???200 ka (penultimate interglacial period), ???120 ka (peak Last Interglacial period) and ???80 ka (late Last Interglacial period) high sea stands have been newly dated. Fossil corals on Bermuda are derived from patch reefs that likely were "catch-up" responses to sea level rise. It is expected that U-series ages of Last-Interglacial corals on Bermuda should overlap with, but not be as old as the range of corals on Oahu. Last-Interglacial corals on Bermuda give a range of ???125-113 ka, which supports this hypothesis. A large number of emergent marine deposits on Hawaii, Bermuda and along coastal North America have now been dated to the Last Interglacial period. Both Oahu and Bermuda have marine invertebrate faunas with a number of extralimital southern species of mollusks, suggesting warmer-than-present waters during the Last Interglacial period. Warmer waters are also suggested for Last-Interglacial localities around most of North America, from Florida to Canada and Greenland and Baja

  18. Regional and global sea-surface temperatures during the last interglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jeremy S.; Clark, Peter U.; Parnell, Andrew C.; He, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The last interglaciation (LIG, 129 to 116 thousand years ago) was the most recent time in Earth’s history when global mean sea level was substantially higher than it is at present. However, reconstructions of LIG global temperature remain uncertain, with estimates ranging from no significant difference to nearly 2°C warmer than present-day temperatures. Here we use a network of sea-surface temperature (SST) records to reconstruct spatiotemporal variability in regional and global SSTs during the LIG. Our results indicate that peak LIG global mean annual SSTs were 0.5 ± 0.3°C warmer than the climatological mean from 1870 to 1889 and indistinguishable from the 1995 to 2014 mean. LIG warming in the extratropical latitudes occurred in response to boreal insolation and the bipolar seesaw, whereas tropical SSTs were slightly cooler than the 1870 to 1889 mean in response to reduced mean annual insolation.

  19. Glacial/interglacial size variation in fossil spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta) from Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard G.; Scott, Katharine

    1989-07-01

    The lower carnassial lengths of spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta) in 12 late Pleistocene samples from Britain indicate that, on average, local hyenas of the last (Devensian) glaciation were significantly larger than their last-interglaciation (Ipswichian) counterparts. Together with the tendency for spotted hyena carnassial length to increase with latitude in present-day Africa, this suggests that spotted hyena body size is inversely related to temperature, as predicted by Bergmann's rule. The implication is that spotted hyena carnassial length can be used as an independent gauge of Pleistocene temperature variation, though the combined African and British data imply that the relationship between carnassial length and temperature is curvilinear, such that as temperature declines, equal amounts of further decline produce progressively smaller increases in average carnassial length.

  20. Reconstructing the last interglacial at Summit, Greenland: Insights from GISP2.

    PubMed

    Yau, Audrey M; Bender, Michael L; Robinson, Alexander; Brook, Edward J

    2016-08-30

    The Eemian (last interglacial, 130-115 ka) was likely the warmest of all interglacials of the last 800 ka, with summer Arctic temperatures 3-5 °C above present. Here, we present improved Eemian climate records from central Greenland, reconstructed from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core. Our record comes from clean, stratigraphically disturbed, and isotopically warm ice from 2,750 to 3,040 m depth. The age of this ice is constrained by measuring CH4 and δ(18)O of O2, and comparing with the historical record of these properties from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice cores. The δ(18)Oice, δ(15)N of N2, and total air content for samples dating discontinuously from 128 to 115 ka indicate a warming of ∼6 °C between 127-121 ka, and a similar elevation history between GISP2 and NEEM. The reconstructed climate and elevation histories are compared with an ensemble of coupled climate-ice-sheet model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet. Those most consistent with the reconstructed temperatures indicate that the Greenland ice sheet contributed 5.1 m (4.1-6.2 m, 95% credible interval) to global eustatic sea level toward the end of the Eemian. Greenland likely did not contribute to anomalously high sea levels at ∼127 ka, or to a rapid jump in sea level at ∼120 ka. However, several unexplained discrepancies remain between the inferred and simulated histories of temperature and accumulation rate at GISP2 and NEEM, as well as between the climatic reconstructions themselves.

  1. 38 kyr record of Asian dust deposition in Hawaii: its links to interglacial/glacial changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Hotchkiss, S.; Vitousek, P.; Chadwick, O.; Mason, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Asian desert dust is the major inorganic fraction of late Cenozoic sediments in the North Pacific. Dust modelling, satellite observations and stable isotope data have contributed to understanding of the dust provenance, teleconnection and process mechanisms. Most paleo-aeolian data have suggested positive links between Asian dust input variability and glacial-interglacial cycles in the North Pacific. However, existing Pacific paleodust studies mostly depend on low-resolution marine records at mid- and high-latitudes. In this study, we reconstruct 38 kyr terrestrial records of Asian dust deposition from Hawaiian montane peat bogs. We also focus on interpreting temporal correlations of the Asian dust flux history with its local hydrological variability over late Quaternary interglacial/glacial changes because of the significant positive correlation between Asian dust mass in Hawaiian surface soils and annual precipitations (Figure A1 & A2). For a proxy for Asian dust in Hawaii, we use quartz, a continental igneous rock-driven mineral type absent in Hawaiian basaltic rocks. Using an X-ray diffraction method, we quantify quartz content and calculate quartz deposition rates. We also reconstruct Hawaiian paleoprecipitation history by using pollen assemblage and peat humification degree analyses. Our results present two significant quartz deposition peaks during the Last Glacial Maximum (0.134 g/cm3) and between 2.6 and 0.4 kyr BP (0.044 g/cm3). Our moisture varaition results show that Hawaii was drier during the LGM than the Holocene. Therefore, this study suggests that Asian dust input in Hawaii has negative temporal correlations with wet deposition-controlling climates, but positive correlations with the drier glacial period in the late Quaternary.

  2. Reconstructing the last interglacial at Summit, Greenland: Insights from GISP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Audrey M.; Bender, Michael L.; Robinson, Alexander; Brook, Edward J.

    2016-08-01

    The Eemian (last interglacial, 130-115 ka) was likely the warmest of all interglacials of the last 800 ka, with summer Arctic temperatures 3-5 °C above present. Here, we present improved Eemian climate records from central Greenland, reconstructed from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core. Our record comes from clean, stratigraphically disturbed, and isotopically warm ice from 2,750 to 3,040 m depth. The age of this ice is constrained by measuring CH4 and δ18O of O2, and comparing with the historical record of these properties from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice cores. The δ18Oice, δ15N of N2, and total air content for samples dating discontinuously from 128 to 115 ka indicate a warming of ˜6 °C between 127-121 ka, and a similar elevation history between GISP2 and NEEM. The reconstructed climate and elevation histories are compared with an ensemble of coupled climate-ice-sheet model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet. Those most consistent with the reconstructed temperatures indicate that the Greenland ice sheet contributed 5.1 m (4.1-6.2 m, 95% credible interval) to global eustatic sea level toward the end of the Eemian. Greenland likely did not contribute to anomalously high sea levels at ˜127 ka, or to a rapid jump in sea level at ˜120 ka. However, several unexplained discrepancies remain between the inferred and simulated histories of temperature and accumulation rate at GISP2 and NEEM, as well as between the climatic reconstructions themselves.

  3. Reconstructing the last interglacial at Summit, Greenland: Insights from GISP2

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Audrey M.; Bender, Michael L.; Robinson, Alexander; Brook, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Eemian (last interglacial, 130–115 ka) was likely the warmest of all interglacials of the last 800 ka, with summer Arctic temperatures 3–5 °C above present. Here, we present improved Eemian climate records from central Greenland, reconstructed from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core. Our record comes from clean, stratigraphically disturbed, and isotopically warm ice from 2,750 to 3,040 m depth. The age of this ice is constrained by measuring CH4 and δ18O of O2, and comparing with the historical record of these properties from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice cores. The δ18Oice, δ15N of N2, and total air content for samples dating discontinuously from 128 to 115 ka indicate a warming of ∼6 °C between 127–121 ka, and a similar elevation history between GISP2 and NEEM. The reconstructed climate and elevation histories are compared with an ensemble of coupled climate-ice-sheet model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet. Those most consistent with the reconstructed temperatures indicate that the Greenland ice sheet contributed 5.1 m (4.1–6.2 m, 95% credible interval) to global eustatic sea level toward the end of the Eemian. Greenland likely did not contribute to anomalously high sea levels at ∼127 ka, or to a rapid jump in sea level at ∼120 ka. However, several unexplained discrepancies remain between the inferred and simulated histories of temperature and accumulation rate at GISP2 and NEEM, as well as between the climatic reconstructions themselves. PMID:27528680

  4. Polarizing cues.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  5. Solar Wind Influence on the Oxygen Content of Ion Outflow in the High-Altitude Polar Cap During Solar Minimum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    We correlate solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) properties with the properties of O(+) and H(+) during early 1996 (solar minimum) at altitudes between 5.5 and 8.9 R(sub E) geocentric using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on the Polar satellite. Throughout the high-altitude polar cap we observe H(+) to be more abundant than O(+). O(+) is found to be more abundant at lower latitudes when the solar wind speed is low (and Kp is low), while at higher solar wind speeds (and high Kp), O(+) is observed across most of the polar cap. The O(+) density and parallel flux are well organized by solar wind dynamic pressure, both increasing with solar wind dynamic pressure. Both the O(+) density and parallel flux have positive correlations with both V(sub SW)B(sub IMF) and E(sub SW). No correlation is found between O(+) density and IMF Bz, although a nonlinear relationship with IMF By is observed, possibly due to a strong linear correlation with the dynamic pressure. H(+) is not as highly correlated with solar wind and IMF parameters, although H(+) density and parallel flux are negatively correlated with IMF By and positively correlated with both V(sub SW)B(sub IMF) and E(sub SW). In this solar minimum data set, H(+) is dominant, so that contributions of this plasma to the plasma sheet would have very low O(+) to H(+) ratios.

  6. Hepatocyte Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Müsch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes, like other epithelia, are situated at the interface between the organism’s exterior and the underlying internal milieu and organize the vectorial exchange of macromolecules between these two spaces. To mediate this function, epithelial cells, including hepatocytes, are polarized with distinct luminal domains that are separated by tight junctions from lateral domains engaged in cell-cell adhesion and from basal domains that interact with the underlying extracellular matrix. Despite these universal principles, hepatocytes distinguish themselves from other nonstriated epithelia by their multipolar organization. Each hepatocyte participates in multiple, narrow lumina, the bile canaliculi, and has multiple basal surfaces that face the endothelial lining. Hepatocytes also differ in the mechanism of luminal protein trafficking from other epithelia studied. They lack polarized protein secretion to the luminal domain and target single-spanning and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored bile canalicular membrane proteins via transcytosis from the basolateral domain. We compare this unique hepatic polarity phenotype with that of the more common columnar epithelial organization and review our current knowledge of the signaling mechanisms and the organization of polarized protein trafficking that govern the establishment and maintenance of hepatic polarity. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1, which is activated by the bile acid taurocholate and, in turn, activates adenosine monophosphate kinase-related kinases including AMPK1/2 and Par1 paralogues has emerged as a key determinant of hepatic polarity. We propose that the absence of a hepatocyte basal lamina and differences in cell-cell adhesion signaling that determine the positioning of tight junctions are two crucial determinants for the distinct hepatic and columnar polarity phenotypes. PMID:23720287

  7. Pennsylvanian - Early Cisuralian interglacial macrofloristic succession in Paraná Basin of the State of São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes-de-Oliveira, Mary Elizabeth Cerruti; Kavali, Pauline Sabina; Mune, Sandra Eiko; Shivanna, Mahesh; Souza, Paulo Alves de; Iannuzzi, Roberto; Jasper, André; Hoelzel, Amanda; Boardman, Daiana R.; Rohn, Rosemarie; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia

    2016-12-01

    One of the most completely preserved glacial sedimentary records from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian time corresponds to the Itararé Group, which presents a large outcropping thickness in the northeastern border of Paraná Basin, especially in the State of São Paulo. This unit corresponds to the base of the Gondwana I Supersequence and is composed of continental to marine glacial and interglacial deposits. Based on some macrofloristic, lithostratigraphic and palynostratigraphic data, a formal scheme of the macrofloral succession is herein proposed for this interval, comprising five associations in ascending stratigraphic order namely: (1) Dwykea-Sublagenicula-Calamospora Association (recorded in Campinas Municipality), composed of lycophyte megaspores (Sublagenicula, Trileites and Calamospora sp.) and some bryophytes (Dwykea), concerning to a coastal glacial or coastal interglacial environment; (2) Eusphenopteris-Nothorhacopteris-Botrychiopsis Association (registered in Itapeva and Buri municipalities), composed of Eusphenopteris, Nothorhacopteris, Botrychiopsis, Paracalamites spp. along with Sphenophyllum, Koretrophyllites, Noeggerathiopsis and rare Cordaicarpus and Samaropsis - concerning to an interglacial deltaic plain associated to coal forming swamps with cold temperate hydro-hygrophilous vegetation; (3) Paranocladus-Ginkgophyllum-Brasilodendron Association (registered in Monte Mor Municipality), composed of the first conifers of the Paraná Basin (Paranocladus, Paranospermum and few Buriadia-type), lycophytes (Brasilodendron, Bumbudendron), Ginkgophyllum, Noeggerathiopsis, Samaropsis and Cordaicarpus and rare Nothorhacopteris, Botrychiopsis, Koretrophyllites and Sphenophyllum, interpreted as interglacial deltaic flood plain; (4) Dwykea-Sublagenicula-Calamospora Recurrent Association (recorded in Salto Municipality), composed of bryophytes (Dwykea) and lycopod megaspores, very similar to the first association, related to a coastal glacial or

  8. Diatom and Geochemical Constraints on Pliocene Sea Surface Conditions on the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesselman, C. R.; Taylor-Silva, B.

    2015-12-01

    The mid-Pliocene is the most recent interval in Earth's history to sustain global temperatures within the range of warming predicted for the 21st century, providing an appealing analog with which to examine the changes we might encounter in the coming century. Diatom-based Southern Ocean sea surface and sea ice reconstructions by the USGS Pliocene Research Interpretations and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Group suggest an average +2° summer SST anomaly during the 3.3-3.0 Ma interval relative to modern. Here, we present a reconstruction of Pliocene sea surface conditions from a marine sediment core collected at IODP Site U1361, on the continental rise of the Wilkes Land margin. U1361 biogenic silica concentrations document the alternation of diatom-rich and diatom-poor lithologies; we interpret 8 diatom-rich mudstones within this sequence to record interglacial conditions between 3.8 and 2.8 Ma, across the transition from obliquity control to precession control on East Antarctic ice volumes. This progression also preserves 3 packages of interglacial sediments within the 3.3-3.0 PRISM interval, providing an opportunity for direct comparison to proximal PRISM site Eltanin 50-28. Diatom assemblages in both cores are characterized by Fragilariopsis barronii and Rouxia antarctica, extinct species with an inferred ecological preference for waters south of the polar front. However F. weaveri, an extinct diatom with inferred preference for more northerly waters and moderate abundance in E50-28, has not been identified at U1361. This may indicate that the polar frontal zone migrated across E50-28 (62° 54'S) but remained north of U1361 (64° 25'S) during the mid-Pliocene. This interpretation is bolstered by the low abundance of extant polar front species (e.g., Thalassiosira oliverana, T. lentiginosa) at U1361; these diatoms dominate the E50-28 assemblage. In contrast, the U1361 assemblage includes a number of extant sea ice indicators (F. sublinearis, F. curta, Chaetoceros

  9. Temperature trends during the Present and Last interglacial periods - A multi-model-data comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Pepijn; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Martrat, Belen; Charbit, Sylvie; Renssen, Hans

    2013-04-01

    We present the first multi-model-data comparison of transient millennial-scale temperature changes through the Present and Last interglacial periods (PIG and LIG respectively). Though primarily driven by insolation changes associated with well-known variations in Earth's orbital parameters, the response of the climate system includes a diversity of feedbacks involving the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, vegetation and land ice. A thorough multi-model-data comparison is essential to assess the ability of climate models to resolve interglacial climate trends and to help in understanding the recorded climatic signal and the underlying climate dynamics. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made by documenting past climate variability from new archives with improved chronologies for the PIG and LIG periods. In parallel, the increased computing capacities as well as the development of computationally efficient climate models have enabled transient multi-millennial climate simulations. This allows us to compare PIG and LIG multi-millennial temperature trends derived from transient climate experiments (9 different climate models) with alkenone-based temperature reconstructions (117 locations globally distributed; about 45% of them with the LIG interval) and ice-core-based temperature profiles from Greenland and Antarctica (12 sites; 6 include the LIG). Our analysis shows that in Greenland and Antarctica the multi-model-mean temperature trends for the warmest months compare well with ice-core based temperature reconstructions. Regarding reconstructed annual mean temperatures based on alkenone-data, models and data are in reasonable agreement with some exceptions at high-latitude areas. The next step in the analysis is to assess whether the simulated warmest month temperature trends of the PIG and LIG periods are linearly scaled to the orbital forcing. In the Northern Hemisphere the models consistently show a linear response to the trends in the insolation

  10. An organic geochemical record of the Sangamon interglacial from the high elevation Colorado Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styslinger, I.; Street, J. H.; Polissar, P. J.; Paytan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The recent discovery of a lacustrine sediment sequence spanning ~130,000-50,000 yr BP at Ziegler Reservoir, near Snowmass, Colorado, offers a rare opportunity to reconstruct high-elevation ecosystems and regional climatic variability during the Sangamon interglacial and the transition into the last glacial epoch, a time interval that is poorly represented in continental North America. If suitable proxy records can be developed for the site, it may also be possible to test our understanding of large-scale climate teleconnections during a past interglacial interval when global climate appears to have been warmer than present. In this study we present the results of organic geochemical and isotopic analyses of sedimentary organic matter (OM) from ~10 m of sediment collected near what was the center of the paleo-lake. We will utilize carbon and nitrogen elemental abundances (TOC, TN, C/N) and isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ15N) of bulk OM to infer past changes in lake productivity and trophic status, OM sources and preservation, and nutrient cycling, and examine n-alkane biomarker ratios to reconstruct changes in vegetation type that are linked to lake level. We will also examine down-core variability in the hydrogen stable isotope composition (δD) of short- and long-chain n-alkanes. At this site, long-chain, terrestrial plant n-alkanes are likely to record the δD of precipitation, which is influenced by the moisture source(s), temperature, seasonality, and vapor history of precipitation. Short-chain n-alkanes derived from aquatic plants are expected to be sensitive to the local hydrologic balance. By measuring δD in both aquatic and terrestrial compounds, it may be possible to separate the isotopic signals attributable to local aridity and changes in regional-scale atmospheric circulation. In particular, we are interested in the potential to reconstruct the relative importance of winter precipitation, derived from North Pacific storms, and summer precipitation

  11. Rapid East Asian Monsoon change during the Last Interglacial in the Bohai Sea Coastal Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Li, B.; Chen, M.; Zhang, D.; Xiang, R.; Niu, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bohai Sea coastal zone of China faces the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Eurasian continent to the west, hence, this region is influenced by both the ocean and continental landmasses. The Bohai Sea coastal zone has significant monsoon climate characteristics and a strong sensitivity to climate change. The Miaodao stratigraphical section (MDS) contains historical information about climate features in the region, especially the high-frequency variations during the last interglacial, sea level changes, and the evolution of the East Asian monsoon. By analyzing the ages of different sedimentary facies in combination with proxy paleoclimatic indices (i.e., grain <63 μm fraction, average grain size (Mz), clay + silt/sand content (SC/D), magnetic susceptibility, and the ratios of Na2O/Al2O3 and (Al2O3+TOFe)/SiO2, in the fifth segments of the MDS from the last-interglacial (MDS5), we conclude that subsections 5a, 5c, and 5e were controlled by summer monsoons, whereas subsections 5b and 5d were formed when winter monsoons prevailed. These results were similar to oxygen isotope analyses from previous studies including the Spectral Mapping Project (SPECMAP) and the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). Five and a half comparable oscillations in proxy indices that were dated to ca. 116.1, 118.3, 121.2, 122.7, 125.9, and 128.7 ka occurred within the MDS 5e subsection when winter monsoon winds strengthened. This millennial-scale climate variability during the Eemian period may have reached up to ten and a half oscillations with a quasi-periodicity of approximately a 1,470 year cycle during the late glacial period. This rapid period of climate change has been recorded in northern and central Europe, central Asia, as well as in East Asia. The climate forming mechanism was probably initiated by changes in solar activity, and driven by the East Asian monsoon and sea level oscillations. Comparison of Miaodao section records with other paleoclimatic records during the

  12. Polarized Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Susan Resneck

    1991-01-01

    On college campuses, the climate is polarized because of intolerance and discrimination, censorship, factionalism, and anger among students and faculty. As a result, the campus is in danger of becoming dominated by political issues and discouraging the exchange of ideas characteristic of a true liberal arts education. (MSE)

  13. Palynology, aminostratigraphy and U-series dating of marine gortian interglacial sediments in cork harbour, Southern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Laura A.; Sejrup, Hans Petter; Coxon, Peter; heijnis, Hendrik

    1998-09-01

    Palynological analysis, amino acid epimerization analysis and uranium thorium disequilibrium age determination of three Irish interglacial cores support the suggestion that there may have been more than one Holsteinian-style temperate interval in Europe. The cores were taken from estuarine deposits beneath glacial diamicton in Cork Harbour, southwest Ireland. The pollen records an incomplete temperate stage. The biotic signature is similar to those from several interglacial sites in Ireland and is considered part of the Gortian group. The pollen signature is Holsteinian/Hoxnian in character. Amino acid epimerization analysis suggests the deposits to be Oxygen Isotope Stage 7 in age, whereas uranium-thorium disequilibrium suggests a minimum Stage 5 age. Possible correlatives of the Gortian group in Europe are suggested.

  14. Polar low dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.T.; Farrell, B.F. )

    1992-12-15

    Polar lows are intense subsynoptic-scale cyclones that form over high-latitude oceans in association with deep cumulus convection and strong ambient baroclinicity. Recent observations indicate that polar lows are generally initiated by a nonaxisymmetric interaction between a surface disturbance and an upper-level mobile trough. Extant theories of polar low formation preclude study of such a process since they either constrain their models to be axisymmetric, or do not explicitly account for his transient interaction. In this work the physics of interacting upper- and lower-level potential vorticity structures is studied as an initial-value problem using a three-dimensional nonlinear geostrophic momentum model that incorporates moist processes and includes strong baroclinic dynamics. Model results illustrate the rapid formation of an intense small-scale cyclone whose structure is consistent with observations of mature polar lows. A conceptual model of polar low development is proposed. In the first stage of development, called induced self-development, a mobile upper trough initiates a rapid low-level spinup due to the enhanced omega response in a conditionally neutral baroclinic atmosphere. A secondary development follows, called diabatic destabilization, that is associated with the production of low-level potential vorticity by diabatic processes. Diabatic destabilization represents a simple mechanism for maintaining the intensity of polar lows until they reach land. In exceptional instances of negligible upper-level forcing, the latter may also describe the gradual intensification of small-scale cyclones in regions of sustained neutrality and surface baroclinicity. Ideas regarding polar low equilibration and prospects for a unified theory of arctic and midlatitude cyclones are discussed. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Glacial interglacial sediment transport to the Meiji Drift, northwest Pacific Ocean: Evidence for timing of Beringian outwashing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLaningham, Sam; Pisias, Nicklas G.; Duncan, Robert A.; Clift, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    A large sediment deposit known as the Meiji Drift, located in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, is thought to have formed from deep water exiting the Bering Sea, although no notable deep water forms there presently. We determine the terrigenous sources since 140 ka to the drift using bulk sediment 40Ar- 39Ar and Nd isotopic analyses on the silt-sized (20-63 μm) terrigenous fraction from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 884 to reconstruct paleo-circulation patterns. There are large changes in both isotopic tracers, varying on glacial-interglacial cycles. During glacial intervals, bulk sediment 40Ar- 39Ar ages range between 40 and 80 Ma, while Nd isotopic values range from ɛNd = - 1 to + 2. During interglacial intervals, sediments become much younger and more radiogenic, with bulk sediment ages falling to 2-15 Ma and Nd isotopic values ranging between ɛNd = + 5 and + 9. These data and quantitative comparison to potential source rocks indicate that the young Kamchatkan and Aleutian Arcs, lying NW and NE of the Meiji Drift, contribute the majority of sediment during interglacials. Conversely, older source rocks, such as those drained by the Yukon River and northeast Russia are the dominant origin of sediments during glacials. Mixing model calculations suggest that as much as 35-45% of the sediment deposited in the Meiji Drift during glacials is from the Bering Sea. It remains unclear whether thermohaline-type circulation or focussing of Bering Sea flow lead to the glacial-interglacial sediment source changes observed here.

  16. Simulated Trends in African Glacial and Interglacial Vegetation: Implications for Late-Pleistocene Hominid-Plant Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowling, S. A.; Cox, P. M.; Jones, C. D.; Maslin, M. A.; Spall, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    Most theories of human evolution in south, central and eastern Africa are predicated on the assumption that savannas and grasslands almost exclusively dominated Pleistocene (glacial) landscapes. It was our aim to evaluate this assumption using a state-of-the-art fully-coupled earth system model (HadCM3LC), which we used to predict potential palaeovegetation following representative glacial and interglacial climate-forcing. Our glacial simulations indicate that tropical broadleaf forest was not severely displaced by grassland expanding into central Africa, although the outer extent of closed forest decreases, particularly in the north. Our vegetation-climate simulations also indicate that the extent of closed tropical forest during typical interglacials is not represented by today's observed vegetation distributions. Simulated interglacial climate results in expansion of tropical forest from coast-to-coast across much of central Africa. Our modelling experiments have implications for interpreting biogeography and phylogenies of various African plant and animal species, including the evolution of our own species, Homo sapiens sapiens.

  17. Influence of former glaciations on interglacial landscape evolution: A case study from the LGM nunatak Hörnli, Eastern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buechi, M. W.; Kober, F.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kubik, P.

    2012-04-01

    We assess the effect of glaciations on the subsequent interglacial landscape evolution. The Hörnli-area in eastern Switzerland that, in its central parts, was a nunatak during the last glacial maximum (LGM) is an ideal field location to investigate the hypothesized inheritance effects. The proximity of catchments covering the entire range from formerly fully glaciated to not-glaciated, periglacial allows to exclude most other modifying controls on landscape evolution (especially climate, lithology and tectonics). 30 catchments have been studied combining field investigations, GIS-based landscape analysis of a high resolution DEM and catchment-wide denudation rates based on terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be concentration in fluvial quartz sand. Landforms and digitally derived geomorphometrics allow the definition of two distinctly different landscape characters: Rugged, high-relief catchments dominated by fluvial and mass-wasting processes comprising high drainage densities are observed in areas outside the LGM extent. A smooth, low-relief landscape with soil-mantled slopes and low drainage densities is observed in the formerly glaciated areas mainly as the result of glacier erosion, deposition and proglacial lake formation during glacier retreat. This gentle landscape character is contrasted by up to 2.5 km long and 100 m deep incised stream reaches towards the main trunk stream (Thur river). The catchment-wide denudation rates in formerly not-glaciated catchments are around 300 mm/ky, correlated with mean basin slope and in good agreement with results from similar studies in the Northern Alpine foreland (e.g. Wittmann et al., 2007; Norton et al., 2008). In contrast, in the formerly glaciated catchments the average denudation rates measured cluster around 30 mm/ky and are not correlated to any standard morphometric parameter. This finding is surprising as the occurrence of incised gorges is an indicator for strongly transient conditions, i.e. adjustment to base

  18. Sea level and ground water table depth (WTD): A biogeochemical pacemaker for glacial-interglacial cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowling, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The role that changes in sea level have on potential carbon-climate feedbacks are discussed as a potential contributing mechanism for terminating glacial periods. Focus will be on coastal wetlands because these systems can be substantially altered by changing sea level and ground water table depth (WTD); in addition to being important moderators of the exchange of nutrients and energy between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. A hypothesis is outlined that describes how the release of carbon from formerly anaerobic wetland soils and sediments can influence climate when sea levels begin to decline. As ground WTD deepens and eventually recedes from the surface, coastal wetland basins may become isolated from their belowground source of water. With their primary source of base flow removed, coastal wetlands likely dried up, promoting decomposition of the carbon compounds buried in their sediments. Depending on the timing of basin isolation and the timing of decomposition, glacial sea level lows could have triggered a relatively large positive carbon feedback on climate warming, just at the time when a new interglacial period is about to begin.

  19. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R L; Chen, J H; Ku, T L; Wasserburg, G J

    1987-06-19

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of (230)Th abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10(8) atoms of (230)Th can be measured to an accuracy of +/-3 percent (2sigma) and 3 x 10(10) atoms of (230)Th can be measured to an accuracy of +/-0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to (14)C dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly postdate, the summer solar insolation high at 65 degrees N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  20. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Chen, J.H.; Ku, T.L.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1987-06-19

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of STTh abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in STYU-STUU-STTh dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10Y atoms of STTh can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 3% (2sigma) and 3 x 10 atoms of STTh can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 0.2%. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to UC dating. The precision should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly postdate, the summer solar insolation high at 65N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  1. Modelling the Isotopic Response to Antarctic Ice Sheet Change During the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Max; Sime, Louise; Singarayer, Joy; Tindall, Julia; Valdes, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Ice sheet changes can exert major control over spatial water isotope variations in Antarctic surface snow. Consequently a significant mass loss or gain of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) would be expected to cause changes in the water isotope record across Antarctic ice core sites. Analysis of sea level indicators for the last interglacial (LIG), around 125 to 128 ka, suggest a global sea level peak 6 to 9 m higher than present. Recent NEEM Greenland ice core results imply that Greenland likely provided a modest ~2m contribution towards this global sea level rise. This implies that a WAIS contribution is necessary to explain the LIG sea level maxima. In addition, Antarctic ice core records suggest that Antarctic air temperatures during the LIG were up to 6°C warmer than present. Climate models have been unable to recreate such warmth when only orbital and greenhouse gas forcing are considered. Thus changes to the Antarctic ice sheet and ocean circulation may be required to reconcile model simulations with ice core data. Here we model the isotopic response to differing WAIS deglaciation scenarios, freshwater hosing, and sea ice configurations using a fully coupled General Circulation Model (GCM) to help interpret Antarctic ice core records over the LIG. This approach can help isolate the contribution of individual processes and feedbacks to final isotopic signals recorded in Antarctic ice cores.

  2. Ocean temperature thresholds for Last Interglacial West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Johannes; Gierz, Paul; Grosfeld, Klaus; Thoma, Malte; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is considered the major contributor to global sea level rise in the Last Interglacial (LIG) and potentially in the future. Exposed fossil reef terraces suggest sea levels in excess of 7 m in the last warm era, of which probably not much more than 2 m are considered to originate from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We simulate the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the LIG with a 3-D thermomechanical ice sheet model forced by an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM). Our results show that high LIG sea levels cannot be reproduced with the atmosphere-ocean forcing delivered by current AOGCMs. However, when taking reconstructed Southern Ocean temperature anomalies of several degrees, sensitivity studies indicate a Southern Ocean temperature anomaly threshold for total WAIS collapse of 2-3°C, accounting for a sea level rise of 3-4 m during the LIG. Potential future Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics range from a moderate retreat to a complete collapse, depending on rate and amplitude of warming.

  3. Glacial-interglacial Changes in Ocean Carbon Chemistry constrained by Boron Isotopes, Trace Elements, and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, J. W. B.; Adkins, J. F.; Foreman, A. D.; Charles, C.

    2014-12-01

    Deep ocean carbon storage and release is commonly invoked to explain glacial-interglacial CO2 cycles, but records of the carbonate chemistry of the glacial ocean have, until recently, been scarce. Here we present new boron isotope (δ11B) and trace metal data from benthic foraminifera from a suite of 15 cores from the South Atlantic from depths ranging from 1500 to 4000 m. These records show distinct changes in the water column depth structure of these tracers between the last glacial maximum (LGM) and late Holocene. Comparison of these paired trace element and isotope ratios reveals new insights to the shared and individual controls on tracers including Li/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca, Mg/Li and δ11B. We further examine these data using a recently developed tracer fields modelling approach (Lund et al. 2011). This has previously been applied to δ18O data to investigate changes in circulation at the LGM. Here we extend this method to non-conservative isotopic and trace elemental tracers, allowing us to constrain the roles of circulation, the biological pump of organic carbon and CaCO3, and carbonate compensation, in setting deep ocean carbon storage at the LGM. Lund, D. C., J. F. Adkins, and R. Ferrari (2011), Abyssal Atlantic circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum: Constraining the ratio between transport and vertical mixing, Paleoceanography, 26, PA1213, doi:10.1029/2010PA001938.

  4. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation recorded in fossil corals during the last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vàsquez-Bedoya, L.; Cohen, A. L.; Oppo, D.; Thompson, W. G.; Blanchon, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a mode of sea surface temperature variability occurring in the North Atlantic Ocean, whose warm phase correlates strongly with Atlantic hurricane activity. While support for this mode originates in historical observations and models, controversy exists with regard to the attribution of sea surface temperature change to natural or anthropogenic forcing. Previously, we showed that long-lived colonies of the massive Caribbean coral Siderastrea siderea (Ellis & Solander, 1786) on the Yucatan Peninsula capture AMO-like variability in their annual growth bands (Vásquez-Bedoya et al., 2012) allowing us to extend the record of Atlantic multidecadal variability back to 1775 AD. Here we report an analysis of skeletal growth bands of a fossil coral of the same species, dated by U-series (122.24±0.19 kyr) to the Last Interglacial (LIG). MultiTaper spectral analysis of the LIG coral record reveals significant concentrations of power (99% confidence level) at intervals centered at 45-67 and 50-67 years respectively, consistent with the AMO spectrum, which is centered in intervals of 60-70 years. Thus our analysis provides the first evidence of AMO mode during the LIG and supports the hypotheses of a persistent, naturally-forced multidecadal mode of SST variability in the North Atlantic.

  5. Subsurface geology of Kansai International Airport: sequence related to global glacial - interglacial cycles and island tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Kitada, N.; Furudoi, T.; Nakaseko, K.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonic sedimentary basins aligned in the central part of Japan during Quaternary . Thick sediments deposited in these basins provide useful records of climatic changes and tectonics throughout Quaternary. The Osaka sedimentary basin including Osaka Bay and area of Kansai International Airport is one of them. The Quaternary Osaka sedimentary basin has developed at an eastern contractional bend of a major transcurrent fault system named the Median Tectonic Line, which divides the southwest Japan arc. The thickness of Pliocene - Pleistocene sediments reaches to ca 3500m at the deepest part. These sequences are called the Osaka Group and are distributed in the Osaka Bay and exposed in the surrounding mountain areas. The Osaka Group is characterized by alternating sequences of marine and nonmarine strata. The subsurface sediments of Kansai International Airport (KIA) is composed mainly of Pliocene - Pleistocene sediments, which is characterized by alternating sequences of marine and nonmarine strata related to glacial - interglacial cycles. . The stratigraphy at KIA was established by micropaleontological, tephrochronological and magnetostratigraphical method. The sedimentary sequence at KIX is divided into two main units (Kukojima and Sennanoki Formations in ascending order) with the uncomformity within two units. Although thick marine clay units are mainly of the subsurface sequence, characteristics of coarser sediment units have an important role of moving of water during construction of the reclaimed land.

  6. Estimating the sea level highstand during the last interglacial: a probabilistic massive ensemble approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düsterhus, André; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana

    2016-08-01

    Essential to understanding sea level change and its causes during the last interglacial (LIG) is the quantification of uncertainties. In order to estimate the uncertainties, we develop a statistical framework for the comparison of palaeoclimatic sea level index points and GIA model predictions. For the investigation of uncertainties, as well as to generate better model predictions, we implement a massive ensemble approach by applying a data assimilation scheme based on particle filter methods. The different runs are distinguished through varying ice sheet reconstructions based on oxygen-isotope curves and different parameter selections within the GIA model. This framework has several advantages over earlier work, such as the ability to examine either the contribution of individual observations to the results or the probability of specific input parameters. This exploration of input parameters and data leads to a larger range of estimates than previously published work. We illustrate how the assumptions that enter into the statistical analysis, such as the existence of outliers in the observational database or the initial ice volume history, can introduce large variations to the estimate of the maximum highstand. Thus, caution is required to avoid overinterpreting results. We conclude that there are reasonable doubts whether the data sets previously used in statistical analyses are able to tightly constrain the value of maximum highstand during the LIG.

  7. Pumice in the interglacial Whidbey Formation at Blowers Bluff, central Whidbey Island, WA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dethier, D.P.; Dragovich, J.D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new 40Ar/39Ar age of 128??9 ka and chemical analyses of pumice layers from interglacial alluvium at Blowers Bluff, Whidbey Island, WA, show that the deposits are part of the Whidbey Formation, a widespread, mainly subsurface unit. Glass chemistry of the dated dacitic pumice does not match any analyzed northern Cascade source, but upper Pleistocene dacites from Glacier Peak and early Pleistocene silicic rocks from the Kulshan caldera are chemically similar. The chemistry of pumiceous dacite in younger units, including the latest Pleistocene Partridge Gravel, is similar to that of the dated material. The deep troughs of the modern northern Puget lowland must have been filled during deposition of the Whidbey Formation, allowing volcanic-rich sediment to reach what is now Whidbey Island. Topographic analysis of LIDAR images demonstrates that extensive erosion occurred during latest Pleistocene ice retreat. The Partridge Gravel likely records subglacial fluvial erosion along an ice tunnel and ice-marginal deposition into adjacent marine waters. Pumice in the Partridge Gravel probably was reworked from stratigraphically and topographically lower deposits, including those at Blowers Bluff. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  8. Sea-level highstands during the Last interglacial (MIS 5e) in Mallorca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorscheid, T.; Stocchi, P.; Rovere, A.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Mann, T.; Fornos, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Last Intergalcial in the island of Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) have been the subject of research since the early 60's (Butzer & Cuerda 1960). Despite both the location and stratigraphy of MIS 5e outcrops in the island are well known, the elevation of relative sea level (RSL) markers around the island has never been measured with high-accuracy topographic techniques (e.g. DGPS) and the interpretation of the paleo RSL has never been carried out using standardized definition of the indicative meaning of each RSL marker. In this study we present the results of two field trips aimed at measuring last interglacial deposits in Mallorca with high-accuracy GPS and at establishing, surveying modern shorelines as analogs, indicative ranges and reference water level values for RSL markers across the island. Using an earth-ice coupled GIA-model we performed several model-runs for investigating isostatic adjustment since MIS 5e in the island. These results are compared with the elevation of our deposits in the field and discussed in terms of tectonics and eustasy.

  9. Imprints of AMOC Perturbation in the Intermediate water of Equatorial Atlantic during the Last Interglacial Improved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of the last interglacial (LIG) is critical for the assessment of long-term impact of global warming on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and climate. Relative to the Millennium, air temperature over Greenland and eustatic sea-level during the LIG was higher by 8±4˚C and 4-8 m, with a considerable oscillation in the rate of meltwater input (NEEM Community rembers, Nature, v.493, p.489; Kopp et al., Nature, v. 462, p. 863) . The impact of millennial-scale LIG meltwater input on the AMOC and global climate is, however, less understood. Here we present a highly resolved, benthic foraminiferal multi-proxy record from the eastern equatorial Atlantic. The record shows that the LIG was punctuated by at least two episodes of reduced AMOC whose impact on the global climate varied considerably. While the event between 126,000 and 123,800 years ago lacks imprints on available global climate records, the AMOC perturbation between 129,000 and 128,000 years ago provides a causative link to a rapid increase of atmospheric CO2, peak air warming over Antarctica, and a slow down of the rate of global monsoon intensification. We suggest that the rate of meltwater input into the North Atlantic and the size of remanent Greenland ice sheet was critical in determining the degree of AMOC reduction and its effect on the interhemispheric climate.

  10. Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Walter, R C; Buffler, R T; Bruggemann, J H; Guillaume, M M; Berhe, S M; Negassi, B; Libsekal, Y; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; von Cosel, R; Néraudeau, D; Gagnon, M

    2000-05-04

    The geographical origin of modern humans is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. The 'multiregional evolution' hypothesis argues that modern humans evolved semi-independently in Europe, Asia and Africa between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago, whereas the 'out of Africa' hypothesis contends that modern humans evolved in Africa between 200 and 100 kyr ago, migrating to Eurasia at some later time. Direct palaeontological, archaeological and biological evidence is necessary to resolve this debate. Here we report the discovery of early Middle Stone Age artefacts in an emerged reef terrace on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, which we date to the last interglacial (about 125 kyr ago) using U-Th mass spectrometry techniques on fossil corals. The geological setting of these artefacts shows that early humans occupied coastal areas and exploited near-shore marine food resources in East Africa by this time. Together with similar, tentatively dated discoveries from South Africa this is the earliest well-dated evidence for human adaptation to a coastal marine environment, heralding an expansion in the range and complexity of human behaviour from one end of Africa to the other. This new, wide-spread adaptive strategy may, in part, signal the onset of modern human behaviour, which supports an African origin for modern humans by 125 kyr ago.

  11. Dominant factors controlling glacial and interglacial variations in the treeline elevation in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; Guiot, Joël; Brewer, Simon; Guo, Zhengtang; Peng, Changhui

    2007-06-05

    The knowledge of tropical palaeoclimates is crucial for understanding global climate change, because it is a test bench for general circulation models that are ultimately used to predict future global warming. A longstanding issue concerning the last glacial maximum in the tropics is the discrepancy between the decrease in sea-surface temperatures reconstructed from marine proxies and the high-elevation decrease in land temperatures estimated from indicators of treeline elevation. In this study, an improved inverse vegetation modeling approach is used to quantitatively reconstruct palaeoclimate and to estimate the effects of different factors (temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration) on changes in treeline elevation based on a set of pollen data covering an altitudinal range from 100 to 3,140 m above sea level in Africa. We show that lowering of the African treeline during the last glacial maximum was primarily triggered by regional drying, especially at upper elevations, and was amplified by decreases in atmospheric CO(2) concentration and perhaps temperature. This contrasts with scenarios for the Holocene and future climates, in which the increase in treeline elevation will be dominated by temperature. Our results suggest that previous temperature changes inferred from tropical treeline shifts may have been overestimated for low-CO(2) glacial periods, because the limiting factors that control changes in treeline elevation differ between glacial and interglacial periods.

  12. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ku, T.-L.; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of Th-230 abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (U-238)-(U-234)-(Th-230) dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10 to the 8th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 3 percent (2sigma), and 3 x 10 to the 10th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to C-14 dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly post-date, the summer solar insolation high at 65 deg N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  13. Variability of surface water dynamics during eccentricity minima interglacials of the last 1 Myr in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Eliana; Emanuele, Dario; Ferretti, Patrizia; Flores, José-Abel; Perugia, Carmen; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Ornella Amore, Filomena

    2014-05-01

    Eccentricity minima occurred only three times during the last 1 Myr in correspondence of Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 (last 11 ka), 11 (425-360 ka) and 19 (791-763 ka). All these stages are characterised by similar orbital configurations and the Pleistocene eccentricity minima interglacials are considered, by several authors, as possible analogues for the Holocene and its future evolution. Surface water dynamics were reconstructed through quantitative analyses performed on coccolithophore assemblages in two key-sites of the North Atlantic: MD03-2699 core, retrieved off Iberian Margin (IM), and IODP Site U1313, located in the upper western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nowadays, IODP Site U1313 is under the influence of a northern ramification of the Gulf Stream, the North Atlantic Current (NAC). This current forms a transitional zone between the productive cold polar system and the oligotrophic warm subtropical system. In addition, the NAC represents the northern boundary of the Portugal Current (PC) system which influences the modern surface oceanography off the IM at MD03-2699 site. Coccolithophore data were carried out by sediments of MD03-2699 core for MIS 11 and MIS 1(Amore et al., 2012; Palumbo et al., 2013a,b) and by IODP Site U1313 for MIS 19 (Emanuele, 2013). The mean sampling resolution for MIS 1 is 140 yrs, for MIS 11 about 400 yrs and for MIS 19 about 220 yrs. The high samples resolution allowed reconstructing long term changes at orbital timescale as well as rapid changes at millennial scale. Data from coccolithophore assemblages were compared with available proxy for the studied cores such as alkenones, lithics, oxygen and carbon isotopes. Coccolithophores belong to phytoplankton group and they are widely used as proxy of surface water dynamics thanks to their attitude to record the smallest paleoclimatic changes and because they directly depend on sea surface temperature and salinity, sunlight and availability of nutrients. Through the use of

  14. Polar Diving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free.

    Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  15. Cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis of the dynamic multi-phase process that transforms a small population of lateral plate mesoderm into the mature limb skeleton, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways regulate cellular behaviors to generate morphogenetic forces are not known. Recently, a series of papers have offered the intriguing possibility that regulated cell polarity fine-tunes the morphogenetic process via orienting cell axes, division planes and cell movements. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical signaling, which may include planar cell polarity, has emerged as a common thread in the otherwise distinct signaling networks that regulate morphogenesis in each phase of limb development. These findings position the limb as a key model to elucidate how global tissue patterning pathways direct local differences in cell behavior that, in turn, generate growth and form. PMID:22064549

  16. Glacial-interglacial Climate Variability in the Black Sea Region Since MIS 15: Record of Highly Resolved Particle-size Dynamics From the Loess Sequence Mircea Voda, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, C.; Machalett, B.; Hambach, U.; Oches, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    The aeolian dust record of the loess sequences in the Dobrogea region, Romania, provides one of the most complete terrestrial climate records in proximity to the Black Sea, enabling us to reconstruct glacial- interglacial climate variability and past atmospheric circulation patterns from marine oxygen-isotope stage (MIS) 15 to the last glacial period (MIS 2) . Presently located at the interface between Mediterranean and continental climates of central and eastern Europe, the loess record of Dobrogea offers insight into long-term paleoenvironmental oscillations triggered by the reciprocity of Mediterranean and continental atmospheric circulation patterns across central and eastern Europe. The 35m thick loess sequence at Mircea Voda shows a well exposed sequence of loess-paleosol couplets that can be traced laterally across a few hundred meters, suggesting a semi-continuous paleoclimate record since MIS 15. In order to assess the loess record of aeolian dynamics and associated past-synoptic atmospheric circulation modes, high resolution particle size analyses have been carried out using a Beckman-Coulter LS 13-320 laser analyzer. With support of amino acid geochronology data, as well as sedimentological features noted in the field, the highly resolved particle-size record of the Mircea Voda loess sequence reveals clear shifts in the aeolian dust record and a general paleoclimatic trend from subtropical (MIS 15) to more continental climates (MIS 1). The observed long trends in the aeolian dust transport record and the general tendency of a progressive aridification since the Middle Pleistocene may be related to interactions and/or shifts of the European polar front and the subtropical jet stream affecting the climate of the Black Sea region on seasonal as well as geological time scales. The data from the Mircea Voda loess profile offer the potential to link continental climate records of SE-Europe with paleoclimate archives of the Black Sea region in order to decipher

  17. Glacial-Interglacial, Orbital and Millennial-Scale Climate Variability for the Last Glacial Cycle at Shackleton Site U1385 based on Dinoflagellate Cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datema, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339 Site U1385), located off the West-Portuguese Margin, preserves a continuous high-fidelity record of millennial-scale climate variability for the last several glacial cycles (~1.4 Myr) that can be correlated precisely to patterns observed in polar ice cores. In addition, rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment allows the correlation of these marine records to European terrestrial climate records. This unique marine-ice-terrestrial linkage makes the Shackleton Site the ideal reference section for studying Quaternary abrupt climate change. The main objective of studying Site U1385 is to establish a marine reference section of Pleistocene climate change. We generated (sub)millennial-scale (~600 year interval) dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage records from Shackleton Site U1385 (IODP Expedition 339) to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) and productivity/upwelling over the last 152 kyrs. In addition, our approach allows for detailed land-sea correlations, because we also counted assemblages of pollen and spores from higher plants. Dinocyst SST and upwelling proxies, as well as warm/cold pollen proxies from Site U1385 show glacial-interglacial, orbital and stadial-interstadial climate variability and correlate very well to Uk'37, planktic foraminifer δ18O and Ca/Ti proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and Greenland Ice Core δ18O. The palynological proxies capture (almost) all Dansgaard-Oeschger events of the last glacial cycle, also before ~70 ka, where millennial-scale variability is overprinted by precession. We compare the performance and results of the palynology of Site U1385 to proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and conclude that palynology strengthens the potential of this site to form a multi-proxy reference section for millennial scale climate variability across the Pleistocene-Holocene. Finally, we will present a long-term paleoceanographic perspective down

  18. Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to

  19. Genera variation of tropical mid-upper montane rainforest inferred from a marine pollen record in southern Philippines during the glacial-interglacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical vegetation is the most outstanding and obvious feature of South-East Asia, and it is expected to provide valuable information for the palaeoclmatic conditions. Pollen records from the tropical West Pacific indicate that the tropical vegetation is much sensitive to the environment and climate change, and their good correspondence with palaeocliamte change in glacial/interglacial timescales. It is shown that the range of the tropical montane rainforest was affected by the temperature change during the glacial cycle. But, from some marine core, the genera variation of tropical mid-upper montane pollen record is also distinct during the glacial cycle. In this study, examination of the pollen content of marine core MD06-3075 taken from Davao Gulf in the Southern Philippines reveals a ~116,000 year record of tropical vegetation change as well as the influence of the environment and climate variability on the ecosystem of the tropical area. Chronology was determined by 16 AMS 14C dates and a detailed oxygen isotope record. A high representation of pollen from tropical upper montane rainforest (mainly Podocarpus) (40-60%) during the last glacial period indicates that this forest type extended to lower attitudes. And the genera variations of the tropical mid-upper montane rainforest exist between the Phyllocladus and Podocarpus with the environment and climate changing. The pollen content of Phyllocladus is much high in marine isotope stage (MIS) 5, but Podocarpus is much higher in the glacial period. During the onset of MIS 5a and 5c, the percentage of Phyllocladus pollen declines dramatically. Vegetation investigation in Mindanao, shows that Podocarpus exists in altitude ranging from 1,200-1,700 m, and Phyllocladus appear in altitude range from 1700-2100 m, but is more abundant above the 2,400 m. Thus, Phyllocladus might be more sensitive to the temperature change. Then, in this study, the pollen content of is much high during the interglacial period

  20. Climatic control of sediment transport from the Himalayas to the proximal NE Bengal Fan during the last glacial-interglacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joussain, Ronan; Colin, Christophe; Liu, Zhifei; Meynadier, Laure; Fournier, Léa; Fauquembergue, Kelly; Zaragosi, Sébastien; Schmidt, Frédéric; Rojas, Virginia; Bassinot, Franck

    2016-09-01

    Clay mineralogy, siliciclastic grain-size, major elements, 87Sr/86Sr, and εNd analyses of deep-sea sediments cored in the north-eastern Bay of Bengal are used to reconstruct evolution of detrital sources and sediment transport to the proximal part of the Bengal deep-sea fan during the last climatic cycle. εNd values (-13.3 to -9.7) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.721-0.733) indicate a mixture of sediments originating from the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers and the Indo-Burman ranges. Interglacial Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 5 and 1 are associated with a higher contribution of sediments from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system than is the case for glacial MIS 6, 4, 3, and 2. Siliciclasitic grain-size combined with Si/Al and Si/Fe ratios indicate coarser glacial sediments with numerous turbidite layers. Glacial turbidite layers display similar clay mineralogical compositions to hemipelagic sediments. Only few of turbidite layers (MIS 6, 4, and 2) are slightly unradiogenic (εNd -13.3), suggesting a higher contribution of Ganges-Brahmaputra river sediments. Independently of changes in the sedimentary sources, the smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio of cores located on the NE Bengal Fan indicates higher inputs of primary minerals (illite and chlorite) from the highlands of the river basins (relief) during glacial MIS 6, 4, 3, and 2 and an increased contribution of pedogenic minerals (smectite and kaolinite) during interglacial MIS 5 and 1. Maximum smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratios during the warm sub-stages of MIS 5 suggest an intensification of summer monsoon rainfall associated with higher rates of physical erosion of the Indo-Gangetic flood-plain and/or dominant summer hydrological conditions transporting a higher proportion of sediments deriving from the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers to the NE Bengal Fan. In addition, a higher production of smectite in soils of the Indo-Gangetic flood-plain during periods of intensification of monsoon rainfall cannot be excluded.

  1. Variations in Glacial Erosion over Multiple Glacial-Interglacial Cycles: A Numerical Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headley, Rachel M.; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2013-04-01

    Mountain topography is constructed through a variety of interacting processes. As one of these processes, glacial erosion plays an important role in the development of landscapes by the formation of distinctive topographic features. Glacial landscape evolution models reproduce many observed features at the orogen scale. Detailed comparisons at the scale of individual valleys holds potential for quantifying the influence of glacial physics in glacial erosion models. Over long timescales (>10,000 yr), glacial erosion has typically been simulated using a modified shallow ice approximation (SIA) approach. In this study, we compare the strengths and weaknesses of shallow ice and high-order, Stokes-flow glacial landscape evolution models. Our emphasis is placed on the patterns and rates of glacial erosion over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. We present a comparison of two different numerical models for glacial erosion. For both approaches, a modified version of the ICE Cascade model is used to develop and evolve topography. This model calculates hillslope and fluvial erosion and sediment transport, isostasy, temporally variable orographic precipitation, and a range of glaciological processes: glacial mass balance, snow avalanching, basal ice superfreezing, and basal water buoyancy feedback in large overdeepenings. Within this framework, we compare the predicted ice-flow field and erosion patterns using a modified SIA as well as predictions from a nested, thermally-coupled, Stokes-flow model calculated using COMSOL Multiphysics. Simulations are conducted for a range of amplitudes and periodicity in surface temperature change between glacial and interglacial periods. We investigate these simulations, as well as the effects of each model for various initial topographies and with a temperature-dependent ice rheology. In general, both models predict visually similar patterns in sliding velocity, and resulting erosion rates, assuming the erosion rate scales with the

  2. Sea-level history of the past two interglacial periods: New evidence from U-series dating of reef corals from south Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Schumann, R.R.; Halley, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    As a future warm-climate analog, much attention has been directed to studies of the Last Interglacial period or marine isotope substage (MIS) 5.5, which occurred ???120,000 years ago. Nevertheless, there are still uncertainties with respect to its duration, warmth and magnitude of sea-level rise. Here we present new data from tectonically stable peninsular Florida and the Florida Keys that provide estimates of the timing and magnitude of sea-level rise during the Last Interglacial period. The Last Interglacial high sea stand in south Florida is recorded by the Key Largo Limestone, a fossil reef complex, and the Miami Limestone, an oolitic marine sediment. Thirty-five new, high-precision, uranium-series ages of fossil corals from the Key Largo Limestone indicate that sea level was significantly above present for at least 9000 years during the Last Interglacial period, and possibly longer. Ooids from the Miami Limestone show open-system histories with respect to U-series dating, but show a clear linear trend toward an age of ???120 ka, correlating this unit with the Last Interglacial corals of the Key Largo Limestone. Older fossil reefs at three localities in the Florida Keys have ages of ???200 ka and probably correlate to MIS 7. These reefs imply sea level near or slightly above present during the penultimate interglacial period. Elevation measurements of both the Key Largo Limestone and the Miami Limestone indicate that local (relative) sea level was at least 6.6 m, and possibly as much as 8.3 m higher than present during the Last Interglacial period. ?? 2010.

  3. Glacial-Interglacial and Holocene N2O Stable Isotope Changes Constrain Terrestrial N Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J.; Spahni, R.; Bock, M.; Seth, B.; Stocker, B. D.; Ri, X.; Schilt, A.; Brook, E.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Liu, Z.; Prentice, I. C.; Fischer, H.; Joos, F.

    2015-12-01

    The land biosphere contributes most to the natural source of the long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), with N2O emissions being dependent on the turnover rate of both the terrestrial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycle. The C:N stoichiometry of vegetation and soil organic matter links the cycles intimately. Sustained plant productivity increase must be supported by biological N fixation. Intensified N cycling in turn enhances N loss and thereby N2O emissions. The temporal and spatial dynamics of terrestrial N and C cycles and related terrestrial N2O emissions are poorly constrained over the glacial-interglacial transition and the Holocene. Here we reconstruct increased terrestrial N2O emissions since the Last Glacial Maximum based on N2O concentration and isotope measurements on several ice cores and show that this N2O increase can be explained by N cycle modelling - provided N fixation is allowed to respond dynamically to increasing N demand and turnover. The Ice core reconstructions suggest a deglacial increase of 1.1 ± 0.4 Tg N/yr in terrestrial and 0.6 ± 0.4 Tg/yr in oceanic N2O emissions, but relatively constant terrestrial emissions over the Holocene. Transient simulations with a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model are shown to represent the climate and CO2 induced changes in terrestrial N2O emission, and suggest a deglacial increase in biological N fixation by 20%, independently of its absolute magnitude. Deciphering the response of biological N fixation during climatic changes is an important factor for our understanding of plant growth and the land carbon sink, alongside anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Continental shelf landscapes of the southeastern United States since the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M. Scott; Sautter, Leslie Reynolds; Johnson, Kacey L.; Luciano, Katherine E.; Sedberry, George R.; Wright, Eric E.; Siuda, Amy N. S.

    2013-12-01

    The wide, sediment-starved continental shelf and modern coastal areas of the southeastern United States retain well-preserved but scattered remnants of a submerged paleolandscape. This paper presents a conceptual model of stratigraphic deposition and landscape formation since the last interglacial on the continental shelf of South Carolina, with portions of North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (USA). Data for this study include multibeam bathymetry surveys, sidescan sonar mosaics, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and ground-truth surveys from - 250 m to the modern tidewater region. Four bathymetric zones are recognized with eleven landforms and landform indicators. The described zones range in depths from the modern shoreline, across the shelf, and over the shelf edge to - 250 m MSL. Relative sea level curves are presented for the area and discussed in conjunction with cultural and climatic events. The potential for preservation of Paleoamerican sites is high at the shelf edge between - 130 m and - 45 m, with Archaic and later occupations likely in depths of less than - 25 m. Prominent vantage points for Paleoamericans (> 11 kya) would have existed at the shelf edge, and tidewater resources would have been available nearby for a period of almost 6 ka. Rapid transgression rates (> 60 km/ka) after the sea level rose over the shelf edge make preservation of tidewater sites less likely on the outer and middle shelf. Searches for the earliest Paleoamericans should focus on promontories at the edge of the shelf and along future discoveries of paleoincisions on the shelf. Mapping and delineating this paleolandscape and associated unconsolidated sedimentary deposits interspersed with rocky plains and ledges will continue to be a priority to marine archeologists, coastal managers, fishery scientists, and marine spatial planners over the next several decades.

  5. Impact of ENSO on East Asian winter monsoon during interglacial periods: effect of orbital forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Soon-Il; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Wonsun; Schneider, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Orbital forcing influences climate phenomena by changing incoming solar radiation in season and latitude. Here, changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)'s impact on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) due to orbital forcing, especially for three selected time periods in each of two interglacial periods, the Eemian (126, 122, 115 ka) and Holocene (9, 6, 0 ka), are investigated. There was a high negative correlation between ENSO and EAWM when the obliquity was low, the processional angle was large, and especially when accompanied by large eccentricity, which corresponds to a weaker monsoon period. The correlation was also high when ENSO variability was high, which interestingly corresponded to lower obliquity and higher-degree precession periods. Therefore, as both lower obliquity and higher-degree precession, such as during 115 ka and 0 ka, cause the EAWM to be weakened through higher winter insolation over Northern hemisphere, and the ENSO to be enhanced through an intensified zonal contrast of the equatorial sea surface temperature, the relationship between the ENSO and EAWM becomes tighter. The opposite case (i.e., during 126 and 9 ka) is also true dynamically. Furthermore, the sensitivity of boreal winter precipitation against sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly over the tropical Pacific, which depends on mean SST, was positively correlated to the strength of the ENSO-EAWM correlation, implying that the warmer mean ocean surface causes the strong response of atmosphere to change in the SST anomaly, thereby enhancing the impact of ENSO on EAWM. Warmer wintertime tropical SST is attributed to higher insolation over the tropics, especially during 115 and 0 ka, while cooler SSTs occurred during 126 and 9 ka.

  6. Influence of ice sheet topography on Greenland precipitation during the Eemian interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, N.; Gfeller, G.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2014-09-01

    Greenland precipitation and its relationship to the synoptic forcing has been studied for the last interglacial period (i.e., the Eemian) using a set of global climate simulations. We distinguish between precipitation changes due to the Eemian orbital forcing and responses to modifications in the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) topography. Precipitation changes caused by orbital forcing alone are of moderate amplitude and are largely determined by large-scale changes in moisture availability. In contrast, changes in GrIS topography lead to distinct precipitation anomalies over Greenland, while the effect on far-field regions is negligible. The analysis of the simulations reveals the control of the GrIS topography on where moist air masses are orographically lifted and cause substantial precipitation. However, the general moisture availability and the moisture transport associated with typical weather situations remain unchanged in all simulations. A focal point of the study is precipitation at pNEEM, i.e., the suggested deposition site of Eemian ice archived in the North Greenland Eemian ice drilling project (NEEM) ice core. Eemian orbital forcing leads to an increase in summer precipitation at pNEEM, whereas changes in the GrIS topography can result in either increased or decreased precipitation. Transport routes prior to precipitation events at pNEEM show that moisture is predominantly advected from westerly to southerly directions as the GrIS acts as an impassable barrier for easterly moisture transport. One scenario of Eemian melting of northeastern Greenland, however, allows moist air masses from the Norwegian Sea to arrive at pNEEM. Consequently, this GrIS topography would result in transport-related changes of Eemian wet-deposited aerosol records.

  7. Exceptional Agulhas leakage prolonged interglacial warmth during MIS 11c in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Pross, Jörg; Zahn, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    The transport of warm and saline surface water from the Indo-Pacific Ocean into the South Atlantic ("Agulhas leakage") influences the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which in turn exerts control on European climate. Paleoceanographic data document a remarkably strong Agulhas leakage at the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 11c interglacial (~400 ka B.P.), which is one of the best orbital analogues for the Holocene. Here we assess the potential influence of this exceptional Agulhas leakage on North Atlantic climate based on a compilation of marine and terrestrial proxy records from the Iberian margin and continental Europe. We show that a ~5 ka long warm period persisted across Europe beyond the MIS 11c climatic optimum. This warm period is testified by increases in foraminifer-derived sea surface temperatures on the Iberian margin, a spread of temperate trees on Iberia, and the expansion both of evergreen trees and thermophilous diatom taxa in Central European lowlands. Paradoxically, this warming coincides with an insolation minimum, implying that orbital forcing can be excluded as the underlying cause. We conclude that persistent warmth during weak insolation at the end of MIS 11c in Europe may have been triggered by strengthened Agulhas leakage, which stimulated a vigorous AMOC and increased the northward transport of warm surface waters to higher latitudes via the North Atlantic Current. The close analogy of the present and MIS 11c orbital forcing underlines the possibility that the present-day increase of the Agulhas leakage, although driven by different forcing than MIS 11c, may considerably affect future climates across Europe.

  8. Quercus suber range dynamics by ecological niche modelling: from the Last Interglacial to present time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessella, Federico; Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2015-07-01

    Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) is widely used to depict species potential occurrence according to environmental variables under different climatic scenarios. We tested the ENM approach to infer past range dynamics of cork oak, a keystone species of the Mediterranean Biome, from 130 ka to the present time. Hindcasting implications would deal with a better species risk assessment and conservation management for the future. We modelled present and past occurrence of cork oak using seven ENM algorithms, starting from 63,733 spatially unique presence points at 30 arc-second resolution. Fourteen environmental variables were used and four time slices were considered (Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene and present time). A threshold-independent evaluation of the goodness-of-fit of the models was evaluated by means of ROC curve and fossil or historical evidences were used to validate the results. Four weighted average maps depicted the dynamics of area suitability for cork oak in the last 130 ka. The derived species autoecology allowed its long-term occurrence in the Mediterranean without striking range reduction or shifting. Fossil and historical post-processing validation support the modelled past spatial extension and a neglected species presence at Levantine until the recent time. Despite the severe climatic oscillation since the Last Glacial Maximum, cork oak potential distribution area experienced limited range changes, confirming its strong link with the Mediterranean Basin. The ecological amplitude of Quercus suber could be therefore adopted as a reference to trace the Mediterranean bioclimate area. A better knowledge of the past events of Mediterranean vegetation, a wider range of study species and environmental determinants are essential to inform us about its current state, its sensitivity to human impact and the potential responses to future changes.

  9. Initiation and development of the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets following the last interglaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, P.U.; Clague, J.J.; Curry, B. Brandon; Dreimanis, A.; Hicock, S.R.; Miller, G.H.; Berger, G.W.; Eyles, N.; Lamothe, M.; Miller, B.B.; Mott, R.J.; Oldale, R.N.; Stea, R.R.; Szabo, J.P.; Thorleifson, L.H.; Vincent, J.-S.

    1993-01-01

    Fossil records from sites overridden by or adjacent to the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate that the climate of the last interglaciation (Oxygen-Isotope Substage 5e, ca. 130-116 ka) was warmer than today. Following the last interglaciation, the Laurentide Ice Sheet first developed during Stage 5 over Keewatin, Quebec and Baffin Island. Along its northern margin, the ice sheet reached its maximum extent of the last glaciation during Stage 5. The ice sheet advanced across Baffin Island onto the continental shelf early during Stage 5 (5d?), whereas the advance into the western Canadian Arctic occurred late during Stage 5 (5b?). The ice sheet also may have advanced into the St Lawrence Lowland during Substage 5b, although this event may be younger (Stage 4). The Hudson Bay lowland became ice-free during Substage 5a. Retreat of the ice sheet on Baffin Island occurred during late Stage 5, probably Substage 5a. The exact timing of retreat from the western Canadian Arctic is unknown, but it occurred before 48 ka. The southern sector, including the St Lawrence Lowland, was ice-free during late Stage 5. The Hudson Bay lowland may have remained ice free through Stage 4 and much of Stage 3. Because of conflicting chronologies, however, it is more likely that this area was glaciated throughout Stage 3 and perhaps Stage 4. Nevertheless, the data demonstrate that the lowland was ice-free during part of the last glaciation. An independent ice cap developed over the Appalachian Uplands and advanced across Nova Scotia during Stage 4, perhaps as far as the edge of the continental shelf. The ice cap remained active over Nova Scotia as a setellite to the Laurentide Ice Sheet throughout the remainder of the last glaciation. The ice sheet advanced into the St Lawrence Lowland during Stage 4 and subsequently overwhelmed the local ice cap in the Appalachian Uplands, advancing perhaps into northern New England, but not farther south. The Lowland remained covered by the ice sheet until late

  10. Past seismic activity in Eastern Anatolia recorded over several glacial/interglacial cycles in the sediments of Lake Van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhecke, M.; Anselmetti, F.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    Lake sediments document besides paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate conditions also paleoseismic activity through various forms of deformation structures. These are especially visible in finely-laminated sediments. Being situated in a tectonically active region, the partly annually-laminated sedimentary sequence of the terminal Lake Van, recovered in 2010 under the context of the ICDP Paleovan project, shows dozens of earthquake-triggered microdeformations that document past seismic events of the last half a million years. Lithological and multiproxy analysis revealed that the Lake Van's depositional conditions varied in correspondence to Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cycles. Glacial/stadial and interglacial/interstadial conditions were recorded continuously over the last half a million years excluding two discontinuities, which indicate major hydrological and geomorphological changes in Lake Van's early history. Two sites were drilled 10 km apart: A primary drill site, situated on a ridge, covers the entire lake history since its initial transgression in the middle Pleistocene; A secondary drill site, located in a more shallow northern basin, covers the past 90'000 years. Multiple coring at both drill sites allows to establish two almost complete 220 m and 145 m long composite sections, respectively. Observing deformation structures in multiple parallel cores at each site is used as a criteria to distinguish 'true' paleoseismic deformation structures from potential drilling artifacts. Deformation structures consist of i) silt-filled vertical fractures, ii) microfaults with displacements at cm-scale, iii) microfolds, iv) liquefaction structures (mushroom, pseudonodules), iv) disturbed varve laminations and v) mixed layers. While the ridge site records the paleoseismic events as microdeformations, the northern basinal site rather records seismic events through the deposition of seismo-turbidites. In some cases, individual earthquake events can even be identified

  11. Optical polarizer material

    DOEpatents

    Ebbers, Christopher A.

    1999-01-01

    Several crystals have been identified which can be grown using standard single crystals growth techniques and which have a high birefringence. The identified crystals include Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, LiNaCO.sub.3, LiKCO.sub.3, LiRbCO.sub.3 and LiCsCO.sub.3. The condition of high birefringence leads to their application as optical polarizer materials. In one embodiment of the invention, the crystal has the chemical formula LiK.sub.(1-w-x-y) Na.sub.(1-w-x-z) Rb.sub.(1-w-y-z) Cs.sub.(1-x-y-z) CO.sub.3, where w+x+y+z=1. In another embodiment, the crystalline material may be selected from a an alkali metal carbonate and a double salt of alkali metal carbonates, where the polarizer has a Wollaston configuration, a Glan-Thompson configuration or a Glan-Taylor configuration. A method of making an LiNaCO.sub.3 optical polarizer is described. A similar method is shown for making an LiKCO.sub.3 optical polarizer.

  12. Optical polarizer material

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C.A.

    1999-08-31

    Several crystals have been identified which can be grown using standard single crystals growth techniques and which have a high birefringence. The identified crystals include Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, LiNaCO.sub.3, LiKCO.sub.3, LiRbCO.sub.3 and LiCsCO.sub.3. The condition of high birefringence leads to their application as optical polarizer materials. In one embodiment of the invention, the crystal has the chemical formula LiK.sub.(1-w-x-y) Na.sub.(1-w-x-z) Rb.sub.(1-w-y-z) Cs.sub.(1-x-y-z) CO.sub.3, where w+x+y+z=1. In another embodiment, the crystalline material may be selected from a an alkali metal carbonate and a double salt of alkali metal carbonates, where the polarizer has a Wollaston configuration, a Glan-Thompson configuration or a Glan-Taylor configuration. A method of making an LiNaCO.sub.3 optical polarizer is described. A similar method is shown for making an LiKCO.sub.3 optical polarizer.

  13. Polar Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03577 Polar Terrains

    The region surrounding the South Polar Cap contains many different terrain types. This image shows both etched terrain and a region of 'mounds'.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 75S, Longitude 286.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Polar ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S.; Grose, W. L.; Jones, R. L.; Mccormick, M. P.; Molina, Mario J.; Oneill, A.; Poole, L. R.; Shine, K. P.; Plumb, R. A.; Pope, V.

    1990-01-01

    The observation and interpretation of a large, unexpected ozone depletion over Antarctica has changed the international scientific view of stratospheric chemistry. The observations which show the veracity, seasonal nature, and vertical structure of the Antarctic ozone hole are presented. Evidence for Arctic and midlatitude ozone loss is also discussed. The chemical theory for Antarctic ozone depletion centers around the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in Antarctic winter and spring; the climatology and radiative properties of these clouds are presented. Lab studies of the physical properties of PSCs and the chemical processes that subsequently influence ozone depletion are discussed. Observations and interpretation of the chemical composition of the Antarctic stratosphere are described. It is shown that the observed, greatly enhanced abundances of chlorine monoxide in the lower stratosphere are sufficient to explain much if not all of the ozone decrease. The dynamic meteorology of both polar regions is given, interannual and interhemispheric variations in dynamical processes are outlined, and their likely roles in ozone loss are discussed.

  15. Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal

    PubMed Central

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L.; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR–cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama–Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to <40% of its present value, for which we estimate >40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux. PMID:23297205

  16. Search for Polarization Effects in the Antiproton Production Process

    DOE PAGES

    Grzonka, D.; Kilian, K.; Ritman, J.; ...

    2015-01-01

    For the production of a polarized antiproton beam, various methods have been suggested including the possibility that antiprotons may be produced polarized which will be checked experimentally. The polarization of antiprotons produced under typical conditions for antiproton beam preparation will be measured at the CERN/PS. If the production process creates some polarization, a polarized antiproton beam could be prepared by a rather simple modification of the antiproton beam facility. The detection setup and the expected experimental conditions are described.

  17. Insertion of transposon Tn5tac1 in the Sinorhizobium meliloti malate dehydrogenase (mdh) gene results in conditional polar effects on downstream TCA cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Dymov, Sergiy I; Meek, David J J; Steven, Blaire; Driscoll, Brian T

    2004-12-01

    To isolate Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants deficient in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity, random transposon Tn5tac1 insertion mutants were screened for conditional lethal phenotypes on complex medium. Tn5tac1 has an outward-oriented isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoter (Ptac). The insertion in strain Rm30049 was mapped to the mdh gene, which was found to lie directly upstream of the genes encoding succinyl-CoA synthetase (sucCD) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (sucAB and lpdA). Rm30049 required IPTG for wild-type growth in complex media, and had a complex growth phenotype in minimal media with different carbon sources. The mdh:: Tn5tacl insertion eliminated MDH activity under all growth conditions, and activities of succinyl-CoA synthetase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase were affected by the addition of IPTG. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies confirmed that expression from Ptac was induced by IPTG and leaky in its absence. Alfalfa plants inoculated with Rm30049 were chlorotic and stunted, with small white root nodules, and had shoot dry weight and percent-N content values similar to those of uninoculated plants. Cosmid clone pDS15 restored MDH activity to Rm30049, complemented both the mutant growth and symbiotic phenotypes, and was found to carry six complete (sdhB, mdh, sucCDAB) and two partial (IpdA, sdhA) tricarboxylic acid cycle genes.

  18. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion. PMID:26286667

  19. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China.

    PubMed

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion.

  20. Regional differences in the δO2/N2 records from East Antarctica over the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, L.; Landais, A.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Kageyama, M.; Paillard, D.; Bopp, L.; Ritz, C.; Leuenberger, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ice cores are the only climate archives offering samples of past atmosphere. The air is trapped at around 100 m under the surface, where the snow is compacted into ice. During this process, multiple influences may modify the air composition as the quantity of insolation received at the surface impacts snow metamorphism and hence air trapping conditions at the basis of the firn (top ~100m of the ice sheet). Analyses of trapped air in ice cores thus give us information on both local and global scales. In this study, we focus on temporal variations of elemental and isotopic composition of oxygen from East Antarctic ice cores. On the one hand, the δ18Oatm, uniformly distributed in the atmosphere, is known to be related to the hydrological cycle and the vegetation cover (Landais et al., 2010), and can be linked to the precession variations. The δO2/N2, on the other hand, appears to be influenced by the local insolation, probably because of modification of the snow structure affecting pore close-off. These two quantities have largely been used as orbital tuning tools for dating purposes in several ice cores from Antarctica (Bender 2002, Suwa et Bender 2008, Kawamura et al., 2007, Dreyfus et al., 2007,Landais et al., 2012, Bazin et al., 2013). Still, gaps in our understanding of the exact mechanisms explaining the δ18Oatm and δO2/N2 variations lead to quite large uncertainties when using these proxies as tie-points for dating purposes. In this study, we use several ice core records in low accumulation rate sites of East Antarctica to decipher global and local effects on the δO2/N2 records. First, we present a compilation of δO2/N2 measurements of the Dome F, Vostok and Dome C ice cores over the last interglacial period. While Dome F and Vostok data were corrected for gas loss during several years of storage at -25°C, new measurements of the air isotopic composition on the Dome C ice core were performed on well-conserved ice (-50°C). Different δO2/N2 mean levels

  1. Polar Barchans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, barchan sand dunes of the north polar region of Mars. Barchan dunes are simple, rounded forms with two horns that extend downwind. Inequalities in local wind patterns may result in one horn being extended farther than the other, as is the case for several dunes in this image. The image also shows several barchans may merge to form a long dune ridge. The horns and attendant slip faces on these dunes indicate wind transport of sand from the upper left toward the lower right. The image is located near 77.6oN, 103.6oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  2. Chloride, nitrate and sulphate high resolution records for the last two glacial-interglacial cycles from EDC ice core.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, A.; Becagli, S.; Benassai, S.; Castellano, E.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2003-04-01

    During the 2001/2002 Antarctic campaign, in field Fast Ion Chromatographic analysis was continued on the EPICA Dome C ice core (EDC) yielding chloride, nitrate and sulphate high-resolution records up to 2160 m depth. This depth interval is supposed to cover the last two glacial/interglacial cycles. Since EDC isotopic measurements are in progress at present, chemical profiles were compared with deuterium profile from Vostok ice core, aiming to study the relationship between climatic and environmental changes. All the components show lower and rather constant background levels over the two interglacial periods (Holocene and Eemian) with respect to glacial ones. Sulphate background profile, perturbed by a large number of volcanic spikes, shows a little sensitivity to glacial/interglacial climatic changes. Since the variations of the sulphate concentration are similar in extent to the estimated snow accumulation changes, this component does not seem to be affected by significant changes in source intensity and transport efficiency during the different climatic periods. Chloride and nitrate concentration profiles exhibit a higher variability along the ice core, with very low and stable interglacial values and high and noisy glacial levels. By comparing the Vostok deuterium profile in the last glacial period, where the temporal resolution of isotopic measurement is particularly high, a good correspondence between chloride maxima and deuterium minima can be observed, even for short-term variations. Both environmental variations and glaciological features can modulate the response of chloride to the temperature changes. Indeed, post-depositional effects through HCl re-emission into the atmosphere heavily affect chloride. Its persistence in the snow layers is therefore related to snow accumulation rate and snow acidity. In cold periods, despite the lower accumulation rate, the higher alkaline dust atmospheric load is able to fix higher chloride snow concentration preventing

  3. El Niño during the Last Interglacial Period recorded by a fossil coral from Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughen, Konrad A.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Hantoro, Wahyoe

    Measurements of oxygen isotopes and elemental ratios in a fossil coral that grew 124,000 years ago in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, reflect interannual variability in precipitation and sea surface temperature (SST) due to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This indicates that ENSO was robust during the last interglacial period, a time when global climate was slightly warmer than the present. The pattern of ENSO frequency behavior in the past is similar to variability in modern instrumental records, but distinct from the most recent period since the mid-1970s, supporting the hypothesis that ENSO behavior in recent decades is anomalous with respect to natural variability.

  4. Last interglacial sea-surface temperature estimates from the California margin; improvements to the modern analog technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Poore, Richard Z.

    1999-01-01

    Total faunal analyses of planktic foraminifer assemblages are used to derive sea surface temperature estimates for the last interglacial from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1018 and 1020 off northern and central California. Foraminifer assemblage data were transformed to sea-surface temperature (SST) estimates by using the modern analog technique (MAT). In order to improve our ability to estimate SST in this area, the coretop calibration data base used in the MAT was augmented by 13 new age-validated coretop assemblages from the U.S. Pacific Margin.

  5. IRSL dating of Middle Pleistocene interglacial sediments from southern Quebec (Canada) using multiple and single grain aliquots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balescu, S.; Lamothe, M.; Auclair, M.; Shilts, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    The IRSL dating of Middle Pleistocene interglacial fluvial sediments from Southern Quebec, correlated with oxygen isotopic stage 7, yields optical dates much younger than the expected geological age. Single grain IRSL measurements on alkali-feldspars, following the fadia protocol developed by Lamothe and Auclair (Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 171, 319-323, 1999), suggest that anomalous fading is the most probable cause for this severe age underestimation. The IRSL dates corrected for this anomalous fading are in better agreement with the expected ages. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. The Last Interglacial sea level change: new evidence from the Abrolhos islands, West Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, A.; Zhu, Z. R.; Collins, L. B.; Wyrwoll, K. H.; Eichstätter, R.

    U-series ages measured by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) are reported for a Last Interglacial (LI) fossil coral core from the Turtle Bay, Houtman Abrolhos islands, western Australia. The core is 33.4m long the top of which is approximately 5ma.p.s.l. (above present sea level). From the 232Th concentrations and the reliability of the U-series ages, two sections in the core can be distinguished. Calculated U/Th ages in core sectionI (3.3ma.p.s.l to 11mb.p.s.l) vary between 124+/-1.7kaBP (3.3ma.p.s.l.) and 132.5+/-1.8ka (4mb.p.s.l., i.e. below present sea level), and those of sectionII (11-23mb.p.s.l.) between 140+/-3 and 214+/-5kaBP, respectively. The ages of core sectionI are in almost perfect chronological order, whereas for sectionII no clear age-depth relationship of the samples can be recognised. Further assessments based on the ∂234U(T) criteria reveal that none of the samples of core sectionII give reliable ages, whereas for core sectionI several samples can be considered to be moderately reliable within 2ka. The data of the Turtle Bay core complement and extend our previous work from the Houtman Abrolhos showing that the sea level reached a height of approximately 4mb.p.s.l at approximately 134kaBP and a sea level highstand of at least 3.3ma.p.s.l. at approximately 124kaBP. Sea level dropped below its present position at approximately 116kaBP. Although the new data are in general accord with the Milankovitch theory of climate change, a detailed comparison reveals considerable differences between the Holocenand LI sea level rise as monitored relative to the Houtman Abrolhos islands. These observation apparently add further evidence to the growing set of data that the LI sea level rise started earlier than recognised by SPECMAP chronology. A reconciliation of these contradictionary observations following the line of arguments presented by Crowley (1994) are discussed with respect to the Milankovitch theory.

  7. From the Last Interglacial to the Anthropocene: Modelling a Complete Glacial Cycle (PalMod)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Latif, Mojib; Claussen, Martin; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We will give a short overview of the national climate modelling initiative (PalMod - Paleo Modelling, www.palmod.de) on the understanding of the climate system dynamics and its variability during the last glacial cycle. PalMod is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and its specific topics are: (i) to identify and quantify the relative contributions of the fundamental processes which determined the Earth's climate trajectory and variability during the last glacial cycle, (ii) to simulate with comprehensive Earth System Models (ESMs) the climate from the peak of the last interglacial - the Eemian warm period - up to the present, including the changes in the spectrum of variability, and (iii) to assess possible future climate trajectories beyond this century during the next millennia with sophisticated ESMs tested in such a way. The research is intended to be conducted over a period of 10 years, but with shorter funding cycles. The envisioned approach is innovative in three respects. First, the consortium aims at simulating a full glacial cycle in transient mode and with comprehensive ESMs which allow full interactions between the physical and biogeochemical components of the Earth system, including ice sheets. Second, we shall address climate variability during the last glacial cycle on a large range of time scales, from interannual to multi-millennial, and attempt to quantify the relative contributions of external forcing and processes internal to the Earth system to climate variability at different time scales. Third, in order to achieve a higher level of understanding of natural climate variability at time scales of millennia, its governing processes and implications for the future climate, we bring together three different research communities: the Earth system modeling community, the proxy data community and the computational science community. The consortium consists of 18 partners including all major modelling centers within

  8. A cool eastern Pacific Ocean at the close of the Last Interglacial complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Ludwig, K. R.; Groves, L.T.

    2006-01-01

    New high-precision thermal ionization mass-spectrometric (TIMS) U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) from several marine terrace localities along the California and southern Oregon coasts date to the ???80,000 yr BP high stand of sea, correlative with marine isotope substage 5a, late in the last interglacial complex. Ages of multiple corals from localities north of Point An??o Nuevo (central California) and San Nicolas Island (southern California) suggest that this high sea stand could have lasted at least 8000 yr, from ???84,000 to ???76,000 yr BP. These ages overlap with those from marine deposits on tectonically stable Bermuda and tectonically emergent Barbados. Higher-elevation terraces at two California localities, in the Palos Verdes Hills and on San Nicolas Island, have corals with ages that range mostly from ???121,000 to ???116,000 yr BP, correlative with marine isotope substage 5e. These ages are similar to those reported for other terraces in southern California but are younger than some ages reported from Hawaii, Barbados and the Bahamas. Marine terrace faunas are excellent proxies for nearshore marine paleotemperatures during past high sea stands. Terraces on the Palos Verdes Hills and San Nicolas Island dated to the ???120,000 yr BP high sea stand have dominantly zoogeographically "neutral" species in exposed coastal localities, indicating nearshore waters similar to those of today. In contrast, ???80,000 yr BP, exposed coastal localities typically have molluscan faunas characterized by numerous extralimital northern species and a lack of extralimital southern species. These fossil assemblages are indicative of nearshore water temperatures that were cooler than modern temperatures at ???80,000 yr BP. Waters at least as warm as today's at ???120,000 yr BP and cooler than present at ???80,000 yr BP are in excellent agreement with marine alkenone records and coastal vegetation records derived from pollen data, from both southern and

  9. The evolution of the Great Barrier Reef during the Last Interglacial Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechnik, Belinda; Webster, Jody M.; Webb, Gregory E.; Nothdurft, Luke; Dutton, Andrea; Braga, Juan-Carlos; Zhao, Jian-xin; Duce, Stephanie; Sadler, James

    2017-02-01

    Reef response to Last Interglacial (LIG) sea level and palaeoenvironmental change has been well documented at a limited number of far-field sites remote from former ice sheets. However, the age and development of LIG reefs in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) remain poorly understood due to their location beneath modern living reefs. Here we report thirty-nine new mass spectrometry U-Th ages from seven LIG platform reefs across the northern, central and southern GBR. Two distinct geochemical populations of corals were observed, displaying activity ratios consistent with either closed or open system evolution. Our closed-system ages ( 129-126 ka) provide the first reliable LIG ages for the entire GBR. Combined with our open-system model ages, we are able to constrain the interval of significant LIG reef growth in the southern GBR to between 129-121 ka. Using age-elevation data in conjunction with newly defined coralgal assemblages and sedimentary facies analysis we have defined three distinct phases of LIG reef development in response to major sea level and oceanographic changes. These phases include: Phase 1 (> 129 ka), a shallow-water coralgal colonisation phase following initial flooding of the older, likely Marine Isotope Stage 7 (MIS7) antecedent platform; Phase 2 ( 129 ka), a near drowning event in response to rapid sea level rise and greater nutrient-rich upwelling and; Phase 3 ( 128-121 ka), establishment of significant reef framework through catch-up reef growth, initially characterised by deeper, more turbid coralgal assemblages (Phase 3a) that transition to shallow-water assemblages following sea level stabilisation (Phase 3b). Coralgal assemblage analysis indicates that the palaeoenvironments during initial reef growth phases (1 and 2) of the LIG were significantly different than the initial reef growth phases in the Holocene. However, the similar composition of ultimate shallow-water coralgal assemblages and slow reef accretion rates following stabilisation

  10. Thermal and dynamical perturbations in the winter polar mesosphere-lower thermosphere region associated with sudden stratospheric warmings under conditions of low solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova, Renata; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Ulich, Thomas; Lester, Mark

    2015-06-01

    The upper mesospheric neutral winds and temperatures have been derived from continuous meteor radar (MR) measurements over Sodankyla, Finland, in 2008-2014. Under conditions of low solar activity pronounced sudden mesospheric coolings linked to the major stratospheric warming (SSW) in 2009 and a medium SSW in 2010 are observed while there is no observed thermal signature of the major SSW in 2013 occurred during the solar maximum. Mesosphere-ionosphere anomalies observed simultaneously by the MR, the Aura satellite, and the rapid-run ionosonde during a period of major SSW include the following features. The mesospheric temperature minimum occurs 1 day ahead of the stratospheric maximum, and the mesospheric cooling is almost of the same value as the stratospheric warming (~50 K), the former decay faster than the latter. In the course of SSW, a strong mesospheric wind shear of ~70 m/s/km occurs. The wind turns clockwise (anticlockwise) from north-eastward (south-eastward) to south-westward (north-westward) above (below) 90 km. As the mesospheric temperature reaches its minimum, the gravity waves (GW) in the ionosphere with periods of 10-60 min decay abruptly while the GWs with longer periods are not affected. The effect is explained by selective filtering and/or increased turbulence near the mesopause.

  11. Chronology and dynamics of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream in Arctic Canada during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakeman, T. R.; MacLean, B.; Blasco, S.; Bennett, R.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    influence of the Mackenzie and other fluvial sediment discharge on the seabed over the last 13,000 cal yr BP. The deglacial history of Amundsen Gulf under ameliorating climate conditions of the last ~19,000 cal yr BP provides important constraints on the variables that occasioned the demise of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet, such as sea level change, paleoclimate, and regional ice sheet dynamics. Understanding the complex interplay among these variables during the last deglaciation will bear on current model projections of the dynamics of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. In addition, quantifying past iceberg fluxes to the Arctic Ocean has implications for assessing the origin of deep ice scours in the Arctic Ocean Basin and the nature of rapid climate changes at the last glacial-interglacial transition.

  12. Recent and past Saharan dust deposition in the Carpathian Basin and its possible effects on interglacial soil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György

    2016-04-01

    Several hundred tons of windblown dust material are transported every year from Saharan dust source areas into direction of Europe, modifying important climatic and other environmental processes of distant areas. North African aerosols have been also identified several times a year in the Carpathian Basin, where under the influence of certain synoptic meteorological conditions Saharan dust accumulation can clearly be observed. Previous satellite based studies were suitable to estimate the frequency and magnitude of Saharan dust episodes in the investigation area, however, the assessment of North African dust deposition can be done with model simulations. In this study, calculations were made by using the data of BSC-DREAM8b (Barcelona Supercomputing Center's Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) v1.0 and v2.0 database. Simulation results of the BSC-DREAM8b v1.0 are available from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2012, while the results of the updated v2.0 calculations are ready for the period between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. BSC DREAM8b v1.0 model simulations for the period between 2000 and 2012 provided an annual mean of 0.0285 g/m2/y dry and 0.034 g/m2/y wet deposition values in the Carpathian Basin, which is equivalent to a total of 0.0636 g/m2/y. The updated v2.0 version for the period of 2006-2014 gave significantly larger values: 0.133 g/m2/y dry; 0.085 g/m2/y wet and 0.219 g/m2/y total annual dust deposition. By comparing the results of the overlapping period between 2006 and 2012 of the v1.0 and v2.0 simulations, the updated depositional scheme of the newer version provided ˜3.7-fold values in case of dry deposition and ˜1.9-fold increase in results of the wet deposition. Information available from individual events showed that the simulated wet and dry dust deposition rates are significantly underestimated. This is also suggested by previous model calculations which reported values between 5 and 10 g/m2/y for modern dust flux in the investigated area

  13. Cilia organize ependymal planar polarity

    PubMed Central

    Mirzadeh, Zaman; Han, Young-Goo; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Multi-ciliated epithelial cells, called ependymal cells, line the ventricles in the adult brain. Most ependymal cells are born prenatally and are derived from radial glia. Ependymal cells have a remarkable planar polarization that determines orientation of ciliary beating and propulsion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Disruption of ependymal ciliary beating, by injury or disease, results in aberrant CSF circulation and hydrocephalus, a common disorder of the central nervous system. Very little is known about the mechanisms guiding ependymal planar polarity and whether this organization is acquired during ependymal cell development or is already present in radial glia. Here we show that basal bodies in ependymal cells in the lateral ventricle walls of adult mice are polarized in two ways: i) rotational; angle of individual basal bodies with respect to their long axis and ii) translational; the position of basal bodies on the apical surface of the cell. Conditional ablation of motile cilia disrupted rotational orientation, but translational polarity was largely preserved. In contrast, translational polarity was dramatically affected when radial glial primary cilia were ablated earlier in development. Remarkably, radial glia in the embryo have a translational polarity that predicts the orientation of mature ependymal cells. These results suggest that ependymal planar cell polarity is a multi-step process initially organized by primary cilia in radial glia and then refined by motile cilia in ependymal cells. PMID:20164345

  14. Cilia organize ependymal planar polarity.

    PubMed

    Mirzadeh, Zaman; Han, Young-Goo; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2010-02-17

    Multiciliated epithelial cells, called ependymal cells, line the ventricles in the adult brain. Most ependymal cells are born prenatally and are derived from radial glia. Ependymal cells have a remarkable planar polarization that determines orientation of ciliary beating and propulsion of CSF. Disruption of ependymal ciliary beating, by injury or disease, results in aberrant CSF circulation and hydrocephalus, a common disorder of the CNS. Very little is known about the mechanisms guiding ependymal planar polarity and whether this organization is acquired during ependymal cell development or is already present in radial glia. Here we show that basal bodies in ependymal cells in the lateral ventricle walls of adult mice are polarized in two ways: (1) rotational; angle of individual basal bodies with respect to their long axis and (2) translational; the position of basal bodies on the apical surface of the cell. Conditional ablation of motile cilia disrupted rotational orientation, but translational polarity was largely preserved. In contrast, translational polarity was dramatically affected when radial glial primary cilia were ablated earlier in development. Remarkably, radial glia in the embryo have a translational polarity that predicts the orientation of mature ependymal cells. These results suggest that ependymal planar cell polarity is a multistep process initially organized by primary cilia in radial glia and then refined by motile cilia in ependymal cells.

  15. The behaviour of the Leeuwin Current offshore NW Australia during the last five glacial-interglacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Michelle I.; De Deckker, Patrick; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2011-02-01

    The Leeuwin Current is an anomalous eastern boundary current along the western Australian coast. To investigate its behaviour through time, we studied core MD002361 obtained from below the present-day pathway of the Leeuwin Current offshore the NW tip of Western Australia. Planktonic foraminifera assemblages, sea-surface temperature estimates reconstructed from those assemblages, together with the δ 18O and δ 13C signals of near-surface dwelling foraminifera ( Globigerinoides ruber), were used to reconstruct the vertical structure of the water column for the past 500 ka. Our findings indicate that the Leeuwin Current was present along the western coastline of Australia even during glacial periods. During those times, there was a greater influence of South Indian Subtropical Water (STW) and South Indian Central Water (SICW) due to a 3-4° northward migration of the Indonesian Throughflow Water/South Indian Central Water frontal system. This resulted in an overall 6-9 °C decrease in SST, paralleled by a thickening and greater homogeneity of the mixed layer. The increased influence of STW and SICW also suggests that the West Australian Current, which presently sits below the Leeuwin Current, was strengthened during the glacial periods and contributed to a weakening of the Leeuwin Current. Conversely, the Leeuwin Current was 'stronger' during interglacial periods due to a thicker component of Indonesian Throughflow Water sourced from the Indo Pacific Warm Pool. This was particularly the case during marine isotope stage 5.5 (MIS) and the 'super' interglacial MIS 11.

  16. Interglacial microrefugia and diversification of a cactus species complex: phylogeography and palaeodistributional reconstructions for Pilosocereus aurisetus and allies.

    PubMed

    Bonatelli, Isabel A S; Perez, Manolo F; Peterson, A Townsend; Taylor, Nigel P; Zappi, Daniela C; Machado, Marlon C; Koch, Ingrid; Pires, Adriana H C; Moraes, Evandro M

    2014-06-01

    The role of Pleistocene climate changes in promoting evolutionary diversification in global biota is well documented, but the great majority of data regarding this subject come from North America and Europe, which were greatly affected by glaciation. The effects of Pleistocene changes on cold- and/or dry-adapted species in tropical areas where glaciers were not present remain sparsely investigated. Many such species are restricted to small areas surrounded by unfavourable habitats, which may represent potential interglacial microrefugia. Here, we analysed the phylogeographic structure and diversification history of seven cactus species in the Pilosocereus aurisetus complex that are restricted to rocky areas with high diversity and endemism within the Neotropical savannas of eastern South America. We combined palaeodistributional estimates with standard phylogeographic approaches based on two chloroplast DNA regions (trnT-trnL and trnS-trnG), exon 1 of the nuclear gene PhyC and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. Our analyses revealed a phylogeographic history marked by multiple levels of distributional fragmentation, isolation leading to allopatric differentiation and secondary contact among divergent lineages within the complex. Diversification and demographic events appear to have been affected by the Quaternary climatic cycles as a result of isolation in multiple patches of xerophytic vegetation. These small patches presently harbouring P. aurisetus populations seem to operate as microrefugia, both at present and during Pleistocene interglacial periods; the role of such microrefugia should be explored and analysed in greater detail.

  17. Impact of ice sheet meltwater fluxes on the climate evolution at the onset of the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Huybrechts, Philippe; Loutre, Marie-France; Fichefet, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Large climate perturbations occurred during the transition between the penultimate glacial period and the Last Interglacial (Termination II), when the ice sheets retreated from their glacial configuration. Here we investigate the impact of ice sheet changes and associated freshwater fluxes on the climate evolution at the onset of the Last Interglacial. The period from 135 to 120 kyr BP is simulated with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM v.1.3 with prescribed evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, the Greenland ice sheet, and the other Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Variations in meltwater fluxes from the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets lead to North Atlantic temperature changes and modifications of the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. By means of the interhemispheric see-saw effect, variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation also give rise to temperature changes in the Southern Hemisphere, which are additionally modulated by the direct impact of Antarctic meltwater fluxes into the Southern Ocean. Freshwater fluxes from the melting Antarctic ice sheet lead to a millennial timescale oceanic cold event in the Southern Ocean with expanded sea ice as evidenced in some ocean sediment cores, which may be used to constrain the timing of ice sheet retreat.

  18. A 3D-RISM-SCF method with dual solvent boxes for a highly polarized system: application to 1,6-anhydrosugar formation reaction of phenyl α- and β-D-glucosides under basic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aono, Shinji; Hosoya, Takashi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2013-05-07

    One of the difficulties in application of the usual reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) method to a highly polarized and bulky system arises from the approximate evaluation of electrostatic potential (ESP) with pure point charges. To improve this ESP evaluation, the ESP near a solute is directly calculated with a solute electronic wavefunction, that distant from a solute is approximately calculated with solute point charges, and they are connected with a switching function. To evaluate the fine solvation structure near the solute by incorporating the long-range solute-solvent Coulombic interaction with low computational cost, we introduced the dual solvent box protocol; one small box with the fine spacing is employed for the first and the second solvation shells and the other large box with the normal spacing is employed for long-range solute-solvent interaction. The levoglucosan formation from phenyl α- and β-d-glucosides under basic conditions is successfully inspected by this 3D-RISM-SCF method at the MP2 and SCS-MP2 levels, though the 1D-RISM-SCF could not be applied to this reaction due to the presence of highly polarized and bulky species. This 3D-RISM-SCF calculation reproduces the experimentally reported higher reactivity of the β-anomer. The 3D-RISM-SCF-calculated activation free energy for the β-anomer is closer to the experimental value than the PCM-calculated one. Interestingly, the solvation effect increases the difference in reactivity between these two anomers. The reason is successfully elucidated with 3D-RISM-SCF-calculated microscopic solvation structure and decomposition analysis of solute-solvent interaction.

  19. Do embryonic polar bodies commit suicide?

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dušan; Čikoš, Štefan; Rehák, Pavol; Koppel, Juraj

    2014-02-01

    The extrusion and elimination of unnecessary gametic/embryonic material is one of the key events that determines the success of further development in all living organisms. Oocytes produce the first polar body to fulfill the maturation process just before ovulation, and release the second polar body immediately after fertilization. The aim of this study was to compile a physiological overview of elimination of polar bodies during early preimplantation development in mice. Our results show that three-quarters of the first polar bodies were lost even at the zygotic stage; the 4-cell stage embryos contained only one (second) polar body, and the elimination of second polar bodies proceeded continuously during later development. Both first and second polar bodies showed several typical features of apoptosis: phosphatidylserine redistribution (observed for the first time in the first polar body), specific DNA degradation, condensed nuclear morphology, and inability to exclude cationic dye from the nucleus during the terminal stage of the apoptotic process. Caspase-3 activity was recorded only in the second polar body. From the morphological point of view, mouse polar bodies acted very similarly to damaged embryonic cells which have lost contact with their neighboring blastomeres. In conclusion, polar bodies possess all the molecular equipment necessary for triggering and executing an active suicide process. Furthermore, similarly as in dying embryonic cells, stressing external conditions (culture in vitro) might accelerate and increase the incidence of apoptotic elimination of the polar bodies in embryos.

  20. Stalagmite geochemistry and the timing of the last interglacial-glacial transition in Central Europe (NE Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siklosy, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems can provide accurate chronologies for reconstructions of climate change by combination of U/Th dating and climate-related geochemical compositions. Geochemical studies of speleothems from Central Europe are mostly based on stable C and O isotope analyses, thus, complex geochemical studies combining isotope and trace element measurements are needed for more reliable climate models for this transitional area between oceanic and continental regions. We present stable H-C-O isotope and trace element records obtained on speleothems covering the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) and the transition to MIS 5d. A stalagmite from Baradla Cave grew from 127.5 to 110 ka. Accelerated growth rates have been detected by U/Th age data in the 127 to 126 ka and 119 to 117 ka parts. Trace element compositions and 230Th/232Th ratios suggest changes in the hydrological regime, whereby early calcite precipitates formed in fissures during the dry and cold glacial period were dissolved by the starting flux of infiltrating meteoric water (producing elevated dissolved ion concentration but low detrital Th component), then the increasing amount of dripwater during the interglacial period resulted in trace element dilution. Temperature and precipitation amount variations are also reflected by the stable isotope compositions. Oxygen isotope composition shows a continuous increase from 127.5 ka until about 118 ka most probably related to temperature rise, whereas C isotope values are shifted in negative direction suggesting increasing humidity in accordance with trace element contents. The presumably warmest period at ca. 118 ka is associated with rather arid climate as indicated by peak d18O values coinciding with the highest dD values of fluid inclusion water. This is followed by a pronounced negative shift in both O and H isotope values, similarly to recent Alpine studies (Meyer et al., 2008), most probably related to cooling. Hydrogen isotope compositions of fluid inclusion water

  1. The polarization properties of a tilted polarizer.

    PubMed

    Korger, Jan; Kolb, Tobias; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2013-11-04

    Polarizers are key components in optical science and technology. Thus, understanding the action of a polarizer beyond oversimplifying approximations is crucial. In this work, we study the interaction of a polarizing interface with an obliquely incident wave experimentally. To this end, a set of Mueller matrices is acquired employing a novel procedure robust against experimental imperfections. We connect our observation to a geometric model, useful to predict the effect of polarizers on complex light fields.

  2. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  3. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  4. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  5. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  6. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  7. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  8. Polarization in Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    we refer to the linear polarization as parallel if the polarization vector is in the scattering plane or perpendicular if the polarization vector is...obvious that the different polarization states can all be represented as linear combinations of any of the independent pairs of polarization states...J.C. (1976) “Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique, Applied Optics, 6, 321-330

  9. Neuronal polarization in the developing cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akira; Hatanaka, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neurons consist of excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, whose connections construct highly organized neuronal circuits that control higher order information processing. Recent progress in live imaging has allowed us to examine how these neurons differentiate during development in vivo or in in vivo-like conditions. These analyses have revealed how the initial steps of polarization, in which neurons establish an axon, occur. Interestingly, both excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons establish neuronal polarity de novo by undergoing a multipolar stage reminiscent of the manner in which polarity formation occurs in hippocampal neurons in dissociated culture. In this review, we focus on polarity formation in cortical neurons and describe their typical morphology and dynamic behavior during the polarization period. We also discuss cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying polarization, with reference to polarity formation in dissociated hippocampal neurons in vitro. PMID:25904841

  10. Polar Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a high school science teacher who joined a 5-week National Science Foundation research excursion to Antarctica that involved him as a participating researcher. The paper explains challenges that he encountered related to the physical environment, working conditions, and relationships with his colleagues. (SM)

  11. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  12. Broadband graphene polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qiaoliang; Zhang, Han; Wang, Bing; Ni, Zhenhua; Lim, Candy Haley Yi Xuan; Wang, Yu; Tang, Ding Yuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2011-07-01

    Conventional polarizers can be classified into three main modes of operation: sheet polarizer using anisotropic absorption media, prism polarizer by refraction and Brewster-angle polarizer by reflection. These polarizing components are not easily integrated with photonic circuits. The in-line fibre polarizer, which relies on polarization-selective coupling between the evanescent field and birefringent crystal or metal, is a promising alternative because of its compatibility with most fibre-optic systems. Here, we demonstrate the operation of a broadband fibre polarizer based on graphene, an ultrathin two-dimensional carbon material. The out-coupled light in the telecommunication band shows a strong s-polarization effect with an extinction ratio of 27 dB. Unlike polarizers made from thin metal film, a graphene polarizer can support transverse-electric-mode surface wave propagation due to its linear dispersion of Dirac electrons.

  13. A 12,000-Year-Long, Annually-Resolved Varve Record Spanning the Last Interglacial from Lake Bosumtwi, Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, N.; Overpeck, J. T.; Shanahan, T. M.; Peck, J. A.; Heil, C. W.; King, J. W.; Scholz, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of continued global warming on the likelihood of severe drought in sub-Saharan West Africa remains uncertain, as climate models generally do not simulate realistic climate dynamics in the region and have inconsistent projections for the future. The Last Interglacial period (LIG), occurring between 128 and 116 thousand years ago, is a partial analog for future warming because at its peak, global temperatures were slightly higher, and this warming was accentuated in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial summer temperatures. Here we present a new, annually-resolved, 12,100-year-long varve record for the LIG from Lake Bosumtwi in southern Ghana (6.5°N, 1.4°W). The abundance of terrigenous elements in the sediment, varve thickness, and the isotope geochemistry and mineralogy of authigenic carbonates in the sediment were used to infer changes in lake level. The varve chronology, varve thickness and elemental abundance records were developed with a new ensemble approach that allows for a more robust determination of uncertainty in the record. The new records reveal a dynamic history of hydrologic variability during the LIG. The LIG lake highstand was lower and shorter-lived than the the prolonged highstand in the early Holocene, and unlike the Holocene, the lake never overflowed during LIG. The overall drier conditions during the LIG are most likely driven by amplified precessional forcing during the interval, resulting in a northward shift in the rainbelt. The LIG, like the Holocene, had two distinct millennial-scale moist intervals, from 125 - 123 and 121 - 120 ka. In both the LIG and the Holocene, these peaks occurred during times of precession-driven insolation maxima in July and October, corresponding to the two rainy seasons in the modern climatology. This suggests that, at least during interglacials, prolonged wet conditions occur at the lake when rainy season insolation is highest. Over the course of the LIG, lake level generally tracked sea surface

  14. Polarization effects in recoil-induced resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazebnyi, D. B.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the field polarization on the amplitude of recoil-induced resonances (RIRs) is considered for laser-cooled free atoms and for atoms in a working magneto-optical trap (MOT). For all closed dipole transitions, explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the polarization dependence of the resonance amplitudes within a perturbation theory. Optimal polarization conditions are found for the observation of resonances.

  15. Multi-Proxy Approach to the Atlantic-Indian Water Interchange Along the Last Three Glacial-Interglacial Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Méndez, G.; Zahn, R.; Hall, I.; Rickaby, R.

    2005-12-01

    Multi-centennial mean grainsize (SS), paired planktonic ( G. bulloides) and benthic foraminifera ( C. wuellerstorfi ) stable isotope and trace element records of IMAGES core MD96-2080 are used to document surface and deep interchange of waters between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The core is from the western slope of the Agulhas Bank, off the southern tip of Africa, within the main gateway of Atlantic-Indian ocean interbasin exchange. At a water depth of 2488 m it is currently located within the southern extension of NADW bounded above and below by Upper and Lower CDW. The records display prominent orbital modulation and faster sub-orbital variability that is linked to climate variability seen in marine records at high southern latitudes, and in Antarctic ice core records. Departures from the orbitally modulated pattern occur in benthic C-13 along MIS 5 suggesting an alternation between water masses with similar C-13 signature. Low C-13 levels during glacial periods point to a substitution of NADW by CDW, while flow speeds are increased as indicated by high values of SS. The pattern mimics that seen at a mid-depth SW Pacific core site (Hall et al., 2001) suggesting a hemisphere-wide significance for the southern hemisphere oceans. The combined benthic C-13 and Cd/Ca patterns are used to discriminate between water masses and to separate preformed from THC-related signals contained in the glacial-interglacial and millennial patterns. The data profiles show significant differences in the rate of change of ice volume (O-18), chemical ventilation (C-13) and physical circulation (SS) during glacial to interglacial transitions and interglacial to glacial transitions that suggest a large inertia of ocean physics but also confirm the significance of Southern Ocean THC water mass formation for changing deep ocean ventilation. Coherency between the planktonic and benthic isotope records points to the existence of a direct connection between Agulhas leakage and deep outflow

  16. Fingerprints of Greenlandic and Icelandic Sediment Sources to the North Atlantic through Five Glacial Terminations and Interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, R. G.; Stoner, J. S.; Carlson, A. E.; Reyes, A.

    2011-12-01

    Ice sheet models vary substantially in their predictions of the size of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) during previous interglacials. This uncertainty makes it difficult to constrain the sensitivity of the GIS to projected climate warming and asses the role of the GIS in future sea level rise. The geological record provides an alternative method to ground truth the relative extent of the GIS during previous interglacials. Ocean cores from the Eirik Drift contain a record of exported terrestrial sediments with variations in their properties linked to the size and nature of the GIS. The silt fraction (3-63 μm) is a significant product of glacial erosion, has limited distal transport potential and forms a major component of Erik Drift sediments. Therefore properties of the silt fraction are most useful to estimate relative fluxes from different source areas and potentially relate the source of erosion to the size of the GIS. Here we construct and compare particle-sized magnetic 'fingerprints' of Greenlandic and Icelandic terrestrial sources to the particle sized magnetic record of MD99-2227 and HU90-013-013 through glacial terminations I - V and subsequent interglacials, spanning 420kyrs. The magnetic properties of both the source areas and the core sediments possess strong particle size dependence with the silt fraction carrying much of the magnetic signal. Magnetic hysteresis measurements show the five terminations to be relatively similar and homogeneous compared to other time periods; possibly reflecting a strong Greenlandic terrestrial source. Although Icelandic (basaltic) sediment sources dominate the record (similar to the findings of Colville et al., 2011), Precambrian Greenlandic contributions increase during terminations, which are linked to ablation of the GIS. Greenlandic sources are highest during TII (Marine Isotope Stages, MIS, 6-5e) and TV (MIS 12-11) concurrent with benthic δ18O data (e.g. Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005) suggesting minimum global ice

  17. Unexpected weak seasonal climate in the western Mediterranean region during MIS 31, a high-insolation forced interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Dulce; Sánchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Naughton, Filipa; Polanco-Martínez, J. M.; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Martrat, Belen; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Trigo, Ricardo; Hodell, David; Abrantes, Fátima; Desprat, Stéphanie

    2017-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS 31) is an important analogue for ongoing and projected global warming, yet key questions remain about the regional signature of its extreme orbital forcing and intra-interglacial variability. Based on a new direct land-sea comparison in SW Iberian margin IODP Site U1385 we examine the climatic variability between 1100 and 1050 ka including the ;super interglacial; MIS 31, a period dominated by the 41-ky obliquity periodicity. Pollen and biomarker analyses at centennial-scale-resolution provide new insights into the regional vegetation, precipitation regime and atmospheric and oceanic temperature variability on orbital and suborbital timescales. Our study reveals that atmospheric and SST warmth during MIS 31 was not exceptional in this region highly sensitive to precession. Unexpectedly, this warm stage stands out as a prolonged interval of a temperate and humid climate regime with reduced seasonality, despite the high insolation (precession minima values) forcing. We find that the dominant forcing on the long-term temperate forest development was obliquity, which may have induced a decrease in summer dryness and associated reduction in seasonal precipitation contrast. Moreover, this study provides the first evidence for persistent atmospheric millennial-scale variability during this interval with multiple forest decline events reflecting repeated cooling and drying episodes in SW Iberia. Our direct land-sea comparison shows that the expression of the suborbital cooling events on SW Iberian ecosystems is modulated by the predominance of high or low-latitude forcing depending on the glacial/interglacial baseline climate states. Severe dryness and air-sea cooling is detected under the larger ice volume during glacial MIS 32 and MIS 30. The extreme episodes, which in their climatic imprint are similar to the Heinrich events, are likely related to northern latitude ice-sheet instability and a disruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning

  18. Eastern Mediterranean sea levels through the last interglacial from a coastal-marine sequence in northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, D.; Sisma-Ventura, G.; Greenbaum, N.; Bialik, O. M.; Williams, F. H.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Rohling, E. J.; Frumkin, A.; Avnaim-Katav, S.; Shtienberg, G.; Stein, M.

    2016-08-01

    A last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage, MIS5e) marine-coastal sequence has been identified along the Galilee coast of Israel, with the type section located at Rosh Hanikra (RH). The microtidal regime and tectonic stability, along with the detailed stratigraphy of the RH shore, make the study region ideally suited for determining relative sea level (RSL) through the MIS5e interval in the eastern Mediterranean. The sequence contains fossilized microtidal subunits at a few meters above the current sea level. Unfortunately, all fossils were found to be altered, so that U-Th datings cannot be considered to represent initial deposition. We contend that U-Th dating of Strombus bubonius shells (recrystallized to calcite) suffices to indicate a lower limit of ∼110 ± 8 ka for the time sea level dropped below the RH sedimentary sequence. The RH-section comprises three main subunits of a previously determined member (the Yasaf Member): (a) a gravelly unit containing the diagnostic gastropod Strombus bubonius Lamarck (Persististrombus latus), which was deposited in the intertidal to super-tidal stormy zone; (b) Vermetidae reef domes indicating a shallow-water depositional environment; and (c) coarse to medium-sized, bioclastic sandstone, probably deposited in the shallow sub-tidal zone. The sequence overlies three abrasion platforms that are cut by tidal channels at elevations of +0.8 m, +2.6 m and +3.4 m, and which are filled with MIS5e sediments. We present a detailed study of the sequence, with emphasis on stratigraphic, sedimentological, and palaeontological characteristics that indicate sea-level changes. Although without precise absolute dating, the stratigraphic sequence of RH through MIS5e allows us to identify a time-series of RSL positions, using the elevations of three stratigraphic subunits. Reconstructed RSL values range from +1.0 m to +7 m (with uncertainly < 1 m), and most fall within a narrow range of +1.0 to +3.3 m. Toward the end of MIS5e, RSL exceeded

  19. Cova del Rinoceront (Castelldefels, Barcelona): a terrestrial record for the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5) in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; Julià, R.; García-Fernández, D.; Fornós, J. J.; Vaquero, M.; Allué, E.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Albert, R. M.; Rodríguez-Cintas, À.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Cerdeño, E.; Skinner, A. R.; Asmeron, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Garcés, M.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.; Pike, A. W. G.; Euba, I.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Yagüe, A. S.; Villaescusa, L.; Gómez, S.; Rubio, A.; Pedro, M.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Cova del Rinoceront, a site in NE Iberia, contains a thick sedimentary fill preserving a faunal archive from the penultimate glacial and the the last interglacial periods. Layers I to III have been dated to between 74 and 147 ka, coinciding with MIS 5a to 5e, a period poorly represented in the Mediterranean terrestrial record. The results from Cova del Rinoceront are of broader interest for the reconstruction of ecological dynamics during warm stages and the understanding of the evolution and geographical variation of several taxa. The palaeoecological evidence suggests a landscape dominated by mixed wooded vegetation with mild climatic conditions, slightly more humid than today. Several vertebrate taxa, including Haploidoceros mediterraneus, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis and Glis glis, are documented for the first time in the early Upper Pleistocene of Europe, showing that these species persisted across the region for longer than previously thought. In addition, the recovery of a small lithic assemblage indicates human presence in the surroundings of the site. The 11 m-thick stratigraphic section also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. U-Th dating of the flowstones that cap the deposit, of speleothems formed along the cave walls, and of speleothems buried by the deposit at different elevations provides minimum and maximum ages of 74 and 175 ka, respectively, for the accumulation. The ages obtained by luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), amino acid racemisation (AAR), palaeomagnetism and U-series dating of bone are in good agreement with each other and are stratigraphically consistent. This well-dated faunal succession presents a unique opportunity to assess changes in the Pleistocene fauna of the Mediterranean coast over an interval of more than 100 ka.

  20. Full Stokes polarization imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedel, M.; Breugnot, S.; Lechocinski, N.

    2011-10-01

    Objective and background: We present a new version of Bossa Nova Technologies' passive polarization imaging camera. The previous version was performing live measurement of the Linear Stokes parameters (S0, S1, S2), and its derivatives. This new version presented in this paper performs live measurement of Full Stokes parameters, i.e. including the fourth parameter S3 related to the amount of circular polarization. Dedicated software was developed to provide live images of any Stokes related parameters such as the Degree Of Linear Polarization (DOLP), the Degree Of Circular Polarization (DOCP), the Angle Of Polarization (AOP). Results: We first we give a brief description of the camera and its technology. It is a Division Of Time Polarimeter using a custom ferroelectric liquid crystal cell. A description of the method used to calculate Data Reduction Matrix (DRM)5,9 linking intensity measurements and the Stokes parameters is given. The calibration was developed in order to maximize the condition number of the DRM. It also allows very efficient post processing of the images acquired. Complete evaluation of the precision of standard polarization parameters is described. We further present the standard features of the dedicated software that was developed to operate the camera. It provides live images of the Stokes vector components and the usual associated parameters. Finally some tests already conducted are presented. It includes indoor laboratory and outdoor measurements. This new camera will be a useful tool for many applications such as biomedical, remote sensing, metrology, material studies, and others.

  1. A Tale of Two Interglacials: A Stalagmite Stable Isotope Record of Climate inYucatán, Mexico Since 128,000 YBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappier, A. E.; Brenner, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Earth’s glacial climate has been punctuated with warm interglacial periods lasting ~10,000 years. Current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing is pushing climate towards a state that deviates from established Quaternary patterns. In predicting future rapid climate changes, two key analogs are the end of the last glacial, Termination 1 at ~14,000 years ago, and the Eemian, the penultimate interglacial ~130-114,000 years ago. Speleothems or cave formations record changes in the isotopic composition of rainwater infiltrating the cave during paleoclimate shifts. Stalagmite YAX-2 was deposited in Yucatán, Mexico within a -40m deep cave lacking natural entrances from ~128,000 years ago to the most recent millennium, therefore including both analogs. U/Th dating shows that YAX-2 grew most rapidly during interglacials. We present the YAX-2 record of stable carbon and oxygen isotope values as indicators of environmental change in Yucatán, Mexico and compare our results to published research on abrupt tropical climate change and interglacial climate dynamics.

  2. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial-interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-05-01

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.

  3. Assemblage Composition and Glacial-Interglacial Variations in Deep-Sea Ostracoda from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (odp Site 1238) Over the Last 460 KA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, A.; Lyle, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the benthic ostracod assemblages and their glacial-interglacial variations over the last 460 ka at ODP Site 1238 located ~200 km west of Ecuador at a water depth of 2203 m. Ages for Site 1238 were estimated by correlating its carbonate profile to cores v19-28 and v19-29, which have oxygen isotope age control. The CaCO3 profile for Site 1238 was generated by XRF scanning. For the 25-28 mcd interval of the core 1238 age was obtained by linear interpolation using a tie-point of 460 ka at 27.44 mcd. A total of three different assemblages were distinguished: glacial, interglacial and background. Glacial assemblage is characterized by higher total ostracod abundance, ostracod valve accumulation rates, and diversity. The typical glacial taxa here are Krithe spp., Legitimocythere castanea, Bradleya mesembrina, Cytheropteron spp. and Apatihowella (Fallacihowella) sol. Interglacial intervals are characterized by low abundance and diversity and the characteristic taxa are Pseudobosquetina mucronalata, Bradleya dictyon, Agrenocythere hazelae, Poseidonamicus major. A background assemblage is found throughout the entire record and consists of Krithe spp., Parakrithe sp., Ambocythere cf. sturgio and Rugocythereis sp. Taxonomic composition of the glacial assemblage suggests a deep sea environment with stronger influence of cold water from Antarctica (Circumpolar Deep Water) and higher oxygen content. Higher Corg MAR during glacials result in overall higher total abundance levels. The interglacial assemblage appears to be related to dissolution intervals. Although the characteristic taxa are not restricted to corrosive bottom waters, it is possible that only they can grow and reproduce in calcite undersaturated bottom waters. In the Equatorial Pacific interglacials are associated with increased dissolution and corrosiveness of bottom water. So, it seems natural that the low abundance low diversity interglacial assemblage of ostracods at Site 1238 reflects the

  4. Polarized maser growth

    SciTech Connect

    Melrose, D.B.; Judge, A.C.

    2004-11-01

    A polarized maser is assumed to operate in an anisotropic medium with natural modes polarized differently to the maser. It is shown that when the spatial growth rate and the generalized Faraday rotation rate are comparable, the polarization of the growing radiation is different from those of the maser and medium. In particular, for a lineary polarized maser operating in a medium with linearly polarized natural modes, the growing radiation is partially circularly polarized. This provides a previously unrecognized source of circular polarization that may be relevant to pulsar radio emission.

  5. POST: a polar stratospheric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Bally, John; Crocker, James H.; Dopita, Mike; Tilley, James N.; Allen, Ronald; Bartko, Frank; White, Richard L.; Burg, Richard; Burrows, Christopher J.; Clampin, Mark; Harper, Doyal A.; Illingworth, Garth; McCray, Richard; Meyer, Stephan; Mould, Jeremy; Norman, Colin

    1994-06-01

    The lower stratosphere in the polar regions offers conditions for observation in the near-infrared comparable to those obtained from space. We describe a concept for a 6-meter, diluted aperture, near-infrared telescope carried by a tethered aerostat flying at 12 km altitude, to serve as a testbed for future space astronomical observatories while producing frontier science.

  6. Trends in stomatal density and 13C/12C ratios of Pinus flexilis needles during last glacial-interglacial cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van De Water, Peter K.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Betancourt, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of stomatal density and ?? 13C of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) needles (leaves) preserved in pack rat middens from the Great Basin reveal shifts in plant physiology and leaf morphology during the last 30,000 years. Sites were selected so as to offset glacial to Holocene climatic differences and thus to isolate the effects of changing atmospheric CO2 levels. Stomatal density decreased ~17 percent and ?? 13C decreased ~1.5 per mil during deglaciation from 15,000 to 12,000 years ago, concomitant with a 30 percent increase in atmospheric CO2. Water-use efficiency increased ~15 percent during deglaciation, if temperature and humidity were held constant and the proxy values for CO2 and ?? 13C of past atmospheres are accurate. The ??13C variations may help constrain hypotheses about the redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere during the last glacial-interglacial cycle.

  7. Palynostratigraphy and Th/U ages of upper Pleistocene interglacial and interstadial deposits on Cape Breton Island, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vernal, A.; Causse, C.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Mott, R. J.; Occhietti, S.

    1986-07-01

    On Cape Breton Island (Nova Scotia), near the margin of the Wisconsinan ice sheet, karst depressions in Mississippian gypsum-bearing rocks contain interglacial and interstadial organic-rich deposits. Three palynostratigraphic units have been observed and tentatively dated by Th/U measurements on embedded fossil wood. The first, dated at ca. 125 ka, may be assigned to the oceanic 18O substage 5e; thermophilous forests (Quercus, Ostrya, Pinus strobus) developed in response to a climate warmer than the present. The second unit, rich in Abies balsamea pollen and dated at ca. 87 ka, may relate to the 18O substage 5a; it reflects a cool and wet climate not unlike that of today. The third unit probably spans part of the mid-Wisconsinan (18O stage 3); it shows alternating boreal forest-tundra forest assemblages indicative of climatic oscillations during a generally cold interval.

  8. Where might we find evidence of a Last Interglacial West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse in Antarctic ice core records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, S. L.; Siddall, M.; Milne, G. A.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Wolff, E.

    2012-05-01

    Abundant indirect evidence suggests that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) reduced in size during the Last Interglacial (LIG) compared to the Holocene. This study explores this possibility by comparing, for the first time, ice core stable isotope records for the LIG with output from a glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) model. The results show that ice core records from East Antarctica are remarkably insensitive to vertical movement of the solid land motion driven by a simulated hypothetical collapse of the WAIS. However, new and so far unexplored sites are identified which are sensitive to the isostatic signal associated with WAIS collapse and so ice core proxy data from these sites would be effective in testing this hypothesis further.

  9. Crossed elliptical polarization undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    1997-05-01

    The first switching of polarization direction is possible by installing two identical helical undulators in series in a same straight section in a storage ring. By setting each undulator in a circular polarization mode in opposite handedness, one can obtain linearly polarized radiation with any required polarization direction depending on the modulator setting between two undulators. This scheme can be used without any major degradation of polarization degree in any low energy low emittance storage ring.

  10. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  11. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  12. Controlled switching of ultrafast circular polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpfner, Henning; Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a scheme for controlled switching of polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSEL). Under hybrid electrical and optical pumping conditions, our VCSEL devices show polarization oscillations with frequencies far above the VCSEL's electrical modulation bandwidth. Using multiple optical pulses, we are able to excite and amplify these polarization oscillations. When specific phase and amplitude conditions for the optical excitation pulses are met, destructive interference leads to switch-off of the polarization oscillation, enabling the generation of controlled short polarization bursts.

  13. Controlled switching of ultrafast circular polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Höpfner, Henning Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate a scheme for controlled switching of polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSEL). Under hybrid electrical and optical pumping conditions, our VCSEL devices show polarization oscillations with frequencies far above the VCSEL's electrical modulation bandwidth. Using multiple optical pulses, we are able to excite and amplify these polarization oscillations. When specific phase and amplitude conditions for the optical excitation pulses are met, destructive interference leads to switch-off of the polarization oscillation, enabling the generation of controlled short polarization bursts.

  14. Glacial-interglacial temperature change in the tropical West Pacific: A comparison of stalagmite-based paleo-thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meckler, A. Nele; Affolter, Stéphane; Dublyansky, Yuri V.; Krüger, Yves; Vogel, Nadia; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Frenz, Martin; Kipfer, Rolf; Leuenberger, Markus; Spötl, Christoph; Carolin, Stacy; Cobb, Kim M.; Moerman, Jessica; Adkins, Jess F.; Fleitmann, Dominik

    2015-11-01

    In the tropics, geochemical records from stalagmites have so far mainly been used to qualitatively reconstruct changes in precipitation, but several new methods to reconstruct past temperatures from stalagmite material have emerged recently: i) liquid-vapor homogenization of fluid inclusion water ii) noble gas concentrations in fluid inclusion water, iii) the partitioning of oxygen isotopes between fluid inclusion water and calcite, and iv) the abundance of the 13C18O16O ('clumped') isotopologue in calcite. We present, for the first time, a direct comparison of these four paleo-thermometers by applying them to a fossil stalagmite covering nearly two glacial-interglacial cycles (Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 12-9) and to two modern stalagmites, all from northern Borneo. The temperature estimates from the different methods agree in most cases within errors for both the old and recent samples; reconstructed formation temperatures of the recent samples match within 2-sigma errors with measured cave temperatures. However, slight but systematic deviations are observed between noble gas and liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures. Whereas the temperature sensitivity of fluid inclusion δ18O and clumped isotopes is currently debated, we find that the calibration of Tremaine et al. (2011) for fluid inclusion δ18O and a synthetic calcite-based clumped isotope calibration (Ziegler et al., in prep.) yield temperature estimates consistent with the other methods. All methods (with the potential exception of clumped isotopes) show excellent agreement on the amplitude of glacial-interglacial temperature change, indicating temperature shifts of 4-5 °C. This amplitude is similar to the amplitude of Mg/Ca-based regional sea surface temperature records, when correcting for sea level driven changes in cave elevation. Our reconstruction of tropical temperature evolution over the time period from 440 to 320 thousand years ago (ka) adds support to the view that climate sensitivity to

  15. Glacial/Interglacial changes of southwest Pacific intermediate- and deep-water circulation over the last 350,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronge, Thomas; Tiedemann, Ralf; Prange, Matthias; Merkel, Ute; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lamy, Frank

    2015-04-01

    On glacial/interglacial timescales, Southern Ocean air-sea gas exchange is considered to be an important factor, driving the variability of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To understand the role of oceanic variability in the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to reconstruct changes in deep- and intermediate-water circulation and chemistry of Southern Ocean water masses. In this context, our study aims on the reconstruction of glacial/interglacial changes in the vertical expansion of southwest Pacific Antarctic Intermediate Water. For our study, we compared isotope records (δ13C and δ18O) measured on the epibenthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from the Antarctic Intermediate Water and the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (943 - 2066 m water depth) off New Zealand. We used two sediment cores from the Tasman Sea (MD06-2990 and MD06-2986), retrieved during R/V Marion Dufresne cruise MD152, and three sediment cores from the Bounty Trough east of New Zealand (MD97-2120, SO 213-82-1 and SO 213-84-1). Comparing these records, we can monitor changes in southwest Pacific water mass circulation over the past 350,000 years. Over this time period, we record a significant shoaling of the boundary between Antarctic Intermediate Water and Upper Circumpolar Deep Water during all glacial stages. We propose that freshwater input by melting sea ice into the glacial intermediate-water increased the buoyancy difference to underlying deep-waters, thus hampering the downward expansion of southwest Pacific Antarctic Intermediate Water during glacials. This interpretation is consistent with our modeling results, based on the Community Climate System model version 3, which also indicate a shoaling of glacial intermediate waters due to the input of meltwater. The glacial upward displacement of the water mass boundary significantly increased the vertical extent of circumpolar deep-waters, consequently extending the volume of the proposed glacial deep-water carbon pool.

  16. TIMS U-series dating and stable isotopes of the last interglacial event in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, M.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Chen, J.H. ); Aharon, P. ); Zhu, Z.R.; Chappell, J. ); Bloom, A. )

    1993-06-01

    The extensive flight of uplifted reef terraces which occurs along the Vitiaz strait on the northern flank of the Huon Peninsula in PNG (Papua New Guinea) contains a particularly good record of sea level changes in the last 250 ky. The Huon terraces were the target of an international expedition which took place in July--August 1988. In particular, the authors searched for suitable samples for U-series dating in a reef complex designated as VII, which is correlated with the last interglacial episode and high sea level stand. This complex is composed of a barrier reef (VIIb), a lagoon, and a fringing reef (VIIa). Twelve corals from these terraces and two corals from the older reef complex VIII were selected for analysis. The petrography, oxygen and carbon isotope compositions, and magnesium and strontium concentrations were determined along with the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium and thorium. The simplest model for sea level height for terrace VII is a continuous rise between 134 and 118 ky. Alternatively, there may have been two periods of rapid sea level rise. In contrast, in the Bahamas, there is evidence that sea level remained rather constant over the time interval 132 to 120 ky. The absence of ages between 132 and 120 ky in PNG could be the result of changes in the local tectonic uplift rates during that time, or erosion that disrupted the continuous record. In any event, the authors find no basis for accepting a single brief time for the age of the last interglacial and applying this age as a precise chronometer for worldwide correlation, or as a test of climatic models. The older ages reported here precede the Milankovitch solar insolation peak at 128 ky, and the younger ages are [approximately]10 ky after this peak. If the present high-precision data are correct, then it will be necessary to reassess the validity of the Milankovitch theory of climatic changes. 76 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Interglacial responses of the southern Greenland ice sheet over the last 430,000 years determined using particle-size specific magnetic and isotopic tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, Robert G.; Reyes, Alberto V.; Stoner, Joseph S.; Carlson, Anders E.; Beard, Brian L.; Winsor, Kelsey; Welke, Bethany

    2016-11-01

    The past behavior of the Greenland ice sheet can provide important insight into climatic thresholds that may initiate and drive major ice-sheet retreat. Particle-size-specific magnetic and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope records from Eirik Ridge sediments south of Greenland track southern Greenland ice sheet (sGIS) erosional signatures over the past ∼430 ka by discriminating changes in sediment source and transport over the Eirik Ridge. Ground-truthed magnetic and isotopic compositions of subglacial silt from south Greenland's Precambrian bedrock terranes constrain independent magnetic and isotopic estimates of Eirik Ridge silt provenance, which in turn indicate that the southern Greenland ice sheet (sGIS) retreated within its present margin during three of the four previous interglaciations over the past ∼430 ka. Retreat of the sGIS was extensive during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, 9, and 11 interglaciations, continuing unabated despite declining insolation during MIS 5e and 9, with near complete deglaciation in MIS 11. Retreat of the sGIS during MIS 7 was minimal, notwithstanding strong insolation forcing, while Holocene retreat slowed shortly after peak insolation. The reconstruction of sGIS retreat during the last five deglacial and interglacial periods suggests that a threshold for extensive sGIS retreat exists between the insolation and CO2 states of the Holocene and the MIS 5e and 9 interglaciations, with CO2 exerting a stronger control on sGIS retreat than insolation. Our results also suggest that the extent and stability of the sGIS in the Holocene is anomalous in the context of late-Quaternary interglaciations.

  18. Effects of climate change on polar bears.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Born, Erik W

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we review the effects on polar bears of global warming that have already been observed, and try to evaluate what may happen to the polar bears in the future. Many researchers have predicted a wide range of impacts of climate change on polar bear demography and conditions. A predicted major reduction in sea ice habitat will reduce the availability of ice associated seals, the main prey of polar bears, and a loss and fragmentation of polar bear habitat will ultimately lead to large future reductions in most subpopulations. It is likely that polar bears will be lost from many areas where they are common today and also that the total population will change into a few more distinctly isolated populations.

  19. Metasurface polarization splitter.

    PubMed

    Slovick, Brian A; Zhou, You; Yu, Zhi Gang; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Moitra, Parikshit; Krishnamurthy, Srini; Valentine, Jason

    2017-03-28

    Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are among the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here, we show that a rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other. We show that the polarization splitting arises from the anisotropic permittivity and permeability of the metasurface due to the twofold rotational symmetry of the rectangular unit cell. The high polarization efficiency, low loss and low profile make these metasurface polarization splitters ideally suited for monolithic integration with optoelectronic and photonic circuits.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.

  20. Macrophage polarization in pathology.

    PubMed

    Sica, Antonio; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Porta, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immunity constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system and endowed with remarkable different roles essential for defense mechanisms, development of tissues, and homeostasis. They derive from hematopoietic precursors and since the early steps of fetal life populate peripheral tissues, a process continuing throughout adult life. Although present essentially in every organ/tissue, macrophages are more abundant in the gastro-intestinal tract, liver, spleen, upper airways, and brain. They have phagocytic and bactericidal activity and produce inflammatory cytokines that are important to drive adaptive immune responses. Macrophage functions are settled in response to microenvironmental signals, which drive the acquisition of polarized programs, whose extremes are simplified in the M1 and M2 dichotomy. Functional skewing of monocyte/macrophage polarization occurs in physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy), as well as in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer) and is now considered a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Here, we will review evidence supporting a dynamic skewing of macrophage functions in disease, which may provide a basis for macrophage-centered therapeutic strategies.

  1. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  2. Using a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model to investigate the contribution of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice sheet to the Last Interglacial Sea Level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.

    2014-05-01

    Eustatic Sea Level during the Last interglacial (LIG) is likely to have been 4- 6 m higher than present day, with the observed relative sea level (RSL) at numerous far-field sites even higher [Dutton and Lambeck, 2012]. It has been suggested to generate this higher than present day sea level requires a retreat of both the Antarctic (AIS) and Greenland (GIS) Ice sheets beyond the present day extent, but the exact contribution of these two global ice sheets has yet to be resolved. By combing a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model with a suite of LIG ice-loading histories we will address a number of outstanding issues (i) What was the contribution of the AIS and GIS to ESL, (ii) Was the AIS or the GIS smaller during the LIG than the present interglacial? (iii) Can we generate the observed higher LIG RSL at a range of far-field sites? The suite of AIS and GIS ice-loading histories is constrained using the most recent near-field evidence, LIG stable isotope ice core data [Dahl-Jensen et al., 2013; Masson-Delmotte et al., 2011] and the output from ice sheet and climate models [Helsen et al., 2013; Pollard and DeConto, 2009; Stone et al., 2013]. Comparing the predicted RSL to a recent database of observed LIG far-field sea level [Dutton and Lambeck, 2012] allows for an assessment of the plausibility of the suite of ice loading histories. With this study, we aim to provide insight into the LIG history of the AIS and GIS. Dahl-Jensen, D., et al. (2013), Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core, Nature, 493(7433), 489-494. Dutton, A., and K. Lambeck (2012), Ice Volume and Sea Level During the Last Interglacial, Science, 337(6091), 216-219. Helsen, M. M., W. J. van de Berg, R. S. W. van de Wal, M. R. van den Broeke, and J. Oerlemans (2013), Coupled regional climate-ice-sheet simulation shows limited Greenland ice loss during the Eemian, Clim Past, 9(4), 1773-1788. Masson-Delmotte, V., et al. (2011), A comparison of the present and last

  3. Spin flipping a stored polarized proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caussyn, D. D.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Ellison, T. J.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E. J.; von Przewoski, B.; Blinov, B. B.; Chu, C. M.; Courant, E. D.; Crandell, D. A.; Kaufman, W. A.; Krisch, A. D.; Nurushev, T. S.; Phelps, R. A.; Ratner, L. G.; Wong, V. K.; Ohmori, C.

    1994-11-01

    We recently studied the spin flipping of a vertically polarized, stored 139-MeV proton beam. To flip the spin, we induced an rf depolarizing resonance by sweeping our rf solenoid magnet's frequency through the resonance frequency. With multiple spin flips, we found a polarization loss of 0.0000+/-0.0005 per spin flip under the best conditions; this loss increased significantly for small changes in the conditions. Minimizing the depolarization during each spin flip is especially important because frequent spin flipping could significantly reduce the systematic errors in stored polarized-beam experiments.

  4. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah

    2012-01-01

    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident liear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  5. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  6. Polarization at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.

    1995-01-01

    A highly polarized electron beam is a key feature. for the Current physics program at SLAC. An electron beam polarization of 80% can now be routinely achieved for typically 5000 hours of machine operation per year. Two main Physics programs utilize the polarized beam. Fixed target experiments in End Station A study the collision of polarized electrons with polarized nuclear targets to elucidate the spin structure of the nucleon and to provide an important test of QCD. Using the SLAC Linear Collider, collisions of polarized electrons with unpolarized positrons allow precise measurements of parity violation in the Z-fermion couplings and provide a very precise measurement of tile weak mixing angle. This paper discusses polarized beam operation at SLAC, and gives an overview of the polarized physics program.

  7. Interferometric Polarization Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T. (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor); Novak, Giles A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A signal conditioning module provides a polarimeter capability in a photometric system. The module may include multiple variable delay polarization modulators. Each modulator may include an input port, and a first arm formed to include a first reflector and first rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The first reflector may direct an input radiation signal to the first rooftop mirror. Each modulator also may include an output port and a second arm formed to include a second reflector and second rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The second reflector can guide a signal from the second rooftop mirror towards the output port to provide an output radiation signal. A beamsplitting grid may be placed between the first reflector and the first rooftop mirror, and also between the second reflector and the second rooftop mirror. A translation apparatus can provide adjustment relative to optical path length vis-a-vis the first arm, the second arm and the grid.

  8. Interferometric polarization control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor); Novak, Giles A. (Inventor); Chuss, David T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A signal conditioning module provides a polarimeter capability in a photometric system. The module may include multiple variable delay polarization modulators. Each modulator may include an input port, and a first arm formed to include a first reflector and first rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The first reflector may direct an input radiation signal to the first rooftop mirror. Each modulator also may include an output port and a second arm formed to include a second reflector and second rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The second reflector can guide a signal from the second rooftop mirror towards the output port to provide an output radiation signal. A beamsplitting grid may be placed between the first reflector and the first rooftop mirror, and also between the second reflector and the second rooftop mirror. A translation apparatus can provide adjustment relative to optical path length vis-a-vis the first arm, the second arm and the grid.

  9. Stable isotope compositions of carbonate and inclusion-hosted water of speleothems from the last interglacial - spatial patterns of climate fluctuations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demény, Attila; Kern, Zoltán; Czuppon, György; Németh, Alexandra; Leél-Őssy, Szabolcs; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Vennemann, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the last interglacial (LIG) can provide information on how our environment behaved in a period of slightly higher global temperatures at about 120 ka compared to the current climate conditions. This paper presents complex stable H-C-O isotope records obtained for carbonate and fluid inclusion hosted water of U-Th dated stalagmites from the Baradla Cave system in Central Europe. Comparing C and O isotope data with records reported for other speleothem (cave-hosted carbonate) deposits from Europe revealed the complex behavior of these climate proxies, with a concerted relative increase in 18O of carbonates from 128 to 120 ka and synchronized shifts in the opposite direction after 119 ka. The hydrogen isotope analyses of inclusion-hosted water extracted from the BAR-II stalagmite also correspond to the regional climate proxy records, with meaningful deviations from global temperature trends. Beside the well known 120 ka climate optimum and the subsequent cooling starting at about 118 ka, the δD values show a negative peak at about 124-125 ka that does not appear in the C-O isotope data. This negative peak fits well to temperature and humidity changes inferred from proxy records from the northern Atlantic to the eastern Mediterranean. Spatial distributions of these variables show, that while the northern Atlantic ocean experienced a cold phase (possibly also dry in NW Europe), the Mediterranean region was characterized by warm, humid conditions and enhanced seasonality, most probably related to a freshwater flux to the North Atlantic and consequent large-scale heat and moisture transport changes affecting the Mediterranean. The combined interpretation of H-C-O isotope data revealed that the Alpine and Mediterranean regions behaved differently again during Greenland Stadial 26 (GS26, ~119 to 115.5 ka). While the Alpine records fluctuated in close agreement with the Central Greenland ice core δ18O data, the BAR-II stalagmite and southern European records

  10. 230Th/U dating of Last Interglacial brain corals from Bonaire (southern Caribbean) using bulk and theca wall material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obert, J. Christina; Scholz, Denis; Felis, Thomas; Brocas, William M.; Jochum, Klaus P.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    We compared the suitability of two skeletal materials of the Atlantic brain coral Diploria strigosa for 230Th/U-dating: the commonly used bulk material comprising all skeletal elements and the denser theca wall material. Eight fossil corals of presumably Last Interglacial age from Bonaire, southern Caribbean Sea, were investigated, and several sub-samples were dated from each coral. For four corals, both the ages and the activity ratios of the bulk material and theca wall agree within uncertainty. Three corals show significantly older ages for their bulk material than for their theca wall material as well as substantially elevated 232Th content and (230Th/238U) ratios. The bulk material samples of another coral show younger ages and lower (230Th/238U) ratios than the corresponding theca wall samples. This coral also contains a considerable amount of 232Th. The application of the available open-system models developed to account for post-depositional diagenetic effects in corals shows that none of the models can successfully be applied to the Bonaire corals. The most likely explanation for this observation is that the assumptions of the models are not fulfilled by our data set. Comparison of the theca wall and bulk material data enables us to obtain information about the open-system processes that affected the corals. The corals showing apparently older ages for their bulk material were probably affected by contamination with a secondary (detrital) phase. The most likely source of the detrital material is carbonate sand. The higher (230Th/232Th) ratio of this material implies that detrital contamination would have a much stronger impact on the ages than a contaminant with a bulk Earth (230Th/232Th) ratio and that the threshold for the commonly applied 232Th reliability criterion would be much lower than the generally used value of 1 ng g-1. The coral showing apparently younger ages for its bulk material was probably influenced by more than one diagenetic process. A

  11. Calculation of polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful.

  12. Partial polarizer filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A birefringent filter module comprises, in seriatum. (1) an entrance polarizer, (2) a first birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the entrance polarizer, (3) a partial polarizer responsive to optical energy exiting the first polarizer, (4) a second birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the partial polarizer, and (5) an exit